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Sample records for governs virulence expression

  1. Chromosomal “Stress-Response” Domains Govern the Spatiotemporal Expression of the Bacterial Virulence Program

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuejiao; Sobetzko, Patrick; Reverchon, Sylvie; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies strongly suggest that the gene expression sustaining both normal and pathogenic bacterial growth is governed by the structural dynamics of the chromosome. However, the mechanistic device coordinating the chromosomal configuration with selective expression of the adaptive traits remains largely unknown. We used a holistic approach exploring the inherent relationships between the physicochemical properties of the DNA and the expression of adaptive traits, including virulence factors, in the pathogen Dickeya dadantii (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi). In the transcriptomes obtained under adverse conditions encountered during bacterial infection, we explored the patterns of chromosomal DNA sequence organization, supercoil dynamics, and gene expression densities, together with the long-range regulatory impacts of the abundant DNA architectural proteins implicated in pathogenicity control. By integrating these data, we identified transient chromosomal domains of coherent gene expression featuring distinct couplings between DNA thermodynamic stability, supercoil dynamics, and virulence traits. PMID:25922390

  2. Regulatory principles governing Salmonella and Yersinia virulence

    PubMed Central

    Erhardt, Marc; Dersch, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Enteric pathogens such as Salmonella and Yersinia evolved numerous strategies to survive and proliferate in different environmental reservoirs and mammalian hosts. Deciphering common and pathogen-specific principles for how these bacteria adjust and coordinate spatiotemporal expression of virulence determinants, stress adaptation, and metabolic functions is fundamental to understand microbial pathogenesis. In order to manage sudden environmental changes, attacks by the host immune systems and microbial competition, the pathogens employ a plethora of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control elements, including transcription factors, sensory and regulatory RNAs, RNAses, and proteases, to fine-tune and control complex gene regulatory networks. Many of the contributing global regulators and the molecular mechanisms of regulation are frequently conserved between Yersinia and Salmonella. However, the interplay, arrangement, and composition of the control elements vary between these closely related enteric pathogens, which generate phenotypic differences leading to distinct pathogenic properties. In this overview we present common and different regulatory networks used by Salmonella and Yersinia to coordinate the expression of crucial motility, cell adhesion and invasion determinants, immune defense strategies, and metabolic adaptation processes. We highlight evolutionary changes of the gene regulatory circuits that result in different properties of the regulatory elements and how this influences the overall outcome of the infection process. PMID:26441883

  3. Aspergillus fumigatus MedA governs adherence, host cell interactions and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Ejzykowicz, Daniele E.; Chiang, Lisa Y.; Chabot, Josée C.; Urb, Mirjam; Macdonald, K. Denyese; al-Bader, Nadia; Filler, Scott G.; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    In medically important fungi, regulatory elements that control development and asexual reproduction often govern the expression of virulence traits. We therefore cloned the Aspergillus fumigatus developmental modifier MedA and characterized its role in conidiation, host cell interactions and virulence. As in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, disruption of medA in A. fumigatus dramatically reduced conidiation. However, the conidiophore morphology was markedly different between the two species. Further, gene expression analysis suggested that MedA governs conidiation through different pathways in A. fumigatus compared to A. nidulans. The A. fumigatus ΔmedA strain was impaired in biofilm production and adherence to plastic, as well as adherence to pulmonary epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibronectin in vitro. The ΔmedA strain also had reduced capacity to damage pulmonary epithelial cells, and stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA and protein expression. Consistent with these results, the A. fumigatus ΔmedA strain also exhibited reduced virulence in both an invertebrate and a mammalian model of invasive aspergillosis. Collectively these results suggest that the downstream targets of A. fumigatus MedA mediate virulence, and may provide novel therapeutic targets for invasive aspergillosis. PMID:19889083

  4. Carbohydrate availability regulates virulence gene expression in Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, M Laura; van Baarlen, Peter; Orrù, Germano; Piga, Rosaria; Bongers, Roger S; Wels, Michiel; De Greeff, Astrid; Smith, Hilde E; Wells, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a major bacterial pathogen of young pigs causing worldwide economic problems for the pig industry. S. suis is also an emerging pathogen of humans. Colonization of porcine oropharynx by S. suis is considered to be a high risk factor for invasive disease. In the oropharyngeal cavity, where glucose is rapidly absorbed but dietary α-glucans persist, there is a profound effect of carbohydrate availability on the expression of virulence genes. Nineteen predicted or confirmed S. suis virulence genes that promote adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells were expressed at higher levels when S. suis was supplied with the α-glucan starch/pullulan compared to glucose as the single carbon source. Additionally the production of suilysin, a toxin that damages epithelial cells, was increased more than ten-fold when glucose levels were low and S. suis was growing on pullulan. Based on biochemical, bioinformatics and in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies, we developed a biological model that postulates the effect of carbon catabolite repression on expression of virulence genes in the mucosa, organs and blood. This research increases our understanding of S. suis virulence mechanisms and has important implications for the design of future control strategies including the development of anti-infective strategies by modulating animal feed composition. PMID:24642967

  5. Carbohydrate Availability Regulates Virulence Gene Expression in Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, M. Laura; van Baarlen, Peter; Orrù, Germano; Piga, Rosaria; Bongers, Roger S.; Wels, Michiel; De Greeff, Astrid; Smith, Hilde E.; Wells, Jerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a major bacterial pathogen of young pigs causing worldwide economic problems for the pig industry. S. suis is also an emerging pathogen of humans. Colonization of porcine oropharynx by S. suis is considered to be a high risk factor for invasive disease. In the oropharyngeal cavity, where glucose is rapidly absorbed but dietary α-glucans persist, there is a profound effect of carbohydrate availability on the expression of virulence genes. Nineteen predicted or confirmed S. suis virulence genes that promote adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells were expressed at higher levels when S. suis was supplied with the α-glucan starch/pullulan compared to glucose as the single carbon source. Additionally the production of suilysin, a toxin that damages epithelial cells, was increased more than ten-fold when glucose levels were low and S. suis was growing on pullulan. Based on biochemical, bioinformatics and in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies, we developed a biological model that postulates the effect of carbon catabolite repression on expression of virulence genes in the mucosa, organs and blood. This research increases our understanding of S. suis virulence mechanisms and has important implications for the design of future control strategies including the development of anti-infective strategies by modulating animal feed composition. PMID:24642967

  6. Calcineurin Governs Thermotolerance and Virulence of Cryptococcus gattii

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Lien; Lehman, Virginia N.; Lewit, Yonathan; Averette, Anna F.; Heitman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii, which is causing an outbreak in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, causes life-threatening pulmonary infections and meningoencephalitis in healthy individuals, unlike Cryptococcus neoformans, which commonly infects immunocompromised patients. In addition to a greater predilection for C. gattii to infect healthy hosts, the C. gattii genome sequence project revealed extensive chromosomal rearrangements compared with C. neoformans, showing genomic differences between the two Cryptococcus species. We investigated the roles of C. gattii calcineurin in three molecular types: VGIIa (R265), VGIIb (R272), and VGI (WM276). We found that calcineurin exhibits a differential requirement for growth on solid medium at 37°, as calcineurin mutants generated from R265 were more thermotolerant than mutants from R272 and WM276. We demonstrated that tolerance to calcineurin inhibitors (FK506, CsA) at 37° is linked with the VGIIa molecular type. The calcineurin mutants from the R272 background showed the most extensive growth and morphological defects (multivesicle and larger ring-like cells), as well as increased fluconazole susceptibility. Our cellular architecture examination showed that C. gattii and C. neoformans calcineurin mutants exhibit plasma membrane disruptions. Calcineurin in the C. gattii VGII molecular type plays a greater role in controlling cation homeostasis compared with that in C. gattii VGI and C. neoformans H99. Importantly, we demonstrate that C. gattii calcineurin is essential for virulence in a murine inhalation model, supporting C. gattii calcineurin as an attractive antifungal drug target. PMID:23450261

  7. Exploration of Modulated Genetic Circuits Governing Virulence Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Arya, Rekha; Princy, S Adline

    2016-03-01

    The expression of virulence genes in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is strongly influenced by the multiple global regulators. The signal transduction cascade of these global regulators is accountable for recognizing and integrating the environmental cues to regulate the virulence regulon. While the production of virulent factors by individual global regulators are comparatively straightforward to define, auto-regulation of these global regulators and their impact on other regulators is more complex process. There are several reports on the production of virulent factors that are precisely regulated by switching processes of multiple global regulators including some prominent accessory regulators such as agr, sae and sar which allows S. aureus to coordinate the gene expression, and thus, provide organism an ability to act collectively. This review implicates the mechanisms involved in the global regulation of various virulence factors along with a comprehensive discussion on the differences between these signal transduction systems, their auto-induction and, coordination of classical and some comparatively new bacterial signal transduction systems. PMID:26843693

  8. Rgg influences the expression of multiple regulatory loci to coregulate virulence factor expression in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Chaussee, Michael S; Sylva, Gail L; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Smoot, Laura M; Graham, Morag R; Watson, Robert O; Musser, James M

    2002-02-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes secretes many proteins to the cell wall and extracellular environment that contribute to virulence. Rgg regulates the expression of several exoproteins including a cysteine protease (SPE B), a nuclease (MF-1), a putative nuclease (MF-3), and autolysin. The functional heterogeneity of Rgg-regulated exoproteins and the lack of a conserved regulatory motif in the promoter regions of the genes suggested that Rgg interacts with additional regulatory networks to influence gene expression. DNA microarrays were used to test this hypothesis by comparing genomewide transcript profiles of S. pyogenes NZ131 and isogenic derivative NZ131 rgg during the exponential phase of growth. Transcripts of known and putative virulence-associated genes were more abundant in the rgg mutant, including emm, scpA, orfX, scl1, hasAB, slo, sagA, ska, speH, grab, mac, mf-1, and mf-3. Increased transcription of emm, scpA, and orfX in the rgg mutant was associated with increased production of the corresponding proteins. Differences in the expression of virulence-associated genes were associated with changes in the expression of several regulatory genes, including mga, sagA, csrRS, and fasBCA. The results show that Rgg influences the expression of multiple regulatory networks to coregulate virulence factor expression in S. pyogenes. PMID:11796609

  9. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Linezolid Reduce Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Katussevani; Pakulat, Norbert; Fleer, Silke; Schnaith, Annabelle; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Krut, Oleg; Müller, Stefan; Krönke, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the antibiotic linezolid on the secretion of exotoxins by Staphylococcus aureus was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis. S. aureus suspensions were treated with grading subinhibitory concentrations of linezolid (12.5, 25, 50, and 90% of MIC) at different stages of bacterial growth (i.e., an optical density at 540 nm [OD540] of 0.05 or 0.8). When added to S. aureus cultures at an OD540 of 0.05, linezolid reduced in a dose-dependent manner the secretion of specific virulence factors, including staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and SEB, bifunctional autolysin, autolysin, protein A, and alpha- and beta-hemolysins. In contrast, other presumably nontoxic exoproteins remained unchanged or even accumulated in supernatants in the presence of linezolid at a 90% MIC. Similarily, when added at OD540 of 0.8, that is, after quorum sensing, linezolid reduced the release of virulence factors, whereas the relative abundance of nontoxic exoproteins such as triacylglycerol lipase, glycerol ester hydrolase, DnaK, or translation elongation factor EF-Tu was found to be increased. Consistently, linezolid reduced in a dose-dependent manner the tumor necrosis factor-inducing activity secreted by S. aureus into the culture supernatants. The results of our study suggest that the expression of virulence factors in S. aureus is especially sensitive to the inhibition of protein synthesis by linezolid, which should be an advantage in the treatment of infections with toxin-producing S. aureus. PMID:14742208

  10. Erythritol triggers expression of virulence traits in Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Erik; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Sanakkayala, Neelima; Eskra, Linda; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2013-06-01

    Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar preferentially utilized by Brucella spp. The presence of erythritol in the placentas of goats, cows, and pigs has been used to explain the localization of Brucella to these sites and the subsequent accumulation of large amounts of bacteria, eventually leading to abortion. Here we show that Brucella melitensis will also localize to an artificial site of erythritol within a mouse, providing a potential model system to study the pathogenesis of Brucella abortion. Immunohistological staining of the sites of erythritol within infected mice indicated a higher than expected proportion of extracellular bacteria. Ensuing experiments suggested intracellular B. melitensis was unable to replicate within macrophages in the presence of erythritol and that erythritol was able to reach the site of intracellular bacteria. The intracellular inhibition of growth was found to encourage the bacteria to replicate extracellularly rather than intracellularly, a particularly interesting development in Brucella pathogenesis. To determine the effect of erythritol on expression of B. melitensis genes, bacteria grown either with or without erythritol were analyzed by microarray. Two major virulence pathways were up-regulated in response to exposure to erythritol (the type IV secretion system VirB and flagellar proteins), suggesting a role for erythritol in virulence. PMID:23421980

  11. Erythritol triggers expression of virulence traits in Brucella melitensis

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Erik; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Sanakkayala, Neelima; Eskra, Linda; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar preferentially utilized by Brucella spp. The presence of erythritol in the placentas of goats, cows, and pigs has been used to explain the localization of Brucella to these sites and the subsequent accumulation of large amounts of bacteria, eventually leading to abortion. Here we show that B. melitensis will also localize to an artificial site of erythritol within a mouse, providing a potential model system to study the pathogenesis of Brucella abortion. Immunohistological staining of the sites of erythritol within infected mice indicated a higher than expected proportion of extracellular bacteria. Ensuing experiments suggested intracellular B. melitensis was unable to replicate within macrophages in the presence of erythritol and that erythritol was able to reach the site of intracellular bacteria. The intracellular inhibition of growth was found to encourage the bacteria to replicate extracellularly rather than intracellularly, a particularly interesting development in Brucella pathogenesis. To determine the effect of erythritol on expression of B. melitensis genes, bacteria grown either with or without erythritol were analyzed by microarray. Two major virulence pathways were up-regulated in response to exposure to erythritol (the type IV secretion system VirB and flagellar proteins), suggesting a role for erythritol in virulence. PMID:23421980

  12. Epigenetic Regulation of Virulence Gene Expression in Parasitic Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Duraisingh, Manoj T; Horn, David

    2016-05-11

    Protozoan parasites colonize numerous metazoan hosts and insect vectors through their life cycles, with the need to respond quickly and reversibly while encountering diverse and often hostile ecological niches. To succeed, parasites must also persist within individuals until transmission between hosts is achieved. Several parasitic protozoa cause a huge burden of disease in humans and livestock, and here we focus on the parasites that cause malaria and African trypanosomiasis. Efforts to understand how these pathogens adapt to survive in varied host environments, cause disease, and transmit between hosts have revealed a wealth of epigenetic phenomena. Epigenetic switching mechanisms appear to be ideally suited for the regulation of clonal antigenic variation underlying successful parasitism. We review the molecular players and complex mechanistic layers that mediate the epigenetic regulation of virulence gene expression. Understanding epigenetic processes will aid the development of antiparasitic therapeutics. PMID:27173931

  13. Impact of Hfq on Global Gene Expression and Virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Ko; Lu, Min-Chi; Liu, Li-Cheng; Lin, Ching-Ting; Lai, Yi-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is responsible for a wide range of clinical symptoms. How this bacterium adapts itself to ever-changing host milieu is still a mystery. Recently, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) have received considerable attention for their functions in fine-tuning gene expression at a post-transcriptional level to promote bacterial adaptation. Here we demonstrate that Hfq, an RNA-binding protein, which facilitates interactions between sRNAs and their mRNA targets, is critical for K. pneumoniae virulence. A K. pneumoniae mutant lacking hfq (Δhfq) failed to disseminate into extra-intestinal organs and was attenuated on induction of a systemic infection in a mouse model. The absence of Hfq was associated with alteration in composition of envelope proteins, increased production of capsular polysaccharides, and decreased resistance to H2O2, heat shock, and UV irradiation. Microarray-based transcriptome analyses revealed that 897 genes involved in numerous cellular processes were deregulated in the Δhfq strain. Interestingly, Hfq appeared to govern expression of many genes indirectly by affecting sigma factor RpoS and RpoE, since 19.5% (175/897) and 17.3% (155/897) of Hfq-dependent genes belong to the RpoE- and RpoS-regulon, respectively. These results indicate that Hfq regulates global gene expression at multiple levels to modulate the physiological fitness and virulence potential of K. pneumoniae. PMID:21779404

  14. Environmental regulation of expression of virulence determinants in Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Melton, A R; Weiss, A A

    1989-01-01

    The trans-activator vir is required for expression of all virulence-associated genes in Bordetella pertussis. The nature of the global regulation of these factors by vir and environmental signals was examined by Northern blot analysis and with beta-galactosidase transcriptional fusions in five vir-regulated genes. Northern blots suggested that vir regulates at the level of transcription since Vir- organisms did not exhibit detectable mRNA from vir-regulated loci. Environmental signals such as high levels of salts, nicotinic acid, and 6-chloronicotinic acid or growth at low temperatures were examined. Of all of the cations and anions examined, only SO4 ions eliminated transcription of vir-regulated genes and reduced transcription of vir itself, suggesting that global regulation is obtained by modifying expression of the essential component, vir. Organisms grown on 6-chloronicotinic acid or quinaldic acid did not have detectable transcription from vir-regulated loci. Modulation by nicotinic acid, on the other hand, was strain dependent, acting at the level of transcription in strain 18-323 but not in Tohama I derivatives. Growth at lower temperatures reduced, but did not eliminate, transcription from vir-regulated loci. At 28 degrees C the ratio of pertussis toxin mRNA to recA mRNA (a non-vir-regulated factor) was equivalent to that at 37 degrees C, suggesting that transcription at low temperatures is reduced in a proportional manner and need not involve vir. Images PMID:2478524

  15. DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION OF PUTATIVE VIRULENCE GENES IN Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A shot-gun genomic library of the Flavobacterium columnare ALG-530 virulent strain has been constructed and more than 3,000 clones have been sequenced to date (800 contigs). Based on sequence identity with putative known virulence genes from related species, seven genes were selected for differentia...

  16. Virulence of Shigella flexneri Hybrids Expressing Escherichia coli Somatic Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Gemski, P.; Sheahan, D. G.; Washington, O.; Formal, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    The genes controlling either Escherichia coli somatic antigen 8 or 25 were conjugally transferred to virulent Shigella flexneri 2a recipients to determine whether the aquisition of these antigens would affect the virulence of the resulting hybrid. A high proportion of such hybrids were found to be rough and hence were avirulent. Some smooth S. flexneri hybrids which replaced their native group antigens with E. coli factor 25 were still virulent in the animal models employed. All S. flexneri O-8 hybrids were uniformly avirulent. Our finding, that S. flexneri hybrids with the chemically divergent E. coli O-8 repeat unit are avirulent whereas some hybrids with the chemically related O-25 repeat unit retain virulence, suggests that the chemical composition and structure of the O side chain of somatic antigens may represent one determining factor for bacterial penetration of mucosal epithelial cells, the primary step in the pathogenesis of bacillary dysentery. Images PMID:4569915

  17. Temperature control of molecular circuit switch responsible for virulent phenotype expression in uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilov, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The behavior and fate of biological organisms are to a large extent dictated by their environment, which can be often viewed as a collection of features and constraints governed by physics laws. Since biological systems comprise networks of molecular interactions, one such key physical property is temperature, whose variations directly affect the rates of biochemical reactions involved. For instance, temperature is known to control many gene regulatory circuits responsible for pathogenicity in bacteria. One such example is type 1 fimbriae (T1F) -- the foremost virulence factor in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which accounts for 80-90% of all community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). The expression of T1F is randomly `phase variable', i.e. individual cells switch between virulent/fimbriate and avirulent/afimbriate phenotypes, with rates regulated by temperature. Our computational investigation of this process, which is based on FimB/FimE recombinase-mediated inversion of fimS DNA element, offers new insights into its discrete-stochastic kinetics. In particular, it elucidates the logic of T1F control optimization to the host temperature and contributes further understanding toward the development of novel therapeutic approaches to UPEC-caused UTIs.

  18. Regulation of bacterial virulence gene expression by cell envelope stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial cytoplasm lies within a multilayered envelope that must be protected from internal and external hazards. This protection is provided by cell envelope stress responses (ESRs), which detect threats and reprogram gene expression to ensure survival. Pathogens frequently need these ESRs to survive inside the host, where their envelopes face dangerous environmental changes and attack from antimicrobial molecules. In addition, some virulence genes have become integrated into ESR regulons. This might be because these genes can protect the cell envelope from damage by host molecules, or it might help ESRs to reduce stress by moderating the assembly of virulence factors within the envelope. Alternatively, it could simply be a mechanism to coordinate the induction of virulence gene expression with entry into the host. Here, we briefly describe some of the bacterial ESRs, followed by examples where they control virulence gene expression in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25603429

  19. RNA Helicase Important for Listeria monocytogenes Hemolytic Activity and Virulence Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Netterling, Sakura; Bäreclev, Caroline; Vaitkevicius, Karolis

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases have been shown to be important for the function of RNA molecules at several levels, although their putative involvement in microbial pathogenesis has remained elusive. We have previously shown that Listeria monocytogenes DExD-box RNA helicases are important for bacterial growth, motility, ribosomal maturation, and rRNA processing. We assessed the importance of the RNA helicase Lmo0866 (here named CshA) for expression of virulence traits. We observed a reduction in hemolytic activity in a strain lacking CshA compared to the wild type. This phenomenon was less evident in strains lacking other RNA helicases. The reduced hemolysis was accompanied by lower expression of major listerial virulence factors in the ΔcshA strain, mainly listeriolysin O, but also to some degree the actin polymerizing factor ActA. Reduced expression of these virulence factors in the strain lacking CshA did not, however, correlate with a decreased level of the virulence regulator PrfA. When combining the ΔcshA knockout with a mutation creating a constitutively active PrfA protein (PrfA*), the effect of the ΔcshA knockout on LLO expression was negated. These data suggest a role for the RNA helicase CshA in posttranslational activation of PrfA. Surprisingly, although the expression of several virulence factors was reduced, the ΔcshA strain did not demonstrate any reduced ability to infect nonphagocytic cells compared to the wild-type strain. PMID:26483402

  20. FNR Regulates Expression of Important Virulence Factors Contributing to Pathogenicity of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Nicolle L.; Nicholson, Bryon; Hussein, Ashraf; Cai, Wentong; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M.; Dell'Anna, Giuseppe; Logue, Catherine M.; Horn, Fabiana; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is responsible for the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are some of the world's most common bacterial infections of humans. Here, we examined the role of FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction), a well-known global regulator, in the pathogenesis of UPEC infections. We constructed an fnr deletion mutant of UPEC CFT073 and compared it to the wild type for changes in virulence, adherence, invasion, and expression of key virulence factors. Compared to the wild type, the fnr mutant was highly attenuated in the mouse model of human UTI and showed severe defects in adherence to and invasion of bladder and kidney epithelial cells. Our results showed that FNR regulates motility and multiple virulence factors, including expression of type I and P fimbriae, modulation of hemolysin expression, and expression of a novel pathogenicity island involved in α-ketoglutarate metabolism under anaerobic conditions. Our results demonstrate that FNR is a key global regulator of UPEC virulence and controls expression of important virulence factors that contribute to UPEC pathogenicity. PMID:25245807

  1. Temperature-dependent expression of virulence genes in fish-pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Guijarro, José A.; Cascales, Desirée; García-Torrico, Ana I.; García-Domínguez, Mario; Méndez, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Virulence gene expression in pathogenic bacteria is modulated by environmental parameters. A key factor in this expression is temperature. Its effect on virulence gene expression in bacteria infecting warm-blooded hosts is well documented. Transcription of virulence genes in these bacteria is induced upon a shift from low environmental to a higher host temperature (37°C). Interestingly, host temperatures usually correspond to the optimum for growth of these pathogenic bacteria. On the contrary, in ectothermic hosts such as fish, molluscs, and amphibians, infection processes generally occur at a temperature lower than that for the optimal growth of the bacteria. Therefore, regulation of virulence gene expression in response to temperature shift has to be modulated in a different way to that which is found in bacteria infecting warm-blooded hosts. The current understanding of virulence gene expression and its regulation in response to temperature in fish-pathogenic bacteria is limited, but constant extension of our knowledge base is essential to enable a rational approach to the problem of the bacterial fish diseases affecting the aquaculture industry. This is an interesting issue and progress needs to be made in order to diminish the economic losses caused by these diseases. The intention of this review is, for the first time, to compile the scattered results existing in the field in order to lay the groundwork for future research. This article is an overview of those relevant virulence genes that are expressed at temperatures lower than that for optimal bacterial growth in different fish-pathogenic bacteria as well as the principal mechanisms that could be involved in their regulation. PMID:26217329

  2. A Bistable Switch and Anatomical Site Control Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Alex T.; Dolganov, Nadia A.; Rasmussen, Thomas; Otto, Glen; Miller, Michael C.; Felt, Stephen A.; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Schoolnik, Gary K.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental, but unanswered question in host-pathogen interactions is the timing, localization and population distribution of virulence gene expression during infection. Here, microarray and in situ single cell expression methods were used to study Vibrio cholerae growth and virulence gene expression during infection of the rabbit ligated ileal loop model of cholera. Genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT) were powerfully expressed early in the infectious process in bacteria adjacent to epithelial surfaces. Increased growth was found to co-localize with virulence gene expression. Significant heterogeneity in the expression of tcpA, the repeating subunit of TCP, was observed late in the infectious process. The expression of tcpA, studied in single cells in a homogeneous medium, demonstrated unimodal induction of tcpA after addition of bicarbonate, a chemical inducer of virulence gene expression. Striking bifurcation of the population occurred during entry into stationary phase: one subpopulation continued to express tcpA, whereas the expression declined in the other subpopulation. ctxA, encoding the A subunit of CT, and toxT, encoding the proximal master regulator of virulence gene expression also exhibited the bifurcation phenotype. The bifurcation phenotype was found to be reversible, epigenetic and to persist after removal of bicarbonate, features consistent with bistable switches. The bistable switch requires the positive-feedback circuit controlling ToxT expression and formation of the CRP-cAMP complex during entry into stationary phase. Key features of this bistable switch also were demonstrated in vivo, where striking heterogeneity in tcpA expression was observed in luminal fluid in later stages of the infection. When this fluid was diluted into artificial seawater, bacterial aggregates continued to express tcpA for prolonged periods of time. The bistable control of virulence gene expression points to a mechanism that could

  3. The FTF gene family regulates virulence and expression of SIX effectors in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Niño-Sánchez, Jonathan; Casado-Del Castillo, Virginia; Tello, Vega; De Vega-Bartol, José J; Ramos, Brisa; Sukno, Serenella A; Díaz Mínguez, José María

    2016-09-01

    The FTF (Fusarium transcription factor) gene family comprises a single copy gene, FTF2, which is present in all the filamentous ascomycetes analysed, and several copies of a close relative, FTF1, which is exclusive to Fusarium oxysporum. An RNA-mediated gene silencing system was developed to target mRNA produced by all the FTF genes, and tested in two formae speciales: F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (whose host is common bean) and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (whose host is tomato). Quantification of the mRNA levels showed knockdown of FTF1 and FTF2 in randomly isolated transformants of both formae speciales. The attenuation of FTF expression resulted in a marked reduction in virulence, a reduced expression of several SIX (Secreted In Xylem) genes, the best studied family of effectors in F. oxysporum, and lower levels of SGE1 (Six Gene Expression 1) mRNA, the presumptive regulator of SIX expression. Moreover, the knockdown mutants showed a pattern of colonization of the host plant similar to that displayed by strains devoid of FTF1 copies (weakly virulent strains). Gene knockout of FTF2 also resulted in a reduction in virulence, but to a lesser extent. These results demonstrate the role of the FTF gene expansion, mostly the FTF1 paralogues, as a regulator of virulence in F. oxysporum and suggest that the control of effector expression is the mechanism involved. PMID:26817616

  4. Bicarbonate Induces Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression by Enhancing ToxT Activity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Abuaita, Basel H.; Withey, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal illness. The two biotypes of V. cholerae O1 capable of causing cholera, classical and El Tor, require different in vitro growth conditions for induction of virulence gene expression. Growth under the inducing conditions or infection of a host initiates a complex regulatory cascade that results in production of ToxT, a regulatory protein that directly activates transcription of the genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), and other virulence genes. Previous studies have shown that sodium bicarbonate induces CT expression in the V. cholerae El Tor biotype. However, the mechanism for bicarbonate-mediated CT induction has not been defined. In this study, we demonstrate that bicarbonate stimulates virulence gene expression by enhancing ToxT activity. Both the classical and El Tor biotypes produce inactive ToxT protein when they are cultured statically in the absence of bicarbonate. Addition of bicarbonate to the culture medium does not affect ToxT production but causes a significant increase in CT and TCP expression in both biotypes. Ethoxyzolamide, a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, inhibits bicarbonate-mediated virulence induction, suggesting that conversion of CO2 into bicarbonate by carbonic anhydrase plays a role in virulence induction. Thus, bicarbonate is the first positive effector for ToxT activity to be identified. Given that bicarbonate is present at high concentration in the upper small intestine where V. cholerae colonizes, bicarbonate is likely an important chemical stimulus that V. cholerae senses and that induces virulence during the natural course of infection. PMID:19564378

  5. Intracellular and Interstitial Expression of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Precancerous Intestinal Metaplasia and Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Semino-Mora, Cristina; Doi, Sonia Q.; Marty, Aileen; Simko, Vlado; Carlstedt, Ingemar; Dubois, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer are associated with Helicobacter pylori, but the bacterium often is undetectable in these lesions. To unravel this apparent paradox, IM, H. pylori presence, and the expression of H. pylori virulence genes were quantified concurrently using histologic testing, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. H. pylori was detected inside metaplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic epithelial cells, and cagA and babA2 expression was colocalized. Importantly, expression of cagA was significantly higher in patients with IM and adenocarcinoma than in control subjects. The preneoplastic “acidic” MUC2 mucin was detected only in the presence of H. pylori, and MUC2 expression was higher in patients with IM, dysplasia, and cancer. These novel findings are compatible with the hypothesis that all stages of gastric carcinogenesis are fostered by persistent intracellular expression of H. pylori virulence genes, especially cagA inside MUC2-producing precancerous gastric cells and pleomorphic cancer cells. PMID:12695995

  6. Differential Expression and Roles of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Determinants during Colonization and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Amy; Diep, Binh An; Mai, Thuy T.; Vo, Nhung H.; Warrener, Paul; Suzich, Joann; Stover, C. Kendall

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium known to asymptomatically colonize the human skin, nares, and gastrointestinal tract. Colonized individuals are at increased risk for developing S. aureus infections, which range from mild skin and soft tissue infections to more severe diseases, such as endocarditis, bacteremia, sepsis, and osteomyelitis. Different virulence factors are required for S. aureus to infect different body sites. In this study, virulence gene expression was analyzed in two S. aureus isolates during nasal colonization, bacteremia and in the heart during sepsis. These models were chosen to represent the stepwise progression of S. aureus from an asymptomatic colonizer to an invasive pathogen. Expression of 23 putative S. aureus virulence determinants, representing protein and carbohydrate adhesins, secreted toxins, and proteins involved in metal cation acquisition and immune evasion were analyzed. Consistent upregulation of sdrC, fnbA, fhuD, sstD, and hla was observed in the shift between colonization and invasive pathogen, suggesting a prominent role for these genes in staphylococcal pathogenesis. Finally, gene expression data were correlated to the roles of the genes in pathogenesis by using knockout mutants in the animal models. These results provide insights into how S. aureus modifies virulence gene expression between commensal and invasive pathogens. PMID:25691592

  7. Low-shear modelled microgravity alters expression of virulence determinants of Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Helena; Doyle, Marie; Hinds, Jason; Taylor, Peter W.

    2010-02-01

    Microbiological monitoring of air and surfaces within the ISS indicate that bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are found with high frequency. Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic pathogen with the capacity to cause severe debilitating infection, constitutes a significant proportion of these isolates. Experiments conducted during short-term flight suggest that growth in microgravity leads to increases in bacterial antibiotic resistance and to cell wall changes. Growth under low-shear modelled microgravity (LSMMG) indicated that a reduced gravitational field acts as an environmental signal for expression of enhanced bacterial virulence in gram-negative pathogens. We therefore examined the effect of simulated microgravity on parameters of antibiotic susceptibility and virulence in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates RF1, RF6 and RF11; these strains were grown in a high aspect ratio vessel under LSMMG and compared with cells grown under normal gravity (NG). There were no significant differences in antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococci grown under LSMMG compared to NG. LSMMG-induced reductions in synthesis of the pigment staphyloxanthin and the major virulence determinant α-toxin were noted. Significant changes in global gene expression were identified by DNA microarray analysis; with isolate RF6, the expression of hla and genes of the regulatory system saeR/saeS were reduced approximately two-fold. These data provide strong evidence that growth of S. aureus under modelled microgravity leads to a reduction in expression of virulence determinants.

  8. Mutation of luxS affects growth and virulence factor expression in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Lyon, W R; Madden, J C; Levin, J C; Stein, J L; Caparon, M G

    2001-10-01

    Adaptive responses of bacteria that involve sensing the presence of other bacteria are often critical for proliferation and the expression of virulence characteristics. The autoinducer II (AI-2) pathway has recently been shown to be a mechanism for sensing other bacteria that is highly conserved among diverse bacterial species, including Gram-positive pathogens. However, a role for this pathway in the regulation of virulence factors in Gram-positive pathogens has yet to be established. In this study, we have inactivated luxS, an essential component of the AI-2 pathway, in the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Analyses of the resulting mutants revealed the aberrant expression of several virulence properties that are regulated in response to growth phase, including enhanced haemolytic activity, and a dramatic reduction in the expression of secreted proteolytic activity. This latter defect was associated with a reduced ability to secrete and process the precursor of the cysteine protease (SpeB) as well as a difference in the timing of expression of the protease. Enhanced haemolytic activity of the luxS strain was also shown to be linked with an increased expression of the haemolysin S-associated gene sagA. Disruptions of luxS in these mutants also produced a media-dependent growth defect. Finally, an allelic replacement analysis of an S. pyogenes strain with a naturally occurring insertion of IS1239 in luxS suggested a mechanism for modulation of virulence during infection. Results from this study suggest that luxS makes an important contribution to the regulation of S. pyogenes virulence factors. PMID:11679074

  9. Effect of starvation on survival and virulence expression of Aeromonas hydrophila from different sources.

    PubMed

    Casabianca, Anna; Orlandi, Chiara; Barbieri, Federica; Sabatini, Luigia; Di Cesare, Andrea; Sisti, Davide; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Magnani, Mauro; Citterio, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an aquatic bacterium responsible for several human illnesses. The aim of this work was to investigate the survival ability and virulence expression of two strains from different sources (fish, strain 87 and surface water, strain LS) maintained in a seawater microcosm. The strains were analyzed for the total and viable bacterial counts, adhesion ability to Hep-2 cells and aerA gene expression by qPCR throughout the experiment (35 days). Both strains reached a putative VBNC state and lost adhesive properties but exhibited a different behavior in the expression of aerA. This could be due to the different origin of the two strains; the former adapted to a habitat rich of nutrient and the latter already used to survive in a more hostile environment. Moreover, our results indicate that the quantitative determination of aerA mRNA can be a useful indicator of virulence expression under stress conditions. PMID:25533849

  10. Salmonella Modulates Metabolism during Growth under Conditions that Induce Expression of Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Mo; Schmidt, Brian J.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Ansong, Charles; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a facultative pathogen that uses complex mechanisms to invade and proliferate within mammalian host cells. To investigate possible contributions of metabolic processes to virulence in S. Typhimurium grown under conditions known to induce expression of virulence genes, we used a metabolomics-driven systems biology approach coupled with genome scale modeling. First, we identified distinct metabolite profiles associated with bacteria grown in either rich or virulence-inducing media and report the most comprehensive coverage of the S. Typhimurium metabolome to date. Second, we applied an omics-informed genome scale modeling analysis of the functional consequences of adaptive alterations in S. Typhimurium metabolism during growth under our conditions. Modeling efforts highlighted a decreased cellular capability to both produce and utilize intracellular amino acids during stationary phase culture in virulence conditions, despite significant abundance increases for these molecules as observed by our metabolomics measurements. Furthermore, analyses of omics data in the context of the metabolic model indicated rewiring of the metabolic network to support pathways associated with virulence. For example, cellular concentrations of polyamines were perturbed, as well as the predicted capacity for secretion and uptake. PMID:23559334

  11. Expression of the Salmonella virulence plasmid gene spvB in cultured macrophages and nonphagocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Fierer, J; Eckmann, L; Fang, F; Pfeifer, C; Finlay, B B; Guiney, D

    1993-12-01

    Certain serotypes of salmonellae carry virulence plasmids that greatly enhance the pathogenicity of these bacteria in experimentally infected mice. This phenotype is largely attributable to the 8-kb spv regulon. However, spv genes are not expressed while bacteria grow in vitro. We now show that spvB, which is required for virulence, is expressed rapidly after Salmonella dublin is ingested by cultured J774 and murine peritoneal macrophages and that expression is not affected by the alkalinization of intracellular vesicles. The level of induction of spvB is reduced when macrophages are pretreated with gamma interferon. spvB is also expressed in human and canine epithelial cell lines and a human hepatoma cell line. In all cases, spvB expression is dependent on the spvR gene, just as it is in stationary-phase cultures in vitro. These data suggest that spv virulence genes are expressed by intracellular salmonellae in vivo in response to a signal that is common to the intracellular compartments of cells that are invaded by salmonellae. PMID:8225598

  12. Distinct Expression Levels of ALS, LIP, and SAP Genes in Candida tropicalis with Diverse Virulent Activities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuanbao; Li, Wenge; Liu, Xiaoshu; Che, Jie; Wu, Yuan; Lu, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Candia tropicalis is an increasingly important human pathogen, causing nosocomial fungemia among patients with neutropenia or malignancy. However, limited research has been published concerning its pathogenicity. Based on the phenotypes of C. tropicalis in our previous study, we selected nine representative strains with different activities of virulence factors (adhesion, biofilm formation, secreted aspartic proteinases, and hemolysins), and one reference strain, ATCC750. The present study aimed to investigate the filamentation ability, the expression of virulence genes (ALST1-3, LIP1, LIP4, and SAPT1-4) and the cell damage of C. tropicalis strains with diverse virulences. C. tropicalis exhibited strain-dependent filamentation ability, which was positively correlated with biofilm formation. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that the ALST3 and SAPT3 genes had the highest expression in their corresponding genes for most C. tropicalis. The expressions of virulence genes, except ALST3 on polystyrene, were upregulated compared with growth in the planktonic and on human urinary bladder epithelial cell line (TCC-SUP) surface. Clustering analysis of virulence genes showed that isolates had a high biofilm forming ability on polystyrene formed a group. Lactate dehydrogenase assays showed that the cell damage induced by C. tropicalis markedly increased with longer infection time (24 and 48 h). Strain FXCT01, isolated from blood, caused the most serious cell damage; while ZRCT52, which had no filamentation ability, caused the least cell damage. Correlation analysis demonstrated significant correlation existed between adhesion on epithelial cells or the expression of ALST2-3 and cell damage. Overall, our results supported the view that adhesion and filamentation may play significant roles in the cell damage caused by C. tropicalis. PMID:27524980

  13. Distinct Expression Levels of ALS, LIP, and SAP Genes in Candida tropicalis with Diverse Virulent Activities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuanbao; Li, Wenge; Liu, Xiaoshu; Che, Jie; Wu, Yuan; Lu, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Candia tropicalis is an increasingly important human pathogen, causing nosocomial fungemia among patients with neutropenia or malignancy. However, limited research has been published concerning its pathogenicity. Based on the phenotypes of C. tropicalis in our previous study, we selected nine representative strains with different activities of virulence factors (adhesion, biofilm formation, secreted aspartic proteinases, and hemolysins), and one reference strain, ATCC750. The present study aimed to investigate the filamentation ability, the expression of virulence genes (ALST1-3, LIP1, LIP4, and SAPT1-4) and the cell damage of C. tropicalis strains with diverse virulences. C. tropicalis exhibited strain-dependent filamentation ability, which was positively correlated with biofilm formation. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that the ALST3 and SAPT3 genes had the highest expression in their corresponding genes for most C. tropicalis. The expressions of virulence genes, except ALST3 on polystyrene, were upregulated compared with growth in the planktonic and on human urinary bladder epithelial cell line (TCC-SUP) surface. Clustering analysis of virulence genes showed that isolates had a high biofilm forming ability on polystyrene formed a group. Lactate dehydrogenase assays showed that the cell damage induced by C. tropicalis markedly increased with longer infection time (24 and 48 h). Strain FXCT01, isolated from blood, caused the most serious cell damage; while ZRCT52, which had no filamentation ability, caused the least cell damage. Correlation analysis demonstrated significant correlation existed between adhesion on epithelial cells or the expression of ALST2-3 and cell damage. Overall, our results supported the view that adhesion and filamentation may play significant roles in the cell damage caused by C. tropicalis. PMID:27524980

  14. Gene expression patterns and dynamics of the colonization of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by highly virulent and weakly virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Niño-Sánchez, Jonathan; Tello, Vega; Casado-del Castillo, Virginia; Thon, Michael R.; Benito, Ernesto P.; Díaz-Mínguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of root and hypocotyl colonization, and the gene expression patterns of several fungal virulence factors and plant defense factors have been analyzed and compared in the interaction of two Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli strains displaying clear differences in virulence, with a susceptible common bean cultivar. The growth of the two strains on the root surface and the colonization of the root was quantitatively similar although the highly virulent (HV) strain was more efficient reaching the central root cylinder. The main differences between both strains were found in the temporal and spatial dynamics of crown root and hypocotyl colonization. The increase of fungal biomass in the crown root was considerably larger for the HV strain, which, after an initial stage of global colonization of both the vascular cylinder and the parenchymal cells, restricted its growth to the newly differentiated xylem vessels. The weakly virulent (WV) strain was a much slower and less efficient colonizer of the xylem vessels, showing also growth in the intercellular spaces of the parenchyma. Most of the virulence genes analyzed showed similar expression patterns in both strains, except SIX1, SIX6 and the gene encoding the transcription factor FTF1, which were highly upregulated in root crown and hypocotyl. The response induced in the infected plant showed interesting differences for both strains. The WV strain induced an early and strong transcription of the PR1 gene, involved in SAR response, while the HV strain preferentially induced the early expression of the ethylene responsive factor ERF2. PMID:25883592

  15. Expression of Escherichia coli virulence usher protein attenuates wild-type Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinghong; Suo, Zhiyong; Thornburg, Theresa; Holderness, Kathryn; Cao, Ling; Lim, Timothy; Walters, Nancy; Kellerman, Laura; Loetterle, Linda; Avci, Recep; Pascual, David W

    2012-01-01

    Generation of a live attenuated vaccine for bacterial pathogens often requires prior knowledge of the pathogen's virulence factors. We hypothesized an alternative approach of heterologous gene expression would make a wild-type (wt) pathogen more susceptible to host cell killing, thus, resulting in immunization. As proof of concept, the heterologous expression of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) was tested to attenuate Salmonella. The overexpression of CFA/I resulted in significant attenuation of wt Salmonella. In-depth studies revealed the attenuation depended on the co-expression of chaperone (CfaA) and usher (CfaC) proteins. Remarkably, the CfaAC-attenuated Salmonella conferred protection against wt Salmonella challenge. Mechanistic study indicated CfaAC made Salmonella outer membranes permeable, causing Salmonella to be vulnerable to host destruction. Thus, enhancing bacterial permeability via CfaAC represents an alternative method to attenuate pathogens despite the presence of unknown virulence factors. PMID:22286706

  16. Patterns of virulence gene expression differ between biofilm and tissue communities of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu Hong; Caparon, Michael G

    2005-09-01

    The ability of Streptococcus pyogenes to form biofilm-like bacterial communities during infection of soft tissue has suggested that the capacity to produce biofilm may be important for pathogenesis. To examine this relationship, a panel of mutants was evaluated for their ability to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces in several assays. Several established virulence factors were crucial for biofilm formation, including the M protein, required for initial cell-surface interactions, and the hyaluronic acid capsule, required for subsequent maturation into a three-dimensional structure. Mutants lacking the transcription regulators Mga and CovR (CsrR) also failed to form biofilm. Comparison of transcriptional profiles revealed differential regulation of approximately 25% of the genome upon adaptation to biofilm. During infection of zebrafish, several virulence factors (notably cysteine protease and streptokinase) were regulated in a biofilm-like manner. However, the overall profile of virulence factor expression indicated that tissue communities have a pattern of gene expression different from biofilm. Taken together, these data show that while biofilm and tissue communities have many characteristics in common, that biofilm reproduces only a subset of the myriad cues used by tissue communities for regulation of virulence. PMID:16135223

  17. Host stress hormone norepinephrine stimulates pneumococcal growth, biofilm formation and virulence gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Host signals are being shown to have a major impact on the bacterial phenotype. One of them is the endogenously produced catecholamine stress hormones, which are also used therapeutically as inotropes. Recent work form our laboratories have found that stress hormones can markedly increase bacterial growth and virulence. This report reveals that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a commensal that can also be a major cause of community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, is highly inotrope responsive. Therapeutic levels of the stress hormone norepinephrine increased pneumococcal growth via a mechanism involving provision of iron from serum-transferrin and inotrope uptake, as well as enhancing expression of key genes in central metabolism and virulence. Collectively, our data suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae recognises host stress as an environmental cue to initiate growth and pathogenic processes. Results Effects of a clinically attainable concentration of norepinephrine on S. pneumoniae pathogenicity were explored using in vitro growth and virulence assays, and RT-PCR gene expression profiling of genes involved in metabolism and virulence. We found that norepinephrine was a potent stimulator of growth, via a mechanism involving norepinephrine-delivery of transferrin-iron and internalisation of the inotrope. Stress hormone exposure also markedly increased biofilm formation. Importantly, gene profiling showed that norepinephrine significantly enhanced expression of genes involved in central metabolism and host colonisation. Analysis of the response of the pneumococcal pspA and pspC mutants to the stress hormone showed them to have a central involvement in the catecholamine response mechanism. Conclusions Collectively, our evidence suggests that the pneumococcus has mechanisms to recognise and process host stress hormones to augment its virulence properties. The ability to respond to host stress signals may be important for the pneumococcal transition from

  18. Chemical Inhibition of Kynureninase Reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing and Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Stephen H; Bonocora, Richard P; Wade, Joseph T; Musah, Rabi Ann; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2016-04-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes multiple quorum sensing (QS) pathways to coordinate an arsenal of virulence factors. We previously identified several cysteine-based compounds inspired by natural products from the plant Petiveria alliacea which are capable of antagonizing multiple QS circuits as well as reducing P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. To understand the global effects of such compounds on virulence factor production and elucidate their mechanism of action, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, the most potent inhibitor from the prior study. Exposure to this inhibitor down-regulated expression of several QS-regulated virulence operons (e.g., phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion systems). Interestingly, many genes that were differentially regulated pertain to the related metabolic pathways that yield precursors of pyochelin, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, phenazines, and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Activation of the MexT-regulon was also indicated, including the multidrug efflux pump encoded by mexEF-oprN, which has previously been shown to inhibit QS and pathogenicity. Deeper investigation of the metabolites involved in these systems revealed that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide has structural similarity to kynurenine, a precursor of anthranilate, which is critical for P. aeruginosa virulence. By supplementing exogenous anthranilate, the QS-inhibitory effect was reversed. Finally, it was shown that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide competitively inhibits P. aeruginosa kynureninase (KynU) activity in vitro and reduces PQS production in vivo. The kynurenine pathway has been implicated in P. aeruginosa QS and virulence factor expression; however, this is the first study to show that targeted inhibition of KynU affects P. aeruginosa gene expression and QS, suggesting a potential antivirulence strategy. PMID:26785289

  19. Bistable Expression of CsgD in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Connects Virulence to Persistence

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Keith D.; Wang, Yejun; Shivak, Dylan J.; Wong, Cynthia S.; Hoffman, Leia J. L.; Lam, Shirley; Kröger, Carsten; Cameron, Andrew D. S.; Townsend, Hugh G. G.; Köster, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria often need to survive in the host and the environment, and it is not well understood how cells transition between these equally challenging situations. For the human and animal pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, biofilm formation is correlated with persistence outside a host, but the connection to virulence is unknown. In this study, we analyzed multicellular-aggregate and planktonic-cell subpopulations that coexist when S. Typhimurium is grown under biofilm-inducing conditions. These cell types arise due to bistable expression of CsgD, the central biofilm regulator. Despite being exposed to the same stresses, the two cell subpopulations had 1,856 genes that were differentially expressed, as determined by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). Aggregated cells displayed the characteristic gene expression of biofilms, whereas planktonic cells had enhanced expression of numerous virulence genes. Increased type three secretion synthesis in planktonic cells correlated with enhanced invasion of a human intestinal cell line and significantly increased virulence in mice compared to the aggregates. However, when the same groups of cells were exposed to desiccation, the aggregates survived better, and the competitive advantage of planktonic cells was lost. We hypothesize that CsgD-based differentiation is a form of bet hedging, with single cells primed for host cell invasion and aggregated cells adapted for persistence in the environment. This allows S. Typhimurium to spread the risks of transmission and ensures a smooth transition between the host and the environment. PMID:25824832

  20. Cysteine Peptidase B Regulates Leishmania mexicana Virulence through the Modulation of GP63 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Casgrain, Pierre-André; Martel, Caroline; McMaster, W. Robert; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Olivier, Martin; Descoteaux, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine peptidases play a central role in the biology of Leishmania. In this work, we sought to further elucidate the mechanism(s) by which the cysteine peptidase CPB contributes to L. mexicana virulence and whether CPB participates in the formation of large communal parasitophorous vacuoles induced by these parasites. We initially examined the impact of L. mexicana infection on the trafficking of VAMP3 and VAMP8, two endocytic SNARE proteins associated with phagolysosome biogenesis and function. Using a CPB-deficient mutant, we found that both VAMP3 and VAMP8 were down-modulated in a CPB-dependent manner. We also discovered that expression of the virulence-associated GPI-anchored metalloprotease GP63 was inhibited in the absence of CPB. Expression of GP63 in the CPB-deficient mutant was sufficient to down-modulate VAMP3 and VAMP8. Similarly, episomal expression of GP63 enabled the CPB-deficient mutant to establish infection in macrophages, induce the formation of large communal parasitophorous vacuoles, and cause lesions in mice. These findings implicate CPB in the regulation of GP63 expression and provide evidence that both GP63 and CPB are key virulence factors in L. mexicana. PMID:27191844

  1. Construction of a Multiplex Promoter Reporter Platform to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression and the Identification of Usnic Acid as a Potent Suppressor of psm Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Yanli; Villanueva, Iván; Ho, Pak Leung; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm. PMID:27625639

  2. Construction of a Multiplex Promoter Reporter Platform to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression and the Identification of Usnic Acid as a Potent Suppressor of psm Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Yanli; Villanueva, Iván; Ho, Pak Leung; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm. PMID:27625639

  3. PTS phosphorylation of Mga modulates regulon expression and virulence in the group A streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Hondorp, Elise R; Hou, Sherry C; Hause, Lara L; Gera, Kanika; Lee, Ching-En; McIver, Kevin S

    2013-06-01

    The ability of a bacterial pathogen to monitor available carbon sources in host tissues provides a clear fitness advantage. In the group A streptococcus (GAS), the virulence regulator Mga contains homology to phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulatory domains (PRDs) found in sugar operon regulators. Here we show that Mga was phosphorylated in vitro by the PTS components EI/HPr at conserved PRD histidines. A ΔptsI (EI-deficient) GAS mutant exhibited decreased Mga activity. However, PTS-mediated phosphorylation inhibited Mga-dependent transcription of emm in vitro. Using alanine (unphosphorylated) and aspartate (phosphomimetic) mutations of PRD histidines, we establish that a doubly phosphorylated PRD1 phosphomimetic (D/DMga4) is completely inactive in vivo, shutting down expression of the Mga regulon. Although D/DMga4 is still able to bind DNA in vitro, homo-multimerization of Mga is disrupted and the protein is unable to activate transcription. PTS-mediated regulation of Mga activity appears to be important for pathogenesis, as bacteria expressing either non-phosphorylated (A/A) or phosphomimetic (D/D) PRD1 Mga mutants were attenuated in a model of GAS invasive skin disease. Thus, PTS-mediated phosphorylation of Mga may allow the bacteria to modulate virulence gene expression in response to carbohydrate status. Furthermore, PRD-containing virulence regulators (PCVRs) appear to be widespread in Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:23651410

  4. Inhibition of swarming and virulence factor expression in Proteus mirabilis by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Won-Bo; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chiou, Robin Y-Y; Lin, Shwu-Bin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2006-10-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a phytoalexin compound with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The effect of resveratrol on swarming and virulence factor expression of Proteus mirabilis, an important pathogen infecting the urinary tract, was determined on swarming agar plates with and without the compound. Bacteria harvested at different times were assayed for cell length and the production of flagella, haemolysin and urease. Resveratrol inhibited P. mirabilis swarming and virulence factor expression in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol significantly inhibited swarming at 15 microg ml(-1), and completely inhibited swarming at 60 microg ml(-1). Inhibition of swarming and virulence factor expression was mediated through RsbA, a His-containing phosphotransmitter of the bacterial two-component signalling system possibly involved in quorum sensing. Complementation of an rsbA-defective mutant with the rsbA gene restored its responsiveness to resveratrol. The compound also inhibited the ability of P. mirabilis to invade human urothelial cells. These findings suggest that resveratrol has potential to be developed as an antimicrobial agent against P. mirabilis infection. PMID:17005777

  5. Inhibition of virulence factor expression and swarming differentiation in Proteus mirabilis by p-nitrophenylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Liaw, S J; Lai, H C; Ho, S W; Luh, K T; Wang, W B

    2000-08-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of upper urinary tract infections that can involve invasion of host urothelial cells. The ability to invade urothelial cells is coupled closely to swarming, a form of multicellular behaviour in which vegetative bacteria differentiate into hyperflagellate, filamentous swarming cells capable of co-ordinated and rapid population migration. Co-ordinate expression of virulence factors including urease, protease, haemolysin and flagellin during swarm-cell differentiation in P. mirabilis has been reported. To investigate the effects of p-nitrophenylglycerol (PNPG), a potent anti-swarming agent, on the various swarming-associated traits of P. mirabilis and to elucidate the relationships among them, P. mirabilis growth rate, swarming/swimming activity, cell invasion ability and the ability to express various virulence factors were monitored in the presence or absence of PNPG. It was found that PNPG could inhibit the growth rate, swarming differentiation and swarming/swimming activities of P. mirabilis. The expression of virulence factors such as protease, urease, haemolysin and flagellin in P. mirabilis was also inhibited by PNPG. The ability of P. mirabilis to invade human urothelial cells was reduced dramatically in the presence of PNPG. These results suggest that PNPG has the potential to be developed as an agent active against the effects of P. mirabilis infection. PMID:10933258

  6. Use of a Continuous-Flow Anaerobic Culture To Characterize Enteric Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Sheikh, Jalaluddin; Davis, Suzanne; Boedeker, Edgar C.; Nataro, James P.

    2004-01-01

    We developed an in vitro culture method to characterize the expression of bacterial genes under conditions mimicking the colonic environment. Our culture system (the intestinal simulator) comprised a continuous-flow anaerobic culture which was inoculated with fecal samples from healthy volunteers. As a test organism, we employed enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), an emerging diarrheal pathogen that is thought to cause infection in both the small and large intestines. After the simulator culture achieved equilibrium conditions, we inoculated the system with prototype EAEC strain 042 and assessed the expression of three EAEC virulence-related genes. We focused particularly on expression of aggR, which encodes a global transcriptional regulator of EAEC virulence factors, and two AggR-regulated genes. By using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we showed that aggR expression in the simulator is increased 3- to 10-fold when 042 is grown under low-pH (5.5 to 6.0) conditions, compared with results with neutral pH (7.0). Interestingly, however, this effect was seen only when the strain was grown in the presence of commensal bacteria. We also found that expression of aggR is 10- to 20-fold higher at low NaCl concentrations, and this effect was also observed only in the presence of commensal bacteria. Using coculture and conditioned-media experiments, we identified specific strains of Enterococcus and Clostridium that upregulated aggR expression; in contrast, strains of Lactobacillus and Veillonella downregulated aggR expression. Our data provide new insights into regulation of virulence genes in EAEC and suggest the utility of intestinal simulation cultures in characterizing enteric gene regulation. PMID:15213120

  7. Human Serum Promotes Candida albicans Biofilm Growth and Virulence Gene Expression on Silicone Biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Samaranayake, Yuthika Hemamala; Cheung, Becky P. K.; Yau, Joyce Y. Y.; Yeung, Shadow K. W.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Systemic candidal infections are a common problem in hospitalized patients due to central venous catheters fabricated using silicone biomaterial (SB). We therefore evaluated the effect of human serum on C. albicans biofilm morphology, growth, and the expression of virulence-related genes on SB in vitro. Methods We cultivated C. albicans SC5314 (wild-type strain, WT) and its derivative HLC54 (hyphal mutant, HM) for 48 h in various conditions, including the presence or absence of SB discs, and human serum. The growth of planktonic and biofilm cells of both strains was monitored at three time points by a tetrazolium salt reduction assay and by scanning electron microscopy. We also analyzed by RT-PCR its expression of the virulence-related genes ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2, PLC and PLD. Results At each time point, planktonic cells of WT strain cultured in yeast nitrogen base displayed a much higher expression of EAP1 and HWP1, and a moderately higher ALS3 expression, than HM cells. In planktonic cells, expression of the ten SAP genes was higher in the WT strain initially, but were highly expressed in the HM strain by 48 h. Biofilm growth of both strains on SB was promoted in the presence of human serum than in its absence. Significant upregulation of ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1, SAP4, SAP6 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2 and PLC was observed for WT biofilms grown on serum-treated SB discs for at least one time point, compared with biofilms on serum-free SB discs. Conclusions Human serum stimulates C. albicans biofilm growth on SB discs and upregulates the expression of virulence genes, particularly adhesion genes ALS3 and HWP1, and hydrolase-encoding genes SAP, PLB1 and PLB2. This response is likely to promote the colonization of this versatile pathogen within the human host. PMID:23704884

  8. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Virulent and Nonvirulent Entamoeba Species: Potential Implications for Amebic Pathogenesis †

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Ryan C.; Singh, Upinder

    2006-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes colitis and liver abscesses. Several Entamoeba species and strains with differing levels of virulence have been identified. E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS is a virulent strain, E. histolytica Rahman is a nonvirulent strain, and Entamoeba dispar is a nonvirulent species. We used an E. histolytica DNA microarray consisting of 2,110 genes to assess the transcriptional differences between these species/strains with the goal of identifying genes whose expression correlated with a virulence phenotype. We found 415 genes expressed at lower levels in E. dispar and 32 genes with lower expression in E. histolytica Rahman than in E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. Overall, 29 genes had decreased expression in both the nonvirulent species/strains than the virulent E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. Interestingly, a number of genes with potential roles in stress response and virulence had decreased expression in either one or both nonvirulent Entamoeba species/strains. These included genes encoding Fe hydrogenase (9.m00419), peroxiredoxin (176.m00112), type A flavoprotein (6.m00467), lysozyme (6.m00454), sphingomyelinase C (29.m00231), and a hypothetical protein with homology to both a Plasmodium sporozoite threonine-asparagine-rich protein (STARP) and a streptococcal hemagglutinin (238.m00054). The function of these genes in Entamoeba and their specific roles in parasite virulence need to be determined. We also found that a number of the non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons (EhLINEs and EhSINEs), which have been shown to modulate gene expression and genomic evolution, had lower expression in the nonvirulent species/strains than in E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. Our results, identifying expression profiles and patterns indicative of a virulence phenotype, may be useful in characterizing the transcriptional framework of virulence. PMID:16368989

  9. RivR is a negative regulator of virulence factor expression in group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Jeanette; Liu, Zhuyun; Cao, Tram N; Ramirez-Peña, Esmeralda; Sumby, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human diseases ranging from self-limiting pharyngitis (also known as strep throat) to severely invasive necrotizing fasciitis (also known as the flesh-eating syndrome). To control virulence factor expression, GAS utilizes both protein- and RNA-based mechanisms of regulation. Here we report that the transcription factor RivR (RofA-like protein IV) negatively regulates the abundance of mRNAs encoding the hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis proteins (hasABC; ∼7-fold) and the protein G-related α(2)-macroglobulin-binding protein (grab; ∼29-fold). Our data differ significantly from those of a previous study of the RivR regulon. Given that grab and hasABC are also negatively regulated by the two-component system CovR/S (control of virulence), we tested whether RivR functions through CovR/S. A comparison of riv and cov single and double mutant strains showed that RivR requires CovR activity for grab and hasABC regulation. Analysis of the upstream region of rivR identified a novel promoter the deletion of which reduced rivR mRNA abundance by 70%. A rivR mutant strain had a reduced ability to adhere to human keratinocytes relative to that of the parental and complemented strains, a phenotype that was abolished upon GAS pretreatment with hyaluronidase, highlighting the importance of capsule regulation by RivR during colonization. The rivR mutant strain was also attenuated for virulence in a murine model of bacteremia infection. Thus, we identify RivR as an important regulator of GAS virulence and provide new insight into the regulatory networks controlling virulence factor production in this pathogen. PMID:23147037

  10. A combination of independent transcriptional regulators shapes bacterial virulence gene expression during infection.

    PubMed

    Shelburne, Samuel A; Olsen, Randall J; Suber, Bryce; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Sumby, Paul; Brennan, Richard G; Musser, James M

    2010-03-01

    Transcriptional regulatory networks are fundamental to how microbes alter gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, thereby playing a critical role in bacterial pathogenesis. However, understanding how bacterial transcriptional regulatory networks function during host-pathogen interaction is limited. Recent studies in group A Streptococcus (GAS) suggested that the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) influences many of the same genes as the control of virulence (CovRS) two-component gene regulatory system. To provide new information about the CcpA and CovRS networks, we compared the CcpA and CovR transcriptomes in a serotype M1 GAS strain. The transcript levels of several of the same genes encoding virulence factors and proteins involved in basic metabolic processes were affected in both DeltaccpA and DeltacovR isogenic mutant strains. Recombinant CcpA and CovR bound with high-affinity to the promoter regions of several co-regulated genes, including those encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Compared to the wild-type parental strain, DeltaccpA and DeltacovRDeltaccpA isogenic mutant strains were significantly less virulent in a mouse myositis model. Inactivation of CcpA and CovR alone and in combination led to significant alterations in the transcript levels of several key GAS virulence factor encoding genes during infection. Importantly, the transcript level alterations in the DeltaccpA and DeltacovRDeltaccpA isogenic mutant strains observed during infection were distinct from those occurring during growth in laboratory medium. These data provide new knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms by which pathogenic bacteria respond to environmental signals to regulate virulence factor production and basic metabolic processes during infection. PMID:20333240

  11. RivR Is a Negative Regulator of Virulence Factor Expression in Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Jeanette; Liu, Zhuyun; Cao, Tram N.; Ramirez-Peña, Esmeralda

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human diseases ranging from self-limiting pharyngitis (also known as strep throat) to severely invasive necrotizing fasciitis (also known as the flesh-eating syndrome). To control virulence factor expression, GAS utilizes both protein- and RNA-based mechanisms of regulation. Here we report that the transcription factor RivR (RofA-like protein IV) negatively regulates the abundance of mRNAs encoding the hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis proteins (hasABC; ∼7-fold) and the protein G-related α2-macroglobulin-binding protein (grab; ∼29-fold). Our data differ significantly from those of a previous study of the RivR regulon. Given that grab and hasABC are also negatively regulated by the two-component system CovR/S (control of virulence), we tested whether RivR functions through CovR/S. A comparison of riv and cov single and double mutant strains showed that RivR requires CovR activity for grab and hasABC regulation. Analysis of the upstream region of rivR identified a novel promoter the deletion of which reduced rivR mRNA abundance by 70%. A rivR mutant strain had a reduced ability to adhere to human keratinocytes relative to that of the parental and complemented strains, a phenotype that was abolished upon GAS pretreatment with hyaluronidase, highlighting the importance of capsule regulation by RivR during colonization. The rivR mutant strain was also attenuated for virulence in a murine model of bacteremia infection. Thus, we identify RivR as an important regulator of GAS virulence and provide new insight into the regulatory networks controlling virulence factor production in this pathogen. PMID:23147037

  12. Differential expression of the virulence-associated protein p57 and characterization of its duplicated gene rosa in virulent and attenuated strains of Renibacterium salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Farrell, C. L.; Strom, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Virulence mechanisms utilized by the salmonid fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum are poorly understood. One potential virulence factor is p57 (also designated MSA for major soluble antigen), an abundant 57 kDa soluble protein that is predominately localized on the bacterial cell surface with significant levels released into the extracellular milieu. Previous studies of an attenuated strain, MT 239, indicated that it differs from virulent strains in the amount of surface-associated p57. In this report, we show overall expression of p57 in R. salmoninarum MT 239 is considerably reduced as compared to a virulent strain, ATCC 33209. The amount of cell-associated p57 is decreased while the level of p57 in the culture supernatant is nearly equivalent between the strains. To determine if lowered amount of cell-associated p57 was due to a sequence defect in p57, a genetic comparison was performed. Two copies of the gene encoding p57 (msa1 and msa2) were found in 33209 and MT 239, as well as in several other virulent isolates. Both copies from 33209 and MT 239 were cloned and sequenced and found to be identical to each other, and identical between the 2 strains. A comparison of msa1 and msa2 within each strain showed that their sequences diverge 40 base pairs 5, to the open reading frame, while sequences 3' to the open reading frame are essentially identical for at least 225 base pairs. Northern blot analysis showed no difference in steady state levels of rosa mRNA between the 2 strains. These data suggest that while cell-surface localization of p57 may be important for R. salmoninarum virulence, the differences in localization, and total p57 expression between 33209 anti MT 239 are not due to differences in rosa sequence or differences in steady state transcript levels.

  13. Differential expression of the virulence-associated protein p57 and characterization of its duplicated gene msa in virulent and attenuated strains of Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, C L; Strom, M S

    1999-11-01

    Virulence mechanisms utilized by the salmonid fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum are poorly understood. One potential virulence factor is p57 (also designated MSA for major soluble antigen), an abundant 57 kDa soluble protein that is predominately localized on the bacterial cell surface with significant levels released into the extracellular milieu. Previous studies of an attenuated strain, MT 239, indicated that it differs from virulent strains in the amount of surface-associated p57. In this report, we show overall expression of p57 in R. salmoninarum MT 239 is considerably reduced as compared to a virulent strain, ATCC 33209. The amount of cell-associated p57 is decreased while the level of p57 in the culture supernatant is nearly equivalent between the strains. To determine if the lowered amount of cell-associated p57 was due to a sequence defect in p57, a genetic comparison was performed. Two copies of the gene encoding p57 (msa1 and msa2) were found in 33209 and MT 239, as well as in several other virulent isolates. Both copies from 33209 and MT 239 were cloned and sequenced and found to be identical to each other, and identical between the 2 strains. A comparison of msa1 and msa2 within each strain showed that their sequences diverge 40 base pairs 5' to the open reading frame, while sequences 3' to the open reading frame are essentially identical for at least 225 base pairs. Northern blot analysis showed no difference in steady state levels of msa mRNA between the 2 strains. These data suggest that while cell-surface localization of p57 may be important for R. salmoninarum virulence, the differences in localization and total p57 expression between 33209 and MT 239 are not due to differences in msa sequence or differences in steady state transcript levels. PMID:10598282

  14. Spatial Segregation of Virulence Gene Expression during Acute Enteric Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Richard C.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Barhoumi, Roula; Payne, H. Ross; Wu, Jing; Gomez, Gabriel; Pugh, Roberta; Lawhon, Sara D.; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Adams, L. Garry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To establish a replicative niche during its infectious cycle between the intestinal lumen and tissue, the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires numerous virulence genes, including genes for two type III secretion systems (T3SS) and their cognate effectors. To better understand the host-pathogen relationship, including early infection dynamics and induction kinetics of the bacterial virulence program in the context of a natural host, we monitored the subcellular localization and temporal expression of T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 using fluorescent single-cell reporters in a bovine, ligated ileal loop model of infection. We observed that the majority of bacteria at 2 h postinfection are flagellated, express T3SS-1 but not T3SS-2, and are associated with the epithelium or with extruding enterocytes. In epithelial cells, S. Typhimurium cells were surrounded by intact vacuolar membranes or present within membrane-compromised vacuoles that typically contained numerous vesicular structures. By 8 h postinfection, T3SS-2-expressing bacteria were detected in the lamina propria and in the underlying mucosa, while T3SS-1-expressing bacteria were in the lumen. Our work identifies for the first time the temporal and spatial regulation of T3SS-1 and -2 expression during an enteric infection in a natural host and provides further support for the concept of cytosolic S. Typhimurium in extruding epithelium as a mechanism for reseeding the lumen. PMID:24496791

  15. Mutually Exclusive Expression of Virulence Genes by Malaria Parasites Is Regulated Independently of Antigen Production

    PubMed Central

    Dzikowski, Ron; Frank, Matthias; Deitsch, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    The primary virulence determinant of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite–infected cells is a family of heterogeneous surface receptors collectively referred to as PfEMP1. These proteins are encoded by a large, polymorphic gene family called var. The family contains approximately 60 individual genes, which are subject to strict, mutually exclusive expression, with the single expressed var gene determining the antigenic, cytoadherent, and virulence phenotype of the infected cell. The mutually exclusive expression pattern of var genes is imperative for the parasite's ability to evade the host's immune response and is similar to the process of “allelic exclusion” described for mammalian Ig and odorant receptor genes. In mammalian systems, mutually exclusive expression is ensured by negative feedback inhibition mediated by production of a functional protein. To investigate how expression of the var gene family is regulated, we have created transgenic lines of parasites in which expression of individual var loci can be manipulated. Here we show that no such negative feedback system exists in P. falciparum and that this process is dependent solely on the transcriptional regulatory elements immediately adjacent to each gene. Transgenic parasites that are selected to express a var gene in which the PfEMP1 coding region has been replaced by a drug-selectable marker silence all other var genes in the genome, thus effectively knocking out all PfEMP1 expression and indicating that the modified gene is still recognized as a member of the var gene family. Mutually exclusive expression in P. falciparum is therefore regulated exclusively at the level of transcription, and a functional PfEMP1 protein is not necessary for viability or for proper gene regulation in cultured parasites. PMID:16518466

  16. Role of luxS in Bacillus anthracis growth and virulence factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Scott N; Benn, Rosslyn; Braisted, John C; Jarrahi, Behnam; Shatzkes, Kenneth; Ren, Dacheng; Wood, Thomas K; Blaser, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS), the regulation of bacterial gene expression in response to changes in cell density, involves pathways that synthesize signaling molecules (auto-inducers). The luxS/AI-2-mediated QS system has been identified in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, possesses genes involved in luxS/AI-2-mediated QS, and deletion of luxS in B. anthracis Sterne strain 34F2 results in inhibition of AI-2 synthesis and a growth defect. In the present study, we created a ΔluxS B. anthracis strain complemented in trans by insertion of a cassette, including luxS and a gene encoding erythromycin resistance, into the truncated plcR regulator locus. The complemented ΔluxS strain has restored AI-2 synthesis and wild-type growth. A B. anthracis microarray study revealed consistent differential gene expression between the wild-type and ΔluxS strain, including downregulation of the B. anthracis S-layer protein gene EA1 and pXO1 virulence genes. These data indicate that B. anthracis may use luxS/AI-2-mediated QS to regulate growth, density-dependent gene expression and virulence factor expression. PMID:21178420

  17. Growth of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in human plasma: impacts on virulence and metabolic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Marie-Laure; Chauvaux, Sylvie; Dessein, Rodrigue; Laurans, Caroline; Frangeul, Lionel; Lacroix, Céline; Schiavo, Angèle; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Foulon, Jeannine; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Médigue, Claudine; Carniel, Elisabeth; Simonet, Michel; Marceau, Michaël

    2008-01-01

    Background In man, infection by the Gram-negative enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is usually limited to the terminal ileum. However, in immunocompromised patients, the microorganism may disseminate from the digestive tract and thus cause a systemic infection with septicemia. Results To gain insight into the metabolic pathways and virulence factors expressed by the bacterium at the blood stage of pseudotuberculosis, we compared the overall gene transcription patterns (the transcriptome) of bacterial cells cultured in either human plasma or Luria-Bertani medium. The most marked plasma-triggered metabolic consequence in Y. pseudotuberculosis was the switch to high glucose consumption, which is reminiscent of the acetogenic pathway (known as "glucose overflow") in Escherichia coli. However, upregulation of the glyoxylate shunt enzymes suggests that (in contrast to E. coli) acetate may be further metabolized in Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our data also indicate that the bloodstream environment can regulate major virulence genes (positively or negatively); the yadA adhesin gene and most of the transcriptional units of the pYV-encoded type III secretion apparatus were found to be upregulated, whereas transcription of the pH6 antigen locus was strongly repressed. Conclusion Our results suggest that plasma growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis is responsible for major transcriptional regulatory events and prompts key metabolic reorientations within the bacterium, which may in turn have an impact on virulence. PMID:19055764

  18. Salmonella Modulates Metabolism During Growth under Conditions that Induce Expression of Virulence Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Mo; Schmidt, Brian; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Deatherage, Brooke L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Ansong, Charles; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-04-05

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a facultative pathogen that uses complex mechanisms to invade and proliferate within mammalian host cells. To investigate possible contributions of metabolic processes in S. Typhimurium grown under conditions known to induce expression of virulence genes, we used a metabolomics-driven systems biology approach coupled with genome scale modeling. First, we identified distinct metabolite profiles associated with bacteria grown in either rich or virulence-inducing media and report the most comprehensive coverage of the S. Typhimurium metabolome to date. Second, we applied an omics-informed genome scale modeling analysis of the functional consequences of adaptive alterations in S. Typhimurium metabolism during growth under our conditions. Excitingly, we observed possible sequestration of metabolites recently suggested to have immune modulating roles. Modeling efforts highlighted a decreased cellular capability to both produce and utilize intracellular amino acids during stationary phase culture in virulence conditions, despite significant abundance increases for these molecules as observed by our metabolomics measurements. Model-guided analysis suggested that alterations in metabolism prioritized other activities necessary for pathogenesis instead, such as lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

  19. Iron is a signal for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia biofilm formation, oxidative stress response, OMPs expression, and virulence

    PubMed Central

    García, Carlos A.; Alcaraz, Eliana S.; Franco, Mirta A.; Passerini de Rossi, Beatriz N.

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen. In many bacteria iron availability regulates, through the Fur system, not only iron homeostasis but also virulence. The aim of this work was to assess the role of iron on S. maltophilia biofilm formation, EPS production, oxidative stress response, OMPs regulation, quorum sensing (QS), and virulence. Studies were done on K279a and its isogenic fur mutant F60 cultured in the presence or absence of dipyridyl. This is the first report of spontaneous fur mutants obtained in S. maltophilia. F60 produced higher amounts of biofilms than K279a and CLSM analysis demonstrated improved adherence and biofilm organization. Under iron restricted conditions, K279a produced biofilms with more biomass and enhanced thickness. In addition, F60 produced higher amounts of EPS than K279a but with a similar composition, as revealed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. With respect to the oxidative stress response, MnSOD was the only SOD isoenzyme detected in K279a. F60 presented higher SOD activity than the wt strain in planktonic and biofilm cultures, and iron deprivation increased K279a SOD activity. Under iron starvation, SDS-PAGE profile from K279a presented two iron-repressed proteins. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed homology with FepA and another putative TonB-dependent siderophore receptor of K279a. In silico analysis allowed the detection of potential Fur boxes in the respective coding genes. K279a encodes the QS diffusible signal factor (DSF). Under iron restriction K279a produced higher amounts of DSF than under iron rich condition. Finally, F60 was more virulent than K279a in the Galleria mellonella killing assay. These results put in evidence that iron levels regulate, likely through the Fur system, S. maltophilia biofilm formation, oxidative stress response, OMPs expression, DSF production and virulence. PMID:26388863

  20. A Genome-Wide Screen Reveals that the Vibrio cholerae Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphotransferase System Modulates Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Yves A.; Chao, Michael C.; Sasabe, Jumpei; Davis, Brigid M.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental stimuli and a complex network of regulatory factors are known to modulate expression of Vibrio cholerae's principal virulence factors. However, there is relatively little known about how metabolic factors impinge upon the pathogen's well-characterized cascade of transcription factors that induce expression of cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Here, we used a transposon insertion site (TIS) sequencing-based strategy to identify new factors required for expression of tcpA, which encodes the major subunit of TCP, the organism's chief intestinal colonization factor. Besides identifying most of the genes known to modulate tcpA expression, the screen yielded ptsI and ptsH, which encode the enzyme I (EI) and Hpr components of the V. cholerae phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS). In addition to reduced expression of TcpA, strains lacking EI, Hpr, or the associated EIIAGlc protein produced less cholera toxin (CT) and had a diminished capacity to colonize the infant mouse intestine. The PTS modulates virulence gene expression by regulating expression of tcpPH and aphAB, which themselves control expression of toxT, the central activator of virulence gene expression. One mechanism by which PTS promotes virulence gene expression appears to be by modulating the amounts of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). Our findings reveal that the V. cholerae PTS is an additional modulator of the ToxT regulon and demonstrate the potency of loss-of-function TIS sequencing screens for defining regulatory networks. PMID:26056384

  1. Transcriptional regulation of bacterial virulence gene expression by molecular oxygen and nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jeffrey; Rolfe, Matthew D; Smith, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) and nitric oxide (NO) are diatomic gases that play major roles in infection. The host innate immune system generates reactive oxygen species and NO as bacteriocidal agents and both require O2 for their production. Furthermore, the ability to adapt to changes in O2 availability is crucial for many bacterial pathogens, as many niches within a host are hypoxic. Pathogenic bacteria have evolved transcriptional regulatory systems that perceive these gases and respond by reprogramming gene expression. Direct sensors possess iron-containing co-factors (iron–sulfur clusters, mononuclear iron, heme) or reactive cysteine thiols that react with O2 and/or NO. Indirect sensors perceive the physiological effects of O2 starvation. Thus, O2 and NO act as environmental cues that trigger the coordinated expression of virulence genes and metabolic adaptations necessary for survival within a host. Here, the mechanisms of signal perception by key O2- and NO-responsive bacterial transcription factors and the effects on virulence gene expression are reviewed, followed by consideration of these aspects of gene regulation in two major pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25603427

  2. Sub-lethal stress effects on virulence gene expression in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Christian A; Hew Ferstl, Carrie M; Vogel, Rudi F

    2010-05-01

    Enterococci are ubiquitous lactic acid bacteria commonly associated with the human digestive tract as commensal organisms. Additionally, these organisms have a long history of use in foods improving flavor as well as providing protective mechanisms as either a probiotic or antimicrobial additive. However, Enterococcus faecalis accounts for up to 10% of all nosocomial infections of the bloodstream, wounds, urinary tract and heart. Knowledge about the regulation of virulence factors is limited and the involvement of environmental signals contributing to E. faecalis pathogenicity is poorly documented. In this study, two clinical E. faecalis isolates, TMW 2.63 and OG1RF, as well as one food isolate, TMW 2.629, were subjected to six sub-lethal food- and host-related stresses including 6.8% NaCl, 200 ppm nitrite, 51 degrees C, 80 MPa, pH 4.1 and 0.08% bile salts (cholic acid:chenodeoxycholic acid 1:1), respectively, reducing their growth rate to 10%. Relative gene expression of 15 stress and virulence-associated genes including dnaK, groEL, ctsR, clpPBCEX, gls24, efaAfs, ace, fsrB, gelE, sprE and cylB, was quantified by using real time PCR and Lightcycler((R)) technology (reference conditions: BHI broth, 37 degrees C, pH = 7.4). Apart from strain-dependent differences, sub-lethal environmental stress was capable of provoking significant alterations in the expression of virulence-associated genes in E. faecalis from clinical as well as food origins of isolation. These results help to avoid preconditioning enterococci in food production processes and to understand the complex mechanisms in E. faecalis' switch to pathogenicity. PMID:20227595

  3. Current European Labyrinthula zosterae are not virulent and modulate seagrass (Zostera marina) defense gene expression.

    PubMed

    Brakel, Janina; Werner, Franziska Julie; Tams, Verena; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina

    2014-01-01

    Pro- and eukaryotic microbes associated with multi-cellular organisms are receiving increasing attention as a driving factor in ecosystems. Endophytes in plants can change host performance by altering nutrient uptake, secondary metabolite production or defense mechanisms. Recent studies detected widespread prevalence of Labyrinthula zosterae in European Zostera marina meadows, a protist that allegedly caused a massive amphi-Atlantic seagrass die-off event in the 1930's, while showing only limited virulence today. As a limiting factor for pathogenicity, we investigated genotype × genotype interactions of host and pathogen from different regions (10-100 km-scale) through reciprocal infection. Although the endophyte rapidly infected Z. marina, we found little evidence that Z. marina was negatively impacted by L. zosterae. Instead Z. marina showed enhanced leaf growth and kept endophyte abundance low. Moreover, we found almost no interaction of protist × eelgrass-origin on different parameters of L. zosterae virulence/Z. marina performance, and also no increase in mortality after experimental infection. In a target gene approach, we identified a significant down-regulation in the expression of 6/11 genes from the defense cascade of Z. marina after real-time quantitative PCR, revealing strong immune modulation of the host's defense by a potential parasite for the first time in a marine plant. Nevertheless, one gene involved in phenol synthesis was strongly up-regulated, indicating that Z. marina plants were probably able to control the level of infection. There was no change in expression in a general stress indicator gene (HSP70). Mean L. zosterae abundances decreased below 10% after 16 days of experimental runtime. We conclude that under non-stress conditions L. zosterae infection in the study region is not associated with substantial virulence. PMID:24691450

  4. Growth of Acinetobacter baumannii in Pellicle Enhanced the Expression of Potential Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Stéphane; Coquet, Laurent; Vila, Jordi; Jouenne, Thierry; Dé, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Background Interestingly, Acinetobacter baumannii presents an enhanced capacity to form biofilms (also named pellicles) at the air-liquid interface as compared to the other Acinetobacter species. This characteristic questions the contribution of this phenotype to an increased risk of clinical infections by this pathogen. Methodology/Principal Findings By a proteomic approach using 2-D gel electrophoresis-LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry, we compared the membrane protein patterns of A. baumannii 77, a pellicle-forming clinical isolate, grown in planktonic and in sessile modes. We identified 52 proteins with a differential expression, including 32 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated in the pellicle state. Several proteins, differentially expressed during pellicle development, were of particular interest. We determined the over-expression of four siderophore iron uptake systems including the acinetobactin and enterobactin receptors and confirmed that the development of this type of biofilm is promoted by ferric ions. Two over-expressed proteins, CarO and an OprD-homologue, putative carbapenem-resistance associated porins, would be involved in the transport of specific compounds, like ornithine, a biosynthesis precursor of a siderophore from the hydroxamate family. We evidenced the overexpression of a lipase and a transporter of LCFA that may be involved in the recycling of lipids inside the pellicle matrix. Finally, we demonstrated both by proteomic and by AFM studies that this particular type of biofilm required multiple pili systems to maintain this cohesive structure at the air-liquid interface; two of these systems have never been described in A. baumannii. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrated that several proteins, overexpressed at a late state of pellicle development, could be potentially involved in virulence processes. Therefore, regarding the number of potential virulence factors that are over-expressed in this growth mode, the pellicle-forming clinical

  5. Loss of σI affects heat-shock response and virulence gene expression in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jenny Gi Yae; Wilson, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    The pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis depends on several virulence factors, including the anthrax toxin. Loss of the alternative sigma factor σI results in a coordinate decrease in expression of all three toxin subunits. Our observations suggest that loss of σI alters the activity of the master virulence regulator AtxA, but atxA transcription is unaffected by loss of σI. σI-containing RNA polymerase does not appear to directly transcribe either atxA or the toxin gene pagA. As in Bacillus subtilis, loss of σI in B. anthracis results in increased sensitivity to heat shock and transcription of sigI, encoding σI, is induced by elevated temperature. Encoded immediately downstream of and part of a bicistronic message with sigI is an anti-sigma factor, RsgI, which controls σI activity. Loss of RsgI has no direct effect on virulence gene expression. sigI appears to be expressed from both the σI and σA promoters, and transcription from the σA promoter is likely more significant to virulence regulation. We propose a model in which σI can be induced in response to heat shock, whilst, independently, σI is produced under non-heat-shock, toxin-inducing conditions to indirectly regulate virulence gene expression. PMID:26744224

  6. Reciprocal interaction between dental alloy biocorrosion and Streptococcus mutans virulent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songmei; Qiu, Jing; Ren, Yanfang; Yu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Fuqiang; Liu, Xiuxin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of dental alloys is a major concern in dental restorations. Streptococcus mutans reduces the pH in oral cavity and induces demineralization of the enamel as well as corrosion of restorative dental materials. The rough surfaces of dental alloys induced by corrosion enhance the subsequent accumulation of plaque. In this study, the corrosion process of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in a nutrient-rich medium containing S. mutans was studied using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical corrosion test. Our results showed that the release of Ni and Co ions increased, particularly after incubation for 3 days. The electrochemical corrosion results showed a significant decrease in the corrosion resistance (Rp) value after the alloys were immersed in the media containing S. mutans for 3 days. Correspondingly, XPS revealed a reduction in the relative dominance of Ni, Co, and Cr in the surface oxides after the alloys were immersed in the S. mutans culture. After removal of the biofilm, the pre-corroded alloys were re-incubated in S. mutans medium, and the expressions of genes associated with the adhesion and acidogenesis of S. mutans, including gtfBCD, gbpB, fif and ldh, were evaluated by detecting the mRNA levels using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the gtfBCD, gbpB, ftf and Idh expression of S. mutans were noticeably increased after incubation with pre-corroded alloys for 24 h. This study demonstrated that S. mutans enhanced the corrosion behavior of the dental alloys, on the other hand, the presence of corroded alloy surfaces up-regulated the virulent gene expression in S. mutans. Compared with smooth surfaces, the rough corroded surfaces of dental alloys accelerated the bacteria-adhesion and corrosion process by changing the virulence gene expression of S. mutans. PMID:26896953

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Different Expression Patterns in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains with Putative Virulence-Relevant Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Du, Zhenglin; Huang, Liyu; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight, which is a major rice disease in tropical Asian countries. An attempt has been made to investigate gene expression patterns of three Xoo strains on the minimal medium XOM2, PXO99 (P6) and PXO86 (P2) from the Philippines, and GD1358 (C5) from China, which exhibited different virulence in 30 rice varieties, with putative virulence factors using deep sequencing. In total, 4,781 transcripts were identified in this study, and 1,151 and 3,076 genes were differentially expressed when P6 was compared with P2 and with C5, respectively. Our results indicated that Xoo strains from different regions exhibited distinctly different expression patterns of putative virulence-relevant genes. Interestingly, 40 and 44 genes involved in chemotaxis and motility exhibited higher transcript alterations in C5 compared with P6 and P2, respectively. Most other genes associated with virulence, including exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, Hrp genes and type III effectors, including Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) effectors and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, were down-regulated in C5 compared with P6 and P2. The data were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, tests of bacterial motility, and enzyme activity analysis of EPS and xylanase. These results highlight the complexity of Xoo and offer new avenues for improving our understanding of Xoo-rice interactions and the evolution of Xoo virulence. PMID:23734193

  8. Inactivation of thyA in Staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence and has a strong impact on metabolism and virulence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Andre; Block, Desiree; Drescher, Mike; Windmüller, Nadine; Mellmann, Alexander; Baum, Cathrin; Neumann, Claudia; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Liebau, Eva; Hertel, Patrick; Seggewiss, Jochen; Becker, Karsten; Proctor, Richard A; Peters, Georg; Kahl, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) are frequently isolated from patients with chronic S. aureus infections after long-term treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). While it has been shown that TD-SCVs were associated with mutations in thymidylate synthase (TS; thyA), the impact of such mutations on protein function is lacking. In this study, we showed that mutations in thyA were leading to inactivity of TS proteins, and TS inactivity led to tremendous impact on S. aureus physiology and virulence. Whole DNA microarray analysis of the constructed ΔthyA mutant identified severe alterations compared to the wild type. Important virulence regulators (agr, arlRS, sarA) and major virulence determinants (hla, hlb, sspAB, and geh) were downregulated, while genes important for colonization (fnbA, fnbB, spa, clfB, sdrC, and sdrD) were upregulated. The expression of genes involved in pyrimidine and purine metabolism and nucleotide interconversion changed significantly. NupC was identified as a major nucleoside transporter, which supported growth of the mutant during TMP-SMX exposure by uptake of extracellular thymidine. The ΔthyA mutant was strongly attenuated in virulence models, including a Caenorhabditis elegans killing model and an acute pneumonia mouse model. This study identified inactivation of TS as the molecular basis of clinical TD-SCV and showed that thyA activity has a major role for S. aureus virulence and physiology. Importance: Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus carry mutations in the thymidylate synthase (TS) gene (thyA) responsible for de novo synthesis of thymidylate, which is essential for DNA synthesis. TD-SCVs have been isolated from patients treated for long periods with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and are associated with chronic and recurrent infections. In the era of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus, the therapeutic use of TMP

  9. Virulent Shigella flexneri subverts the host innate immune response through manipulation of antimicrobial peptide gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Brice; Regnault, Béatrice; Guo, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhi; Stanley, Samuel L.; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Pédron, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial factors are efficient defense components of the innate immunity, playing a crucial role in the intestinal homeostasis and protection against pathogens. In this study, we report that upon infection of polarized human intestinal cells in vitro, virulent Shigella flexneri suppress transcription of several genes encoding antimicrobial cationic peptides, particularly the human β-defensin hBD-3, which we show to be especially active against S. flexneri. This is an example of targeted survival strategy. We also identify the MxiE bacterial regulator, which controls a regulon encompassing a set of virulence plasmid-encoded effectors injected into host cells and regulating innate signaling, as being responsible for this dedicated regulatory process. In vivo, in a model of human intestinal xenotransplant, we confirm at the transcriptional and translational level, the presence of a dedicated MxiE-dependent system allowing S. flexneri to suppress expression of antimicrobial cationic peptides and promoting its deeper progression toward intestinal crypts. We demonstrate that this system is also able to down-regulate additional innate immunity genes, such as the chemokine CCL20 gene, leading to compromised recruitment of dendritic cells to the lamina propria of infected tissues. Thus, S. flexneri has developed a dedicated strategy to weaken the innate immunity to manage its survival and colonization ability in the intestine. PMID:18426984

  10. Leucine metabolism regulates TRI6 expression and affects deoxynivalenol production and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Narayanan, Swara; Walkowiak, Sean; Wang, Li; Joshi, Manisha; Rocheleau, Hélène; Ouellet, Thérèse; Harris, Linda J

    2015-11-01

    TRI6 is a positive regulator of the trichothecene gene cluster and the production of trichothecene mycotoxins [deoxynivalenol (DON)] and acetylated forms such as 15-Acetyl-DON) in the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. As a global transcriptional regulator, TRI6 expression is modulated by nitrogen-limiting conditions, sources of nitrogen and carbon, pH and light. However, the mechanism by which these diverse environmental factors affect TRI6 expression remains underexplored. In our effort to understand how nutrients affect TRI6 regulation, comparative digital expression profiling was performed with a wild-type F. graminearum and a Δtri6 mutant strain, grown in nutrient-rich conditions. Analysis showed that TRI6 negatively regulates genes of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolic pathway. Feeding studies with deletion mutants of MCC, encoding methylcrotonyl-CoA-carboxylase, one of the key enzymes of leucine metabolism, showed that addition of leucine specifically down-regulated TRI6 expression and reduced 15-ADON accumulation. Constitutive expression of TRI6 in the Δmcc mutant strain restored 15-ADON production. A combination of cellophane breach assays and pathogenicity experiments on wheat demonstrated that disrupting the leucine metabolic pathway significantly reduced disease. These findings suggest a complex interaction between one of the primary metabolic pathways with a global regulator of mycotoxin biosynthesis and virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:26248604

  11. Growth-Phase-Dependent Expression of Virulence Factors in an M1T1 Clinical Isolate of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, Meera; Cohen, Jonathan; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    1999-01-01

    The effect of growth phase on expression of virulence-associated factors was studied by Northern hybridization in an M1T1 clinical isolate of Streptococcus pyogenes. Expression of M protein, C5a peptidase, and capsule was maximal in the exponential phase of growth, while streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins A and B and mitogenic factor were maximally expressed in later phases of growth. PMID:10496938

  12. Growth-phase-dependent expression of virulence factors in an M1T1 clinical isolate of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, M; Cohen, J; Sriskandan, S

    1999-10-01

    The effect of growth phase on expression of virulence-associated factors was studied by Northern hybridization in an M1T1 clinical isolate of Streptococcus pyogenes. Expression of M protein, C5a peptidase, and capsule was maximal in the exponential phase of growth, while streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins A and B and mitogenic factor were maximally expressed in later phases of growth. PMID:10496938

  13. Differential Virulence Gene Expression of Group A Streptococcus Serotype M3 in Response to Co-Culture with Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Flores, Anthony R.; van Belkum, Alex; Musser, James M.; Hays, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and Moraxella catarrhalis are important colonizers and (opportunistic) pathogens of the human respiratory tract. However, current knowledge regarding colonization and pathogenic potential of these two pathogens is based on work involving single bacterial species, even though the interplay between respiratory bacterial species is increasingly important in niche occupation and the development of disease. Therefore, to further define and understand polymicrobial species interactions, we investigated whether gene expression (and hence virulence potential) of GAS would be affected upon co-culture with M. catarrhalis. For co-culture experiments, GAS and M. catarrhalis were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract (THY) at 37°C with 5% CO2 aeration. Each strain was grown in triplicate so that triplicate experiments could be performed. Bacterial RNA was isolated, cDNA synthesized, and microarray transcriptome expression analysis performed. We observed significantly increased (≥4-fold) expression for genes playing a role in GAS virulence such as hyaluronan synthase (hasA), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (smeZ) and IgG endopeptidase (ideS). In contrast, significantly decreased (≥4-fold) expression was observed in genes involved in energy metabolism and in 12 conserved GAS two-component regulatory systems. This study provides the first evidence that M. catarrhalis increases GAS virulence gene expression during co-culture, and again shows the importance of polymicrobial infections in directing bacterial virulence. PMID:23626831

  14. Space flight alters bacterial gene expression and virulence and reveals a role for global regulator Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zu Bentrup, K. Höner; Ramamurthy, R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClelland, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumars, P.; Norwood, K.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.; Goulart, C.; Rupert, M.; Stodieck, L.; Stafford, P.; Catella, L.; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; McCracken, J.; Allen, P.; Baker-Coleman, C.; Hammond, T.; Vogel, J.; Nelson, R.; Pierson, D. L.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, H. M.; Nickerson, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the space flight environment has never been accomplished because of significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of space flight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared with identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed that 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground-based microgravity culture model. Space flight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during space flight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth. PMID:17901201

  15. Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumaras, P.; Norwood, K.; Nickerson, C. A.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

  16. Real-Time Characterization of Virulence Factor Expression in Yersinia pestis Using a Green Fluorescent Protein Reporter System

    SciTech Connect

    Forde, C; Rocco, J; Fitch, J P; McCutchen-Maloney, S

    2004-06-09

    A real-time reporter system was developed to monitor the thermal induction of virulence factors in Yersinia pestis. The reporter system consists of a plasmid in Y. pestis in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is under the control of the promoters for six virulence factors, yopE, sycE, yopK, yopT, yscN, and lcrE/yopN, which are all components of the Type III secretion virulence mechanism of Y. pestis. Induction of the expression of these genes in vivo was determined by the increase in fluorescence intensity of GFP in real time. Basal expression levels observed for the Y. pestis promoters, expressed as percentages of the positive control with GFP under the control of the lac promoter, were: yopE (15%), sycE (15%), yopK (13%), yopT (4%), lcrE (3.3%) and yscN (0.8%). The yopE reporter showed the strongest gene induction following temperature transition from 26 C to 37 C. The induction levels of the other virulence factors, expressed as percentages of yopE induction, were: yopK (57%), sycE (9%), yscN (3%), lcrE (3%), and yopT (2%). The thermal induction of each of these promoter fusions was repressed by calcium, and the ratios of the initial rates of thermal induction without calcium supplementation compared to the rate with calcium supplementation were: yopE (11 fold), yscN (7 fold), yopK (6 fold), lcrE (3 fold), yopT (2 fold), and sycE (2 fold). This work demonstrates a novel approach to quantify gene induction and provides a method to rapidly determine the effects of external stimuli on expression of Y. pestis virulence factors in real time, in living cells.

  17. Effect of modified atmosphere on persistence and virulence expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Packaged fresh-cut lettuce contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 has caused several outbreaks of infections. The influence of packaging and storage temperature may affect the persistence and expression of virulence factors of the pathogen, affecting the ability of the pathogen to...

  18. Identification of over-expressed genes in modified live vaccine strain of Edwardsiella ictaluri compared to virulent strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 41 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated from a modified live vaccine strain (AQUAVAC-ESC, formerly RE-33) vs a virulent parent strain (EILO) of Edwardsiella ictaluri. Transcriptional levels of the 41 ESTs in the vaccine strain and th...

  19. Iron concentration limits growth rate and the expression of virulence factors in hrp-inducing minimal medium with Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although chemically-defined media have been developed and widely used to study the expression of virulence factors in the model plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, it has been difficult to link specific medium components to the induction response. Using a chemostat system, we found that iron is th...

  20. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) Regulator Cib1 Controls Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Martin; Jakobi, Mareike; Schmitz, Lara; Meyer, Ute; Finkernagel, Florian; Doehlemann, Gunther; Heimel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway to ensure protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), coordinates biotrophic development in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Exact timing of UPR activation is required for virulence and presumably connected to the elevated expression of secreted effector proteins during infection of the host plant Zea mays. In the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of UPR target genes is induced upon binding of the central regulator Hac1 to unfolded protein response elements (UPREs) in their promoters. While a role of the UPR in effector secretion has been described previously, we investigated a potential UPR-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted effector proteins. In silico prediction of UPREs in promoter regions identified the previously characterized effector genes pit2 and tin1-1, as bona fide UPR target genes. Furthermore, direct binding of the Hac1-homolog Cib1 to the UPRE containing promoter fragments of both genes was confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP) analysis. Targeted deletion of the UPRE abolished Cib1-dependent expression of pit2 and significantly affected virulence. Furthermore, ER stress strongly increased Pit2 expression and secretion. This study expands the role of the UPR as a signal hub in fungal virulence and illustrates, how biotrophic fungi can coordinate cellular physiology, development and regulation of secreted virulence factors. PMID:27093436

  1. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) Regulator Cib1 Controls Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Martin; Jakobi, Mareike; Schmitz, Lara; Meyer, Ute; Finkernagel, Florian; Doehlemann, Gunther; Heimel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway to ensure protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), coordinates biotrophic development in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Exact timing of UPR activation is required for virulence and presumably connected to the elevated expression of secreted effector proteins during infection of the host plant Zea mays. In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of UPR target genes is induced upon binding of the central regulator Hac1 to unfolded protein response elements (UPREs) in their promoters. While a role of the UPR in effector secretion has been described previously, we investigated a potential UPR-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted effector proteins. In silico prediction of UPREs in promoter regions identified the previously characterized effector genes pit2 and tin1-1, as bona fide UPR target genes. Furthermore, direct binding of the Hac1-homolog Cib1 to the UPRE containing promoter fragments of both genes was confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP) analysis. Targeted deletion of the UPRE abolished Cib1-dependent expression of pit2 and significantly affected virulence. Furthermore, ER stress strongly increased Pit2 expression and secretion. This study expands the role of the UPR as a signal hub in fungal virulence and illustrates, how biotrophic fungi can coordinate cellular physiology, development and regulation of secreted virulence factors. PMID:27093436

  2. The SloR/Dlg Metalloregulator Modulates Streptococcus mutans Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rolerson, Elizabeth; Swick, Adam; Newlon, Lindsay; Palmer, Cameron; Pan, Yong; Keeshan, Britton; Spatafora, Grace

    2006-01-01

    Metal ion availability in the human oral cavity plays a putative role in Streptococcus mutans virulence gene expression and in appropriate formation of the plaque biofilm. In this report, we present evidence that supports such a role for the DtxR-like SloR metalloregulator (called Dlg in our previous publications) in this oral pathogen. Specifically, the results of gel mobility shift assays revealed the sloABC, sloR, comDE, ropA, sod, and spaP promoters as targets of SloR binding. We confirmed differential expression of these genes in a GMS584 SloR-deficient mutant versus the UA159 wild-type progenitor by real-time semiquantitative reverse transcriptase PCR experiments. The results of additional expression studies support a role for SloR in S. mutans control of glucosyltransferases, glucan binding proteins, and genes relevant to antibiotic resistance. Phenotypic analysis of GMS584 revealed that it forms aberrant biofilms on an abiotic surface, is compromised for genetic competence, and demonstrates heightened incorporation of iron and manganese as well as resistance to oxidative stress compared to the wild type. Taken together, these findings support a role for SloR in S. mutans adherence, biofilm formation, genetic competence, metal ion homeostasis, oxidative stress tolerance, and antibiotic gene regulation, all of which contribute to S. mutans-induced disease. PMID:16816176

  3. The SloR/Dlg metalloregulator modulates Streptococcus mutans virulence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rolerson, Elizabeth; Swick, Adam; Newlon, Lindsay; Palmer, Cameron; Pan, Yong; Keeshan, Britton; Spatafora, Grace

    2006-07-01

    Metal ion availability in the human oral cavity plays a putative role in Streptococcus mutans virulence gene expression and in appropriate formation of the plaque biofilm. In this report, we present evidence that supports such a role for the DtxR-like SloR metalloregulator (called Dlg in our previous publications) in this oral pathogen. Specifically, the results of gel mobility shift assays revealed the sloABC, sloR, comDE, ropA, sod, and spaP promoters as targets of SloR binding. We confirmed differential expression of these genes in a GMS584 SloR-deficient mutant versus the UA159 wild-type progenitor by real-time semiquantitative reverse transcriptase PCR experiments. The results of additional expression studies support a role for SloR in S. mutans control of glucosyltransferases, glucan binding proteins, and genes relevant to antibiotic resistance. Phenotypic analysis of GMS584 revealed that it forms aberrant biofilms on an abiotic surface, is compromised for genetic competence, and demonstrates heightened incorporation of iron and manganese as well as resistance to oxidative stress compared to the wild type. Taken together, these findings support a role for SloR in S. mutans adherence, biofilm formation, genetic competence, metal ion homeostasis, oxidative stress tolerance, and antibiotic gene regulation, all of which contribute to S. mutans-induced disease. PMID:16816176

  4. Canine Distemper Viruses Expressing a Hemagglutinin without N-Glycans Lose Virulence but Retain Immunosuppression▿

    PubMed Central

    Sawatsky, Bevan; von Messling, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    Paramyxovirus glycoproteins are posttranslationally modified by the addition of N-linked glycans, which are often necessary for correct folding, processing, and cell surface expression. To establish the contribution of N glycosylation to morbillivirus attachment (H) protein function and overall virulence, we first determined the use of the potential N-glycosylation sites in the canine distemper virus (CDV) H proteins. Biochemical characterization revealed that the three sites conserved in all strains were N glycosylated, whereas only two of the up to five additional sites present in wild-type strains are used. A wild-type virus with an H protein reproducing the vaccine strain N-glycosylation pattern remained lethal in ferrets but with a prolonged course of disease. In contrast, introduction of the vaccine H protein in the wild-type context resulted in complete attenuation. To further characterize the role of N glycosylation in CDV pathogenesis, the N-glycosylation sites of wild-type H proteins were successively deleted, including a nonstandard site, to ultimately generate a nonglycosylated H protein. Despite reduced expression levels, this protein remained fully functional. Recombinant viruses expressing N-glycan-deficient H proteins no longer caused disease, even though their immunosuppressive capacities were retained, indicating that reduced N glycosylation contributes to attenuation without affecting immunosuppression. PMID:20042514

  5. A spectrum of CodY activities drives metabolic reorganization and virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Waters, Nicholas R; Samuels, David J; Behera, Ranjan K; Livny, Jonathan; Rhee, Kyu Y; Sadykov, Marat R; Brinsmade, Shaun R

    2016-08-01

    The global regulator CodY controls the expression of dozens of metabolism and virulence genes in the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in response to the availability of isoleucine, leucine and valine (ILV), and GTP. Using RNA-Seq transcriptional profiling and partial activity variants, we reveal that S. aureus CodY activity grades metabolic and virulence gene expression as a function of ILV availability, mediating metabolic reorganization and controlling virulence factor production in vitro. Strains lacking CodY regulatory activity produce a PIA-dependent biofilm, but development is restricted under conditions that confer partial CodY activity. CodY regulates the expression of thermonuclease (nuc) via the Sae two-component system, revealing cascading virulence regulation and factor production as CodY activity is reduced. Proteins that mediate the host-pathogen interaction and subvert the immune response are shut off at intermediate levels of CodY activity, while genes coding for enzymes and proteins that extract nutrients from tissue, that kill host cells, and that synthesize amino acids are among the last genes to be derepressed. We conclude that S. aureus uses CodY to limit host damage to only the most severe starvation conditions, providing insight into one potential mechanism by which S. aureus transitions from a commensal bacterium to an invasive pathogen. PMID:27116338

  6. The effect of γ radiation on the expression of the virulence genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo; Kim, Dongho

    2007-11-01

    The principle benefit of food irradiation is the reduction of food-borne bacteria in food products. However, the microbiological safety with respect to increased virulence of surviving pathogens after irradiation remains an important issue with regard to the effectiveness of food irradiation. In this study, the transcriptional changes of virulence genes of Salmonella and Vibrio spp. after γ radiation were investigated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Samonella typhimurium is dependent upon the products of a large number of genes located within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI) on the chromosome. The expressions of seven genes including four SPI genes, hilD, ssrB, pipB, and sopD, were measured at 1 h after 1 kGy irradiation. Compared with non-irradiated controls, the expression of hilD encoded within SPI1 and sopD encoding SPI1-related effector proteins was reduced about 4- and 16-fold, respectively. The expressions of Vibrio toxin genes, vvhA, ctxA, and tdh, were also monitored during the course of a growth cycle after re-inoculation of irradiated Vibrio spp. (0.5 and 1.0 kGy). The expressions of Vibrio toxin genes tested did not increase compared with non-irradiated counterparts. Results from this study indicate that γ radiation is much more likely to reduce the virulence gene expression of surviving pathogens.

  7. Intercellular and intracellular signalling systems that globally control the expression of virulence genes in plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jong Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria utilize complex signalling systems to control the expression of virulence genes at the cellular level and within populations. Quorum sensing (QS), an important intercellular communication mechanism, is mediated by different types of small molecules, including N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), fatty acids and small proteins. AHL-mediated signalling systems dependent on the LuxI and LuxR family proteins play critical roles in the virulence of a wide range of Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Xanthomonas spp. and Xylella fastidiosa, members of the Gammaproteobacteria, however, possess QS systems that are mediated by fatty acid-type diffusible signal factors (DSFs). Recent studies have demonstrated that Ax21, a 194-amino-acid protein in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, plays dual functions in activating a rice innate immune pathway through binding to the rice XA21 pattern recognition receptor and in regulating bacterial virulence and biofilm formation as a QS signal molecule. In xanthomonads, DSF-mediated QS systems are connected with the signalling pathways mediated by cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), which functions as a second messenger for the control of virulence gene expression in these bacterial pathogens. PMID:23186372

  8. Pallial mucus of the oyster Crassostrea virginica regulates the expression of putative virulence genes of its pathogen Perkinsus marinus.

    PubMed

    Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Corre, Erwan; Allam, Bassem

    2014-04-01

    Perkinsus marinus is a pathogen responsible for severe mortalities of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica along the East and Gulf coasts of the United States. When cultivated, the pathogenicity of this microorganism decreases significantly, hampering the study of its virulence factors. Recent investigations have shown a significant increase of the in vivo virulence of P. marinus exposed to oyster pallial mucus. In the current study, we investigated the effect of pallial mucus on P. marinus gene expression compared with cultures supplemented with oyster digestive extracts or with un-supplemented cultures. In parallel, parasite cells cultured under these three conditions were used to challenge oysters and to assess virulence in vivo. Perkinsus marinus mRNA sequencing was performed on an Illumina GAIIX sequencer and data were analysed using the Tuxedo RNAseq suite for mapping against the draft P. marinus genome and for differential expression analysis. Results showed that exposure of P. marinus to mucus induces significant regulation of nearly 3,600 transcripts, many of which are considered as putative virulence factors. Pallial mucus is suspected to mimic internal host conditions, thereby preparing the pathogen to overcome defense factors before invasion. This hypothesis is supported by significant regulation in several antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins, protease inhibitors and proteasome subunits. In addition, mucus exposure induced the modulation of several genes known to affect immunity and apoptosis in vertebrates and invertebrates. Several proteases (proteolysis) and merozoite surface proteins (cell recognition) were also modulated. Overall, these results provide a baseline for targeted, in depth analysis of candidate virulence factors in P. marinus. PMID:24560916

  9. Effects of the ERES pathogenicity region regulator Ralp3 on Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M49 virulence factor expression.

    PubMed

    Siemens, Nikolai; Fiedler, Tomas; Normann, Jana; Klein, Johannes; Münch, Richard; Patenge, Nadja; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2012-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is a highly virulent Gram-positive bacterium. For successful infection, GAS expresses many virulence factors, which are clustered together with transcriptional regulators in distinct genomic regions. Ralp3 is a central regulator of the ERES region. In this study, we investigated the role of Ralp3 in GAS M49 pathogenesis. The inactivation of Ralp3 resulted in reduced attachment to and internalization into human keratinocytes. The Δralp3 mutant failed to survive in human blood and serum, and the hyaluronic acid capsule was slightly decreased. In addition, the mutant showed a lower binding capacity to human plasminogen, and the SpeB activity was significantly decreased. Complementation of the Δralp3 mutant restored the wild-type phenotype. The transcriptome and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the serotype M49 GAS strain and its isogenic Δralp3 mutant identified 16 genes as upregulated, and 43 genes were found to be downregulated. Among the downregulated genes, there were open reading frames encoding proteins involved in metabolism (e.g., both lac operons and the fru operon), genes encoding lantibiotics (e.g., the putative salivaricin operon), and ORFs encoding virulence factors (such as the whole Mga core regulon and further genes under Mga control). In summary, the ERES region regulator Ralp3 is an important serotype-specific transcriptional regulator for virulence and metabolic control. PMID:22544273

  10. Regulated expression of the Leishmania major surface virulence factor lipophosphoglycan using conditionally destabilized fusion proteins

    PubMed Central

    Madeira da Silva, Luciana; Owens, Katherine L.; Murta, Silvane M. F.; Beverley, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Surface glycoconjugates play important roles in the infectious cycle of Leishmania major, including the abundant lipophosphoglycan (LPG) implicated in parasite survival in the sand fly vector and the initial stages of establishment in the mammalian host macrophage. We describe a system for inducible expression of LPG, applying a novel protein-based system that allows controlled degradation of a key LPG biosynthetic enzyme, UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM). This methodology relies on a mutated FK506-binding protein (FKBP) destabilizing domain (dd) fused to the protein of interest; in the absence of rapamycin analogs, such as Shld1, the dd domain is destabilized, leading to proteasomal degradation, whereas drug treatment confers stabilization. Tests in L. major using dd fusions to a panel of reporters and cellular proteins confirmed its functionality, with a high degree of regulation and low background, and we established the kinetics of protein activation and/or loss. Two inexpensive and widely available ligands, FK506 and rapamycin, functioned similarly to Shld1, without effect on Leishmania growth or differentiation. We generated parasites lacking UGM through deletion of the GLF gene and substitution with a ddGLF fusion construct, either as chromosomal knockins or through episomal complementation; these showed little or no LPG expression in the absence of inducer, whereas in its presence, high levels of LPG were attained rapidly. Complement lysis tests confirmed the correct integrity of the Leishmania LPG coat. These data suggest that the dd approach has great promise in the study of LPG and other pathways relevant to parasite survival and virulence. PMID:19383793

  11. Exposure to Synthetic Gray Water Inhibits Amoeba Encystation and Alters Expression of Legionella pneumophila Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrang; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Water conservation efforts have focused on gray water (GW) usage, especially for applications that do not require potable water quality. However, there is a need to better understand environmental pathogens and their free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts within GW, given their growth potential in stored gray water. Using synthetic gray water (sGW) we examined three strains of the water-based pathogen Legionella pneumophila and its FLA hosts Acanthamoeba polyphaga, A. castellanii, and Vermamoeba vermiformis. Exposure to sGW for 72 h resulted in significant inhibition (P < 0.0001) of amoebal encystation versus control-treated cells, with the following percentages of cysts in sGW versus controls: A. polyphaga (0.6 versus 6%), A. castellanii (2 versus 62%), and V. vermiformis (1 versus 92%), suggesting sGW induced maintenance of the actively feeding trophozoite form. During sGW exposure, L. pneumophila culturability decreased as early as 5 h (1.3 to 2.9 log10 CFU, P < 0.001) compared to controls (Δ0 to 0.1 log10 CFU) with flow cytometric analysis revealing immediate changes in membrane permeability. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was performed on total RNA isolated from L. pneumophila cells at 0 to 48 h after sGW incubation, and genes associated with virulence (gacA, lirR, csrA, pla, and sidF), the type IV secretion system (lvrB and lvrE), and metabolism (ccmF and lolA) were all shown to be differentially expressed. These results suggest that conditions within GW may promote interactions between water-based pathogens and FLA hosts, through amoebal encystment inhibition and alteration of bacterial gene expression, thus warranting further exploration into FLA and L. pneumophila behavior in GW systems. PMID:25381242

  12. Expression of rabbit IL-4 by recombinant myxoma viruses enhances virulence and overcomes genetic resistance to myxomatosis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, P J; Perkins, H D; Inglis, B; Stagg, R; McLaughlin, E; Collins, S V; Van Leeuwen, B H

    2004-06-20

    Rabbit IL-4 was expressed in the virulent standard laboratory strain (SLS) and the attenuated Uriarra (Ur) strain of myxoma virus with the aim of creating a Th2 cytokine environment and inhibiting the development of an antiviral cell-mediated response to myxomatosis in infected rabbits. This allowed testing of a model for genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits that have undergone 50 years of natural selection for resistance to myxomatosis. Expression of IL-4 significantly enhanced virulence of both virulent and attenuated virus strains in susceptible (laboratory) and resistant (wild) rabbits. SLS-IL-4 completely overcame genetic resistance in wild rabbits. The pathogenesis of SLS-IL-4 was compared in susceptible and resistant rabbits. The results support a model for resistance to myxomatosis of an enhanced innate immune response controlling virus replication and allowing an effective antiviral cell-mediated immune response to develop in resistant rabbits. Expression of IL-4 did not overcome immunity to myxomatosis induced by immunization. PMID:15183059

  13. Analysis of the Flavobacterium columnare transcriptome reveals gene expression signatures mediating virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater cultured fish species. Despite its importance, a broader understanding of the genes and their protein products that mediate virulence is urgently needed. Therefore, in t...

  14. AlgR functions in algC expression and virulence in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza-Vázquez, Alejandro; Fakhr, Mohamed K; Bailey, Ana M; Bender, Carol L

    2004-08-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain FF5 is a phytopathogen associated with a rapid dieback on ornamental pear trees. P. syringae and the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produce the exopolysaccharide alginate, a copolymer of mannuronic and guluronic acid. In P. aeruginosa, the response regulator AlgR (AlgR1) is required for transcription of algC and algD, which encode key enzymes in the alginate biosynthetic pathway. In P. syringae FF5, however, algR is not required for the activation of algD. Interestingly, algR mutants of P. syringae remain nonmucoid, indicating an undefined role for this response regulator in alginate biosynthesis. In the current study, the algC promoter region was cloned from P. syringae pv. syringae strain FF5, and sequence analysis of the algC promoter indicated the presence of potential binding sites for AlgR and sigma(54), the alternative sigma factor encoded by rpoN. The algC promoter from P. syringae FF5 (PsalgC) was cloned upstream of a promoterless glucuronidase gene (uidA), and the PsalgC-uidA transcriptional fusion was used to monitor algC expression in strains FF5.32 (algR mutant of P. syringae FF5) and PG4180.K2 (rpoN mutant of P. syringae pv. glycinea PG4180). Expression of the PsalgC-uidA fusion was fourfold lower in both the algR and rpoN mutants as compared to respective wild-type strains, indicating that both AlgR and sigma(54) are required for full activation of algC transcription in P. syringae pv. syringae. AlgR from P. syringae was successfully overproduced in Escherichia coli as a C-terminal translational fusion to the maltose-binding protein (MBP). Gel shift experiments indicated that MBP-AlgR binds strongly to the algC promoter region. Biological assays demonstrated that the algR mutant was significantly impaired in both pathogenicity and epiphytic fitness as compared to the wild-type strain. These results, along with the gene expression studies, indicate that AlgR has a positive role in the activation of alg

  15. Expressed sequence tags reveal genetic diversity and putative virulence factors of the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.

    PubMed

    Krajaejun, Theerapong; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Petchthong, Thanom; Yingyong, Wanta; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Smittipat, Nat; Juthayothin, Tada; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Sullivan, Thomas D

    2011-07-01

    Oomycetes are unique eukaryotic microorganisms that share a mycelial morphology with fungi. Many oomycetes are pathogenic to plants, and a more limited number are pathogenic to animals. Pythium insidiosum is the only oomycete that is capable of infecting both humans and animals, and causes a life-threatening infectious disease, called "pythiosis". In the majority of pythiosis patients life-long handicaps result from the inevitable radical excision of infected organs, and many die from advanced infection. Better understanding P. insidiosum pathogenesis at molecular levels could lead to new forms of treatment. Genetic and genomic information is lacking for P. insidiosum, so we have undertaken an expressed sequence tag (EST) study, and report on the first dataset of 486 ESTs, assembled into 217 unigenes. Of these, 144 had significant sequence similarity with known genes, including 47 with ribosomal protein homology. Potential virulence factors included genes involved in antioxidation, thermal adaptation, immunomodulation, and iron and sterol binding. Effectors resembling pathogenicity factors of plant-pathogenic oomycetes were also discovered, such as, a CBEL-like protein (possible involvement in host cell adhesion and hemagglutination), a putative RXLR effector (possibly involved in host cell modulation) and elicitin-like (ELL) proteins. Phylogenetic analysis mapped P. insidiosum ELLs to several novel clades of oomycete elicitins (ELIs), and homology modeling predicted that P. insidiosum ELLs should bind sterols. Most of the P. insidiosum ESTs showed homology to sequences in the genome or EST databases of other oomycetes, but one putative gene, with unknown function, was found to be unique to P. insidiosum. The EST dataset reported here represents the first steps in identifying genes of P. insidiosum and beginning transcriptome analysis. This genetic information will facilitate understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of this devastating pathogen. PMID:21724174

  16. Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

  17. Virulent Shigella flexneri Affects Secretion, Expression, and Glycosylation of Gel-Forming Mucins in Mucus-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Brice; Fischer, Natalie; Chevalier-Curt, Marie Joncquel; Rossez, Yannick; Roux, Pascal; Robbe Masselot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large amounts by the intestinal epithelium and constitute an efficient component of innate immune defenses to promote homeostasis and protect against enteric pathogens. In this study, our objective was to investigate how the bacterial enteropathogen Shigella flexneri, which causes bacillary dysentery, copes with the mucin defense barrier. We report that upon in vitro infection of mucin-producing polarized human intestinal epithelial cells, virulent S. flexneri manipulates the secretion of gel-forming mucins. This phenomenon, which is triggered only by virulent strains, results in accumulation of mucins at the cell apical surface, leading to the appearance of a gel-like structure that favors access of bacteria to the cell surface and the subsequent invasion process. We identify MUC5AC, a gel-forming mucin, as a component of this structure. Formation of this gel does not depend on modifications of electrolyte concentrations, induction of trefoil factor expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or response to unfolded proteins. In addition, transcriptional and biochemical analyses of infected cells reveal modulations of mucin gene expression and modifications of mucin glycosylation patterns, both of which are induced by virulent bacteria in a type III secretion system-dependent manner. Thus, S. flexneri has developed a dedicated strategy to alter the mucus barrier by targeting key elements of the gel-forming capacity of mucins: gene transcription, protein glycosylation, and secretion. PMID:23876800

  18. Virulence factor expression patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from infants with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Manos, J; Hu, H; Rose, B R; Wainwright, C E; Zablotska, I B; Cheney, J; Turnbull, L; Whitchurch, C B; Grimwood, K; Harmer, C; Anuj, S N; Harbour, C

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). This study examines the role of organism-specific factors in the pathogenesis of very early P. aeruginosa infection in the CF airway. A total of 168 longitudinally collected P. aeruginosa isolates from children diagnosed with CF following newborn screening were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and phenotyped for 13 virulence factors. Ninety-two strains were identified. Associations between virulence factors and gender, exacerbation, persistence, timing of infection and infection site were assessed using multivariate regression analysis. Persistent strains showed significantly lower pyoverdine, rhamnolipid, haemolysin, total protease, and swimming and twitching motility than strains eradicated by aggressive antibiotic treatments. Initial strains had higher levels of virulence factors, and significantly higher phospholipase C, than subsequent genotypically different strains at initial isolation. Strains from males had significantly lower pyoverdine and swimming motility than females. Colony size was significantly smaller in strains isolated during exacerbation than those isolated during non-exacerbation periods. All virulence factors were higher and swimming motility significantly higher in strains from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and oropharyngeal sites than BAL alone. Using unadjusted regression modelling, age at initial infection and age at isolation of a strain showed U-shaped profiles for most virulence factors. Among subsequent strains, longer time since initial infection meant lower levels of most virulence factors. This study provides new insight into virulence factors underpinning impaired airway clearance seen in CF infants, despite aggressive antibiotic therapy. This information will be important in the development of new strategies to reduce the impact of P. aeruginosa in CF. PMID:23832143

  19. Predicted highly expressed genes in Nocardia farcinica and the implication to its primary metabolism and nocardial virulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Gang; Nie, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-02-23

    Nocardia farcinica is a gram positive, filamentous bacterium, and is considered an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, the highly expressed genes in N. farcinica were predicted using the codon adaptation index (CAI) as a numerical estimator of gene expressivity. Using ribosomal protein (RP) genes as references, the top {approx}10% of the genes were predicted to be the predicted highly expressed (PHX) genes in N. farcinica using a CAI cutoff of greater than 0.73. Consistent with early analysis in Streptomyces genomes, most of the PHX genes in N. farcinica were involved in various ''house-keeping'' functions important for cell growth. However, fifteen genes putatively involved in no cardial virulence were predicted as PHX in N. farcinica, which included genes encoding four Mce virulence proteins, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase which is involved in the modification of cell wall important for nocardia virulence, polyketide synthase PKS13 for mycolic acid synthesis and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase involved in biosynthesis of a mycobactin-related siderophore. In addition, multiple genes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the phagocyte were predicted with high expressivity, which included alkylhydroperoxide reductase (ahpC), catalase (katG), superoxide dismutase (sodF), thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, suggesting that combating against ROS was essential for survival of N. farcinica in host cells. The study also showed that the distribution of PHX genes in the N. farcinica circular chromosome was uneven, with more PHX genes located in the regions close to replication initiation site. The results provided the first approximates of global gene expression patterns in N. farcinica, which will be useful in guiding experimental design for further investigation.

  20. Erwinia amylovora Expresses Fast and Simultaneously hrp/dsp Virulence Genes during Flower Infection on Apple Trees

    PubMed Central

    Pester, Doris; Milčevičová, Renáta; Schaffer, Johann; Wilhelm, Eva; Blümel, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Background Pathogen entry through host blossoms is the predominant infection pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora leading to manifestation of the disease fire blight. Like in other economically important plant pathogens, E. amylovora pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion system encoded by hrp genes. However, timing and transcriptional order of hrp gene expression during flower infections are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Using quantitative real-time PCR analyses, we addressed the questions of how fast, strong and uniform key hrp virulence genes and the effector dspA/E are expressed when bacteria enter flowers provided with the full defense mechanism of the apple plant. In non-invasive bacterial inoculations of apple flowers still attached to the tree, E. amylovora activated expression of key type III secretion genes in a narrow time window, mounting in a single expression peak of all investigated hrp/dspA/E genes around 24–48 h post inoculation (hpi). This single expression peak coincided with a single depression in the plant PR-1 expression at 24 hpi indicating transient manipulation of the salicylic acid pathway as one target of E. amylovora type III effectors. Expression of hrp/dspA/E genes was highly correlated to expression of the regulator hrpL and relative transcript abundances followed the ratio: hrpA>hrpN>hrpL>dspA/E. Acidic conditions (pH 4) in flower infections led to reduced virulence/effector gene expression without the typical expression peak observed under natural conditions (pH 7). Conclusion/Significance The simultaneous expression of hrpL, hrpA, hrpN, and the effector dspA/E during early floral infection indicates that speed and immediate effector transmission is important for successful plant invasion. When this delicate balance is disturbed, e.g., by acidic pH during infection, virulence gene expression is reduced, thus partly explaining the efficacy of acidification in fire blight control on a molecular

  1. Use of a Salmonella typhimurium hilA fusion strain to assess effects of environmental fresh water sources on virulence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nutt, J D; Pillai, S D; Woodward, C L; Sternes, K L; Zabala-Díaz, I B; Kwon, Y M; Ricke, S C

    2003-08-01

    Many fruits and vegetables are irrigated with water from rivers, lakes and even wastewater systems. Irrigation may be a route for the introduction of Salmonella. Our objectives in this study were to determine survivability and virulence expression in a strain of Salmonella typhimurium when exposed to environmental water sources. Virulence expression was measured using a beta-galactosidase assay on a hilA:lacZY fusion strain of S. typhimurium. Water samples for environmental impact studies were taken from a local pond and specific sites along the Rio Grande River, which serves as a source of irrigation water in southern Texas. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) of virulence expression among the water sites. Certain regions along the Rio Grande River yielded greater amounts of beta-galactosidase activity than others. All sites yielded at least a two-fold greater virulence response than S. typhimurium grown in brain heart infusion. Salmonella survivors were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU)/ml as plated on a selective medium for the duration of 1 week and beta-galactosidase assays were performed to determine a possible correlation between culturable cells and virulence gene expression. Bacterial cells remained viable but decreased after 7 days incubation. In conclusion, water sampled at specific locations and at different times water samples exhibited differences in virulence expression in S. typhimurium. PMID:12834724

  2. Effect of salt and acidic pH on the stability of virulence plasmid (pYV) in Yersinia enterocolitica and expression of virulence-associated characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stability of the Yersinia enterocolitica virulence plasmid (pYV) under different NaCl concentrations and under acidic pH conditions was investigated. Exposure of five strains representing five serotypes of pYV-bearing virulent Y. enterocolitica to 0.5, 2 and 5% NaCl and under conditions of pH 4...

  3. The Yersinia pestis V antigen is a regulatory protein necessary for Ca2(+)-dependent growth and maximal expression of low-Ca2+ response virulence genes.

    PubMed Central

    Price, S B; Cowan, C; Perry, R D; Straley, S C

    1991-01-01

    The low-Ca2+ response is a multicomponent virulence regulon of the human-pathogenic yersiniae in which 12 known virulence genes are coordinately regulated in response to environmental cues of temperature, Ca2+, and nucleotides such as ATP. Yersinial growth also is regulated, with full growth yield being permitted at 37 degrees C only if Ca2+ or a nucleotide is present. In this study, we constructed and characterized a mutant Yersinia pestis specifically defective in the gene encoding the V antigen, one of the virulence genes of the low-Ca2+ response. An in-frame internal deletion-insertion mutation was made by removing bases 51 through 645 of lcrV and inserting 61 new bases. The altered lcrV was introduced into the low-Ca2+ response plasmid in Y. pestis by allelic exchange, and the resulting mutant was characterized for its two-dimensional protein profiles, growth, expression of an operon fusion to another low-Ca2+ response virulence operon, and virulence in mice. The mutant had lost its Ca2+ and nucleotide requirement for growth, showed diminished expression of Ca2(+)-and nucleotide-regulated virulence genes, and was avirulent in mice. The mutation could be complemented with respect to the growth property by supplying native V antigen operon sequences in trans in high copy number (on pBR322). Partial complementation of the growth defect and almost complete complementation of the virulence defect were seen with a lower-copy-number complementing replicon (a pACYC184 derivative). The data are consistent with the interpretation that V antigen is bifunctional, with a role in regulating growth and expression of low-Ca2+ response virulence genes in addition to its putative role as a secreted virulence protein. Images PMID:1901573

  4. The response regulator ResD modulates virulence gene expression in response to carbohydrates in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Marianne H; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H; Christiansen, Janne K; Olsen, John E; Ingmer, Hanne

    2006-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a versatile bacterial pathogen that is able to accommodate to diverse environmental and host conditions. Presently, we have identified a L. monocytogenes two-component response regulator, ResD that is required for the repression of virulence gene expression known to occur in the presence of easily fermentable carbohydrates not found inside host organisms. Structurally and functionally, ResD resembles the respiration regulator ResD in Bacillus subtilis as deletion of the L. monocytogenes resD reduces respiration and expression of cydA, encoding a subunit of cytochrome bd. The resD mutation also reduces expression of mptA encoding the EIIABman component of a mannose/glucose-specific PTS system, indicating that ResD controls sugar uptake. This notion was supported by the poor growth of resD mutant cells that was alleviated by excess of selected carbohydrates. Despite the growth deficient phenotype of the mutant in vitro the mutation did not affect intracellular multiplication in epithelial or macrophage cell lines. When examining virulence gene expression we observed traditional induction by charcoal in both mutant and wild-type cells whereas the repression observed in wild-type cells by fermentable carbohydrates did not occur in resD mutant cells. Thus, ResD is a central regulator of L. monocytogenes when present in the external environment. PMID:16968229

  5. Correlation between In Vivo Biofilm Formation and Virulence Gene Expression in Escherichia coli O104:H4

    PubMed Central

    Safadi, Rim Al; Abu-Ali, Galeb S.; Sloup, Rudolph E.; Rudrik, James T.; Waters, Christopher M.; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Manning, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of novel pathogens poses a major public health threat causing widespread epidemics in susceptible populations. The Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain implicated in a 2011 outbreak in northern Germany caused the highest frequency of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and death ever recorded in a single E. coli outbreak. Therefore, it has been suggested that this strain is more virulent than other pathogenic E. coli (e.g., E. coli O157:H7). The E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain possesses multiple virulence factors from both Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), though the mechanism of pathogenesis is not known. Here, we demonstrate that E. coli O104:H4 produces a stable biofilm in vitro and that in vivo virulence gene expression is highest when E. coli O104:H4 overexpresses genes required for aggregation and exopolysaccharide production, a characteristic of bacterial cells residing within an established biofilm. Interrupting exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation may therefore represent effective strategies for combating future E. coli O104:H4 infections. PMID:22848550

  6. Virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated expression of phenotypic virulent determinants in pathogenic Yersinia species: a convenient method for monitoring the presence of pYV under culture conditions and its application for...food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Yersinia pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y, enterocolitica, phenotypic expression of virulence plasmid (pYV: 70-kb)-associated genetic determinants may include low calcium response (Lcr, pin point colony, size = 0.36 mm), colony morphology (size = 1.13 mm), crystal violet (CV) binding (dark-v...

  7. Virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated expression of phenotypic virulent determinants in pathogenic Yersinia species: a convenient method for monitoring the presence of pYV under culture conditions and its application for....food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Yersinia pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y, enterocolitica, phenotypic expression of several virulence plasmid (pYV: 70-kb)-associated genetic determinants may include low calcium response (Lcr, pin point colony, size = 0.36 mm), colony morphology (size = 1.13 mm), crystal violet (CV) binding...

  8. Identification of novel secreted virulence factors from Xylella fastidiosa using a TRV expression system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterium that causes leaf scorch diseases of agriculturally important crops including grapevines and almonds. Little is known about virulence factors that are necessary for X. fastidiosa to grow and cause disease in the xylem vessels of a plant host. Any protein secreted by ...

  9. Interference with Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis inhibits virulence factor expression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, M. Worth; Coleman, James P.; Pesci, Everett C.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that controls numerous virulence factors through intercellular signals. This bacterium has two quorum-sensing systems (las and rhl), which act through the intercellular signals N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), respectively. P. aeruginosa also produces a third intercellular signal that is involved in virulence factor regulation. This signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone [referred to as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS)], is a secondary metabolite that is part of the P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing hierarchy. PQS can induce both lasB (encodes LasB elastase) and rhlI (encodes the C4-HSL synthase) in P. aeruginosa and is produced maximally during the late stationary phase of growth. Because PQS is an intercellular signal that is part of the quorum-sensing hierarchy and controls multiple virulence factors, we began basic studies designed to elucidate its biosynthetic pathway. First, we present data that strongly suggest that anthranilate is a precursor for PQS. P. aeruginosa converted radiolabeled anthranilate into radioactive PQS, which was bioactive. We also found that an anthranilate analog (methyl anthranilate) would inhibit the production of PQS. This analog was then shown to have a major negative effect on elastase production by P. aeruginosa. These data provide evidence that precursors of intercellular signals may provide viable targets for the development of therapeutic treatments that will reduce P. aeruginosa virulence. PMID:11573001

  10. Phosphorylation events in the multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly influence global gene expression and virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; Makthal, Nishanth; Gavagan, Maire; Cantu, Concepcion; Olsen, Randall J; Musser, James M; Kumaraswami, Muthiah

    2015-06-01

    Whole-genome sequencing analysis of ∼800 strains of group A Streptococcus (GAS) found that the gene encoding the multiple virulence gene regulator of GAS (mga) is highly polymorphic in serotype M59 strains but not in strains of other serotypes. To help understand the molecular mechanism of gene regulation by Mga and its contribution to GAS pathogenesis in serotype M59 GAS, we constructed an isogenic mga mutant strain. Transcriptome studies indicated a significant regulatory influence of Mga and altered metabolic capabilities conferred by Mga-regulated genes. We assessed the phosphorylation status of Mga in GAS cell lysates with Phos-tag gels. The results revealed that Mga is phosphorylated at histidines in vivo. Using phosphomimetic and nonphosphomimetic substitutions at conserved phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase regulation domain (PRD) histidines of Mga, we demonstrated that phosphorylation-mimicking aspartate replacements at H207 and H273 of PRD-1 and at H327 of PRD-2 are inhibitory to Mga-dependent gene expression. Conversely, non-phosphorylation-mimicking alanine substitutions at H273 and H327 relieved inhibition, and the mutant strains exhibited a wild-type phenotype. The opposing regulatory profiles observed for phosphorylation- and non-phosphorylation-mimicking substitutions at H273 extended to global gene regulation by Mga. Consistent with these observations, the H273D mutant strain attenuated GAS virulence, whereas the H273A strain exhibited a wild-type virulence phenotype in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. Together, our results demonstrate phosphoregulation of Mga and its direct link to virulence in M59 GAS strains. These data also lay a foundation toward understanding how naturally occurring gain-of-function variations in mga, such as H201R, may confer an advantage to the pathogen and contribute to M59 GAS pathogenesis. PMID:25824840

  11. Phosphorylation Events in the Multiple Gene Regulator of Group A Streptococcus Significantly Influence Global Gene Expression and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Misu; Makthal, Nishanth; Gavagan, Maire; Cantu, Concepcion; Olsen, Randall J.; Musser, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing analysis of ∼800 strains of group A Streptococcus (GAS) found that the gene encoding the multiple virulence gene regulator of GAS (mga) is highly polymorphic in serotype M59 strains but not in strains of other serotypes. To help understand the molecular mechanism of gene regulation by Mga and its contribution to GAS pathogenesis in serotype M59 GAS, we constructed an isogenic mga mutant strain. Transcriptome studies indicated a significant regulatory influence of Mga and altered metabolic capabilities conferred by Mga-regulated genes. We assessed the phosphorylation status of Mga in GAS cell lysates with Phos-tag gels. The results revealed that Mga is phosphorylated at histidines in vivo. Using phosphomimetic and nonphosphomimetic substitutions at conserved phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase regulation domain (PRD) histidines of Mga, we demonstrated that phosphorylation-mimicking aspartate replacements at H207 and H273 of PRD-1 and at H327 of PRD-2 are inhibitory to Mga-dependent gene expression. Conversely, non-phosphorylation-mimicking alanine substitutions at H273 and H327 relieved inhibition, and the mutant strains exhibited a wild-type phenotype. The opposing regulatory profiles observed for phosphorylation- and non-phosphorylation-mimicking substitutions at H273 extended to global gene regulation by Mga. Consistent with these observations, the H273D mutant strain attenuated GAS virulence, whereas the H273A strain exhibited a wild-type virulence phenotype in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. Together, our results demonstrate phosphoregulation of Mga and its direct link to virulence in M59 GAS strains. These data also lay a foundation toward understanding how naturally occurring gain-of-function variations in mga, such as H201R, may confer an advantage to the pathogen and contribute to M59 GAS pathogenesis. PMID:25824840

  12. Molecular Determinants of Virulence and Stability of a Reporter-Expressing H5N1 Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dongming; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Yamada, Shinya; Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Maemura, Tadashi; Katsura, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Makoto; Watanabe, Shinji; Neumann, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously reported that an H5N1 virus carrying the Venus reporter gene, which was inserted into the NS gene segment from the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) virus (Venus-H5N1 virus), became more lethal to mice, and the reporter gene was stably maintained after mouse adaptation compared with the wild-type Venus-H5N1 (WT-Venus-H5N1) virus. However, the basis for this difference in virulence and Venus stability was unclear. Here, we investigated the molecular determinants behind this virulence and reporter stability by comparing WT-Venus-H5N1 virus with a mouse-adapted Venus-H5N1 (MA-Venus-H5N1) virus. To determine the genetic basis for these differences, we used reverse genetics to generate a series of reassortants of these two viruses. We found that reassortants with PB2 from MA-Venus-H5N1 (MA-PB2), MA-PA, or MA-NS expressed Venus more stably than did WT-Venus-H5N1 virus. We also found that a single mutation in PB2 (V25A) or in PA (R443K) increased the virulence of the WT-Venus-H5N1 virus in mice and that the presence of both of these mutations substantially enhanced the pathogenicity of the virus. Our results suggest roles for PB2 and PA in the stable maintenance of a foreign protein as an NS1 fusion protein in influenza A virus. IMPORTANCE The ability to visualize influenza viruses has far-reaching benefits in influenza virus research. Previously, we reported that an H5N1 virus bearing the Venus reporter gene became more pathogenic to mice and that its reporter gene was more highly expressed and more stably maintained after mouse adaptation. Here, we investigated the molecular determinants behind this enhanced virulence and reporter stability. We found that mutations in PB2 (V25A) and PA (R443K) play crucial roles in the stable maintenance of a foreign protein as an NS1 fusion protein in influenza A virus and in the virulence of influenza virus in mice. Our findings further our knowledge of the pathogenicity of influenza virus in mammals and will help

  13. Coordination of Metabolism and Virulence Factors Expression of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Purified from Blood Cultures of Patients with Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Veronika Kuchařová; Mosevoll, Knut Anders; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer; Wiker, Harald G

    2016-09-01

    One of the trademarks of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli is adaptation of metabolism and basic physiology to diverse host sites. However, little is known how this common human pathogen adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. We used label-free quantitative proteomics to characterize five E. coli strains purified from clinical blood cultures associated with sepsis and urinary tract infections. Further comparison of proteome profiles of the clinical strains and a reference uropathogenic E. coli strain 536 cultivated in blood culture and on two different solid media distinguished cellular features altered in response to the pathogenically relevant condition. The analysis covered nearly 60% of the strains predicted proteomes, and included quantitative description based on label-free intensity scores for 90% of the detected proteins. Statistical comparison of anaerobic and aerobic blood cultures revealed 32 differentially expressed proteins (1.5% of the shared proteins), mostly associated with acquisition and utilization of metal ions critical for anaerobic or aerobic respiration. Analysis of variance identified significantly altered amounts of 47 proteins shared by the strains (2.7%), including proteins involved in vitamin B6 metabolism and virulence. Although the proteomes derived from blood cultures were fairly similar for the investigated strains, quantitative proteomic comparison to the growth on solid media identified 200 proteins with substantially changed levels (11% of the shared proteins). Blood culture was characterized by up-regulation of anaerobic fermentative metabolism and multiple virulence traits, including cell motility and iron acquisition. In a response to the growth on solid media there were increased levels of proteins functional in aerobic respiration, catabolism of medium-specific carbon sources and protection against oxidative and osmotic stresses. These results demonstrate on the expressed proteome level that expression of

  14. The two-component system CpxR/A represses the expression of Salmonella virulence genes by affecting the stability of the transcriptional regulator HilD

    PubMed Central

    De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Palacios, Irene J.; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Calva, Edmundo; Bustamante, Víctor H.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica can cause intestinal or systemic infections in humans and animals mainly by the presence of pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2, containing 39 and 44 genes, respectively. The AraC-like regulator HilD positively controls the expression of the SPI-1 genes, as well as many other Salmonella virulence genes including those located in SPI-2. A previous report indicates that the two-component system CpxR/A regulates the SPI-1 genes: the absence of the sensor kinase CpxA, but not the absence of its cognate response regulator CpxR, reduces their expression. The presence and absence of cell envelope stress activates kinase and phosphatase activities of CpxA, respectively, which in turn controls the level of phosphorylated CpxR (CpxR-P). In this work, we further define the mechanism for the CpxR/A-mediated regulation of SPI-1 genes. The negative effect exerted by the absence of CpxA on the expression of SPI-1 genes was counteracted by the absence of CpxR or by the absence of the two enzymes, AckA and Pta, which render acetyl-phosphate that phosphorylates CpxR. Furthermore, overexpression of the lipoprotein NlpE, which activates CpxA kinase activity on CpxR, or overexpression of CpxR, repressed the expression of SPI-1 genes. Thus, our results provide several lines of evidence strongly supporting that the absence of CpxA leads to the phosphorylation of CpxR via the AckA/Pta enzymes, which represses both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 genes. Additionally, we show that in the absence of the Lon protease, which degrades HilD, the CpxR-P-mediated repression of the SPI-1 genes is mostly lost; moreover, we demonstrate that CpxR-P negatively affects the stability of HilD and thus decreases the expression of HilD-target genes, such as hilD itself and hilA, located in SPI-1. Our data further expand the insight on the different regulatory pathways for gene expression involving CpxR/A and on the complex regulatory network governing virulence in Salmonella. PMID:26300871

  15. Silver-coated carbon nanotubes downregulate the expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes: a potential mechanism for their antimicrobial effect

    PubMed Central

    Dosunmu, Ejovwoke; Chaudhari, Atul A; Singh, Shree R; Dennis, Vida A; Pillai, Shreekumar R

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of silver-coated carbon nanotubes (AgCNTs) and their potential mode of action against mucoid and nonmucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated in vitro. The results showed that AgCNTs exhibited antimicrobial activity against both strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations of approximately 8 µg/mL, indicating a high sensitivity of P. aeruginosa to AgCNTs. AgCNTs were also bactericidal against both strains at the same minimum inhibitory concentration. Scanning and transmission electron-microscopy studies further revealed that a majority of the cells treated with AgCNTs transformed from smooth rod-shape morphology to disintegrated cells with broken/damaged membranes, resulting in leakage of cytoplasmic contents to produce ghost cells. The molecular effects of AgCNTs on P. aeruginosa genes involved in virulence and pathogenicity, stress response, and efflux pumps were evaluated for changes in their expression. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that after exposure to AgCNTs, the expression levels of the rpoS, rsmZ, and oprD genes were significantly downregulated in both strains of P. aeruginosa compared to the untreated samples. These results suggest that the mechanism of action of AgCNTs may be attributed to their effect on cell-membrane integrity, downregulation of virulence-gene expression, and induction of general and oxidative stress in P. aeruginosa. PMID:26346483

  16. Silver-coated carbon nanotubes downregulate the expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes: a potential mechanism for their antimicrobial effect.

    PubMed

    Dosunmu, Ejovwoke; Chaudhari, Atul A; Singh, Shree R; Dennis, Vida A; Pillai, Shreekumar R

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of silver-coated carbon nanotubes (AgCNTs) and their potential mode of action against mucoid and nonmucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated in vitro. The results showed that AgCNTs exhibited antimicrobial activity against both strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations of approximately 8 µg/mL, indicating a high sensitivity of P. aeruginosa to AgCNTs. AgCNTs were also bactericidal against both strains at the same minimum inhibitory concentration. Scanning and transmission electron-microscopy studies further revealed that a majority of the cells treated with AgCNTs transformed from smooth rod-shape morphology to disintegrated cells with broken/damaged membranes, resulting in leakage of cytoplasmic contents to produce ghost cells. The molecular effects of AgCNTs on P. aeruginosa genes involved in virulence and pathogenicity, stress response, and efflux pumps were evaluated for changes in their expression. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that after exposure to AgCNTs, the expression levels of the rpoS, rsmZ, and oprD genes were significantly downregulated in both strains of P. aeruginosa compared to the untreated samples. These results suggest that the mechanism of action of AgCNTs may be attributed to their effect on cell-membrane integrity, downregulation of virulence-gene expression, and induction of general and oxidative stress in P. aeruginosa. PMID:26346483

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1-0.5 mg/mL and 0.25-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors. PMID:25763094

  18. Effect Of Spaceflight On Microbial Gene Expression And Virulence: Preliminary Results From Microbe Payload Flown On-Board STS-115

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; HonerzuBentrup, K,; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Ott, C. M.; Nelman-Gonzalez M.; Schurr, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.; Stodieck, L.; Hing, S.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Parra, M.; Dumars, P.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, H. M.; Nickerson, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    Human presence in space, whether permanent or temporary, is accompanied by the presence of microbes. However, the extent of microbial changes in response to spaceflight conditions and the corresponding changes to infectious disease risk is unclear. Previous studies have indicated that spaceflight weakens the immune system in humans and animals. In addition, preflight and in-flight monitoring of the International Space Station (ISS) and other spacecraft indicates the presence of opportunistic pathogens and the potential of obligate pathogens. Altered antibiotic resistance of microbes in flight has also been shown. As astronauts and cosmonauts live for longer periods in a closed environment, especially one using recycled water and air, there is an increased risk to crewmembers of infectious disease events occurring in-flight. Therefore, understanding how the space environment affects microorganisms and their disease potential is critically important for spaceflight missions and requires further study. The goal of this flight experiment, operationally called MICROBE, is to utilize three model microbial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans to examine the global effects of spaceflight on microbial gene expression and virulence attributes. Specifically, the aims are (1) to perform microarray-mediated gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, in response to spaceflight in comparison to ground controls and (2) to determine the effect of spaceflight on the virulence potential of these microorganisms immediately following their return from spaceflight using murine models. The model microorganisms were selected as they have been isolated from preflight or in-flight monitoring, represent different degrees of pathogenic behavior, are well characterized, and have sequenced genomes with available microarrays. In particular, extensive studies of S. typhimurium by the Principal Investigator, Dr. Nickerson

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors. PMID:25763094

  20. A complex network regulates expression of eps and other virulence genes of Pseudomonas solanacearum.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J; Carney, B F; Denny, T P; Weissinger, A K; Schell, M A

    1995-01-01

    We have discovered an unusual and complex regulatory network used by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas solanacearum to control transcription of eps, which encodes for production of its primary virulence factor, the exopolysaccharide EPS I. The major modules of this network were shown to be three separate signal transduction systems: PhcA, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, an dual two-component regulatory systems, VsrA/VsrD and VsrB/VsrC. Using lacZ fusions and RNA analysis, we found that both PhcA and VsrA/VsrD control transcription of another network component, xpsR, which in turn acts in conjunction with vsrB/vsrC to increase transcription of the eps promoter by > 25-fold. Moreover, gel shift DNA binding assays showed that PhcA specifically binds to the xpsR promoter region. Thus, the unique XpsR protein interconnects the three signal transduction systems, forming a network for convergent control of EPS I in simultaneous response to multiple environmental inputs. In addition, we demonstrate that each individual signaling system of the network also acts independently to divergently regulate other unique sets of virulence factors. The purpose of this complex network may be to allow this phytopathogen to both coordinately or independently regulate diverse virulence factors in order to cope with the dynamic situations and conditions encountered during interactions with plants. PMID:7868600

  1. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae. PMID:26292998

  2. Pyrokinin β-Neuropeptide Affects Necrophoretic Behavior in Fire Ants (S. invicta), and Expression of β-NP in a Mycoinsecticide Increases Its Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yanhua; Pereira, Roberto M.; Kilic, Engin; Casella, George; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2012-01-01

    Fire ants are one of the world's most damaging invasive pests, with few means for their effective control. Although ecologically friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides such as the insecticidal fungus Beauveria bassiana have been suggested for the control of fire ant populations, their use has been limited due to the low virulence of the fungus and the length of time it takes to kill its target. We present a means of increasing the virulence of the fungal agent by expressing a fire ant neuropeptide. Expression of the fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) pyrokinin β -neuropeptide (β-NP) by B. bassiana increased fungal virulence six-fold towards fire ants, decreased the LT50, but did not affect virulence towards the lepidopteran, Galleria mellonella. Intriguingly, ants killed by the β-NP expressing fungus were disrupted in the removal of dead colony members, i.e. necrophoretic behavior. Furthermore, synthetic C-terminal amidated β-NP but not the non-amidated peptide had a dramatic effect on necrophoretic behavior. These data link chemical sensing of a specific peptide to a complex social behavior. Our results also confirm a new approach to insect control in which expression of host molecules in an insect pathogen can by exploited for target specific augmentation of virulence. The minimization of the development of potential insect resistance by our approach is discussed. PMID:22238569

  3. Influence of Tigecycline on Expression of Virulence Factors in Biofilm-Associated Cells of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Karen; Gould, Katherine A.; Ramage, Gordon; Gemmell, Curtis G.; Hinds, Jason; Lang, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are complicated by the ability of the organism to grow in surface-adhered biofilms on a multitude of abiotic and biological surfaces. These multicellular communities are notoriously difficult to eradicate with antimicrobial therapy. Cells within the biofilm may be exposed to a sublethal concentration of the antimicrobial due to the metabolic and phenotypic diversity of the biofilm-associated cells or the protection offered by the biofilm structure. In the present study, the influence of a sublethal concentration of tigecycline on biofilms formed by an epidemic MRSA-16 isolate was investigated by transcriptome analysis. In the presence of the drug, 309 genes were upregulated and 213 genes were downregulated by more than twofold in comparison to the levels of gene regulation detected for the controls not grown in the presence of the drug. Microarray data were validated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and phenotypic assays. Tigecycline altered the expression of a number of genes encoding proteins considered to be crucial for the virulence of S. aureus. These included the reduced expression of icaC, which is involved in polysaccharide intercellular adhesin production and biofilm development; the upregulation of fnbA, clfB, and cna, which encode adhesins which attach to human proteins; and the downregulation of the cap genes, which mediate the synthesis of the capsule polysaccharide. The expression of tst, which encodes toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), was also significantly reduced; and an assay performed to quantify TSST-1 showed that the level of toxin production by cells treated with tigecycline decreased by 10-fold (P < 0.001) compared to the level of production by untreated control cells. This study suggests that tigecycline may reduce the expression of important virulence factors in S. aureus and supports further investigation to determine whether it could be a useful adjunct to therapy

  4. Altered virulence potential of Salmonella Enteritidis cultured in different foods: A cumulative effect of differential gene expression and immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sangeeta; Sahoo, Prakash Kumar; Ryan, Daniel; Das, Jugal Kishore; Chakraborty, Eesha; Mohakud, Nirmal Kumar; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most common causes of food borne illness. Bacterial growth environment plays an important role in regulating gene expression thereby affecting the virulence profile of the bacteria. Different foods present diverse growth conditions which may affect the pathogenic potential of the bacteria. In the present study, the effect of food environments on the pathogenic potential of S. Enteritidis has been evaluated. S. Enteritidis was grown in different foods e.g. egg white, peanut butter and milk, and virulent phenotypes were compared to those grown in Luria Bertani broth. In-vivo experiments in C57BL/6 mice revealed S. Enteritidis grown in egg white did not induce significant (p<0.001) production of proinflammatory cytokines in mice and were unable to cause colitis despite efficient colonization in cecum, mesenteric lymph node, spleen and liver. Further studies revealed that bacteria grown in LB activated MAP Kinase and NFκB pathways efficiently, while those grown in egg white poorly activated the above pathways which can account for the decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. qRT PCR analysis revealed SPI-1 effectors were downregulated in bacteria grown in egg white. Interestingly, bacteria grown in egg white showed reversal of phenotype upon change in growth media to LB. Additionally, bacteria grown in milk and peanut butter showed different degrees of virulence in mice as compared to those grown in LB media. Thus, the present study demonstrates that, S. Enteritidis grown in egg white colonizes systemic sites without causing colitis in a mouse model, while bacteria grown in milk and peanut butter show different pathogenicity profiles suggesting that food environments significantly affect the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis. PMID:27132148

  5. Lineage associated expression of virulence traits in bovine-adapted Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Budd, Kathleen E; Mitchell, Jennifer; Keane, Orla M

    2016-06-30

    Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease to the dairy industry worldwide with Staphylococcus aureus commonly associated with intramammary infections that are persistent and refractory to treatment. The strains of S. aureus that cause mastitis predominantly belong to a number of well-described bovine-adapted lineages. The objective of this study was to determine if a variety of potential virulence traits were associated with lineage. Bovine-adapted S. aureus isolates (n=120), belonging to lineages CC97, CC151 and ST136, were tested for their ability to adhere to and internalise within cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC), to bind bovine fibronectin, to form a biofilm in TSB, TSB+1% glucose and TSB+4% NaCl, and to induce an immune response from bMEC. There were no significant differences between the lineages in ability to adhere to or internalise within bMEC although there were significant differences between individual isolates. For lineages CC97 and ST136, mammalian cell adherence was correlated with the ability to bind bovine fibronectin, however isolates from CC151 could not bind bovine fibronectin in vitro, but adhered to bMEC in a fibronectin-independent manner. There were significant differences between the lineages in ability to form a biofilm in all three growth media with ST136 forming the strongest biofilm while CC151 formed the weakest biofilm. Lineages also differed in their ability to elicit an immune response from bMEC with CC97 eliciting a stronger immune response than CC151 and ST136. These data indicate the potential for both lineage and strain-specific virulence and a strain-specific response to infection in vivo and caution against extrapolating an effect from a single strain of S. aureus to draw conclusions regarding virulence or the host response to infection in unrelated lineages. PMID:27259823

  6. The Staphylococcus aureus Global Regulator MgrA Modulates Clumping and Virulence by Controlling Surface Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Heidi A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Merriman, Joseph A.; King, Jessica M.; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that causes devastating infections in a wide range of locations within the body. One of the defining characteristics of S. aureus is its ability to form clumps in the presence of soluble fibrinogen, which likely has a protective benefit and facilitates adhesion to host tissue. We have previously shown that the ArlRS two-component regulatory system controls clumping, in part by repressing production of the large surface protein Ebh. In this work we show that ArlRS does not directly regulate Ebh, but instead ArlRS activates expression of the global regulator MgrA. Strains lacking mgrA fail to clump in the presence of fibrinogen, and clumping can be restored to an arlRS mutant by overexpressing either arlRS or mgrA, indicating that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory pathway. We used RNA-seq to show that MgrA represses ebh, as well as seven cell wall-associated proteins (SraP, Spa, FnbB, SasG, SasC, FmtB, and SdrD). EMSA analysis showed that MgrA directly represses expression of ebh and sraP. Clumping can be restored to an mgrA mutant by deleting the genes for Ebh, SraP and SasG, suggesting that increased expression of these proteins blocks clumping by steric hindrance. We show that mgrA mutants are less virulent in a rabbit model of endocarditis, and virulence can be partially restored by deleting the genes for the surface proteins ebh, sraP, and sasG. While mgrA mutants are unable to clump, they are known to have enhanced biofilm capacity. We demonstrate that this increase in biofilm formation is partially due to up-regulation of SasG, a surface protein known to promote intercellular interactions. These results confirm that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory cascade, and that they control expression of a number of genes important for virulence, including those for eight large surface proteins. PMID:27144398

  7. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Over the last 75 years the AAUP has made progress in specifying its standards of governance and in reconciling traditional governance with collective bargaining. Excerpts from the "Joint Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities" and the "Statement on Academic Government for Institutions Engaged in Collective Bargaining" are presented.…

  8. The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Essential for Virulence and Modulates the Expression of Four Adhesins in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, Tamara Katharina; Kakoschke, Sara Carina; Zeuzem, Catharina; Bouabe, Hicham; Adler, Kristin; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rossier, Ombeline

    2016-01-01

    In Enterobacteriaceae, the RNA chaperone Hfq mediates the interaction of small RNAs with target mRNAs, thereby modulating transcript stability and translation. This post-transcriptional control helps bacteria adapt quickly to changing environmental conditions. Our previous mutational analysis showed that Hfq is involved in metabolism and stress survival in the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. In this study we demonstrate that Hfq is essential for virulence in mice and influences production of surface pathogenicity factors, in particular lipopolysaccharide and adhesins mediating interaction with host tissue. Hfq inhibited the production of Ail, the Ail-like protein OmpX and the MyfA pilin post-transcriptionally. In contrast Hfq promoted production of two major autotransporter adhesins YadA and InvA. While protein secretion in vitro was not affected, hfq mutants exhibited decreased protein translocation by the type III secretion system into host cells, consistent with decreased production of YadA and InvA. The influence of Hfq on YadA resulted from a complex interplay of transcriptional, post-transcriptional and likely post-translational effects. Hfq regulated invA by modulating the expression of the transcriptional regulators rovA, phoP and ompR. Therefore, Hfq is a global coordinator of surface virulence determinants in Y. enterocolitica suggesting that it constitutes an attractive target for developing new antimicrobial strategies. PMID:27387855

  9. Increased virulence using engineered protease-chitin binding domain hybrid expressed in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanhua; Pei, Xiaoqiong; Guo, Shujuan; Zhang, Yongjun; Luo, Zhibing; Liao, Xinggang; Pei, Yan

    2010-12-01

    Insect cuticles consist mainly of interlinked networks of proteins and the highly insoluble polysaccharide, chitin. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana, invade insects by direct penetration of host cuticles via the action of diverse hydrolases including proteases and chitinases coupled to mechanical pressure. In order to better target cuticle protein-chitin structures and accelerate penetration speed, a hybrid protease (CDEP-BmChBD) was constructed by fusion of a chitin binding domain BmChBD from Bombyx mori chitinase to the C-terminal of CDEP-1, a subtilisin-like protease from B. bassiana. Compared to the wild-type, the hybrid protease was able to bind chitin and released greater amounts of peptides/proteins from insect cuticles. The insecticidal activity of B. bassiana was enhanced by including proteases, CDEP-1 or CDEP:BmChBD produced in Pichia pastoris, as an additive, however, the augment effect of CDEP:BmChBD was significantly higher than that of CDEP-1. Expression of the hybrid protease in B. bassiana also significantly increased fungal virulence compared to wild-type and strains overexpressing the native protease. These results demonstrate that rational design virulence factor is a potential strategy for strain improvement by genetic engineering. PMID:20674735

  10. Evaluation of Virulence Gene Expression Patterns in Acinetobacter baumannii Using Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Array.

    PubMed

    Lannan, Ford M; O'conor, Daniel K; Broderick, Joseph C; Tate, Jamison F; Scoggin, Jacob T; Moran, Nicholas A; Husson, Christopher M; Hegeman, Erik M; Ogrydziak, Cole E; Singh, Sneha A; Vafides, Andrew G; Brinkley, Carl C; Goodin, Jeremy L

    2016-09-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control's recently devised National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii is a "serious" threat level pathogen. A. baumannii's notoriety stems from the fact that a large number of modern strains are multidrug resistant and persist in the hospital setting, thus causing numerous deaths per year. It is imperative that research focus on a more fundamental understanding of the factors responsible for the success of A. baumannii. Toward this end, our group investigated virulence gene expression patterns in a recently characterized wound isolate, AB5075, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array. Notably, several genes showed statistically significant upregulation at 37°C compared to 25°C; MviM, Wbbj, CarO, and certain genes of the Bas, Bar, and Csu operons. Additionally, we found that in vitro biofilm formation by Csu transposon insertion mutant strains is attenuated. These findings validate previous reports that suggest a link between the Csu operon and biofilm formation. More importantly, our results demonstrate a successful method for evaluating the significance of previously identified virulence factors in a modern and clinically relevant strain of A. baumannii, thereby providing a path toward a more fundamental understanding of the pathogenicity of A. baumannii. PMID:27612361

  11. The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Essential for Virulence and Modulates the Expression of Four Adhesins in Yersinia enterocolitica

    PubMed Central

    Kakoschke, Tamara Katharina; Kakoschke, Sara Carina; Zeuzem, Catharina; Bouabe, Hicham; Adler, Kristin; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rossier, Ombeline

    2016-01-01

    In Enterobacteriaceae, the RNA chaperone Hfq mediates the interaction of small RNAs with target mRNAs, thereby modulating transcript stability and translation. This post-transcriptional control helps bacteria adapt quickly to changing environmental conditions. Our previous mutational analysis showed that Hfq is involved in metabolism and stress survival in the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. In this study we demonstrate that Hfq is essential for virulence in mice and influences production of surface pathogenicity factors, in particular lipopolysaccharide and adhesins mediating interaction with host tissue. Hfq inhibited the production of Ail, the Ail-like protein OmpX and the MyfA pilin post-transcriptionally. In contrast Hfq promoted production of two major autotransporter adhesins YadA and InvA. While protein secretion in vitro was not affected, hfq mutants exhibited decreased protein translocation by the type III secretion system into host cells, consistent with decreased production of YadA and InvA. The influence of Hfq on YadA resulted from a complex interplay of transcriptional, post-transcriptional and likely post-translational effects. Hfq regulated invA by modulating the expression of the transcriptional regulators rovA, phoP and ompR. Therefore, Hfq is a global coordinator of surface virulence determinants in Y. enterocolitica suggesting that it constitutes an attractive target for developing new antimicrobial strategies. PMID:27387855

  12. Decreased in vivo virulence and altered gene expression by a Brucella melitensis light-sensing histidine kinase mutant

    PubMed Central

    Gourley, Christopher R.; Petersen, Erik; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Brucella species utilize diverse virulence factors. Previously, Brucella abortus light-sensing histidine kinase was identified as important for cellular infection. Here, we demonstrate that a Brucella melitensisLOV-HK (BM-LOV-HK) mutant strain has strikingly different gene expression than wild type. General stress response genes including the alternative sigma factor rpoE1 and its anti-anti-sigma factor phyR were downregulated, while flagellar, quorum sensing (QS), and type IV secretion system genes were upregulated in the ΔBM-LOV-HK strain vs. wild type. Contextually, expression results agree with other studies of transcriptional regulators involving ΔrpoE1, ΔphyR, ΔvjbR, and ΔblxR (ΔbabR) Brucella strains. Additionally, deletion of BM-LOV-HK decreases virulence in mice. During C57BL/6 mouse infection, the ΔBM-LOV-HK strain had 2 logs less CFUs in the spleen 3 days postinfection, but similar levels 6 days post infection compared to wild type. Infection of IRF-1−/− mice more specifically define ΔBM-LOV-HK strain attenuation with fewer bacteria in spleens and significantly increased survival of mutant vs. wild-type infected IRF-1−/− mice. Upregulation of flagella, QS, and VirB genes, along with downregulation of rpoE1 and related sigma factor, rpoH2 (BMEI0280) suggest that BM-LOV-HK modulates both QS and general stress response regulatory components to control Brucella gene expression on a global level. PMID:25132657

  13. A σE-Mediated Temperature Gauge Controls a Switch from LuxR-Mediated Virulence Gene Expression to Thermal Stress Adaptation in Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dan; Guo, Min; Yang, Minjun; Zhang, Yuanxing; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Qiyao

    2016-01-01

    In vibrios, the expression of virulence factors is often controlled by LuxR, the master quorum-sensing regulator. Here, we investigate the interplay between LuxR and σE, an alternative sigma factor, during the control of virulence-related gene expression and adaptations to temperature elevations in the zoonotic pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. An rpoE null V. alginolyticus mutant was unable to adapt to various stresses and was survival-deficient in fish. In wild type V. alginolyticus, the expression of LuxR-regulated virulence factors increased as the temperature was increased from 22°C to 37°C, but mutants lacking σE did not respond to temperature, indicating that σE is critical for the temperature-dependent upregulation of virulence genes. Further analyses revealed that σE binds directly to -10 and -35 elements in the luxR promoter that drive its transcription. ChIP assays showed that σE binds to the promoter regions of luxR, rpoH and rpoE at high temperatures (e.g., 30°C and 37°C). However, at higher temperatures (42°C) that induce thermal stress, σE binding to the luxR promoter decreased, while its binding to the rpoH and rpoE promoters was unchanged. Thus, the temperature-dependent binding of σE to distinct promoters appears to underlie a σE-controlled switch between the expression of virulence genes and adaptation to thermal stress. This study illustrates how a conserved temperature response mechanism integrates into quorum-sensing circuits to regulate both virulence and stress adaptation. PMID:27253371

  14. A σE-Mediated Temperature Gauge Controls a Switch from LuxR-Mediated Virulence Gene Expression to Thermal Stress Adaptation in Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dan; Guo, Min; Yang, Minjun; Zhang, Yuanxing; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Qiyao

    2016-06-01

    In vibrios, the expression of virulence factors is often controlled by LuxR, the master quorum-sensing regulator. Here, we investigate the interplay between LuxR and σE, an alternative sigma factor, during the control of virulence-related gene expression and adaptations to temperature elevations in the zoonotic pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. An rpoE null V. alginolyticus mutant was unable to adapt to various stresses and was survival-deficient in fish. In wild type V. alginolyticus, the expression of LuxR-regulated virulence factors increased as the temperature was increased from 22°C to 37°C, but mutants lacking σE did not respond to temperature, indicating that σE is critical for the temperature-dependent upregulation of virulence genes. Further analyses revealed that σE binds directly to -10 and -35 elements in the luxR promoter that drive its transcription. ChIP assays showed that σE binds to the promoter regions of luxR, rpoH and rpoE at high temperatures (e.g., 30°C and 37°C). However, at higher temperatures (42°C) that induce thermal stress, σE binding to the luxR promoter decreased, while its binding to the rpoH and rpoE promoters was unchanged. Thus, the temperature-dependent binding of σE to distinct promoters appears to underlie a σE-controlled switch between the expression of virulence genes and adaptation to thermal stress. This study illustrates how a conserved temperature response mechanism integrates into quorum-sensing circuits to regulate both virulence and stress adaptation. PMID:27253371

  15. Mutagenesis of Bordetella pertussis with transposon Tn5tac1: conditional expression of virulence-associated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, B T; Berg, D E; Goldman, W E

    1990-01-01

    The Tn5tac1 transposon contains a strong outward-facing promoter, Ptac, a lacI repressor gene, and a selectable Kanr gene. Transcription from Ptac is repressed by the lacI protein unless an inducer (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside [IPTG]) is present. Thus, Tn5tac1 generates insertion mutations in Escherichia coli with conditional phenotypes because it is polar on distal gene expression when IPTG is absent and directs transcription of these genes when the inducer is present. To test the usefulness of Tn5tac1 in Bordetella pertussis, a nonenteric gram-negative bacterial pathogen, we chose the bifunctional adenylate cyclase-hemolysin determinant as an easily scored marker to monitor insertional mutagenesis. Tn5tac1 delivered to B. pertussis on conjugal suicide plasmids resulted in Kanr exconjugants at a frequency of 10(-3) per donor cell, and nonhemolytic (Hly-) mutants were found among the Kanr colonies at a frequency of about 1%. Of eight independent Kanr Hly- mutants, two were conditional and exhibited an Hly+ phenotype only in the presence of IPTG. Using a new quantitative assay for adenylate cyclase based on high-pressure liquid chromatography, we found that enzymatic activity in these two strains was specifically induced at least 500-fold in a dose-dependent fashion over the range of 0 to 125 microM IPTG. These data show that Ptac serves as a promoter, lacI is expressed and is functional, and IPTG can induce Ptac transcription in B. pertussis. Adenylate cyclase expression in whole cells, culture supernatants, and cell extracts from these strains depended upon IPTG, suggesting that the insertions do not merely alter secretion of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. Other virulence determinants under control of the vir locus are expressed normally, implying that these Tn5tac1 insertions specifically regulate adenylate cyclase-hemolysin expression. We conclude that Tn5tac1 insertion mutations permit sensitive, exogenous control over the expression of genes of

  16. Virulence control in group A Streptococcus by a two-component gene regulatory system: global expression profiling and in vivo infection modeling.

    PubMed

    Graham, Morag R; Smoot, Laura M; Migliaccio, Cristi A Lux; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Porcella, Stephen F; Federle, Michael J; Adams, Gerald J; Scott, June R; Musser, James M

    2002-10-15

    Two-component gene regulatory systems composed of a membrane-bound sensor and cytoplasmic response regulator are important mechanisms used by bacteria to sense and respond to environmental stimuli. Group A Streptococcus, the causative agent of mild infections and life-threatening invasive diseases, produces many virulence factors that promote survival in humans. A two-component regulatory system, designated covRS (cov, control of virulence; csrRS), negatively controls expression of five proven or putative virulence factors (capsule, cysteine protease, streptokinase, streptolysin S, and streptodornase). Inactivation of covRS results in enhanced virulence in mouse models of invasive disease. Using DNA microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that CovR influences transcription of 15% (n = 271) of all chromosomal genes, including many that encode surface and secreted proteins mediating host-pathogen interactions. CovR also plays a central role in gene regulatory networks by influencing expression of genes encoding transcriptional regulators, including other two-component systems. Differential transcription of genes influenced by covR also was identified in mouse soft-tissue infection. This analysis provides a genome-scale overview of a virulence gene network in an important human pathogen and adds insight into the molecular mechanisms used by group A Streptococcus to interact with the host, promote survival, and cause disease. PMID:12370433

  17. cis-Acting elements that control expression of the master virulence regulatory gene atxA in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Dale, Jennifer L; Raynor, Malik J; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Koehler, Theresa M

    2012-08-01

    Transcription of the Bacillus anthracis structural genes for the anthrax toxin proteins and biosynthetic operon for capsule is positively regulated by AtxA, a transcription regulator with unique properties. Consistent with the role of atxA in virulence factor expression, a B. anthracis atxA-null mutant is avirulent in a murine model for anthrax. In culture, multiple signals impact atxA transcript levels, and the timing and steady-state level of atxA expression are critical for optimal toxin and capsule synthesis. Despite the apparent complex control of atxA transcription, only one trans-acting protein, the transition state regulator AbrB, has been demonstrated to interact directly with the atxA promoter. Here we employ 5' and 3' deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the atxA control region to demonstrate that atxA transcription from the major start site P1 is dependent upon a consensus sequence for the housekeeping sigma factor SigA and an A+T-rich upstream element for RNA polymerase. We also show that an additional trans-acting protein(s) binds specifically to atxA promoter sequences located between -13 and +36 relative to P1 and negatively impacts transcription. Deletion of this region increases promoter activity up to 15-fold. Site-directed mutagenesis of a 9-bp palindromic sequence within the region prevents binding of the trans-acting protein(s), increasing promoter activity 7-fold and resulting in a corresponding increase in AtxA and anthrax toxin production. Notably, an atxA promoter mutant that produced elevated levels of AtxA and toxin proteins during culture was unaffected for virulence in a murine model for anthrax. PMID:22636778

  18. Novel antibiofilm chemotherapy targets exopolysaccharide synthesis and stress tolerance in Streptococcus mutans to modulate virulence expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Falsetta, Megan L; Klein, Marlise I; Lemos, José A; Silva, Bruno B; Agidi, Senyo; Scott-Anne, Kathy K; Koo, Hyun

    2012-12-01

    Fluoride is the mainstay of dental caries prevention, and yet current applications offer incomplete protection and may not effectively address the infectious character of the disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of a novel combination therapy (CT; 2 mM myricetin, 4 mM tt-farnesol, 250 ppm of fluoride) that supplements fluoride with naturally occurring, food-derived, antibiofilm compounds. Treatment regimens simulating those experienced clinically (twice daily for ≤60 s) were used both in vitro over a saliva-coated hydroxyapatite biofilm model and in vivo with a rodent model of dental caries. The effectiveness of CT was evaluated based on the incidence and severity of carious lesions (compared to fluoride or vehicle control). We found that CT was superior to fluoride (positive control, P < 0.05); topical applications dramatically reduced caries development in Sprague-Dawley rats, all without altering the Streptococcus mutans or total populations within the plaque. We subsequently identified the underlying mechanisms through which applications of CT modulate biofilm virulence. CT targets expression of key Streptococcus mutans genes during biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. These are associated with exopolysaccharide matrix synthesis (gtfB) and the ability to tolerate exogenous stress (e.g., sloA), which are essential for cariogenic biofilm assembly. We also identified a unique gene (SMU.940) that was severely repressed and may represent a potentially novel target; its inactivation disrupted exopolysaccharide accumulation and matrix development. Altogether, CT may be clinically more effective than current anticaries modalities, targeting expression of bacterial virulence associated with pathogenesis of the disease. These observations may have relevance for development of enhanced therapies against other biofilm-dependent infections. PMID:22985885

  19. Novel Antibiofilm Chemotherapy Targets Exopolysaccharide Synthesis and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans To Modulate Virulence Expression In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Falsetta, Megan L.; Klein, Marlise I.; Lemos, José A.; Silva, Bruno B.; Agidi, Senyo; Scott-Anne, Kathy K.

    2012-01-01

    Fluoride is the mainstay of dental caries prevention, and yet current applications offer incomplete protection and may not effectively address the infectious character of the disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of a novel combination therapy (CT; 2 mM myricetin, 4 mM tt-farnesol, 250 ppm of fluoride) that supplements fluoride with naturally occurring, food-derived, antibiofilm compounds. Treatment regimens simulating those experienced clinically (twice daily for ≤60 s) were used both in vitro over a saliva-coated hydroxyapatite biofilm model and in vivo with a rodent model of dental caries. The effectiveness of CT was evaluated based on the incidence and severity of carious lesions (compared to fluoride or vehicle control). We found that CT was superior to fluoride (positive control, P < 0.05); topical applications dramatically reduced caries development in Sprague-Dawley rats, all without altering the Streptococcus mutans or total populations within the plaque. We subsequently identified the underlying mechanisms through which applications of CT modulate biofilm virulence. CT targets expression of key Streptococcus mutans genes during biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. These are associated with exopolysaccharide matrix synthesis (gtfB) and the ability to tolerate exogenous stress (e.g., sloA), which are essential for cariogenic biofilm assembly. We also identified a unique gene (SMU.940) that was severely repressed and may represent a potentially novel target; its inactivation disrupted exopolysaccharide accumulation and matrix development. Altogether, CT may be clinically more effective than current anticaries modalities, targeting expression of bacterial virulence associated with pathogenesis of the disease. These observations may have relevance for development of enhanced therapies against other biofilm-dependent infections. PMID:22985885

  20. An N-Terminal Signal Peptide Of Vfr Protein Negatively Influences RopB-Dependent SpeB Expression and Attenuates Virulence in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Shelburne, Samuel A.; Olsen, Randall J.; Makthal, Nishanth; Brown, Nicholas G.; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Watkins, Ebru M.; Palzkill, Timothy; Musser, James M.; Kumaraswami, Muthiah

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) is an extracellular cysteine protease that is a critical virulence factor made by the major human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). speB expression is dependent on the regulator of proteinase B (RopB) and is upregulated with increasing cell density and during infection. Because computer modeling suggested significant structural similarity between RopB and peptide-sensing regulatory proteins made by other Gram-positive bacteria, we hypothesized that speB expression is influenced by RopB-peptide interactions. Inactivation of the gene (vfr) encoding the virulence factor related (Vfr) protein resulted in increased speB transcript level during the exponential growth phase, whereas provision of only the amino-terminal region of Vfr comprising the secretion signal sequence in trans restored a wild-type speB expression profile. Addition of the culture supernatant from a Vfr signal peptide-expressing GAS strain restored wild-type speB transcript level to a vfr-inactivated isogenic mutant strain. A distinct peptide in the Vfr secretion signal sequence specifically bound to recombinant RopB. Finally, overexpression of the Vfr secretion signal sequence significantly decreased speB transcript level and attenuated GAS virulence in two mouse models of invasive infection. Taken together, these data delineate a previously unknown small peptide-mediated regulatory system that controls GAS virulence factor production. PMID:22040048

  1. CpsR, a GntR family regulator, transcriptionally regulates capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and governs bacterial virulence in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kaifeng; Xu, Hongmei; Zheng, Yuqiang; Wang, Libin; Zhang, Xuemei; Yin, Yibing

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of capsule expression is critical for pneumococcal transition from carriage to infection, yet the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. Here, we describe the regulation of capsular polysaccharide, one of the most important pneumococcal virulence factor by a GntR family regulator, CpsR. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays have shown the direct interaction between CpsR and the cps promoter (cpsp), and their interaction could be competitively interfered by glucose. DNase I footprinting assays localized the binding site to a region −146 to −114 base pairs relative to the transcriptional start site of the cps locus in S. pneumoniae D39. We found that CpsR negatively controlled the transcription of the cps locus and hence CPS production, which was confirmed by fine-tuning expression of CpsR in a ΔcpsR complemented strain. Increased expression of CpsR in complemented strain led to a decreased resistance to the whole-blood-mediated killing, suggesting a protective role for CpsR-cpsp interaction in the establishment of invasive infection. Finally, animal experiments showed that CpsR-cpsp interaction was necessary for both pneumococcal colonization and invasive infection. Taken together, our results provide a thorough insight into the regulation of capsule production mediated by CpsR and its important roles in pneumococcal pathogenesis. PMID:27386955

  2. Expression of Xylella fastidiosa RpfF in citrus disrupts signaling in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and thereby its virulence.

    PubMed

    Caserta, R; Picchi, S C; Takita, M A; Tomaz, J P; Pereira, W E L; Machado, M A; Ionescu, M; Lindow, S; De Souza, A A

    2014-11-01

    Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, that cause citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and citrus canker diseases, respectively, utilize diffusible signal factor (DSF) for quorum sensing. DSF, produced by RpfF, are similar fatty acids in both organisms, although a different set of genes is regulated by DSF in each species. Because of this similarity, Xylella fastidiosa DSF might be recognized and affect the biology of Xanthomonas citri. Therefore, transgenic Citrus sinensis and Carrizo citrange plants overexpressing the Xylella fastidiosa rpfF were inoculated with Xanthomonas citri and changes in symptoms of citrus canker were observed. X. citri biofilms formed only at wound sites on transgenic leaves and were thicker; however, bacteria were unable to break through the tissue and form pustules elsewhere. Although abundant growth of X. citri occurred at wound sites on inoculated transgenic leaves, little growth was observed on unwounded tissue. Genes in the DFS-responsive core in X. citri were downregulated in bacteria isolated from transgenic leaves. DSF-dependent expression of engA was suppressed in cells exposed to xylem sap from transgenic plants. Thus, altered symptom development appears to be due to reduced expression of virulence genes because of the presence of antagonists of DSF signaling in X. citri in rpfF-expressing plants. PMID:25099341

  3. Fur is required for the activation of virulence gene expression through the induction of the sae regulatory system in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Miranda; Sengupta, Mrittika; Purves, Joanne; Tarrant, Emma; Williams, Peter H.; Cockayne, Alan; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Stephenson, Robert; Ledala, Nagender; Wilkinson, Brian J.; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K.; Morrissey, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that both Sae and Fur are required for the induction of eap and emp expression in low iron. In this study, we show that expression of sae is also iron-regulated, as sae expression is activated by Fur in low iron. We also demonstrate that both Fur and Sae are required for full induction of the oxidative stress response and expression of non-covalently bound surface proteins in low-iron growth conditions. In addition, Sae is required for the induced expression of the important virulence factors isdA and isdB in low iron. Our studies also indicate that Fur is required for the induced expression of the global regulators Agr and Rot in low iron and a number of extracellular virulence factors such as the haemolysins which are also Sae- and Agr-regulated. Hence, we show that Fur is central to a complex regulatory network that is required for the induced expression of a number of important S. aureus virulence determinants in low iron. PMID:20705504

  4. Vru (Sub0144) controls expression of proven and putative virulence determinants and alters the ability of Streptococcus uberis to cause disease in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Egan, Sharon A; Ward, Philip N; Watson, Michael; Field, Terence R; Leigh, James A

    2012-06-01

    The regulation and control of gene expression in response to differing environmental stimuli is crucial for successful pathogen adaptation and persistence. The regulatory gene vru of Streptococcus uberis encodes a stand-alone response regulator with similarity to the Mga of group A Streptococcus. Mga controls expression of a number of important virulence determinants. Experimental intramammary challenge of dairy cattle with a mutant of S. uberis carrying an inactivating lesion in vru showed reduced ability to colonize the mammary gland and an inability to induce clinical signs of mastitis compared with the wild-type strain. Analysis of transcriptional differences of gene expression in the mutant, determined by microarray analysis, identified a number of coding sequences with altered expression in the absence of Vru. These consisted of known and putative virulence determinants, including Lbp (Sub0145), SclB (Sub1095), PauA (Sub1785) and hasA (Sub1696). PMID:22383474

  5. Tandem attenuators control expression of the Salmonella mgtCBR virulence operon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2012-10-01

    The mgtCBR operon from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium specifies the virulence protein MgtC, the Mg(2+) transporter MgtB and the regulatory peptide MgtR. The mgtCBR transcript includes a long leader region harbouring two short open reading frames (ORFs). Translation of these ORFs is anticipated to impact the formation of particular stem-loop structures and control transcription of the coding region by an attenuation-like mechanism. We previously reported that ORF mgtM enables Salmonella to promote transcription of the mgtC and mgtB coding regions when experiencing a rise in cytoplasmic ATP levels. We now show that the proline codon-rich ORF mgtP mediates an increase in transcription of the mgtC and mgtB coding regions under conditions predicted to decrease the levels of proline-charged tRNA(Pro) . The high ATP and low proline signals act independently in an additive form. Replacing conserved mgtP proline codons with codons specifying other amino acids abolished the response to proline limitation but had no effect on the response to ATP. Substitution of conserved adenine nucleotides in mgtM abolished the response to ATP but had no effect in the response to proline limitation. This provides a singular example of a leader mRNA with tandem attenuators responding to different signals. PMID:22857388

  6. Infection of human airway epithelial cells by different subtypes of Dobrava-Belgrade virus reveals gene expression patterns corresponding to their virulence potential.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Bourquain, Daniel; Bankov, Katrin; Auste, Brita; Dabrowski, Piotr W; Nitsche, Andreas; Krüger, Detlev H; Schaade, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is a pathogen causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe. Virulence and case fatality rate are associated with virus genotype; however the reasons for these differences are not well understood. In this work we present virus-specific effects on the gene expression profiles of human lung epithelial cells (A549) infected with different genotypes of DOBV (Dobrava, Kurkino, and Sochi), as well as the low-virulent Tula virus (TULV). The data was collected by whole-genome gene expression microarrays and confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Despite their close genetic relationship, the expression profiles induced by infection with different hantaviruses are significantly varying. Major differences were observed in regulation of immune response genes, which were especially induced by highly virulent DOBV genotypes Dobrava and Sochi in contrast to less virulent DOBV-Kurkino and TULV. This work gives first insights into the differences of virus - host interactions of DOBV on genotype level. PMID:27058765

  7. Mycobacterium bovis-infected macrophages from resistant and susceptible cattle exhibited a differential pro-inflammatory gene expression profile depending on strain virulence.

    PubMed

    Alfonseca-Silva, Edgar; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Gutiérrez-Pabello, José A

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, is an intracellular bacterium that normally persists inside host macrophages. However, the influence of bacterial virulence and host resistance on the final outcome in this interaction is not well known. In this study, we infected macrophages isolated from natural disease resistant (R) and susceptible (S) cattle donors with M. bovis strains characterized as attenuated and virulent to assess pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNFα, IL-12, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-6), chemokine (MCP-1, MCP-2, MIP-1), macrophage receptor (MSR1, TLR2, TLR4, MMR) and iNOS mRNA expression levels. Our findings identified a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile as a common feature after M. bovis infection regardless of bacterial virulence, however in S macrophages a superior expression was induced by the attenuated strain, whereas in R macrophages it was accomplished by the virulent M. bovis. A macrophage pro-inflammatory profile is intended to control M. bovis intracellular growth; however the host resistant phenotype plays a determinant role in it, since R macrophages had better intracellular bacterial control than S cells. PMID:26970816

  8. Mycobacterium abscessus phospholipase C expression is induced during coculture within amoebae and enhances M. abscessus virulence in mice.

    PubMed

    Bakala N'Goma, Jean Claude; Le Moigne, Vincent; Soismier, Nathalie; Laencina, Laura; Le Chevalier, Fabien; Roux, Anne-Laure; Poncin, Isabelle; Serveau-Avesque, Carole; Rottman, Martin; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Etienne, Gilles; Brosch, Roland; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Canaan, Stéphane; Girard-Misguich, Fabienne

    2015-02-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a pathogenic, rapidly growing mycobacterium involved in pulmonary and cutaneo-mucous infections worldwide, to which cystic fibrosis patients are exquisitely susceptible. The analysis of the genome sequence of M. abscessus showed that this bacterium is endowed with the metabolic pathways typically found in environmental microorganisms that come into contact with soil, plants, and aquatic environments, where free-living amoebae are frequently present. M. abscessus also contains several genes that are characteristically found only in pathogenic bacteria. One of them is MAB_0555, encoding a putative phospholipase C (PLC) that is absent from most other rapidly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we report that purified recombinant M. abscessus PLC is highly cytotoxic to mouse macrophages, presumably due to hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. We further showed by constructing and using an M. abscessus PLC knockout mutant that loss of PLC activity is deleterious to M. abscessus intracellular survival in amoebae. The importance of PLC is further supported by the fact that M. abscessus PLC was found to be expressed only in amoebae. Aerosol challenge of mice with M. abscessus strains that were precultured in amoebae enhanced M. abscessus lung infectivity relative to M. abscessus grown in broth culture. Our study underlines the importance of PLC for the virulence of M. abscessus. Despite the difficulties of isolating M. abscessus from environmental sources, our findings suggest that M. abscessus has evolved in close contact with environmental protozoa, which supports the argument that amoebae may contribute to the virulence of opportunistic mycobacteria. PMID:25486995

  9. Mycobacterium abscessus Phospholipase C Expression Is Induced during Coculture within Amoebae and Enhances M. abscessus Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bakala N'Goma, Jean Claude; Le Moigne, Vincent; Soismier, Nathalie; Laencina, Laura; Le Chevalier, Fabien; Roux, Anne-Laure; Poncin, Isabelle; Serveau-Avesque, Carole; Rottman, Martin; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Etienne, Gilles; Brosch, Roland; Canaan, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a pathogenic, rapidly growing mycobacterium involved in pulmonary and cutaneo-mucous infections worldwide, to which cystic fibrosis patients are exquisitely susceptible. The analysis of the genome sequence of M. abscessus showed that this bacterium is endowed with the metabolic pathways typically found in environmental microorganisms that come into contact with soil, plants, and aquatic environments, where free-living amoebae are frequently present. M. abscessus also contains several genes that are characteristically found only in pathogenic bacteria. One of them is MAB_0555, encoding a putative phospholipase C (PLC) that is absent from most other rapidly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we report that purified recombinant M. abscessus PLC is highly cytotoxic to mouse macrophages, presumably due to hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. We further showed by constructing and using an M. abscessus PLC knockout mutant that loss of PLC activity is deleterious to M. abscessus intracellular survival in amoebae. The importance of PLC is further supported by the fact that M. abscessus PLC was found to be expressed only in amoebae. Aerosol challenge of mice with M. abscessus strains that were precultured in amoebae enhanced M. abscessus lung infectivity relative to M. abscessus grown in broth culture. Our study underlines the importance of PLC for the virulence of M. abscessus. Despite the difficulties of isolating M. abscessus from environmental sources, our findings suggest that M. abscessus has evolved in close contact with environmental protozoa, which supports the argument that amoebae may contribute to the virulence of opportunistic mycobacteria. PMID:25486995

  10. Mutations in the Escherichia coli Ribosomal Protein L22 Selectively Suppress the Expression of a Secreted Bacterial Virulence Factor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the ribosomal protein L22 that impair peptide-mediated translation arrest in Escherichia coli have been shown to reduce the expression of several genes, including secA, which encodes an ATPase that drives protein export via the Sec pathway. Here, we used a comparative proteomic approach to obtain insight into the global effects of the L22(Δ82-84) mutation on gene expression and protein synthesis. While the mutation did not affect or modestly affected the level of most soluble proteins, it dramatically reduced the level of antigen 43 (Ag43), a secreted virulence factor that promotes autoaggregation. The reduced protein concentration correlated with a sharp decrease in the abundance and stability of Ag43 mRNA. We found that the overexpression of secA or the inactivation of genes that encode presecretory and membrane proteins restored Ag43 production in the L22 mutant strain. Furthermore, impairment of the Sec pathway in a wild-type strain reduced Ag43 production but did not significantly affect the synthesis of other presecretory proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that Ag43 gene expression is exquisitely sensitive to the status of the Sec machinery and strongly suggest that the L22 mutation decreases the Ag43 concentration indirectly by reducing secA expression. Our results imply the existence of a novel regulatory mechanism in which the efficiency of protein export is coupled to gene expression and help to explain the modulation of SecA synthesis that has been observed in response to secretion stress. PMID:23625843

  11. AlgU controls expression of virulence genes in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogenic bacteria are able to integrate information about their environment and adjust gene expression to provide adaptive functions. AlgU, an ECF sigma factor encoded by Pseudomonas syringae, controls expression of genes for alginate biosynthesis and is active while the bacteria are associa...

  12. Expression of Virulence-Related Genes in Listeria monocytogenes Grown on Danish Hard Cheese as Affected by NaCl Content.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-06-01

    Expression of virulence-related genes in Listeria monocytogenes incubated on cheese was assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of sodium chloride concentration in cheese on transcription of virulence genes and, thereby, virulence potential of L. monocytogenes. The expression studies were performed with L. monocytogenes strains characterized by different tolerance to salt stress. Strains ATCC(®) 51779 and DSMZ 15675 were incubated on the Danish hard-cheese type Samsoe, with low (<0.15% [wt/wt]) and high (3.6% [wt/wt]) content of NaCl. Genes differentially expressed (p<0.05) through the 48-h incubation were transcriptional regulators prfA and agrA, genes of the main virulence cluster inlA, hly, actA, involved in invasion of the epithelial cells, and genes bsh, opuC, gadC, clpP, and ami, associated with osmotic stress responses in L. monocytogenes. The more sensitive strain ATCC(®) 51779 was most responsive, showing significant upregulation of prfA, actA, hly, and bsh both at low and high NaCl. Strain DSMZ 15675 was less responsive to NaCl stress, showing reduced or consistent gene transcription at all conditions. Decreased transcription of agrA, ami, gadC, and opuC in both strains was promoted by low NaCl content. The study indicated that virulence gene expression of L. monocytogenes grown in cheese was affected by NaCl content and that effect was more significant in strains sensitive to both hypo- and hyperosmotic stresses. PMID:26067229

  13. Dual-site phosphorylation of the control of virulence regulator impacts group a streptococcal global gene expression and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Nicola; Saldaña, Miguel; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Thompson, Erika; Koller, Antonius; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorylation relays are a major mechanism by which bacteria alter transcription in response to environmental signals, but understanding of the functional consequences of bacterial response regulator phosphorylation is limited. We sought to characterize how phosphorylation of the control of virulence regulator (CovR) protein from the major human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) influences GAS global gene expression and pathogenesis. CovR mainly serves to repress GAS virulence factor-encoding genes and has been shown to homodimerize following phosphorylation on aspartate-53 (D53) in vitro. We discovered that CovR is phosphorylated in vivo and that such phosphorylation is partially heat-stable, suggesting additional phosphorylation at non-aspartate residues. Using mass spectroscopy along with targeted mutagenesis, we identified threonine-65 (T65) as an additional CovR phosphorylation site under control of the serine/threonine kinase (Stk). Phosphorylation on T65, as mimicked by the recombinant CovR T65E variant, abolished in vitro CovR D53 phosphorylation. Similarly, isoallelic GAS strains that were either unable to be phosphorylated at D53 (CovR-D53A) or had functional constitutive phosphorylation at T65 (CovR-T65E) had essentially an identical gene repression profile to each other and to a CovR-inactivated strain. However, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E isoallelic strains retained the ability to positively influence gene expression that was abolished in the CovR-inactivated strain. Consistent with these observations, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E strains were hypervirulent compared to the CovR-inactivated strain in a mouse model of invasive GAS disease. Surprisingly, an isoalleic strain unable to be phosphorylated at CovR T65 (CovR-T65A) was hypervirulent compared to the wild-type strain, as auto-regulation of covR gene expression resulted in lower covR gene transcript and CovR protein levels in the CovR-T65A strain. Taken together, these data establish that Cov

  14. Dual-Site Phosphorylation of the Control of Virulence Regulator Impacts Group A Streptococcal Global Gene Expression and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Horstmann, Nicola; Saldaña, Miguel; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Thompson, Erika; Koller, Antonius; Shelburne, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation relays are a major mechanism by which bacteria alter transcription in response to environmental signals, but understanding of the functional consequences of bacterial response regulator phosphorylation is limited. We sought to characterize how phosphorylation of the control of virulence regulator (CovR) protein from the major human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) influences GAS global gene expression and pathogenesis. CovR mainly serves to repress GAS virulence factor-encoding genes and has been shown to homodimerize following phosphorylation on aspartate-53 (D53) in vitro. We discovered that CovR is phosphorylated in vivo and that such phosphorylation is partially heat-stable, suggesting additional phosphorylation at non-aspartate residues. Using mass spectroscopy along with targeted mutagenesis, we identified threonine-65 (T65) as an additional CovR phosphorylation site under control of the serine/threonine kinase (Stk). Phosphorylation on T65, as mimicked by the recombinant CovR T65E variant, abolished in vitro CovR D53 phosphorylation. Similarly, isoallelic GAS strains that were either unable to be phosphorylated at D53 (CovR-D53A) or had functional constitutive phosphorylation at T65 (CovR-T65E) had essentially an identical gene repression profile to each other and to a CovR-inactivated strain. However, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E isoallelic strains retained the ability to positively influence gene expression that was abolished in the CovR-inactivated strain. Consistent with these observations, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E strains were hypervirulent compared to the CovR-inactivated strain in a mouse model of invasive GAS disease. Surprisingly, an isoalleic strain unable to be phosphorylated at CovR T65 (CovR-T65A) was hypervirulent compared to the wild-type strain, as auto-regulation of covR gene expression resulted in lower covR gene transcript and CovR protein levels in the CovR-T65A strain. Taken together, these data establish that Cov

  15. An In Vivo Selection Identifies Listeria monocytogenes Genes Required to Sense the Intracellular Environment and Activate Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Reniere, Michelle L; Whiteley, Aaron T; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2016-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen with a well-defined life-cycle that involves escape from a phagosome, rapid cytosolic growth, and ActA-dependent cell-to-cell spread, all of which are dependent on the master transcriptional regulator PrfA. The environmental cues that lead to temporal and spatial control of L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we took advantage of the robust up-regulation of ActA that occurs intracellularly and expressed Cre recombinase from the actA promoter and 5' untranslated region in a strain in which loxP sites flanked essential genes, so that activation of actA led to bacterial death. Upon screening for transposon mutants that survived intracellularly, six genes were identified as necessary for ActA expression. Strikingly, most of the genes, including gshF, spxA1, yjbH, and ohrA, are predicted to play important roles in bacterial redox regulation. The mutants identified in the genetic selection fell into three broad categories: (1) those that failed to reach the cytosolic compartment; (2) mutants that entered the cytosol, but failed to activate the master virulence regulator PrfA; and (3) mutants that entered the cytosol and activated transcription of actA, but failed to synthesize it. The identification of mutants defective in vacuolar escape suggests that up-regulation of ActA occurs in the host cytosol and not the vacuole. Moreover, these results provide evidence for two non-redundant cytosolic cues; the first results in allosteric activation of PrfA via increased glutathione levels and transcriptional activation of actA while the second results in translational activation of actA and requires yjbH. Although the precise host cues have not yet been identified, we suggest that intracellular redox stress occurs as a consequence of both host and pathogen remodeling their metabolism upon infection. PMID:27414028

  16. An In Vivo Selection Identifies Listeria monocytogenes Genes Required to Sense the Intracellular Environment and Activate Virulence Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen with a well-defined life-cycle that involves escape from a phagosome, rapid cytosolic growth, and ActA-dependent cell-to-cell spread, all of which are dependent on the master transcriptional regulator PrfA. The environmental cues that lead to temporal and spatial control of L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we took advantage of the robust up-regulation of ActA that occurs intracellularly and expressed Cre recombinase from the actA promoter and 5’ untranslated region in a strain in which loxP sites flanked essential genes, so that activation of actA led to bacterial death. Upon screening for transposon mutants that survived intracellularly, six genes were identified as necessary for ActA expression. Strikingly, most of the genes, including gshF, spxA1, yjbH, and ohrA, are predicted to play important roles in bacterial redox regulation. The mutants identified in the genetic selection fell into three broad categories: (1) those that failed to reach the cytosolic compartment; (2) mutants that entered the cytosol, but failed to activate the master virulence regulator PrfA; and (3) mutants that entered the cytosol and activated transcription of actA, but failed to synthesize it. The identification of mutants defective in vacuolar escape suggests that up-regulation of ActA occurs in the host cytosol and not the vacuole. Moreover, these results provide evidence for two non-redundant cytosolic cues; the first results in allosteric activation of PrfA via increased glutathione levels and transcriptional activation of actA while the second results in translational activation of actA and requires yjbH. Although the precise host cues have not yet been identified, we suggest that intracellular redox stress occurs as a consequence of both host and pathogen remodeling their metabolism upon infection. PMID:27414028

  17. Molecular Cooperativity Governs Diverse and Monoallelic Olfactory Receptor Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jianhua; Tian, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at organism level the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. The molecular mechanism of this Nobel-Prize winning puzzle remains unresolved after decades of extensive studies. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and proposed an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic and enhancer competition coupled to a negative feedback loop. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression. The model is validated by several experimental results, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle of multi-objective optimization in biology. The work is supported by the NIGMS/DMS Mathematical Biology program.

  18. Virulence-associated protein-specific serum immunoglobulin G-isotype expression in young foals protected against Rhodococcus equi pneumonia by oral immunization with virulent R. equi.

    PubMed

    Hooper-McGrevy, K E; Wilkie, B N; Prescott, J F

    2005-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether foals immunized orally from 2 days of age with virulent Rhodococcus equi developed a protective pulmonary immune response and to characterise the antibody response of the immunized foals to the virulence-associated proteins (Vaps) of the bacterium. Two groups of foals were used. One (n=4) was given live R. equi ATCC 33701 orally at 2, 7, and 14 days of age. The second group comprised three non-immunized foals age-matched to the vaccinates. At 3 weeks of age, 1 week after the final immunization, both groups were challenged intrabronchially with virulent R. equi ATCC 33701 and observed for 2 weeks post-challenge. Unvaccinated foals became clinically pneumonic and had high fever with increased heart and respiratory rates and severe pneumonia evident at necropsy. Foals of the immunized group remained healthy and lung lesions were not found post-mortem. Thus, it is possible to immunize young foals orally to protect them by 3 weeks of age against lung challenge with R. equi, even in the presence of maternal antibodies. The antibody response of the immunized foals confirmed that VapA and VapC are highly immunogenic. The immunoglobulin G isotype-related serum antibody response of immunized compared to non-immunized foals had an IgGT bias and a relatively low IgGa:IgGb ratio, both features different from what has been previously observed in immune adults and immune foals. This suggests that the serum IgG isotype profile of antibody cannot be used as a measure of evidence of protection against R. equi pneumonia. PMID:16112256

  19. Transcriptome-Based Identification of Differently Expressed Genes from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains Exhibiting Different Virulence in Rice Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Tae-Hwan; Song, Eun-Sung; Kim, Hong-Il; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcription patterns of two Xoo strains (KACC10331 and HB1009), which showed different virulence patterns against eight rice cultivars, including IRBB21 (carrying Xa21). In total, 743 genes showed a significant change (p-value < 0.001 in t-tests) in their mRNA expression levels in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 strain (K1 race). Among them, four remarkably enriched GO terms, DNA binding, transposition, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, and cellular macromolecule metabolic process, were identified in the upregulated genes. In addition, the expression of 44 genes was considerably higher (log2 fold changes > 2) in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain than in the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain. Furthermore, 13 and 12 genes involved in hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) and two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), respectively, were upregulated in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain, which we determined using either quantitative real-time PCR analysis or next-generation RNA sequencing. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of Xoo and to gain a better insight into the Xoo–rice interactions. PMID:26907259

  20. Transcriptome-Based Identification of Differently Expressed Genes from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains Exhibiting Different Virulence in Rice Varieties.

    PubMed

    Noh, Tae-Hwan; Song, Eun-Sung; Kim, Hong-Il; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcription patterns of two Xoo strains (KACC10331 and HB1009), which showed different virulence patterns against eight rice cultivars, including IRBB21 (carrying Xa21). In total, 743 genes showed a significant change (p-value < 0.001 in t-tests) in their mRNA expression levels in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 strain (K1 race). Among them, four remarkably enriched GO terms, DNA binding, transposition, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, and cellular macromolecule metabolic process, were identified in the upregulated genes. In addition, the expression of 44 genes was considerably higher (log2 fold changes > 2) in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain than in the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain. Furthermore, 13 and 12 genes involved in hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) and two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), respectively, were upregulated in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain, which we determined using either quantitative real-time PCR analysis or next-generation RNA sequencing. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of Xoo and to gain a better insight into the Xoo-rice interactions. PMID:26907259

  1. Natural plant products inhibits growth and alters the swarming motility, biofilm formation, and expression of virulence genes in enteroaggregative and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-Heredia, Alam; García, Santos; Merino-Mascorro, José Ángel; Feng, Peter; Heredia, Norma

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of plant products on the growth, swarming motility, biofilm formation and virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 and a strain of O104:H4 serotype. Extracts of Lippia graveolens and Haematoxylon brassiletto, and carvacrol, brazilin were tested by an antimicrobial microdilution method using citral and rifaximin as controls. All products showed bactericidal activity with minimal bactericidal concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 8.1 mg/ml. Swarming motility was determined in soft LB agar. Most compounds reduced swarming motility by 7%-100%; except carvacrol which promoted motility in two strains. Biofilm formation studies were done in microtiter plates. Rifaximin inhibited growth and reduced biofilm formation, but various concentrations of other compounds actually induced biofilm formation. Real time PCR showed that most compounds decreased stx2 expression. The expression of pic and rpoS in E. coli 042 were suppressed but in E. coli O104:H4 they varied depending on compounds. In conclusion, these extracts affect E. coli growth, swarming motility and virulence gene expression. Although these compounds were bactericidal for pathogenic E. coli, sublethal concentrations had varied effects on phenotypic and genotypic traits, and some increased virulence gene expression. PMID:27375253

  2. Characterization of pseudorabies virus mutants expressing carboxy-terminal truncations of gE: evidence for envelope incorporation, virulence, and neurotropism domains.

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, R S; Townley, R A; Eldridge, M G; Enquist, L W

    1997-01-01

    Glycoprotein E (gE) gene of pseudorabies virus (PRV) is conserved among diverse alphaherpesviruses and therefore is predicted to be important for virus survival. gE contributes to viral spread from cell to cell in a variety of hosts and is responsible, in part, for increased virulence or pathogenesis of the virus. Virulence and spread mediated by gE are thought to be highly correlated. We initiated this study to explore the hypothesis that these two phenotypes might reflect separate functions of the gE protein. We did so by focusing on the role of the gE carboxy terminus in neuronal spread. Viruses harboring nonsense mutations affecting the expression of the gE cytoplasmic domain had several notable phenotypes. First, the truncated gE proteins expressed from these mutants are not found in virion envelopes. Second, the mutants retain the ability to spread to all retinorecipient regions of the rodent brain after retinal infection of rats. Third, the mutants have the reduced virulence phenotype of a gE deletion mutant in rats. Finally, the mutants have distinct plaque-size phenotypes on MDBK cells but not PK15 cells. Based on these observations, we suggest that gE-mediated virulence and spread may reflect separate functions that are not mediated by gE on virus particles. PMID:9261363

  3. Global selection of Plasmodium falciparum virulence antigen expression by host antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Abdirahman I.; Warimwe, George M.; Muthui, Michelle K.; Kivisi, Cheryl A.; Kiragu, Esther W.; Fegan, Gregory W.; Bull, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite proteins called PfEMP1 that are inserted on the surface of infected erythrocytes, play a key role in the severe pathology associated with infection by the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. These proteins mediate binding of infected cells to the endothelial lining of blood vessels as a strategy to avoid clearance by the spleen and are major targets of naturally acquired immunity. PfEMP1 is encoded by a large multi-gene family called var. Mutually-exclusive transcriptional switching between var genes allows parasites to escape host antibodies. This study examined in detail the patterns of expression of var in a well-characterized sample of parasites from Kenyan Children. Instead of observing clear inverse relationships between the expression of broad sub-classes of PfEMP1, we found that expression of different PfEMP1 groups vary relatively independently. Parasite adaptation to host antibodies also appears to involve a general reduction in detectable var gene expression. We suggest that parasites switch both between different PfEMP1 variants and between high and low expression states. Such a strategy could provide a means of avoiding immunological detection and promoting survival under high levels of host immunity. PMID:26804201

  4. Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are avirulent in newborn and infant mice even when expressing virulence plasmid genes of Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Javier Santander, M.; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are human host-restricted pathogens. Therefore, there is no small susceptible animal host that can be used to assess the virulence and safety of vaccine strains derived from these Salmonella serovars. However, infant mice have been used to evaluate virulence and colonization by another human host-restricted pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. Methodology The possibility that infant mice host could be adapted for Salmonella led us to investigate the susceptibility of newborn and infant mice to oral infection with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes enteric fever in adult mice and this system has been used as a model for human typhoid. The pSTV virulence plasmid, not present in S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, plays an essential role in S. Typhimurium colonization and systemic infection of mice. We also conjugated pSTV into S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A serovars and evaluated these transconjugants in newborn and infant mice. Results We determined that the spv virulence genes from the S. Typhimurium virulence plasmid are expressed in S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A in a RpoS dependent fashion. Also, we determined that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A with and without pSTV transiently colonize newborn and infant mice tissues. Conclusion Newborn and infant mice infected with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A do not succumb to the infection and that carriage of the S. Typhimurium virulence plasmid, pSTV, did not influence these results. PMID:21252450

  5. Chamaecyparis obtusa Essential Oil Inhibits Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Expression of Virulence Factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sook; Kang, Sun-Young; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Young-Eun; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk; Kim, Kang-Ju

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has caused difficulty in treating infectious diseases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most commonly recognized antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Novel antibiotics are urgently required to treat these bacteria. Raw materials derived from natural sources can be used for the development of novel antibiotics, such as Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa), which has been traditionally used in treating asthmatic disease. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the essential oil (EO) extracted from C. obtusa leaves against MRSA was investigated. MRSA growth and acid production from glucose metabolism were inhibited at concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/mL C. obtusa EO. MRSA biofilm formation was observed using scanning electron microscopy and safranin staining. C. obtusa EO inhibited MRSA biofilm formation at concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/mL. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, mRNA expression of virulence factor genes, sea, agrA, and sarA, was observed. agrA expression was inhibited with C. obtusa EO concentrations greater than 0.2 mg/mL, whereas inhibition of sea and sarA expression was also observed at a concentration of 0.3 mg/mL. C. obtusa EO was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled for mass spectrometry, which identified 59 constituents, accounting to 98.99% of the total EO. These findings suggest that C. obtusa EO has antibacterial effects against MRSA, which might be associated with the major components of C. obtusa EO, such as sabinene (19.06%), α-terpinyl acetate (16.99%), bornyl acetate (10.48%), limonene (8.54%), elemol (7.47%), myrcene (5.86%), γ-terpinene (4.04%), and hibaene (3.01%). PMID:25923444

  6. Expression of homologous RND efflux pump genes is dependent upon AcrB expression: implications for efflux and virulence inhibitor design

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jessica M. A.; Smith, Helen E.; Ricci, Vito; Lawler, Amelia J.; Thompson, Louisa J.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Enterobacteriaceae have multiple efflux pumps that confer intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. AcrB mediates clinically relevant multidrug resistance and is required for virulence and biofilm formation, making it an attractive target for the design of inhibitors. The aim of this study was to assess the viability of single transporters as a target for efflux inhibition using Salmonella Typhimurium as the model pathogen. Methods The expression of resistance–nodulation–division (RND) efflux pump genes in response to the inactivation of single or multiple homologues was measured using real-time RT–PCR. Phenotypes of mutants were characterized by measuring antimicrobial susceptibility, dye accumulation and the ability to cause infection in vitro. Results The expression of all RND efflux pump genes was increased when single or multiple acr genes were inactivated, suggesting a feedback mechanism that activates the transcription of homologous efflux pump genes. When two or three acr genes were inactivated, the mutants had further reduced efflux, altered susceptibility to antimicrobials (including increased susceptibility to some, but conversely and counterintuitively, decreased susceptibility to some others) and were more attenuated in the tissue culture model than mutants lacking single pumps were. Conclusions These data indicate that it is critical to understand which pumps an inhibitor is active against and the effect of this on the expression of homologous systems. For some antimicrobials, an inhibitor with activity against multiple pumps will have a greater impact on susceptibility, but an unintended consequence of this may be decreased susceptibility to other drugs, such as aminoglycosides. PMID:25288678

  7. Genes necessary for expression of a virulence determinant and for transmission of Plasmodium falciparum are located on a 0.3-megabase region of chromosome 9.

    PubMed Central

    Day, K P; Karamalis, F; Thompson, J; Barnes, D A; Peterson, C; Brown, H; Brown, G V; Kemp, D J

    1993-01-01

    Virulence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is believed to relate to adhesion of parasitized erythrocytes to postcapillary venular endothelium (asexual cytoadherence). Transmission of malaria to the mosquito vector involves a switch from asexual to sexual development (gametocytogenesis). Continuous in vitro culture of P. falciparum frequently results in irreversible loss of asexual cytoadherence and gametocytogenesis. Field isolates and cloned lines differing in expression of these phenotypes were karyotyped by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. This analysis showed that expression of both phenotypes mapped to a 0.3-Mb subtelomeric deletion of chromosome 9. This deletion frequently occurs during adaptation of parasite isolates to in vitro culture. Parasites with this deletion did not express the variant surface agglutination phenotype and the putative asexual cytoadherence ligand designated P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1, which has recently been shown to undergo antigenic variation. The syntenic relationship between asexual cytoadherence and gametocytogenesis suggests that expression of these phenotypes is genetically linked. One explanation for this linkage is that both developmental pathways share a common cytoadherence mechanism. This proposed biological and genetic linkage between a virulence factor (asexual cytoadherence) and transmissibility (gametocytogenesis) would help explain why a high degree of virulence has evolved and been maintained in falciparum malaria. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8367496

  8. Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Deepak K; Chandran, Predeesh; Timm, Alicia E; Aguirre-Rojas, Lina; Smith, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, an invasive phytotoxic pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, causes huge economic losses in Africa, South America, and North America. Most acceptable and ecologically beneficial aphid management strategies include selection and breeding of D. noxia-resistant varieties, and numerous D. noxia resistance genes have been identified in T. aestivum and H. vulgare. North American D. noxia biotype 1 is avirulent to T. aestivum varieties possessing Dn4 or Dn7 genes, while biotype 2 is virulent to Dn4 and avirulent to Dn7. The current investigation utilized next-generation RNAseq technology to reveal that biotype 2 over expresses proteins involved in calcium signaling, which activates phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. Calcium signaling proteins comprised 36% of all transcripts identified in the two D. noxia biotypes. Depending on plant resistance gene-aphid biotype interaction, additional transcript groups included those involved in tissue growth; defense and stress response; zinc ion and related cofactor binding; and apoptosis. Activation of enzymes involved in PI metabolism by D. noxia biotype 2 aphids allows depletion of plant calcium that normally blocks aphid feeding sites in phloem sieve elements and enables successful, continuous feeding on plants resistant to avirulent biotype 1. Inhibition of the key enzyme phospholipase C significantly reduced biotype 2 salivation into phloem and phloem sap ingestion. PMID:26815857

  9. Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Deepak K.; Chandran, Predeesh; Timm, Alicia E.; Aguirre-Rojas, Lina; Smith, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, an invasive phytotoxic pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, causes huge economic losses in Africa, South America, and North America. Most acceptable and ecologically beneficial aphid management strategies include selection and breeding of D. noxia-resistant varieties, and numerous D. noxia resistance genes have been identified in T. aestivum and H. vulgare. North American D. noxia biotype 1 is avirulent to T. aestivum varieties possessing Dn4 or Dn7 genes, while biotype 2 is virulent to Dn4 and avirulent to Dn7. The current investigation utilized next-generation RNAseq technology to reveal that biotype 2 over expresses proteins involved in calcium signaling, which activates phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. Calcium signaling proteins comprised 36% of all transcripts identified in the two D. noxia biotypes. Depending on plant resistance gene-aphid biotype interaction, additional transcript groups included those involved in tissue growth; defense and stress response; zinc ion and related cofactor binding; and apoptosis. Activation of enzymes involved in PI metabolism by D. noxia biotype 2 aphids allows depletion of plant calcium that normally blocks aphid feeding sites in phloem sieve elements and enables successful, continuous feeding on plants resistant to avirulent biotype 1. Inhibition of the key enzyme phospholipase C significantly reduced biotype 2 salivation into phloem and phloem sap ingestion. PMID:26815857

  10. [The study of influence of stresses on virulence genes expression in foodborne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni].

    PubMed

    Efimochkina, N R; Bykova, I B; Markova, Yu M; Korotkevich, Yu V; Sheveleva, S A

    2016-01-01

    The study of the responses to cold exposure in Campylobacterjejuni (C. jejuni)--one of the most common foodborne pathogens is important for elucidating the mechanisms of acquisition of products contaminated with campylobacter, hazardous properties. These data are also necessary to create effective systems of microbiological controls at all stages of production and storage of food. 5 pairs of oligonucleotide primers were selected for detecting of genes cadF, cdtB, ciaB, flaA, iamA, encoding the main factors of pathogenicity of foodborne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni--adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells, production of CDT-toxin and mobility. To quantify the expression levels of target genes of C. jejuni a comparative method of determining the amount of amplification products of genes encoding pathogenicity factors of Campylobacter spp. has been developed using real-time PCR with intercalating dyes. To calculate and quantify gene expression the mathematical models have been obtained that allow extrapolation of threshold cycles of amplification to the initial number of copies of RNA/DNA in the tested samples. It has been established that exposure of C. jejuni at low temperatures +4 degrees C did not lead to increased levels of expression of genes cdtB and ciaB. However, in the populations of C. jejuni subjected to freezing, followed by incubation at optimum for the pathogen temperature of +42 degrees C, the increase in expression of mRNA encoding protein subunit B of CDT-toxin and antigenic marker of invasion took place. The number of copies of RNA in C. jejuni after stress exposure increased by 1.14-2.6 lg in comparison with intact cultures. CdtB and ciaB gene expression in C. jejuni can serve as an indicator of cell response to stress and helps to restore the functions of the bacterial cells after the termination of cold exposure and return of the pathogen in conditions favourable to the realization of its pathogenic potential. PMID:27228703

  11. Association between expression of immunoglobulin G-binding proteins by group A streptococci and virulence in a mouse skin infection model.

    PubMed Central

    Raeder, R; Boyle, M D

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we developed a mouse model of skin infection to test the association between expression of immunoglobulin-binding proteins by and infectivity of group A streptococci. Group A streptococci capable of crossing tissue barriers and establishing a lethal systemic infection in mice showed a higher level of immunoglobulin-binding protein expression. The group A streptococci recovered from the spleen of a mouse that died following a skin infection were found to be more virulent when injected into the skin of naive mice. Together, these results suggest that immunoglobulin-binding protein expression by group A streptococci correlates with their ability to establish invasive skin infections. Images PMID:8454339

  12. Effect of rpoS Mutation on the Stress Response and Expression of Virulence Factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sang-Jin; Silo-Suh, Laura; Woods, Donald E.; Hassett, Daniel J.; West, Susan E. H.; Ohman, Dennis E.

    1999-01-01

    The sigma factor RpoS (ςS) has been described as a general stress response regulator that controls the expression of genes which confer increased resistance to various stresses in some gram-negative bacteria. To elucidate the role of RpoS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa physiology and pathogenesis, we constructed rpoS mutants in several strains of P. aeruginosa, including PAO1. The PAO1 rpoS mutant was subjected to various environmental stresses, and we compared the resistance phenotype of the mutant to that of the parent. The PAO1 rpoS mutant was slightly more sensitive to carbon starvation than the wild-type strain, but this phenotype was obvious only when the cells were grown in a medium supplemented with glucose as the sole carbon source. In addition, the PAO1 rpoS mutant was hypersensitive to heat shock at 50°C, increased osmolarity, and prolonged exposure to high concentrations of H2O2. In accordance with the hypersensitivity to H2O2, catalase production was 60% lower in the rpoS mutant than in the parent strain. We also assessed the role of RpoS in the production of several exoproducts known to be important for virulence of P. aeruginosa. The rpoS mutant produced 50% less exotoxin A, but it produced only slightly smaller amounts of elastase and LasA protease than the parent strain. The levels of phospholipase C and casein-degrading proteases were unaffected by a mutation in rpoS in PAO1. The rpoS mutation resulted in the increased production of the phenazine antibiotic pyocyanin and the siderophore pyoverdine. This increased pyocyanin production may be responsible for the enhanced virulence of the PAO1 rpoS mutant that was observed in a rat chronic-lung-infection model. In addition, the rpoS mutant displayed an altered twitching-motility phenotype, suggesting that the colonization factors, type IV fimbriae, were affected. Finally, in an alginate-overproducing cystic fibrosis (CF) isolate, FRD1, the rpoS101::aacCI mutation almost completely abolished the

  13. Heterologous expression of viral suppressors of RNA silencing complements virulence of the HC-Pro mutant of clover yellow vein virus in pea.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Go; Nakahara, Kenji S; Wada, Tomoko Sugikawa; Choi, Sun Hee; Masuta, Chikara; Uyeda, Ichiro

    2012-06-01

    Many plant viruses encode suppressors of RNA silencing, including the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of potyviruses. Our previous studies showed that a D-to-Y mutation at amino acid position 193 in HC-Pro (HC-Pro-D193Y) drastically attenuated the virulence of clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) in legume plants. Furthermore, RNA-silencing suppression (RSS) activity of HC-Pro-D193Y was significantly reduced in Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we examine the effect of expression of heterologous suppressors of RNA silencing, i.e., tomato bushy stunt virus p19, cucumber mosaic virus 2b, and their mutants, on the virulence of the ClYVV point mutant with D193Y (Cl-D193Y) in pea. P19 and 2b fully and partially complemented Cl-D193Y multiplication and virulence, including lethal systemic HR in pea, respectively, but the P19 and 2b mutants with defects in their RSS activity did not. Our findings strongly suggest that the D193Y mutation exclusively affects RSS activity of HC-Pro and that RSS activity is necessary for ClYVV multiplication and virulence in pea. PMID:22398917

  14. A Fusarium graminearum xylanase expressed during wheat infection is a necrotizing factor but is not essential for virulence.

    PubMed

    Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Faoro, Franco; Odorizzi, Silvana; D'Ovidio, Renato; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Favaron, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the fungal pathogen mainly responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereal crops, which attacks wheat spikes, reducing crop production and quality of grain by producing trichothecene mycotoxins. Several cytohistological studies showed that spike infection is associated with the production of cell wall degrading enzymes. Wheat tissue, as in other commelinoid monocot plants, is particularly rich in xylan which can be hydrolyzed by fungal endo-1,4-β-xylanase. The FG_03624 is one of the most expressed xylanase genes in wheat spikes 3 days after inoculation and was heterologously expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein (22.7 kDa) possessed xylanase activity and induced cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in wheat leaves infiltrated with 10 ng/μl or in wheat lemma surface treated with 20 ng/μl. This effect reflects that observed with other described fungal xylanases (from Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma viride and Botrytis cinerea) with which the FG_03624 protein shares a stretch of amino acids reported as essential for elicitation of necrotic responses. Several F. graminearum mutants with the FG_03624 gene disrupted were obtained, and showed about 40% reduction of xylanase activity in comparison to the wild type when grown in culture with xylan as carbon source. However, they were fully virulent when assayed by single floret inoculation on wheat cvs. Bobwhite and Nandu. This is the first report of a xylanase able to induce hypersensitive-like symptoms on a monocot plant. PMID:23337356

  15. Transcriptome of Proteus mirabilis in the murine urinary tract: virulence and nitrogen assimilation gene expression.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Melanie M; Yep, Alejandra; Smith, Sara N; Mobley, Harry L T

    2011-07-01

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections. In this study, microarrays were used to analyze P. mirabilis gene expression in vivo from experimentally infected mice. Urine was collected at 1, 3, and 7 days postinfection, and RNA was isolated from bacteria in the urine for transcriptional analysis. Across nine microarrays, 471 genes were upregulated and 82 were downregulated in vivo compared to in vitro broth culture. Genes upregulated in vivo encoded mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae, urease, iron uptake systems, amino acid and peptide transporters, pyruvate metabolism enzymes, and a portion of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. Flagella were downregulated. Ammonia assimilation gene glnA (glutamine synthetase) was repressed in vivo, while gdhA (glutamate dehydrogenase) was upregulated in vivo. Contrary to our expectations, ammonia availability due to urease activity in P. mirabilis did not drive this gene expression. A gdhA mutant was growth deficient in minimal medium with citrate as the sole carbon source, and loss of gdhA resulted in a significant fitness defect in the mouse model of urinary tract infection. Unlike Escherichia coli, which represses gdhA and upregulates glnA in vivo and cannot utilize citrate, the data suggest that P. mirabilis uses glutamate dehydrogenase to monitor carbon-nitrogen balance, and this ability contributes to the pathogenic potential of P. mirabilis in the urinary tract. PMID:21505083

  16. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  17. Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Porcine Alveolar Macrophages Infected with Virulent/Attenuated Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Cheng, Qun; Yu, Ling-Xue; Wang, Ya-Xin; Yang, Shen; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu; Gao, Fei; Yu, Hai; Li, Guo-Xin; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is still a serious threat to the swine industry. However, the pathogenic mechanism of HP-PRRSV remains unclear. We infected host porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) with the virulent HuN4 strain and the attenuated HuN4-F112 strain and then utilized fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen for intracellular proteins that were differentially expressed in host cells infected with the two strains. There were 153 proteins with significant different expression (P<0.01) observed, 42 of which were subjected to mass spectrometry, and 24 proteins were identified. PAM cells infected with the virulent strain showed upregulated expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), and proteasome subunit alpha type 6 (PSMA6), which were downregulated in cells infected with the attenuated strain. The upregulation of PKM2 provides sufficient energy for viral replication, and the upregulation of HSPB1 inhibits host cell apoptosis and therefore facilitates mass replication of the virulent strain, while the upregulation of PSMA6 facilitates the evasion of immune surveillance by the virus. Studying on those molecules mentioned above may be able to help us to understand some unrevealed details of HP-PRRSV infection, and then help us to decrease its threat to the swine industry in the future. PMID:24465692

  18. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with virulent/attenuated strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Zhou, Tao; Cheng, Qun; Yu, Ling-Xue; Wang, Ya-Xin; Yang, Shen; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu; Gao, Fei; Yu, Hai; Li, Guo-Xin; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is still a serious threat to the swine industry. However, the pathogenic mechanism of HP-PRRSV remains unclear. We infected host porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) with the virulent HuN4 strain and the attenuated HuN4-F112 strain and then utilized fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen for intracellular proteins that were differentially expressed in host cells infected with the two strains. There were 153 proteins with significant different expression (P<0.01) observed, 42 of which were subjected to mass spectrometry, and 24 proteins were identified. PAM cells infected with the virulent strain showed upregulated expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), and proteasome subunit alpha type 6 (PSMA6), which were downregulated in cells infected with the attenuated strain. The upregulation of PKM2 provides sufficient energy for viral replication, and the upregulation of HSPB1 inhibits host cell apoptosis and therefore facilitates mass replication of the virulent strain, while the upregulation of PSMA6 facilitates the evasion of immune surveillance by the virus. Studying on those molecules mentioned above may be able to help us to understand some unrevealed details of HP-PRRSV infection, and then help us to decrease its threat to the swine industry in the future. PMID:24465692

  19. The Abi-domain protein Abx1 interacts with the CovS histidine kinase to control virulence gene expression in group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Firon, Arnaud; Tazi, Asmaa; Da Cunha, Violette; Brinster, Sophie; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Golenbock, Douglas T; Glaser, Philippe; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a common commensal of the female genital tract, is the leading cause of invasive infections in neonates. Expression of major GBS virulence factors, such as the hemolysin operon cyl, is regulated directly at the transcriptional level by the CovSR two-component system. Using a random genetic approach, we identified a multi-spanning transmembrane protein, Abx1, essential for the production of the GBS hemolysin. Despite its similarity to eukaryotic CaaX proteases, the Abx1 function is not involved in a post-translational modification of the GBS hemolysin. Instead, we demonstrate that Abx1 regulates transcription of several virulence genes, including those comprising the hemolysin operon, by a CovSR-dependent mechanism. By combining genetic analyses, transcriptome profiling, and site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that Abx1 is a regulator of the histidine kinase CovS. Overexpression of Abx1 is sufficient to activate virulence gene expression through CovS, overcoming the need for an additional signal. Conversely, the absence of Abx1 has the opposite effect on virulence gene expression consistent with CovS locked in a kinase-competent state. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, direct interaction between Abx1 and CovS was mapped specifically to CovS domains involved in signal processing. We demonstrate that the CovSR two-component system is the core of a signaling pathway integrating the regulation of CovS by Abx1 in addition to the regulation of CovR by the serine/threonine kinase Stk1. In conclusion, our study reports a regulatory function for Abx1, a member of a large protein family with a characteristic Abi-domain, which forms a signaling complex with the histidine kinase CovS in GBS. PMID:23436996

  20. The Global Response Regulator ExpA Controls Virulence Gene Expression through RsmA-Mediated and RsmA-Independent Pathways in Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, M.; Lee, G. W.; Nykyri, J.; Lee, Y. H.; Pirhonen, M.

    2014-01-01

    ExpA (GacA) is a global response regulator that controls the expression of major virulence genes, such as those encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) in the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193. Several studies with pectobacteria as well as related phytopathogenic gammaproteobacteria, such as Dickeya and Pseudomonas, suggest that the control of virulence by ExpA and its homologues is executed partly by modulating the activity of RsmA, an RNA-binding posttranscriptional regulator. To elucidate the extent of the overlap between the ExpA and RsmA regulons in P. wasabiae, we characterized both regulons by microarray analysis. To do this, we compared the transcriptomes of the wild-type strain, an expA mutant, an rsmA mutant, and an expA rsmA double mutant. The microarray data for selected virulence-related genes were confirmed through quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR). Subsequently, assays were performed to link the observed transcriptome differences to changes in bacterial phenotypes such as growth, motility, PCWDE production, and virulence in planta. An extensive overlap between the ExpA and RsmA regulons was observed, suggesting that a substantial portion of ExpA regulation appears to be mediated through RsmA. However, a number of genes involved in the electron transport chain and oligogalacturonide metabolism, among other processes, were identified as being regulated by ExpA independently of RsmA. These results suggest that ExpA may only partially impact fitness and virulence via RsmA. PMID:24441162

  1. The global response regulator ExpA controls virulence gene expression through RsmA-mediated and RsmA-independent pathways in Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193.

    PubMed

    Broberg, M; Lee, G W; Nykyri, J; Lee, Y H; Pirhonen, M; Palva, E T

    2014-03-01

    ExpA (GacA) is a global response regulator that controls the expression of major virulence genes, such as those encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) in the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193. Several studies with pectobacteria as well as related phytopathogenic gammaproteobacteria, such as Dickeya and Pseudomonas, suggest that the control of virulence by ExpA and its homologues is executed partly by modulating the activity of RsmA, an RNA-binding posttranscriptional regulator. To elucidate the extent of the overlap between the ExpA and RsmA regulons in P. wasabiae, we characterized both regulons by microarray analysis. To do this, we compared the transcriptomes of the wild-type strain, an expA mutant, an rsmA mutant, and an expA rsmA double mutant. The microarray data for selected virulence-related genes were confirmed through quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR). Subsequently, assays were performed to link the observed transcriptome differences to changes in bacterial phenotypes such as growth, motility, PCWDE production, and virulence in planta. An extensive overlap between the ExpA and RsmA regulons was observed, suggesting that a substantial portion of ExpA regulation appears to be mediated through RsmA. However, a number of genes involved in the electron transport chain and oligogalacturonide metabolism, among other processes, were identified as being regulated by ExpA independently of RsmA. These results suggest that ExpA may only partially impact fitness and virulence via RsmA. PMID:24441162

  2. Recombinant expression and antigenic properties of a 32-kilodalton extracellular alkaline protease, representing a possible virulence factor from Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M; Menz, G; Blaser, K; Crameri, R

    1994-01-01

    A 32-kDa nonglycosylated alkaline protease (EC 3.4.1.14) with elastolytic activity, secreted by the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 42202, is suggested to be a virulence factor of this fungus. The enzyme is a serine protease of the subtilisin family, and its cDNA nucleotide sequence has recently been reported. We have cloned the cDNA encoding the mature protease into a high-level Escherichia coli expression plasmid and produced the recombinant protease as a fusion protein with a six-adjacent-histidine affinity tag at the carboxy terminus. Subsequently, the recombinant protease was purified to homogeneity, with affinity chromatography yielding 30 to 40 mg of recombinant protease per liter of E. coli culture. Refolded recombinant protease, in comparison with native protease, demonstrated weak enzymatic activity but similar immunochemical characteristics as analyzed by antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), competition ELISA, and immunoblotting assays. To assess the allergenic potential of the protease, sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and sera from healthy control individuals were analyzed by ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis did not have protease-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and, remarkably, did not show significantly elevated protease-specific IgG antibody levels compared with those in sera from healthy control individuals. This suggests that the alkaline protease from A. fumigatus does not elicit IgE antibodies and has weak immunogenicity, a property which may explain fungus persistence in allergic individuals. Images PMID:8112866

  3. A Naturally Occurring Mutation in ropB Suppresses SpeB Expression and Reduces M1T1 Group A Streptococcal Systemic Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Andrew; Aziz, Ramy K.; Kansal, Rita; Kotb, Malak; Nizet, Victor; Walker, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of group A streptococcus (GAS) have noted an inverse relationship between SpeB expression and invasive disease. However, the role of SpeB in the course of infection is still unclear. In this study we utilize a SpeB-negative M1T1 clinical isolate, 5628, with a naturally occurring mutation in the gene encoding the regulator RopB, to elucidate the role of RopB and SpeB in systemic virulence. Allelic exchange mutagenesis was used to replace the mutated ropB allele in 5628 with the intact allele from the well characterized isolate 5448. The inverse allelic exchange was also performed to replace the intact ropB in 5448 with the mutated allele from 5628. An intact ropB was found to be essential for SpeB expression. While the ropB mutation was shown to have no effect on hemolysis of RBC's, extracellular DNase activity or survival in the presence of neutrophils, strains with the mutated ropB allele were less virulent in murine systemic models of infection. An isogenic SpeB knockout strain containing an intact RopB showed similarly reduced virulence. Microarray analysis found genes of the SpeB operon to be the primary target of RopB regulation. These data show that an intact RopB and efficient SpeB production are necessary for systemic infection with GAS. PMID:19116661

  4. A naturally occurring mutation in ropB suppresses SpeB expression and reduces M1T1 group A streptococcal systemic virulence.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Aziz, Ramy K; Kansal, Rita; Kotb, Malak; Nizet, Victor; Walker, Mark J

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of group A streptococcus (GAS) have noted an inverse relationship between SpeB expression and invasive disease. However, the role of SpeB in the course of infection is still unclear. In this study we utilize a SpeB-negative M1T1 clinical isolate, 5628, with a naturally occurring mutation in the gene encoding the regulator RopB, to elucidate the role of RopB and SpeB in systemic virulence. Allelic exchange mutagenesis was used to replace the mutated ropB allele in 5628 with the intact allele from the well characterized isolate 5448. The inverse allelic exchange was also performed to replace the intact ropB in 5448 with the mutated allele from 5628. An intact ropB was found to be essential for SpeB expression. While the ropB mutation was shown to have no effect on hemolysis of RBC's, extracellular DNase activity or survival in the presence of neutrophils, strains with the mutated ropB allele were less virulent in murine systemic models of infection. An isogenic SpeB knockout strain containing an intact RopB showed similarly reduced virulence. Microarray analysis found genes of the SpeB operon to be the primary target of RopB regulation. These data show that an intact RopB and efficient SpeB production are necessary for systemic infection with GAS. PMID:19116661

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence expression is directly activated by morphine and is capable of causing lethal gut derived sepsis in mice during chronic morphine administration

    PubMed Central

    Babrowski, Trissa; Holbrook, Christopher; Moss, Jonathan; Gottlieb, Lawrence; Valuckaite, Vesta; Zaborin, Alexander; Poroyko, Valeriy; Liu, Donald C.; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was designed to examine the effect of morphine administration on the intestinal mucus barrier and determine its direct effect on the virulence and lethality of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most frequent pathogens to colonize the gut of critically ill patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Surgical injury is associated with significant exposure of host tissues to morphine from both endogenous release as well as its use as a potent analgesic agent. Morphine use in surgical patients exposed to extreme physiologic stress is well established to result in increased infection risk. Although morphine is a known immunosuppressant, whether it directly induces virulence expression and lethality in microbes that colonize the human gut remains unknown. METHODS Mice were implanted with a slow release morphine or placebo pellet with and without intestinal inoculation of P. aeruginosa created by direct cecal injection. Mucus production and epithelial integrity was assessed in cecal tissue via Alcian Blue staining and histological analysis. In vivo and in vitro P. aeruginosa virulence expression was examined using reporter strains tagged to the epithelial barrier disrupting protein PA-I lectin. P. aeruginosa chemotaxis toward morphine was also assayed in vitro. Finally the direct effect of morphine to induce PA-I lectin expression was determined in the absence and presence of methylnaltrexone, a mu opioid receptor antagonist. RESULTS Mice intestinally inoculated with P. aeruginosa and implanted with a morphine pellet demonstrated significant suppression of intestinal mucus, disrupted intestinal epithelium and enhanced mortality whereas exposure of mice to either systemic morphine or intestinal P. aeruginosa alone enhanced intestinal mucus without mortality suggesting a shift in P. aeruginosa during morphine exposure to a mucus suppressing, barrier disrupting, and lethal phenotype. Direct exposure of P. aeruginosa to morphine in vitro confirmed that morphine

  6. Association and Virulence Gene Expression Vary among Serotype III Group B Streptococcus Isolates following Exposure to Decidual and Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Korir, Michelle L.; Knupp, David; LeMerise, Kathryn; Boldenow, Erica; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Aronoff, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes severe disease in neonates, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. GBS species are highly diverse and can be classified by serotype and multilocus sequence typing. Sequence type 17 (ST-17) strains cause invasive neonatal disease more frequently than strains of other STs. Attachment and invasion of host cells are key steps in GBS pathogenesis. We investigated whether four serotype III strains representing ST-17 (two strains), ST-19, and ST-23 differ in their abilities to attach to and invade both decidual cells and lung epithelial cells. Virulence gene expression following host cell association and exposure to amnion cells was also tested. The ST-17 strains differed in their abilities to attach to and invade decidual cells, whereas there were no differences with lung epithelial cells. The ST-19 and ST-23 strains, however, attached to and invaded decidual cells less than both ST-17 strains. Although the ST-23 strain attached to lung epithelial cells better than ST-17 and -19 strains, none of the strains effectively invaded the lung epithelial cells. Notably, the association with host cells resulted in the differential expression of several virulence genes relative to basal expression levels. Similar expression patterns of some genes were observed regardless of cell type used. Collectively, these results show that GBS strains differ in their abilities to attach to distinct host cell types and express key virulence genes that are relevant to the disease process. Enhancing our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms could aid in the identification of novel therapeutic targets or vaccine candidates that could potentially decrease morbidity and mortality associated with neonatal infections. PMID:25135682

  7. FliZ is a global regulatory protein affecting the expression of flagellar and virulence genes in individual Xenorhabdus nematophila bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Jubelin, Grégory; Lanois, Anne; Severac, Dany; Rialle, Stéphanie; Longin, Cyrille; Gaudriault, Sophie; Givaudan, Alain

    2013-10-01

    Heterogeneity in the expression of various bacterial genes has been shown to result in the presence of individuals with different phenotypes within clonal bacterial populations. The genes specifying motility and flagellar functions are coordinately regulated and form a complex regulon, the flagellar regulon. Complex interplay has recently been demonstrated in the regulation of flagellar and virulence gene expression in many bacterial pathogens. We show here that FliZ, a DNA-binding protein, plays a key role in the insect pathogen, Xenorhabdus nematophila, affecting not only hemolysin production and virulence in insects, but efficient swimming motility. RNA-Seq analysis identified FliZ as a global regulatory protein controlling the expression of 278 Xenorhabdus genes either directly or indirectly. FliZ is required for the efficient expression of all flagellar genes, probably through its positive feedback loop, which controls expression of the flhDC operon, the master regulator of the flagellar circuit. FliZ also up- or downregulates the expression of numerous genes encoding non-flagellar proteins potentially involved in key steps of the Xenorhabdus lifecycle. Single-cell analysis revealed the bimodal expression of six identified markers of the FliZ regulon during exponential growth of the bacterial population. In addition, a combination of fluorescence-activated cell sorting and RT-qPCR quantification showed that this bimodality generated a mixed population of cells either expressing ("ON state") or not expressing ("OFF state") FliZ-dependent genes. Moreover, studies of a bacterial population exposed to a graded series of FliZ concentrations showed that FliZ functioned as a rheostat, controlling the rate of transition between the "OFF" and "ON" states in individuals. FliZ thus plays a key role in cell fate decisions, by transiently creating individuals with different potentials for motility and host interactions. PMID:24204316

  8. Virulence Determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the in vitro and in vivo assays that are available for determination of pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes bacteria, highlighting the value of using multiplex PCR for rapid and accurate assessment of listerial virulence....

  9. A two-component regulatory system, CsrR-CsrS, represses expression of three Streptococcus pyogenes virulence factors, hyaluronic acid capsule, streptolysin S, and pyrogenic exotoxin B.

    PubMed

    Heath, A; DiRita, V J; Barg, N L; Engleberg, N C

    1999-10-01

    Certain Tn916 insertions in the chromosome of an M1-type, nonmucoid Streptococcus pyogenes isolate (MGAS166) were previously shown to result in stable mucoidy with increased expression of the capsular synthetic genes. The transposon insertions in these strains are directly upstream of an apparent operon encoding a two-component regulatory system, designated csrR-csrS. Compared with MGAS166, these mucoid mutants are more hemolytic and cause significantly more tissue damage in a murine model of skin infection. To extend these observations, we constructed an in-frame deletion in the gene encoding the response regulator, csrR, and we evaluated the expression of other known S. pyogenes virulence factors. We discovered that csrR mutants have enhanced transcription of sagA, a gene associated with streptolysin S (SLS) and speB, the gene encoding pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB). The mutants also express substantially higher SLS activity and SpeB antigen in late-exponential-phase cultures. There is no change in expression of emm, scpA, sic, or cpa (genes encoding other S. pyogenes virulence factors). CsrR- strains but not the wild-type parental strain produce necrotizing lesions in a mouse model of subcutaneous infection. A double mutant with deletions in both csrR and the capsular synthesis genes caused fewer and smaller necrotic skin lesions than the csrR mutants. However, this nonmucoid csrR strain was more likely than the wild type to yield necrotic lesions, suggesting that mucoidy contributes to virulence in this model of infection but that there are other csrR-regulated factors involved in the production of necrotic lesions. PMID:10496909

  10. A Two-Component Regulatory System, CsrR-CsrS, Represses Expression of Three Streptococcus pyogenes Virulence Factors, Hyaluronic Acid Capsule, Streptolysin S, and Pyrogenic Exotoxin B

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Andrew; DiRita, Victor J.; Barg, Neil L.; Engleberg, N. Cary

    1999-01-01

    Certain Tn916 insertions in the chromosome of an M1-type, nonmucoid Streptococcus pyogenes isolate (MGAS166) were previously shown to result in stable mucoidy with increased expression of the capsular synthetic genes. The transposon insertions in these strains are directly upstream of an apparent operon encoding a two-component regulatory system, designated csrR-csrS. Compared with MGAS166, these mucoid mutants are more hemolytic and cause significantly more tissue damage in a murine model of skin infection. To extend these observations, we constructed an in-frame deletion in the gene encoding the response regulator, csrR, and we evaluated the expression of other known S. pyogenes virulence factors. We discovered that csrR mutants have enhanced transcription of sagA, a gene associated with streptolysin S (SLS) and speB, the gene encoding pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB). The mutants also express substantially higher SLS activity and SpeB antigen in late-exponential-phase cultures. There is no change in expression of emm, scpA, sic, or cpa (genes encoding other S. pyogenes virulence factors). CsrR− strains but not the wild-type parental strain produce necrotizing lesions in a mouse model of subcutaneous infection. A double mutant with deletions in both csrR and the capsular synthesis genes caused fewer and smaller necrotic skin lesions than the csrR mutants. However, this nonmucoid csrR strain was more likely than the wild type to yield necrotic lesions, suggesting that mucoidy contributes to virulence in this model of infection but that there are other csrR-regulated factors involved in the production of necrotic lesions. PMID:10496909

  11. Expression of a Wheat Gene Encoding a Type-1 Lipid Transfer Protein is Suppressed by Virulent Hessian Fly Larval Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of wheat to attack by the Hessian fly is mediated by a gene-for-gene recognition involving wheat R genes and Hessian fly avr genes. Interactions are characterized as compatible when virulent Hessian fly larvae establish feeding sites and survive on wheat plants and incompatible when avi...

  12. Relationship between MMP Expression and Virulence of Dengue Virus Type-2 in Infected Mosquito and Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan; Kelley, James F; Sachair, Aucha; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus infections are mostly asymptomatic but can produce a mild, self-limiting acute febrile illness, dengue fever, or a life threatening severe illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is associated with increased vascular permeability partly as a result of elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We characterized MMP-2 and MMP-9 production in mosquito and mammalian cells after infection with three strains of dengue virus type-2 (D2-) ranging in virulence: 16681, the prototype New Guinea C (NGC), and PDK-53 vaccine strain. These strains were used to test variations in viral properties in vaccine candidates and confirm the production of MMP as a possible marker for virulence. A zymogram gelatinolytic activity assay was used to assess MMP-2 and MMP-9 production. We found that dengue-infected mosquito and mammalian cell lines had unique MMP-2 and MMP-9 production patterns depending on the virulence of the infecting dengue strain and the duration infection. MMP levels were highest after infection with the most virulent strain D2-16681, followed by the prototype NGC strain, in both cell lines. The MMP levels appeared to correspond with the relative amounts of infectious virions produced later in infection. Our findings improve our understanding of dengue pathogenesis and may facilitate the selection of markers to further the development of dengue vaccines. PMID:26073730

  13. Patterns of Cellular Gene Expression in Swine Macrophages Infected with Highly Virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus Strain Brescia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental exposure of swine to highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) strain Brescia causes an invariably fatal disease of all infected animals by 8 to 14 days post-infection. Host mechanisms involved in this severe outcome of infection have not been clearly established. To understa...

  14. DExD-box RNA-helicases in Listeria monocytogenes are important for growth, ribosomal maturation, rRNA processing and virulence factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Bäreclev, Caroline; Vaitkevicius, Karolis; Netterling, Sakura; Johansson, Jörgen

    2014-01-01

    RNA-helicases are proteins required for the unwinding of occluding secondary RNA structures, especially at low temperatures. In this work, we have deleted all 4 DExD-box RNA helicases in various combinations in the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Our results show that 3 out of 4 RNA-helicases were important for growth at low temperatures, whereas the effect was less prominent at 37°C. Over-expression of one RNA-helicase, Lmo1450, was able to overcome the reduced growth of the quadruple mutant strain at temperatures above 26°C, but not at lower temperatures. The maturation of ribosomes was affected in different degrees in the various strains at 20°C, whereas the effect was marginal at 37°C. This was accompanied by an increased level of immature 23S rRNA precursors in some of the RNA-helicase mutants at low temperatures. Although the expression of the PrfA regulated virulence factors ActA and LLO decreased in the quadruple mutant strain, this strain showed a slightly increased infection ability. Interestingly, even though the level of the virulence factor LLO was decreased in the quadruple mutant strain as compared with the wild-type strain, the hly-transcript (encoding LLO) was increased. Hence, our results could suggest a role for the RNA-helicases during translation. In this work, we show that DExD-box RNA-helicases are involved in bacterial virulence gene-expression and infection of eukaryotic cells. PMID:25590644

  15. Generation of Recombinant Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (rVHSV) Expressing Two Foreign Proteins and Effect of Lengthened Viral Genome on Viral Growth and In Vivo Virulence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a new recombinant VHSV (rVHSV-Arfp-Bgfp) was generated by insertion of a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene between N and P genes, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene between P and M genes of VHSV genome, the expression of each heterologous gene in infected cells, and effects of the lengthened recombinant VHSV's genome on the replication ability and in vivo virulence to olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fingerlings were compared with previously generated rVHSVs (rVHSV-wild, rVHSV-Arfp, and rVHSV-Brfp). The expression of RFP and GFP in cells infected with rVHSV-Arfp-Bgfp was verified through fluorescent microscopy and FACS analysis. In the viral growth analysis, rVHSV-Arfp and rVHSV-Brfp showed significantly lower viral titers than rVHSV-wild, and the replication of rVHSV-Arfp-Bgfp was significantly decreased compared to that of even rVHSV-Arfp or rVHSV-Brfp. These results suggest that the genome length is a critical factor for the determination of rVHSVs replication efficiency. In the in vivo virulence experiment, the cumulative mortalities of olive flounder fingerlings infected with each rVHSV were inversely proportional to the length of the viral genome, suggesting that decreased viral growth rate due to the lengthened viral genome is accompanied with the decrease of in vivo virulence of rVHSVs. Recombinant viruses expressing multiple foreign antigens can be used for the development of combined vaccines. However, as the present rVHSV-Arfp-Bgfp still possesses an ability to kill hosts (although very weakened), researches on the producing more attenuated viruses or propagation-deficient replicon particles are needed to solve safety-related problems. PMID:26921191

  16. Avirulent K88 (F4)+ Escherichia coli strains constructed to express modified enterotoxins protect young piglets from challenge with a virulent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain that expresses the same adhesion and enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Mateo, Kristina; Zhao, Mojun; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Weiping; Francis, David H

    2012-10-12

    Virulence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is associated with fimbrial adhesins and enterotoxins such as heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Previous studies using a cell culture model suggest that exclusion of ETEC from attachment to epithelial cells requires expression of both an adhesin such as K88 (F4) fimbriae, and LT. To test the ability of non-pathogenic E. coli constructs to exclude virulent ETEC sufficiently to prevent clinical disease, we utilized a piglet ETEC challenge model. Thirty-nine 5-day-old piglets were inoculated with a placebo (control), or with either of the three K88(+)E. coli strains isogenic with regard to modified LT expression: 8017 (pBR322 plasmid vector control), non-toxigenic mutant 8221 (LT(R192G)) in pBR322, or 8488, with the LT gene fused to the STb gene in pBR322 (LT(R192G)-STb). Piglets were challenged with virulent ETEC Strain 3030-2 (K88(+)/LT/STb) 24h post-inoculation. K88ac receptor-positive piglets in the control group developed diarrhea and became dehydrated 12-24h post-challenge. Piglets inoculated with 8221 or 8488 did not exhibit clinical signs of ETEC disease; most piglets inoculated with 8017 showed diarrhea. Control pigs exhibited significant weight loss, increased blood total protein, and higher numbers of colony-forming units of 3030-2 E. coli in washed ileum and jejunum than treated pigs. This study shows for the first time that pre-inoculation with an avirulent strain expressing adhesive fimbriae and a non-toxic form of LT provides significant short term protection from challenge with a virulent ETEC strain that expresses the same fimbrial adhesion and enterotoxin. PMID:22541162

  17. Investigating boundaries of survival, growth and expression of genes associated with stress and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes in response to acid and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Makariti, I P; Printezi, A; Kapetanakou, A E; Zeaki, N; Skandamis, P N

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the relative transcription of Listeria monocytogenes (strains C5, 6179) stress- (gad2, sigB) and virulence- (prfA) associated genes following habituation at twenty-five pH (4.8, 5.0, 5.2, 5.5, 6.4) and NaCl (2, 4, 6, 8, 10% w/v) combinations at 7 °C, with the survival against subsequent exposure to severe acid stress (pH 2.0 at 37 °C). Our findings pointed out the inter-strain variation governing growth inhibiting conditions (pH ≤5.0 and NaCl ≥6%), where C5 was less affected (a reduction of 2.0-3.0 log CFU/mL) than 6179 which was reduced by 4.0-6.0 log CFU/mL at the end of storage. Nevertheless, the higher the habituation at the growth permitting (pH ≥5.5; NaCl ≤4% w/v) or growth inhibiting conditions, the higher the acquired acid resistance or sensitization, respectively. At day 2, gad2 increased relative transcriptional levels are more related to elevated acid resistance, while at day 6 both gad2 transcriptional levels and upregulation of sigB were correlated to low log reductions and high DpH:2.0-values against severe acid stress. Regarding virulence, the increased transcriptional levels of prfA at day 2 were correlated to adverse pH and NaCl combinations, while prolonged stay in suboptimal conditions as well as exposure to severe acid stress resulted in general activation of the virulence regulator. Such data could definitely contribute in designing safe intervention strategies and additionally integrate -omics aspects in quantitative microbial risk assessment. PMID:25500389

  18. Surface-Associated Lipoproteins Link Enterococcus faecalis Virulence to Colitogenic Activity in IL-10-Deficient Mice Independent of Their Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lengfelder, Isabella; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Steck, Natalie; Roh, Jung H.; Tchaptchet, Sandrine; Bao, Yinyin; Hansen, Jonathan J.; Huebner, Johannes; Carroll, Ian M.; Murray, Barbara E.; Sartor, R. Balfour; Haller, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The commensal Enterococcus faecalis is among the most common causes of nosocomial infections. Recent findings regarding increased abundance of enterococci in the intestinal microbiota of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and induction of colitis in IL-10-deficient (IL-10-/-) mice put a new perspective on the contribution of E. faecalis to chronic intestinal inflammation. Based on the expression of virulence-related genes in the inflammatory milieu of IL-10-/- mice using RNA-sequencing analysis, we characterized the colitogenic role of two bacterial structures that substantially impact on E. faecalis virulence by different mechanisms: the enterococcal polysaccharide antigen and cell surface-associated lipoproteins. Germ-free wild type and IL-10-/- mice were monoassociated with E. faecalis wild type OG1RF or the respective isogenic mutants for 16 weeks. Intestinal tissue and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected to characterize tissue pathology, loss of intestinal barrier function, bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelium and immune cell activation. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) were stimulated with bacterial lysates and E. faecalis virulence was additionally investigated in three invertebrate models. Colitogenic activity of wild type E. faecalis (OG1RF score: 7.2±1.2) in monoassociated IL-10-/- mice was partially impaired in E. faecalis lacking enterococcal polysaccharide antigen (ΔepaB score: 4.7±2.3; p<0.05) and was almost completely abrogated in E. faecalis deficient for lipoproteins (Δlgt score: 2.3±2.3; p<0.0001). Consistently both E. faecalis mutants showed significantly impaired virulence in Galleria mellonella and Caenorhabditis elegans. Loss of E-cadherin in the epithelium was shown for all bacterial strains in inflamed IL-10-/- but not wild type mice. Inactivation of epaB in E. faecalis reduced microcolony and biofilm formation in vitro, altered bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelium of germ-free Manduca sexta larvae

  19. Heterogenic virulence in a diarrheagenic Escherichia coli: evidence for an EPEC expressing heat-labile toxin of ETEC.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sanjucta; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Nataro, James P; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2015-01-01

    We have encountered an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a child with acute diarrhea. This strain harbored eae and elt genes encoding for E. coli attaching and effacing property and heat-labile enterotoxin of EPEC and ETEC, respectively. Due to the presence of these distinct virulence factors, we named this uncommon strain as EPEC/ETEC hybrid. The elt gene was identified in a conjugally transferable plasmid of the EPEC/ETEC hybrid. In addition, several virulence genes in the locus of enterocyte effacement have been identified, which confirms that the EPEC/ETEC has an EPEC genetic background. The hybrid nature of this strain was further confirmed by using tissue culture assays. In the multi locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the EPEC/ETEC belonged to the sequence type ST328 and was belonging to ST278 Cplx. Sequence analysis of the plasmid DNA revealed presence of six large contigs with several insertion sequences. A phage integrase gene and the prophages of gp48 and gp49 have been found in the upstream of eltAB. In the downstream of elt, an urovirulence loci adhesion encoding (pap) cluster containing papG, and papC were also identified. Similar to other reports, we have identified a heterogenic virulence in a diarrheagenic E. coli but with different combination of genes. PMID:25465159

  20. In Vivo Expression of and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to the Plasmid-Encoded Virulence-Associated Proteins of Rhodococcus equi in Foals▿

    PubMed Central

    Jacks, Stephanie; Giguère, Steeve; Prescott, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes pneumonia in foals but does not induce disease in adult horses. Virulence of R. equi depends on the presence of a large plasmid, which encodes a family of seven virulence-associated proteins (VapA and VapC to VapH). Eradication of R. equi from the lungs depends on gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production by T lymphocytes. The objectives of the present study were to determine the relative in vivo expression of the vap genes of R. equi in the lungs of infected foals, to determine the recall response of bronchial lymph node (BLN) lymphocytes from foals and adult horses to each of the Vap proteins, and to compare the cytokine profiles of proliferating lymphocytes between foals and adult horses. vapA, vapD, and vapG were preferentially expressed in the lungs of infected foals, and expression of these genes in the lungs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that achieved during in vitro growth. VapA and VapC induced the strongest lymphoproliferative responses for foals and adult horses. There was no significant difference in recall lymphoproliferative responses or IFN-γ mRNA expression by bronchial lymph node lymphocytes between foals and adults. In contrast, interleukin 4 (IL-4) expression was significantly higher for adults than for foals for each of the Vap proteins. The ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 was significantly higher for foals than for adult horses for most Vap proteins. Therefore, foals are immunocompetent and are capable of mounting lymphoproliferative responses of the same magnitude and cytokine phenotype as those of adult horses. PMID:17301216

  1. flrA, flrB and flrC regulate adhesion by controlling the expression of critical virulence genes in Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Huang, Lixing; Su, Yongquan; Qin, Yingxue; Xu, Xiaojin; Zhao, Lingmin; Yan, Qingpi

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion is an important virulence trait of Vibrio alginolyticus. Bacterial adhesion is influenced by environmental conditions; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. The expression levels of flrA, flrB and flrC were significantly downregulated in adhesion-deficient V. alginolyticus strains cultured under Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Hg(2+) and low-pH stresses. Silencing these genes led to deficiencies in adhesion, motility, flagellar assembly, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The expression levels of fliA, flgH, fliS, fliD, cheR, cheV and V12G01_22158 (Gene ID) were significantly downregulated in all of the RNAi groups, whereas the expression levels of toxT, ctxB, acfA, hlyA and tlh were upregulated in flrA- and flrC-silenced groups. These genes play a key role in the virulence mechanisms of most pathogenic Vibrio species. Furthermore, the expression of flrA, flrB and flrC was significantly influenced by temperature, salinity, starvation and pH. These results indicate that (1) flrA, flrB and flrC are important for V. alginolyticus adhesion; (2) flrA, flrB and flrC significantly influence bacterial adhesion, motility, biofilm formation and EPS production by controlling expression of key genes involved in those phenotypes; and (3) flrA, flrB and flrC regulate adhesion in the natural environment with different temperatures, pH levels, salinities and starvation time. PMID:27485498

  2. Two overlapping two-component systems in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae contribute to full fitness in rice by regulating virulence factors expression

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dehong; Yao, Xiaoyan; Duan, Meng; Luo, Yufeng; Liu, Biao; Qi, Pengyuan; Sun, Ming; Ruan, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) are widely used by bacteria to adapt to the environment. In the present study, StoS (stress tolerance-related oxygen sensor) and SreKRS (salt response kinase, regulator, and sensor) were found to positively regulate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and swarming in the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Surprisingly, the absence of stoS or sreKRS did not attenuate virulence. To better understand the intrinsic functions of StoS and SreKRS, quantitative proteomics isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was employed. Consistent with stoS and sreK mutants exhibiting a similar phenotype, the signalling circuits of StoS and SreKRS overlapped. Carbohydrate metabolism proteins and chemotaxis proteins, which could be responsible for EPS and swarming regulation, respectively, were reprogrammed in stoS and sreK mutants. Moreover, StoS and SreKRS demonstrated moderate expression of the major virulence factor, hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) proteins through the HrpG-HrpX circuit. Most importantly, Xoo equipped with StoS and SreKRS outcompetes strains without StoS or SreKRS in co-infected rice and grows outside the host. Therefore, we propose that StoS and SreKRS adopt a novel strategy involving the moderation of Hrp protein expression and the promotion of EPS and motility to adapt to the environment. PMID:26957113

  3. H-NS Nucleoid Protein Controls Virulence Features of Klebsiella pneumoniae by Regulating the Expression of Type 3 Pili and the Capsule Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ares, Miguel A.; Fernández-Vázquez, José L.; Rosales-Reyes, Roberto; Jarillo-Quijada, Ma. Dolores; von Bargen, Kristine; Torres, Javier; González-y-Merchand, Jorge A.; Alcántar-Curiel, María D.; De la Cruz, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infections. Main virulence determinants of K. pneumoniae are pili, capsular polysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide, and siderophores. The histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS) is a pleiotropic regulator found in several gram-negative pathogens. It has functions both as an architectural component of the nucleoid and as a global regulator of gene expression. We generated a Δhns mutant and evaluated the role of the H-NS nucleoid protein on the virulence features of K. pneumoniae. A Δhns mutant down-regulated the mrkA pilin gene and biofilm formation was affected. In contrast, capsule expression was derepressed in the absence of H-NS conferring a hypermucoviscous phenotype. Moreover, H-NS deficiency affected the K. pneumoniae adherence to epithelial cells such as A549 and HeLa cells. In infection experiments using RAW264.7 and THP-1 differentiated macrophages, the Δhns mutant was less phagocytized than the wild-type strain. This phenotype was likely due to the low adherence to these phagocytic cells. Taken together, our data indicate that H-NS nucleoid protein is a crucial regulator of both T3P and CPS of K. pneumoniae. PMID:26904512

  4. Development of a live, attenuated, potential vaccine strain of R. equi expressing vapA and the virR operon, and virulence assessment in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Ashley E; Parreira, Valeria R; Hewson, Joanne; Watson, Johanna L; Prescott, John F

    2012-01-15

    Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi remains a significant problem in foals. The objective of this study was to develop a safe and efficacious attenuated strain of R. equi for eventual use in oral immunization of foals. The approach involved expression of vapA in a live, virulence plasmid-negative, strain of R. equi (strain 103-). PCR-amplified fragments of the vapA gene, with and without the upstream genes virR, orf5, vapH, orf7 and orf8 (orf4-8), were cloned into a shuttle vector pNBV1. These plasmids, named pAW48A and pAWVapA respectively, were electroporated into strain 103-. The presence of the recombinant vectors in the attenuated strain (103-) and the integrity of the inserted genes were confirmed, and both constructs expressed VapA. The virulence of the two strains was compared to that of wild type R. equi 103+ and negative controls by their intravenous inoculation into mice, followed by examination of liver clearance 4 days later. Mice inoculated with R. equi 103-, 103-/pAWVapA and 103-/pNBV1 completely cleared infection, whereas strain 103-/pAW48A persisted in 47% of mice. PMID:22088674

  5. Dual role of RsmA in the coordinated regulation of expression of virulence genes in Pectobacterium wasabiae strain SCC3193.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Liis; Frolova, Jekaterina; Põllumaa, Lee; Mäe, Andres

    2015-11-01

    The CsrA/RsmA family of post-transcriptional regulators in bacteria is involved in regulating many cellular processes, including pathogenesis. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified an RsmA binding motif, A(N)GGA, in the Shine-Dalgarno regions of 901 genes. Among these genes with the predicted RsmA binding motif, 358 were regulated by RsmA according to our previously published gene expression profiling analysis (WT vs rsmA negative mutant; Kõiv et al., 2013). A small subset of the predicted targets known to be important as virulence factors was selected for experimental validation. RNA footprint analyses demonstrated that RsmA binds specifically to the ANGGA motif in the 5'UTR sequences of celV1, pehA, pelB, pel2 and prtW. RsmA-dependent regulation of these five genes was examined in vivo using plasmid-borne translational and transcriptional fusions with a reporter gusA gene. They were all affected negatively by RsmA. However, we demonstrated that whereas the overall effect of RsmA on celV1 and prtW was determined on both the translational and transcriptional level, expression of pectinolytic enzyme genes (pehA, pel2 and pelB) was affected mainly on the level of transcription in tested conditions. In summary, these data indicate that RsmA controls virulence by integration of its regulatory activities at various levels. PMID:26306750

  6. Application of relative real-time PCR to detect differential expression of virulence genes in Vibrio anguillarum under standard and stressed growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Crisafi, F; Denaro, R; Genovese, M; Yakimov, M; Genovese, L

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to understand whether abiotic factors affect the expression of virulence genes in Vibrio anguillarum. We observed the in vitro responses of two Mediterranean strains of V. anguillarum to temperature, NaCl and iron concentration changes. We monitored growth performance and gene transcription levels by comparing the results obtained under stressed conditions (temperatures of 5 °C, 15 °C and 37 °C; NaCl concentrations of 3% and 5%; and iron depletion and excess) with those obtained under standard growth conditions (25 °C, 1.5% NaCl and 0.6 μm of iron). The results showed that the strains respond differently. The strain 975/I was most strongly affected by conditions of 15 °C and iron depletion; these conditions induced increased transcription levels of empA, angR and fatA. Growth of the strain 17/I was inhibited at 15 °C and in iron depletion conditions; this strain also showed dramatic changes in the transcription levels of toxR and tonB2 under increased NaCl concentrations. These results demonstrate that environmental stress affects the expression of virulence genes in V. anguillarum that have implications for the competitiveness, stress tolerance and the ability of V. anguillarum to cause infection. PMID:24033758

  7. Expression of bacterial virulence factors and cytokines during in vitro macrophage infection by enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bando, Silvia Y; Moreno, Ana C R; Albuquerque, José A T; Amhaz, Juliana M K; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A; Martinez, Marina B

    2010-09-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and Shigella spp cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading and multiplying within epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa. Although EIEC and Shigella share many genetic and biochemical similarities, the illness caused by Shigella is more severe. Thus, genomic and structure-function molecular studies on the biological interactions of these invasive enterobacteria with eukaryotic cells have focused on Shigella rather than EIEC. Here we comparatively studied the interactions of EIEC and of Shigella flexneri with cultured J774 macrophage-like cells. We evaluated several phenotypes: (i) bacterial escape from macrophages after phagocytosis, (ii) macrophage death induced by EIEC and S. flexneri, (iii) macrophage cytokine expression in response to infection and (iv) expression of plasmidial (pINV) virulence genes. The results showed that S. flexneri caused macrophage killing earlier and more intensely than EIEC. Both pathogens induced significant macrophage production of TNF, IL-1 and IL-10 after 7 h of infection. Transcription levels of the gene invasion plasmid antigen-C were lower in EIEC than in S. flexneri throughout the course of the infection; this could explain the diminished virulence of EIEC compared to S. flexneri. PMID:20944993

  8. Expression of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) in highly virulent Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) carrying different anti-terminator (q) genes.

    PubMed

    Olavesen, Kristoffer K; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne; Løbersli, Inger; Brandal, Lin T

    2016-08-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are key virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) during development of haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). It has been suggested that not only specific stx2 subtypes, but also the amount of Stx2 expressed might be essential for STEC pathogenicity. We aimed to investigate if various anti-terminator (q) genes might influence the expression level of Stx2 in highly virulent STEC. A multiplex PCR detecting q933, q21, and qO111 was run on 20 stx2a-positive STEC strains, of which 18 were HUS associated serotypes (HAS) and two non-HAS. Relative expression of Stx2 mRNA was assessed for all strains, both in non-induced and induced (mitomycin C) state. The HAS STEC carried either q933 (n = 8), qO111 (n = 8), or both (n = 2). In basal state, no STEC strains showed higher expression of Stx2 mRNA than the calibrator EDL933 (non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) O157:H7carrying q933). Variations among strains were not associated with different q genes present, but rather related to specific serogroups. In induced state, O104:H4 strains (q933) showed higher Stx2 mRNA level than EDL933, whereas sorbitol fermenting (SF) O157:H- (qO111) and O121:H? (q933) STEC showed levels comparable with EDL933. An association between the presence of q933 and higher Stx2 level was seen within some HAS, but not all. Interestingly, the O103:H25 STEC strains, responsible for a HUS outbreak in Norway, carried both q933 and qO111. However, the Stx2 mRNA level in these strains was significantly lower than EDL933 in both states, indicating that other factors than the level of Stx2 might explain the aggressiveness of these bacteria. The two non-HAS STEC did not carry any of the examined q genes. In induced state, these bacteria showed the lowest Stx2 mRNA level compared to EDL933. One of the non-HAS STEC was not induced by mitomycin C, suggesting that stx2a might be located on a defect bacteriophage. No association between specific q genes and Stx2 mRNA expression

  9. RegA, an AraC-like protein, is a global transcriptional regulator that controls virulence gene expression in Citrobacter rodentium.

    PubMed

    Hart, Emily; Yang, Ji; Tauschek, Marija; Kelly, Michelle; Wakefield, Matthew J; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2008-11-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is an attaching and effacing pathogen which causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia in mice. Infection with C. rodentium serves as a model for infection of humans with enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. To identify novel colonization factors of C. rodentium, we screened a signature-tagged mutant library of C. rodentium in mice. One noncolonizing mutant had a single transposon insertion in an open reading frame (ORF) which we designated regA because of its homology to genes encoding members of the AraC family of transcriptional regulators. Deletion of regA in C. rodentium resulted in markedly reduced colonization of the mouse intestine. Examination of lacZ transcriptional fusions using promoter regions of known and putative virulence-associated genes of C. rodentium revealed that RegA strongly stimulated transcription of two newly identified genes located close to regA, which we designated adcA and kfcC. The cloned adcA gene conferred autoaggregation and adherence to mammalian cells to E. coli strain DH5alpha, and a kfc mutation led to a reduction in the duration of intestinal colonization, but the kfc mutant was far less attenuated than the regA mutant. These results indicated that other genes of C. rodentium whose expression required activation by RegA were required for colonization. Microarray analysis revealed a number of RegA-regulated ORFs encoding proteins homologous to known colonization factors. Transcription of these putative virulence determinants was activated by RegA only in the presence of sodium bicarbonate. Taken together, these results show that RegA is a global regulator of virulence in C. rodentium which activates factors that are required for intestinal colonization. PMID:18765720

  10. A Pectate Lyase-Coding Gene Abundantly Expressed during Early Stages of Infection Is Required for Full Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yangrae; Jang, Mina; Srivastava, Akhil; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Ko, Sung-Kyun; Kang, Dae-Ook; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria brassicicola causes black spot disease of Brassica species. The functional importance of pectin digestion enzymes and unidentified phytotoxins in fungal pathogenesis has been suspected but not verified in A. brassicicola. The fungal transcription factor AbPf2 is essential for pathogenicity and induces 106 genes during early pathogenesis, including the pectate lyase-coding gene, PL1332. The aim of this study was to test the importance and roles of PL1332 in pathogenesis. We generated deletion strains of the PL1332 gene, produced heterologous PL1332 proteins, and evaluated their association with virulence. Deletion strains of the PL1332 gene were approximately 30% less virulent than wild-type A. brassicicola, without showing differences in colony expansion on solid media and mycelial growth in nutrient-rich liquid media or minimal media with pectins as a major carbon source. Heterologous PL1332 expressed as fusion proteins digested polygalacturons in vitro. When the fusion proteins were injected into the apoplast between leaf veins of host plants the tissues turned dark brown and soft, resembling necrotic leaf tissue. The PL1332 gene was the first example identified as a general toxin-coding gene and virulence factor among the 106 genes regulated by the transcription factor, AbPf2. It was also the first gene to have its functions investigated among the 19 pectate lyase genes and several hundred putative cell-wall degrading enzymes in A. brassicicola. These results further support the importance of the AbPf2 gene as a key pathogenesis regulator and possible target for agrochemical development. PMID:25996954

  11. Effect of Ethanol on Differential Protein Production and Expression of Potential Virulence Functions in the Opportunistic Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Nwugo, Chika C.; Arivett, Brock A.; Zimbler, Daniel L.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Richards, Ashley M.; Actis, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii persists in the medical environment and causes severe human nosocomial infections. Previous studies showed that low-level ethanol exposure increases the virulence of A. baumannii ATCC 17978. To better understand the mechanisms involved in this response, 2-D gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry was used to investigate differential protein production in bacteria cultured in the presence or absence of ethanol. This approach showed that the presence of ethanol significantly induces and represses the production of 22 and 12 proteins, respectively. Although over 25% of the ethanol-induced proteins were stress-response related, the overall bacterial viability was uncompromised when cultured under these conditions. Production of proteins involved in lipid and carbohydrate anabolism was increased in the presence of ethanol, a response that correlates with increased carbohydrate biofilm content, enhanced biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces and decrease bacterial motility on semi-solid surfaces. The presence of ethanol also induced the acidification of bacterial cultures and the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a ubiquitous plant hormone that signals bacterial stress-tolerance and promotes plant-bacteria interactions. These responses could be responsible for the significantly enhanced virulence of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 cells cultured in the presence of ethanol when tested with the Galleria mellonella experimental infection model. Taken together, these observations provide new insights into the effect of ethanol in bacterial virulence. This alcohol predisposes the human host to infections by A. baumannii and could favor the survival and adaptation of this pathogen to medical settings and adverse host environments. PMID:23284824

  12. The Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Binds Directly to CsrS, a Sensor Histidine Kinase of Group A Streptococcus, to Activate Expression of Virulence Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Velarde, Jorge J.; Ashbaugh, Melissa; Wessels, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) responds to subinhibitory concentrations of LL-37 by up-regulation of virulence factors through the CsrRS (CovRS) two-component system. The signaling mechanism, however, is unclear. To determine whether LL-37 signaling reflects specific binding to CsrS or rather a nonspecific response to LL-37-mediated membrane damage, we tested LL-37 fragments for CsrRS signaling and for GAS antimicrobial activity. We identified a 10-residue fragment (RI-10) of LL-37 as the minimal peptide that retains the ability to signal increased expression of GAS virulence factors, yet it has no detectable antimicrobial activity against GAS. Substitution of individual key amino acids in RI-10 reduced or abrogated signaling. These data do not support the hypothesis that CsrS detects LL-37-induced damage to the bacterial cell membrane but rather suggest that LL-37 signaling is mediated by a direct interaction with CsrS. To test whether LL-37 binds to CsrS, we used the purified CsrS extracellular domain to pull down LL-37 in vitro, a result that provides further evidence that LL-37 binds to CsrS. The dissociation of CsrS-mediated signaling from membrane damage by LL-37 fragments together with in vitro evidence for a direct LL-37-CsrS binding interaction constitute compelling evidence that signal transduction by LL-37 through CsrS reflects a direct ligand/receptor interaction. PMID:25378408

  13. Large Deletions in the pAtC58 Megaplasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Can Confer Reduced Carriage Cost and Increased Expression of Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Elise R.; Merritt, Peter M.; Bever, James D.; Fuqua, Clay

    2013-01-01

    The accessory plasmid pAtC58 of the common laboratory strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens confers numerous catabolic functions and has been proposed to play a role in virulence. Genomic sequencing of evolved laboratory strains of A. tumefaciens revealed the presence of multiple deletion events in the At plasmid, with reductions in plasmid size ranging from 25% to 30% (115–194 kb). Flanking both ends of the sites of these deletions is a short-nucleotide repeat sequence that is in a single copy in the deleted plasmids, characteristic of a phage- or transposon-mediated deletion event. This repeat sequence is widespread throughout the C58 genome, but concentrated on the At plasmid, suggesting its frequency to be nonrandom. In this study, we assess the prevalence of the larger of these deletions in multiple C58 derivatives and characterize its functional significance. We find that in addition to elevating virulence gene expression, this deletion is associated with a significantly reduced carriage cost to the cell. These observations are a clear demonstration of the dynamic nature of the bacterial genome and suggest a mechanism for genetic plasticity of these costly but otherwise stable plasmids. Additionally, this phenomenon could be the basis for some of the dramatic recombination events so ubiquitous within and among megaplasmids. PMID:23783172

  14. Role of alkaline serine protease, asp, in vibrio alginolyticus virulence and regulation of its expression by luxO-luxR regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Rui, Haopeng; Liu, Qin; Wang, Qiyao; Ma, Yue; Liu, Huan; Shi, Cunbin; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2009-05-01

    The alkaline serine protease asp, which was shown to be a virulence factor of Vibrio alginolyticus as a purified protein, was cloned from V. alginolyticus EPGS, a strain recently isolated from moribund Epinephelus coioides in an outbreak of vibriosis in a mariculture farm of Shenzhen. The asp null mutant was constructed by homologous recombination with suicide plasmid pNQ705-1. Compared with the wild-type strain, the asp null mutant exhibited a significant decrease of total extracellular protease activity, and caused a 15-fold decrease in virulence of V. alginolyticus. In our previous study, the luxO and luxR(val) genes from V. alginolyticus MVP01 were cloned and identified, and the luxO-luxR(val) regulatory couple was shown to regulate various genes expression, suggesting that it played a central role in the quorum sensing system of V. alginolyticus. In this study, the regulation of the asp gene was analyzed by using RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR methods; we proved that its transcription was greatly induced at the late large stage of growth and was regulated by luxO-luxR(val) regulatory system. PMID:19494689

  15. VdSNF1, the sucrose nonfermenting protein kinase gene of Verticillium dahliae, is required for virulence and expression of genes involved in cell-wall degradation.

    PubMed

    Tzima, Aliki K; Paplomatas, Epaminondas J; Rauyaree, Payungsak; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D; Kang, Seogchan

    2011-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus causing vascular wilt in a diverse array of plant species. Its virulence has been attributed, among other factors, to the activity of hydrolytic cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDE). The sucrose nonfermenting 1 gene (VdSNF1), which regulates catabolic repression, was disrupted in V. dahliae tomato race 1. Expression of CWDE in the resulting mutants was not induced in inductive medium and in simulated xylem fluid medium. Growth of the mutants was significantly reduced when grown with pectin or galactose as a carbon source whereas, with glucose, sucrose, and xylose, they grew similarly to wild-type and ectopic transformants. The mutants were severely impaired in virulence on tomato and eggplant (final disease severity reduced by an average of 87%). Microscopic observation of the infection behavior of a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-labeled VdSNF1 mutant (70ΔSF-gfp1) showed that it was defective in initial colonization of roots. Cross sections of tomato stem at the cotyledonary level showed that 70ΔSF-gfp1 colonized xylem vessels considerably less than the wild-type strain. The wild-type strain heavily colonized xylem vessels and adjacent parenchyma cells. Quantification of fungal biomass in plant tissues further confirmed reduced colonization of roots, stems, and cotyledons by 70ΔSF-gfp1 relative to that by the wild-type strain. PMID:20839958

  16. Tannin-rich pomegranate rind extracts reduce adhesion to and invasion of Caco-2 Cells by Listeria monocytogenes and decrease its expression of virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunfeng; Li, Guanghui; Zhang, Baigang; Wu, Qian; Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate rind is rich in tannins that have remarkable antimicrobial activities. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a tannin-rich fraction from pomegranate rind (TFPR) on Listeria monocytogenes virulence gene expression and on the pathogen's interaction with human epithelial cells. Growth curves were monitored to determine the effect of TFPR on L. monocytogenes growth. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and fluorescence staining assays were used to examine the cytotoxicity of TFPR. The effects of TFPR on L. monocytogenes adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells were investigated using Caco-2 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was conducted to quantify mRNA levels of three virulence genes in L. monocytogenes. Results showed that a MIC of TFPR against L. monocytogenes was 5 mg/ml in this study. TFPR exhibited cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells when the concentration was 2.5 mg/ml. Subinhibitory concentrations of TFPR significantly reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, adhesion to and invasion of Caco-2 cells by L. monocytogenes. When L. monocytogenes was grown in the presence of 2.5 mg/ml TFPR, the transcriptional levels of prfA, inlA, and hly decreased by 17-, 34-, and 28-fold, respectively. PMID:25581187

  17. Expression of Five Endopolygalacturonase Genes and Demonstration that MfPG1 Overexpression Diminishes Virulence in the Brown Rot Pathogen Monilinia fructicola.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chien-Ming; Yu, Fang-Yi; Yu, Pei-Ling; Ho, Jia-Fang; Bostock, Richard M; Chung, Kuang-Ren; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lee, Miin-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Monilinia fructicola is a devastating pathogen on stone fruits, causing blossom blight and fruit rot. Little is known about pathogenic mechanisms in M. fructicola and related Monilinia species. In this study, five endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in M. fructicola. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the five MfPG genes are differentially expressed during pathogenesis and in culture under various pH regimes and carbon and nitrogen sources. MfPG1 encodes the major endo-PG and is expressed to significantly higher levels compared to the other four MfPGs in culture and in planta. MfPG1 function during pathogenesis was evaluated by examining the disease phenotypes and gene expression patterns in M. fructicola MfPG1-overexpressing strains and in strains carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene fused with MfPG1 (MfPG1-GUS). The MFPG1-GUS reporter was expressed in situ in conidia and hyphae following inoculation of flower petals, and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed MfPG1 expression during pathogenesis. MfPG1-overexpressing strains produced smaller lesions and higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the petals of peach and rose flowers than the wild-type strain, suggesting that MfPG1 affecting fungal virulence might be in part resulted from the increase of ROS in the Prunus-M. fructicola interactions. PMID:26120831

  18. Expression of Five Endopolygalacturonase Genes and Demonstration that MfPG1 Overexpression Diminishes Virulence in the Brown Rot Pathogen Monilinia fructicola

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pei-Ling; Ho, Jia-Fang; Bostock, Richard M.; Chung, Kuang-Ren; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lee, Miin-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Monilinia fructicola is a devastating pathogen on stone fruits, causing blossom blight and fruit rot. Little is known about pathogenic mechanisms in M. fructicola and related Monilinia species. In this study, five endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in M. fructicola. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the five MfPG genes are differentially expressed during pathogenesis and in culture under various pH regimes and carbon and nitrogen sources. MfPG1 encodes the major endo-PG and is expressed to significantly higher levels compared to the other four MfPGs in culture and in planta. MfPG1 function during pathogenesis was evaluated by examining the disease phenotypes and gene expression patterns in M. fructicola MfPG1-overexpressing strains and in strains carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene fused with MfPG1 (MfPG1-GUS). The MFPG1-GUS reporter was expressed in situ in conidia and hyphae following inoculation of flower petals, and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed MfPG1 expression during pathogenesis. MfPG1-overexpressing strains produced smaller lesions and higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the petals of peach and rose flowers than the wild-type strain, suggesting that MfPG1 affecting fungal virulence might be in part resulted from the increase of ROS in the Prunus–M. fructicola interactions. PMID:26120831

  19. EVALUATING VIRULENCE OF WATERBORNE AND CLINCIAL AEROMONAS ISOLATES USING GENE EXPRESSION AND MORTALITY IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWED BY ASSESSING CELL CULTURE'S ABILITY TO PREDICT VIRULENCE BASED ON TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The virulence of multiple Aeromonas spp. were assessed using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Transcriptional responses to both infection models were assessed using microarrays. After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., ...

  20. Expression of Listeria monocytogenes key virulence genes during growth in liquid medium, on rocket and melon at 4, 10 and 30 °C.

    PubMed

    Hadjilouka, Agni; Molfeta, Christina; Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of key virulence genes, during growth of a Listeria monocytogenes isolate in liquid medium, on melon and rocket at different temperatures and time. For that purpose, BHI broth, rocket and melon were inoculated at 7.0-7.5 log CFU mL(-1) or g(-1)and stored at 4, 10 and 30 °C. Sampling took place upon inoculation and after 0.5, 6 and 24 h of incubation. The RNA was stabilized and the expression of hly, plcA, plcB, sigB, inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, lmo2672 and lmo2470 was assessed by RT-qPCR. The results obtained were summarized into two observations; the first one referring to the interactive effect of incubation temperature and type of substrate and the second one to the effect of time on gene expression. Regarding the latter, nearly all genes were regulated upon inoculation and exhibited differential expression in the subsequent sampling times indicating the existence of additional regulatory mechanisms yet to be explored. PMID:26742611

  1. Deletion of AS87_03730 gene changed the bacterial virulence and gene expression of Riemerella anatipestifer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolan; Yue, Jiaping; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Beibei; Tian, Mingxing; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer is an important pathogen of waterfowl, which causes septicemia anserum exsudativa in ducks. In this study, an AS87_03730 gene deletion R. anatipestifer mutant Yb2ΔAS87_03730 was constructed to investigate the role of AS87_03730 on R. anatipestifer virulence and gene regulation. By deleting a 708-bp fragment from AS87_03730, the mutant Yb2ΔAS87_03730 showed a significant decreased growth rate in TSB and invasion capacity in Vero cells, compared to wild-type strain Yb2. Moreover, the median lethal dose (LD50) of Yb2ΔAS87_03730 was 1.24 × 107 colony forming units (CFU), which is about 80-fold attenuated than that of Yb2 (LD50 = 1.53 × 105 CFU). Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis and Real-time PCR indicated 19 up-regulated and two down-regulated genes in Yb2ΔAS87_03730. Functional analysis revealed that 12 up-regulated genes were related to “Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis”, two were classified into “Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane”, one was involved in “Amino acid transport and metabolism”, and the other four had unknown functions. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis indicated that the AS87_03730 gene is highly conserved among R. anatipestifer strains, as the percent sequence identity was over 93.5%. This study presents evidence that AS87_03730 gene is involved in bacterial virulence and gene regulation of R. anatipestifer. PMID:26928424

  2. In Vivo-Expressed Proteins of Virulent Leptospira interrogans Serovar Autumnalis N2 Elicit Strong IgM Responses of Value in Conclusive Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Veerapandian; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Kanagavel, Murugesan; Artiushin, Sergey C.; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that is underdiagnosed because of limited access to laboratory facilities in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and Oceania. Timely diagnosis of locally distributed serovars of high virulence is crucial for successful care and outbreak management. Using pooled patient sera, an expression gene library of a virulent Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain N2 isolated in South India was screened. The identified genes were characterized, and the purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens in IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) either singly or in combination. Sera (n = 118) from cases of acute leptospirosis along with sera (n = 58) from healthy subjects were tested for reactivity with the identified proteins in an ELISA designed to detect specific IgM responses. We have identified nine immunoreactive proteins, ArgC, RecA, GlpF, FliD, TrmD, RplS, RnhB, Lp28.6, and Lrr44.9, which were found to be highly conserved among pathogenic leptospires. Apparently, the proteins ArgC, RecA, GlpF, FliD, TrmD, and Lrr44.9 are expressed during natural infection of the host and undetectable in in vitro cultures. Among all the recombinant proteins used as antigens in IgM ELISA, ArgC had the highest sensitivity and specificity, 89.8% and 95.5%, respectively, for the conclusive diagnosis of leptospirosis. The use of ArgC and RecA in combination for IgM ELISA increased the sensitivity and specificity to 95.7% and 94.9%, respectively. ArgC and RecA thus elicited specific IgM responses and were therefore effective in laboratory confirmation of Leptospira infection. PMID:26607308

  3. In Vivo-Expressed Proteins of Virulent Leptospira interrogans Serovar Autumnalis N2 Elicit Strong IgM Responses of Value in Conclusive Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raja, Veerapandian; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Kanagavel, Murugesan; Artiushin, Sergey C; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that is underdiagnosed because of limited access to laboratory facilities in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and Oceania. Timely diagnosis of locally distributed serovars of high virulence is crucial for successful care and outbreak management. Using pooled patient sera, an expression gene library of a virulent Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain N2 isolated in South India was screened. The identified genes were characterized, and the purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens in IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) either singly or in combination. Sera (n = 118) from cases of acute leptospirosis along with sera (n = 58) from healthy subjects were tested for reactivity with the identified proteins in an ELISA designed to detect specific IgM responses. We have identified nine immunoreactive proteins, ArgC, RecA, GlpF, FliD, TrmD, RplS, RnhB, Lp28.6, and Lrr44.9, which were found to be highly conserved among pathogenic leptospires. Apparently, the proteins ArgC, RecA, GlpF, FliD, TrmD, and Lrr44.9 are expressed during natural infection of the host and undetectable in in vitro cultures. Among all the recombinant proteins used as antigens in IgM ELISA, ArgC had the highest sensitivity and specificity, 89.8% and 95.5%, respectively, for the conclusive diagnosis of leptospirosis. The use of ArgC and RecA in combination for IgM ELISA increased the sensitivity and specificity to 95.7% and 94.9%, respectively. ArgC and RecA thus elicited specific IgM responses and were therefore effective in laboratory confirmation of Leptospira infection. PMID:26607308

  4. Co2+-dependent gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae: opposite effect of Mn2+ and Co2+ on the expression of the virulence genes psaBCA, pcpA, and prtA

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn2+)-, zinc (Zn2+)- and copper (Cu2+) play significant roles in transcriptional gene regulation, physiology, and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. So far, the effect of the important transition metal ion cobalt (Co2+) on gene expression of S. pneumoniae has not yet been explored. Here, we study the impact of Co2+ stress on the transcriptome of S. pneumoniae strain D39. BLAST searches revealed that the genome of S. pneumoniae encodes a putative Co2+-transport operon (cbi operon), the expression of which we show here to be induced by a high Co2+ concentration. Furthermore, we found that Co2+, as has been shown previously for Zn2+, can cause derepression of the genes of the PsaR virulence regulon, encoding the Mn2+-uptake system PsaBCA, the choline binding protein PcpA and the cell-wall associated serine protease PrtA. Interestingly, although Mn2+ represses expression of the PsaR regulon and Co2+ leads to derepression, both metal ions stimulate interaction of PsaR with its target promoters. These data will be discussed in the light of previous studies on similar metal-responsive transcriptional regulators. PMID:26257722

  5. In vivo virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss correlates inversely with in vitro Mx gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cano, Irene; Collet, Bertrand; Pereira, Clarissa; Paley, Richard; van Aerle, Ronny; Stone, David; Taylor, Nick G H

    2016-05-01

    The in vitro replication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from each VHSV genotype and the associated cellular host Mx gene expression were analysed. All the isolates were able to infect RTG-2 cells and induce increased Mx gene expression (generic assay detecting isoforms 1 and 3 [Mx1/3]). A trout pathogenic, genotype Ia isolate (J167), showing high replication in RTG-2 cells (by infective titre and N gene expression) induced lower Mx1/3 gene expression than observed in VHSV isolates known to be non-pathogenic to rainbow trout: 96-43/8, 96-43/10 (Ib); 1p49, 1p53 (II); and MI03 (IVb). Paired co-inoculation assays were analysed using equal number of plaque forming units per ml (PFU) of J167 (Ia genotype) with other less pathogenic VHSV genotypes. In these co-inoculations, the Mx1/3 gene expression was significantly lower than for the non-pathogenic isolate alone. Of the three rainbow trout Mx isoforms, J167 did not induce Mx1 up-regulation in RTG-2 or RTgill-W1 cells. Co-inoculating isolates resulted in greater inhibition of Mx in both rainbow trout cell lines studied. Up-regulation of sea bream Mx in SAF-1 cells induced by 96-43/8 was also lower in co-inoculation assays with J167. The RTG-P1 cell line, expressing luciferase under the control of the interferon-induced Mx rainbow trout gene promoter, showed low luciferase activity when inoculated with pathogenic strains: J167, DK-5131 (Ic), NO-A-163/68 (Id), TR-206239-1, TR-22207111 (Ie), 99-292 (IVa), and CA-NB00-01 (IVc). Co-inoculation assays showed a J167-dose dependent inhibition of the luciferase activity. The data suggest that virulent VHSV isolates may interfere in the interferon pathways, potentially determining higher pathogenicity. PMID:27066706

  6. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2013-01-01

    Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced

  7. Co-ordinate expression of virulence genes during swarm-cell differentiation and population migration of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Allison, C; Lai, H C; Hughes, C

    1992-06-01

    The uropathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis exhibits a form of multicellular behaviour termed swarming, which involves cyclical differentiation of typical vegetative cells into filamentous, multinucleate, hyperflagellate swarm cells capable of rapid and co-ordinated population migration across surfaces. We observed that differentiation into swarm cells was accompanied by substantial increases in the activities of intracellular urease and extracellular haemolysin and metalloprotease, which are believed to be central to the pathogenicity of P. mirabilis. In addition, the ability of P. mirabilis to invade human urothelial cells in vitro was primarily a characteristic of differentiated swarm cells, not vegetative cells. These virulence factor activities fell back as the cells underwent cyclical reversion to the vegetative form (consolidation), in parallel with the diagnostic modulation of flagellin levels on the cell surface. Control cellular alkaline phosphatase activities did not increase during differentiation or consolidation. Non-flagellated, nonmotile transposon insertion mutants were unable to invade urothelial cells and they generated only low-level activities of haemolysin, urease and protease (0-10% of wild type). Motile mutants unable to differentiate into swarm cells were comparably reduced in their haemolytic, ureolytic and invasive phenotypes and generated threefold less protease activity. Mutants that were able to form swarm cells but exhibited various aberrant patterns of swarming migration produced wild-type activities of haemolysin, urease and protease, but their ability to enter urothelial cells was three- to 10-fold lower.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1495387

  8. The PB2 Subunit of the Influenza Virus RNA Polymerase Affects Virulence by Interacting with the Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein and Inhibiting Expression of Beta Interferon▿

    PubMed Central

    Graef, Katy M.; Vreede, Frank T.; Lau, Yuk-Fai; McCall, Amber W.; Carr, Simon M.; Subbarao, Kanta; Fodor, Ervin

    2010-01-01

    The PB2 subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase is a major virulence determinant of influenza viruses. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. It was previously shown that the PB2 protein, in addition to its nuclear localization, also accumulates in the mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate that the PB2 protein interacts with the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, MAVS (also known as IPS-1, VISA, or Cardif), and inhibits MAVS-mediated beta interferon (IFN-β) expression. In addition, we show that PB2 proteins of influenza viruses differ in their abilities to associate with the mitochondria. In particular, the PB2 proteins of seasonal human influenza viruses localize to the mitochondria while PB2 proteins of avian influenza viruses are nonmitochondrial. This difference in localization is caused by a single amino acid polymorphism in the PB2 mitochondrial targeting signal. In order to address the functional significance of the mitochondrial localization of the PB2 protein in vivo, we have generated two recombinant human influenza viruses encoding either mitochondrial or nonmitochondrial PB2 proteins. We found that the difference in the mitochondrial localization of the PB2 proteins does not affect the growth of these viruses in cell culture. However, the virus encoding the nonmitochondrial PB2 protein induces higher levels of IFN-β and, in an animal model, is attenuated compared to the isogenic virus encoding a mitochondrial PB2. Overall this study implicates the PB2 protein in the regulation of host antiviral innate immune pathways and suggests an important role for the mitochondrial association of the PB2 protein in determining virulence. PMID:20538852

  9. Antimicrobial peptides effectively kill a broad spectrum of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus strains independently of origin, sub-type, or virulence factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Caroline Trebbien; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Ingmer, Hanne; Mygind, Per Holse; Kristensen, Hans-Henrik; Gram, Lone

    2008-01-01

    Background Host defense peptides (HDPs), or antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are important components of the innate immune system that bacterial pathogens must overcome to establish an infection and HDPs have been suggested as novel antimicrobial therapeutics in treatment of infectious diseases. Hence it is important to determine the natural variation in susceptibility to HDPs to ensure a successful use in clinical treatment regimes. Results Strains of two human bacterial pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, were selected to cover a wide range of origin, sub-type, and phenotypic behavior. Strains within each species were equally sensitive to HDPs and oxidative stress representing important components of the innate immune defense system. Four non-human peptides (protamine, plectasin, novicidin, and novispirin G10) were similar in activity profile (MIC value spectrum) to the human β-defensin 3 (HBD-3). All strains were inhibited by concentrations of hydrogen peroxide between 0.1% – 1.0%. Sub-selections of both species differed in expression of several virulence-related factors and in their ability to survive in human whole blood and kill the nematode virulence model Caenorhabditis elegans. For L. monocytogenes, proliferation in whole blood was paralleled by high invasion in Caco-2 cells and fast killing of C. elegans, however, no such pattern in phenotypic behavior was observed for S. aureus and none of the phenotypic differences were correlated to sensitivity to HDPs. Conclusion Strains of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were within each species equally sensitive to a range of HDPs despite variations in subtype, origin, and phenotypic behavior. Our results suggest that therapeutic use of HDPs will not be hampered by occurrence of naturally tolerant strains of the two species investigated in the present study. PMID:19036162

  10. Sequence Variations and Protein Expression Levels of the Two Immune Evasion Proteins Gpm1 and Pra1 Influence Virulence of Clinical Candida albicans Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shanshan; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Münzberg, Christin; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans, the important human fungal pathogen uses multiple evasion strategies to control, modulate and inhibit host complement and innate immune attack. Clinical C. albicans strains vary in pathogenicity and in serum resistance, in this work we analyzed sequence polymorphisms and variations in the expression levels of two central fungal complement evasion proteins, Gpm1 (phosphoglycerate mutase 1) and Pra1 (pH-regulated antigen 1) in thirteen clinical C. albicans isolates. Four nucleotide (nt) exchanges, all representing synonymous exchanges, were identified within the 747-nt long GPM1 gene. For the 900-nt long PRA1 gene, sixteen nucleotide exchanges were identified, which represented synonymous, as well as non-synonymous exchanges. All thirteen clinical isolates had a homozygous exchange (A to G) at position 73 of the PRA1 gene. Surface levels of Gpm1 varied by 8.2, and Pra1 levels by 3.3 fold in thirteen tested isolates and these differences influenced fungal immune fitness. The high Gpm1/Pra1 expressing candida strains bound the three human immune regulators more efficiently, than the low expression strains. The difference was 44% for Factor H binding, 51% for C4BP binding and 23% for plasminogen binding. This higher Gpm1/Pra1 expressing strains result in enhanced survival upon challenge with complement active, Factor H depleted human serum (difference 40%). In addition adhesion to and infection of human endothelial cells was increased (difference 60%), and C3b surface deposition was less effective (difference 27%). Thus, variable expression levels of central immune evasion protein influences immune fitness of the human fungal pathogen C. albicans and thus contribute to fungal virulence. PMID:25692293

  11. A recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) surface glycoprotein D protects against highly virulent ILTV and NDV challenges in chickens.

    PubMed

    Kanabagatte Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna; Kumar, Sachin; Khattar, Sunil K; Gebreluul, Girmay T; Paldurai, Anandan; Samal, Siba K

    2014-06-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Currently, modified live ILTV vaccines are used to control ILT infections. However, the live ILTV vaccines can revert to virulence after bird-to-bird passage and are capable of establishing latent infections, suggesting the need to develop safer vaccines against ILT. We have evaluated the role of three major ILTV surface glycoproteins, namely, gB, gC, and gD in protection and immunity against ILTV infection in chickens. Using reverse genetics approach, three recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (rNDVs) designated rNDV gB, rNDV gC, and rNDV gD were generated, each expressing gB, gC, and gD, respectively, of ILTV. Chickens received two immunizations with rNDVs alone (gB, gC, and gD) or in combination (gB+gC, gB+gD, gC+gD, and gB+gC+gD). Immunization with rNDV gD induced detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies with the magnitude of response greater than the rest of the experimental groups including those vaccinated with commercially available vaccines. The birds immunized with rNDV gD showed complete protection against virulent ILTV challenge. The birds immunized with rNDV gC alone or multivalent vaccines consisting of combination of rNDVs displayed partial protection with minimal disease and reduced replication of challenge virus in trachea. Immunization with rNDV gB neither reduced the severity of the disease nor the replication of challenge virus in trachea. The superior protective efficacy of rNDV gD vaccine compared to rNDV gB or rNDV gC vaccine was attributed to the higher levels of envelope incorporation and infected cell surface expression of gD than gB or gC. Our results suggest that rNDV expressing gD is a safe and effective bivalent vaccine against NDV and ILTV. PMID:24793943

  12. Mouse skin passage of a Streptococcus pyogenes Tn917 mutant of sagA/pel restores virulence, beta-hemolysis and sagA/pel expression without altering the position or sequence of the transposon

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Thomas H; Sledjeski, Darren D; Boyle, Michael DP

    2001-01-01

    Background Streptolysin S (SLS), the oxygen-stable hemolysin of Streptococcus pyogenes, has recently been shown to be encoded by the sagA/pel gene. Mutants lacking expression of this gene were less virulent in a dermonecrotic mouse infection model. Inactivation of the sagA/pel gene affect the expression of a variety of virulence factors in addition to the hemolysin. Insertion of a Tn917 transposon into the promoter region of the sagA/pel gene of S. pyogenes isolate CS101 eliminated expression of SLS, as well as decreased expression of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B, streptokinase and M protein. Results In this study a mouse skin air sac model was utilized to analyze the effect of biological pressures on expression of SLS and other sagA/pel regulated gene products. The insertion delayed the lethal effect of S. pyogenes in a mouse skin infection model. Despite this, bacteria could be cultured from the kidneys 72 hours post infection. These kidney-recovered isolates were β-hemolytic despite the transposon being present in its original location and had equivalent virulence to the wild type isolate when re-injected into naive mice. Northern blot analysis of the kidney-recovered isolates confirmed that transcription of sagA/pel was restored; however the expression of all sagA/pel regulated genes was not restored to wild type levels. Conclusions These results show that biological pressure present in the mouse can select for variants with altered expression of key virulence factor genes in S. pyogenes. PMID:11801184

  13. Regulation of Bacterial Virulence by Csr (Rsm) Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vakulskas, Christopher A.; Potts, Anastasia H.; Babitzke, Paul; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Most bacterial pathogens have the remarkable ability to flourish in the external environment and in specialized host niches. This ability requires their metabolism, physiology, and virulence factors to be responsive to changes in their surroundings. It is no surprise that the underlying genetic circuitry that supports this adaptability is multilayered and exceedingly complex. Studies over the past 2 decades have established that the CsrA/RsmA proteins, global regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression, play important roles in the expression of virulence factors of numerous proteobacterial pathogens. To accomplish these tasks, CsrA binds to the 5′ untranslated and/or early coding regions of mRNAs and alters translation, mRNA turnover, and/or transcript elongation. CsrA activity is regulated by noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) that contain multiple CsrA binding sites, which permit them to sequester multiple CsrA homodimers away from mRNA targets. Environmental cues sensed by two-component signal transduction systems and other regulatory factors govern the expression of the CsrA-binding sRNAs and, ultimately, the effects of CsrA on secretion systems, surface molecules and biofilm formation, quorum sensing, motility, pigmentation, siderophore production, and phagocytic avoidance. This review presents the workings of the Csr system, the paradigm shift that it generated for understanding posttranscriptional regulation, and its roles in virulence networks of animal and plant pathogens. PMID:25833324

  14. Regulation of bacterial virulence by Csr (Rsm) systems.

    PubMed

    Vakulskas, Christopher A; Potts, Anastasia H; Babitzke, Paul; Ahmer, Brian M M; Romeo, Tony

    2015-06-01

    Most bacterial pathogens have the remarkable ability to flourish in the external environment and in specialized host niches. This ability requires their metabolism, physiology, and virulence factors to be responsive to changes in their surroundings. It is no surprise that the underlying genetic circuitry that supports this adaptability is multilayered and exceedingly complex. Studies over the past 2 decades have established that the CsrA/RsmA proteins, global regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression, play important roles in the expression of virulence factors of numerous proteobacterial pathogens. To accomplish these tasks, CsrA binds to the 5' untranslated and/or early coding regions of mRNAs and alters translation, mRNA turnover, and/or transcript elongation. CsrA activity is regulated by noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) that contain multiple CsrA binding sites, which permit them to sequester multiple CsrA homodimers away from mRNA targets. Environmental cues sensed by two-component signal transduction systems and other regulatory factors govern the expression of the CsrA-binding sRNAs and, ultimately, the effects of CsrA on secretion systems, surface molecules and biofilm formation, quorum sensing, motility, pigmentation, siderophore production, and phagocytic avoidance. This review presents the workings of the Csr system, the paradigm shift that it generated for understanding posttranscriptional regulation, and its roles in virulence networks of animal and plant pathogens. PMID:25833324

  15. BosR (BB0647) Controls the RpoN-RpoS Regulatory Pathway and Virulence Expression in Borrelia burgdorferi by a Novel DNA-Binding Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Deka, Ranjit K.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, the alternative σ factor σ54 (RpoN) directly activates transcription of another alternative σ factor, σS (RpoS) which, in turn, controls the expression of virulence-associated membrane lipoproteins. As is customary in σ54-dependent gene control, a putative NtrC-like enhancer-binding protein, Rrp2, is required to activate the RpoN-RpoS pathway. However, recently it was found that rpoS transcription in Bb also requires another regulator, BosR, which was previously designated as a Fur or PerR homolog. Given this unexpected requirement for a second activator to promote σ54-dependent gene transcription, and the fact that regulatory mechanisms among similar species of pathogenic bacteria can be strain-specific, we sought to confirm the regulatory role of BosR in a second virulent strain (strain 297) of Bb. Indeed, BosR displayed the same influence over lipoprotein expression and mammalian infectivity for strain Bb 297 that were previously noted for Bb strain B31. We subsequently found that recombinant BosR (rBosR) bound to the rpoS gene at three distinct sites, and that binding occurred despite the absence of consensus Fur or Per boxes. This led to the identification of a novel direct repeat sequence (TAAATTAAAT) critical for rBosR binding in vitro. Mutations in the repeat sequence markedly inhibited or abolished rBosR binding. Taken together, our studies provide new mechanistic insights into how BosR likely acts directly on rpoS as a positive transcriptional activator. Additional novelty is engendered by the facts that, although BosR is a Fur or PerR homolog and it contains zinc (like Fur and PerR), it has other unique features that clearly set it apart from these other regulators. Our findings also have broader implications regarding a previously unappreciated layer of control that can be involved in σ54–dependent gene regulation in bacteria. PMID:21347346

  16. Transgenic expression of the Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA promotes apoptosis or tumorigenesis through JNK activation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wandler, Anica M; Guillemin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer development is strongly correlated with infection by Helicobacter pylori possessing the effector protein CagA. Using a transgenic Drosophila melanogaster model, we show that CagA expression in the simple model epithelium of the larval wing imaginal disc causes dramatic tissue perturbations and apoptosis when CagA-expressing and non-expressing cells are juxtaposed. This cell death phenotype occurs through activation of JNK signaling and is enhanced by loss of the neoplastic tumor suppressors in CagA-expressing cells or loss of the TNF homolog Eiger in wild type neighboring cells. We further explored the effects of CagA-mediated JNK pathway activation on an epithelium in the context of oncogenic Ras activation, using a Drosophila model of metastasis. In this model, CagA expression in epithelial cells enhances the growth and invasion of tumors in a JNK-dependent manner. These data suggest a potential role for CagA-mediated JNK pathway activation in promoting gastric cancer progression. PMID:23093933

  17. The key sigma factor of transition phase, SigH, controls sporulation, metabolism, and virulence factor expression in Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Saujet, Laure; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Soutourina, Olga; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle

    2011-07-01

    Toxin synthesis in Clostridium difficile increases as cells enter into stationary phase. We first compared the expression profiles of strain 630E during exponential growth and at the onset of stationary phase and showed that genes involved in sporulation, cellular division, and motility, as well as carbon and amino acid metabolism, were differentially expressed under these conditions. We inactivated the sigH gene, which encodes an alternative sigma factor involved in the transition to post-exponential phase in Bacillus subtilis. Then, we compared the expression profiles of strain 630E and the sigH mutant after 10 h of growth. About 60% of the genes that were differentially expressed between exponential and stationary phases, including genes involved in motility, sporulation, and metabolism, were regulated by SigH, which thus appears to be a key regulator of the transition phase in C. difficile. SigH positively controls several genes required for sporulation. Accordingly, sigH inactivation results in an asporogeneous phenotype. The spo0A and CD2492 genes, encoding the master regulator of sporulation and one of its associated kinases, and the spoIIA operon were transcribed from a SigH-dependent promoter. The expression of tcdA and tcdB, encoding the toxins, and of tcdR, encoding the sigma factor required for toxin production, increased in a sigH mutant. Finally, SigH regulates the expression of genes encoding surface-associated proteins, such as the Cwp66 adhesin, the S-layer precursor, and the flagellum components. Among the 286 genes positively regulated by SigH, about 40 transcriptional units presenting a SigH consensus in their promoter regions are good candidates for direct SigH targets. PMID:21572003

  18. Gene expression profiling of the plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 reveals putative virulence factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is a ubiquitous basidiomycetous soilborne fungal pathogen causing damping off of seedlings, aerial blights and postharvest diseases. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis a global approach based on analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was undertaken. ...

  19. Proteomic Characterization of Yersinia pestis Virulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chromy, B; Murphy, G; Gonzales, A; Fitch, J P; McCutchen-Maloney, S L

    2005-01-05

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, functions via the Type III secretion mechanism whereby virulence factors are induced upon interactions with a mammalian host. Here, the Y. pestis proteome was studied by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) under physiologically relevant growth conditions mimicking the calcium concentrations and temperatures that the pathogen would encounter in the flea vector and upon interaction with the mammalian host. Over 4100 individual protein spots were detected of which hundreds were differentially expressed in the entire comparative experiment. A total of 43 proteins that were differentially expressed between the vector and host growth conditions were identified by mass spectrometry. Expected differences in expression were observed for several known virulence factors including catalase-peroxidase (KatY), murine toxin (Ymt), plasminogen activator (Pla), and F1 capsule antigen (Caf1), as well as putative virulence factors. Chaperone proteins and signaling molecules hypothesized to be involved in virulence due to their role in Type III secretion were also identified. Other differentially expressed proteins not previously reported to contribute to virulence are candidates for more detailed mechanistic studies, representing potential new virulence determinants. For example, several sugar metabolism proteins were differentially regulated in response to lower calcium and higher temperature, suggesting these proteins, while not directly connected to virulence, either represent a metabolic switch for survival in the host environment or may facilitate production of virulence factors. Results presented here contribute to a more thorough understanding of the virulence mechanism of Y. pestis through proteomic characterization of the pathogen under induced virulence.

  20. The knockdown of each component of the cysteine proteinase-adhesin complex of Entamoeba histolytica (EhCPADH) affects the expression of the other complex element as well as the in vitro and in vivo virulence.

    PubMed

    Ocádiz-Ruiz, Ramón; Fonseca, Wendy; Linford, Alicia S; Yoshino, Timothy P; Orozco, Esther; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite causative of human amoebiasis, disease responsible for 40 000-100 000 deaths annually. The cysteine proteinase-adhesin complex of this parasite (EhCPADH) is a heterodimeric protein formed by a cysteine protease (EhCP112) and an adhesin (EhADH) that plays an important role in the cytopathic mechanism of this parasite. The coding genes for EhCP112 and EhADH are adjacent in the E. histolytica genome, suggesting that their expression may be co-regulated, but this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed the knockdown of EhCP112 and EhADH using gene-specific short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), and the effect of these knockdowns on the expression of both complex components as well as on the in vitro and in vivo virulence was analysed. Results showed that the knockdown of one of the EhCPADH components produced a simultaneous downregulation of the other protein. Accordingly, a concomitant reduction in the overall expression of the complex was observed. The downregulation of each component also produced a significant decrease in the in vitro and in vivo virulence of trophozoites. These results demonstrated that the expression of EhCP112 and EhADH is co-regulated and confirmed that the EhCPADH complex plays an important role in E. histolytica virulence. PMID:26521708

  1. Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins from Leishmania amazonensis Associated with the Loss of Virulence of the Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Rubens D. M.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Mattos, Eliciane C.; Martins, Vivian T.; Lage, Paula S.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Lage, Daniela P.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Régis, Wiliam C. B.; Manso Alves, Maria J.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Nagen, Ronaldo A. P.; Coelho, Eduardo A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study analyzed whether or not the in vitro cultivation for long periods of time of pre-isolated Leishmania amazonensis from lesions of chronically infected BALB/c mice was able to interfere in the parasites' infectivity using in vivo and in vitro experiments. In addition, the proteins that presented a significant decrease or increase in their protein expression content were identified applying a proteomic approach. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites were cultured in vitro for 150 days. Aliquots were collected on the day 0 of culture (R0), as well as after ten (R10; 50 days of culture), twenty (R20; 100 days of culture), and thirty (R30; 150 days of culture) passages, and were used to analyze the parasites' in vitro and in vivo infectivity, as well as to perform the proteomic approach. Approximately 837, 967, 935, and 872 spots were found in 2-DE gels prepared from R0, R10, R20, and R30 samples, respectively. A total of 37 spots presented a significant decrease in their intensity of expression, whereas a significant increase in protein content during cultivation could be observed for 19 proteins (both cases >2.0 folds). Some of these identified proteins can be described, such as diagnosis and/or vaccine candidates, while others are involved in the infectivity of Leishmania. It is interesting to note that six proteins, considered hypothetical in Leishmania, showed a significant decrease in their expression and were also identified. Conclusions/Significance The present study contributes to the understanding that the cultivation of parasites over long periods of time may well be related to the possible loss of infectivity of L. amazonensis. The identified proteins that presented a significant decrease in their expression during cultivation, including the hypothetical, may also be related to this loss of parasites' infectivity, and applied in future studies, including vaccine candidates and/or immunotherapeutic targets against leishmaniasis

  2. Induction of protective immunity in chickens immunized with plant-made chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles expressing very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ten-Hong; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liao, Jia-Teh; Lee, Chin-Wei; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Maw-Yeong; Liu, Hung-Jen; Wang, Min-Ying; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2012-06-01

    Very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chickens and leads to significant economic loss in the poultry industry. Effective new vaccines are urgently needed. Autonomously replicating plant virus-based vector provides attractive means for producing chimeric virus particles (CVPs) in plants that can be developed into vaccines. In this study, we demonstrate the potential for vaccine development of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) epitope-presentation system, where the antigen from vvIBDV VP2 was fused to the N-terminus of BaMV coat protein. Accordingly, an infections plasmid, pBIBD2, was constructed. Inoculation of the recombinant BaMV clone pBIBD2 enabled the generation of chimeric virus, BIBD2, and stable expression of IBDV VP2 antigen on its coat protein. After intramuscular immunization with BIBD2 CVPs, chickens produced antibodies against IBDV and were protected from vvIBDV (V263/TW strain) challenges. These results corroborate the feasibility of BaMV-based CVP platform in plants for the development and production of vaccines against IBDV. PMID:22406128

  3. The Klebsiella pneumoniae YfgL (BamB) lipoprotein contributes to outer membrane protein biogenesis, type-1 fimbriae expression, anti-phagocytosis, and in vivo virulence.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Hsu, Chun-Ru; Chen, Chun-Tang; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Wang, Jin-Town

    2016-07-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes several kinds of infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infection and community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Adhesion is the critical first step in the infection process. Our previous work demonstrated that the transcellular translocation is exploited by K. pneumoniae strains to migrate from the gut flora into other tissues, resulting in systemic infections. However, the initial stages of K. pneumoniae infection remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that a K. pneumoniae strain deleted for yfgL (bamB) exhibited reduced adherence to and invasion of host cells; changed biogenesis of major β-barrel outer membrane proteins; decreased transcriptional expression of type-1 fimbriae; and increased susceptibility to vancomycin and erythromycin. The yfgL deletion mutant also had reduced ability to against neutrophil phagocytosis; exhibited decreased induction of host IL-6 production; and was profoundly attenuated for virulence in a K. pneumoniae model of bacteremia. Thus, the K. pneumoniae YfgL lipoprotein mediates in outer membrane proteins biogenesis and is crucial for anti-phagocytosis and survival in vivo. These data provide a new insight for K. pneumoniae attachment and such knowledge could facilitate preventive therapies or alternative therapies against K. pneumoniae. PMID:27029012

  4. Analysis of the Genome and Transcriptome of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Reveals Complex RNA Expression and Microevolution Leading to Virulence Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Janbon, Guilhem; Ormerod, Kate L.; Paulet, Damien; Byrnes, Edmond J.; Yadav, Vikas; Chatterjee, Gautam; Mullapudi, Nandita; Hon, Chung-Chau; Billmyre, R. Blake; Brunel, François; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Chen, Weidong; Chen, Yuan; Chow, Eve W. L.; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Floyd-Averette, Anna; Gaillardin, Claude; Gerik, Kimberly J.; Goldberg, Jonathan; Gonzalez-Hilarion, Sara; Gujja, Sharvari; Hamlin, Joyce L.; Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Ianiri, Giuseppe; Jones, Steven; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Kozubowski, Lukasz; Lam, Woei; Marra, Marco; Mesner, Larry D.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Moyrand, Frédérique; Nielsen, Kirsten; Proux, Caroline; Rossignol, Tristan; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sun, Sheng; Wollschlaeger, Carolin; Wood, Ian A.; Zeng, Qiandong; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Newlon, Carol S.; Perfect, John R.; Lodge, Jennifer K.; Idnurm, Alexander; Stajich, Jason E.; Kronstad, James W.; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Heitman, Joseph; Fraser, James A.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Dietrich, Fred S.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic basidiomycetous yeast responsible for more than 600,000 deaths each year. It occurs as two serotypes (A and D) representing two varieties (i.e. grubii and neoformans, respectively). Here, we sequenced the genome and performed an RNA-Seq-based analysis of the C. neoformans var. grubii transcriptome structure. We determined the chromosomal locations, analyzed the sequence/structural features of the centromeres, and identified origins of replication. The genome was annotated based on automated and manual curation. More than 40,000 introns populating more than 99% of the expressed genes were identified. Although most of these introns are located in the coding DNA sequences (CDS), over 2,000 introns in the untranslated regions (UTRs) were also identified. Poly(A)-containing reads were employed to locate the polyadenylation sites of more than 80% of the genes. Examination of the sequences around these sites revealed a new poly(A)-site-associated motif (AUGHAH). In addition, 1,197 miscRNAs were identified. These miscRNAs can be spliced and/or polyadenylated, but do not appear to have obvious coding capacities. Finally, this genome sequence enabled a comparative analysis of strain H99 variants obtained after laboratory passage. The spectrum of mutations identified provides insights into the genetics underlying the micro-evolution of a laboratory strain, and identifies mutations involved in stress responses, mating efficiency, and virulence. PMID:24743168

  5. Expression of parasite genetic variation changes over the course of infection: implications of within-host dynamics for the evolution of virulence

    PubMed Central

    Clerc, Melanie; Ebert, Dieter; Hall, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    How infectious disease agents interact with their host changes during the course of infection and can alter the expression of disease-related traits. Yet by measuring parasite life-history traits at one or few moments during infection, studies have overlooked the impact of variable parasite growth trajectories on disease evolution. Here we show that infection-age-specific estimates of host and parasite fitness components can reveal new insight into the evolution of parasites. We do so by characterizing the within-host dynamics over an entire infection period for five genotypes of the castrating bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa infecting the crustacean Daphnia magna. Our results reveal that genetic variation for parasite-induced gigantism, host castration and parasite spore loads increases with the age of infection. Driving these patterns appears to be variation in how well the parasite maintains control of host reproduction late in the infection process. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of this finding with regard to natural selection acting on different ages of infection and the mechanism underlying the maintenance of castration efficiency. Our results highlight how elucidating within-host dynamics can shed light on the selective forces that shape infection strategies and the evolution of virulence. PMID:25761710

  6. The Type Three Secretion System 2-Encoded Regulator EtrB Modulates Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Virulence Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Luzader, Deborah H; Willsey, Graham G; Wargo, Matthew J; Kendall, Melissa M

    2016-09-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a foodborne pathogen that causes bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome throughout the world. A defining feature of EHEC pathogenesis is the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on colonic epithelial cells. Most of the genes that code for AE lesion formation, including a type three secretion system (T3SS) and effectors, are carried within a chromosomal pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this study, we report that a putative regulator, which is encoded in the cryptic E. coli type three secretion system 2 (ETT2) locus and herein renamed EtrB, plays an important role in EHEC pathogenesis. The etrB gene is expressed as a monocistronic transcript, and EtrB autoregulates expression. We provide evidence that EtrB directly interacts with the ler regulatory region to activate LEE expression and promote AE lesion formation. Additionally, we mapped the EtrB regulatory circuit in EHEC to determine a global role for EtrB. EtrB is regulated by the transcription factor QseA, suggesting that these proteins comprise a regulatory circuit important for EHEC colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27324484

  7. Global Regulator of Virulence A (GrvA) Coordinates Expression of Discrete Pathogenic Mechanisms in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli through Interactions with GadW-GadE

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jason K.; Harro, Carly M.; Vendura, Khoury W.; Shaw, Lindsey N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Global regulator of virulence A (GrvA) is a ToxR-family transcriptional regulator that activates locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-dependent adherence in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). LEE activation by GrvA requires the Rcs phosphorelay response regulator RcsB and is sensitive to physiologically relevant concentrations of bicarbonate, a known stimulant of virulence systems in intestinal pathogens. This study determines the genomic scale of GrvA-dependent regulation and uncovers details of the molecular mechanism underlying GrvA-dependent regulation of pathogenic mechanisms in EHEC. In a grvA-null background of EHEC strain TW14359, RNA sequencing analysis revealed the altered expression of over 700 genes, including the downregulation of LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors and the upregulation of genes for glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR). Upregulation of GDAR genes corresponded with a marked increase in acid resistance. GrvA-dependent regulation of GDAR and the LEE required gadE, the central activator of GDAR genes and a direct repressor of the LEE. Control of gadE by GrvA was further determined to occur through downregulation of the gadE activator GadW. This interaction of GrvA with GadW-GadE represses the acid resistance phenotype, while it concomitantly activates the LEE-dependent adherence and secretion of immune subversion effectors. The results of this study significantly broaden the scope of GrvA-dependent regulation and its role in EHEC pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an intestinal human pathogen causing acute hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. For successful transmission and gut colonization, EHEC relies on the glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system and a type III secretion apparatus, encoded on the LEE pathogenicity island. This study investigates the mechanism whereby the DNA-binding regulator GrvA coordinates activation of the LEE with

  8. Ciclopirox Olamine Treatment Affects the Expression Pattern of Candida albicans Genes Encoding Virulence Factors, Iron Metabolism Proteins, and Drug Resistance Factors

    PubMed Central

    Niewerth, Markus; Kunze, Donika; Seibold, Michael; Schaller, Martin; Korting, Hans Christian; Hube, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    The hydroxypyridone ciclopirox olamine belongs to the antimycotic drugs used for the treatment of superficial mycoses. In contrast to the azoles and other antimycotic drugs, its specific mode of action is only poorly understood. To investigate the mode of action of ciclopirox olamine on fungal viability, pathogenicity, and drug resistance, we examined the expression patterns of 47 Candida albicans genes in cells grown in the presence of a subinhibitory concentration (0.6 μg/ml) of ciclopirox olamine by reverse transcription-PCR. In addition, we used suppression-subtractive hybridization to further identify genes that are up-regulated in the presence of ciclopirox olamine. The expression of essential genes such as ACT1 was not significantly modified in cells exposed to ciclopirox olamine. Most putative and known virulence genes such as genes encoding secreted proteinases or lipases had no or only moderately reduced expression levels. In contrast, exposure of cells to ciclopirox olamine led to a distinct up- or down-regulation of genes encoding iron permeases or transporters (FTR1, FTR2, FTH1), a copper permease (CCC2), an iron reductase (CFL1), and a siderophore transporter (SIT1); these effects resembled those found under iron-limited conditions. Addition of FeCl3 to ciclopirox olamine-treated cells reversed the effect of the drug. Addition of the iron chelator bipyridine to the growth medium induced similar patterns of expression of distinct iron-regulated genes (FTR1, FTR2). While serum-induced yeast-to-hyphal phase transition of C. albicans was not affected in ciclopirox olamine-treated cells in the presence of subinhibitory conditions, a dramatic increase in sensitivity to oxidative stress was noted, which may indicate the reduced activities of iron-containing gene products responsible for detoxification. Although the Candida drug resistance genes CDR1 and CDR2 were up-regulated, no change in resistance or increased tolerance could be observed even after an

  9. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Analysis Identifies the Proto-oncogene Tyrosine-Protein Kinase Src as a Crucial Virulence Determinant of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus in Chicken Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; Wang, Fengjie; Han, Zongxi; Gao, Qi; Li, Huixin; Shao, Yuhao; Sun, Nana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the side effects of vaccination against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), novel strategies for ILT control and therapy are urgently needed. The modulation of host-virus interactions is a promising strategy to combat the virus; however, the interactions between the host and avian ILT herpesvirus (ILTV) are unclear. Using genome-wide transcriptome studies in combination with a bioinformatic analysis, we identified proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (Src) to be an important modulator of ILTV infection. Src controls the virulence of ILTV and is phosphorylated upon ILTV infection. Functional studies revealed that Src prolongs the survival of host cells by increasing the threshold of virus-induced cell death. Therefore, Src is essential for viral replication in vitro and in ovo but is not required for ILTV-induced cell death. Furthermore, our results identify a positive-feedback loop between Src and the tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which is necessary for the phosphorylation of either Src or FAK and is required for Src to modulate ILTV infection. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to identify a key host regulator controlling host-ILTV interactions. We believe that our findings have revealed a new potential therapeutic target for ILT control and therapy. IMPORTANCE Despite the extensive administration of live attenuated vaccines starting from the mid-20th century and the administration of recombinant vaccines in recent years, infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) outbreaks due to avian ILT herpesvirus (ILTV) occur worldwide annually. Presently, there are no drugs or control strategies that effectively treat ILT. Targeting of host-virus interactions is considered to be a promising strategy for controlling ILTV infections. However, little is known about the mechanisms governing host-ILTV interactions. The results from our study advance our understanding of host-ILTV interactions on a molecular level and provide experimental

  10. Expression of type I interferon-induced antiviral state and pro-apoptosis markers during experimental infection with low or high virulence bovine viral diarrhea virus in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Roberto A; Walz, Heather G; Brock, Kenny V

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the mRNA expression of host genes involved in type-I interferon-induced antiviral state (IFN-α, IFN-β, Mx-1, PKR, OAS-1 and ISG-15), and apoptosis (caspase-3, -8, and -9), after experimental infection of beef calves with low or high virulence noncytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains. Thirty BVDV-naïve, clinically normal calves were randomly assigned to three groups. Calves were intranasally inoculated with low (LV; n=10, strain SD-1) or high (HV; n=10, strain 1373) virulence ncp BVDV or BVDV-free cell culture medium (Control, n=10). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the target gene expression in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes and spleen 5 days after infection. Interferon-α and -β mRNA levels were up-regulated in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes (P<0.05) in the HV group, but not in the LV group, compared with the control group. There was an up-regulation of type I interferon-induced genes in spleen and tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of HV and LV groups, compared with the control group (P<0.01). mRNA levels of OAS-1 and ISG-15 were significantly higher in LV than HV calves (P<0.05). A significant up-regulation of caspase-8 and -9 was observed in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes in the LV group (P=0.01), but not in the HV group. In conclusion, experimental infection with either high or low virulence BVDV strains induced a significant expression of the type I interferon-induced genes in beef calves. There was a differential expression of some interferon-induced genes (OAS-1 and ISG-15) and pro-apoptosis markers based on BVDV virulence and genotype. PMID:23458997