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Sample records for graal experience conception

  1. Results from polarized experiments at LEGS and GRAAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, A.; Ardashev, K.; Bade, C.; Bartalini, O.; Bellini, V.; Blecher, M.; Bocqueti, J.-P.; Capogni, M.; Caracappa, A.; Casano, L. E.; Castoldi, M.; Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Franco, D.; Gervino, G.; Ghio, F.; Giardina, G.; Gibson, C.; Girolami, B.; Giusa, A.; Glükler, H.; Hicks, K.; Hoblit, S.; Honig, A.; Kageya, T.; Khandaker, M.; Kistner, O. C.; Kizilgul, S.; Kucuker, S.; Lapik, A.; Lehmann, A.; Sandri, P. Levi; Lleres, A.; Lowry, M.; Lucas, M.; Mahon, J.; Mammoliti, F.; Mandaglio, G.; Manganaro, M.; Miceli, L.; Moricciani, D.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Nedorezov, V.; Norum, B.; Pap, M.; Preedom, B.; Seyfarth, H.; Randieri, C.; Rebreyend, D.; Rudnev, N.; Russo, G.; Sandorfi, A.; Schaerf, C.; Sperduto, M.-L.; Ströher, H.; Sutera, M.-C.; Thorn, C. E.; Turinge, A.; Vegna, V.; Whisnant, C. S.; Wang, K.; Wei, X.

    2012-04-01

    Compton backscattering gamma ray beams are characterized by a high degree of linear and circular polarization with low unpolarized backgrounds and have proven to provide very precise measurements of polarization observables. Latest results from LEGS and GRAAL experiments on proton and deuteron targets are presented. The Σ beam asymmetry for ω photoproduction has been measured by the GRAAL collaboration for both the ω→π0γ and the ω→π+π-π0 decay channels on the proton target; single and double polarization asymmetries have been provided also for the K photoproduction channel. E and G double polarization asymmetries for single pion photoproduction on the proton and deuteron have been measured at LEGS using a frozen spin HD target.

  2. Nuclear multifragmentation by 700–1500 MeV photons: New data of GRAAL experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nedorezov, V. G. Lapik, A. M.; Collaboration: GRAAL Collaboration

    2015-12-15

    The cross sections of carbon nucleus photodisintegration into protons and neutrons with high multiplicity for photon energies from 700 to 1500 MeV were measured. The experiment was performed at the tagged photon beam of the GRAAL setup using the wide-aperture detector LAGRANγE. It was shown that multifragmentation up to complete disintegration into separate nucleons is initiated by elementary reactions of meson photoproduction with a subsequent intranuclear cascade.

  3. Recent Results from the Graal and LEGS Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schaerf, Carlo

    2008-10-13

    The polarized and tagged Graal gamma-ray beam is obtained by backward Compton scattering of laser light on the high-energy electrons circulating in the ESRF storage ring. This technique, first developed for the Ladon beam on the storage ring Adone at LNF [1], provides gamma-ray beams with linear or circular polarizations close to one and well known. The Graal beam covers the energy region between 600 and 1500 MeV thus allowing the study of baryon resonances up to an energy of 1916 MeV, in large part by precision measurements of beam polarization asymmetries in meson photoproduction on the nucleons.

  4. Career as Concept and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with six workers depict experiences of downsizing, outsourcing, and retraining that have changed the concept of career from progression to trajectory. Participants mapped their overall life career by linking work and learning histories with family and social life. (SK)

  5. SATS HVO Concept Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria; Williams, Daniel; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s (LaRC) Air Traffic Operations Lab (ATOL) in an effort to comprehensively validate tools and procedures intended to enable the Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept of operations. The SATS HVO procedures were developed to increase the rate of operations at non-towered, non-radar airports in near all-weather conditions. A key element of the design is the establishment of a volume of airspace around designated airports where pilots accept responsibility for self-separation. Flights operating at these airports, are given approach sequencing information computed by a ground based automated system. The SATS HVO validation experiment was conducted in the ATOL during the spring of 2004 in order to determine if a pilot can safely and proficiently fly an airplane while performing SATS HVO procedures. Comparative measures of flight path error, perceived workload and situation awareness were obtained for two types of scenarios. Baseline scenarios were representative of today s system utilizing procedure separation, where air traffic control grants one approach or departure clearance at a time. SATS HVO scenarios represented approaches and departure procedures as described in the SATS HVO concept of operations. Results from the experiment indicate that low time pilots were able to fly SATS HVO procedures and maintain self-separation as safely and proficiently as flying today's procedures.

  6. Concept Maps: Experiments on Dynamic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derbentseva, Natalia; Safayeni, Frank; Canas, Alberto J.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of map structure, concept quantification, and focus question on dynamic thinking during a Concept Map (CMap) construction task. The first experiment compared cyclic and hierarchical structures. The second experiment examined the impact of the quantification of the header concept in the map.…

  7. GRAAL: a seeing enhancer for the NIR wide-field imager Hawk-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paufique, J.; Bruton, A.; Glindemann, A.; Jost, A.; Kolb, J.; Jochum, L.; Le Louarn, M.; Kiekebusch, M.; Hubin, N.; Madec, P.-Y.; Conzelmann, R.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Donaldson, R.; Arsenault, R.; Tordo, S.

    2010-07-01

    We describe the design and development status of GRAAL, the Ground-layer adaptive optics assisted by Laser, which will deliver enhanced images to the Hawk-I instrument on the VLT. GRAAL is an adaptive optics module, part of AOF, the Adaptive optics facility, using four Laser- and one natural guide-stars to measure the turbulence, and correcting for it by deforming the adaptive secondary mirror of a Unit telescope in the Paranal observatory. The outstanding feature of GRAAL is the extremely wide field of view correction, over 10 arcmin diameter, with an image enhancement of about 20% in average in K band. When observing GRAAL will provide FWHM better than 0.3" 40% of the time. Besides the Adaptive optics facility deformable mirror and Laser guide stars, the system uses subelectron L3-CCD and a real-time computing platform, SPARTA. GRAAL completed early this year a final design phase shared internally and outsourced for its mechanical part by the Spanish company NTE. It is now in manufacturing, with a first light in the laboratory planned in 2011.

  8. The Adaptive Optics Facility Module GRAAL on its Way to Final Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.; Paufique, J.; Kolb, J.; Madec, P.-Y.; Kiekebusch, M.; Argomedo, J.; Jost, A.; Tordo, S.; Donaldson, R.; Suarez, M.; Conzelmann, R.; Kuntschner, H.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Kirchbauer, J.-P.; Rissmann, A.-G.; Schimpelsberger, J.

    2014-06-01

    The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) module GRAAL has been developed to provide ground layer adaptive optics correction for the HAWK-I infrared imager. This will improve the limiting magnitude and promote science cases requiring better spatial resolution. The gain in resolution is comparable to selecting a better site for the telescope. The GRAAL wavefront sensor signals are processed by a SPARTA real-time computer that drives the AOF deformable secondary mirror integrated in an upgraded secondary mirror assembly on Yepun, the VLT Unit Telescope 4. The system test phase of GRAAL has started in the integration laboratory in Garching and is described; provisional acceptance is expected to take place at the end of 2014.

  9. Fusion Concept Exploration Experiments at PPPL

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart Zweben; Samuel Cohen; Hantao Ji; Robert Kaita; Richard Majeski; Masaaki Yamada

    1999-05-01

    Small ''concept exploration'' experiments have for many years been an important part of the fusion research program at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). this paper describes some of the present and planned fusion concept exploration experiments at PPPL. These experiments are a University-scale research level, in contrast with the larger fusion devices at PPPL such as the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which are at ''proof-of-principle'' and ''proof-of-performance'' levels, respectively.

  10. Concepts for microgravity experiments utilizing gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.; Reiss, Donald A.; Facemire, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The need for glovebox facilities on spacecraft in which microgravity materials processing experiments are performed is discussed. At present such facilities are being designed, and some of their capabilities are briefly described. A list of experiment concepts which would require or benefit from such facilities is presented.

  11. Status of the GRAAL system development: very wide-field correction with 4 laser guide-stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paufique, J.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R.; Donaldson, R.; Hubin, N.; Jochum, L.; Jost, A.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Madec, P.-Y.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Tordo, S.

    2012-07-01

    We recall the design and present the development status of GRAAL, the Ground-layer adaptive optics assisted by Laser, which will deliver wide-field (10 arcmin), enhanced images to the HAWK-I instrument on the VLT, with an improved seeing. GRAAL is an adaptive optics module, part of the Adaptive optics facility (AOF), using four Laser- and one natural guide-stars to measure the turbulence, and correcting for it by deforming the adaptive secondary mirror of a Unit telescope in the Paranal observatory. GRAAL is in the laboratory in Europe and the integration of its laser guide-star optics is completed. The first wave-front sensor camera will be ready for its integration in the coming weeks, allowing the first system tests to start.

  12. Measurement of the total photoabsorption cross section on a proton in the energy range 600-1500 MeV at the GRAAL

    SciTech Connect

    Bartalini, O.; Bellini, V.; Bocquet, J. P.; Calvat, P.; D'Angelo, A.; Didelez, J.-P.; Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.; Guidal, M.; Giusa, A.; Hourany, E.; Ignatov, A. S.; Kunne, R.; Lapik, A. M.; Sandri, P. Levi; Lleres, A.; Moricciani, D.; Mushkarenkov, A. N.; and others

    2008-01-15

    The total photoabsorption cross section on a free proton was measured at the GRAAL facility in the energy range E{sub {gamma}} = 600-1500 MeV. The large-aperture LAGRAN{gamma}E detector and a liquid hydrogen target were used in the experiment performed with a back-scattered Compton gamma beam. To improve the accuracy, two alternative methods were employed. First, a subtraction method of using empty-target measurements allowed the cross section {sigma}{sub tot} to be evaluated directly because of a low level of the electromagnetic background. Second, an algorithm for evaluating {sigma}{sub tot} on the basis of summing the dominating partial cross sections was developed. Experimental results obtained for {sigma}{sub tot} by the two methods are compared with existing data.

  13. Concept Maps and Language: A Turkish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci

    2003-01-01

    Concept maps are being used by an increasing number of educators in Europe and the US. This paper has four goals. First, it discusses problems in developing Novak's style concept maps in Turkish caused by linguistic differences between Turkish and English. Second, it reports the findings of a research study conducted to adapt concept maps to…

  14. Concept maps and language: a Turkish experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagci Kilic, Gulsen

    2003-11-01

    Concept maps are being used by an increasing number of educators in Europe and the US. This paper has four goals. First, it discusses problems in developing Novak's style concept maps in Turkish caused by linguistic differences between Turkish and English. Second, it reports the findings of a research study conducted to adapt concept maps to Turkish. Third, it recommends three methods for the adaptation resulting from research findings. Finally, it discusses the implications of the adaptation for educators worldwide and for future research.

  15. Database Administration: Concepts, Tools, Experiences, and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong-Hong, Belkis; Marron, Beatrice

    The concepts of data base administration, the role of the data base administrator (DBA), and computer software tools useful in data base administration are described in order to assist data base technologists and managers. A study of DBA's in the Federal Government is detailed in terms of the functions they perform, the software tools they use,…

  16. [Concept maps of the graduate programme in nursing: experience report].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia Torres; Furtado, Luciana Gomes

    2013-06-01

    The conceptual map is considered a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills. The aim of this article was to evaluate concept maps produced by students to obtain an understanding of research projects. This is an experience report based on the Special Topic: concept map of the Graduate Program in Nursing/Federal University of Paraiba in February/2012. Methodology comprised interactive reading of concept maps, installation and use of Cmap Tools software and construction of concept maps. Concept evaluation included coherence, propositions, clarity of ideas and logical relation between concepts. This evaluation of maps revealed consistency among concepts, significant relationships, clarity of ideas and logical relationship between the stages of a research project. Results showed that the concept map is a valid strategy to evaluate the learning-teaching process and can be used for education, research and reflection in the nursing practice. PMID:24015477

  17. Magnonics: Experiment to prove the concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglyak, V. V.; Hicken, R. J.

    2006-11-01

    An experimental scheme for studying spin wave propagation across thin magnetic film samples is proposed. The scheme is based upon the creation of picosecond pulses of strongly localized effective magnetic field via ultrafast optical irradiation of a specially deposited exchange bias or exchange spring layer. The spin waves are excited near the irradiated surface before propagating across the thickness of the sample. They are then detected near the other surface either within the finite optical skin depth using the linear magneto-optical Kerr effect in metallic samples or by the magnetic second harmonic generation. The experiment can facilitate investigations of propagating spin waves with wavelengths down to several nanometers and frequencies in excess of hundreds of Gigahertz. An experiment upon a periodically layered nanowire (a finite cross-section magnonic crystal) is numerically simulated, although the sample might equally well be a continuous film or an array of elements (e.g. nanowires) that either have uniform composition or are periodically layered as in a magnonic crystal. The experiments could be extended to study domain wall-induced spin wave phase shifts and can be used for the creation of spin wave magnetic logic devices.

  18. Exobiology experiment concepts for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffiths, Lynn D.; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    The exobiology discipline uses ground based and space flight resources to conduct a multidiscipline research effort dedicated to understanding fundamental questions about the origin, evolution, and distribution of life and life related molecules throughout the universe. Achievement of this understanding requires a methodical research strategy which traces the history of the biogenic elements from their origins in stellar formation processes through the chemical evolution of molecules essential for life to the origin and evolution of primitive and, ultimately, complex living species. Implementation of this strategy requires the collection and integration of data from solar system exploration spacecraft and ground based and orbiting observatories and laboratories. The Science Lab Module (SLM) of the Space Station orbiting complex may provide an ideal setting in which to perform certain classes of experiments which form the cornerstone of exobiology research. These experiments could demonstrate the pathways and processes by which biomolecules are synthesized under conditions that stimulate the primitive earth, planetary atmospheres, cometary ices, and interstellar dust grains. Exobiology experiments proposed for the Space Station generally fall into four classes: interactions among gases and grains (nucleation, accretion, gas-grain reactions), high energy chemistry for the production of biomolecules, physical and chemical processes occurring on an artificial comet, and tests of the theory of panspermia.

  19. Exobiology experiment concepts for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffiths, L. D.; Devincenzi, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The exobiology discipline uses ground based and space flight resources to conduct a multidiscipline research effort dedicated to understanding fundamental questions about the origin, evolution, and distribution of life and life related molecules throughout the universe. Achievement of this understanding requires a methodical research strategy which traces the history of the biogenic elements from their origins in stellar formation processes through the chemical evolution of molecules essential for life to the origin and evolution of primitive and, ultimately, complex living species. Implementation of this strategy requires the collection and integration of data from solar system exploration spacecraft and ground based and orbiting observatories and laboratories. The Science Lab Module (SLM) of the Space Station orbiting complex may provide an ideal setting in which to perform certain classes of experiments which form the cornerstone of exobiology research. These experiments could demonstrate the pathways and processes by which biomolecules are synthesized under conditions that simulate the primitive Earth, planetary atmospheres, cometary ices, and interstellar dust grains. Exobiology experiments proposed for the Space Station generally fall into four classes: interactions among gases and grains (nucleation, accretion, gas-grain reactions), high energy chemistry for the production of biomolecules, physical and chemical processes occurring on an artificial comet, and tests of the theory of panspermia.

  20. An Overburdened Term: Dewey's Concept of "Experience" as Curriculum Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Jayson; Nelsen, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines Dewey's concept of "experience" in light of his analysis of industrial capitalism, his anthropological thinking, and his critique of early 20th century educational ideologies, giving the concept a more expansive meaning than what is typically represented in the educational literature. We also outline the specific curricular…

  1. Patient Experiences of Loneliness: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Karhe, Liisa; Kaunonen, Marja

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness is a painful experience for patients. To clarity the concept of patient loneliness, this study undertook an evolutionary concept analysis based on a literature search in the main relevant databases. We identified 7 dimensions in adult patients' experiences of loneliness. These dimensions of loneliness have different causes and theoretical foundations, which have different implications for patient care. Patients may be lonely in their different relationships, including those with nurses and doctors. Loneliness in relation to health care professionals is a new application of the concept of loneliness that provides a useful starting point for future research. PMID:26517346

  2. Atmospheric guidance concepts for an aeroassist flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, J. D.; Cerimele, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Higgins, J.

    1988-01-01

    Three atmospheric guidance concepts proposed for an aeroassist flight experiment are presented. The flight experiment will simulate a return from geosynchronous orbit by an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle and is proposed to be flown on board the Space Shuttle in 1992. The three guidance concepts include an analytic predictor/corrector, a numeric predictor/corrector, and an energy controller. The algorithms for the three guidance methods are developed and performance results are presented for the nominal case and for several cases dispersed from the nominal conditions.

  3. Proto-experiences and subjective experiences: classical and quantum concepts.

    PubMed

    Vimal, Ram Lakhan Pandey

    2008-03-01

    Deterministic reductive monism and non-reductive substance dualism are two opposite views for consciousness, and both have serious problems. An alternative view is needed. For this, we hypothesize that strings or elementary particles (fermions and bosons) have two aspects: (i) elemental proto-experiences (PEs) as phenomenal aspect, and (ii) mass, charge, and spin as material aspect. Elemental PEs are hypothesized to be the properties of elementary particles and their interactions, which are composed of irreducible fundamental subjective experiences (SEs)/PEs that are in superimposed form in elementary particles and in their interactions. Since SEs/PEs are superimposed, elementary particles are not specific to any SE/PE; they (and all inert matter) are carriers of SEs/PEs, and hence, appear as non-experiential material entities. Furthermore, our hypothesis is that matter and associated elemental PEs co-evolved and co-developed into neural-nets and associated neural-net PEs (neural Darminism), respectively. The signals related to neural PEs interact in a neural-net and neural-net PEs emerges from random process of self-organization. The neural-net PEs are a set of SEs embedded in the neural-net by a non-computational or non-algorithmic process. The non-specificity of elementary particles is transformed into the specificity of neural-nets by neural Darwinism. The specificity of SEs emerges when feedforward and feedback signal interacts in the neuropil and are dependent on wakefulness (i.e., activation) attention, re-entry between neural populations, working memory, stimulus at above threshold, and neural net PE signals. This PE-SE framework integrates reductive and non-reductive views, complements the existing models, bridges the explanatory gaps, and minimizes the problem of causation. PMID:18431818

  4. Is the concept of corrective emotional experience still topical?

    PubMed

    Palvarini, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a historical review of the literature concerned with the role of emotional factors in psychoanalysis. The author then focuses on Alexander's milestone contribution and above all, on the concept he developed of corrective emotional experience. Alexander moves gradually over time from the classical position, which gives insight a place of choice, to a more radical view, in which, the most effective therapeutic factor is represented by the emotional experience within the therapeutic relationship. The article includes a review of the literature relevant to the concept of corrective emotional experience. Finally, Experiential-Dynamic Psychotherapy, a therapeutic approach giving a prominent role to the therapeutic power of corrective emotional experience is considered. Two vignettes from a psychotherapy carried out according to the principles of Experiential-Dynamic Psychotherapy provide examples of how this model is applied clinically. PMID:20617789

  5. RF system concepts for a muon cooling experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.; Corlett, J.N.; Li, D.; Moretti, A.; Kirk, H.G.; Palmer, R.B.; Zhao, Y.

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of muon colliders for high energy physics experiments has been under intensive study for the past few years and recent activity has focused on defining an R and D program that would answer the critical issues. An especially critical issue is developing practical means of cooling the phase space of the muons once they have been produced and captured in a solenoidal magnetic transport channel. Concepts for the rf accelerating cavities of a muon cooling experiment are discussed.

  6. Space Experiment Concepts: Cup-Burner Flame Extinguishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Space Fire Suppression Processes & Technology. Space experiment concepts of cup-burner flame extinguishment have been conceived to address to the key issues (i.e., organizing questions) in space fire suppression. Cup-burner flame extinguishment experiment can reveal physical and chemical suppression processes and provide agent effectiveness data useful for technology development of space fire suppression systems in various reduced-gravity platforms.

  7. Experiment module concepts study. Volume 1: Management summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The minimum number of standardized (common) module concepts that will satisfy the experiment program for manned space stations at least cost is investigated. The module interfaces with other elements such as the space shuttle, ground stations, and the experiments themselves are defined. The total experiment module program resource and test requirements are also considered. The minimum number of common module concepts that will satisfy the program at least cost is found to be three, plus a propulsion slice and certain experiment-peculiar integration hardware. The experiment modules rely on the space station for operational, maintenance, and logistic support. They are compatible with both expendable and shuttle launch vehicles, and with servicing by shuttle, tug, or directly from the space station. A total experiment module program cost of approximately $2319M under the study assumptions is indicated. This total is made up of $838M for experiment module development and production, $806M for experiment equipment, and $675M for interface hardware, experiment integration, launch and flight operations, and program management and support.

  8. Design challenges and safety concept for the AVANTI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaias, G.; Ardaens, J.-S.

    2016-06-01

    AVANTI is a formation-flight experiment involving two noncooperative satellites. After a brief overview of the challenges that experiment design and scenario induce, this paper presents the safety concept retained to guarantee the safety of the formation. The peculiarity of the proposed approach is that it does not rely on the continuous availability of tracking data of the client spacecraft but rather exploits the concept of passive safety of special relative trajectories. To this end, the formation safety criterion based on the minimum distance normal to the flight direction has been extended in order to be applicable also to drifting relative orbits, resulting from non-vanishing relative semi-major axis encountered during a rendezvous or produced by the action of the differential aerodynamic drag.

  9. The technological concept of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveaux, M.; Cbm-Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is to explore the properties of strongly interacting matter in the regime of highest net baryon densities. It aims to find experimental evidence for numerous predicted effects like a first order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter, the existence of a critical endpoint of this phase transition and the expected onset of chiral symmetry restoration. The 8-45 AGeV heavy ion beam needed to create the hot and dense matter in the fixed target experiment will be provided by the SIS100 and the SIS300 synchrotron of the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. The paper provides an introduction into the measurement challenges and the technological concept of CBM-experiment from an instrumentalist's point of view.

  10. Reinforcing Cultural Competency Concepts During Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Caligiuri, Frank J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To incorporate cultural competency concepts into various introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) at the University of Missouri - Kansas City, School of Pharmacy. Design A 6-week series, titled “Becoming a Culturally Competent Provider” was developed to provide IPPE students with the opportunity to apply theory regarding cultural competency in a clinical context. Assessment Pre- and post-intervention attitude survey instruments were administered to 25 students in the spring semester of 2009. Several activities within the series were associated with reflection exercises. Student presentations were evaluated and formal feedback was provided by faculty members. A course evaluation was administered to evaluate the series and determine areas of improvement. Conclusion A special series on cultural competency resulted in positive changes in students' attitudes, highlighting the importance of reinforcing cultural competency concepts during IPPEs. PMID:21088735

  11. CELSS experiment model and design concept of gas recycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.; Kanda, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prolong the duration of manned missions around the Earth and to expand the human existing region from the Earth to other planets such as a Lunar Base or a manned Mars flight mission, the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) becomes an essential factor of the future technology to be developed through utilization of space station. The preliminary system engineering and integration efforts regarding CELSS have been carried out by the Japanese CELSS concept study group for clarifying the feasibility of hardware development for Space station experiments and for getting the time phased mission sets after FY 1992. The results of these studies are briefly summarized and the design and utilization methods of a Gas Recycle System for CELSS experiments are discussed.

  12. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  13. The Concept of Experience by John Dewey Revisited: Conceiving, Feeling and "Enliving"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohr, Hansjorg

    2013-01-01

    "The concept of experience by John Dewey revisited: conceiving, feeling and 'enliving'." Dewey takes a few steps towards a differentiation of the concept of experience, such as the distinction between primary and secondary experience, or between ordinary (partial, raw, primitive) experience and complete, aesthetic experience. However, he does not…

  14. Concepts of peace education: A view of western experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Robin; Aspeslagh, Robert

    1983-09-01

    Approaches to the theory and practice of peace education are as varied as the situations across the world in which it is undertaken. Against a framework established by the Peace Education Commission of IPRA, current trends in the conceptualization and experience of peace education (from a Western view-point) are considered and reveal (1) acceptance of `development' with `justice' and `human rights' as integral to the concept of peace; (2) emphasis on the psychological as well as socio-political, economic and structural conditions that maintain present injustices and oppressions; (3) renewed efforts to try out innovative educational approaches to a variety of learning situations, from the pre-school to adult formal and non-formal settings; (4) new concern about the materials, content and techniques of learning; and (5) fresh examination of the inter-relationships between theory and practice, research and action. Analyzing a number of conceptual approaches to peace and disarmament education, the authors support a political, participatory strategy and set it in a historical context. Hence, its connection with development education and the significance and implications of a global perspective are demonstrated. The global perspective is seen as a growing-point for peace education today, providing the potential for political consciousness and action.

  15. Fluid Line Evacuation and Freezing Experiments for Digital Radiator Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Miller, Jennifer R.; Sunada, Eric T.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Stephan, Ryan; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The digital radiator technology is one of three variable heat rejection technologies being investigated for future human-rated NASA missions. The digital radiator concept is based on a mechanically pumped fluid loop with parallel tubes carrying coolant to reject heat from the radiator surface. A series of valves actuate to start and stop fluid flow to di erent combinations of tubes, in order to vary the heat rejection capability of the radiator by a factor of 10 or more. When the flow in a particular leg is stopped, the fluid temperature drops and the fluid can freeze, causing damage or preventing flow from restarting. For this reason, the liquid in a stopped leg must be partially or fully evacuated upon shutdown. One of the challenges facing fluid evacuation from closed tubes arises from the vapor generated during pumping to low pressure, which can cause pump cavitation and incomplete evacuation. Here we present a series of laboratory experiments demonstrating fluid evacuation techniques to overcome these challenges by applying heat and pumping to partial vacuum. Also presented are results from qualitative testing of the freezing characteristics of several different candidate fluids, which demonstrate significant di erences in freezing properties, and give insight to the evacuation process.

  16. OMEGA Experiments on the Shock-Ignition ICF Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, W.

    2007-11-01

    Shock ignition is an ICF concept that assembles thermonuclear fuel to high areal densities and then ignites it by launching a strong shock wave into the compressed fuel. The low-adiabat fuel assembly implodes with a velocity that is less than that required for hot-spot ignition. An intensity spike at the end of the main drive pulse generates a strong shock that is timed to meet the return shock bouncing back from the capsule center in the hot spot. The resulting fuel assembly is non-isobaric and will ignite with less energy than a conventional isobaric implosion.^1 Experiments to study the shock-ignition concept were performed on the OMEGA Laser System using 40-μm-thick, 0.9-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D2 gas. The targets were driven by a relaxation adiabat-shaping laser pulse with a short picket pulse and a high-intensity spike. The implosion was optimized by measuring the fuel assembly performance as a function of the timing of the picket pulse and the spike. Neutron-averaged areal densities of ˜200 mg/cm^2 were measured. The shock-generated implosion showed fusion product yields enhanced by a factor of ˜4 compared to an implosion without the spike. The measured neutron yield for a 25-atm fill, an adiabat of 1.6, and 17 kJ of laser energy was ˜10% of the 1-D simulation prediction. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreements DE-FC52-92SF19460 and DE-FC02-04ER54789. Contributors: R. Betti,^* C. Stoeckl, K.S. Anderson,^* J.A. Delettrez, V.Yu. Glebov, F.J. Marshall, D.N. Maywar, R.L. McCrory, D.D. Meyerhofer, P.B. Radha, T.C. Sangster, V.A. Smalyuk, A.A. Solodov,^* B. Yaakobi, and C.D. Zhou, UR/LLE; J.A. Frenje, C.K. Li, R.D. Petrasso, and F.H. S'eguin, MIT-PSFC; L.J. Perkins, LLNL; D. Shvarts, NRCN (Israel). ^*Also at the Fusion Science Center for Extreme States of Matter and Fast Ignition.

  17. Roles of Terminology, Experience, and Energy Concepts in Student Conceptions of "Freezing" and "Boiling"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasien, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    A discussion of some student conceptions of the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor phase transitions is presented. Data from open-ended, short-answer questions were collected from first-semester general chemistry students and then discussed in the context of previous studies. The responses gave insight into the various student conceptions about these…

  18. The Integration of Green Chemistry Experiments with Sustainable Development Concepts in Pre-Service Teachers' Curriculum: Experiences from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida Hg; Mohamed, Norita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce green chemistry experiments as laboratory-based pedagogy and to evaluate effectiveness of green chemistry experiments in delivering sustainable development concepts (SDCs) and traditional environmental concepts (TECs). Design/methodology/approach: Repeated measure design was employed to evaluate…

  19. Space construction system analysis. Part 2: Space construction experiments concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, J. A.; Wiley, L. F.; Gimlich, G. W.; Greenberg, H. S.; Hart, R. J.; Lefever, A. E.; Lillenas, A. N.; Totah, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Technology areas in the orbital assembly of large space structures are addressed. The areas included structures, remotely operated assembly techniques, and control and stabilization. Various large space structure design concepts are reviewed and their construction procedures and requirements are identified.

  20. Illustrating Chemical Concepts through Food Systems: Introductory Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, E., IV; Setser, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrations involving foods that illustrate chemical concepts are described, including vaporization of liquids and Graham's law of diffusion, chemical reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration. (CS)

  1. Pathway Concepts Experiment for Head-Down Synthetic Vision Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    Eight 757 commercial airline captains flew 22 approaches using the Reno Sparks 16R Visual Arrival under simulated Category I conditions. Approaches were flown using a head-down synthetic vision display to evaluate four tunnel ("minimal", "box", "dynamic pathway", "dynamic crow s feet") and three guidance ("ball", "tadpole", "follow-me aircraft") concepts and compare their efficacy to a baseline condition (i.e., no tunnel, ball guidance). The results showed that the tunnel concepts significantly improved pilot performance and situation awareness and lowered workload compared to the baseline condition. The dynamic crow s feet tunnel and follow-me aircraft guidance concepts were found to be the best candidates for future synthetic vision head-down displays. These results are discussed with implications for synthetic vision display design and future research.

  2. The MBA Experience: Participants' Entry Level Conceptions of Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, John; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with a sample of 18 first-year Master's of Business Administration students elicited their conceptions of management in terms of attributes, roles, and choices. Comparisons with major management theories showed that, although participants view management as an amalgam of highly personal choices, theories underplay the importance of…

  3. Using Real-Life Experiences to Teach Computer Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Teaching computer concepts to individuals with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or visually impaired) presents some unique challenges. Students often have difficulty remembering to perform certain steps or have difficulty remembering specific keystrokes when using computers. Many cannot visualize the way in which complex computing…

  4. Conceptions of Research: The Doctoral Student Experience in Three Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubb, Jenni; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lonka, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how doctoral students perceive research work in the context of their own PhD projects. Thirty-two students from a Finnish university were interviewed, representing three disciplines: medicine, natural sciences and behavioural sciences. Their conceptions of research varied in terms of describing research as "a job to…

  5. GEN IV: Carbide Fuel Elaboration for the 'Futurix Concepts' experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Vaudez, Stephane; Riglet-Martial, Chantal; Paret, Laurent; Abonneau, Eric

    2007-07-01

    In order to collect information on the behaviour of the future GFR (Gas Fast Reactor) fuel under fast neutron irradiation, an experimental irradiation program, called 'Futurix-concepts' has been launched at the CEA. The considered concept is a composite material made of a fissile fuel embedded in an inert matrix. Fissile fuel pellets are made of UPuN or UPuC while matrices are SiC for the carbide fuel and TiN for the nitride fuel. This paper focuses on the description of the carbide composite fabrication. The UPuC pellets are manufactured using a metallurgical powder process. Fabrication and handling of the fuels are carried out in gloveboxes under a nitrogen atmosphere. Carbide fuel is synthesized by carbothermic reduction under vacuum of a mixture of actinide oxide and graphite carbon up to 1550 deg. C. After ball milling, the powder is pressed to create hexagonal or spherical compacts. They are then sintered up to 1750 deg. C in order to obtain a density of 85 % of the theoretical one. The sintered pellets are inserted into an inert and tight capsule of SiC. In order to control the gap between the fuel and the matrix precisely, the pellets are abraded. The inert matrix is then filled with the pellets and the whole system is sealed by a BRASiC{sup R} process at high temperature under a helium atmosphere. Fabrication of the sample to be irradiated was done in 2006 and the irradiation began in May 2007 in the PHENIX reactor. This presentation will detail and discuss the results obtained during this fabrication phase. (authors)

  6. Peak Communication Experiences: Concept, Structure, and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ron; Dulaney, Earl

    A study was conducted to test a "peak communication experience" (PCE) scale developed from Abraham Maslow's theory of PCE's, a model of one's highest interpersonal communication moments in terms of perceived mutual understanding, happiness, and personal fulfillment. Nineteen items, extrapolated from Maslow's model but rendered more generally…

  7. Alternative Conceptions about Micro-Organisms Are Influenced by Experiences with Disease in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana; Krajcovicová, Adriána

    2016-01-01

    Children's ideas concerning natural phenomena often differ from those of scientists, and these ideas are termed as alternative conceptions. The prevalence of alternative conceptions is highest among young children who possess less experience with the natural world as compared with adults. Children's ideas about micro-organisms are of special…

  8. Combustion and Energy Transfer Experiments: A Laboratory Model for Linking Core Concepts across the Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Jose C.; Dubetz, Terry A.; Schmidt, Diane L.; Isern, Sharon; Beatty, Thomas; Brown, David W.; Gillman, Edward; Alberte, Randall S.; Egiebor, Nosa O.

    2007-01-01

    Core concepts can be integrated throughout lower-division science and engineering courses by using a series of related, cross-referenced laboratory experiments. Starting with butane combustion in chemistry, the authors expanded the underlying core concepts of energy transfer into laboratories designed for biology, physics, and engineering. This…

  9. The efficacy of planetarium experiences to teach specific science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Joel C.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of planetarium experiences on students' understanding of phases of the moon and eclipses. This research employed a quasi-experimental design. Students from 12 classes in four different schools all in the same school district participated in the study. A total of 178 students from four teachers participated in the study. Data were collected using a researcher developed pretest and posttest. All students received classroom instruction based on the school district's curriculum. The experimental groups took the posttest after attending a 45-minute planetarium experience titled Moon Witch. The control groups took the posttest before attending the planetarium experience but after receiving an additional 45-minute lesson on phases of the moon and eclipses. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was run to determine if there was variance among teachers' instructional practices. Since the results indicated there was no significant variance among teachers, the study sample was analyzed as a single group. An Independent Samples t Test for Means was run in SPSS for the study sample and each subgroup. Subgroups were African American, Hispanic, White, Male, Female, and Economically Disadvantaged. The results indicated that there was an improvement on mean gain scores for the experimental group over the control group for all students and each subgroup. The differences in mean gain scores were significantly higher for all students and for the African American, Female, and Economically Disadvantaged subgroups. An Independent Samples t Test for Means was run using SPSS for each of the three different sections of the pretest and posttest. The results indicated that most of the improvement was in Section 3. This section required students to manipulate photos of the phases of moon into correct order. This section required more spatial reasoning than Section 1

  10. The Superorbital Expansion Tube concept, experiment and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neely, A. J.; Morgan, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the need for ground testing facilities for super orbital re-entry research, a small scale facility has been set up at the University of Queensland to demonstrate the superorbital expansion tube concept. This unique device is a free piston driven, triple diaphragm, impulse shock facility which uses the enthalpy multiplication mechanism of the unsteady expansion process and the addition of a secondary shock driver to further heat the driver gas. The pilot facility has been operated to produce quasi-steady test flows in air with shock velocities in excess of 13 km/s and with a usable test flow duration of the order of 15 micro sec. an experimental condition produced in the facility with total enthalpy of 108 MJ/kg and a total pressure of 335 MPa is reported. A simple analytical flow model which accounts for non-ideal rupture of the light tertiary diaphragm and the resulting entropy increase in the test gas is discussed. It is shown that equilibrium calculations more accurately model the unsteady expansion process than calculations assuming frozen chemistry. This is because the high enthalpy flows produced in the facility can only be achieved if the chemical energy stored in the test flow during shock heating of the test gas is partially returned to the flow during the process of unsteady expansion. Measurements of heat transfer rates to a flat plate demonstrate the usability of test flow for aerothermodynamic testing and comparison of these rates with empirical calculations confirms the usable accuracy of the flow model.

  11. Design of experiments applications in bioprocessing: concepts and approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijesh; Bhalla, Akriti; Rathore, Anurag S

    2014-01-01

    Most biotechnology unit operations are complex in nature with numerous process variables, feed material attributes, and raw material attributes that can have significant impact on the performance of the process. Design of experiments (DOE)-based approach offers a solution to this conundrum and allows for an efficient estimation of the main effects and the interactions with minimal number of experiments. Numerous publications illustrate application of DOE towards development of different bioprocessing unit operations. However, a systematic approach for evaluation of the different DOE designs and for choosing the optimal design for a given application has not been published yet. Through this work we have compared the I-optimal and D-optimal designs to the commonly used central composite and Box-Behnken designs for bioprocess applications. A systematic methodology is proposed for construction of the model and for precise prediction of the responses for the three case studies involving some of the commonly used unit operations in downstream processing. Use of Akaike information criterion for model selection has been examined and found to be suitable for the applications under consideration. PMID:24123959

  12. Aberrant Salience, Self-Concept Clarity, and Interview-Rated Psychotic-Like Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, David C.; Docherty, Anna R.; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Kerns, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Many social-cognitive models of psychotic-like symptoms posit a role for self-concept and aberrant salience. Previous work has shown that the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity is associated with self-reported psychotic-like experiences. In the current research with two structured interviews, the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found to be associated withinterview-rated psychotic-like experiences. The interaction was associated withpsychotic-like experiences composite scores, delusional ideation, grandiosity, and perceptual anomalies. In all cases, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with psychotic-like experiences at high levels of aberrant salience, but unassociated with psychotic-like experiences at low levels of aberrant salience. The interaction was specific to positive psychotic-like experiences and not present for negative or disorganized ratings. The interaction was not mediated by self-esteem levels. These results provide further evidence that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity play an important role in the generation of psychotic-like experiences. PMID:25102085

  13. Aberrant salience, self-concept clarity, and interview-rated psychotic-like experiences.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C; Docherty, Anna R; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G

    2015-02-01

    Many social-cognitive models of psychotic-like symptoms posit a role for self-concept and aberrant salience. Previous work has shown that the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity is associated with self-reported psychotic-like experiences. In the current research with two structured interviews, the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found to be associated with interview-rated psychotic-like experiences. The interaction was associated with psychotic-like experiences composite scores, delusional ideation, grandiosity, and perceptual anomalies. In all cases, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with psychotic-like experiences at high levels of aberrant salience, but unassociated with psychotic-like experiences at low levels of aberrant salience. The interaction was specific to positive psychotic-like experiences and not present for negative or disorganized ratings. The interaction was not mediated by self-esteem levels. These results provide further evidence that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity play an important role in the generation of psychotic-like experiences. PMID:25102085

  14. Impact of Experiments on 13-Year-Old Pupils' Understanding of Selected Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Matej; Glazar, Sasa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish what impact experimental work has on the understanding of scientific concepts, what pupils remember about the experiments they carried out and how they are able to formulate and understand the experiment plan. A sample of 386 pupils aged 13+ participated in the research, of which 162 in the experimental…

  15. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  16. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  17. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  18. Tool for Experimenting with Concepts of Mobile Robotics as Applied to Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Jojoa, E. M.; Bravo, E. C.; Bacca Cortes, E. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a tool for experimenting with mobile robotics concepts, primarily for use by children and teenagers, or by the general public, without previous experience in robotics. This tool helps children learn about science in an approachable and interactive way, using scientific research principles in…

  19. Materials experiment carrier concepts definition study. Volume 2: Technical report, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A materials experiment carrier (MEC) that provides effective accommodation of the given baseline materials processing in space (MPS) payloads and demonstration of the MPS platform concept for high priority materials processing science, multidiscipline MPS investigations, host carrier for commercial MPS payloads, and system economy of orbital operations is defined. The study flow of task work is shown. Study tasks featured analysis and trades to identify the MEC system concept options.

  20. Experiences of adult smokers from the concepts of smoking: A content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sahebihagh, Mohammad Hasan; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Tabrizi, JafarSadegh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking cigarettes is a risk factor for many physical and mental diseases. About five million people die of smoking every year. Understanding the concept of cigarette smoking can help people develop their knowledge with regard to smoking. A qualitative research seems essential to detect these concepts. Therefore, the present study aims to take into account the experience of adult smokers with regard to the concept of smoking. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted on 12 smokers in four selected cities in Iran. Data were collected by in-depth, semi-structured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and simultaneously coded. Subsequently, they were analyzed using the content analysis method. Results: In the present study, eight concepts (themes), 22 subcategories, and 81 codes have emerged. The obtained concepts are physics of a cigarette, addiction and dependency, habit, feel the need, pleasure, seeking peace, mental involvement, and self-induction. Conclusions: The participants’ experiences with regard to cigarette smoking can affect their understanding of the concepts of smoking. The understanding of these concepts by nurses and smokers can enhance their knowledge about the existing facts of smoking, which can act as a foundation for designing preventive methods and smoking cessation programs. PMID:25558249

  1. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  2. Self-Concept in Arab American Adolescents: Implications of Social Support and Experiences in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…

  3. Artist concept drawings of STS-47 and STS-50 Spacelab (SL) experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Artist concept drawings of STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle 105, Spacelab Japan (SL-J) and STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1) experiments include glovebox (41097) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device (41098).

  4. Forces of Patriarchy: Adolescent Experiences of Sexuality and Conceptions of Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Roosmalen, Erica

    2000-01-01

    Examines the role of patriarchy and capitalism in shaping adolescent girls' experiences of sexuality and conceptions of relationships. Analysis of letters to a teen advice column highlights concerns and issues of sexuality, gender identity, and relationships for adolescent girls. Argues that during early adolescence, the power and contradictions…

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Language Concepts: Relationships to Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetley, Deborah; Jones, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of language concepts by pre-service teachers (PSTs) is likely influenced by university coursework and field experiences, but little research has examined how. Knowledge of phonics and phonological awareness and confidence to teach reading were surveyed among primary PSTs at one New South Wales university, most in second year following…

  6. Concept definition for space station technology development experiments. Experiment definition, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The second task of a study with the overall objective of providing a conceptual definition of the Technology Development Mission Experiments proposed by LaRC on space station is discussed. During this task, the information (goals, objectives, and experiment functional description) assembled on a previous task was translated into the actual experiment definition. Although still of a preliminary nature, aspects such as: environment, sensors, data acquisition, communications, handling, control telemetry requirements, crew activities, etc., were addressed. Sketches, diagrams, block diagrams, and timeline analyses of crew activities are included where appropriate.

  7. A case study of change in conceptions and practices of prospective science teachers during field experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Cristine Schoneweg

    Field experiences are a pivotal component in the development of science pedagogy amongst future science teachers. This study sought to examine the ways in which prospective high school science teachers' conceptions of science pedagogy change, if at all, during the field experiences component of a science teacher preparation program. The following research questions guided this investigation of the experiences of two participating prospective science teachers: (1) What are the conceptions of teaching science held by participants? (2) How do these conceptions change as participants progress through pre-student teaching and student teaching? (3) What is the role of pre-student teaching and student teaching in the construction of these conceptions, from the perspective of the participants? (4) In what ways did the pre-student teaching and student teaching experiences constrain or support the development of conceptual change pedagogy among participants? This interpretive case study of participants' development in conceptions about science pedagogy was guided by principles of phenomenological inquiry. Primary sources of data were transcripts of semi-structured formal interviews with participants. Field notes from classroom observations and documents, such as journal entries and lesson plans, were used as supporting data. Data collection occurred during Fall 1995 and Spring 1996, as participants progressed through pre-student teaching and student teaching, respectively. The data were analyzed through an inductive procedure. There were two levels of data analysis. First, the data for each individual participant were analyzed; second, a cross-participant analysis was performed. The overarching assertion that emerged from the analysis was that 'the nature of the field experiences for these participants may have (inadvertently) rewarded the pursuit of technical proficiency at the expense of both critical reflection and development on issues related to participants

  8. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) flight experiment phase C/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Lee, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The overall purpose of the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment is to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer concept as well as investigate the effect of microgravity on water electrolysis performance. The scope of the experiment includes variations in microstructural characteristics of electrodes and current densities in a static feed electrolysis cell configuration. The results of the flight experiment will be used to improve efficiency of the static feed electrolysis process and other electrochemical regenerative life support processes by reducing power and expanding the operational range. Specific technologies that will benefit include water electrolysis for propulsion, energy storage, life support, extravehicular activity, in-space manufacturing and in-space science in addition to other electrochemical regenerative life support technologies such as electrochemical carbon dioxide and oxygen separation, electrochemical oxygen compression and water vapor electrolysis. The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment design incorporates two primary hardware assemblies: the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly and the Control/Monitor Instrumentation. The Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly contains three separate integrated electrolysis cells along with supporting pressure and temperature control components. The Control/Monitor Instrumentation controls the operation of the experiment via the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly components and provides for monitoring and control of critical parameters and storage of experimental data.

  9. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive torque control concept for variable speed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diepeveen, N. F. B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near maximum aerodynamic efficiency for below rated wind speeds. The experiments with a small horizontal-axis wind turbine rotor, coupled to a hydraulic circuit, were conducted at the Open Jet Facility of the Delft University of Technology. In theory, the placement of a nozzle at the end of the hydraulic circuit causes the pressure and hence the rotor torque to increase quadratically with flow speed and hence rotation speed. The rotor torque is limited by a pressure relief valve. Results from the experiments proved the functionality of this passive speed control concept. By selecting the correct nozzle outlet area the rotor operates at or near the optimum tip speed ratio.

  10. AMPS data management concepts. [Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasma in Space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzelaar, P. N.

    1975-01-01

    Five typical AMPS experiments were formulated to allow simulation studies to verify data management concepts. Design studies were conducted to analyze these experiments in terms of the applicable procedures, data processing and displaying functions. Design concepts for AMPS data management system are presented which permit both automatic repetitive measurement sequences and experimenter-controlled step-by-step procedures. Extensive use is made of a cathode ray tube display, the experimenters' alphanumeric keyboard, and the computer. The types of computer software required by the system and the possible choices of control and display procedures available to the experimenter are described for several examples. An electromagnetic wave transmission experiment illustrates the methods used to analyze data processing requirements.

  11. [Investigation of Empiricism. On Ernst Mach's Conception of the Thought Experiment].

    PubMed

    Krauthausen, Karin

    2015-03-01

    Investigation of Empiricism. On Ernst Mach's Conception of the Thought Experiment. The paper argues that Ernst Mach's conception of the thought experiment from 1897/1905 holds a singular position in the lively discussions and repeated theorizations that have continued up to the present in relation to this procedure. Mach derives the thought experiment from scientific practice, and does not oppose it to the physical experiment, but, on the contrary, endows it with a robust relation to the facts. For Mach, the thought experiment is a reliable means of determining empiricism, and at the same time a real, because open and unbiased, experimenting. To shed light on this approach, the paper carries out a close reading of the relevant texts in Mach's body of writings (in their different stages of revision) and proceeds in three steps: first, Mach's processual understanding of science will be presented, which also characterizes his research and publication practice (I. 'Aperçu' and 'Sketch'. Science as Process and Projection); then in a second step the physiological and biological justification and valorization of memory and association will be examined with which Mach limits the relevance of categories such as consciousness and will (II. The Biology of Consciousness. Or The Polyp Colony); against this background, thirdly, the specific empiricism can be revealed that Mach inscribes into the thought experiment by on the one hand founding it in the memory and association, and on the other by tracing it back to geometry, which he deploys as an experimenting oriented to experience (III. Thinking and Experience. The Thought Experiment). PMID:26140511

  12. ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure) - A Shuttle flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, W. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    ACCESS is a planned Shuttle flight experiment to assess the potential of an on-orbit construction concept designed for efficient manual assembly of a space truss. The experiment, which is scheduled for launch November 27, 1985, on the Space Transportation System (STS) flight 61-B, uses two astronauts secured in fixed foot restraints located in the Shuttle cargo bay to assemble a 45-foot long aluminum truss beam from 93 tubular struts and 33 nodal joints. Neutral buoyancy simulations of the flight experiment indicate the truss can be assembled in less than thirty minutes. Structural assembly, structural repair, flexible cable attachment and manual manipulation of the truss is also planned for the experiment using an astronaut secured in the Manipulator Foot Restraint attached to the Remote Manipulator System arm. Flight assembly data will be generated for correlation of the neutral buoyancy ground test data. This paper describes the ACCESS flight experiment and presents results of the neutral buoyancy development and training tests.

  13. Using Wikipedia to learn semantic feature representations of concrete concepts in neuroimaging experiments

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Detre, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that a corpus of a few thousand Wikipedia articles about concrete or visualizable concepts can be used to produce a low-dimensional semantic feature representation of those concepts. The purpose of such a representation is to serve as a model of the mental context of a subject during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. A recent study [19] showed that it was possible to predict fMRI data acquired while subjects thought about a concrete concept, given a representation of those concepts in terms of semantic features obtained with human supervision. We use topic models on our corpus to learn semantic features from text in an unsupervised manner, and show that those features can outperform those in [19] in demanding 12-way and 60-way classification tasks. We also show that these features can be used to uncover similarity relations in brain activation for different concepts which parallel those relations in behavioral data from human subjects. PMID:23243317

  14. Complete Photo-production Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, A.; Bartalini, O.; Fantini, A.; Schaerf, C.; Vegna, V.; Ardashev, K.; Bade, C.; Hicks, K.; Kizilgul, S.; Lucas, M.; Mahon, J.; Bellini, V.; Blecher, M.; Bocquet, J.-P.; Lleres, A.; Rebreyend, D.; Capogni, M.; Caracappa, A.; Kistner, O. C.; Miceli, L.

    2011-10-24

    The extraction of resonance parameters from meson photo-reaction data is a challenging effort, that would greatly benefit from the availability of several polarization observables, measured for each reaction channel on both proton and neutron targets. In the aim of obtaining such complete experiments, polarized photon beams and targets have been developed at facilities, worldwide. We report on the latest results from the LEGS and GRAAL collaborations, providing single and double polarization measurements on pseudo-scalar meson photo-production from the nucleon.

  15. The GBT-based readout concept for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Jörg; Müller, Walter F. J.; Schmidt, Christian J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the readout concept for the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR, which is designed to handle interaction rates up to 10 MHz with hundreds of tracks in fixed target heavy ion collisions of up to 35 AGeV. For data readout from the frontend electronics located close to the silicon strip sensors, the radiation tolerant Gigabit Transceiver ASICs (GBTx) and Versatile Link optical modules developed at CERN are used. The usage of these devices in the STS readout and the readout concept from the frontend electronics to the GBT based STS readout board (ROB) are detailed. Special emphasis is put on the implementation of the interface between the frontend boards (FEBs) and the ROB layer.

  16. A concept for a research tool for experiments with cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Geurts, L; Wouters, J

    2000-12-01

    APEX, an acronym for computer Application for Psycho-Electrical eXperiments, is a user friendly tool used to conduct psychophysical experiments and to investigate new speech coding algorithms with cochlear implant users. Most common psychophysical experiments can be easily programmed and all stimuli can be easily created without any knowledge of computer programing. The pulsatile stimuli are composed off-line using custom-made MATLAB (Registered trademark of The Mathworks, Inc., http://www.mathworks.com) functions and are stored on hard disk or CD ROM. These functions convert either a speech signal into a pulse sequence or generate any sequence of pulses based on the parameters specified by the experimenter. The APEX personal computer (PC) software reads a text file which specifies the experiment and the stimuli, controls the experiment, delivers the stimuli to the subject through a digital signal processor (DSP) board, collects the responses via a computer mouse or a graphics tablet, and writes the results to the same file. At present, the APEX system is implemented for the LAURA (Registered trademark of Philips Hearing Implants) cochlear implant. However, the concept-and many parts of the system-is portable to any other device. Also, psycho-acoustical experiments can be conducted by presenting the stimuli acoustically through a sound card. PMID:11144586

  17. Movable-molybdenum-reflector reactivity experiments for control studies of compact space power reactor concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental reflector reactivity study was made with a compact cylindrical reactor using a uranyl fluoride - water fuel solution. The reactor was axially unreflected and radially reflected with segments of molybdenum. The reflector segments were displaced incrementally in both the axial and radial dimensions, and the shutdown of each configuration was measured by using the pulsed-neutron source technique. The reactivity effects for axial and radial displacement of reflector segments are tabulated separately and compared. The experiments provide data for control-system studies of compact-space-power-reactor concepts.

  18. Concept development evaluation for John Deere/UA STS middeck experiment location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to consider and evaluate some specific concepts for performing a number of extremely low gravity (i.e., microgravity) experiments involving the directional solidification of samples of high carbon, cast iron alloys. The specific experiments considered herein were conceived to permit scientific investigation of the resultant microstructures and mechanical properties of the test samples after the microgravity environment processing. This study was limited to consideration of the NASA/MSFC furnace payloads, referred to herein as the Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF) systems. Three ADSF systems were reviewed and are as follows: (1) Low temperature ADSF (ADSF-1); (2) High temperature ADSF (ADSF-2); and (3) Advanced ADSF (AADSF).

  19. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  20. A novel calorimeter trigger concept: The jet trigger of the H1 experiment at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Bob; Dubak-Behrendt, Ana; Kiesling, Christian; Reisert, Burkard; Aktas, Adil; Antunovic, Biljana; Bracinik, Juraj; Braquet, Charles; Brettel, Horst; Dulny, Barbara; Fent, Jürgen; Fras, Markus; Fröchtenicht, Walter; Haberer, Werner; Hoffmann, Dirk; Modjesch, Miriam; Placakyte, Ringaile; Schörner-Sadenius, Thomas; Wassatsch, Andreas; Zimmermann, Jens

    2011-06-01

    We report on a novel trigger for the liquid argon calorimeter which was installed in the H1 Experiment at HERA. This trigger, called the "Jet Trigger", was running at level 1 and implemented a real-time cluster algorithm. Within only 800 ns, the Jet Trigger algorithm found local energy maxima in the calorimeter, summed their immediate neighbors, sorted the resulting jets by energy, and applied topological conditions for the final level 1 trigger decision. The Jet Trigger was in operation from the year 2006 until the end of the HERA running in the summer of 2007. With the Jet Trigger it was possible to substantially reduce the thresholds for triggering on electrons and jets, giving access to a largely extended phase space for physical observables which could not have been reached in H1 before. The concepts of the Jet Trigger may be an interesting upgrade option for the LHC experiments.

  1. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI): Concept, Hardware Development and Initial Analysis of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. This is a consequence that 1) precludes obtaining any meaningful scientific results and 2) is detrimental to desired material properties. Unfortunately, several Microgravity experiments have been compromised by porosity. The intent of the PFMI investigation is to conduct a systematic effort directed towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification (DS) in a microgravity environment. PFMI uses a pure transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), as well as SCN "alloyed" with water, in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. PFMI is investigating the role of thermocapillary forces and temperature gradients in affecting bubble dynamics as well as other solidification processes in a microgravity Environment. This presentation will cover the concept, hardware development, operations, and the initial results from experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station. .

  2. The Effectiveness of Using Computer Simulated Experiments on Junior High Students' Understanding of the Volume Displacement Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Byung-Soon; Gennaro, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which compared the effectiveness of microcomputer simulated experiences with that of parallel, hands-on laboratory instruction for teaching the concept of volume displacement to junior high school students. Results indicated that computer simulated experience were as affective as hands-on laboratory experiences. (TW)

  3. Investigating the Nature of Third Grade Students' Experiences with Concept Maps to Support Learning of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    To support and improve effective science teaching, educators need methods to reveal student understandings and misconceptions of science concepts and to offer all students an opportunity to reflect on their own knowledge construction and organization. Students can benefit by engaging in scientific activities in which they build personal…

  4. NITARP: Measuring The Effectiveness of an Authentic Research Experience in Secondary Astronomy Education Through Concept Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, Elin; Rebull, Luisa M.; Black, David V.; Gibbs, John; Larsen, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    For secondary students to make use of astronomical data in a school setting, they previously needed access to large telescopes, expensive equipment and difficult-to-use software. This has improved as online data archives have become available; however, difficulties remain, including searching and downloading the data and translating it into formats that high school students can readily analyze. To address these issues, the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) selects teams consisting of teachers and students from several schools. Each year, new teams of educators attend an introductory workshop at the winter AAS conference where they select a research project that will use the archived data. Throughout the spring, educators engage in weekly teleconferences, write proposals, and begin working with their students. The teams meet at Caltech in the summer to learn how to access and analyze the IPAC data and continue to work throughout the fall. Through this experience, participants learn how to search, download, translate, and analyze authentic astronomical data. They learn the nature of scientific communication through developing and presenting their findings alongside practicing astronomers at the following winter AAS. In order to measure how successful the 2014 NITARP summer visit was in teaching participating high school students the terminology and processes necessary to analyze IPAC data, students were asked to create concept maps showing the main and subsidiary ideas and concepts related to their research. They then synthesized their group webs into a master web. When additional terms and concepts were presented, the students were able to integrate them into the master web, showing that they understood the relationship of ideas, concepts, and processes needed for their research. Our companion poster, Gibbs et al., presents the scientific aspects of this project. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program

  5. Concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the cancer pain experience.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lih-Mih; Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Pantilat, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe some of the concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the sociocultural dimension of the cancer pain experience. The major concepts that influence Chinese patients' perspectives on cancer pain and its management include Taoism/energy, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Within the beliefs of Taoism/energy, pain occurs if Qi, or blood circulation, is blocked. To relieve pain, the blockage of Qi/blood must be removed and the person needs to maintain harmony with the universe. Within the beliefs of Buddhism, pain/suffering is a power, unwanted but existent, that comes from a barrier in the last life; from the objective world; from a person's own sensation; or from other people, animals, and materials. Only by following the 8 right ways (ie, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration) can an individual end the path of pain/suffering. A Confucian believes that pain is an essential element of life, a "trial" or a "sacrifice." Therefore, when a person suffers with pain, he or she would rather endure the pain and not report it to a clinician until the pain becomes unbearable. Oncology nurses who care for Chinese patients need to understand the fundamental beliefs that influence the sociocultural dimension of the pain experience for these patients. This information will assist the oncology nurse in developing a more effective pain management plan. PMID:18490884

  6. Concepts for fast large scale Monte Carlo production for the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenedetti, C.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The huge success of Run 1 of the LHC would not have been possible without detailed detector simulation of the experiments. The outstanding performance of the accelerator with a delivered integrated luminosity of 25 fb-1 has created an unprecedented demand for large simulated event samples. This has stretched the possibilities of the experiments due to the constraint of their computing infrastructure and available resources. Modern, concurrent computing techniques optimised for new processor hardware are being exploited to boost future computing resources, but even the most optimistic scenarios predict that additional action needs to be taken to guarantee sufficient Monte Carlo production statistics for high quality physics results during Run 2. In recent years, the ATLAS collaboration has put dedicated effort in the development of a new Integrated Simulation Framework (ISF) that allows running full and fast simulation approaches in parallel and even within one event. We present the main concepts of the ISF, which allows a fine-tuned detector simulation targeted at specific physics cases with a decrease in CPU time per event by orders of magnitude. Additionally, we will discuss the implications of a customised simulation in terms of validity and accuracy and will present new concepts in digitization and reconstruction to achieve a fast Monte Carlo chain with a per event execution time of a few seconds.

  7. A Proof of Concept Experiment for Reducing Skin Friction by Using a Micro-Blowing Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.

    1996-01-01

    A proof of concept experiment for reducing skin friction has been conducted in the Advanced Nozzle and Engine Components Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. In this unique concept, called the micro-blowing technique (MBT), an extremely small amount of air was blown vertically through very small holes to reduce the surface roughness and to control the gradient of the flow velocity profile on the surface thereby reducing skin friction. Research revealed that the skin was the most important factor to make this concept achievable. The proposed skin consisted of two layers. The inner layer was a low permeable porous skin for distributing the blowing air evenly while the outer layer with small holes controlled the vertical or nearly vertical blowing air. Preliminary experimental results showed that the MBT has the potential of a very large reduction in skin friction below the skin friction of a nonporous plain flat plate. Of the skins tested, three have been identified as the MBT skins. They provided very low unblown skin friction such that a large skin friction reduction, below a flat plate value, was achieved with very small amounts of blowing air. The reduction in skin friction of 55 percent was achieved at the Mach number of 0.3 for the exhaust pressure of 0.85 atm, and 60 percent reduction was obtained for the exhaust pressure of 0.24 atm (corresponding to 10 700-m altitude) at the same Mach number. A significant reduction in skin friction of over 25 percent was achieved for the exhaust pressure of 0.24 atm at the Mach number of 0.7. This implied that the MBT could be applied to a wide range of flight conditions. It is also believed that additional 10 percent reduction could be obtained by eliminating the gap between the inner layer and the outer layer. The aspect ratio of the vertical small holes for the outer layer of the MBT skin should be larger than 4 based on the preliminary conclusion from this test. Many experiments are needed to find out the

  8. Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) Ground Experiments and Concepts for Flight Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Trolinger, James D.; Lackey, Jeffrey D.; Milton, Martha E.; Waggoner, Jason; Pope, Regina D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and design of an experimental test cell for ground-based testing to provide requirements for the Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) experiment. Ground-based testing of a hardware breadboard set-up is being conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. SHIVA objectives are to test and validate new solutions of the general equation of motion of a particle in a fluid, including particle-particle interaction, wall effects, motion at higher Reynolds Number, and a motion and dissolution of a crystal moving in a fluid. These objectives will be achieved by recording a large number of holograms of particle motion in the International Space Station (ISS) glove box under controlled conditions, extracting the precise three- dimensional position of all the particles as a function of time, and examining the effects of all parameters on the motion of the particles. This paper will describe the mechanistic approach to enabling the SHIVA experiment to be performed in a ISS glove box in microgravity. Because the particles are very small, surface tension becomes a major consideration in designing the mechanical method to meet the experiments objectives in microgravity, To keep a particle or particles in the center of the test cell long enough to perform and record the experiment and to preclude contribution to particle motion, requires avoiding any initial velocity in particle placement. A Particle Injection Mechanism (PIM) designed for microgravity has been devised and tested to enable SHIVA imaging. Also, a test cell capture mechanism, to secure the test cell during vibration on a specially designed shaker table for the SHIVA experiment will be described. Concepts for flight design are also presented.

  9. A 60-meter erectable assembly concept for a control of flexible structures flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Judith J.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A flight experiment which proposes to use a 60-m deployable/retractable truss beam attached to the Space Shuttle to study dynamic characterization and control of flexible structures is being studied by NASA. The concept requires a relatively complex mechanism for deploying and retracting the truss on-orbit. Development of such a mechanism having a high degree of reliability will be expensive. An alternative method for constructing the truss is discussed requiring no new technology development or complex mechanisms and has already been demonstrated on-orbit. The alternative method proposes an erectable truss beam which can be assembled by two astronauts in EVA. The EVA crew would have to manually assemble the beam from 468 struts and 165 nodes, and install 7 instrumentation platforms with signal and power cabling. The predicted assembly time is 3 hr and 23 min. The structure would also have to be disassembled and restowed following testing, thus 2 EVA days would be required. To allow 25 hr for data collection (probably a bare minimum to accomplish meaningful tests), current Shuttle operations policy dictates a 9-day mission. The design, assembly procedure and issues associated with the alternative concept are discussed.

  10. Proof of concept of an artificial muscle: theoretical model, numerical model, and hardware experiment.

    PubMed

    Haeufle, D F B; Günther, M; Blickhan, R; Schmitt, S

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE), a parallel damper element (PDE), and a serial element (SE) exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, the contraction dynamics of this CE concept were analyzed in a numerical simulation of quick release experiments against different loads. A hyperbolic force-velocity relation was found. The results correspond to measurements of the contraction dynamics of a technical prototype. Deviations from the theoretical prediction could partly be explained by the low stiffness of the SE, which was modeled analog to the metal spring in the hardware prototype. The numerical model and hardware prototype together, are a proof of this CE concept and can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles. This opens up new vistas for the technical realization of natural movements with rehabilitation devices. PMID:22275541

  11. Salt balance: From space experiments to revolutionizing new clinical concepts on earth - A historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzer, Rupert

    2014-11-01

    For a long time, sodium balance appeared to be a “done deal” and was thought to be well understood. However, experiments in preparation of space missions showed that the concept of osmotic sodium storage and close correlations of sodium with water balance are only part of the regulatory mechanisms of body salt. By now it has turned out that the human skin is an important storage place and regulator for sodium, that sodium storage involves macrophages which in turn salt-dependently co-regulate blood pressure, that body sodium also strongly influences bone and protein metabolism, and that immune functions are also strongly influenced by sodium. In addition, the aging process appears to lead to increased body sodium storage, which in turn might influence the aging process of the human body. The current review article summarizes the developments that have led to these revolutionizing new findings and concepts as well as consequences deriving from these findings. Therefore, it is not intended in this article to give a complete literature overview over the whole field but to focus on such key literature and considerations that led to the respective developments.

  12. Niels Bohr as philosopher of experiment: Does decoherence theory challenge Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilleri, Kristian; Schlosshauer, Maximilian

    2015-02-01

    Niels Bohr's doctrine of the primacy of "classical concepts" is arguably his most criticized and misunderstood view. We present a new, careful historical analysis that makes clear that Bohr's doctrine was primarily an epistemological thesis, derived from his understanding of the functional role of experiment. A hitherto largely overlooked disagreement between Bohr and Heisenberg about the movability of the "cut" between measuring apparatus and observed quantum system supports the view that, for Bohr, such a cut did not originate in dynamical (ontological) considerations, but rather in functional (epistemological) considerations. As such, both the motivation and the target of Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts are of a fundamentally different nature than what is understood as the dynamical problem of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our analysis suggests that, contrary to claims often found in the literature, Bohr's doctrine is not, and cannot be, at odds with proposed solutions to the dynamical problem of the quantum-classical transition that were pursued by several of Bohr's followers and culminated in the development of decoherence theory.

  13. Experiences of Academic Staff in Using Threshold Concepts within a Reformed Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodger, Sylvia; Turpin, Merrill; O'Brien, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Threshold concepts were used to underpin a major curriculum reform endeavour in occupational therapy. After rigorous interrogation of troublesome knowledge and ensuring that the emergent concepts conformed to the five characteristics of previously proposed threshold concepts, we identified five threshold concepts. Two years into the rollout of the…

  14. Concept for an experiment on particle and jet production at midrapidity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.; Bloomer, M.; Chase, S.I.; Christie, W.; Friedlander, E.; Greiner, D.; Gruhn, C.; Gyulassy, M.; Jacobs, P.; Naudet, C.; Nygren, D.; Odyniec, G.; Olson, D.; Poskanzer, A.; Rai, G.; Ritter, H.G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Seidl, P.; Shy, D.; Symons, T.J.M.; Teitelbaum, L.; Wang, X.N.; Wenzel, W.; Wieman, H. ); Brady, P. ); Carroll, J.; Igo, G. (Califor

    1990-07-01

    The concept for an experiment to study global event signatures of quark Gluon Plasma formation and to investigate the propagation of jets through strongly interacting matter at high density is presented. Both event-by-event and inclusive measurements of physical observables can be made at midrapidity over a large solid angle ({vert bar}{eta}{vert bar}<1) with full azimuthal coverage ({Delta}{phi} = 2{pi}) and azimuthal symmetry. The detection system consists of a vertex detector and time projection chamber (TPC) inside a solenoidal magnet for tracking, momentum analysis and particle identification; a time-of-flight system surrounding the TPC for particle identification at higher momenta; and electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry to measure and trigger on jets and the transverse energy of events. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Developmental Experiences during Extracurricular Activities and Australian Adolescents' Self-Concept: Particularly Important for Youth from Disadvantaged Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomfield, Corey J.; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Extracurricular activities provide adolescents with a number of positive personal and interpersonal developmental experiences. This study investigated whether developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities were linked to a more positive self-concept for Australian adolescents, and whether this link was particularly…

  16. Walter Benjamin's Conception of Experience: A Way of Thinking about Otherness in Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    In the context of educational practice and research, the individual is often understood in terms of autonomy. From this point of view, we will see our experience as cumulative, as inside of us, and as strengthening us against others. It means that the conception of experience tends to be understood primarily in relation to usefulness. In search of…

  17. Evaluation of Concepts for Mulitiple Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope; Hans D. Gougar; John M. Ryskamp

    2013-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density test reactor specializing in fuel and materials irradiation. For more than 45 years, the ATR has provided irradiations of materials and fuels testing along with radioisotope production. Originally operated primarily in support of the Offcie of Naval Reactors (NR), the mission has gradually expanded to cater to other customers, such as the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), private industry, and universities. Unforeseen circumstances may lead to the decommissioning of ATR, thus leaving the U.S. Government without a large-scale materials irradiation capability to meet the needs of its nuclear energy and naval reactor missions. In anticipation of this possibility, work was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate test reactor concepts that could satisfy the current missions of the ATR along with an expanded set of secondary missions. This work can be viewed as an update to a project from the 1990’s called the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). In FY 2012, a survey of anticipated customer needs was performed, followed by analysis of the original BATR concepts with fuel changed to low-enriched uranium. Departing from these original BATR designs, four concepts were identified for further analysis in FY2013. The project informally adopted the acronym MATRIX (Multiple-Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation eXperiments). This report discusses analysis of the four MATRIX concepts along with a number of variations on these main concepts. Designs were evaluated based on their satisfaction of anticipated customer requirements and the “Cylindrical” variant was selected for further analysis of options. This downselection should be considered preliminary and the backup alternatives should include the other three main designs. The baseline Cylindrical MATRIX design is expected to be capable of higher burnup than the ATR (or longer cycle length given a

  18. Large-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Slezak, S.E.; Bentz, J.H.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents results of ex-vessel boiling experiments performed in the CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility. CYBL is a reactor-scale facility for confirmatory research of the flooded cavity concept for accident management. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner tank simulates the reactor vessel and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. Experiments with uniform and edge-peaked heat flux distributions up to 20 W/cm{sup 2} across the vessel bottom were performed. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling is mainly due to the gravity head which results from flooding the sides of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid/solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion (ejection). The results suggest that under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity in a passive pressurized water reactor like the AP-600 should be capable of cooling the reactor pressure vessel in the central region of the lower head that is addressed by these tests.

  19. From data to knowledge through concept-oriented terminologies: experience with the Medical Entities Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Cimino, J J

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge representation involves enumeration of conceptual symbols and arrangement of these symbols into some meaningful structure. Medical knowledge representation has traditionally focused more on the structure than the symbols. Several significant efforts are under way, at local, national, and international levels, to address the representation of the symbols though the creation of high-quality terminologies that are themselves knowledge based. This paper reviews these efforts, including the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) in use at Columbia University and the New York Presbyterian Hospital. A decade's experience with the MED is summarized to serve as a proof-of-concept that knowledge-based terminologies can support the use of coded patient data for a variety of knowledge-based activities, including the improved understanding of patient data, the access of information sources relevant to specific patient care problems, the application of expert systems directly to the care of patients, and the discovery of new medical knowledge. The terminological knowledge in the MED has also been used successfully to support clinical application development and maintenance, including that of the MED itself. On the basis of this experience, current efforts to create standard knowledge-based terminologies appear to be justified. PMID:10833166

  20. Teacher thinking and interconnectedness: Teachers' thinking about students' experiences and science concepts during classroom teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar Raj

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 4 elementary school teachers' thinking during science teaching in 2 urban schools in the southern United States. Most of the students in these schools come from minority families with low socioeconomic status. The teachers involved in this study were participants in the Linking Food and the Environment (LIFE) program, a curriculum designed for urban elementary students to learn life and environmental sciences. The research employed cross-case study methodology to understand teachers' thinking and the decisions they made during classroom teaching. Fifteen science lessons were taped (7 videotaped and 8 audiotaped) for each teacher over a period of 7 months. Six stimulated recall interviews were conducted to elicit the teachers' thinking and decision-making process during teaching. Data were analyzed using William and Baxter's (1996) discourse analysis framework. Three factors that influence elementary school teachers' thinking and the decisions they made during science teaching emerged from the data analysis: (1) Most teachers believed that students' experiences could be used during teaching, but they disagreed about the usefulness of students' experiences in teaching science for understanding. Two teachers who perceived their students to be less intelligent did not use students' experiences during teaching. (2) All the teachers in the study asserted that students must have the knowledge of science process skills to succeed in science investigation and high-stakes tests. These teachers also believed that mastering science process skills aided in students' understanding of science concepts. (3) In an academically high-performing school, the school administrators played a less significant role in teachers' thinking and decision making than in an academically low-performing school. Administrators were under pressure to "teach to the test" so that students would perform better in the high-stakes test. Teachers perceived a higher incentive for teaching

  1. Seventh Grade Students' Qualitative Understanding of the Concept of Mass Influenced by Real Experiments and Virtual Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamenkovski, Sasha; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research is conducted among 65 seventh graders (12-14 years old) who attend introductory course on physics. Tests and interviews are used to trace the roots of the students' misconceptions about mass. Results from the research reveal serious weaknesses in students' understanding of concept of mass, and its confusion with concepts of…

  2. Technical experience from clinical studies with INPRES and a concept for a miniature augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudra, Gunther; Marmulla, Ruediger; Salb, Tobias; Gockel, Tilo; Eggers, Georg; Giesler, Bjoern; Ghanai, Sassan; Fritz, Dominik; Dillmann, Ruediger; Muehling, Joachim

    2005-04-01

    This paper is going to present a summary of our technical experience with the INPRES System -- an augmented reality system based upon a tracked see-through head-mounted display. With INPRES a complete augmented reality solution has been developed that has crucial advantages when compared with previous navigation systems. Using these techniques the surgeon does not need to turn his head from the patient to the computer monitor and vice versa. The system's purpose is to display virtual objects, e.g. cutting trajectories, tumours and risk-areas from computer-based surgical planning systems directly in the surgical site. The INPRES system was evaluated in several patient experiments in craniofacial surgery at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/University of Heidelberg. We will discuss the technical advantages as well as the limitations of INPRES and present two strategies as a result. On the one hand we will improve the existing and successful INPRES system with new hardware and a new calibration method to compensate for the stated disadvantage. On the other hand we will focus on miniaturized augmented reality systems and present a new concept based on fibre optics. This new system should be easily adaptable at surgical instruments and capable of projecting small structures. It consists of a source of light, a miniature TFT display, a fibre optic cable and a tool grip. Compared to established projection systems it has the capability of projecting into areas that are only accessible by a narrow path. No wide surgical exposure of the region is necessary for the use of augmented reality.

  3. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  4. CONCEPT DESIGN OF THE TARGET/HORN SYSTEM FOR THE BNL NEUTRINO OSCILLATION EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS,N.KIRK,H.KAHN,S.CARROL,A.LUDEWIG,H.WENG,W.T.DIWAN,M.RAPARIA,D.MCDONALD,K.EVANGELAKIS,G.

    2003-05-12

    The design concept for the integration of the target and the focusing horn system for the proposed BNL neutrino oscillation experiment is described in this paper. Also presented are issues associated with the functionality and thermo-mechanical response of the selected target intercepting the 28 GeV protons of the 1 MW upgraded AGS beam, the loading and mechanical response of the focusing horn subjected to high currents and energy deposited due to beam/target interaction, the integration of the two systems, and the heat removal schemes. The proposed target intercepts the 8.9 x 10{sup 13}, 28 GeV protons with a 2.5 Hz cycle time over a spot that encloses the 3{sigma} of the beam. In the baseline. design the inner conductor of the aluminum horn encloses the target while allowing for an annular space for forced cooling. Approximately 250 kA pulse of current of 20{micro}s duration will flow through the horn at 2.5 Hz repetition rate inducing high compressive forces, vibration and heat. The paper addresses these issues of horn mechanical response, heat removal scenario, and useful life estimation including radiation damage.

  5. Bioregeneration with maltose excreting Chlorella: system concept, technological development, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Wolf, L

    1997-01-01

    ESA has been studying a small-scale bioregenerative system to support long-term biological experiments on-board spacecraft with oxygen, water and food. Core component of this system is a special photo-bioreactor in which a maltose-producing strain of the green micro alga Chlorella is cultivated. A number of auxiliary system components have been developed and are functioning on the ground according to the design specifications, among them a gas/liquid phase separator operating at the same time as a low shear-stress pneumatic pump, a dehumidifier, a maltose separator, and a liquid transfer system. All components have been designed so that--in principle--they will operate in weightlessness, though this has so far only been verified for the gas/liquid separator. The bioreactor and some of the auxiliary components have been integrated in a prototype system, which has been subjected to preliminary testing. The prototype has been sterilized successfully by autoclaving, except for the liquid transfer unit which is disinfected with isopropyl alcohol. Chlorella 241.80 has been cultured several times under controlled conditions for up to 8 weeks. Algal growth to a biomass concentration of 9 g.l-1 dry weight and maltose production to a concentration of 17 g.l-1 have been achieved. The low shear-stress pneumatic pump works reliably without the mechanical cell damage produced by other types of pumps. Contamination of the algal cultures by other micro-organisms has been avoided in most of the experiment runs. The maximum oxygen production rate observed was 2 ml.min-1, when the culture was aerated with air +0.5% CO2. This production rate is well below the CO2 gas transfer rate of 5 ml.min-1 under these conditions. It can probably be doubled by increasing the maximum light intensity of the illumination unit (currently 300 micro E.m-2S-1). In a preliminary closed gas loop experiment with Periplaneta as consumer, the possibility of controlling the Chlorella culture so as to match the

  6. Language Brokering and Self-Concept: An Exploratory Study of Latino Students' Experiences in Middle and High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Kumpiene, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships among individual characteristics, language brokering experiences and attitudes, and multiple dimensions of self-concept among a sample of Latino adolescents. The sample was comprised of 66 Latino students in 6th through 11th grades who were proficient in both Spanish and English. Results from…

  7. The Influence of Cooperative Education and Reflection upon Previous Work Experiences on University Graduates' Vocational Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewery, David; Nevison, Colleen; Pretti, T. Judene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the relative effects of participation in cooperative education (co-op) and engagement in reflection upon previous work experiences on undergraduate students' vocational self-concept (VSC) at graduation. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional survey of graduating students (n = 1,483) from a…

  8. Effects of Conceptual Change Texts and Laboratory Experiments on Fourth Grade Students' Understanding of Matter and Change Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durmus, Jale; Bayraktar, Sule

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether conceptual change texts and laboratory experiments are effective in overcoming misconceptions and whether the concepts were acquired permanently when these methods were utilized. In this study, we addressed some topics from the "Matter and Change" unit in science and technology class of…

  9. Psychosocial Experiences Associated with Confirmed and Self-Identified Dyslexia: A Participant-Driven Concept Map of Adult Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Carawan, Lena Williams; Rennick, Robyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping (a mixed qualitative-quantitative methodology) was used to describe and understand the psychosocial experiences of adults with confirmed and self-identified dyslexia. Using innovative processes of art and photography, Phase 1 of the study included 15 adults who participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews and were asked to…

  10. Teaching Concepts to Young Children Through Cultural Cooking Experiences. Bilingual/Bicultural Child Development Associate Pilot Project: Module XIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa R.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) module, the fourteenth in a series of 16, suggests ways concepts can be taught by involving preschool children in carefully planned classroom cooking activities. Designed for bilingual/bicultural preschool teacher trainees, the module provides tips on food preparation as a learning experience. Required…

  11. Effects of a Tall Ship Sail Training Experience on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capurso, Michele; Borsci, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a sail training education programme on the self-concept of a group of 147 adolescents. The Competence and Social domains of Bracken's self-concept scale were assessed by a quasi-experimental design in three phases: before commencement of the activities, on the last day of the voyage, and three months after…

  12. Positivism, Foucault, and the Fantasia of the Library: Conceptions of Knowledge and the Modern Library Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Gary P.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses theoretical conceptions of the library and suggests that modern conceptions are informed by a view of knowledge grounded in early twentieth-century positivism. The view of scientific knowledge developed by Michael Foucault is described, and possibilities for the creation of new knowledge are considered. (75 references) (LRW)

  13. The Understanding of "Concept Study" in Teachers' Professional Learning: A Lived Experience of Complexity Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This paper used narrative to present the author's understanding process of "concept study" in teachers' professional learning. The understanding process was advanced by several questions emerging from the preparation of doing "concept study". Thus, the several questions and their solutions became the threads of the narrative.…

  14. Entrepreneurial Failure as a Threshold Concept: The Effects of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolinger, Alexander R.; Brown, Kory D.

    2015-01-01

    Some curricular elements are threshold concepts that involve "troublesome knowledge," not because they are difficult for students to comprehend per se, but because they are challenging for students to fully appreciate. In this article, we suggest that entrepreneurial failure is a threshold concept in entrepreneurship courses because…

  15. A Dedicated Postpartum Intrauterine Device Inserter: Pilot Experience and Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sharad; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Dewan, Rupali; Mittal, Pratima; Bhamrah, Renita; Lerma, Klaira; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of a dedicated postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) inserter specifically designed for the post-delivery setting. Primary objectives of fundal placement and expulsion rates were assessed. Secondary objectives were participant satisfaction and IUD retention. Methods: In this pilot proof of concept, we enrolled 80 women who presented for PPIUD insertion at 2 government hospitals in Delhi and Lucknow, India, between March and July 2015. PPIUD insertion was completed with the dedicated inserter in all cases, by trained providers with no prior experience in PPIUD insertion, followed immediately by ultrasound to assess location and fundal placement of the IUD. Follow-up took place at 6 to 8 weeks post-insertion, and ultrasound was used to assess IUD location. Providers and participants also completed satisfaction surveys. Results: High fundal placement (≤10 mm from uterine fundus) was achieved with the dedicated PPIUD inserter in 82% of cases (n = 65). There were no perforations or infections among the participants and no other complications associated with use of the dedicated inserter. The mean distance between the IUD and the endometrial verge immediately post-insertion was 5.8 mm (range, 0–31; N = 80); this distance at follow-up was also 5.8 mm (range, 0–25; n = 50). Complete expulsion was observed in 6 cases (7.5%), and asymptomatic partial expulsion in 8 cases (10%). Providers reported the majority (93%, n = 74) of insertions to be easy. The majority (74%, n = 59) of participants reported the same level of pain before and after insertion. Conclusions: This dedicated PPIUD inserter performed as intended and was found to be safe, with high acceptability among the participants and providers. Further study and use of the dedicated inserter may reveal reduced risk of infection among PPIUD users as well as increased convenience compared with standard PPIUD insertion

  16. Extending the Concept of Component Interfaces: Experience with the Integrated Plasma Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Samantha S; Elwasif, Wael R; Bernholdt, David E; Shet, Aniruddha G; Bramley, Randall B

    2009-01-01

    In the component approach, components are said to interact through well-defined interfaces. Conventionally, these interfaces are based on method signatures which define the syntax, if not the semantics of the interface. However in many cases, this does not encompass all of the interactions a component has with its peers. In the Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS), a framework for coupled simulation of fusion plasmas developed by the Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM), we find that components interact through files and through an event service in addition to the usual method calls. In this report, we discuss the motivations for the design of the IPS and our experience with it. We further consider whether the concept of a component interface needs to be extended, and how it might be done. Component-based software engineering (CBSE) has allowed applications to grow in size, scale and power, by coupling components along well-defined interfaces. Many groups have come together to provide rules and standards for component and interface definitions. General purpose component architectures have been designed for business, and scientific computing, while domain specific component frameworks have been created in many domains, including climate modeling, rocket simulation, and engineering. In each architecture, component interfaces, typically implemented as method invocations, are the only ways that are mentioned for components to interact with each other and the outside world. However, components may not always communicate over their interfaces. They can interact with software entities in many other ways including sharing files and publish/subscribe systems. In this paper we consider two ways in which components interact without method invocation in a component framework, how the component interface can be extended to describe these interactions, and the implications on the greater component community. The rest of the paper continues

  17. TROTER's (Tiny Robotic Operation Team Experiment): A new concept of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Renjeng

    1990-01-01

    In view of the future need of automation and robotics in space and the existing approaches to the problem, we proposed a new concept of robots for space construction. The new concept is based on the basic idea of decentralization. Decentralization occurs, on the one hand, in using teams of many cooperative robots for construction tasks. Redundancy and modular design are explored to achieve high reliability for team robotic operations. Reliability requirement on individual robots is greatly reduced. Another area of decentralization is manifested by the proposed control hierarchy which eventually includes humans in the loop. The control strategy is constrained by various time delays and calls for different levels of abstraction of the task dynamics. Such technology is needed for remote control of robots in an uncertain environment. Thus, concerns of human safety around robots are relaxed. This presentation also introduces the required technologies behind the new robotic concept.

  18. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments. A proof of concept

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Michael H. L. S. Wang; Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher; Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke; Zmuda, Ted

    2016-06-25

    Here, we explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

  19. Remediation of Gender Inequity in Science in a Developing Country: An Experiment with Cooperative Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osisioma, Uzoamaka Irene Ngozi

    The consistent reports on gender inequity in science achievement have led to a search for more effective strategies for correcting the imbalance. This study is part of a search which sought to investigate whether or not the cooperative-concept mapping technique improves the science achievement of girls. A non-equivalent control group…

  20. Apollo experience report: Crew station integration. Volume 4: Stowage and the support team concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hix, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Crew equipment stowage and stowage arrangement in spacecraft are discussed. Configuration control in order to maximize crew equipment operational performance, stowage density, and available stowage volume are analyzed. The NASA crew equipment stowage control process requires a support team concept to coordinate the integration of crew equipment into the spacecraft.

  1. Reinforcing Concepts of Transient Heat Conduction and Convection with Simple Experiments and COMSOL Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Sergio; AungYong, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    To help students make the connection between the concepts of heat conduction and convection to real-world phenomenon, we developed a combined experimental and computational module that can be incorporated into lecture or lab courses. The experimental system we present requires materials and apparatus that are readily accessible, and the procedure…

  2. College Students' Experience of Online Argumentation: Conceptions, Approaches and the Conditions of Using Question Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study is an initial attempt to explore the relationship between conditions, students' conceptions of and approaches to online argumentation. A total of 45 college students participated in the study. Twenty-one students participated in online argumentation activities with no cognitive tool (in the control condition), and 24 students undertook…

  3. Wiimote Experiments: 3-D Inclined Plane Problem for Reinforcing the Vector Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawam, Alae; Kouh, Minjoon

    2011-01-01

    In an introductory physics course where students first learn about vectors, they oftentimes struggle with the concept of vector addition and decomposition. For example, the classic physics problem involving a mass on an inclined plane requires the decomposition of the force of gravity into two directions that are parallel and perpendicular to the…

  4. Using Concept Maps to Elicit and Study Student Teachers' Perceptions about Inclusive Education: A Tanzanian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormnaes, Siri; Mkumbo, Kitila; Skaar, Bjørn; Refseth, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    In this study, concept map activities were used to trigger group discussions about inclusive education, with a focus on learners with disabilities. The participants were 226 Tanzanian student teachers. This article reports and discusses how the maps were analysed and what they indicate about the students' thinking about certain aspects of…

  5. Collaborative Concept Mapping in a Web-Based Learning Environment: A Pedagogic Experience in Architectural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Leandro; Vidal, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    Describes a pedagogical work, carried out within a school of architecture, using a Web-based learning environment to support collaborative understanding of texts on architectural theory. Explains the use of concept maps, creation of a critical vocabulary, exploration of semantic spaces, and knowledge discovery through navigation. (Author/LRW)

  6. Instrument concept for geophysical fluid flow experiments on the first spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodkin, R. S.; Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    A concept is provided for a geophysical fluid flow cell (GFFC) and sufficient detail is given to allow the start of a design effort. A brief background of the scientific studies to be conducted with the GFFC and its theoretical basis for operation are also included.

  7. Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experiment Laboratory engineering concepts/design tradeoffs. Volume 1: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, R. V.; Eaton, L. R.; Wilkinson, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    The work is summarized which was accomplished from January 1974 to October 1974 for the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineation of candidate experiments that require the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity are reported. The experiment program and the laboratory concept for a Spacelab payload to perform cloud microphysics research are defined. This multimission laboratory is planned to be available to the entire scientific community to utilize in furthering the basic understanding of cloud microphysical processes and phenomenon, thereby contributing to improved weather prediction and ultimately to provide beneficial weather control and modification.

  8. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  9. Inquiry Based-Computational Experiment, Acquisition of Threshold Concepts and Argumentation in Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psycharis, Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Computational experiment approach considers models as the fundamental instructional units of Inquiry Based Science and Mathematics Education (IBSE) and STEM Education, where the model take the place of the "classical" experimental set-up and simulation replaces the experiment. Argumentation in IBSE and STEM education is related to the…

  10. Teaching Tools for Pedagogy at the Nanoscale: Towards the Understanding of Concepts Through Experience and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniz, Marc Nicholas

    The field of nanochemistry is at the forefront of the physical sciences, and is increasingly finding diverse applications. As such, there is a need to allow this frontier to be explored thoroughly in undergraduate chemistry curricula. The development of new instructional materials is necessary, as the existing literature in undergraduate nanochemistry education does not provide instructors with adequate resources to help students make connections between core scientific concepts and those pertinent to the nanoscale. As such, we aim to treat nanoscale phenomena not as a niche subject but as an educationally rich portion of chemistry at the interface of discrete and bulk structures. To accomplish this, we have developed and tested instructional materials that are designed to fit directly into the chemistry curriculum and provide instructors with the flexibility to incorporate them in their courses. These teaching tools/modules have been designed using a theoretical framework for analogy and similarity coupled with a bridging framework in order to reinforce students' physical and chemical concepts and facilitate their recognition of such in the context of nanochemistry. Our approach is to construct concepts related to nanochemistry by tethering them directly, through the use of analogy and similarity, to material commonly covered within the courses, rather than present them in an unrelated fashion or completely outside the students' current frame of reference. Assessment of these tools has been carried out through a qualitative analysis incorporating a discourse analytical framework applied to individual student interviews and small group discussions. A coding scheme was devised and utilized for consistent characterization of students' responses and discussions. Results are discussed critically and pedagogical implications for each activity and the project as a whole are provided.

  11. The experience of adolescent women living with spina bifida part I: self-concept and family relationships.

    PubMed

    Bellin, Melissa Hayden; Sawin, Kathleen J; Roux, Gayle; Buran, Constance F; Brei, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent women with spina bifida (SB) face unique and diverse challenges. The purpose of this qualitative component of a larger mixed-method study on adaptation was to heighten rehabilitation nurses' understanding of self-concept and family relationships during adolescence. Interviews were conducted with 31 adolescent women and analyzed for themes. The women described a range of experiences, including challenges of typical adolescence, specific concerns about living with SB, school-based stressors, and incidences of teasing and bullying. The overall self-concept was primarily positive, despite the diverse stressors encountered. A significant source of strength was the close relationships with parents, although an undercurrent of tension related to independence was also expressed. Results from this study support the need for rehabilitation nurses to address not only the functional status but also the well-being and psychosocial challenges of adolescent women with SB. PMID:17432634

  12. Introducing Students to Basic ChE Concepts: Four Simple Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Duncan M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an Introduction to Chemical Engineering course with particular reference to the development, use, and evaluation of four simple experiments centered around the fundamental principles of heat transfer, mass transfer, reaction kinetics, and momentum transfer. (WRM)

  13. Inflated concepts for the earth science geostationary platform and an associated flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friese, G.

    1992-01-01

    Large parabolic reflectors and solar concentrators are of great interest for microwave transmission, solar powered rockets, and Earth observations. Collector subsystems have been under slow development for a decade. Inflated paraboloids have a great weight and package volume advantage over mechanically erected systems and, therefore, have been receiving greater attention recently. The objective of this program was to produce a 'conceptual definition of an experiment to assess in-space structural damping characteristics and effects of the space meteoroid environment upon structural integrity and service life of large inflatable structures.' The flight experiment was to have been based upon an inflated solar concentration, but much of that was being done on other programs. To avoid redundancy, the Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESGP) was selected as a focus mission for the experiment. Three major areas were studied: the ESGP reflector configuration; flight experiment; and meteoroids.

  14. Effects of radiation damping for biomolecular NMR experiments in solution: a hemisphere concept for water suppression

    PubMed Central

    Ishima, Rieko

    2016-01-01

    Abundant solvent nuclear spins, such as water protons in aqueous solution, cause radiation damping in NMR experiments. It is important to know how the effect of radiation damping appears in high-resolution protein NMR because macromolecular studies always require very high magnetic field strengths with a highly sensitive NMR probe that can easily cause radiation damping. Here, we show the behavior of water magnetization after a pulsed-field gradient (PFG) using nutation experiments at 900 MHz with a cryogenic probe: when water magnetization is located in the upper hemisphere (having +Z component, parallel to the external magnetic field), dephasing of the magnetization by a PFG effectively suppresses residual water magnetization in the transverse plane. In contrast, when magnetization is located in the lower hemisphere (having −Z component), the small residual transverse component remaining after a PFG is still sufficient to induce radiation damping. Based on this observation, we designed 1H-15N HSQC experiments in which water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere, but not necessarily along Z, and compared them with the conventional experiments, in which water magnetization is inverted during the t1 period. The result demonstrates moderate gain of signal-to-noise ratio, 0–28%. Designing the experiments such that water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere allows shorter pulses to be used compared to the complete water flip-back and, thereby, is useful as a building block of protein NMR pulse programs in solution. PMID:27524944

  15. Fluorescent X-Ray Computed Tomography towards Molecular Imaging: Proof-of-Concept Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Akatsuka, Takao; Takeda, Tohoru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Dilmanian, F. Avraham

    2009-03-10

    By means of fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (FXCT) one can detect and image a distribution of non-radioactive imaging agent, e.g., iodine, in a biomedical subject at a high spatial resolution, so it can be a novel molecular imaging modality. We have been studying an FXCT system using synchrotron radiation for in-vivo imaging brains of small animals such as mouse, or rat. For the purpose, we propose a fast FXCT imaging method based on the novel geometry. In this study, we prove the feasibility of this concept and investigate its imaging properties, including spatial and contrast resolutions and quantitativeness, by imaging an acrylic phantom and a normal mouse brain using a preliminary imaging system with monochromatic synchrotron x rays.

  16. Pediatric craniofacial surgery for craniosynostosis: Our experience and current concepts: Part -1

    PubMed Central

    Anantheswar, Y. N.; Venkataramana, N. K.

    2009-01-01

    Craniostenosis is a disease characterized by untimely fusion of cranial sutures resulting in a variety of craniofacial deformities and neurological sequelae due to alteration in cranial volume and restriction of brain growth. This involves vault sutures predominantly, but cranial base is not immune. Association with a variety of syndromes makes the management decision complex. These children need careful evaluation by multiple specialists to have strategic treatment options. Parental counseling is an important and integral part of the treatment. Recent advancements in the surgical techniques and concept of team approach have significantly enhanced the safety and outcome of these children. We had an opportunity of treating 57 children with craniostenosis in the last 15 years at our craniofacial service. Out of them, 40 were nonsyndromic and 17 were syndromic variety. We describe our successful results along with individualized operative technical modifications adopted based on the current understanding of the disease. PMID:21887189

  17. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: Concept and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Enrique Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; Fuente, Luisa de la; Artal, Eduardo; Mediavilla, Ángel

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  18. Processing of residues and municipal waste in circulating fluidized beds: Operating experience, design concepts and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Plass, L.; Albrecht, J.; Loeffler, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    Based on experience on processing of unconventional fuels in commercial Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) gasifiers new plant concepts for thermal treatment of residues and municipal waste are presented. Particular emphasis is put on optimizing process efficiencies and environmental performance of the overall processes. The thermal treatment of waste is carried out in two steps: Gasification in a CFB-reactor is followed by a high temperature reactor for complete breakdown of gaseous condensable hydrocarbons and for slagging of dust entrained in the CFB product gas. Major details of the process alternatives are discussed in view of economical and ecological aspects.

  19. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: concept and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L; Cagigas, Jaime; Ortiz, David; Casas, Francisco J; Pérez, Ana R; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Mediavilla, Ángel

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching. PMID:25725865

  20. Supporting School-Home Connections through Photo Journaling: Capturing Everyday Experiences of Nutrition Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Susan M.; Smith, Brian K.; Park, Sunghyun; Beabout, Brian; Kim, KyoungNa

    2009-01-01

    Bransford, Brown, and Cocking (2000) note that students spend only 14% of their time in school but roughly 53% of their time in the home and community. The context of children's home and community life is largely untapped by schools, partially due to the logistics of organizing and capturing these experiences for study in the classroom. The use of…

  1. Applying Agar's Concept of "Languaculture" to Explain Asian Students' Experiences in the Australian Tertiary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Lindy; Tsedendamba, Nara

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of a broader qualitative case study of Asian students "translation" (Agar, 2006) to study in an Australian university. The paper is concerned with the experiences of eight participants and their involvement in a training programme in the use of language learning strategies (LLS) to support their engagement with…

  2. Construction of a Creative and Self-Transcending Life: George Sudarshan's Conception and Experience of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, Maharaj

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a philosophical perspective on creativity as described in the writings of George Sudarshan, a highly accomplished theoretical physicist and natural philosopher whose vision of creativity was influenced by "the direct experience of transcendence." The article reviews his conceptualization of the various mental states…

  3. Laboratory: Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Teaching Fundamental Concepts of Rheology in Context of Sickle Cell Anemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernengo, Jennifer; Purdy, Caitlin; Farrell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a biomedical engineering experiment that introduces students to rheology. Healthy and sickle-cell blood analogs are prepared that are composed of chitosan particles suspended in aqueous glycerol solutions, which substitute for RBCs and plasma, respectively. Students study flow properties of the blood analogs with a viscometer…

  4. From Purines to Basic Biochemical Concepts: Experiments for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Isabella; Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Many high school biology courses address mainly the molecular and cellular basis of life. The complexity that underlies the most essential processes is often difficult for the students to understand; possibly, in part, because of the inability to see and explore them. Six simple practical experiments on purine catabolism as a part of a…

  5. Educative Experience of the Use of Concept Mapping in Science and Environmental Teacher Training Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontes-Pedrajas, Alfonso; Varo-Martínez, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education in the 21st century requires well-instructed teachers with teaching and communication abilities. This paper presents an educational experience developed in several biology and environmental teacher training courses and focused on the treatment of environmental education as a transversal educational topic. For that aim, text…

  6. Preschool Children's Understanding of Disability: Experiences Leading to the Elaboration of the Concept of Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.; Hestenes, Linda L.

    1994-01-01

    Explores the impact of having a hearing-impaired peer on preschool children's understanding of hearing and deafness, comparing children with and without a hearing-impaired peer. All children referred to their own experiences to explain hearing loss. Children with a hearing-impaired classmate understood sign language and the consequences of hearing…

  7. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI): Concept, Hardware Development, and Initial Analysis of Experiments Conducted Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. This is a consequence that 1) precludes obtaining any meaningful scientific results and 2) is detrimental to desired material properties. Unfortunately, several Microgravity experiments have been compromised by porosity. The intent of the PFMl investigation is to conduct a systematic effort directed towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification (DS) in a microgravity environment. PFMl uses a pure transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), as well as SCN "alloyed" with water, in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. PFMl is investigating the role of thermocapillary forces and temperature gradients in affecting bubble dynamics as well as other solidification processes in a microgravity environment. This presentation will cover the concept, hardware development, operations, and the initial results from experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station.

  8. Spirituality as a universal concept: student experience of learning about spirituality through the medium of art.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Bróna; Timmins, Fiona

    2007-09-01

    Precise definitions of spirituality can be elusive (McSherry, 2000). This factor together with the increasing class sizes for undergraduate nursing students render the teaching and learning of spirituality in nursing a challenge for both lecturers and students alike (McSherry, 2000). This paper reports on the design, delivery and evaluation of an innovative spirituality program for second year nursing students attending a Bachelor of Science degree at a university in the Republic of Ireland. This teaching program was introduced in 2005 to enhance nursing students' engagement with the concept of spirituality. The program consisted of a series of lectures on the topic, followed by a visit to the National Gallery of Ireland. The latter involved a structured visit, whereby the students (n=100) were divided into ten small groups and asked to wander through a section of the gallery and choose a piece of art work that they perceived to be spiritual in nature. Students were then asked to write their subjective impressions and reasons for their choice of painting. A list of themes related to spirituality was provided to the students as a prompt. Students later visited the paintings with both a lecturer and an art gallery guide and their chosen paintings were discussed within the group. Later that day, purposive sampling was used, whereby a selection of nursing students participating in the Gallery visit (n=21) partook in four recorded focus group interviews following the Gallery visit. Themes emerging from the interviews pertained to the universal and individual nature of spirituality. In keeping with Mc Sherry's (2000:27) definition of spirituality as a "universal concept relevant to all individuals", students in the study revealed their surprise at the uniqueness of their colleague's interpretations. The teaching methodology offered them an opportunity to reflect upon their own understandings and develop a deeper awareness of the meaning of spirituality. It also allowed

  9. Concepts and Plans towards fast large scale Monte Carlo production for the ATLAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsch, E.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The huge success of the physics program of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during Run 1 relies upon a great number of simulated Monte Carlo events. This Monte Carlo production takes the biggest part of the computing resources being in use by ATLAS as of now. In this document we describe the plans to overcome the computing resource limitations for large scale Monte Carlo production in the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2, and beyond. A number of fast detector simulation, digitization and reconstruction techniques are being discussed, based upon a new flexible detector simulation framework. To optimally benefit from these developments, a redesigned ATLAS MC production chain is presented at the end of this document.

  10. Instrumentation concepts and requirements for a space vacuum research facility. [molecular shield for spaceborne experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, H. N.

    1979-01-01

    An earth-orbiting molecular shield that offers a unique opportunity for conducting physics, chemistry, and material processing experiments under a combination of environmental conditions that are not available in terrestrial laboratories is equipped with apparatus for forming a molecular beam from the freestream. Experiments are carried out using a moderate energy, high flux density, high purity atomic oxygen beam in the very low density environment within the molecular shield. As a minimum, the following instruments are required for the molecular shield: (1) a mass spectrometer; (2) a multifunction material analysis instrumentation system; and (3) optical spectrometry equipment. The design is given of a furlable molecular shield that allows deployment and retrieval of the system (including instrumentation and experiments) to be performed without contamination. Interfaces between the molecular shield system and the associated spacecraft are given. An in-flight deployment sequence is discussed that minimizes the spacecraft-induced contamination in the vicinity of the shield. Design approaches toward a precursor molecular shield system are shown.

  11. Optimal sign inverting control for time-delayed systems, a concept study with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingbin; Olgac, Nejat

    2015-01-01

    An intriguing control logic, sign inverting control (SIC) is considered for control systems with delayed feedback. It starts with a nominal control law formulated for non-delayed case and simply inverts the sign of the control gains for some surprising benefits when used with the delays. This operation sounds paradoxical as the sign inversion potentially harms the stability of the non-delayed dynamics. However, SIC with large delays may yield some complementary benefits to the nominal control logic from delay robustness perspective. The main question we address in this paper is 'How to select the nominal control law so that such a contribution can be (a) feasible, (b) optimal in some sense?' A structured methodology is proposed to achieve this, starting with a linear quadratic regulator based controller. A single scaling factor on the corresponding control gains is used for one-dimensional optimisation. Experimental validation of the concept of this optimal SIC procedure is also reported on a single-axis manipulator.

  12. Nernst effect in metals and superconductors: a review of concepts and experiments.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Kamran; Aubin, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    The Nernst effect is the transverse electric field produced by a longitudinal thermal gradient in the presence of a magnetic field. At the beginning of this century, Nernst experiments on cuprates were analyzed assuming that: (i) the contribution of quasi-particles to the Nernst signal is negligible; and (ii) Gaussian superconducting fluctuations cannot produce a Nernst signal well above the critical temperature. Both these assumptions were contradicted by subsequent experiments. This paper reviews experiments documenting multiple sources of a Nernst signal, which, according to the Bridgman relation, measures the flow of transverse entropy caused by a longitudinal particle flow. Along the lines of Landauer's approach to transport phenomena, the magnitude of the transverse magneto-thermoelectric response is linked to the quantum of thermoelectric conductance and a number of material-dependent length scales: the mean free path, the Fermi wavelength, the de Broglie thermal wavelength and the superconducting coherence length. Extremely mobile quasi-particles in dilute metals generate a widely-documented Nernst signal. Fluctuating Cooper pairs in the normal state of superconductors have been found to produce a detectable Nernst signal with an amplitude conforming to the Gaussian theory, first conceived by Ussishkin, Sondhi and Huse. In addition to these microscopic sources, mobile Abrikosov vortices, mesoscopic objects simultaneously carrying entropy and magnetic flux, can produce a sizeable Nernst response. Finally, in metals subject to a magnetic field strong enough to truncate the Fermi surface to a few Landau tubes, each exiting tube generates a peak in the Nernst response. The survey of these well-established sources of the Nernst signal is a helpful guide to identify the origin of the Nernst signal in other controversial cases. PMID:27010481

  13. Nernst effect in metals and superconductors: a review of concepts and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnia, Kamran; Aubin, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    The Nernst effect is the transverse electric field produced by a longitudinal thermal gradient in the presence of a magnetic field. At the beginning of this century, Nernst experiments on cuprates were analyzed assuming that: (i) the contribution of quasi-particles to the Nernst signal is negligible; and (ii) Gaussian superconducting fluctuations cannot produce a Nernst signal well above the critical temperature. Both these assumptions were contradicted by subsequent experiments. This paper reviews experiments documenting multiple sources of a Nernst signal, which, according to the Bridgman relation, measures the flow of transverse entropy caused by a longitudinal particle flow. Along the lines of Landauer’s approach to transport phenomena, the magnitude of the transverse magneto-thermoelectric response is linked to the quantum of thermoelectric conductance and a number of material-dependent length scales: the mean free path, the Fermi wavelength, the de Broglie thermal wavelength and the superconducting coherence length. Extremely mobile quasi-particles in dilute metals generate a widely-documented Nernst signal. Fluctuating Cooper pairs in the normal state of superconductors have been found to produce a detectable Nernst signal with an amplitude conforming to the Gaussian theory, first conceived by Ussishkin, Sondhi and Huse. In addition to these microscopic sources, mobile Abrikosov vortices, mesoscopic objects simultaneously carrying entropy and magnetic flux, can produce a sizeable Nernst response. Finally, in metals subject to a magnetic field strong enough to truncate the Fermi surface to a few Landau tubes, each exiting tube generates a peak in the Nernst response. The survey of these well-established sources of the Nernst signal is a helpful guide to identify the origin of the Nernst signal in other controversial cases.

  14. Innovative Liner Concepts: Experiments and Impedance Modeling of Liners Including the Effect of Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Jeff; Betts, Juan Fernando; Fuller, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The study of normal impedance of perforated plate acoustic liners including the effect of bias flow was studied. Two impedance models were developed by modeling the internal flows of perforate orifices as infinite tubes with the inclusion of end corrections to handle finite length effects. These models assumed incompressible and compressible flows, respectively, between the far field and the perforate orifice. The incompressible model was used to predict impedance results for perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 5% to 15%. The predicted resistance results showed better agreement with experiments for the higher percent open area samples. The agreement also tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. For perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 1% to 5%, the compressible model was used to predict impedance results. The model predictions were closer to the experimental resistance results for the 2% to 3% open area samples. The predictions tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. The reactance results were well predicted by the models for the higher percent open area, but deteriorated as the percent open area was lowered (5%) and bias flow was increased. A fit was done on the incompressible model to the experimental database. The fit was performed using an optimization routine that found the optimal set of multiplication coefficients to the non-dimensional groups that minimized the least squares slope error between predictions and experiments. The result of the fit indicated that terms not associated with bias flow required a greater degree of correction than the terms associated with the bias flow. This model improved agreement with experiments by nearly 15% for the low percent open area (5%) samples when compared to the unfitted model. The fitted model and the unfitted model performed equally well for the higher percent open area (10% and 15%).

  15. Materials experiment carrier concepts definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The materials experiment carrier (MEC) is an optimized carrier for near term and advanced materials processing in space (MPS) research and commercial payloads. When coupled with the space platform (SP), the MEC can provide the extended duration, high power and low acceleration environment the MPS payload typically requires. The lowest cost, technically reasonable first step MEC that meets the MPS program missions objectives with minimum programmatic risks is defined. The effectiveness of the initial MEC/space platform idea for accommodating high priority, multidiscipline, R&D and commercial MPS payloads, and conducting MPS payload oprations at affordable funding and acceptable productivity levels is demonstrated.

  16. [The phenomenon of possession. Conception and experiences of possession in youth].

    PubMed

    Bron, B

    1975-01-01

    In the last few years, a trend to the multiplication of experiences of possession has been observed in young people. On the basis of four typical examples, the author examines this phenomenon in the light of the psychiatric, psychoanalytic and theological understanding of possession. It involves mostly young people, who do not have hysterical fits or psychotic episodes during spiritualist practices but who specially tend to take a strong interest in occultism, who very often consume drugs and have contacts with groups in which the interest for demonology plays an important part. PMID:1192724

  17. Proof-of-Concept Experiments on a Gallium-Based Ignitron for Pulsed Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, H. K.; Hanson, V. S.; Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    ignitron designs have used mercury as the liquid metal cathode, owing to its presence as a liquid at room temperatures and a vapor pressure of 10 Pa (75 mtorr) at room temperature. While these are favorable properties, there are obvious environmental and personal safety concerns with the storage, handling, and use of mercury and its compounds. The purpose of the present work was to fabricate and test an ignitron that used as its cathode an alternate liquid metal that was safe to handle and store. To that end, an ignitron test article that used liquid gallium as the cathode material was developed and tested. Gallium is a metal that has a melting temperature of 29.76 C, which is slightly above room temperature, and a boiling point of over 2,300 C at atmospheric pressure. This property makes gallium the element with the largest relative difference between melting and boiling points. Gallium has a limited role in biology, and when ingested, it will be subsequently processed by the body and expelled rather than accumulating to toxic levels. The next section of this Technical Memorandum (TM) provides background information on the development of mercury-based ignitrons, which serves as the starting point for the development of the gallium-based variant. Afterwards, the experimental hardware and setup used in proof-of-concept testing of a basic gallium ignitron are presented. Experimental data, consisting of discharge voltage and current waveforms as well as high-speed imaging of the gallium arc discharge in the gallium ignitron test article, are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the concept. Discussion of the data and suggestions on improvements for future iterations of the design are presented in the final two sections of this TM.

  18. Turbulent boundary layers under irregular waves and currents: Experiments and the equivalent-wave concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jing

    2016-04-01

    A full-scale experimental study of turbulent boundary layer flows under irregular waves and currents is conducted with the primary objective to investigate the equivalent-wave concept by Madsen (1994). Irregular oscillatory flows following the bottom-velocity spectrum under realistic surface irregular waves are produced over two fixed rough bottoms in an oscillatory water tunnel, and flow velocities are measured using a Particle Image Velocimetry. The root-mean-square (RMS) value and representative phase lead of wave velocities have vertical variations very similar to those of the first-harmonic velocity of periodic wave boundary layers, e.g., the RMS wave velocity follows a logarithmic distribution controlled by the physical bottom roughness in the very near-bottom region. The RMS wave bottom shear stress and the associated representative phase lead can be accurately predicted using the equivalent-wave approach. The spectra of wave bottom shear stress and boundary layer velocity are found to be proportional to the spectrum of free-stream velocity. Currents in the presence of irregular waves exhibit the classic two-log-profile structure with the lower log-profile controlled by the physical bottom roughness and the upper log-profile controlled by a much larger apparent roughness. Replacing the irregular waves by their equivalent sinusoidal waves virtually makes no difference for the coexisting currents. These observations, together with the excellent agreement between measurements and model predictions, suggest that the equivalent-wave representation adequately characterizes the basic wave-current interaction under irregular waves.

  19. Evaluation of restraint system concepts for the Japanese Experiment Module flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.; Backemeyer, Lynn A.

    1995-01-01

    The current International Space Station configuration includes a Japanese Experiment Module which relies on a large manipulator and a smaller dexterous manipulator to operate outside the pressurized environment of the experiment module. The module's flight demonstration is a payload that will be mounted in the aft flight deck on STS-87 to evaluate a prototype of the dexterous manipulator. Since the payload operations entail two 8-hour scenarios on consecutive days, adequate operator restraint at the workstation will be critical to the perceived success or failure of the payload. Simulations in reduced gravity environment on the KC-135A were the only way to evaluate the restraint systems and workstation configuration. Two astronaut and two non-astronaut operators evaluated the Advanced Lower Body Extremities Restraint Test and a foot loop restraint system by performing representative tasks at the workstation in each of the two restraint systems; at the end of each flight they gave their impressions of each system and the workstation. Results indicated that access to the workstation switch panels was difficult and manipulation of the hand controllers forced operators too low for optimal viewing of the aft flight deck monitors. The workstation panel should be angled for better visibility, and infrequently used switches should be on the aft flight deck panel. Pitch angle and placement of the hand controllers should optimize the operator's eye position with respect to the monitors. The lower body restraint was preferred over the foot loops because it allowed operators to maintain a more relaxed posture during long-duration tasks, its height adjustability allowed better viewing of aft flight deck monitors, and it provided better restraint for reacting forces imparted on the operator at the workstation. The foot loops provide adequate restraint for the flight demonstration tasks identified. Since results will impact the design of the workstation, both restraints should be

  20. Numerical experiments with the Lamellae Upscaling Concept with Approximate Handling of Coalescence of the Reaction Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, M.; Ginn, T. R.; Le Borgne, T.; Schreyer, L. G.; Dentz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The challenge in characterizing mixing-limited reaction rates between displacing and displaced groundwater solutions (Figure 1, left panel) is the in quantifying mixing extent that is controlled by small scale heterogeneity. We describe limited numerical 2D testing of the lamella approach that focuses on the deformation of the moving front, treated as a set of linearized patches termed lamellae. We simulate flow and reactive transport in a recently characterized sample of Massillon sandstone to provide Eulerian test data for comparison with the new Lagrangian lamella-based solution. In our numerical experiments particle tracking is used to approximate the lamellar positions and deformations at any given time, and reactions are calculated on each lamella in proportion to the local scalar dissipation rate. The simulated data show the effect of small scale heterogeneity including strong shearing and local collapse or coalescence (Figure 1, right panel) of the reaction front on the global reaction rate. We propose a simple approximation to handle coalescence in the lamella-based upscaling and we test it against the simulated data.

  1. K/sub infinity/-meter concept verified via subcritical-critical TRIGA experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo Mansilla, H.

    1983-01-01

    This work presents a technique for building a device to measure the k/sub infinity/ of a spent nuclear fuel assembly discharged from the core of a nuclear power plant. The device, called a k/sub infinity/-meter, consists of a cross-shaped subcritical assembly, two artificial neutron sources, and two separate neutron counting systems. The central position of the subcritical assembly is used to measure k/sub infinity/ of the spent fuel assembly. The initial subcritical assembly is calibrated to determine its k/sub eff/ and verify the assigned k/sub infinity/ of a selected fuel assembly placed in the central position. Count rates are taken with the fuel assembly of known k/sub infinity/'s placed in the central position and then repeated with a fuel assembly of unknown k/sub infinity/ placed in the central position. The count rate ratio of the unknown fuel assembly to the known fuel assembly is used to determine the k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly. The k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly is represented as a polynomial function of the count rate ratios. The coefficients of the polynomial equation are determined using the neutronic codes LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II. The analytical approach has been validated by performing several subcritical/critical experiments, using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR), and comparing the experimental results with the calculations.

  2. Measuring stream discharge by non-contact methods: A proof-of-concept experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, J.E.; Spicer, K.R.; Cheng, R.T.; Haeni, F.P.; Melcher, N.B.; Thurman, E.M.; Plant, W.J.; Keller, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an experiment to make a completely non-contact open-channel discharge measurement. A van-mounted, pulsed doppler (10GHz) radar collected surface-velocity data across the 183-m wide Skagit River, Washington at a USGS streamgaging station using Bragg scattering from short waves produced by turbulent boils on the surface of the river. Surface velocities were converted to mean velocities for 25 sub-sections by assuming a normal open-channel velocity profile (surface velocity times 0.85). Channel cross-sectional area was measured using a 100 MHz ground-penetrating radar antenna suspended from a cableway car over the river. Seven acoustic doppler current profiler discharge measurements and a conventional current-meter discharge measurement were also made. Three non-contact discharge measurements completed in about a 1-hour period were within 1 % of the gaging station rating curve discharge values. With further refinements, it is thought that open-channel flow can be measured reliably by non-contact methods.

  3. The IXV experience, from the mission conception to the flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, G.; Mancuso, S.; Gallego, J.-M.; Dussy, S.; Preaud, J.-P.; Di Vita, G.; Brunner, P.

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric re-entry domain is a cornerstone of a wide range of space applications, ranging from reusable launcher stages developments, robotic planetary exploration, human space flight, to innovative applications such as reusable research platforms for in orbit validation of multiple space applications technologies. The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced demonstrator which has performed in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies aspects, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flight experiences, consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission objectives were the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention was paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight, successfully performed on February 11th, 2015.

  4. Becoming physics people: Development of physics identity in self-concept and practice through the Learning Assistant experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Eleanor

    2016-03-01

    The physics department at Texas State University has implemented a Learning Assistant (LA) program with reform-based instructional changes in our introductory course sequences. We are interested in how participation in the LA program influences LAs' identity both as physics students and as physics teachers; in particular, how being part of the LA community changes participants' self-concepts and their day-to-day practice. We analyze video of weekly LA preparation sessions and interviews with LAs as well as written artifacts from program applications, pedagogy course reflections, and evaluations. Our analysis of self-concepts is informed by the identity framework developed by Hazari et al., and our analysis of practice is informed by Lave and Wenger's theory of Communities of Practice. Regression models from quantitative studies show that the physics identity construct strongly predicts intended choice of a career in physics; the goal of our current project is to understand the details of the impacts of participation in the LA experience on participants' practice and self-concept, in order to identify critical elements of LA program structure that positively influence physics identity and physics career intentions for students. Our analysis suggests that participation in the LA program impacts LAs in ways that support both stronger ``physics student'' identity and stronger ``physics instructor'' identity, and that these identities are reconciled into a coherent integrated physics identity. In addition to becoming more confident and competent in physics, LAs perceive themselves to have increased competence in communication and a stronger sense of belonging to a supportive and collaborative community; participation in the LA program also changes their ways of learning and of being students, both within and beyond physics. This research and the TXST LA program are supported by NSF DUE-1240036, NSF DUE-1431578, and the Halliburton Foundation.

  5. The impact of real-time, Internet experiments versus interactive, asynchronous replays of experiments on high school students science concepts and attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubasko, Dennis S., Jr.

    ). Students' attitudes towards learning about science concepts weren't different from one group to the other, but all students changed their views independent of treatment condition. Across treatment groups students performed similarly on all assessment instruments used to measure the nature of science domain. Furthermore, there were no significant differences, pre-test to post-test between groups or due to interaction. These findings show that students' investigations using the Internet and stored replay experiences can assist science educators in providing student with more inquiry-based experiences.

  6. A Case Study in High Contrast Coronagraph for Planet Discovery: The Eclipse Concept and Support Laboratory Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Eclipse is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to perform a sensitive imaging survey of nearby planetary systems, including a survey for jovian-sized planets orbiting Sun-like stars to distances of 15 pc. We outline the science objectives of the Eclipse mission and review recent developments in the key enabling technologies. Eclipse is a space telescope concept for high-contrast visible-wavelength imaging and spectrophotometry. Its design incorporates a telescope with an unobscured aperture of 1.8 meters, a coronographic camera for suppression of diffracted light, and precise active wavefront correction for the suppression of scattered background light. For reference, Eclipse is designed to reduce the diffracted and scattered starlight between 0.33 and 1.5 arcseconds from the star by three orders of magnitude compared to any HST instrument. The Eclipse mission provides precursor science exploration and technology experience in support of NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) program.

  7. Light ion fusion experiment (L. I. F. E. ) concept validation studies. Final report, July 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, T E; Orthel, J L; Thomson, J J

    1980-12-01

    This report reflects the considerable advances made for the objectives of the contractual program, validating by detailed anaytical studies the concept of a new Light Ion Fusion Experiment for Inertial Confinement Fusion. The studies have produced an analytical design of a novel electrostatic accelerator based on separate function and strong channel focusing principles, to launch 3 to 10 MeV, 23 kA, He/sup +/ neutralized beams in 400 ns pulses, delivering on a 5 mm radius target located 10 m downstream, 50 kJ of implosion energy in approx. 20 ns impact times The control, stability and focusing of beams is made by electrostatic quadrupoles, producing overall beam normalized emittance of approx. 3 x 10/sup -5/ m-rad.

  8. Impact experiments into multiple-mesh targets: Concept development of a lightweight collisional bumper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark J.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry; Gray, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The utility of multiple-mesh targets as potential lightweight shields to protect spacecraft in low-Earth orbit against collisional damage is explored. Earlier studies revealed that single meshes comminute hypervelocity impactors with efficiencies comparable to contiguous targets. Multiple interaction of projectile fragments with any number of meshes should lead to increased comminution, deceleration, and dispersion of the projectile, such that all debris exiting the mesh stack possesses low specific energies (ergs/sq cm) that would readily be tolerated by many flight systems. The study is conceptually exploring the sensitivity of major variables such as impact velocity, the specific areal mass (g/sq cm) of the total mesh stack (SM), and the separation distance (S) between individual meshes. Most experiments employed five or ten meshes with total SM typically less than 0.5 the specific mass of the impactor, and silicate glass impactors rather than metal projectiles. While projectile comminution increases with increasing impact velocity due to progressively higher shock stresses, encounters with multiple-meshes at low velocity (1-2 km/s) already lead to significant disruption of the glass impactors, with the resulting fragments being additionally decelerated and dispersed by subsequent meshes, and, unlike most contiguous single-plate bumpers, leading to respectable performance at low velocity. Total specific bumper mass must be the subject of careful trade-off studies; relatively massive bumpers will generate too much debris being dislodged from the bumper itself, while exceptionally lightweight designs will not cause sufficient comminution, deceleration, or dispersion of the impactor. Separation distance was found to be a crucial design parameter, as it controls the dispersion of the fragment cloud. Substantial mass savings could result if maximum separation distances were employed. The total mass of debris dislodged by multiple-mesh stacks is modestly smaller than

  9. Solar Heating Proof-of-Concept Experiment for a Public School Building. Report for the Period 15 Jan. 1974 to 15 May 1974. No. ER-7934.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AAI Corp., Baltimore, MD.

    In the middle of January 1974, AAI Corporation received a contract to conduct a solar heating proof-of-concept experiment (POCE) for a public school building. On March 1, 1974, the experiment began as Timonium Elementary School, in Maryland, became the first school in the United States to be heated by solar energy. In this brief period, the…

  10. The experience factory: Can it make you a 5? or what is its relationship to other quality and improvement concepts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1992-01-01

    The concepts of quality improvements have permeated many businesses. It is clear that the nineties will be the quality era for software and there is a growing need to develop or adapt quality improvement approaches to the software business. Thus we must understand software as an artifact and software as a business. Since the business we are dealing with is software, we must understand the nature of software and software development. The software discipline is evolutionary and experimental; it is a laboratory science. Software is development not production. The technologies of the discipline are human based. There is a lack of models that allow us to reason about the process and the product. All software is not the same; process is a variable, goals are variable, etc. Packaged, reusable, experiences require additional resources in the form of organization, processes, people, etc. There have been a variety of organizational frameworks proposed to improve quality for various businesses. The ones discussed in this presentation include: Plan-Do-Check-Act, a quality improvement process based upon a feedback cycle for optimizing a single process model/production line; the Experience Factory/Quality Improvement Paradigm, continuous improvements through the experimentation, packaging, and reuse of experiences based upon a business's needs; Total Quality Management, a management approach to long term success through customer satisfaction based on the participation of all members of an organization; the SEI capability maturity model, a staged process improvement based upon assessment with regard to a set of key process areas until you reach a level 5 which represents a continuous process improvement; and Lean (software) Development, a principle supporting the concentration of the production on 'value added' activities and the elimination of reduction of 'not value added' activities.

  11. ThermoData Engine (TDE): software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. 5. Experiment planning and product design.

    PubMed

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D; Kazakov, Andrei F; Muzny, Chris D; Magee, Joseph W; Abdulagatov, Ilmutdin; Kang, Jeong Won; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Frenkel, Michael

    2011-01-24

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported recently in this journal. In the present paper, we describe development of an algorithmic approach to assist experiment planning through assessment of the existing body of knowledge, including availability of experimental thermophysical property data, variable ranges studied, associated uncertainties, state of prediction methods, and parameters for deployment of prediction methods and how these parameters can be obtained using targeted measurements, etc., and, indeed, how the intended measurement may address the underlying scientific or engineering problem under consideration. A second new feature described here is the application of the software capabilities for aid in the design of chemical products through identification of chemical systems possessing desired values of thermophysical properties within defined ranges of tolerance. The algorithms and their software implementation to achieve this are described. Finally, implementation of a new data validation and weighting system is described for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data, and directions for future enhancements are outlined. PMID:21166466

  12. Using a Physics Experiment in a Lecture Setting to Engage Biology Students with the Concepts of Poiseuille's Law

    PubMed Central

    Breckler, Jennifer L.; Christensen, Tina; Sun, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Biology students enrolled in a typical undergraduate physiology course encounter Poiseuille's law, a physics equation that describes the properties governing the flow of blood through the circulation. According to the equation, a small change in vessel radius has an exponential effect on resistance, resulting in a larger than expected change in blood flow. To help engage students in this important concept, we performed a physics experiment as a lecture demonstration to mimic the original research by the 19th-century French scientist. We tested its impact as a research project and found that students who viewed the demonstration reacted very positively and showed an immediate increase in test performance, while the control group was able to independently “catch up” at the fourth week posttest. We further examined whether students’ math skills mapped to learning gains. The students with lower math scores who viewed the demonstration had slightly more improvement in test performance than those students who did not view the demonstration. Our data suggest that watching a lecture demonstration may be of even greater benefit to biology students with lower math achievement. PMID:23737633

  13. Swingbed Amine Carbon Dioxide Removal Flight Experiment - Feasibility Study and Concept Development for Cost-Effective Exploration Technology Maturation on The International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Nalette, Timothy; Graf, John; Sweterlitsch, Jeffery; Hayley, Elizabeth; Williams, Antony; Button, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The completion of International Space Station Assembly and transition to a full six person crew has created the opportunity to create and implement flight experiments that will drive down the ultimate risks and cost for human space exploration by maturing exploration technologies in realistic space environments that are impossible or incredibly costly to duplicate in terrestrial laboratories. An early opportunity for such a technology maturation experiment was recognized in the amine swingbed technology baselined for carbon dioxide and humidity control on the Orion spacecraft and Constellation Spacesuit System. An experiment concept using an existing high fidelity laboratory swing bed prototype has been evaluated in a feasibility and concept definition study leading to the conclusion that the envisioned flight experiment can be both feasible and of significant value for NASA s space exploration technology development efforts. Based on the results of that study NASA has proceeded with detailed design and implementation for the flight experiment. The study effort included the evaluation of technology risks, the extent to which ISS provided unique opportunities to understand them, and the implications of the resulting targeted risks for the experiment design and operational parameters. Based on those objectives and characteristics, ISS safety and integration requirements were examined, experiment concepts developed to address them and their feasibility assessed. This paper will describe the analysis effort and conclusions and present the resulting flight experiment concept. The flight experiment, implemented by NASA and launched in two packages in January and August 2011, integrates the swing bed with supporting elements including electrical power and controls, sensors, cooling, heating, fans, air- and water-conserving functionality, and mechanical packaging structure. It is now on board the ISS awaiting installation and activation.

  14. Novel electromagnetic method for the in-line inspection of gas pipelines: Proof-of-concept experiments. Final report, December 1994-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Weischedel, H.R.

    1996-02-01

    The investigation described in this report demonstrated feasibility of a nondestructive electromagnetic in-line inspection technique that is suitable for the detection and evaluation of stress-corrosion cracks in gas transmission pipelines. Proof-of-concept experiments show that the proposed method can detect narrow axial slits through the pipe wall on the outside of gas pipes.

  15. Early Childhood Musical Experiences: Contributing to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers's Self-Concept in Music and Success in Music Education (during Student Age)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruismaki, Heikki; Tereska, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    This article studies early childhood musical experiences of Finnish pre-service elementary teachers (N=590). The article also analyses their connections between musical self-concept at student age and musical progress in teacher education. Research material was gathered by a questionnaire, which posed retrospective questions about childhood as…

  16. A Graphical Simulation of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for Use as an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment and to Demonstrate the Concept of Mathematical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, David L.; Terry, Ronald E.

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrating petroleum engineering concepts in undergraduate laboratories often requires expensive and time-consuming experiments. To eliminate these problems, a graphical simulation technique was developed for junior-level laboratories which illustrate vapor-liquid equilibrium and the use of mathematical modeling. A description of this…

  17. Another Wrinkle in the Debate about Successful Aging: The Undervalued Concept of Resilience and the Lived Experience of Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2008-01-01

    The concept of "successful aging" is a contested discourse in gerontology. Two conflicting paradigms dominate the discussion: a health promotion activity model, and a model critical of the concept of successful aging. However, this study takes a different perspective and proposes that perhaps we have been striving for the wrong goal. The true…

  18. THE INTERACTION OF WORDS AND GRAPHIC SYMBOLS, INVESTIGATED VIA A PROGRAMED SEQUENCE OF CONCEPT FORMATION EXPERIENCES RELATED TO VECTOR SPACES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOLYARD, A. JOYCE; SMITH, M. DANIEL

    A SEQUENCE OF LEARNING TASKS WHICH USED NONVERBAL STIMULI TO INTRODUCE CONCEPTS OF VECTOR SPACES WAS CONSTRUCTED. THE SAMPLE WAS 20 CHILDREN FROM GRADES 5 AND 6 WHO WERE MATCHED ON THE BASES OF INTELLIGENCE, READING, AND ARITHMETIC ACHIEVEMENT. EACH STAGE OF THE PROGRAMED SEQUENCE WAS PRESENTED TO EACH SUBJECT AS A CONCEPT-FORMATION PROBLEM.…

  19. Concept model of the formation process of humic acid-kaolin complexes deduced by trichloroethylene sorption experiments and various characterizations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaojing; He, Jiangtao; Su, Sihui; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Fei

    2016-05-01

    To explore the interactions between soil organic matter and minerals, humic acid (HA, as organic matter), kaolin (as a mineral component) and Ca(2+) (as metal ions) were used to prepare HA-kaolin and Ca-HA-kaolin complexes. These complexes were used in trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption experiments and various characterizations. Interactions between HA and kaolin during the formation of their complexes were confirmed by the obvious differences between the Qe (experimental sorbed TCE) and Qe_p (predicted sorbed TCE) values of all detected samples. The partition coefficient kd obtained for the different samples indicated that both the organic content (fom) and Ca(2+) could significantly impact the interactions. Based on experimental results and various characterizations, a concept model was developed. In the absence of Ca(2+), HA molecules first patched onto charged sites of kaolin surfaces, filling the pores. Subsequently, as the HA content increased and the first HA layer reached saturation, an outer layer of HA began to form, compressing the inner HA layer. As HA loading continued, the second layer reached saturation, such that an outer-third layer began to form, compressing the inner layers. In the presence of Ca(2+), which not only can promote kaolin self-aggregation but can also boost HA attachment to kaolin, HA molecules were first surrounded by kaolin. Subsequently, first and second layers formed (with inner layer compression) via the same process as described above in the absence of Ca(2+), except that the second layer continued to load rather than reach saturation, within the investigated conditions, because of enhanced HA aggregation caused by Ca(2+). PMID:26933902

  20. Rethinking Mathematical Concepts with the Lens of the History of Mathematics: An Experiment with Prospective Secondary Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenaroli, Giuseppina; Furinghetti, Fulvia; Somaglia, Annamaria

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we present the main lines of a course on the history of mathematics for prospective secondary school (students' age range 14-19) mathematics teachers, enrolled on a 2-year postgraduate teacher preparation program. In order to integrate the historical objectives with the educational objectives of the program we adopted the following strategy: on the one hand we focused on some important concepts taught in upper secondary school that required the prospective teachers to reflect on the difficulties linked to these concepts; on the other hand we proposed original sources intended to enhance the students' reflection through challenging some existing beliefs on these concepts. We informed the prospective teachers that they were participating in a research project. This fostered a collaborative atmosphere and an active involvement that guided our students towards the final step of the course, where they were requested to outline a teaching sequence for presenting the concepts in the classroom.

  1. [Review of certain conceptions on eating disorders. Suggestions on psychotherapy for women with anorexia and bulimia nervosa (the authors' own experience)].

    PubMed

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta; Czekaj, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The article is a review of the selected theoretical concepts of eating disorder etiological factors and the authors' experience in the field of psychotheraphy of women with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. The authors describe various psychological and psychoanalytical concepts, for instance the theory of object relations by R. Spitz, D. Winnicott and H. Bruch's the theory of development. They indicate the importance of primary mother-child relations in the genesis of eating disorders as well as the process of the child's separation, his becoming independent and the basis of forming the child's attitude towards eating. They also show the difficulties during the course of psychotherapy for women with eating disorders. PMID:16756029

  2. [Evaluation and monitoring of primary health care in Ceará State, Brazil: exploring concepts and experiences at the central level].

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Suziana Martins de; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares

    2008-12-01

    The primary health care model implemented by the Family Health Program in Brazil still lacks systematized, validated mechanisms for its monitoring and evaluation. Based on an actual experience, the current study sought to understand experiences and explore concepts held by staff and managers in the Ceará State Health Department in Brazil, in relation to their evaluative and monitoring practices. A qualitative methodology was used, with the sample consisting of the group responsible for primary care at the State level. The focus group technique was used to obtain the empirical material. Themes that stood out in the interpretation were the nature and goals of evaluation and experiences with evaluation. Both are discussed in the current article and show that the key informants do not participate in the discussion on evaluation of health programs and services, meaning that the concept of evaluation is poorly understood and suffers attrition during the process of implementing activities. The traditional normative model predominates in the evaluative experiences, revealing a mismatch between concepts and practice in relation to proposals with a qualitative-participatory approach. PMID:19082280

  3. GRAAL - Griggs-type Apparatus equipped with Acoustics in the Laboratory: a new instrument to explore the rheology of rocks at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnel, A.; Champallier, R.; Precigout, J.; Pinquier, Y.; Ferrand, T. P.; Incel, S.; Hilairet, N.; Labrousse, L.; Renner, J.; Green, H. W., II; Stunitz, H.; Jolivet, L.

    2015-12-01

    Two new generation solid-medium Griggs-type apparatus have been set up at the Laboratoire de Géologie of ENS PARIS, and the Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans (ISTO). These new set-ups allow to perform controlled rock deformation experiments on large volume samples, up to 5 GPa and 1300°C. Careful pressure - stress calibration will be performed (using D-DIA and/or Paterson-type experiments as standards), strain-stress-pressure will be measured using modern techniques and state of the art salt assemblies. Focusing on rheology, the pressure vessel at ISTO has been designed in a goal of deforming large sample diameter (8 mm) at confining pressure of up to 3 GPa. Thanks to this large sample size, this new vessel will allow to explore the microstructures related to the deformation processes occurring at pressures of the deep lithosphere and in subduction zones. In this new apparatus, we moreover included a room below the pressure vessel in order to develop a basal load cell as close as possible to the sample. This new design, in progress, aims at significantly improving the accuracy of stress measurements in the Griggs-type apparatus. The ultimate goal is to set up a new technique able to routinely quantify the rheology of natural rocks between 0.5 and 5 GPa. Although fundamental to document the rheology of the lithosphere, such a technique is still missing in rock mechanics. Focusing on the evolution of physical and mechanical properties during mineral phase transformations, the vessel at ENS is equipped with continuous acoustic emission (AE) multi-sensor monitoring in order to "listen" to the sample during deformation. Indeed, these continuous recordings enable to detect regular AE like signals during dynamic crack propagation, as well as non-impulsive signals, which might be instrumental to identify laboratory analogs to non-volcanic tremor and low frequency earthquake signals. P and S elastic wave velocities will also be measured contemporaneously during

  4. Influence of Precollege Experience on Self-Concept among Community College Students in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos

    Female and minority students have historically been underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, and engineering at colleges and universities. Although a plethora of research has focused on students enrolled in 4-year colleges or universities, limited research addresses the factors that influence gender differences in community college students in science, mathematics, and engineering. Using a target population of 1,599 aspirants in science, mathematics, and engineering majors in public community colleges, this study investigates the determinants of self-concept by examining a hypothetical structural model. The findings suggest that background characteristics, high school academic performance, and attitude toward science have unique contributions to the development of self-concept among female community college students. The results add to the literature by providing new theoretical constructs and the variables that predict students' self-concept.

  5. A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sara E.; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S.; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students’ conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. PMID:26033869

  6. Student Conceptions about the DNA Structure within a Hierarchical Organizational Level: Improvement by Experiment- and Computer-Based Outreach Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langheinrich, Jessica; Bogner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    As non-scientific conceptions interfere with learning processes, teachers need both, to know about them and to address them in their classrooms. For our study, based on 182 eleventh graders, we analyzed the level of conceptual understanding by implementing the "draw and write" technique during a computer-supported gene technology module.…

  7. Concept Development and Meaningful Learning among Electrical Engineering Students Engaged in a Problem-Based Laboratory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Karen E.; Flick, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenographic study documented changes in student-held electrical concepts the development of meaningful learning among students with both low and high prior knowledge within a problem-based learning (PBL) undergraduate electrical engineering course. This paper reports on four subjects: two with high prior knowledge and two with low prior…

  8. Mediated Learning Experience and Concept Maps: A Pedagogical Tool for Achieving Meaningful Learning in Medical Physiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Hilda Leonor; Palencia, Alberto Pardo; Umana, Luis Alfredo; Galindo, Leonor; Villafrade M., Luz Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Even though comprehension of human physiology is crucial in the clinical setting, students frequently learn part of this subject using rote memory and then are unable to transfer knowledge to other contexts or to solve clinical problems. This study evaluated the impact of articulating the concept map strategy with the mediated learning experience…

  9. Promoting Scientific Literacy Using a Sociocritical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching: Concept, Examples, Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    This paper revisits the discussion about the objectives of scientific literacy-oriented chemistry teaching, its connection to the German concept of "Allgemeinbildung", and the debate of "science through education" vs. "education through science". About 10 years ago the sociocritical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching was suggested…

  10. Concept Development and Meaningful Learning Among Electrical Engineering Students Engaged in a Problem-Based Laboratory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bledsoe, Karen E.; Flick, Lawrence

    2011-04-01

    This phenomenographic study documented changes in student-held electrical concepts the development of meaningful learning among students with both low and high prior knowledge within a problem-based learning (PBL) undergraduate electrical engineering course. This paper reports on four subjects: two with high prior knowledge and two with low prior knowledge. Subjects were interviewed at the beginning and end of the course to document their understanding of basic electrical concepts. During the term, they were videotaped while solving problems in lab. Concept maps were generated to represent how subjects verbally connected concepts during problem-solving. Significant to PBL research, each subject's body of meaningful learning changed with each new problem, according to how the subject idiosyncratically interpreted the activity. Prior knowledge among the four subjects was a predictor of final knowledge, but not of problem-solving success. Differences in success seemed related more to mathematical ability and habits of mind. The study concluded that, depending on context, meaningful learning and habits of mind may contribute significantly to problem-solving success. The article presents a testable model of learning in PBL for further research.

  11. Concept Mapping as an Innovative Tool for the Assessment of Learning: An Experimental Experience among Business Management Degree Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo; Martinez-Canas, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    In the search to improve the quality of education at the university level, the use of concept mapping is becoming an important instructional technique for enhancing the teaching-learning process. This educational tool is based on cognitive theories by making a distinction between learning by rote (memorizing) and learning by meaning, where…

  12. Power generation based on biomass by combined fermentation and gasification--a new concept derived from experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Methling, Torsten; Armbrust, Nina; Haitz, Thilo; Speidel, Michael; Poboss, Norman; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Dieter, Heiko; Kempter-Regel, Brigitte; Kraaij, Gerard; Schliessmann, Ursula; Sterr, Yasemin; Wörner, Antje; Hirth, Thomas; Riedel, Uwe; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2014-10-01

    A new concept is proposed for combined fermentation (two-stage high-load fermenter) and gasification (two-stage fluidised bed gasifier with CO2 separation) of sewage sludge and wood, and the subsequent utilisation of the biogenic gases in a hybrid power plant, consisting of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. The development and optimisation of the important processes of the new concept (fermentation, gasification, utilisation) are reported in detail. For the gas production, process parameters were experimentally and numerically investigated to achieve high conversion rates of biomass. For the product gas utilisation, important combustion properties (laminar flame speed, ignition delay time) were analysed numerically to evaluate machinery operation (reliability, emissions). Furthermore, the coupling of the processes was numerically analysed and optimised by means of integration of heat and mass flows. The high, simulated electrical efficiency of 42% including the conversion of raw biomass is promising for future power generation by biomass. PMID:25086436

  13. Student conceptions about the DNA structure within a hierarchical organizational level: Improvement by experiment- and computer-based outreach learning.

    PubMed

    Langheinrich, Jessica; Bogner, Franz X

    2015-01-01

    As non-scientific conceptions interfere with learning processes, teachers need both, to know about them and to address them in their classrooms. For our study, based on 182 eleventh graders, we analyzed the level of conceptual understanding by implementing the "draw and write" technique during a computer-supported gene technology module. To give participants the hierarchical organizational level which they have to draw, was a specific feature of our study. We introduced two objective category systems for analyzing drawings and inscriptions. Our results indicated a long- as well as a short-term increase in the level of conceptual understanding and in the number of drawn elements and their grades concerning the DNA structure. Consequently, we regard the "draw and write" technique as a tool for a teacher to get to know students' alternative conceptions. Furthermore, our study points the modification potential of hands-on and computer-supported learning modules. PMID:26481196

  14. Experiments to be flown in an Earth orbiting laboratory: The US experiments on the first international microgravity laboratory, from concept to flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Callahan, P. X.; Schaefer, R. L.; Lashbrook, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    The current life cycle of NASA ARC-managed flight experiments is presented. The two main purposes are: (1) to bring to the attention of biologists, and in particular cell and plant biologists, some of the requirements for flying a life science experiment in space; and (2) to introduce the subject to biologists embarking on studies in the field and to delineate some of the specific requirements that will be encountered by an ARC-managed microgravity experiment. This is not intended to be an exhaustive encyclopedia of all techniques used to prepare an experiment to evaluate the effect of microgravity on plant and animal cells. However, many of the requirements are the same for all biological systems and for other NASA centers. Emphasis is on the principle investigator's (PI's) involvement in the activities required for successful completion of major reviews. The PI support required for activities other than these reviews is also discussed, as are the interactions between ARC and the PI that will be required as problems or questions arise throughout experiment and payload development. It is impossible to predict the extent of this activity because it varies according to the complexity of the experiment and the flight experience of the PI.

  15. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O.

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  16. Practice experiences of running UK DonorLink, a voluntary information exchange register for adults related through donor conception.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Marshall, Lyndsey

    2008-12-01

    Previous practices of withholding information from those conceived through donor conception are changing. However, little is known about the service needs of those affected. In response to this, the UK Government-funded pilot voluntary information exchange and contact register, UK DonorLink, was launched in 2004, covering conceptions prior to August 1991. It is the only register worldwide that relies primarily on DNA testing to establish genetic connectedness in the absence of written records. Approximately 150 adults came forward to register in the first three years of operation, drawn from all interested parties. Matches between half-siblings have been made, but none yet between donor and offspring. Employing staff with expertise in post-adoption work has proved effective, as long as additional training and support specific to donor issues is provided. The infrastructure required to promote and deliver the service reflects the complex mix of skills and tasks required, and confirms that a service provided through independent counsellors alone would be inappropriate. Having a geographically and socially widespread potential registrant group, together with a limited budget, has limited the effectiveness of advertising and promotion campaigns. Ethical and emotional complexities arising through the direct service are highlighted, including those presented by DNA use. PMID:19085259

  17. Gaia science operations 1.5 yr into the nominal mission: concepts, experiences and lessons learned ESA/ESTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Uwe; Guerra, Rocio; Cheek, Neil; Siddiqui, Hassan; Jansen, Fred

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's astrometry satellite Gaia was launched in December 2013 and started its scientific operations in July 2014 after an extended payload commissioning period. During the first year of the nominal mission the astrometric instrument alone has made around 250 Billion individual measurements which already now constitues one of the largest astronomical datasets in existence. Operations will continue for at least the next 4 years and after an extensive data processing effort an astronomical catalogue containing some 1.5 Billion celestial objects will be produced. We describe the chosen key concepts for handling the massive amounts of daily data at the Science Operations Centre at ESAC, Madrid, their initial processing and dissemination to the other five partner processing centres. We will also illustrate some of the great challenges that the mission data poses in terms of storage, processing, monitoring, and analysis.

  18. Modeling and experiment of the suspended seismometer concept for attenuating the contribution of tilt motion in horizontal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matichard, F.; Evans, M.; Mittleman, R.; MacInnis, M.; Biscans, S.; Dooley, K. L.; Sohier, H.; Lauriero, A.; Paris, H.; Koch, J.; Knothe, P.; Carbajo, A.; Dufort, C.

    2016-06-01

    Tilt-horizontal coupling in inertial sensors limits the performance of active isolation systems such as those used in gravitational wave detectors. Inertial rotation sensors can be used to subtract the tilt component from the signal produced by horizontal inertial sensors, but such techniques are often limited by the sensor noise of the tilt measurement. A different approach is to mechanically filter the tilt transmitted to the horizontal inertial sensor, as discussed in this article. This technique does not require an auxiliary rotation sensor and can produce a lower noise measurement. The concept investigated uses a mechanical suspension to isolate the inertial sensor from input tilt. Modeling and simulations show that such a configuration can be used to adequately attenuate the tilt transmitted to the instrument, while maintaining translation sensitivity in the frequency band of interest. The analysis is supported by experimental results showing that this approach is a viable solution to overcome the tilt problem in the field of active inertial isolation.

  19. A qualitative study of parents' experiences using family support services: applying the concept of surface and depth.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Karen A; Cox, Pat; Thomas, Nigel; Cocker, Karen

    2014-09-01

    United Kingdom policy and practice endorses family support for child well-being. Achieving such support requires multi-agency approaches that consider all aspects of parents' and children's lives and which offer practical, social and emotional help. The potential for services to make a positive impact on parents and their families will depend in part on the level and nature of engagement. In this paper, a case is made for the application of the two-part surface and depth concept for understanding how practitioners engage with families and how they might improve the chances of supporting sustainable differences for parents and families. To illustrate, qualitative data from a review of family centre support provided by a north of England local authority are presented. The review was commissioned to explore why families often need to re-engage with intensive support services. Data were drawn from interviews with parents (n = 18, recruited following a survey of all those registered with the service during April-May 2009) and discussions with family centre support workers (n = 4), and following thematic analysis, three dominant themes emerged--resources available, staff approach and real life--which were appraised in the light of the surface and depth concept. Much of the work with parents effectively dealt with pressing needs. This felt gratifying for both parent and worker and supported immediate service engagement. However, each noted that the more complex issues in parents' lives went unchallenged and thus the sustainability of progress in terms of parenting practice was questionable. A strengths focused approach by staff that understood needs in the context of parents' real-life circumstances was important to parent engagement. Thus, longer term benefits from family support require practitioners to work with parents to problem solve immediate issues while also digging deeper to acknowledge and seek to resolve the more complex challenges parents face in their real

  20. A Comparison of the Concepts of Democracy and Experience in a Sample of Major Works by Dewey and Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    While theorizing in distinctly different times, distinctly different cultures, and under distinctly different circumstances, notable philosophical similarities can be drawn between John Dewey and Paulo Freire. This article focuses on two major themes evident in a sample of each philosopher's major works, democracy and experience, and draws…

  1. Designing experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of precision agricultural practices on research fields. Part 1. Concepts for formulation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to present a unique formulation methodology for designing experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of a precision agricultural practice on a research farm field. We demonstrate an efficient method of combining the georeferenced treatment structure and the georeferenc...

  2. Nurses' Learning Experiences with the Kinaesthetics Care Concept Training in a Nursing Home: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fringer, André; Huth, Martina; Hantikainen, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    In geriatric care, movement support skills of nurses are often limited, resulting in unnecessary functional decline of older adult residents and physical strain of nurses. Kinaesthetics training aims to improve movement competences of nurses and residents. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study is to describe nursing teams' experience with…

  3. Illustrating the Concepts of Isotopes and Mass Spectrometry in Introductory Courses: A MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopke, Nancy Carter; Lovett, Timothy Neal

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is a widely used and versatile tool for scientists in many different fields. Soft ionization techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) allow for the analysis of biomolecules, polymers, and clusters. This article describes a MALDI mass spectrometry experiment designed for students in introductory…

  4. The Eratosthenes Project: the reproduction of a historical experiment as a resource for the inclusion of Astronomy concepts in High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus Santos, Antônio José; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Teixeira de Araújo, Mauro Sérgio

    2012-12-01

    This investigation was about an educational approach based on the History of Science and experimentation involving scientific concepts in the area of Astronomy, highlighting the reproduction of the original experiment performed by Eratosthenes in the third century B.C., designed to measure the Earth radius. It was found that the realized activities contributed significantly to the success of High School students from two public schools of Sergipe - the State College State Secretary Francisco Rosa Santos in Aracaju, Sergipe and the Federal Institute, campus of São Cristov - since these activities had aroused the students' interest for the construction of new scientific knowledge, and they improved their comprehension of some aspects related to Science and Astronomy in particular, as its empirical character and its historical development, therefore immersed in a specific social, economic and cultural context. The approach allowed for a greater involvement of participating students and it improved student-teacher relationship. The evaluations identified that a significant learning of the discussed concepts involving Physics and Astronomy had occurred, such as latitude, longitude, equinox, solstice, midday sun, among other concepts treated in an interdisciplinary manner with other disciplines such as Geography, History and Mathematics.

  5. Five biomedical experiments flown in an Earth orbiting laboratory: Lessons learned from developing these experiments on the first international microgravity mission from concept to landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Lashbrook, J. J.; Callahan, P. X.; Schaefer, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    There are numerous problems associated with accommodating complex biological systems in microgravity in the flexible laboratory systems installed in the Orbiter cargo bay. This presentation will focus upon some of the lessons learned along the way from the University laboratory to the IML-1 Microgravity Laboratory. The First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission contained a large number of specimens, including: 72 million nematodes, US-1; 3 billion yeast cells, US-2; 32 million mouse limb-bud cells, US-3; and 540 oat seeds (96 planted), FOTRAN. All five of the experiments had to undergo significant redevelopment effort in order to allow the investigator's ideas and objectives to be accommodated within the constraints of the IML-1 mission. Each of these experiments were proposed as unique entities rather than part of the mission, and many procedures had to be modified from the laboratory practice to meet IML-1 constraints. After a proposal is accepted by NASA for definition, an interactive process is begun between the Principal Investigator and the developer to ensure a maximum science return. The success of the five SLSPO-managed experiments was the result of successful completion of all preflight biological testing and hardware verification finalized at the KSC Life Sciences Support Facility housed in Hangar L. The ESTEC Biorack facility housed three U.S. experiments (US-1, US-2, and US-3). The U.S. Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility housed GTHRES and FOTRAN. The IML-1 mission (launched from KSC on 22 Jan. 1992, and landed at Dryden Flight Research Facility on 30 Jan. 1992) was an outstanding success--close to 100 percent of the prelaunch anticipated science return was achieved and, in some cases, greater than 100 percent was achieved (because of an extra mission day).

  6. Carbon rod radiant source for blast/fire interaction experiments: proof of concept and design. Interim report, 28 March 1979-30 August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cockayne, J.E.; Malinowski, R.L.; Meisner, J.L.

    1980-08-30

    The investigation of the blast interaction with fires ignited by the nuclear flash requires controlled experiments. A simulator for the pulse of thermal energy is needed in order to properly initiate the fire. This report addresses the development of carbon rod radiant source (CARRS) that is compatible with the FEMA long-duration shock/blast tube at Camp Parks, California. The effort commenced with an understanding of the specific requirements and pertinent research, both past and present. Evaluation of the alternate candidates provided direction for a proof of concept experiment. Subsequent steps produced a laboratory scale (constant 25 kw) model for investigating the electrical, mechanical and optical issues of a 1.8 Mw peak power CARRS. A conservative design was done, which may soon be 'overcome by events' in pulsed power technology.

  7. Current Concepts in Conception Control

    PubMed Central

    Ringrose, C. A. Douglas

    1963-01-01

    The progressive increase in world population has become a most urgent global problem in recent years. Man has, however, been interested in controlling his reproductivity at the family level for many centuries. Historical aspects of this saga are reviewed. The modern era of conception control was ushered in by Makepeace et al. in 1937 when ovulation inhibition by progesterone was demonstrated. Confirmation of this by Pincus and associates, and development of the potent oral progestational agents, the 19-norsteroids, have made efficient reliable contraception a reality. Experience with one of these agents (Ortho-Novum, 2 mg.) in 115 patients through 805 cycles is presented. Conception control was 100% effective at this dosage. Side effects were minimal. Only three of the women discontinued the tablets because of these effects. All but five in this group of 115 preferred the oral contraceptives to methods previously employed. PMID:13973987

  8. Latina and European American Girls’ Experiences with Academic Sexism and their Self-Concepts in Mathematics and Science During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls’ (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls’ reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls’ abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism. PMID:21212810

  9. Modeling and experiment of the suspended seismometer concept for attenuating the contribution of tilt motion in horizontal measurements.

    PubMed

    Matichard, F; Evans, M; Mittleman, R; MacInnis, M; Biscans, S; Dooley, K L; Sohier, H; Lauriero, A; Paris, H; Koch, J; Knothe, P; Carbajo, A; Dufort, C

    2016-06-01

    Tilt-horizontal coupling in inertial sensors limits the performance of active isolation systems such as those used in gravitational wave detectors. Inertial rotation sensors can be used to subtract the tilt component from the signal produced by horizontal inertial sensors, but such techniques are often limited by the sensor noise of the tilt measurement. A different approach is to mechanically filter the tilt transmitted to the horizontal inertial sensor, as discussed in this article. This technique does not require an auxiliary rotation sensor and can produce a lower noise measurement. The concept investigated uses a mechanical suspension to isolate the inertial sensor from input tilt. Modeling and simulations show that such a configuration can be used to adequately attenuate the tilt transmitted to the instrument, while maintaining translation sensitivity in the frequency band of interest. The analysis is supported by experimental results showing that this approach is a viable solution to overcome the tilt problem in the field of active inertial isolation. PMID:27370484

  10. Integration of Long term experiments on terrestrial ecosystem in AnaEE-France Research Infrastructure : concept and adding value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanzy, André; Chabbi, Abad; Houot, Sabine; Lafolie, François; Pichot, Christian; Raynal, Hélène; Saint-André, Laurent; Clobert, Jean; Greiveldinger, Lucile

    2015-04-01

    Continental ecosystems represent a critical zone that provide key ecological services to human populations like biomass production, that participate to the regulation of the global biogeochemical cycles and contribute and contribute to the maintenance of air and water quality. Global changes effects on continental ecosystems are likely to impact the fate of humanity, which is thus facing numerous challenges, such as an increasing demand for food and energy, competition for land and water use, or rapid climate warming. Hence, scientific progress in our understanding of the continental critical zone will come from studies that address how biotic and abiotic processes react to global changes. Long term experiments are required to take into account ecosystem inertia and feedback loops and to characterize trends and threshold in ecosystem dynamics. In France, 20 long-term experiments on terrestrial ecosystems are gathered within a single Research Infrastructure: ANAEE-France (http://www.anaee-s.fr), which is a part of AnaEE-Europe (http://www.anaee.com/). Each experiment consist in applying differentiated pressures on different plot over a long period (>20 years) representative of a range of management options. The originality of such infrastructure is a combination of experimental set up and long-term monitoring of simultaneous measurements of key ecosystem variables and parameters through a multi-disciplinary approach and replications of each treatment that improve the statistical strength of the results. The sites encompass gradients of climate conditions, ecosystem complexity and/or management, and can be used for calibration/validation of ecosystem functioning models as well as for the design of ecosystem management strategies. Gathering those experiments in a single research infrastructure is an important issue to enhance their visibility and increase the number of hosting scientific team by offering a range of services. These are: • Access to the ongoing long

  11. Li experiments on T-11M and T-10 in support of a steady-state tokamak concept with Li closed loop circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnov, S. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Alekseev, A. G.; Lazarev, V. B.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.; Lyublinski, I. E.; Vertkov, A. V.; Vershkov, V. A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a review of the last T-11M and T-10 tokamak activity in the field of Li plasma facing component (PFC) investigation. Attention is mainly paid to the realization of the concept of closed loop lithium circulation as a solution of the PFC problem of a steady-state DT volumetric neutron source on a tokamak basis. Realization of the Li PFC concept demands the decision of three main tasks: lithium injection into the plasma, Li collection before its deposition on the vacuum vessel and the return of Li to the injection zone from the collector. This emitter-collector concept assumes that the main heat flux from a hot plasma to the PFC (limiters and divertor plates) can be dissipated on the entire vessel wall surface by non-coronal Li radiation, which will smoothen the local heat load PFC. A rail limiter on the basis of a capillary porous system manufactured from tungsten felt and provided with W wings was successfully tested in the last T-11M experiments as a prototype of steady-state Li emitter-collector. A witness-sample analysis showed that the lateral sides of the rail and ring limiters crossing the plasma scrape-off layer can collect a significant (~80%) part of Li, injected into the plasma during discharges. This can be used in the future for closing Li loop circulation. As was shown by Li pellet injection in T-10, the probability of Li penetration into the hot plasma core from its boundary is lower than that of deuterium by a factor of 5-10. This result can explain the effect of plasma cleaning (Zeff (0) ~ 1) during T-10 Li experiments. Some different schemes of future lithium circulation loops are discussed.

  12. Conceptions of reality and the experience of pain. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Anna, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    A core of neurobiological mechanisms is implicated in different forms of pain. Fabbro and Crescentini [4] show that this fact is significant both on the scientific level and on the philosophical level. Their main philosophical claim is that the existence of a neural circuit devoted to the experience of time suggests that time might not be real. An upshot would be that the objects which populate the world of our experience might not be real either, and hence the attachment to them and the mechanisms of pain for the separation from them that were developed through evolution would be misplaced. By contrast, in their view, we inhabit a Heraclitean or Buddhist world of processes: indeed, by inhibiting our time circuits, mindful meditation releases us from perceiving reality as a world of objects and thereby reliefs us from pain. Fabbro and Crescentini remark on a limitation of attempts to employ mindful meditation as a pain killer in clinical contexts: a long time of meditation practice is needed for a subject to be able to alleviate pain through that method.

  13. Conceptualizing the aesthetic experience: using the influence matrix to show causal relationships between basic concepts in aesthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma; Mrotzek, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that using tools from systems science for teaching and learning in the Humanities offers innovative insights that can prove helpful for both students and lecturers. Our contention here is that a method used in systems science, namely the influence matrix, can be a suitable tool to facilitate the understanding of elementary notions in Aesthetics by means of systematizing this process. As we will demonstrate in the upcoming sections, the influence matrix can help us to understand the nature and function of the basic elements that take part in the aesthetic experience and their evolving relevance in the history of Aesthetics. The implementation of these elements to an influence matrix will contribute to a more detailed understanding of (i) the nature of each element, (ii) the interrelation between them and (iii) the influence each element has on all the others.

  14. Clinical experiences derived from implementation of an easy to use concept for treatment of wound healing by secondary intention and guidance in selection of appropriate dressings.

    PubMed

    Braumann, Chris; Guenther, Nina; Menenakos, Charalambos; Muenzberg, Helga; Pirlich, Matthias; Lochs, Herbert; Mueller, Joachim M

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of this case-cohort-type observational study conducted at different Surgical Departments of the Charité-Universitätsmedizin in Berlin was to evaluate the sequential use concept first described by Systagenix Wound Management in 2007. Fifty-two patients with different wound healing by secondary intention were treated for 7 weeks at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin in Berlin. A multidisciplinary team worked together to reach consensus in wound assessment; in classification of infection status according to the criteria described by European Wound Management Association (EWMA); in treatment protocol and on dressings to be used to 'cover' wounds. Before dressing application, all wounds were cleaned from debris. Following the sequential use concept, wounds classified as stages 2 and 3 were dressed with SILVERCEL(®) and TIELLE(®) or TIELLE PLUS(®) to 'clean' the wounds. After 2-3 weeks, treatment was changed to PROMOGRAN PRISMA(®) and TIELLE(®) to 'close and cover' wounds, thus providing optimal wound healing. Wounds classified as non infected were dressed with PROMOGRAN PRISMA(®) and TIELLE(®) during the complete treatment period. Patients were asked to evaluate the treatment using a simplified questionnaire developed at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin in Berlin. Wounds comprised 37 surgical procedures, 8 chronic mixed ulcer, 4 pressure sores, 1 diabetic foot ulcer, 1 venous leg ulcer, and 1 mixed arterial/venous ulcer. At baseline, 12 wounds were classified as stage 3, 38 wounds as stage 2 and 2 wounds as stage 1. After 7 weeks of treatment, all patients showed a positive clinical response to the sequential use treatment. Results of wound size showed a high significant progression of wound healing expressed with a profound reduction of wound area (P in all measurements <0·001, chi-square test) and improved granulation. This study summarises the clinical experiences derived from the evaluation of the sequential use concept in the daily

  15. Concept Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Narendera

    This document, published in India by the Regional College of Education, deals with 13 subjects: the tough context (thinking), definitions of concept, functions of concept, the process of concept formation, discriminant learning, mediation process, second signalling system, factors affecting concept formation, studies in concept formation, the…

  16. Precursor Proof-of-Concept Experiments for Various Categories of High-Frequency Gravitational Wave (HFGW) Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robert M. L.

    2004-02-01

    High-Frequency Gravitational Wave (HFGW) generators are separated into three general categories. Precursor, component-validation, laboratory experiments for each category except, possibly, the third are identified in general terms. The categories are: (1) The electromechanical category includes micro- and nano-element, piezoelectric crystal, and multi-dielectric film HFGW generators. (2) The high-temperature superconductor category includes gasers, impressed magnetic fields, and transformation of electromagnetic radiation into gravitational waves (Gertsenshtein effect) HFGW generators. (3)The laser/plasma category includes laser-energized mirrors, synchrotron light, nuclear fusion, plasma toroid, and nonlinear optical-acoustical, molecular-level HFGW generators. A perusal of HFGW literature reveals that since the 1960s many authors have contributed designs of mechanisms and devices that relate to the terrestrial generation of gravitational waves. Only in the last few years, however, have any researchers demonstrated that their proposed devices were practical HFGW generators, capable of producing kilowatts of power, that were operational in a laboratory setting. These recent devices make use of new technology and generate high-frequency (GHz and above) gravitational waves using non-gravitational forces. Most of the generators considered in this paper have been recently discussed at the May, 2003, Gravitational Wave Conference at The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA, which was the very first International Conference dedicated to HFGW and attracted twenty-five research papers from nine countries. Although no detailed experimental tasks are discussed, experimental test objectives in the form of a roadmap are proposed for each category.

  17. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE)- Concept of Operations Evaluation for Using Remote Guidance Ultrasound for Planetary Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor, IV; Peterson, Sean; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Douglas; Ham, David; Amponsah, David; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Use of remote guidance (RG) techniques aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has enabled astronauts to collect diagnostic-level ultrasound images. Exploration class missions will require this cohort of (typically) non-formally trained sonographers to operate with greater autonomy given the longer communication delays (2 seconds for ISS vs. >6 seconds for missions beyond the Moon) and communication blackouts. To determine the feasibility and training requirements for autonomous ultrasound image collection by non-expert ultrasound operators, ultrasound images were collected from a similar cohort using three different image collection protocols: RG only, RG with a computer-based learning tool (LT), and autonomous image collection with LT. The groups were assessed for both image quality and time to collect the images. Methods Subjects were randomized into three groups: RG only, RG with LT, and autonomous with LT. Each subject received 10 minutes of standardized training before the experiment. The subjects were tasked with making the following ultrasound assessments: 1) bone fracture and 2) focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) to assess a patient s abdomen. Human factors-related questionnaire data were collected immediately after the assessments. Results The autonomous group did not out-perform the two groups that received RG. The mean time for the autonomous group to collect images was less than the RG groups, however the mean image quality for the autonomous group was less compared to both RG groups. Discussion Remote guidance continues to produce higher quality ultrasound images than autonomous ultrasound operation. This is likely due to near-instant feedback on image quality from the remote guider. Expansion in communication time delays, however, diminishes the capability to provide this feedback, thus requiring more autonomous ultrasound operation. The LT has the potential to be an excellent training and coaching component for

  18. Epistemological implications of near-death experiences and other non-ordinary mental expressions: Moving beyond the concept of altered state of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Facco, Enrico; Agrillo, Christian; Greyson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades an increasing interest has developed in the so-called altered state of consciousness (ASCs); among these, near-death experiences (NDEs) are one of the most intriguing and debated examples. NDEs are deep and universal experiences with a clear phenomenology and incidence, while some of their features challenge the current views of human consciousness (focused on neural circuits and based on the concept of mind as a byproduct of brain circuitry) with relevant epistemological and historical implications. The origin of the ruling mechanist-reductionist paradigm can be traced back to Descartes' radical separation of res cogitans and res extensa and the conflict between the nascent science and the Inquisition; this led to removing the subjective properties of mind from the field of scientific interest, relegating them to philosophy and theology in order to enable the development of modern science. However, the physics of the 20th century has eventually moved beyond the classical paradigm, permitting a profound renewal of scientific interest in the mind. Modern research on NDEs has contributed to reopening the debate surrounding the Cartesian separation, the mind-brain relationship and the nature of consciousness. It is now time to reappraise the relevance, strengths, and weaknesses of the available scientific interpretations of NDEs, their relationship with other ASCs, as well as the very concept of ASC; the latter looks to be ill-founded, suggesting the need for: (a) a revision of the conventional approach to subjective phenomena, including both the third- and first-person perspective; and (b) a deep reflection on the possible links between different non-ordinary mental expression, as regards both their phenomenology and mechanisms from a non-pathological perspective. PMID:25892488

  19. A laser-lock concept to reach cm s-1-precision in Doppler experiments with Fabry-Pérot wavelength calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, A.; Banyal, R. K.; Ulbrich, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    State-of-the-art Doppler experiments require wavelength calibration with precision at the cm s-1 level. A low-finesse Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) can provide a wavelength comb with a very large bandwidth as required for astronomical experiments, but unavoidable spectral drifts are difficult to control. Instead of actively controlling the FPI cavity, we propose to passively stabilize the interferometer and track the time-dependent cavity length drift externally using the 87Rb D2 atomic line. A dual-finesse cavity allows drift tracking during observation. In the low-finesse spectral range, the cavity provides a comb transmission spectrum tailored to the astronomical spectrograph. The drift of the cavity length is monitored in the high-finesse range relative to an external standard: a single narrow transmission peak is locked to an external cavity diode laser and compared to an atomic frequency from a Doppler-free transition. Following standard locking schemes, tracking at sub-mm s-1 precision can be achieved. This is several orders of magnitude better than currently planned high-precision Doppler experiments, and it allows freedom for relaxed designs including the use of a single-finesse interferometer under certain conditions. All components for the proposed setup are readily available, rendering this approach particularly interesting for upcoming Doppler experiments. We also show that the large number of interference modes used in an astronomical FPI allows us to unambiguously identify the interference mode of each FPI transmission peak defining its absolute wavelength solution. The accuracy reached in each resonance with the laser concept is then defined by the cavity length that is determined from the one locked peak and by the group velocity dispersion. The latter can vary by several 100 m s-1 over the relevant frequency range and severely limits the accuracy of individual peak locations, although their interference modes are known. A potential way to

  20. Experimenting With Multiprocessor Simulator Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard A.; Williams, Anthony D.

    1989-01-01

    Multiple microcomputer system used to investigate application of parallel processing to real-time simulation. With dual-base architecture, each microcomputer communicates with corresponding microcomputer on opposite bus through dual-port interface memory. Transfers of data to and from front-end processor occur on interactive information bus. Transfers of data related to simulation calculations occur on real-time-information bus. System, called the real-time multiprocessor simulator (RTMPS), is tool for developing low-cost, portable, user-friendly simulators.

  1. Development of concepts for the management of shallow geothermal resources in urban areas - Experience gained from the Basel and Zaragoza case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Mueller, Matthias H.; Huggenberger, Peter; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2015-04-01

    In urban areas the shallow subsurface often is used as a heat resource (shallow geothermal energy), i.e. for the installation and operation of a broad variety of geothermal systems. Increasingly, groundwater is used as a low-cost heat sink, e.g. for building acclimatization. Together with other shallow geothermal exploitation systems significantly increased groundwater temperatures have been observed in many urban areas (urban heat island effect). The experience obtained from two selected case study cities in Basel (CH) and Zaragoza (ES) has allowed developing concepts and methods for the management of thermal resources in urban areas. Both case study cities already have a comprehensive monitoring network operating (hydraulics and temperature) as well as calibrated high-resolution numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport models. The existing datasets and models have allowed to compile and compare the different hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions for both groundwater bodies, including: (1) River boundaries (River Rhine and Ebro), (2) Regional hydraulic and thermal settings, (3) Interaction with the atmosphere under consideration of urbanization and (4) Anthropogenic quantitative and thermal groundwater use. The potential natural states of the considered groundwater bodies also have been investigated for different urban settings and varying processes concerning groundwater flow and thermal regimes. Moreover, concepts for the management of thermal resources in urban areas and the transferability of the applied methods to other urban areas are discussed. The methods used provide an appropriate selection of parameters (spatiotemporal resolution) that have to be measured for representative interpretations of groundwater flow and thermal regimes of specific groundwater bodies. From the experience acquired from the case studies it is shown that understanding the variable influences of the specific geological and hydrogeological as well as hydraulic and thermal

  2. Concept Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  3. Infants' Concept of Animacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the concept of animacy of 9- and 12-month-old infants by exposing them to autonomous motion with animate and inanimate objects in a series of three experiments. Three experiments were carried out. Results indicated that infants discriminate animate from inanimate objects on the basis of motion cues by the age of nine months. (MOK)

  4. Learning Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Yasmeen, Farah

    2004-01-01

    In order to learn the concept of statistical techniques one needs to run real experiments that generate reliable data. In practice, the data from some well-defined process or system is very costly and time consuming. It is difficult to run real experiments during the teaching period in the university. To overcome these difficulties, statisticians…

  5. Using place-based concepts, multicultural lenses, and hands-on experience to broaden participation in the sciences for native youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flick, K. C.; Keepseagle, L.

    2013-12-01

    . Through field trips to broaden perspective, self-directed action research projects, and formal and informal classroom settings, the SLC serves as a stepping stone for students to discover Science/Math/ Technology-related careers and interact with people and professionals of all ages who pursue these careers. SLC participation empowers young students so they may one day serve as leaders and roles models to positively influence their classmates, schools, and communities for future generations. Through this collaborative education design process we have used place-based concepts, multicultural lenses, and hands-on experiences to explore reciprocal learning relationships which broaden participation of native students in geosciences and geoscientists' participation in cultural teachings.

  6. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  7. Circulation and Internationalisation of Pedagogical Concepts and Practices in the Discourse of Education: The Hamburg School Reform Experiment (1919-1933)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the international exchange of school reform ideas and concepts, the new schools in Hamburg were recognised as exemplary instances of a revolutionary and forceful reform in the public elementary school systems. Based on studies of transfer and their premise that the transnational transfer of ideas, practices and objects does not…

  8. Exploring the Role of Culturally-Based Concepts of Disability and Special Education in Immigrant Care-Givers' Experiences with the Special Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of ten immigrant families in regard to the education of their children with disabilities. The purposes were to: (a) explore the role of culturally-based concepts of disability and special education in these families' involvement in the education of the children with disabilities; (b) determine…

  9. A Comparative Study of the Effects of a Concept Mapping Enhanced Laboratory Experience on Turkish High School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Coll, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    The research reported here consists of the introduction of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities combined with concept mapping. The purpose of this intervention was to enhance student understanding of acid-base chemistry for tenth grade students' from two classes in a Turkish high school. An additional aim was to enhance…

  10. Developing Mathematical Concepts with Microcomputer Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Karen

    1983-01-01

    Material covers: (1) What Is a Mathematical Concept; (2) How are Mathematical Concepts Developed; (3) How Can Computers Help Children Learn Concepts; (4) Using Software; (5) Writing Programs; and (6) What Must We Do. Using software and writing programs are two very different experiences, but both can enhance concept development processes. (MP)

  11. Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Explains concept mapping as a heuristic device that is helpful in visualizing the relationships between and among ideas. Highlights include how to begin a map; brainstorming; map applications, including document or information summaries and writing composition; and mind mapping to strengthen note-taking. (LRW)

  12. Current concepts of Harm-Benefit Analysis of Animal Experiments - Report from the AALAS-FELASA Working Group on Harm-Benefit Analysis - Part 1.

    PubMed

    Brønstad, Aurora; Newcomer, Christian E; Decelle, Thierry; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Guillen, Javier; Laber, Kathy

    2016-06-01

    International regulations and guidelines strongly suggest that the use of animal models in scientific research should be initiated only after the authority responsible for the review of animal studies has concluded a well-thought-out harm-benefit analysis (HBA) and deemed the project to be appropriate. Although the process for conducting HBAs may not be new, the relevant factors and algorithms used in conducting them during the review process are deemed to be poorly defined or lacking by committees in many institutions. This paper presents the current concept of HBAs based on a literature review. References on cost or risk benefit from clinical trials and other industries are also included. Several approaches to HBA have been discovered including algorithms, graphic presentations and generic processes. The aim of this study is to better aid and harmonize understanding of the concepts of 'harm', 'benefit' and 'harm-benefit analysis'. PMID:27188275

  13. [Comfort: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jia-Ling; Lee, Ya-Ling; Hu, Wen-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Comfort is an important concept and core value of nursing. The defining attributes, antecedents and consequences of comfort need further analysis and exploration, even though the concept of comfort has been addressed previously in nursing literature. We employed the strategies of concept analysis as described by Walker&Avant (2005) to analyze the concept of comfort. The defining attributes of comfort include: 1) effective communication; 2) family and meaningful relationships; 3) maintaining functionality; 4) self-characteristics; 5) physical symptom relief, states, and interventions; 6) psychological, spiritual activities and states; and 7) a sense of safety and security. Antecedents consist of discomfort, distress and suffering. Consequences consist of (1) met/satisfied needs; (2) increased sense of control; (3) sense of inner peace; (4) a pleasant experience; (5) feeling cared for; (6) relief of symptoms; (7) reduced suffering; (8) decreased disequilibrium; and (9) absence of discomfort. We also outline the construction of cases, empirical references and comfort measurement tools. Analysis found comfort to have multiple dimensions and confirmed it as a clinical issue that should receive greater emphasis and valuation. Findings are hoped to increase nurse understanding of the concept of comfort and enable nurses to evaluate level of comfort and follow up on variations in such using empirical tools. Concept analysis can guide further comfort related interventions and research to benefit patients. PMID:22314653

  14. Asian American Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Karen L.; Tashima, Eugene

    While an individual in his own culture is expected to have a stable self concept, one who is placed in a totally different context may experience difficulties because ideas about self in the old society are no longer appropriate in the new one. In order to survive, the individual has to redefine his self concept to make it more functional in the…

  15. The innovative viscoelastic CP ESP cervical disk prosthesis with six degrees of freedom: biomechanical concepts, development program and preliminary clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Aaron, Alain; Ricart, Olivier; Rakover, Jean Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The viscoelastic cervical disk prosthesis ESP is an innovative one-piece deformable but cohesive interbody spacer. It is an evolution of the LP ESP lumbar disk implanted since 2006. CP ESP provides six full degrees of freedom about the three axes including shock absorbtion. The prosthesis geometry allows limited rotation and translation with resistance to motion (elastic return property) aimed at avoiding overload of the posterior facets. The rotation center can vary freely during motion. The concept of the ESP prosthesis is fundamentally different from that of the devices currently used in the cervical spine. The originality of the concept of the ESP® prosthesis led to innovative and intense testing to validate the adhesion of the viscoelastic component of the disk on the titanium endplates and to assess the mechanical properties of the PCU cushion. The preliminary clinical and radiological results with 2-year follow-up are encouraging for pain, function and kinematic behavior (range of motion and evolution of the mean centers of rotation). In this series, we did not observe device-related specific complications, misalignment, instability or ossifications. Additional studies and longer patient follow-up are needed to assess long-term reliability of this innovative implant. PMID:26341803

  16. Participant observation and change of perspectives: Medical Anthropology and the encounter with socially marginalised groups. First experiences with a new teaching concept

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Berit; Hovermann, Peter; Roelcke, Volker

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the new teaching concept “Providing medical care on the fringe of society: Participant observation and change in perspectives” in the context of the interdisciplinary field of Querschnittsbereich 2/Q 2 (the transdisciplinary section under AOÄ, the German Regulations for licensed physicians) that explores the history, theory and ethics of medicine. The disciplinary approach usually adopted in Q 2 is supplemented with concepts from medical anthropology; in addition students will be exposed to people in extreme social situations. The aim is to make students aware of and invite them to reflect upon: the importance of participant observation in the specific on-site setting of medical thinking and acting; the importance of the subjectivity of all those involved in doctor/patient interaction; and the fact that key medical terms (such as the “need” as seen by the physician vs. the need as seen by the patient) are essentially context-dependent in their interpretation. At a more general level students will learn how to put themselves in the position of different protagonists in a range of medical settings, and practice the skill of reflecting critically upon putative conceptual/theoretical and normative-ethical assumptions in medicine. PMID:23255961

  17. A Cross-Sectional Survey Study About the Most Common Solitary and Social Flow Activities to Extend the Concept of Optimal Experience.

    PubMed

    Magyaródi, Tímea; Oláh, Attila

    2015-11-01

    Previous assumptions note that the most powerful experiences of engagement are shared with others. Therefore, in the framework of positive psychology, to expand the dynamic interactionism-related flow theory, we have attempted to conduct an exploratory study about flow to reveal the most common activities that can trigger this experience during solitary or social situations. The study involved 1,709 adult participants from Hungary (Age: M = 26.95, SD = 11.23). They read descriptions about optimal experience in solitary and social situations and were asked to identify the activity from their life that is most typically followed by the described experiences. The social context was supplemented by other flow-related questions for a deeper understanding and to contribute to the research. According to the results the most typical solitary flow activities are found to be work, sports, creative activities and reading. The most common flow-inducing social activities are work and sports. The choice of the most frequent flow-inducing activities in both solitary and interpersonal situations is dependent on the gender of the respondent, and various demographical factors can influence the frequency of flow experiences in different contexts. Analysis reveal that optimal experience during a social interaction is determined by the perceived level of challenges, the perceived level of cooperation, the immediateness and clarity of the feedback, and the level of the skill. Our study may contribute to the broadening purpose of positive psychology as it focuses on the interpersonal level in relation to flow experience, which, in turn, may also support a higher level of well-being. PMID:27247682

  18. A Cross-Sectional Survey Study About the Most Common Solitary and Social Flow Activities to Extend the Concept of Optimal Experience

    PubMed Central

    Magyaródi, Tímea; Oláh, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Previous assumptions note that the most powerful experiences of engagement are shared with others. Therefore, in the framework of positive psychology, to expand the dynamic interactionism-related flow theory, we have attempted to conduct an exploratory study about flow to reveal the most common activities that can trigger this experience during solitary or social situations. The study involved 1,709 adult participants from Hungary (Age: M = 26.95, SD = 11.23). They read descriptions about optimal experience in solitary and social situations and were asked to identify the activity from their life that is most typically followed by the described experiences. The social context was supplemented by other flow-related questions for a deeper understanding and to contribute to the research. According to the results the most typical solitary flow activities are found to be work, sports, creative activities and reading. The most common flow-inducing social activities are work and sports. The choice of the most frequent flow-inducing activities in both solitary and interpersonal situations is dependent on the gender of the respondent, and various demographical factors can influence the frequency of flow experiences in different contexts. Analysis reveal that optimal experience during a social interaction is determined by the perceived level of challenges, the perceived level of cooperation, the immediateness and clarity of the feedback, and the level of the skill. Our study may contribute to the broadening purpose of positive psychology as it focuses on the interpersonal level in relation to flow experience, which, in turn, may also support a higher level of well-being. PMID:27247682

  19. Difficult Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosbury, R.

    2005-12-01

    Beautiful colour images of the sky are both a blessing and a curse for the communication of astronomy to the public. While undoubtedly attractive, they can obscure the fact that discoveries are often made in astrophysics using techniques and measurements that are much more difficult to grasp and certainly less appealing to view. Should we try to explain such concepts as spectroscopy, polarimetry and interferometry, or is it a lost cause? The most effective approach to this problem may be to lead the audience to ask the question themselves: "But how do you know that?"

  20. [Realization of Tissue Care Concept by the use of Denti Bone Level implants. Three years of clinical experience in applying Denti BL implants].

    PubMed

    Vajdovich, István; Orosz, Mihály

    2012-12-01

    Several scientific studies in the international literature discuss the practical application of preventive measures in implantation resulting in long-term success. These complex preventive principles are referred to as Tissue Care Concept (TCC). The authors' summarize the characteristics and prerequisites of TCC. Following several years of research, DenTi System Ltd. introduced a new dental implant, the Denti Bone Level (BL), in accordance with TTC requirements in 2008. In the last 3 years (between 2008 and 2011), the authors inserted 345 BL implants in 202 patients in either one or two sittings. Immediate, delayed, early or late implantations were performed following extraction. Fixation of crowns supported by implants resulted in immediate, early or delayed loading. The success rate of the implants was > 98% in the 3-year period. PMID:23387130

  1. A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Sara E.; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S.; Singla, Veena; Seawell, Patricia Chandler; Imam, Jamie F. Conklin; Eddy, Sarah L.; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of…

  2. `Teaching What I Learned': Exploring students' Earth and Space Science learning experiences in secondary school with a particular focus on their comprehension of the concept of `geologic time'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.

    2015-06-01

    According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content knowledge. More importantly, teachers' limited conceptual understanding of the core ideas automatically leads to a lack of pedagogical content knowledge. This mixed methods study aims to explore the ways in which current secondary schooling, especially the small numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in the USA, might influence students' learning of the discipline. To gain a better understanding of the current conditions of ESS education in secondary schools, in the first phase, we qualitatively examined a sample middle and high school ESS textbook to explore how the big ideas of ESS, particularly geological time, are represented. In the second phase, we quantitatively analyzed the participating college students' conceptual understanding of geological time by comparing those who had said they had had secondary school ESS learning experience with those who did not. Additionally, college students' perceptions on learning and teaching ESS are discussed. Findings from both the qualitative and quantitative phases indicate participating students' ESS learning experience in their secondary schools seemed to have limited or little influence on their conceptual understandings of the discipline. We believe that these results reflect the current ESS education status, connected with the declining numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in secondary schools.

  3. Concepts for a theoretical and experimental study of lifting rotor random loads and vibrations (further experiments with progressing/regressing rotor flapping modes), Phase 7-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Crews, S. T.

    1973-01-01

    The experiments with progressing/regressing forced rotor flapping modes have been extended in several directions and the data processing method has been considerably refined. The 16 inch hingeless 2-bladed rotor model was equipped with a new set of high precision blades which removed previously encountered tracking difficulties at high advance ratio, so that tests up to .8 rotor advance ratio could be conducted. In addition to data with 1.20 blade natural flapping frequency data at 1.10 flapping frequency were obtained. Outside the wind tunnel, tests with a ground plate located at different distances below the rotor were conducted while recording the dynamic downflow at a station .2R below the rotor plane with a hot wire anemometer.

  4. Learning with Retrieval-Based Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Janell R.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Students typically create concept maps while they view the material they are trying to learn. In these circumstances, concept mapping serves as an elaborative study activity--students are not required to retrieve the material they are learning. In 2 experiments, we examined the effectiveness of concept mapping when it is used as a retrieval…

  5. Content Differences for Abstract and Concrete Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiemer-Hastings, Katja Katja; Xu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Concept properties are an integral part of theories of conceptual representation and processing. To date, little is known about conceptual properties of abstract concepts, such as idea. This experiment systematically compared the content of 18 abstract and 18 concrete concepts, using a feature generation task. Thirty-one participants listed…

  6. Technium concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Marc; Davies, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    Traditionally the economy of Wales has been based on the coal and steel industries. Recently, Wales has elected its own National Assembly and together with the Welsh Development Agency (WDA) and through a Regional Technology Plan, has prioritized the creation and development of a knowledge based economy. The culture of Wales has always placed emphasis on education and for a small nation, has a University sector with an excellent reputation for advanced research. The WDA and the University of Wales Swansea came together to establish Technium, which is an unique concept designed to bridge the gap between advanced University research and commercial exploitation. Technium was co-funded by the WDA and the European Regional Development Fund. The project is seen as the first phase of creating a network of sector specific Techniums across the country, all linked via state of the art telecomm-infrastructure to University centers of research excellence. This paper will describe two case studies, both in the Optics/Photonics field, of research centers being established in Technium by blue chip international companies. Those companies having located in Technium specifically because of the links to high quality university research. One company is Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) a global leader in Optoelectronic components. The second company, ICN Pharmaceuticals Inc, design and develop optical devices to be used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals for the treatment of a range of diseases. Working closely with the WDA and the University of Wales Swansea, these and other companies will pursue product development, sponsor postgraduate research and generate intellectual capital that will benefit the company, students and the region alike.

  7. PhasePlot: An Interactive Software Tool for Visualizing Phase Relations, Performing Virtual Experiments, and for Teaching Thermodynamic Concepts in Petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    content (S) and are quite useful for understanding concepts like heat of reaction and crystallization; they are especially effective for illustrating invariant point behavior in magmatic systems. V-T grids are useful for relating the volume change of reaction (e.g., crystallization in magmatic systems) to pressure, and illustrate the importance of compressibility. V-S grids permit visualization of phase relations in chemically isolated systems embedded in a deformable and cooling matrix, such as isolated bodies of magma emplaced into the shallow crust. These additional features of PhasePlot greatly facilitate understanding of the topological mapping between phase diagrams in alternate reference systems. From a pedagogical perspective, these new features help the student understand the effect of different thermodynamic constraints on derived phase relations and reinforce the notion that pressure and temperature may be consequences and not dictates of the evolution of a chemical system. In addition to extended computational features, this revision of PhasePlot includes several user interface enhancements and an upgrade to the computational engine that drives contour plot and phase diagram generation.

  8. [Loneliness: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Jen; Wang, Kwua-Yun; Chen, Chin-Mi

    2010-10-01

    Loneliness is a kind of mood that most people have experienced at one time or another. Individual experiences with loneliness as joyful or painful saturation are highly personal and can be defined only in such a context. Loneliness has differing effects on the long-term health of individuals. Although loneliness impacts greatly on individual health, there is little in the literature related to concept analyses of loneliness. The purpose of this article was to use Walker and Avant's (2005) concept analysis methodology to review conceptual definitions of loneliness, characteristics, antecedents and consequences; construct examples and establish empirical measurements. Results indicate that defining attributes of loneliness included an individual's subjective mood, descriptions of aloneness, depression, desolation or empty feelings, and the perception of the spirit isolated from others. It is hoped that nursing staffs may better understand loneliness through this article, provide an assessment of client loneliness as early as possible, and enhance client health condition. PMID:20878616

  9. Proof of Concept Experiments of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near Real-Time Monitor for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-21

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near-real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of {+-} 1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  10. Facilitating Student Experimentation with Statistical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patricia K.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a Web page with seven Java applets allowing students to experiment with key concepts in an introductory statistics course. Indicates the applets can be used in three ways: to place links to the applets, to create in-class demonstrations of statistical concepts, and to lead students through experiments and discover statistical relationships.…

  11. [Insomnia: concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-Ling; Lin, Chia-Clin; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2008-10-01

    Sleep performs an essential function in humans. Insomnia is one of the common phenomena in a poor sleep pattern. Long-term suffering can result in somatic symptoms and the development of diseases. It can even induce diseases with a mental dimension. Insomnia causes indications of poor health. No systematic analysis of insomnia has been performed, however. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to describe the concept of insomnia. In accordance with Walker and Avant's (2005) methodology of concept analysis, this paper presents a review of the conceptual definitions, characteristics, antecedents and consequences, constructing examples, and empirical references of insomnia. The results indicate that: (1) Insomnia's defining attributes are recognized as an insufficient of quality and quantity for sleep for more than one month. (2) Antecedents of insomnia include changes in life habits, physiological demands caused by sleep time changes, and the experience of uncomfortable sensations. (3) Consequences of insomnia include a poor condition, with physical, psychological, social, and global dimensions. (4) There are many instruments that can be used to inspect insomnia, including questionnaires and tools for physiological measurement. Insomnia is a serious problem with various facets. An understanding of the concept of insomnia will help nurses to perceive this problem in caring for subjects. PMID:18836979

  12. Putting concepts into context.

    PubMed

    Yee, Eiling; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2016-08-01

    At first glance, conceptual representations (e.g., our internal notion of the object "lemon") seem static; we have the impression that there is something that the concept lemon "means" (a sour, yellow, football-shaped citrus fruit) and that this meaning does not vary. Research in semantic memory has traditionally taken this "static" perspective. Consequently, only effects demonstrated across a variety of contexts have typically been considered informative regarding the architecture of the semantic system. In this review, we take the opposite approach: We review instances of context-dependent conceptual activation at many different timescales-from long-term experience, to recent experience, to the current task goals, to the unfolding process of conceptual activation itself-and suggest that the pervasive effects of context across all of these timescales indicate that rather than being static, conceptual representations are constantly changing and are inextricably linked to their contexts. PMID:27282993

  13. Concept Analysis of Illness Engulfment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vining, Danny; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms. The analysis discussed two defining attributes of experience of illness and impact on self-concept with a total of seven indicators. The article listed antecedents, consequences, and discussed the Modified Engulfment Scale as empirical referents. Fictional cases were developed to illustrate the concept. Finally, the concept of illness engulfment was discussed within the framework of the Roy Adaptation Model. PMID:27256943

  14. [Innovative teleradiology network: concept and experience report].

    PubMed

    Kämmerer, M; Bethge, O T; Antoch, G

    2014-04-01

    (DICOM E-MAIL provides a standardized way for exchanging DICOM objects (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) and further relevant patient data for the treatment context reliably and securely via encrypted e-mails. The current version of the DICOM E-MAIL standard recommendations of the"Deutsche Röntgengesellschaft" (DRG, German Röntgen Society) defines for the first time options for setting up a special directory service for the provision and distribution of communication data of all participants in a network. By using such"telephone books", networks of any size can be operated independent of the provider. Compared to a Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing (XDS) scenario, the required infrastructure is considerably less complex and quicker to realize. Critical success factors are, in addition to the technology and an effective support, that the participants themselves contribute to the further development of the network and in this way, the network approach can be practiced. PMID:24549740

  15. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  16. Learning Aids Crystallize Complex Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Victor; Selman, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    Presents a learning system paradigm which uses a multiplicity of toys and simulated models to reinforce concepts in business management and production. Describes concrete learning tools and experiences for each component of a proposed instructional paradigm: measurement, efficacy, data development, imagery and integration, computerization,…

  17. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  18. SEDS experiment design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.; Oldson, John C.

    1990-01-01

    The Small Expendable-tether Deployment System (SEDS) was developed to design, build, integrate, fly, and safely deploy and release an expendable tether. A suitable concept for an on-orbit test of SEDS was developed. The following tasks were performed: (1) Define experiment objectives and requirements; (2) Define experiment concepts to reach those objectives; (3) Support NASA in experiment concept selection and definition; (4) Perform analyses and tests of SEDS hardware; (5) Refine the selected SEDS experiment concept; and (6) Support interactive SEDS system definition process. Results and conclusions are given.

  19. Conceptions of Parents, Conceptions of Self, and Conceptions of God.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Different theorists have suggested that an individual's view of God may be related to one's view of one's father, one's mother, or one's self. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their conceptions of their father's and mother's permissiveness, authoritarianism,…

  20. HLW glass dissolution in the presence of magnesium carbonate: Diffusion cell experiment and coupled modeling of diffusion and geochemical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debure, Mathieu; De Windt, Laurent; Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    The influence of diffusion of reactive species in aqueous solutions on the alteration rate of borosilicate glass of nuclear interest in the presence of magnesium carbonate (hydromagnesite: 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·4H2O) is investigated together with the ability of coupled chemistry/transport models to simulate the processes involved. Diffusion cells in which the solids are separated by an inert stainless steel sintered filter were used to establish parameters for direct comparison with batch experiments in which solids are intimately mixed. The chemistry of the solution and solid phases was monitored over time by various analytical techniques including ICP-AES, XRD, and SEM. The primary mechanism controlling the geochemical evolution of the system remains the consumption of silicon from the glass by precipitation of magnesium silicates. The solution chemistry and the dissolution and precipitation of solid phases are correctly described by 2D modeling with the GRAAL model implemented in the HYTEC reactive transport code. The spatial symmetry of the boron concentrations in both compartments of the cells results from dissolution coupled with simple diffusion, whereas the spatial asymmetry of the silicon and magnesium concentrations is due to strong coupling between dissolution, diffusion, and precipitation of secondary phases. A sensitivity analysis on the modeling of glass alteration shows that the choice of these phases and their thermodynamic constants have only a moderate impact whereas the thickness of the filter has a greater barrier effect.

  1. Letters, Numbers, Shapes, & Colors: Getting a Grasp on Concept Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ann D.

    1995-01-01

    Defines what a concept is, evaluates the educational quality of concept books, suggests books suitable for young children, and discusses how concept books are tools for supplementing and reinforcing direct hands-on learning experiences. Concept books on color, shapes, numbers, counting, texture, movement, sound, and the alphabet are evaluated.(JMV)

  2. Serial concept maps: tools for concept analysis.

    PubMed

    All, Anita C; Huycke, LaRae I

    2007-05-01

    Nursing theory challenges students to think abstractly and is often a difficult introduction to graduate study. Traditionally, concept analysis is useful in facilitating this abstract thinking. Concept maps are a way to visualize an individual's knowledge about a specific topic. Serial concept maps express the sequential evolution of a student's perceptions of a selected concept. Maps reveal individual differences in learning and perceptions, as well as progress in understanding the concept. Relationships are assessed and suggestions are made during serial mapping, which actively engages the students and faculty in dialogue that leads to increased understanding of the link between nursing theory and practice. Serial concept mapping lends itself well to both online and traditional classroom environments. PMID:17547345

  3. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  4. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  5. Concepts in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Poyhonen, Samuli

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is…

  6. The Saturn management concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilstein, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Management of the Saturn launch vehicles was an evolutionary process, requiring constant interaction between NASA Headquarters, the Marshall Space Flight Center (particularly the Saturn 5 Program Office), and the various prime contractors. Successful Saturn management was a blend of the decades of experience of the von Braun team, management concepts from the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Government, and private industry. The Saturn 5 Program Office shared a unique relationship with the Apollo Program Office at NASA Headquarters. Much of the success of the Saturn 5 Program Office was based on its painstaking attention to detail, emphasis on individual responsibilities (backed up by comprehensive program element plans and management matrices), and a high degree of visibility as embodied in the Program Control Center.

  7. Property attribution in combined concepts.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Thomas L; Gagné, Christina L

    2015-05-01

    Recent research shows that the judged likelihood of properties of modified nouns (baby ducks have webbed feet) is reduced relative to judgments for unmodified nouns (ducks have webbed feet). This modification effect has been taken as evidence both for and against the idea that combined concepts automatically inherit properties from their constituent concepts. Experiments 1 and 2 replicate this effect and demonstrate a reversed modification effect with false properties. That is, false properties are judged more likely with modification (e.g., purple candles have teeth is judged more likely than candles have teeth). These experiments also show that properties that are neither generically true nor false are unaffected by modification. Experiments 3 and 4 manipulate participants' expectation of contrast by showing modified and unmodified nouns that either match or mismatch in terms of a property and show that the judged likelihood of properties depends on the expectations of contrast set up by the manipulation. These results show that the modification effect is primarily driven by participants' understanding of the relation of subcategories to categories, rather than by the features of the concepts being combined, suggesting that the process of property attribution in combined concepts is strongly affected by pragmatic factors and is less strongly dependent on conceptual content than most theories of conceptual combination would suggest. PMID:25419816

  8. Thematic relations in adults' concepts.

    PubMed

    Lin, E L; Murphy, G L

    2001-03-01

    Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations. PMID:11293459

  9. Improved Self-Concepts Through Visual Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Walter Arthur

    Investigations linking communication media experiences and self-concepts suggest that changes in the self-concept of Afro-American students may be acutely affected in instructional environments through group activities employing mediated approaches, participation in the media as producers rather than consumers, and instruction through visual…

  10. Optimization of Teaching and Learning of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter, Ludwig; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the optimization of the instruction of concepts emphasizes theories of cognitive psychology. The development of instruments to record the mastery of concepts by fifth graders is described, variables of both instruction and learning are discussed, and a field experiment that compared the effectiveness of video directed instruction and…

  11. A Cognitive Approach to Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Guy

    2013-01-01

    This paper asks a fundamental question: what is happening inside the mind of the undergraduate during teaching and learning experiences, and how should curricula be designed to support it? A number of concepts lend themselves to providing an answer, principle among which is the relatively recent idea of Threshold Concepts. In this paper we attempt…

  12. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

  13. Concept Innateness, Concept Continuity, and Bootstrapping

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The commentators raised issues relevant to all three important theses of The Origin of Concepts (TOOC). Some questioned the very existence of innate representational primitives, and others questioned my claims about their richness and whether they should be thought of as concepts. Some questioned the existence of conceptual discontinuity in the course of knowledge acquisition and others argued that discontinuity is much more common than portrayed in TOOC. Some raised issues with my characterization of Quinian bootstrapping, and others questioned the dual factor theory of concepts motivated by my picture of conceptual development. PMID:23264705

  14. Is there an exemplar theory of concepts?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gregory L

    2016-08-01

    It is common to describe two main theories of concepts: prototype theories, which rely on some form of summary description of a category, and exemplar theories, which claim that concepts are represented as remembered category instances. This article reviews a number of important phenomena in the psychology of concepts, arguing that they have no proposed exemplar explanation. In some of these cases, it is difficult to see how an exemplar theory would be adequate. The article concludes that exemplars are certainly important in some categorization judgments and in category-learning experiments, but that there is no exemplar theory of human concepts in a broad sense. PMID:27294422

  15. Space Mission Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squibb, Gael F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concept of developing a space mission operations concept; the benefits of starting this system engineering task early; the neccessary inputs to the process; and the products that are generated.

  16. Creative Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Recommends the use of concept mapping in science teaching and proposes that it be presented as a creative activity. Includes a sample lesson plan of a potato stamp concept mapping activity for astronomy. (DDR)

  17. Race concepts in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category. PMID:23300217

  18. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  19. Anhedonia: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nancy; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Anhedonia presents itself in a myriad of disease processes. To further develop our understanding of anhedonia and effective ways to manage it, the concept requires clear boundaries. This paper critically examined the current scientific literature and conducted a concept analysis of anhedonia to provide a more accurate and lucid understanding the concept. As part of the concept analysis, this paper also provides model, borderline, related, and contrary examples of anhedonia. PMID:23706888

  20. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) is discussed. The focus is on those concepts that are sufficiently near-term that they could be developed for the Space Exploration Initiative. High-power (multi-megawatt) electric propulsion, solar sails, tethers, and extraterrestrial resource utilization concepts are discussed. A summary of these concepts and some general conclusions on their technology development needs are presented.

  1. Concept Mapping Improves Metacomprehension Accuracy among 7th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Joshua S.; Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored concept map construction as a useful intervention to improve metacomprehension accuracy among 7th grade students. In the first experiment, metacomprehension was marginally better for a concept mapping group than for a rereading group. In the second experiment, metacomprehension accuracy was significantly greater for a…

  2. E-Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    Not all demonstrations involve using exciting visual displays of one or a series of scientific principles. Demonstrations can be as simple as showing the interrelationship between scientific concepts or principles using concept maps. Concepts maps are tools that help people conceptualize and remember a conglomeration of facts making up complex…

  3. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  4. Applications of Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Christina

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews three major uses of the concept-mapping strategies for postsecondary learning: the external representation of concept maps as an external scratch pad to represent major ideas and their organization, the mental construction of concept maps when students are seeking a time-efficient tool, and the electronic construction and…

  5. Concepts: a potboiler.

    PubMed

    Fodor, J

    1994-01-01

    An informal, but revisionist, discussion of the role that the concept of a concept plays in recent theories of the cognitive mind. It is argued that the practically universal assumption that concepts are (at least partially) individuated by their roles in inferences is probably mistaken. A revival of conceptual atomism appears to be the indicated alternative. PMID:8039378

  6. Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Bardos, Achilles N.

    1990-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale, for use with preschool and primary-aged children, determines a child's school readiness and knowledge of English-language verbal concepts. The instrument measures 258 basic concepts in such categories as comparisons, time, quantity, and letter identification. This paper describes test administration, scoring and…

  7. Formal concept analysis and linguistic hedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belohlavek, Radim; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an application of linguistic hedges to formal concept analysis of data with fuzzy attributes. Formal concept analysis aims at extraction of particular (bi-)clusters, called formal concepts, from data. The clusters link collections of objects (extents) and attributes (intents), and have a clear interpretation due to a simple verbal description of the concept-forming operators. We insert linguistic hedges such as 'very' or 'extremely' in the description of the operators. In this way, linguistic hedges become parameters for formal concept analysis that control the number of clusters extracted from data. Namely, as we show theoretically as well as experimentally, stronger hedges result in a smaller number of clusters. The new concept-forming operators form Galois-like connections. We study their properties and axiomatize them. Then, we show that a concept lattice with hedges, i.e. the set of all formal concepts of the new operators is indeed a complete lattice which is isomorphic to a particular ordinary concept lattice. We describe the isomorphism and its inverse. These mappings serve as translation procedures. As a consequence, we obtain a theorem characterizing the structure of concept lattices with hedges which generalizes the well-known main theorem of ordinary concept lattices. The isomorphism and its inverse enable us to compute a concept lattice with hedges using algorithms for ordinary concept lattices. We demonstrate by experiments that when selecting various hedges from the strongest to weaker hedges, the reduction in size of the corresponding concept lattices is smooth. From a broader perspective, we argue that linguistic hedges represent mathematically and computationally a feasible way to parameterize methods for knowledge extraction from data that enable one to emphasize or to suppress extracted patterns while keeping their interpretation.

  8. Concept analysis of mentoring.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of a concept analysis is to examine the structure and function of a concept by defining its attributes and internal structure. Concept analysis can clarify an overused or vague concept and promote mutual understanding by providing a precise operational definition. Mentoring is a concept more fully used by other fields, such as business, than in nursing and may not always translate well for use in nursing. Therefore, clarifying the meaning of the existing concept of mentoring and developing an operational definition for use in nursing are aims of this concept analysis. Mentoring is broadly based and concentrates on developing areas such as career progression, scholarly achievements, and personal development. Mentoring relationships are based around developing reciprocity and accountability between each partner. Mentoring is seen related to transition in practice, role acquisition, and socialization, as a way to support new colleagues. Mentorship is related to nurses' success in nursing practice linked to professionalism, nursing quality improvement, and self-confidence. PMID:24042140

  9. Investigating the Ocean-Climate System, Concept by Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decharon, A.; Karp-Boss, L.; Boss, E.; Graham, S.; Manahan, A.; Weller, H.

    2006-12-01

    -school teachers and focused physical concepts that are already an integral part of the pre-college physics, chemistry, physical science, or earth sciences curricula, emphasizing their links to ocean science (e.g., density, pressure, waves). Special efforts were made to developing readily reproducible "hands on" activities and inquiry based learning. Evaluations conducted before, during, and after the workshop reveal that regardless of experience (i.e., "veteran" vs. "new" teacher), location (i.e., coastal vs. inland), or grade level, ocean science is viewed as an attractive medium through which other standards-required topics can be taught. Based on "lessons learned" from the summer workshop, a UMaine semester course is under development for pre-service educators and Marine Sciences majors who may consider entering the field of education.

  10. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a free radical propulsion system, utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust, is analyzed. The system, operating at a theoretical impulse with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, is hypothesized to bridge the gap between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. A comparative methodology is outlined by which characteristics of chemical and electric propulsion for orbit raising mission can be investigated. It is noted that free radicals proposed in rockets previously met with difficulty and complexity in terms of storage requirements; the present study proposes to eliminate the storage requirements by using electric energy to achieve a continuous-flow product of free radicals which are recombined to produce a high velocity propellant. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas is transferred to the propellant via three-body-recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Microwave plasma discharge was found in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressure in preliminary experiments, and microwave heating compared to electrothermal heating showed much higher temperatures in gasdynamic equations.

  11. Presence in nursing practice: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Hessel, Joy A

    2009-01-01

    Presence is an elusive concept in nursing practice that has been recognized as advantageous in the patient experience. Dictionary sources define presence as being with and attending to another; involvement, companionship. Nursing scholars and theorists have elaborated on the dictionary definition of presence to include a holistic definition inclusive of the patient experience and the connection experienced between both patient and provider. However, despite attempts to define presence as it relates to nursing practice, a definition that completely encompasses the substantial benefits on the patient experience is yet to be developed. As guided by Walker and Avant, this concept analysis was performed by selection of a concept, determination of the purpose of the analysis, evaluation of existing definitions, identification of defining attributes of the concept, formulation of patient cases that epitomize and contrast the concept, and identification of antecedents and empirical referents of the concept. Thus, in this concept analysis article, existing definitions of presence will be recognized and evaluated, cases demonstrating nursing presence explored, and a definition of presence in nursing developed. PMID:19713785

  12. The Development of the Concept of Suicide in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Claude L.; Mishara, Brian L.

    1992-01-01

    Examined development of concept of suicide in 60 children. Found that 10 percent of first, 50 percent of third, and 95 percent of fifth graders had basic understanding of suicide. Attitudes toward suicide were neutral or negative. Concept of suicide was significantly related to concept of death and experiences with death and was also related to…

  13. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  14. What's in a Name? Young Adolescents' Implicit Conceptions of Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates 55 6th grade students' conceptions of "invention and patent processes". Suggests that students have few or simplistic conceptions of invention and patent processes and prior exposure to invention instruction, or previous experiences with inventing did not appear to have an impact on students' conceptions of invention. (Contains 70…

  15. Dual character concepts and the normative dimension of conceptual representation.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E

    2013-05-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of 'dual character concepts.' Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for category membership. Experiment 1 provides support for the notion that dual character concepts have two bases for evaluation. Experiments 2-4 explore the claim that dual character concepts have two different criteria for category membership. The results show that when an object possesses the appropriate concrete features, but does not fulfill the appropriate abstract value, it is judged to be a category member in one sense but not in another. Finally, Experiment 5 uses the theory developed here to construct artificial dual character concepts and examines whether participants react to these artificial concepts in the same way as naturally occurring dual character concepts. The present studies serve to define the nature of dual character concepts and distinguish them from other types of concepts (e.g., natural kind concepts), which share some, but not all of the properties of dual character concepts. More broadly, these phenomena suggest a normative dimension in everyday conceptual representation. PMID:23454798

  16. Alien Sunset (Artist Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    distance between Earth and the sun. And the disks in these systems were found to circumnavigate both members of the star pair, rather than just one.

    Though follow-up studies are needed, the results could mean that planet formation is more common around extra-tight binary stars than single stars. Since these types of systems would experience double sunsets, the artistic view portrayed here might not be fiction.

    The original sunset photo used in this artist's concept was taken by Robert Hurt of the Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.

  17. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  18. Bistatic SAR: Proof of Concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, David A.; Doren, Neall E.; Bacon, Terry A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Charles V,; Delaplain, Gilbert G.; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.; White, Kyle R.

    2014-10-01

    Typical synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) imaging employs a co-located RADAR transmitter and receiver. Bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. A bistatic SAR configuration allows for the transmitter and receiver(s) to be in a variety of geometric alignments. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) / New Mexico proposed the deployment of a ground-based RADAR receiver. This RADAR receiver was coupled with the capability of digitizing and recording the signal collected. SNL proposed the possibility of creating an image of targets the illuminating SAR observes. This document describes the developed hardware, software, bistatic SAR configuration, and its deployment to test the concept of a ground-based bistatic SAR. In the proof-of-concept experiments herein, the RADAR transmitter will be a commercial SAR satellite and the RADAR receiver will be deployed at ground level, observing and capturing RADAR ground/targets illuminated by the satellite system.

  19. Concept similarity and related categories in information retrieval using formal concept analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, P.; Ducrou, J.; Dau, F.

    2012-11-01

    The application of formal concept analysis to the problem of information retrieval has been shown useful but has lacked any real analysis of the idea of relevance ranking of search results. SearchSleuth is a program developed to experiment with the automated local analysis of Web search using formal concept analysis. SearchSleuth extends a standard search interface to include a conceptual neighbourhood centred on a formal concept derived from the initial query. This neighbourhood of the concept derived from the search terms is decorated with its upper and lower neighbours representing more general and special concepts, respectively. SearchSleuth is in many ways an archetype of search engines based on formal concept analysis with some novel features. In SearchSleuth, the notion of related categories - which are themselves formal concepts - is also introduced. This allows the retrieval focus to shift to a new formal concept called a sibling. This movement across the concept lattice needs to relate one formal concept to another in a principled way. This paper presents the issues concerning exploring, searching, and ordering the space of related categories. The focus is on understanding the use and meaning of proximity and semantic distance in the context of information retrieval using formal concept analysis.

  20. Preconceptions: a concept analysis for nursing.

    PubMed

    Leh, Sandra Kundrik

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a concept analysis of preconceptions. Although the concept of preconceptions has been widely used in the literature across many disciplines, it is not well defined or differentiated from its related concepts. The Walker and Avant (1995) method of concept analysis is used as a framework for this investigation. A synthesized definition of the term is presented and implications for nursing are discussed. Preconceptions have a significant impact on learning and critical-thinking ability. The challenge for educators is to recognize and manage these preconceptions to ensure an effective learning experience. It is only until the concept of preconception is defined and clarified that this challenge can be met. PMID:17661803

  1. Advanced Airspace Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) is presented. The topics include: 1) Limitations of the existing system; 2) The Advanced Airspace Concept; 3) Candidate architecture for the AAC; 4) Separation assurance and conflict avoidance system (TSAFE); and 5) Ground-Air Interactions. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  2. Learning Our Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Stanley Peters appreciates the centrality of concepts for everyday life, however, he fails to recognize their pedagogical dimension. He distinguishes concepts employed at the first-order (our ordinary language-use) from second-order conceptual clarification (conducted exclusively by academically trained philosophers). This distinction…

  3. Children's Conceptions of Jesus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Karen; Freathy, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a recent study investigating young children's (aged 10-11) conceptions of Jesus in England. The overall picture revealed by the study is that whilst there was a general assent amongst pupils in our sample towards an ethical and humanistic conception of the historical Jesus, there was less of a consensus about…

  4. Badminton--Teaching Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Marilyn J.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching four basic badminton concepts along with the usual basic skill shots allows players to develop game strategy awareness as well as mechanical skills. These four basic concepts are: (1) ready position, (2) flight trajectory, (3) early shuttle contact, and (4) camouflage. (IAH)

  5. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  6. VOCABULARY AND CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANGER, JOHN H.

    THE PROCESSES OF THOUGHT, OF CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT, AND OF VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ARE SIGNIFICANTLY INTERRELATED. COMMUNICATION OF IDEAS DEPENDS UPON THE ABILITY TO ASSOCIATE WRITTEN AND VERBAL SYMBOLS WITH THE REFERENTS THROUGH A SYSTEMATIC PROCESS OF REORGANIZING AND INTEGRATING OLD AND NEW CONCEPTS. THE ABILITY TO ASSOCIATE, IN TURN, DEPENDS UPON…

  7. The Concept of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van Heerden, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    This article advances a simple conception of test validity: A test is valid for measuring an attribute if (a) the attribute exists and (b) variations in the attribute causally produce variation in the measurement outcomes. This conception is shown to diverge from current validity theory in several respects. In particular, the emphasis in the…

  8. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  9. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  10. Transition: Terms and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Ed

    This paper provides explanations and case examples of some terms and concepts related to transition of students with disabilities under 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Explanations and examples focus on the concepts of "statement of transition service needs" and "statement of needed transition services". The…

  11. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  12. Tools and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artis, Margaret, Ed.; And Others

    This guide provides enrichment for students to develop tools and concepts used in various areas of mathematics. The first part presents arithmetic progressions, geometric progressions, and harmonic progression. In the second section, the concept of mathematic induction is developed from intuitive induction, using concrete activities, to the…

  13. The Self Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbon, Ann

    The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the self concept as a variable, to indicate what is known about the self concept from existing research, to discuss its importance to the school and its effect on learning, and to offer a method of assessment which is tied to a definition arbitrarily made as a starting point for researchers. A…

  14. Changing Concepts in Forensics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarefsky, David

    This paper discusses five theoretical concepts in general and two theoretical models in particular that are involved in forensics. The five concepts are: (1) causation, an inquiry into the reasons for ongoing processes or problems; (2) inherency, the division of a universe into its necessary features and its accidental features; (3) presumption, a…

  15. Rethinking Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Andrew; And Others

    This book on work experience programs in the United Kingdom begins with "History and Policy Context" (Ian Jamieson, Andrew Miller), which reviews the development of work experience in the United Kingdom, considers the current policy framework, and poses possible future scenarios. "The Concept of Work Experience" (A. G. Watts) explores the concept…

  16. Concept Abstractness and the Representation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu; Paulson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research on noun-noun combinations has been largely focusing on concrete concepts. Three experiments examined the role of concept abstractness in the representation of noun-noun combinations. In Experiment 1, participants provided written interpretations for phrases constituted by nouns of varying degrees of abstractness. Interpretive focus (the…

  17. Skylab Concept by George Mueller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This is a sketch of Skylab, as drawn by George E. Mueller, NASA associate administrator for Manned Space Flight. This concept drawing was created at a meeting at the Marshall Space Flight Center on August 19, 1966. The image details the station's major elements. In 1970, the station became known as Skylab. Three manned Skylab missions (Skylab 2 in May 1973; Skylab 3 in July 1973; and Skylab 4 in November 1973) were flown on which experiments were conducted in:space science, earth resources, life sciences, space technology, and student projects.

  18. The concept exploration model and an application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yin; Gao, Kening; Zhang, Bin

    2015-03-01

    For a user who is unfamiliar with a target domain, the first step to conduct an exploratory search task is to go over a learning phrase, which means to learn from the search results to acquire basic domain knowledge. Since lots of search results could be returned by a search engine, and usually only a small portion of all the results contain valuable knowledge to the current search task, the user usually needs to read lots of documents and could only learn limited knowledge. This makes the learning phrase a low efficiency, time consuming and easy to fail process. In order to support the learning phrase of the exploratory search process, this paper proposes the concept exploration model which describes how a user reads search results and figures out interesting concepts. The model focuses on how does a user explore related concepts during the learning phrase, and factorizes the concept exploration process as a production of the probability that concepts form a specific relation structure, and the probability that a user is attracted by a concept. In an application example, the concept exploration model is used in a query recommendation task to support exploratory search. We demonstrate how to determine the two probabilistic factors and evaluate the model with a set of metrics. The experiment results show that the application example could help users explore domain concepts more effectively.

  19. Feminism: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Allan, H T

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concept of feminism in order to clarify a sociological concept for its use in nursing theory and practice. This analysis is carried out using the Walker & Avant (1988) model. It includes: a literature review, an overview of the uses of the concept drawn from the literature, the defining attributes and the justification of their choice, the cases to demonstrate the concept, and the concept criteria. The concept was chosen out of an interest in developing a feminist nursing theory and desire to enhance nursing practice. The literature search proved most fruitful in the sociological literature. The nursing sources were fewer and concerned with practice rather than articulating any feminist nursing theory. Many of these sources were sociologists and nurses. The concept of feminism was defined as the concern with gender equality and the promotion of equal rights for men and woman, the expression of these concerns through theory or action, and the valuing of individuals for their contributions to society rather than their biological or sexual characteristics or roles. Although the concept of feminism was defined and analysed within the model suggested by Walker & Avant, the author found that the concept became oversimplified, losing much of the richness of the literature. The author felt that, for any development of theory or practice, this analysis would have to be expanded. It is argued that their model is too restrictive as it is based on positivist philosophy which seeks to establish divisions where, in fact, there is a blurring of meaning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8263244

  20. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  1. Unifying the concept of consciousness across the disciplines: A concept-based, cross-cultural approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Peter N.

    The majority of studies concerning consciousness have examined and modeled the concept of consciousness in terms of particular lines of inquiry, a process that has circumscribed the general applicability of any results from such approaches. The purpose of this dissertation was to study consciousness from a concept-based, cross-cultural approach and to attempt to unify the concept across the cultures examined. The 4 cultures are the academic disciplines of philosophy, physics, psychology, and anthropology. Consciousness was examined in terms of how the concept is framed and where the major limitations in each line of inquiry occur. The rationale for examining consciousness as a concept across 4 cultures was to determine whether there was any common component in each line's framing that could be used to unify the concept. The study found that experience itself was the primary unifying factor in each field's framing and that experience was treated as a nonreducible property within each line of inquiry. By taking experience itself (but not subjective experience) as a fundamental property, each culture's concept of consciousness becomes tractable. As such, this dissertation argues that experience should be taken as a fundamental property of the concept. The significance of this analysis is that by taking experience as a fundamental property, it becomes possible to unify the concept across the 4 cultures. This unification is presented as a unity thesis, which is a theory arguing for unification of the concept based on the fundamental of experience. Following this theoretical examination, this paper discusses several key implications of the unity thesis, including implications of the unity thesis for the current status of altered states of consciousness and for the so-called hard and easy problems associated with the concept (at least within Occidental ontology). It is argued that the so-called hard problem does not exist when experience is taken as a fundamental property

  2. What a Concept! Using Concept Mapping on Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Regina; Royer, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    When designed properly, concept mapping activities can engage students in meaningful learning. In the process of creating concept maps, students relate new information to more general concepts already held, develop fuller understandings of those general concepts, and recognize new relationships between concepts. Students engage in these activities…

  3. The concept of poverty.

    PubMed

    Carney, P

    1992-06-01

    Although poverty is one of the most familiar and enduring conditions known to humanity, it is an extremely complicated concept to understand. Some researchers view it as a reaction to the stress of being poor, whereas others perceive it as a process of adapting to the condition of poverty. Historical definitions are numerous, but can be classified as relating to either lack of financial income or lower social status. Numerous factors contribute to the concept of poverty, including political, economic, social, and cultural forces. The one that has consistently had the greatest effect on the evolving concept is the passage of time, which encompasses all these forces in a very intricate manner. This author explored the evolution of the concept of poverty to identify relevant themes for consideration in the public health nursing domain. PMID:1508832

  4. Blazars: Artist Conception

    NASA Video Gallery

    What astronomers once thought were two blazar families may in fact be one, as shown in this artist's concept. Energy stored in the black hole during its salad days of intense accretion may later be...

  5. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Display model of space station concept--Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory in Saturn S-IVB Orbit configuration. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  6. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Wind tunnel model of Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory concept on sting. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  7. Decoding Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durisen, Richard H.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    Two astronomy professors, using the Decoding the Disciplines process, help their students use abstract theories to analyze light and to visualize the enormous scale of astronomical concepts. (Contains 5 figures.)

  8. Concepts in Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Pöyhönen, Samuli

    2013-06-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is unwarranted. Hence, the strong analogy between scientific theory change and individual learning should be approached with caution. In addition, we argue that (2) research in psychology and cognitive science provides a promising theoretical basis for developing explanatory mechanistic models of conceptual change. Moreover, we argue that (3) arguments against deeper integration between the fields of psychology and conceptual change are not convincing, and that recent theoretical developments in the cognitive sciences might prove indispensable in filling in the details in mechanisms of conceptual change.

  9. Solar Concepts: Teacher Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Jonathan W.

    This volume of teacher notes describes teaching methods to support the material presented in the background text and to elaborate on basic solar concepts. Included are objectives and quizzes, teacher notes and bibliographies, and selected student projects. (Author/RE)

  10. Marned Orbital Systems Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Despite the indefinite postponement of the Space Station in 1972, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continued to look to the future for some type of orbital facility during the post-Skylab years. In 1975, the MSFC directed a contract with the McDonnel Douglas Aerospace Company for the Manned Orbital Systems Concept (MOSC) study. This 9-month effort examined the requirements for, and defined a cost-effective orbital facility concept capable of, supporting extended manned missions in Earth orbit. The capabilities of this concept exceeded those envisioned for the Space Shuttle and Spacelab, both of which were limited by a 7 to 30-day orbital time constraint. The MOSC's initial operating capability was to be achieved in late 1984. A crew of four would man a four-module configuration. During its five-year orbital life the MOSC would have the capability to evolve into a larger 12-to-24-man facility. This is an artist's concept of MOSC.

  11. Concept analysis: resilience.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Dia, Mary Joy; DiNapoli, Jean Marie; Garcia-Ona, Leila; Jakubowski, Rita; O'Flaherty, Deirdre

    2013-12-01

    This paper will systematically analyze the concept of resilience using an integrated review of literature. The historical perspective, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of resilience will be reviewed. A theoretical and operational definition will be provided. The Walker and Avant method will be used to describe the cases. Finally, the use of concept map will capture the relationships among the attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empirical indicators through clustering and chaining. PMID:24238005

  12. Microspacecraft: A Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    There is need for smaller, faster, more frequent space science missions. Smaller spacecraft may enable such missions. Technology has been developed by the United States' Department of Defense and other government agencies that can enable smaller spacecraft. This author has developed a generic concept for utilizing advanced technology to create a microspacecraft. A microspacecraft would have a mass on the order of 10 kg. This paper will present this microspacecraft concept.

  13. Overcoming: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Barbara L.; Kirk, Keri; Gultekin, Laura; Baiardi, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an operational definition of overcoming as a first step in the systematic analysis of the concept. Using the method described by Walker and Avant (2005), the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of overcoming and its theoretical and practical application to nursing. Sample cases from clinical research illustrate the concept further. Further nursing research needs to test the theoretical relationships between overcoming and outcome variables. PMID:21806626

  14. [Mindfulness: A Concept Analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2016-04-01

    "Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing. PMID:27026563

  15. Concepts in human biological rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Reinberg, Alain; Ashkenazi, Israel

    2003-01-01

    Biological rhythms and their temporal organization are adaptive phenomena to periodic changes in environmental factors linked to the earth's rotation on its axis and around the sun. Experimental data from the plant and animal kingdoms have led to many models and concepts related to biological clocks that help describe and understand the mechanisms of these changes. Many of the prevailing concepts apply to all organisms, but most of the experimental data are insufficient to explain the dynamics of human biological clocks. This review presents phenomena thai are mainly characteristic ofand unique to - human chronobiology, and which cannot be fully explained by concepts and models drawn from laboratory experiments. We deal with the functional advantages of the human temporal organization and the problem of desynchronization, with special reference to the period (τ) of the circadian rhythm and its interindividual and intraindividual variability. We describe the differences between right- and left-hand rhythms suggesting the existence of different biological clocks in the right and left cortices, Desynchronization of rhythms is rather frequent (one example is night shift workers). In some individuals, desynchronization causes no clinical symptoms and we propose the concept of “allochronism” to designate a variant of the human temporal organization with no pathological implications. We restrict the term “dyschronism” to changes or alterations in temporal organization associated with a set of symptoms similar to those observed in subjects intolerant to shift work, eg, persisting fatigue and mood and sleep alterations. Many diseases involve chronic deprivation of sleep at night and constitute conditions mimicking thai of night shift workers who are intolerant to desynchronization. We also present a genetic model (the dian-circadian model) to explain interindividual differences in the period of biological rhythms in certain conditions. PMID:22033796

  16. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  17. Experience, Competence and Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloniemi, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine employees' conceptions of the meaning of experience in job-competence and its development in workplace context. The aim is to bring out the variety of conceptions related to experience, competence and workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on interview data from six Finnish small and…

  18. Space Station Planetology Experiments (SSPEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley, R.; Williams, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    A meeting of 50 planetary scientists considered the uses of the Space Station to support experiments in their various disciplines. Abstracts (28) present concepts for impact and aeolian processes, particle formation and interaction, and other planetary science experiments. Summaries of the rationale, hardware concepts, accomodations, and recommendations are included.

  19. Space Station Planetology Experiments (SSPEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Williams, R. J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A meeting of 50 planetary scientists considered the uses of the Space Station to support experiments in their various disciplines. Abstracts (28) present concepts for impact and aeolian processes, particle formation and interaction, and other planetary science experiments. Summaries of the rationale, hardware concepts, accomodations, and recommendations are included.

  20. Survey of CELSS Concepts and Preliminary Research in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohya, H.; Oshima, T.; Nitta, K.

    1985-01-01

    Agricultural and other experiments relating to the development of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) were proposed. The engineering feasibility of each proposal was investigated by a CELSS experiment concept met study group. The CELSS experiment concept to clarify the goals of CELSS and to determine three phases to achieve the goals. The resulting phases, or missions, and preliminary proposals and studies needed to develop a CELSS are described.

  1. A Key Concept: Spatial Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostrowicki, Jerzy

    1975-01-01

    The application of geography to spatial planning is discussed. Concepts presented include the regional concept, the typological concept, and spatial structure, spatial processes, and spatial organization. For address of journal see SO 504 028. (Author/RM)

  2. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed. PMID:27024999

  3. Service Quality: A Concept not Fully Explored.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter; Nitecki, Danuta A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the concept of service quality in libraries. Highlights include assessment; service quality versus user satisfaction; measuring service quality, including SERVQUAL; planning; experiences at Texas A& M University in cooperation with ARL (Association of Research Libraries) that resulted in LibQUAL+; and conceptual issues. (Contains 54…

  4. World Citizenship Education: From Concept to Realization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Rene

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights my experiences as World Citizenship teacher at a public school in the Netherlands, comprising a student population of second generation immigrants with a Turkish background. It shows how the concept and course of world citizenship has evolved since its inception three years ago. The paper also reflects what we, as teachers…

  5. The Thomas Self-Concept Values Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Walter L.

    A test was developed to assess personal self-concept values of preprimary and primary aged children. If large scale preschool programs are to be justified, effects in the areas of intellectual growth, achievement performance, and personal-social growth must be observable in children several years after preschool experience and must be measurable…

  6. Project Design: An Emerging Curriculum Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Describes Project Design, a curriculum concept being implemented in Ontario schools, in which groups of students are given the opportunity to contribute to the selection and design of a material object or system which they subsequently construct, test, and evaluate. Project focus in on basic learning experiences which involve multidisciplinary…

  7. The Young Child's Concept of Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Virginia A.

    Tracing the development of "concept of story" in one child from age three years to five years using the language experience task, a hierarchy of text/context relationships emerges. First there is the inventory stage whereby the child names and describes behaviors to objects. The second stage is descriptive and the child modifies the object and the…

  8. The Core Journal Concept in Black Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissinger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Black Studies scholars have shown interest in the core journal concept. Indeed, the idea of core journals for the study of the Black experience has changed several times since 1940. While Black Studies scholars are citing Black Studies journals with frequency, they also cite traditional disciplinary journals a great deal of the time. However,…

  9. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  10. Vicarious traumatization: concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Pamela Diane

    2011-12-01

    There is growing knowledge of the effects of stress on professionals, including various negative symptoms that may mirror the biopsychosocial effects exhibited by the victims of trauma. Multiple concepts including burn out, compassion fatigue, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and secondary traumatic stress, are terms that have been incorrectly interchanged with the term vicarious traumatization (VT). Clarity of vicarious victimization and understanding contributing factors is imperative in order to facilitate future research and implement timely and effective interventions, as well as sculpt evidence based practice. This concept anaylsis, complete with a concept map, discusses VT; related terminology; symptomology; prevention and relevant interventions; and discusses opportunities for personal/professional growth for nurses and especially forensic nurses working with victims of violence. PMID:22123041

  11. Telepresence work system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Telepresence has been used in the context of the ultimate in remote manipulation where the operator is provided with the sensory feedback and control to perform highly dexterous tasks. The concept of a Telepresence Work Station (TWS) for operation in space is described. System requirements, concepts, and a development approach are discussed. The TWS has the potential for application on the Space Shuttle, on the Orbit Maneuver Vehicle, on an Orbit Transfer Vehicle, and on the Space Station. The TWS function is to perform satellite servicing tasks and construction and assembly operations in the buildup of large spacecraft. The basic concept is a pair of dexterous arms controlled from a remote station by an operation with feedback. It may be evolved through levels of supervisory control to a smart adaptive robotic system.

  12. Robust Rocket Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for a revolutionary step in the durability of reusable rocket engines is made possible by the combination of several emerging technologies. The recent creation and analytical demonstration of life extending (or damage mitigating) control technology enables rapid rocket engine transients with minimum fatigue and creep damage. This technology has been further enhanced by the formulation of very simple but conservative continuum damage models. These new ideas when combined with recent advances in multidisciplinary optimization provide the potential for a large (revolutionary) step in reusable rocket engine durability. This concept has been named the robust rocket engine concept (RREC) and is the basic contribution of this paper. The concept also includes consideration of design innovations to minimize critical point damage.

  13. Basic concepts of depression

    PubMed Central

    Paykel, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1930s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed. PMID:18979941

  14. Mars rover concept development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mctamaney, Louis S.; Douglas, Barry D.; Harmon, Scott Y.

    1989-01-01

    A structured study effort to develop an extensive, innovative set of mobility and navigation concepts for a planetary exploration vehicle along with the concomitant value system and evaluation tools is presented. A further objective is to submit these concepts to a rigorous, structured evaluation process to derive the most promising candidate systems. To support the evaluation process, a three-layer computer model of the Martian surface was developed, based on the 1/64 deg Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Mars. Local surface roughness based on measured Martian slope distribution and power spectral density was superimposed on the DEM, and rocks based on Moore's distribution model were added. To assess performance, selected concepts were modeled using DADS, and simulations were run with the vehicle traversing the Martian surface model, including one-meter-high vertical steps and one-meter-wide crevasses. The design details of three promising candidate systems are presented, along with the discussion of their evolution with some recommendations.

  15. Introduction: Bridging Concepts.

    PubMed

    Davids, Karel

    2015-12-01

    How can those in the history of science, history of technology, and economics communicate more with each other than they are accustomed? How can they become more globally oriented? While these three disciplines today have more convergent interests than in the past, there is still a large potential for further exchange and involvement to explore and exploit. The contributors to this Focus section discuss a number of concepts that may serve as tools to bring these three disciplines more closely together and ease their evolution in a less Eurocentric direction. These concepts include trading zones, interaction and formalization, production, and machines and self-organization. PMID:27024939

  16. Concepts, states, and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Karl Erich

    2000-05-01

    Mathematical System Theory is extended to Conceptual System Theory using Formal Concept Analysis (Wille 1982). States are defined as formal concepts and `points of time' are generalized to `time granules,' interpreted as `pieces' of time needed for the realization of measurements. As a generalization of classical time systems we define conceptual time systems, their state spaces and phase spaces. Time dependent relations among the parts of a conceptual time system are introduced in `relational conceptual time systems.' Applications in psychology and industry, including `conceptual films' are mentioned.

  17. Advanced SCADA concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Sciacca, S.C. ); Block, W.R. )

    1995-01-01

    The typical utility system planner faces a wide variety of concepts and applications to consider when procuring a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The system's performance requirements are influenced by an arena of rapidly advancing technologies and a highly competitive business environment. Unlike other elements of the electric utility industry, these changes are not evolving specifically for the SCADA industry; they are being driven by other technology forums, with a profound impact on the SCADA system of the future. This article explores some of these concepts and suggests technology and business issues to consider when planning for the SCADA system of tomorrow.

  18. Space Tug Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug would have been capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept illustrates a Space Tug Concept, crew module attached, in conjunction with other space vehicles. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.

  19. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  20. Revisiting the matricellular concept

    PubMed Central

    Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Sage, E. Helene

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a matricellular protein was first proposed by Paul Bornstein in the mid-1990s to account for the non-lethal phenotypes of mice with inactivated genes encoding thrombospondin-1, tenascin-C, or SPARC. It was also recognized that these extracellular matrix proteins were primarily counter or de-adhesive. This review reappraises the matricellular concept after nearly two decades of continuous investigation. The expanded matricellular family as well as the diverse and often unexpected functions, cellular location, and interacting partners/receptors of matricellular proteins are considered. Development of therapeutic strategies that target matricellular proteins are discussed in the context of pathology and regenerative medicine. PMID:25064829

  1. The Fuzzy Nature Of Concepts: Stochastic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, Megaklis Th.

    2010-09-01

    Concept is every assignment of a prototype to an icon, whatever may be the prototype or the icon. We call the prototype "object" and the icon "attributes". Concepts are couples of sets O and A, that is assignments, of the object O (a set of none, or one or more elements -there is no real difference), to the set A of (their common) attributes. The objects change according to the sequence of attributes. So, only couples of objects and attributes, enriched with the proper operations, are adequate for our Knowledge Space. Concepts are proved to have the structure (order) of a Boolean Algebra(Lattice), which is more complex than linear or hierarchical ones. The lattice is created by two algebraic operations ("intersection of concepts" as the multiplication and "symmetric-difference(!) of concepts" as the addition (!)). There are two other operations (the "union of two concepts" and the "complement of a concept"). Intersection and union(which cannot play the role of multiplication) express similarities, while the other two operations express dissimilarities. Union, intersection and the complement are used for the definition of the symmetric-difference. The complement cannot be expressed by the two predefined operations union and intersection, which have the meaning of "common". Besides, it is not a deterministic function: the complement Oc may have attributes inside the complement Ac of attributes (and if yes, we do not know, from the beginning, which of them). Now, the situation becomes stochastic: if Ω' is the set of n attributes we are interested in (e.g., in m sequential experiments), suppose that, in each experiment, some attributes appear(are detected) and the rest from Ω' do not appear. Everyone from the m experiments consists of n Bernulli trials (one for every attribute) and, consequently, we get m stochastically changing objects (concepts) and the (complete, if we are very lucky) lattice of the m concepts. Everyone from the n attributes corresponds to a B

  2. The Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  3. Concepts of caring and caring as a concept.

    PubMed

    Morse, J M; Solberg, S M; Neander, W L; Bottorff, J L; Johnson, J L

    1990-09-01

    If caring is to be retained as the "essence" of nursing, and if research in this area is to advance, then the various perspectives of caring must be clarified, the strengths and the limitations of these conceptualizations examined, and the applicability of caring as a concept and theory to the practice of nursing identified. Examination of the concept of caring resulted in the identification of five epistemological perspectives: caring as a human state, caring as a moral imperative or ideal, caring as an affect, caring as an interpersonal relationship, and caring as a nursing intervention. Two outcomes of caring were identified: caring as the subjective experience and as the physiologic responses in patients. The authors concluded that knowledge development related to caring in nursing is limited by the lack of refinement of caring theory, the lack of definitions of caring attributes, the neglect to examine caring from the dialectic perspective, and the focus of theorists and researchers on the nurse to the exclusion of the patient. PMID:2122796

  4. MSFC Skylab corollary experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The evolution of the development and integration of Skylab experiments from initial concepts through mission operations is documented. All experiment systems are covered as well as management controls which were developed and exercised to assure acceptable operational capability and optimize data acquisition for final scientific results.

  5. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  6. What Can a Concept Do? Rethinking Education's Queer Assemblages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Allen, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    In a discussion of Deleuze's theorization of concepts, Todd May asks "what can a concept do with that which cannot be identified?" Or to put it another way, May writes--"A concept is a way of addressing the difference that lies beneath the identities we experience." This is not to say that identities, concepts, and…

  7. The Analysis of the Understanding Levels of Teacher Candidates in Different Departments about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durukan, Ümmü Gülsüm; Saglam-Arslan, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    Learners face a variety of concepts during the instructional process they experience. These concepts are mostly introduced by teachers; thus, the competences of teachers in terms of teaching concepts are vitally important. The aim of this study is to detect the understanding levels of teacher candidates about basic astronomy concepts. The method…

  8. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  9. Photoelectrochemistry: Introductory Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finklea, Harry O.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is based on the semiconductor electrode. It is the semiconductor's ability to absorb light and convert it to electrical and/or chemical energy that forms the basis for the semiconductor liquid-junction solar cell. To understand how this occurs, solid-state physics concepts are discussed. (Author/JN)

  10. Some Core Contested Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  11. DSMS science operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connally, M. J.; Kuiper, T. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Science Operations Concept describes the vision for enabling the use of the DSMS, particularly the Deep Space Network (DSN) for direct science observations in the areas of radio astronomy, planetary radar, radio science and VLBI.

  12. Nursing Concepts. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains the materials required to teach a course to prepare students for employment as practical nurses. The following topics are covered in seven instructional units: successful learning skills, positive self-concept, techniques for a balanced lifestyle, communication skills, legal and ethical issues, organizational and…

  13. Opportunities Center. Concept Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimeldorf, Martin

    The opportunities center is a new school service concept that can help students find opportunities related to their talents and interests in work, education, leisure, small business, or community service. The opportunities center model expands the career center model into an information search center offering multiple services that link academic…

  14. Concept of Operations: Essence

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, William J.

    2014-04-01

    This concept of operations is designed to give the reader a brief overview of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association’s Essence project and a description of the Essence device design. The data collected by the device, how the data are used, and how the data are protected are also discussed in this document.

  15. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  16. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  17. Solar Thermal Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Harnessing the Sun's energy through Solar Thermal Propulsion will propel vehicles through space by significantly reducing weight, complexity, and cost while boosting performance over current conventional upper stages. Another solar powered system, solar electric propulsion, demonstrates ion propulsion is suitable for long duration missions. Pictured is an artist's concept of space flight using solar thermal propulsion.

  18. Uglification: Understanding Multiplication Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorwaldt, Louis E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Established methods of teaching multiplication (tables, flash cards, repetitive exercises) do not work well with adult underachievers. The properties and concepts of multiplication of whole numbers must be presented as observable, fun, and practical. Finger math methods may succeed where pencil and paper fail. (SK)

  19. Embodying Policy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces some of the key concepts that we have used in our research to help illuminate the multiple and different ways in which apparently ubiquitous health policies relating to obesity, exercise, diet and health are mediated and shaped both globally and nationally, as well as within regional, school and other contexts. The analyses…

  20. Force Concept Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestenes, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports the rationale, design, validation, and uses of the "Force Concept Inventory," an instrument to assess the students' beliefs on force. Includes results and implications of two studies that compared the inventory with the "Mechanics Baseline." Includes a copy of the instrument. (MDH)

  1. Advanced radiator concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem-Kirsop, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid droplet radiator and the liquid belt radiator currently under study by the NASA LeRC are discussed. These advanced concepts offer benefits in reduced mass, compact stowage, and ease of deployment. Operation and components of the radiators are described, heat transfer characteristics are discussed, and critical technologies are identified. The impact of the radiators on large power systems is also assessed.

  2. Concepts in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sally

    Presented is a discussion of the components and concepts of an ecology typical of the coastal southeastern United States. Principles presented are applicable to other areas. The discussion includes several major sections: the environment, wildlife management, freshwater ecosystems, and the estuarine environment. Numerous figures and illustrations…

  3. Mapping Sociological Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepagnier, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the use of cognitive mapping within sociology. Describes an assignment where students created a cognitive map that focused on names of theorists and concepts related to them. Discusses sociological imagination in relation to cognitive mapping and the assessment of the assignment. (CMK)

  4. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  5. Using Concept Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabell, John

    2008-01-01

    Concept cartoons are cognitive drawings or "visual disagreements" that use a cartoon-style design to present mathematical conversations inside speech bubbles. The viewpoints portrayed are all different and it is this difference that acts as a catalyst for further conversations, as learners talk together to discuss their thinking. They make…

  6. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  7. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  8. What Is a Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    1975-01-01

    Article explores some of the key notions of the construct "concept" from the psychological and educational literature in order to demonstrate the need for standardization of definition and a more unified front in future investigations involving this important element in the study of cognition. (Author)

  9. The Concept of "Teachability."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that "teachability" is a speculative concept that has for its form and content the absolute, suggesting that its dialectical movement and speculative significance are mis-recognized when the illusionary nature of its constitutive moments is suppressed. The essay outlines the speculative nature of the master/slave relationship in Hegel's…

  10. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  11. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  12. MSFC Skylab Kohoutek experiments mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Comet Kohoutek was documented by the Skylab 4 experiments' observations. The experiment concepts, hardware, operational performance and anomalies are discussed. Experiments which viewed the comet were mainly through the SAL and ATM, but some were handheld and EVA.

  13. Resilience as a dynamic concept.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Michael

    2012-05-01

    The concept of resilience has as its starting point the recognition that there is huge heterogeneity in people's responses to all manner of environmental adversities. Resilience is an inference based on evidence that some individuals have a better outcome than others who have experienced a comparable level of adversity; moreover, the negative experience may have either a sensitizing effect or a strengthening "steeling" effect in relation to the response to later stress or adversity. After noting the crucial importance of first testing for the environmental mediation of risk through "natural experiments," findings are reviewed on "steeling effects" in animal models and humans. Gene-environment interaction findings are considered, and it is noted that there is some evidence that the genetic influences concerns responsivity to all environments and not just bad ones. Life course effects are reviewed in relation to evidence on turning point effects associated with experiences that increase opportunities and enhance coping. Attention is drawn to both research implications and substantive findings as features that foster resilience. PMID:22559117

  14. ADPF spoke cavity cryomodule concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, J. P.; Roybal, P. L.; La Fave, R. P.; Waynert, J. A.; Schrage, D. L.; Schmierer, E. N.; Krawczyk, F. L.; Garnett, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    The Accelerator Driven Test Facility (ADTF) is being developed as a reactor concepts test bed for transmutation of nuclear waste. A 13.3 mA continuous-wave (CW) proton beam will be accelerated to 600 MeV and impinged on a spallation target. The subsequent neutron shower is used to create a nuclear reaction within a subcritical assembly of waste material that reduces the waste half-life from the order of 10{sup 5} years to 10{sup 2} years. Additionally, significant energy is produced that can be used to generate electrical power. The ADTF proton accelerator consists of room-temperature (RT) structures that accelerate the beam to 6.7-MeV and superconducting (SC) elements that boost the beam's energy to 600-MeV. Traditional SC elliptical cavities experience structural difficulties at low energies due to their geometry. Therefore, stiff-structured SC spoke cavities have been adopted for the energy range between 6.7 and 109 MeV. Elliptical cavities are used at the higher energies. This paper describes a multi-spoke-cavity cryomodule concept for ADTF.

  15. Developing a concept of choice.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Our adult concept of choice is not a simple idea, but rather a complex set of beliefs about the causes of actions. These beliefs are situation-, individual- and culture-dependent, and are thus likely constructed through social learning. This chapter takes a rational constructivist approach to examining the development of a concept of choice in young children. Initially, infants' combine assumptions of rational agency with their capacity for statistical inference to reason about alternative possibilities for, and constraints on, action. Preschoolers' build on this basic understanding by integrating domain-specific causal knowledge of physical, biological, and psychological possibility into their appraisal of their own and others' ability to choose. However, preschoolers continue to view both psychological and social motivations as constraints on choice--for example, stating that one cannot choose to harm another, or to act against personal desires. It is not until later that children share the adult belief that choice mediates between conflicting motivations for action. The chapter concludes by suggesting avenues for future research--to better characterize conceptual changes in beliefs about choice, and to understand how such beliefs arise from children's everyday experiences. PMID:23205412

  16. Concepts in Activities and Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this special issue make valuable contributions toward a scientific understanding of concepts that is broader than the traditional view that has focused on categorizing by individuals. I propose considering concepts for categorization as a special case of concepts. At their clearest, they can be referred to as "formal concepts," or…

  17. Separations innovative concepts: Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.

    1988-05-01

    This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

  18. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  19. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences.

  20. Buddhist concepts as implicitly reducing prejudice and increasing prosociality.

    PubMed

    Clobert, Magali; Saroglou, Vassilis; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2015-04-01

    Does Buddhism really promote tolerance? Based on cross-cultural and cross-religious evidence, we hypothesized that Buddhist concepts, possibly differing from Christian concepts, activate not only prosociality but also tolerance. Subliminally priming Buddhist concepts, compared with neutral or Christian concepts, decreased explicit prejudice against ethnic, ideological, and moral outgroups among Western Buddhists who valued universalism (Experiment 1, N = 116). It also increased spontaneous prosociality, and decreased, among low authoritarians or high universalists, implicit religious and ethnic prejudice among Westerners of Christian background (Experiment 2, N = 128) and Taiwanese of Buddhist/Taoist background (Experiment 3, N = 122). Increased compassion and tolerance of contradiction occasionally mediated some of the effects. The general idea that religion promotes (ingroup) prosociality and outgroup prejudice, based on research in monotheistic contexts, lacks cross-cultural sensitivity; Buddhist concepts activate extended prosociality and tolerance of outgroups, at least among those with socio-cognitive and moral openness. PMID:25676193

  1. Gyroscope relativity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.

    1971-01-01

    A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the experiment are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The experiment hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The experiment will operate in orbit for about one year.

  2. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A free radical propulsion concept utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust was examined. The concept offered promise of a propulsion system operating at a theoretical impulse, with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, thus filling the gas existing between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas was transferred to the propellant via three body recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Power absorption by the microwave plasma discharge was in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressures. Gas temperatures inferred from gas dynamic equations showed much higher temperatures from microwave heating than from electrothermal heating. Spectroscopic analysis appeared to corroborate the inferred temperatures of one of the gases tested.

  3. TQM: the essential concepts.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality. PMID:9697367

  4. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.; Lopez-Ortiz, A.; White, J.D.; Groves, F.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Three possible regeneration concepts were identified as a result of a literature search. The potential for elemental sulfur production from a number of candidate metal oxide sorbents using each regeneration concept was evaluated on the basis of a thermodynamic analysis. Two candidate sorbents, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} were chosen for experimental testing. The experimental test program using both electrobalance and fixed-bed reactor sis now getting underway. The objective is to determine reaction conditions--temperature, pressure, space velocity, and regeneration feed gas composition--which will maximize the yield of elemental sulfur in the regeneration product gas. Experimental results are to be used to define a conceptual desulfurization-regeneration process and to provide a preliminary economic evaluation.

  5. Firefly system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Firefly' project has developed and implemented an infrared (IR) remote sensing prototype system based on the concept presented. The Firefly system produces images through smoke that will provide near real-time wildland fire information for fire management and suppression. The prototype will be tested through the 1991 fire season. Results of the testing will be incorporated into the final system design for operational use at the end of 1992.

  6. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  7. Firefly system concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Joseph D.

    1991-12-01

    The Firefly project has developed and implemented an infrared (IR) remote sensing prototype system based on the concept presented. The Firefly system produces image through smoke that will provide near real-time wildland fire information for fire management and suppression. The prototype will be tested through the 1991 fire season. Results of the testing will be incorporated into the final system design for operational use at the end of 1992.

  8. Elaborating on threshold concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account for both the important and the problematic characteristics of TCs in terms of the Knowledge/Strategies/Mental Models Framework defined in previous work.

  9. Teaching Method and Effect on Learning Piagetian Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, David J.; Amadio, Dean M.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors of psychology typically use a variety of methods to teach concepts. The present double-blind experiment is intended to determine the effectiveness of popular television clips as exemplars of Piagetian concepts compared to verbal descriptions of the same exemplars among a sample of 86 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory…

  10. Animated and Static Concept Maps Enhance Learning from Spoken Narration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.

    2013-01-01

    An animated concept map represents verbal information in a node-link diagram that changes over time. The goals of the experiment were to evaluate the instructional effects of presenting an animated concept map concurrently with semantically equivalent spoken narration. The study used a 2 x 2 factorial design in which an animation factor (animated…

  11. Examining Students' Generalizations of the Tangent Concept: A Theoretical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çekmez, Erdem; Baki, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a tangent is important in understanding many topics in mathematics and science. Earlier studies on students' understanding of the concept of a tangent have reported that they have various misunderstandings and experience difficulties in transferring their knowledge about the tangent line from Euclidean geometry into calculus. In…

  12. Learning from Animated Concept Maps with Concurrent Audio Narration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, John C.; Adesope, Olusola O.

    2011-01-01

    An animated concept map is a presentation of a network diagram in which nodes and links are sequentially added or modified. An experiment compared learning from animated concept maps and text by randomly assigning 133 undergraduates to study 1 of 4 narrated animations presenting semantically equivalent information accompanied by identical audio…

  13. Ground to Grits. Scientific Concepts in Nutrition/Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Peggy W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents an activity-oriented program designed to give students experiences that will help them understand concepts concerning the relationship between science, agriculture, and nutritional needs. Covered in the six units of the guide are reasons for eating certain foods (taste and smell); the nature of food (the concept of…

  14. Concept Mapping Revisited: Nurturing Children's Writing Skills in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping has long been used an assessment tool by educators to illustrate students' conceptual development of a topic over time. In this article, we chronicle the use of concept maps in a language arts environment. Focusing on a literacy tutoring program for struggling readers/writers centered on hands-on science experiments, we explain how…

  15. Concepts about Relations among Time, Distance and Velocity In Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, F.; And Others

    Almost all experimental investigations on concepts of time (T), distance (D) and velocity (V) since 1946 have been based on the Piagetian theory. However, there are several controversial points in Piaget's investigations. In the experiment described in this paper, developmental changes of concepts concerning relation of T, D, and V were examined…

  16. Music Self-Concept of Non-Music Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Paul D.; Browne, Lisa Ann

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between academic, musical, and demographic variables; music self-concept; and enrollment in lecture or performance classes. Finds that students' enjoyment from making music is the strongest predictor of self-concept scores: satisfying musical experiences likely enhance music self-confidence, which, in turn, encourages…

  17. Methods and Strategies: Being Deliberate about Concept Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joanne K.

    2009-01-01

    In order to move students' thinking from the exploration experiences to concept understanding (and thus the ability to then apply that understanding), teachers must deliberately consider students' misconceptions, the intermediate steps to the accurate conception, and how to scaffold students' understanding step-by-step to the desired…

  18. INDUCTIVE CONCEPT FORMATION IN NORMAL AND RETARDED SUBJECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELAM, CLAUDE B.

    CONCEPT FORMATION--AS IT IS AFFECTED BY SUBJECTS (NORMAL AND RETARDED), PROBLEMS (SIMULTANEOUS, SUCCESSIVE, AND SIMILARITY-DIFFERENCE), RESPONSES (MANUAL AND VERBAL), REINFORCEMENT (100 PERCENT AND PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT), AND STIMULI--WAS INVESTIGATED. ELEVEN SEPARATE EXPERIMENTS ARE DESCRIBED. IT WAS FOUND THAT--(1) CONCEPT ATTAINMENT IS…

  19. Threshold Concepts: A Point of Focus for Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Naomi; Carmichael, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Participants with teaching and research experience across eight disciplinary areas were introduced to the idea of "threshold concepts" and were then invited to identify potential threshold concepts in their own disciplines through small-scale research activities. Participants conceptualized their involvement in different ways: for some it provided…

  20. Concepts of Scale Held by Students with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated students' with visual impairment concepts about linear size and scale. Specifically the study examined the accuracy of students' concepts over many orders of magnitude as well as experiences students have had in and out-of-school learning about size and scale. The results of assessments of 17 students with visual impairment…

  1. The concept of compartmentalisation.

    PubMed

    Scott, A; Zepeda, C; Garber, L; Smith, J; Swayne, D; Rhorer, A; Kellar, J; Shimshony, A; Batho, H; Caporale, V; Giovannini, A

    2006-12-01

    The rationale for establishing trade 'regions' and 'zones' is based on principles of epidemiological science and risk analysis that assess and manage animal disease risks so that the safety of trade can be ensured. However, the boundaries of geographical regions and zones may readily be breached through numerous epidemiological pathways. The concept of a 'compartment' extends the application of a 'risk boundary' beyond that of a geographical interface and considers all epidemiological factors that can contribute to the creation of an effective boundary. The fundamental requirement for application of either concept (regions/zones or compartments) is that the population considered for trade is maintained within management or geographical boundaries which allow clear epidemiological differentiation to be made between those animals and surrounding populations of higher risk. Seven factors are presented that an exporting country might use to guide the identification and documentation of a compartment. Additionally, the steps that would be undertaken to implement trade based on the compartmentalisation concept are discussed. PMID:17361758

  2. Hermes thermal control concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscatelli, Antonio; Bottaccini, Massimiliano; Ferro, Claudio

    1991-12-01

    The Hermes Space Vehicle is made up of the reusable Hermes Spaceplane (HSP) itself and an expendable rear Hermes Resource Module (HRM). Both the HSP and HRM contain pressurized (habitable) compartments and unpressurized compartments. The complex configuration of the space vehicle and the mission profile require the adoption of a particularly flexible thermal control system which can satisfy the different requirements of the HSP and the HRM together with stringent safety and reliability requirements. All these aspects led to a thermal control design concept which uses active and passive means distributed through all compartments of the space vehicle. The ACTS (Active Thermal Control Section) is dedicated to the control of very high and concentrated thermal loads. It is based on a dual loop concept for heat collection (water and Freon R114 cooling loops), transportation and rejection through dedicated devicers. The PTCS (Passive Thermal Control Section) controls low heat fluxes spread on large surfaces. It relies on different concepts of insulation together with a system of temperature sensors and heaters, to control the thermal excursions of the space plane components and internal structural parts.

  3. The comparative effect of individually-generated vs. collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on science concept learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, So Young

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However

  4. The Reconnaissance of Apophis (RA) Picosatellite Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noviello, J. L.; Ying, X. Y.; Wren, P. F.; Stinnett, B. L.; Akshay, R. T.; Karjigi, S.; Ridge, M. G.; Koganti, P.; Castillo, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a mission concept design for a picosatellite that will travel via mothership to 99942 Apophis, launch itself, and land on the surface to conduct experiments on dust accumulation rates and mobility in a microgravity environment.

  5. Effects of Parental Maltreatment on Children's Conceptions of Interpersonal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Anne L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Through an examination of story content, determines whether the conceptions of peer and parent-child relations of black children from lower income families are altered by the experience of parental maltreatment. (HOD)

  6. Manned Mars flyby mission and configuration concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie; Meredith, Ollie; Brothers, Bobby

    1986-01-01

    A concept is presented for a flyby mission of the planet. The mission was sized for the 2001 time period, has a crew of three, uses all propulsive maneuvers, and requires 442 days. Such a flyby mission results in significantly smaller vehicles than would a landing mission, but of course loses the value of the landing and the associated knowledge and prestige. Stay time in the planet vicinity is limited to the swingby trajectory but considerable time still exists for enroute science and research experiments. All propulsive braking was used in the concept due to unacceptable g-levels associated with aerobraking on this trajectory. LEO departure weight for the concept is approximately 594,000 pounds.

  7. Self-Concept Is a Concept Worth Considering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nora

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of self-concept in the pediatric rehabilitation research literature. There also is confusion and inconsistency in the definitions of and the terminology used to describe self-concept. What is agreed is that self-concept is multidimensional, comprising a child's perception of their personal…

  8. Threshold Concepts and Conceptions: Student Learning in Introductory Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, April L.; Gilmore, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how insights from the broader education literature on threshold concepts and conceptions can be applied to improve the teaching of undergraduate introductory management courses. The authors propose that these courses are underpinned by the threshold conception, or "underlying game," that management is a practice informed by…

  9. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  10. Current concepts in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Márcia Uchôa; de Campos, Gustavo Constantino; Pailo, Alexandre Felício

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of joint disease, affects mainly the hips, knees, hands and feet, leading to severe disability and loss of quality of life, particularly in the elderly population. Its importance grows every year with the aging of the population, with a large increase in the elderly population compared to younger patients. The progressive understanding of the pathophysiology of OA, the perception that the process is not purely mechanical and / or aging, and clarification of the inflammatory pathways involved led recently to the clinical application of various drugs and other measures. This update aims to expose the current concepts on the pathophysiology and treatment of OA. PMID:24453655

  11. Paraterraforming - The worldhouse concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard L. S.

    1992-08-01

    This paper discusses 'paraterraforming' as a means of creating and maintaining habitable environments on other planets. The 'worldhouse' concept of paraterraforming can be formulated within the existing boundaries of technological knowledge and can provide a quasi-unconstrained global habitable environment at significantly lower levels of materials requirement and economic cost. Construction can proceed on a modular basis. A coarse-grained assessment of the possibilities of paraterraforming Mars is presented. It is suggested that the establishment of a fully habitable worldhouse environment on the planet Mercury would be a much less difficult undertaking than taerraforming Venus and could be economically important for the human exploitation of the solar system.

  12. Mars rover 1988 concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Donna Shirley; Penn, Thomas J.; Dias, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Results of FY88 studies of a sample-collecting Mars rover are presented. A variety of rover concepts are discussed which include different technical approaches to rover functions. The performance of rovers with different levels of automation is described and compared to the science requirement for 20 to 40 km to be traversed on the Martian surface and for 100 rock and soil samples to be collected. The analysis shows that a considerable amount of automation in roving and sampling is required to meet this requirement. Additional performance evaluation shows that advanced RTG's producing 500 W and 350 WHr of battery storage are needed to supply the rover.

  13. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  14. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  15. The emittance concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, J. D.

    1992-04-01

    An informal descriptive account is first given of the emittance concept and its underlying physical basis. This is followed by a discussion of the connection between emittance and entropy, and a number of questions relating to problems of current interest concerning such topics as emittance growth and equipartition between different degrees of freedom are raised. Although no new results are obtained, it is hoped that the discussion may be helpful in the search for new insights. The paper differs from that presented at the conference, and contains ideas which arose in discussion with T. P. Wangler at Los Alamos after the conference.

  16. Open airscrew VTOL concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Tarczynski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The following concepts, based on using open airscrew(s) for VTOL maneuvers, are re-examined in light of current technology: (1) tip-driven helicopters, (2) compound helicopters; and (3) high-speed VTOL aircraft, represented by tiltrotors, tiltwings, retractoplanes and stoppable rotors. Criteria, permitting one to compare performance of aircraft using diverse lifting and propelling methods are established. Determination of currently possible performance, indication of near-future potentials, and comparison of those items with the baseline levels (as represented by contemporary shaft-driven helicopters, first generation tiltrotors, and commercial turboprop fixed-wind aircraft) constitutes bulk of this report.

  17. Concept analysis: aggression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  18. Mapping Earth Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Van Dine, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two experiments concerned with mapping skills. Directions are given for calculating the circumference of the earth and for developing a model of the solar system using familiar territory as a frame of reference. (MA)

  19. Educational Videogames: Concept, Design And Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrlick, D.; Yang, A.; Kilb, D. L.; Ma, L.; Ruzic, R.; Peach, C. L.; Layman, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    Videogames have historically gained popularity thanks to their entertainment rather than their educational value. This may be due, in part, to the fact that many educational videogames present academic concepts in dry, quiz-like ways, without the visual experiences, interactivity, and excitement of non-educational games. The increasing availability of tools that allow designers to easily create rich experiences for players now makes it simpler than ever for educational game designers to generate the visual experiences, interactivity, and excitement that gamers have grown to expect. Based on data from our work, when designed effectively, educational games can engage players, teach concepts, and tear down the stereotype of the stuffy, boring educational game. Our team has been experimenting with different ways to present scientific and mathematical concepts to middle and high school students through engaging, interactive games. When designing a gameplay concept, we focus on what we want the player to learn and experience as well as how to maintain a learning environment that is fun and engaging. Techniques that we have found successful include the use of a series of fast-paced 'minigames,' and the use of a 'simulator' learning method that allows a player to learn by completing objectives similar to those completed by today's scientists. Formative evaluations of our games over the past year have revealed both design strengths and weaknesses. Based on findings from a systematic evaluation of game play with diverse groups, with data collected through in-person observations of game play, knowledge assessments, focus groups, interviews with players, and computer tracking of students' game play behavior, we have found that players are uniformly enthusiastic about the educational tools. At the same time, we find there is more work to be done to make our tools fully intuitive, and to effectively present complex mathematical and scientific concepts to learners from a wide

  20. Preparing the DSN operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, A. J.; Bailey, M. D.; Kuo, N. R.; Wilkinson, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    Operations concepts are prepared to support a specific application and can, therefore, be classified accordingly. Studies of NASA and military operations concepts suggest three major types: data services, customer services, and systems oriented. Data services concepts concentrate on data types (e.g., telemetry and command) and how these data are processed and delivered to the user. Such concepts are normally used by data-processing centers to describe data-coding schemes and data formats. Customer services concepts concentrate on the customers' requirements and describe how these requirements are met using the systems available to the operation. Project centers use such concepts to describe the various types of data as they flow from the source (e.g., a spacecraft) to the end user (i.e., the customer). Systems oriented concepts concentrate on the use of systems for processing and delivering customer data. This paper examines the latter type and the 'concepts' that are inherent within them.

  1. Measuring the Concept of Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziano, Cecilie; McGrath, Kristin

    1986-01-01

    Describes measurement of the concept of media credibility in previous research and reports results of a national survey that treated credibility as a multidimensional concept. Concludes from factor analysis that credibility scores for newspapers and television news were correlated. (FL)

  2. Retrieval for color artistry concepts.

    PubMed

    Lay, Jose A; Guan, Ling

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a work on the retrieval of artworks for color artistry concepts. First we affirm the view that the Query-by-Example paradigm fundamental to the current content-based retrieval systems is able to extend only limited usefulness. We then propose a concept-based retrieval engine based on the generative grammar of elemental concepts methodology. In the latter, the language by which color artistry concepts are communicated in artworks is used to operate semantic searches. The color artistry language is explicated into elemental concepts and the associated generative grammar. The elemental concepts are used to index the artworks, while the generative grammar is used to facilitate post-coordinate expression of color artistry concept queries by using the elemental concepts. PMID:15376925

  3. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

  4. Mobile Lunar Base Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marc M.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes three innovative concepts for a mobile lunar base. These concept combine design research for habitat architecture, mobility systems, habitability, radiation protection, human factors, and living and working environments on the lunar surface. The mobile lunar base presents several key advantages over conventional static base notions. These advantages concern landing zone safety, the requirement to move modules over the lunar surface, and the ability to stage mobile reconnaissance with effective systemic redundancy. All of these concerns lead to the consideration of a mobile walking habitat module and base design. The key issues involve landing zone safety, the ability to transport habitat modules across the surface, and providing reliability and redundancy to exploration traverses in pressurized vehicles. With self-ambulating lunar base modules, it will be feasible to have each module separate itself from its retro-rocket thruster unit, and walk five to ten km away from the LZ to a pre-selected site. These mobile modules can operate in an autonomous or teleoperated mode to navigate the lunar surface. At the site of the base, the mobile modules can combine together; make pressure port connections among themselves, to create a multi-module pressurized lunar base.

  5. PRSEUS Structural Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velicki, Alex; Jegley, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    A lighter, more robust airframe is one of the key technological advancements necessary for the successful launch of any large next-generation transport aircraft. Such a premise dictates that considerable improvements beyond current state-of-the-art aluminum structures is needed, and that improvements of this magnitude will require an extensive use of composite materials that are not only lightweight, but also economical to produce. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are developing a novel structural concept called the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. It is an integrally stiffened panel concept that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. In addition to improved structural performance, an important facet of this unique arrangement of stitched carbon fibers is its innovative manufacturing method that has the potential to lower fabrication costs by eliminating fasteners and autoclave cures. The rationale and development status for this new approach forms the basis of the work described in this paper. The test specimens described herein were fabricated, or are currently being fabricated, by The Boeing Company, while the structural analyses and testing tasks are being performed by NASA and Boeing personnel.

  6. Rocketdyne RBCC Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortwerth, P.; Ratekin, G.; Goldman, A.; Emanuel, M.; Brown, C.; Ketchum, A.; Horn, M.

    1997-01-01

    Rocketdyne is pursuing the conceptual design and development of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (BBCC) engine for booster and SSTO, advanced reusable space transportation systems under the Advanced Reusable Transportation Technologies contract with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Rocketdyne concept is a fixed geometry integrated rocket, ramjet, scramjet which is hydrogen fueled and uses hydrogen regenerative cooling. Vision vehicle integration studies have determined that scramjet operation to the range of Mach 10 to 12 has high payoff for low cost reusable space transportation. Rocketdyne is internally developing versions of the concept for other applications in high speed aircraft and missiles with hydrocarbon fuel systems. A subscale engine ground test program is underway for all modes of operation from takeoff to Mach 8. High altitude rocket tests will only be completed as part of the ground test program to validate high expansion ratio performance. A unique feature of the ground test series is the inclusion of dynamic trajectory simulation with real time Mach number, altitude, engine throttling, and RBCC mode changes in a specially modified freejet test facility at GASL. Preliminary cold flow air augmented rocket and all rocket test results have met program goals and have been used to integrate all modes of operation in a single combustor design with a fixed geometry inlet for design confirmation tests. A water cooled subscale engine is currently being fabricated for test during the early part of 1998.

  7. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  8. Review of concepts of stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebehely, V.

    1984-12-01

    Concepts of stability are reviewed, emphasizing global aspects as well as specific applications to dynamics and celestial mechanics. Historical and fundamental aspects of the concept of stability are discussed, and major stability concepts are examined, including Hill's stability, Liapunov's and Poincare's stability, and Kolmogorov's tori. Short definitions are given of various concepts and terminologies used in stability research. Problems of fundamental importance are identified and lines of future research are suggested.

  9. Concepts in strong Langmuir turbulence theory

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, D.F.; Rose, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the basic concepts of strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) theory are reviewed. In SLT system, a major fraction of the turbulent energy is carried by local, time-dependent, nonlinear excitations called cavitons. Modulational instability, localization of Langmuir fields by density fluctuations, caviton nucleation, collapse, and burnout and caviton correlations are reviewed. Recent experimental evidence will be presented for SLT phenomena in the interaction of powerful HF waves with the ionosphere and in laser-plasma interaction experiments. 38 refs., 11 figs.

  10. The Lexicography of Scholarly Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Raymond G.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the function of concepts in scholarly discourse. Topics include the genesis of Greenwood Press's concept dictionaries; the origins of modern rhetoric; the prescriptive nature of meaning in scholarly discourse; conceptual change, including logical positivism, introspection, and historicism; and interdisciplinary application of concepts.…

  11. The Concept of Philosophical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…

  12. Can We Feel Physics Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yucheng

    2010-01-01

    There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…

  13. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  14. Nonstandard Student Conceptions about Infinitesimals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This is a case study of an undergraduate calculus student's nonstandard conceptions of the real number line. Interviews with the student reveal robust conceptions of the real number line that include infinitesimal and infinite quantities and distances. Similarities between these conceptions and those of G. W. Leibniz are discussed and illuminated…

  15. Concept Learning through Image Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Yi-Chuan, Jane Hsieh

    This study explored computer-based image processing as a study strategy for middle school students' science concept learning. Specifically, the research examined the effects of computer graphics generation on science concept learning and the impact of using computer graphics to show interrelationships among concepts during study time. The 87…

  16. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  17. From image quality to atmosphere experience: how evolutions in technology impact experience assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; de Ridder, Huib

    2013-03-01

    Image quality is a concept that for long very well served to optimize display performance and signal quality. New technological developments, however, forced the community to look into higher-level concepts to capture the full experience. Terms as naturalness and viewing experience were used to optimize the full experience of 3D-displays and Ambilight TV. These higher-level concepts capture differences in image quality and differences in perceived depth or perceived viewing field. With the introduction of solid-state lighting, further enhancing the multimedia experience, yet more advanced quality evaluation concepts to optimize the overall experience will be needed in the future.

  18. SPICE: An innovative, flexible instrument concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Kenji; Cauffman, D. P.; Jurcevich, B.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, James T.

    Studies and plans for orbital capture of cosmic dust and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) looked very bright with the advent of space station Freedom (SSF) and formal selection of Cosmic Dust Collection Facility (CDCF) as an attached payload in 1990. Unfortunately it has been downhill since its selection, culminating in CDCF being dropped as attached payload in the SSF redesign process this year. This action was without any input from the science or cosmic dust communities. The Exobiology Intact Capture Experiment (Exo-ICE) as an experiment on CDCF was also lost. Without CDCF, no facility-class instrument for cosmic dust studies is available or planned. When CDCF (and Exo-ICE) was selected as a SSF attached payload, an exercise called the small particle intact capture experiment (SPICE) was started for Exo-ICE to develop an understanding and early testing of the necessary expertise and technology for intact capture of cosmic dust and IDP's. This SPICE activity looks to fly small, meter square or less, collection area experiments on early orbital platforms of opportunity such as EURECA, MIR, WESTAR, and others, including the shuttle. The SPICE activity has focused on developing techniques and instrument concepts to capture particles intact and without inadvertent contamination. It began with a survey and screening of available capture media concepts and then focused on the development of a capture medium that can meet these requirements. Evaluation and development of the chosen capture medium, aerogel (a silicon oxide gel), has so far lived up to the expectations of meeting the requirements and is highlighted in a companion paper at this workshop. Others such as McDonnell's Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE) on EuReCa and Tsuo's GAS-CAN lid experiments on STS 47 and 57 have flown aerogel, but without addressing the contamination issue/requirement, especially regarding organics. Horz, Zolenskym and others have studied and have also been advocates for its

  19. ACTS advanced system concepts and experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Theofylaktos, Noulie

    1993-01-01

    Over the course of the first two years of experimentation with the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), many different K/Ka-band applications-oriented experiments will be conducted and evaluated for their commercial viability. In addition, the technological developments and advanced systems concepts associated with the various terminals and the satellite itself will also be examined. Beyond these existing experiments and the current terminal developments, many other new and exciting experiment ideas and advanced system concepts exist. With the additional use of ACTS for the last two years of its lifetime, many of these ideas could be explored. In the mobile satellite communications arena, a particular applications-oriented concept that has yet to be developed is a maritime-mobile experiment. Applications of K/Ka-band mobile satcom technologies to the pleasure cruise industry could provide similar communications services as those that are being developed for the broadband aeronautical experiments. A second applications-oriented experiment that could be of interest is the development of a hybrid satellite-cellular system experiment. In such an experimental system, a mobile K/Ka-band satellite service would extend the coverage of the already existing cellular network. Many new system concepts and terminal developments could also be accomplished. The initial characterization of the K/Ka-band mobile satellite communications propagation channel and evaluation of the currently existing rain compensation algorithms (RCA's) could lead to a second generation RCA development that would improve the overall ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) performance. In addition, the development of an enhanced modem to be used with the AMT that utilizes CDMA spread spectrum would also improve the overall terminal efficiency and provide a greater commercial potential for K/Ka-band applications. Other techniques worthy of further exploration and evaluation include the development of

  20. SPICE: An innovative, flexible instrument concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, Kenji; Cauffman, D. P.; Jurcevich, B.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, James T.

    1994-01-01

    Studies and plans for orbital capture of cosmic dust and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) looked very bright with the advent of space station Freedom (SSF) and formal selection of Cosmic Dust Collection Facility (CDCF) as an attached payload in 1990. Unfortunately it has been downhill since its selection, culminating in CDCF being dropped as attached payload in the SSF redesign process this year. This action was without any input from the science or cosmic dust communities. The Exobiology Intact Capture Experiment (Exo-ICE) as an experiment on CDCF was also lost. Without CDCF, no facility-class instrument for cosmic dust studies is available or planned. When CDCF (and Exo-ICE) was selected as a SSF attached payload, an exercise called the small particle intact capture experiment (SPICE) was started for Exo-ICE to develop an understanding and early testing of the necessary expertise and technology for intact capture of cosmic dust and IDP's. This SPICE activity looks to fly small, meter square or less, collection area experiments on early orbital platforms of opportunity such as EURECA, MIR, WESTAR, and others, including the shuttle. The SPICE activity has focused on developing techniques and instrument concepts to capture particles intact and without inadvertent contamination. It began with a survey and screening of available capture media concepts and then focused on the development of a capture medium that can meet these requirements. Evaluation and development of the chosen capture medium, aerogel (a silicon oxide gel), has so far lived up to the expectations of meeting the requirements and is highlighted in a companion paper at this workshop. Others such as McDonnell's Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE) on EuReCa and Tsuo's GAS-CAN lid experiments on STS 47 and 57 have flown aerogel, but without addressing the contamination issue/requirement, especially regarding organics. Horz, Zolenskym and others have studied and have also been advocates for its

  1. The Modellion concept

    SciTech Connect

    Shuttleworth, W.J. )

    1991-11-01

    A model planet, Modellion, with much simpler terrestrial surfaces, have been conceived to carry out numerical experiments on the planet earth. Over the last decade, there have been observational studies to better define this model planet and to aid its evolution toward the earth system. This paper reviews these studies, their purpose, and the insight they have given; it then goes on to preview elements of the observational program proposed to occur under the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme in the 1990s. 52 refs.

  2. REP Concept Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.; Ensworth, Clinton B. F.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Wiersma, Stephen C.; Adamsen, Paul B., II; Frank, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) may have the potential to provide certain advantages, over conventional chemical propulsion, for outer planetary exploration involving small bodies and long term investigations for medium class missions requiring power comparable to past outer planetary exploration missions. This paper describes a study that investigates the concept s feasibility by performing a preliminary conceptual design of an REP-based spacecraft for a design reference mission. The mission utilizes a spacecraft with a radioisotope power supply less than one kilowatt while operating for a minimum of 10-years. A key element of the REP spacecraft is to ensure sustained science return by orbiting or flying in formation with selected targets. Utilizing current and impending technological advances, this study finds that at a conceptual design level a small body REP orbiter/explorer appears to be feasible for the design reference mission selected for this study.

  3. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  4. Introducing the CTA concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, B. S.; Actis, M.; Aghajani, T.; Agnetta, G.; Aguilar, J.; Aharonian, F.; Ajello, M.; Akhperjanian, A.; Alcubierre, M.; Aleksić, J.; Alfaro, R.; Aliu, E.; Allafort, A. J.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Amato, E.; Anderson, J.; Angüner, E. O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Armstrong, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Arrabito, L.; Asano, K.; Ashton, T.; Asorey, H. G.; Awane, Y.; Baba, H.; Babic, A.; Baby, N.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balbo, M.; Balis, D.; Balkowski, C.; Bamba, A.; Bandiera, R.; Barber, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basili, A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Baushev, A.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K. C.; Becker Tjus, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Belluso, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernard, F.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bhat, N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Bitossi, M.; Blake, S.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Blasi, P.; Bobkov, A.; Boccone, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bogacz, L.; Bogart, J.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix Gargallo, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borgland, A.; Borkowski, J.; Bose, R.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bouchet, L.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M.; Bringmann, T.; Brook, P.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buanes, T.; Buckley, J.; Buehler, R.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Camprecios, J.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Casanova, S.; Casiraghi, M.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chabanne, E.; Chadwick, P.; Champion, C.; Chen, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiappetti, L.; Chikawa, M.; Chitnis, V. R.; Chollet, F.; Chudoba, J.; Cieślar, M.; Cillis, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colin, P.; Colome, J.; Colonges, S.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Conforti, V.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corona, P.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Crimi, G.; Criswell, S. J.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Dafonseca, M.; Dale, O.; Daniel, M.; Darling, J.; Davids, I.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caprio, V.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de la Calle, I.; De La Vega, G. A.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Luca, A.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Naurois, M.; de Oliveira, Y.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Decock, G.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Della Volpe, D.; Demange, P.; Depaola, G.; Dettlaff, A.; Di Paola, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickherber, R.; Dickinson, H.; Diez-Blanco, V.; Digel, S.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Dohmke, M.; Domainko, W.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donat, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Drake, G.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Dumas, D.; Dumm, J.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Ebr, J.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Einecke, S.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Evans, P.; Falcone, A.; Fantinel, D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Fasola, G.; Favill, B.; Fede, E.; Federici, S.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Ferrando, P.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Fiorini, M.; Firpo Curcoll, R.; Flores, H.; Florin, D.; Focke, W.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Fornasa, M.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Franckowiak, A.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G.; Frei, R.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gabriele, R.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gallant, Y.; Gámez-García, J.; García, B.; Garcia López, R.; Gardiol, D.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Gebremedhin, L.; Geffroy, N.; Gerard, L.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Giannakaki, E.; Gianotti, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Gika, V.; Giommi, P.; Girard, N.; Giro, E.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Godinovic, N.; Golev, V.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gómez-Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, M. M.; González, A.; González, F.; González Muñoz, A.; Gothe, K. S.; Gougerot, M.; Graciani, R.; Grandi, P.; Grañena, F.; Granot, J.; Grasseau, G.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grégoire, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzinska, M.; Gruev, V.; Grünewald, S.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hakansson, N.; Hallgren, A.; Hamer Heras, N.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Harris, J.; Hassan, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Haubold, T.; Haupt, A.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henault, F.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hermel, R.; Herrero, A.; Hidaka, N.; Hinton, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holder, J.; Horns, D.; Horville, D.; Houles, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Huovelin, J.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Impiombato, D.; Incorvaia, S.; Inoue, S.; Inoue, Y.; Ioka, K.; Ismailova, E.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jeanney, C.; Jimenez, J. J.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, T.; Journet, L.; Juffroy, C.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kagaya, M.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Karastergiou, A.; Kärcher, K.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Kasperek, J.; Kastana, D.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kawanaka, N.; Kellner-Leidel, B.; Kelly, H.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D. B.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Kitamoto, K.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapic, C.; Knapp, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kocot, J.; Kodani, K.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, N.; Kominis, I.; Konno, Y.; Köppel, H.; Korohoda, P.; Kosack, K.; Koss, G.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Koul, R.; Kowal, G.; Koyama, S.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawzcynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Krepps, A.; Kretzschmann, A.; Krobot, R.; Krueger, P.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; Kuznetsov, A.; La Barbera, A.; La Palombara, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; Lacombe, K.; Lamanna, G.; Lande, J.; Languignon, D.; Lapington, J.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, W. H.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lelas, D.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leopold, D. J.; Lerch, T.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lipniacka, A.; Lockart, H.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lopez, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorca, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubinski, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Lüdecke, H.; Ludwin, J.; Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Lustermann, W.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Madejski, G. M.; Madhavan, A.; Mahabir, M.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Malaguti, G.; Maltezos, S.; Manalaysay, A.; Mancilla, A.; Mandat, D.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Mannheim, K.; Manthos, I.; Maragos, N.; Marcowith, A.; Mariotti, M.; Marisaldi, M.; Markoff, S.; Marszałek, A.; Martens, C.; Martí, J.; Martin, J.-M.; Martin, P.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, F.; Martínez, M.; Masserot, A.; Mastichiadis, A.; Mathieu, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattana, F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Maurin, G.; Maxfield, S.; Maya, J.; Mazin, D.; Mc Comb, L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; McKay, R.; Medina, C.; Melioli, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mihailidis, A.; Mineo, T.; Minuti, M.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Mognet, I.; Molinari, E.; Molinaro, M.; Montaruli, T.; Monteiro, I.; Moore, P.; Moralejo Olaizola, A.; Mordalska, M.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Mottez, F.; Moudden, Y.; Moulin, E.; Mrusek, I.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakajima, D.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Neise, D.; Nellen, L.; Neustroev, V.; Neyroud, N.; Nicastro, L.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nieto, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S.; Northrop, R.; Nosek, D.; Nowak, N.; Nozato, A.; O'Brien, P.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohm, S.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Okumura, A.; Olive, J.-F.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L. A.; Otte, N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Ozieblo, A.; Padilla, L.; Paiano, S.; Paillot, D.; Paizis, A.; Palanque, S.; Palatka, M.; Pallota, J.; Panagiotidis, K.; Panazol, J.-L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papayannis, A.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parks, G.; Parraud, J.-M.; Parsons, D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pech, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelassa, V.; Pelat, D.; Perez, M. d. C.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pichel, A.; Pita, S.; Pizzolato, F.; Platos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmanski, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Poutanen, J.; Prandini, E.; Prast, J.; Preece, R.; Profeti, F.; Prokoph, H.; Prouza, M.; Proyetti, M.; Puerto-Gimenez, I.; Pühlhofer, G.; Puljak, I.; Punch, M.; Pyzioł, R.; Quel, E. J.; Quinn, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Racero, E.; Rajda, P. J.; Ramon, P.; Rando, R.; Rannot, R. C.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reardon, P.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reitberger, K.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reville, B.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Richer, M. G.; Rico, J.; Ridky, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P. R.; Riviére, A.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Roeser, U.; Rohlfs, R.; Rojas, G.; Romano, P.; Romaszkan, W.; Romero, G. E.; Rosen, S.; Rosier Lees, S.; Ross, D.; Rouaix, G.; Rousselle, J.; Rousselle, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C.; Rupiński, M.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saemann, E. O.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakonaka, R.; Salini, A.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Sandoval, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartore, N.; Sasaki, H.; Satalecka, K.; Sawada, M.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schafer, J.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schure, K.; Schwab, T.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, J.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Schwemmer, S.; Segreto, A.; Seiradakis, J.-H.; Sembroski, G. H.; Seweryn, K.; Sharma, M.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shi, J.; Shibata, T.; Shibuya, A.; Shum, E.; Sidoli, L.; Sidz, M.; Sieiro, J.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Singh, B. B.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smareglia, R.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, J.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sol, H.; Sottile, G.; Sowiński, M.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Sterzel, M.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Strazzeri, E.; Stringhetti, L.; Suarez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Suric, T.; Sutcliffe, P.; Sykes, J.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, G.; Tammi, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tasan, J.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tezier, D.; Thuermann, D.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tiengo, A.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torii, K.; Tornikoski, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres, M.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Tovmassian, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Troyano, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Ueno, H.; Umehara, K.; Upadhya, S. S.; Usher, T.; Uslenghi, M.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van Driel, W.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbrouke, J.; Vanderwalt, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V.; Veberic, D.; Vegas, I.; Vercellone, S.; Vergani, S.; Veyssiére, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vincent, S.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; von Gunten, H.-P.; Vorobiov, S.; Vuerli, C.; Waegebaert, V.; Wagner, R.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, R.; Walther, T.; Warda, K.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Werner, M.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wiesand, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, D. A.; Willingale, R.; Winiarski, K.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wood, M.; Wörnlein, A.; Xiong, Q.; Yadav, K. K.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yebras, J. M.; Yelos, D.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zhao, A.; Zhou, X.; Ziętara, K.; Ziolkowski, J.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zurbach, C.; Żychowski, P.; CTA Consortium

    2013-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  5. [Charcot's epistemological concept].

    PubMed

    Lellouch, A

    1994-01-01

    Through a brilliant medical way, Charcot was, at the same time, rheumatologist, geriatric, clinician, pathologist - and mainly neuro-pathologist - ending as a psychiatrist (according to todays medical terminology). Here, we will point out how much scientific theory and philosophy may support an original concept very unusual during the second half of XIXth century medicine. Describing connection between biology and medicine according to Auguste Comte thoughte, the author is thoroughly going into the course introduced by Charcot: scientific medicine instead of empirical one; structural medical-anatomy against rudimentary approach and rising of experimental medicine; impact of human sciences on medical knowledge; appearance of specialists near general practitioners; idea of organic disturbances denying any 'faith healing". In fact, Charcot asserts that bedside instruction prevails against accurate sciences. PMID:11640482

  6. Advanced Sensor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, D. C.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Concepts project was conducted under the Center Director's Discretionary Fund at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Its objective was to advance the technology originally developed for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology project. The objective of this effort was to develop and test several new motion sensors. To date, the investigators have invented seven new technologies during this endeavor and have conceived several others. The innovative basic sensor technology is an absolute position sensor. It employs only two active components, and it is simple, inexpensive, reliable, repeatable, lightweight, and relatively unobtrusive. Two sensors can be utilized in the same physical space to achieve redundancy. The sensor has micrometer positional accuracy and can be configured as a two- or three-dimensional sensor. The sensor technology has the potential to pioneer a new class of linear and rotary sensors. This sensor is the enabling technology for autonomous assembly of modular structures in space and on extraterrestrial locations.

  7. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries. PMID:23531977

  8. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  9. Advocacy: exploring the concept.

    PubMed

    Mardell, A

    1996-10-01

    The concept of the nurse as the patient's advocate is one that has become popular in the last fifteen years or so in both North America and the United Kingdom, having its basis in nursing theory. The UKCC first embraced the concept, stating in the Code of Professional Conduct that nurses must; 'act always in such a manner so as to promote and safeguard the interests and well being of patients and clients'. This is a laudable principle and one that nurses cannot dispute as there are many members of our society who are weak and vulnerable and may be unable to speak up for themselves. But are nurses always in a position to be an advocate for their patients? As the nature of nursing is so diverse then the nature of advocacy will be different in the multifarious settings in which nurses practise. Can theatre nurses ever be in a position to act as an advocate for a patient who is often anaesthetised? What precisely is advocacy and is the Concise Oxford Dictionary definition of 'one who pleads for another' appropriate in the nursing context? Then there is the position of nurses in the healthcare organisation in which they practise. In advocating for their patients, nurses may find they are pleading a case for a patient, or a group of patients, that could bring the nurse into conflict with their medical colleagues or with the management of the organisation by whom they are employed. Additionally, they may not posses the skills and knowledge to advocate effectively under such circumstances. Nursing is littered with the casualties of such conflicts over the years, the most publicised of whom, in the UK, was probably Graham Pink who lost his job as a charge nurse after drawing public attention to what he considered to be an unacceptable standard of care in the hospital in which he worked. PMID:8974516

  10. The Moon Village Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  11. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) experiment design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment concept is to erect a hybrid deployed/assembled structure as an early space experiment in large space structures technology. The basic objectives can be broken down into three generic areas: (1) by performing assembly tasks both in space and in neutral buoyancy simulation, a mathematical basis will be found for the validity conditions of neutral buoyancy, thus enhancing the utility of water as a medium for simulation of weightlessness; (2) a data base will be established describing the capabilities and limitations of EVA crewmembers, including effects of such things as hardware size and crew restraints; and (3) experience of the M.I.T. Space Systems Lab in neutral buoyancy simulation of large space structures assembly indicates that the assembly procedure may create the largest loads that a structure will experience during its lifetime. Data obtained from the experiment will help establish an accurate loading model to aid designers of future space structures.

  12. The Concept of Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a personal exploration of where the ideas of "distribution" that we are trying to develop in students come from and are leading to, how they fit together, and where they are important and why. We need to have such considerations in the back of our minds when designing learning experiences. The notion of "distribution" as a lens…

  13. Structural assembly demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The experiment is of an operational variety, designed to assess crew capability in Large Space System (LSS) assembly. The six Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment objectives include: (1) the establishment of a quantitative correlation between LSS neutral buoyancy simulation and on-orbit assembly operations in order to enhance the validity of those assembly simulations; (2) the quantitative study of the capabilities and mechanics of human assembly in an Extravehicular Activity environment; (3) the further corroboration of the LSS Assembly Analysis cost algorithm through the obtainment of hard data base information; (4) the verification of LSS assembly techniques and timeless, as well as the identification of crew imposed loads and assembly aid requirements and concepts; (5) verification of a Launch/Assembly Platform structure concept for other LSS missions; and (6) lastly, to advance thermal control concepts through a flexible heat pipe.

  14. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of “traditional mental health promoting practices” was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a “mind control” as referred by Caraka, is achieved through “spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health. PMID:23858273

  15. Presence: concept, determinants, and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IJsselsteijn, Wijnand A.; de Ridder, Huib; Freeman, Jonathan; Avons, Steve E.

    2000-06-01

    The concept of presence, i.e. the sensation of 'being there' in a mediated environment, has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and is becoming increasingly relevant both to broadcasters and display developers. Although research into presence is still at an early stage of development, there is a consensus that presence has multiple determinants. To identify and test which parameters affect presence, a reliable, robust and valid means of measuring presence is required. In this paper, we describe the categories of factors thought to have an impact on presence. Furthermore, we present an overview of various approaches taken to measuring presence, which can be divided into two general categories: subjective measures and objective corroborative measures. Since presence is a subjective experience, the most direct way of assessment is through users' subjective report. This approach has serious limitations however, and should be used judiciously. Objective measures, such as postural, physiological or social responses to media, can be used to corroborate subjective measures, thereby overcoming some of their limitations. At present, the most promising direction for presence measurement is to develop and use an aggregate measure of presence that is comprised of both subjective and objective components, tailored to the specific medium under study.

  16. Ardhanareeshwara concept: Brain and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Raveesh, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Ardhanareeshvara is a combination of three words “Ardha,” “Nari,” and “Ishwara” means “half,” “woman,” and “lord,” respectively, which when combined means the lord whose half is a woman. It is believed that the God is Lord Shiva and the woman part is his consort Goddess Parvati or Shakti. The Ardhanareeshvara represents a constructive and generative power. Ardhanareeshvara symbolizes male and female principles cannot be separated. It conveys the unity of opposites in the universe. The male half stands for Purusha and female half is Prakriti. Ardhanareeshvara harmonizes the two conflicting ways of life: The spiritual way of the ascetic as represented by Shiva, and the materialistic way of the householder symbolized by Parvati. It conveys that Shiva and Shakti are one and the same. A human being is not a pure unisexual organism. Each human organism bears the potentiality of both male and female sex. Neurohormonal mechanisms have been found to be greatly influencing the sexual behavior. The modern world has come to understand the concept of “Ardhanareeshwara” as it aspires to resolve the paradox of opposites into a unity, not by negation, but through positive experiences of life. The matching of opposites produces the true rhythm of life. PMID:23858265

  17. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Jefferies, Sharon; Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert; Mary, Natalie; Watson, Judith; Lewis, Ruthan

    2016-01-01

    When the first human visitors on Mars prepare to return to Earth, they will have to comply with stringent planetary protection requirements. Apollo Program experience warns that opening an EVA hatch directly to the surface will bring dust into the ascent vehicle. To prevent inadvertent return of potential Martian contaminants to Earth, careful consideration must be given to the way in which crew ingress their Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a pressurized rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel that eliminates extravehicular activity (EVA) ingress is an attractive solution. Beyond addressing the immediate MAV access issue, a reusable tunnel may be useful for other surface applications, such as rover to habitat transfer, once its primary mission is complete. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team is studying the optimal balance between surface tunnel functionality, mass, and stowed volume as part of the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). The study team began by identifying the minimum set of functional requirements needed for the tunnel to perform its primary mission, as this would presumably be the simplest design, with the lowest mass and volume. This Minimum Functional Tunnel then becomes a baseline against which various tunnel design concepts and potential alternatives can be traded, and aids in assessing the mass penalty of increased functionality. Preliminary analysis indicates that the mass of a single-mission tunnel is about 237 kg, not including mass growth allowance.

  18. ATA beam director experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Younger, F.C.; Cruz, G.E.; Nolting, E.

    1986-06-23

    This report describes beam director elements for an experiment at the Advanced Test Accelerator. The elements described include a vernier magnet for beam aiming, an achromat magnet, and an isolation system for the beam interface. These components are built at small scale for concept testing. (JDH)

  19. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  20. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  1. Hot Brakes and Energy-Related Concepts: Is Energy Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, V.; Pinto, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a secondary school experience which is intended to help students to think profoundly about some energy-related concepts. It is quite different to other experiences of mechanics because the focus is not on the quantitative calculation of energy conservation but on the qualitative understanding of energy degradation. We first…

  2. "Aesthetic Emotion": An Ambiguous Concept in John Dewey's Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohr, H.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the concept of "aesthetic emotion" in John Dewey's "Art as experience". The analysis shows that Dewey's line of investigation offers valuable insights as to the role of emotion in experience: it shows emotion as an integral part and structuring force, as a cultural and historical category. However, the notion of aesthetic…

  3. Investigating the Act of Design in Discharge Concept Using PMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestariningsih; Anwar, Muhammad; Setiawan, Agus Mulyanto

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the act of design in discharge concept using Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI) approach with Lapindo's Mud phenomenon as a context. Design research was chosen as the method used in this research that consists of three phases, namely preparing for the experiment, teaching experiment, and…

  4. Presupposition Processing and the (Re)activation of Negated Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autry, Kevin S.; Levine, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Negated words take longer to recognize than non-negated words following sentences with negation, suggesting that negated concepts are less active. The present experiments tested the possibility that this reduced activation would not persist beyond immediate testing. Experiment 1 used a probe task and materials similar to those used in previous…

  5. How do particle physicists learn the programming concepts they need?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluth, S.; Pia, M. G.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Steinbach, P.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to read, use and develop code efficiently and successfully is a key ingredient in modern particle physics. We report the experience of a training program, identified as “Advanced Programming Concepts”, that introduces software concepts, methods and techniques to work effectively on a daily basis in a HEP experiment or other programming intensive fields. This paper illustrates the principles, motivations and methods that shape the “Advanced Computing Concepts” training program, the knowledge base that it conveys, an analysis of the feedback received so far, and the integration of these concepts in the software development process of the experiments as well as its applicability to a wider audience.

  6. Spacelab - Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Spacelab was a versatile laboratory carried in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay for special research flights. Its various elements could be combined to accommodate the many types of scientific research that could best be performed in space. Spacelab consisted of an enclosed, pressurized laboratory module and open U-shaped pallets located at the rear of the laboratory module. The laboratory module contained utilities, computers, work benches, and instrument racks to conduct scientific experiments in astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and engineering. Equipment, such as telescopes, anternas, and sensors, was mounted on pallets for direct exposure to space. A 1-meter (3.3-ft.) diameter aluminum tunnel, resembling a z-shaped tube, connected the crew compartment (mid deck) to the module. The reusable Spacelab allowed scientists to bring experiment samples back to Earth for post-flight analysis. Spacelab was a cooperative venture of the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA. ESA was responsible for funding, developing, and building of Spacelab, while NASA was responsible for the launch and operational use of Spacelab. Spacelab missions were cooperative efforts between scientists and engineers from around the world. Teams from NASA centers, universities, private industry, government agencies and international space organizations designed the experiments. The Marshall Space Flight Center was NASA's lead center for monitoring the development of Spacelab and managing the program.

  7. Affective Incoherence: When Affective Concepts and Embodied Reactions Clash

    PubMed Central

    Centerbar, David B.; Clore, Gerald L.; Schnall, Simone; Garvin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In five studies, we examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included: approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than affective incoherence. We suggested that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits, and that incoherence is costly, for cognitive performance. PMID:18361672

  8. A robotic framework for semantic concept learning.

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, Kevin M.; Levinson, Stephen E.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2004-09-01

    This report describes work carried out under a Sandia National Laboratories Excellence in Engineering Fellowship in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Our research group (at UIUC) is developing a intelligent robot, and attempting to teach it language. While there are many aspects of this research, for the purposes of this report the most important are the following ideas. Language is primarily based on semantics, not syntax. To truly learn meaning, the language engine must be part of an embodied intelligent system, one capable of using associative learning to form concepts from the perception of experiences in the world, and further capable of manipulating those concepts symbolically. In the work described here, we explore the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) in this capacity. HMMs are capable of automatically learning and extracting the underlying structure of continuous-valued inputs and representing that structure in the states of the model. These states can then be treated as symbolic representations of the inputs. We describe a composite model consisting of a cascade of HMMs that can be embedded in a small mobile robot and used to learn correlations among sensory inputs to create symbolic concepts. These symbols can then be manipulated linguistically and used for decision making. This is the project final report for the University Collaboration LDRD project, 'A Robotic Framework for Semantic Concept Learning'.

  9. SLI Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Space Launch Initiative (SLI), NASA's priority developmental program focused on empowering America's leadership in space. SLI includes commercial, higher education, and defense partnerships and contracts to offer widespread participation in both the risk and success of developing our nation's next-generation reusable launch vehicle. This photo depicts an artist's concept of a future second-generation launch vehicle. For the SLI, architecture definition includes all components of the next-generation reusable launch system: Earth-to-orbit vehicles (the Space Shuttle is the first generation earth-to-orbit vehicle), crew transfer vehicles, transfer stages, ground processing systems, flight operations systems, and development of business case strategies. Three contractor teams have each been funded to develop potential second- generation reusable launch system architectures: The Boeing Company of Seal Beach, California; Lockheed Martin Corporation of Denver, Colorado along with a team including Northrop Grumman of El Segundo, California; and Orbital Sciences Corporation of Dulles, Virginia.

  10. The PHOENIX Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Takahashi, H.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Slovik, G.C.; Horak, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    A proposed means of transmuting key long-lived radioactive isotopes, primarily the so-called minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm), using a hybrid proton-accelerator-sub-critical lattice, is described. It is argued that by partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, that some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. If spent fuel partitioning and transmutation were fully implemented, the time required to reduce the waste stream toxicity below that of uranium ore would be reduced from more than 10,000 years to approximately 30 years. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and much of the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW{sub e}. 14 refs., 29 figs.

  11. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  12. Concepts of fever.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, P A

    1998-09-28

    If asked to define fever, most physicians would offer a thermal definition, such as "fever is a temperature greater than...." In offering their definition, many would ignore the importance of the anatomic site at which temperature measurements are taken, as well as the diurnal oscillations that characterize body temperature. If queried about the history of clinical thermometry, few physicians could identify the source or explain the pertinacity of the belief that 98.6 degrees F (37.0 degrees C) has special meaning vis-à-vis normal body temperature. Fewer still could cite the origin of the thermometer or trace the evolution of modern concepts of clinical thermometry. Although many would have some knowledge of the fundamentals of thermoregulation and the role played by exogenous and endogenous pyrogens in the induction of fever, few would have more than a superficial knowledge of the broad biological activities of pyrogenic cytokines or know of the existence of an equally complex and important system of endogenous cryogens. A distinct minority would appreciate the obvious paradoxes inherent in an enlarging body of data concerned with the question of fever's adaptive value. The present review considers many of these issues in the light of current data. PMID:9759682

  13. Elementary Teacher's Conceptions of Inquiry Teaching: Messages for Teacher Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Joseph E.; Watters, James J.; Brownlee, Jo; Lupton, Mandy

    2011-09-01

    This study explored practicing elementary school teacher's conceptions of teaching in ways that foster inquiry-based learning in the science curriculum (inquiry teaching). The advocacy for inquiry-based learning in contemporary curricula assumes the principle that students learn in their own way by drawing on direct experience fostered by the teacher. That students should be able to discover answers themselves through active engagement with new experiences was central to the thinking of eminent educators such as Pestalozzi, Dewey and Montessori. However, even after many years of research and practice, inquiry learning as a referent for teaching still struggles to find expression in the average teachers' pedagogy. This study drew on interview data from 20 elementary teachers. A phenomenographic analysis revealed three conceptions of teaching for inquiry learning in science in the elementary years of schooling: (a) The Experience-centered conception where teachers focused on providing interesting sensory experiences to students; (b) The Problem-centered conception where teachers focused on engaging students with challenging problems; and (c) The Question-centered conception where teachers focused on helping students to ask and answer their own questions. Understanding teachers' conceptions has implications for both the enactment of inquiry teaching in the classroom as well as the uptake of new teaching behaviors during professional development, with enhanced outcomes for engaging students in Science.

  14. Proving the Ocean Nourishment Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Vast regions of the sea are barren because of a lack of essential nutrients. Ocean Nourishment is the concept of injecting nutrients into the photic zone of the ocean to store carbon and increase the base of the marine food web. It is elaborated in Jones & Young (1997). The first step in demonstrating this concept is to see if the limiting nutrients can be recognised and provided to the oligotrophic ocean. To this end water samples from three sites were collected in ultraclean polycarbonate culture bottles and enriched with various mixtures of nutrients. They were then placed in a water bath and subjected to natural sunlight for a number of days. Fluorescence levels were measured daily. Previously Thomas (1969) carried out enrichment experiments in and out of high nutrient water in the North Pacific and again Thomas (1970) cultured on the deck of his ship nutrient poor waters in the Pacific. He found nitrogen was the most important limiting nutrient in the poor waters but that micronutrients produced growth in the nutrient rich waters. Ryther and Dunstan (1971) in the Atlantic cultured coastal water with only nitrogen and phosphorus separately. The addition of nitrogen without phosphate produced growth in all cases. To increase the geographic coverage of enrichment experiments, samples were collected off Morocco twice, in the Tasman Sea and in the Sulu Sea. The samples enriched with different concentrations of urea (typically 10 microM) and phosphorous. An increase concentration of chlorophyll is the result of growth of phytoplankton exceeding death and grazing by zooplankton. At five sites an increase of chlorophyll was observed in the macronutrient enriched bottles over that in the control. At the sixth site the control grew at much the same rate as the enriched sample possibly due to contamination by the fluorometer. The maximum chlorophyll level was observed after 4 or 5 days. Replicate samples showed different levels of chlorophyll growths. It was concluded

  15. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    experimented with different sliding window models and found the model with parameters that led to best performance in a preliminary sequence labeling task. The evaluation of this approach, performed against the i2b2/VA concept extraction corpus, showed that incorporating features based on the distribution of words across a large unannotated corpus significantly aids concept extraction. Compared to a supervised-only approach as a baseline, the micro-averaged f-measure for exact match increased from 80.3% to 82.3% and the micro-averaged f-measure based on inexact match increased from 89.7% to 91.3%. These improvements are highly significant according to the bootstrap resampling method and also considering the performance of other systems. Thus, distributional semantic features significantly improve the performance of concept extraction from clinical narratives by taking advantage of word distribution information obtained from unannotated data. PMID:22085698

  16. Progress in advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-08-01

    A review is given of recent progress in this field, drawing heavily upon material presented at the Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, The Abbey, June 12--18, 1994. Attention is addressed to (1) plasma based concepts, (2) photo-cathodes, (3) radio frequency sources and Two-Beam Accelerators, (4) near and far-field schemes (including collective accelerators), (5) beam handling and conditioning, and (6) exotic collider concepts (such as photon colliders and muon colliders).

  17. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  18. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  19. Health concepts, issues, and experience in the Abakaliki area, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuma, C

    1994-01-01

    Environmental health problems are increasingly receiving global attention. The health of entire nations may not only be affected by adverse environmental conditions, but by nutritional deficiencies that lead to morbidity and mortality. The type and extent of adverse health effects in a population depend on the potential for exposure to some environmental factors and pathogens as well as other environmental variables like industrialization, sanitation conditions, and urbanization. National and international comparisons between health status indicators can reveal the extent of any differences that exist, including dynamic changes in prevailing environmental conditions which may be helpful in characterizing the role of specific risk factors. Improvements in collection of environmental data related to health can help to identify, control, and eliminate many of the factors that are associated with environmental risk in the Abakaliki area of eastern Nigeria. PMID:9644193

  20. Indigenous concepts useful in programs. Experiences in the Bolivian highlands.

    PubMed

    Junge, B

    1994-01-01

    Culturally appropriate health messages can make a huge difference in conveying health information on, for instance, acute respiratory diseases (ARI). In Bolivia, PLAN health projects are devoted to developing and implementing effective strategies to reduce infant and child morbidity and mortality. Acute respiratory disease are a major contributory cause. Health messages emphasize recognition by mothers of symptoms, such as prolonged coughing and fever and rapid breathing. The usual strategy promoted by the World Health Organization is to translate the messages into Spanish and print posters and training manuals. However, ARI has not been affected by such efforts. In Altiplano, a rural Aymara community, the community health workers receive this training in Spanish, but the Aymara idiom is used in this rural area. PLAN conducted an ethnographic study which revealed that pneumonia does not translate well into Aymara, and other less serious folk illnesses have similar symptoms. The solution was to promote the notion that rapid breathing was a serious problem, a solution not possible without linking indigenous and biomedical perspectives. PMID:12179560