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Sample records for gracilis muscle flap

  1. [The gracilis muscle as musculocutaneous flap. Evaluation of 20 cases].

    PubMed

    Gholam, D; Trevidic, P; Kleimann, P; Hautefeuille, P; Nicoletis, C

    1991-01-01

    The use of gracilis as muscular or myocutaneous flap is very well-known. The authors report 20 cases of gracilis flap including 13 reconstructions of the vaginal cavity following extended abdomino-perineal resection. Some technical points concerning the localization of the cutaneous part of the flap and the pedicle dissection are discussed. The use of gracilis flap is still limited in surgical teams following extended abdomino-perineal resection, nevertheless it is a very useful flap because of its low morbidity, the shortening of patient hospitalization and the very satisfying aesthetic result of the neo-vaginal cavity. PMID:1726389

  2. Extending the use of the gracilis muscle flap in perineal reconstruction surgery.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Stephen J; Almasharqah, Riyadh; Fogg, Quentin A; Anderson, William

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the perineum is required following oncological resections. Plastic surgical techniques can be used to restore the aesthetics and function of the perineum. The gracilis myocutaneous flap provides a substantial skin paddle, with minimal donor site morbidity. The flap is pedicled on a perforator from the medial circumflex femoral artery, giving it limited reach across the perineum. Tunnelling the flap under the adductor longus muscle may free up more of the arterial pedicle, increasing its reach. On three female cadavers, bilateral gracilis flaps were raised in the standard surgical manner, giving six flaps in total. With the flaps pedicled across the perineum, the distance from the tip of each flap was measured to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). The flaps were then tunnelled under the adductor longus muscle. The distances to the ASIS were measured again. The average pedicle length was greater than 7 cm. Tunnelling the flap under the adductor longus muscle increased the reach by more than 4 cm on average. Cadaveric dissection has shown that tunnelling of the flap in a novel way increase its reach across the perineum. This additional flexibility improves its use clinically and is of benefit to plastic surgeons operating in perineal reconstruction. PMID:27221783

  3. [An Adult Case of Transperineal Repair of Congenital Rectourethral Fistula Using Gracilis Muscle Flap Interposition].

    PubMed

    Yo, Toeki; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Hanasaki, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Yukako; Togo, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshihide; Nojima, Michio; Yamamoto, Shingo; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2015-07-01

    A man in his 50s was referred to our hospital after recurrent severe urinary tract infection. He had undergone anoplasty for anorectal malformation during early infancy. He noticed urinary leakage from the anus for a long time. Under diagnosis of congenital rectourethral fistula, we performed fistula closure. The fistula was transsected via transperineal incision and each stump was closed. A gracilis muscle flap approximately 30 cm long was harvested from the left thigh, brought into the deepest part between the separated rectum and urethra through a subcutaneous tunnel and fixed there. The urinary leakage from the anus disappeared, and the infection resolved. Application of gracilis muscle flap for congenital diseases is rare, but was useful in the present case. PMID:26278215

  4. Bilateral pedicled gracilis flap for scrotal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Daigeler, Adrien; Behr, Björn; Mikhail, Bassem Daniel; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Wallner, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Trauma, infection and cancer can cause severe scrotal defects. The demand to a definitive reconstruction in terms of aesthetics and function is high. Primary closure, skin grafts and local fasciocutaneous flaps do not meet these high demands in most cases. The authors treated a series of patients requiring scrotal reconstruction with bilateral pedicled gracilis muscle flaps and split thickness skin grafts, resulting in satisfying aesthetic and functional outcomes. PMID:27318782

  5. [Immediate vaginal reconstruction with a musculocutaneous flap from the gracilis muscle after extended abdomino-perineal resection].

    PubMed

    Sezeur, A; Hautefeuille, P; Trevidic, P

    1995-01-01

    Reconstruction of a functional vagina after radical abdomino-perineal resection is a difficult surgical problem. The use of the gracilis myocutaneous flap provides a satisfactory solution. This article describes the surgical procedure of immediate vaginal reconstruction using the gracilis myocutaneous flap. Unfortunately, this technique is still not widely used by surgical teams. Nevertheless, it is a useful flap because of its low morbidity and the satisfying result of the functional neovaginal cavity. PMID:8526447

  6. [PELVIC FLOOR RECONSTRUCTION AFTER PELVIC EVISCERATION USING GRACILIS MUSCULOCUTANEOUS FLAP].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, V N; Bakirov, A A; Kabirov, I R; Izmajlov, A A; Kutlijarov, L M; Safiullin, R L; Urmancev, M F; Sultanov, I M; Abdrahimov, R V

    2015-01-01

    Evisceration of the pelvic organs (EPO) is a fairly uncommon surgical treatment that removes all organs from a patient's pelvic cavity. We use gracilis musculocutaneous flap to repair pelvic floor after EPO. Over the period from November 2013 to December 2014 we carried out EPO with reconstructive repair of the pelvic floor with gracilis musculocutaneous flap in 10 patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors. We describe the surgical procedure and surgical outcomes in these patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years. Mean duration of EPO with the pelvic floor repair was 285 min., mean blood loss--595 mL and the average length of hospital stay--19 days. Gracilis musculocutaneous flap has a sufficient arterial supply and mobility for pelvic floor reconstruction. Necrosis of flap's distal edge occurred in one of the 10 clinical cases, while the remaining flaps were fully preserved. Complete healing of wounds with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor muscles was observed in all cases. Pelvic floor reconstruction is an essential procedure in order to reduce complications associated with the evisceration of the pelvic organs. The Gracilis musculocutaneous flap is the logical alternative to repair pelvic floor defect. It does not contribute to complications like functional deficiency of the lower limbs, complications of stoma formation or weakening of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:26390558

  7. Use of a bilobed gracilis myocutaneous flap in perineal and genital reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Raj M; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2010-08-01

    The gracilis myocutaneous flap has limited functional donor site morbidity and effectively contours genitoperineal reconstructions. When harvested using a traditional vertical skin paddle, distal-tip necrosis (secondary to inconsistent perforator anatomy) is a well-documented complication. Orienting the skin paddle transversely provides a reliable alternative with a shorter rotational arc but results in a more conspicuous deformity and smaller skin paddle when primary closure is desired. On the basis of recent anatomic studies, we designed a pedicled gracilis myocutaneous flap with a bilobed cutaneous paddle to maximally incorporate both the transverse and longitudinal dimensions of the flap's nearly circular angiosome. The bilobed design allows harvest of a larger transverse skin flap (with a shorter arc of rotation) while a shorter, more dependable vertical skin flap is inset into the transverse flap donor site (rather than inside the critical wound bed). Herein, we detail our surgical technique and provide 2 illustrative case examples. PMID:20606582

  8. Free Flap Functional Muscle Transfers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ryan M; Ruch, David S

    2016-08-01

    Free functional muscle transfers remain a powerful reconstructive tool to restore upper extremity function when other options such as tendon or nerve transfers are not available. This reconstructive technique is commonly used for patients following trauma, ischemic contractures, and brachial plexopathies. Variable outcomes have been reported following free functional muscle transfers that are related to motor nerve availability and reinnervation. This article highlights considerations around donor motor nerve selection, dissection, and use of the gracilis muscle, and the surgical approach to performing a free functional muscle transfer to restore elbow flexion and/or digit flexion. PMID:27387083

  9. Saving grace: distally pedicled gracilis muscular flap in lower limb salvage

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kavit; Dempsey, Marlese; Ghali, Shadi; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    During the 1970s, the incidence of limb amputation following surgery for sarcoma excision was as high as 50%. Two important developments have led to modern day limb salvage, namely chemotherapy and precision imaging techniques. We present a case of limb salvage in a patient with osteosarcoma plagued with recurrent infection after prosthetic revision. We discuss the use of the distally based pedicled gracilis muscular flap, which has little mention as a reconstructive option for defects around the knee. PMID:25085952

  10. Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Flap after Parotidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Mohamed, Morsi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Most patients after either superficial or total parotidectomy develop facial deformity and Frey syndrome, which leads to a significant degree of patient dissatisfaction. Objective Assess the functional outcome and esthetic results of the superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap after superficial or total parotidectomy. Methods A prospective cohort study for 11 patients subjected to parotidectomy using a partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap. The functional outcome (Frey syndrome, facial nerve involvement, and ear lobule sensation) and the esthetic results were evaluated subjectively and objectively. Results Facial nerve palsy occurred in 5 cases (45%), and all of them recovered completely within 6 months. The Minor starch iodine test was positive in 3 patients (27%), although only 1 (9%) subjectively complained of gustatory sweating. The designed visual analog score completed by the patients themselves ranged from 0 to 3 with a mean of 1.55 ± 0.93; the scores from the blinded evaluators ranged from 1 to 3 with a mean 1.64 ± 0.67. Conclusion The partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap offers a reasonable cosmetic option for reconstruction following either superficial or total parotidectomy by improving the facial deformity. The flap also lowers the incidence of Frey syndrome objectively and subjectively with no reported hazard of the spinal accessory nerve. PMID:26491478

  11. Prelaminated Gracilis Flap with Buccal Mucosal Graft for Salvage of Devastated Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In patients with devastated bulbous urethra, that is, bulbar necrosis, failed fasciocutaneous repairs and “watering can perineum” repair options are limited by paucity of reliable local tissue suitable for reconstruction. In this case report we demonstrate a novel variation of a two-stage technique for reconstruction of a devastated bulbous urethra in a 57-year-old male who suffered penetrating trauma to his previously reconstructed urethra. Because of extensive loss of local tissue from the prior reconstruction and subsequent trauma and infection a 2-stage technique with use of gracilis was employed. This technique involved creation of two independently vascularized urethral hemi-plates prelaminated with buccal mucosa graft (BMG). In the first stage the dorsal plate was created by quilting buccal graft onto corpora cavernosa to create a temporary augmented perineal urethrostomy. In the same stage the future ventral neourethral plate was created by grafting another BMG onto the exposed distal gracilis muscle. Eight weeks later the two prelaminated plates were anastomosed by tunneling the gracilis-BMG composite into the perineum. At 8-month follow-up patient has normal voiding and continence. To our knowledge this is the first report of reconstructing an entire segment of devastated urethra in such a manner. PMID:26257976

  12. Double-powered free gracilis muscle transfer for smile reanimation: A longitudinal optoelectronic study.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Frigerio, Alice; Mapelli, Andrea; Tarabbia, Filippo; Annoni, Isabella; Colombo, Valeria; Latiff, Mahfuz; Pimenta Ferreira, Claudia L; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Zago, Matteo; Biglioli, Federico

    2015-07-01

    The choice of the motor donor nerve is a crucial point in free flap transfer algorithms. In the case of unilateral facial paralysis, the contralateral healthy facial nerve can provide coordinated smile animation and spontaneous emotional expression, but with unpredictable axonal ingrowth into the recipient muscle. Otherwise, the masseteric nerve ipsilateral to the paralysis can provide a powerful neural input, without a spontaneous trigger of the smile. Harvesting a bulky muscular free flap may enhance the quantity of contraction but esthetic results are unpleasant. Therefore, the logical solution for obtaining high amplitude of smiling combined with spontaneity of movement is to couple the neural input: the contralateral facial nerve plus the ipsilateral masseteric nerve. Thirteen patients with unilateral dense facial paralysis underwent a one-stage facial reanimation with a gracilis flap powered by a double donor neural input, provided by both the ipsilateral masseteric nerve (coaptation by an end-to-end neurorrhaphy with the obturator nerve) and the contralateral facial nerve (coaptation through a cross-face nerve graft: end-to-end neurorrhaphy on the healthy side and end-to-side neurorrhaphy on the obturator nerve, distal to the masseteric/obturator neurorrhaphy). Their facial movements were evaluated with an optoelectronic motion analyzer. Before surgery, on average, the paretic side exhibited a smaller total three-dimensional mobility than the healthy side, with a 52% activation ratio and >30% of asymmetry. After surgery, the differences significantly decreased (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p < 0.05), with an activation ratio between 75% (maximum smile) and 91% (maximum smile with teeth clenching), and <20% of asymmetry. Similar modifications were seen for the performance of spontaneous smiles. The significant presurgical asymmetry of labial movements reduced after surgery. The use of a double donor neural input permitted both movements that were similar

  13. MICROSURGICAL TRANSFER OF THE GRACILIS MUSCLE FOR ELBOW FLEXION IN BRACHIAL PLEXUS INJURY IN ADULTS: RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EIGHT CASES

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Luiz Koiti; do Nascimento, Alexandre Tadeu; Capócio, Roberto; Mattar, Rames; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Wei, Teng Hsiang; Torres, Luciano Ruiz; Moya, Fernando Munhoz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treating brachial plexus injuries is a major challenge, especially lesions that are presented late, with more than 12 months of evolution. We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent one of the possibilities for attempting to restore the function of upper limbs affected under such conditions: microsurgical transfer of the gracilis muscle for elbow flexion. Methods: Eight patients were included, divided into two groups: one in which the procedure consisted of neurorrhaphy of the muscle flap with sural nerve grafting and anastomosis more distally; and the other, in which the neurorrhaphy was performed directly on the spinal accessory nerve, with anastomosis in thoracoacromial vessels. Results: We found a significant difference between the groups. A greater number of satisfactory results (75% M4) were found among patients who underwent direct neurorrhaphy, whereas the procedure using grafts for neurorrhaphy was less successful (25% M4). Conclusion: Patients who underwent microsurgical functional transfer of the gracilis muscle in which vascular anastomoses were performed in thoracoacromial vessels presented better functional outcomes than shown by those whose anastomoses were in the brachial artery with subsequent use of a nerve graft. PMID:27027050

  14. Double free gracilis muscle transfer after complete brachial plexus injury: First Canadian experience

    PubMed Central

    Elzinga, Kate; Zuo, Kevin J; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael; Babicki, Sasha; Chan, K Ming

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brachial plexus root avulsions are devastating injuries, and are complex and challenging to reconstruct. Double free muscle transfer using the gracilis muscles is a potentially effective method of restoring upper extremity function. The authors report on the first two patients treated using this technique in Canada. Both sustained traumatic brachial plexus root avulsion injuries resulting in a flail arm. In the first step of this two-stage procedure, a gracilis muscle was transferred to restore elbow flexion, and wrist and digit extension. Months later, the transfer of the second gracilis muscle was performed to enhance elbow flexion and to enable wrist and digit flexion. Postoperatively, both patients achieved Medical Research Council grade 4 elbow flexion, functional handgrip and were able to return to gainful employment. Patient satisfaction was high and active range of motion improved substantially. The authors’ experience supports the use of this technique following severe brachial plexus injury. PMID:25152644

  15. The role of adenosine in exercise hyperaemia of the gracilis muscle in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed Central

    Poucher, S M; Nowell, C G; Collis, M G

    1990-01-01

    1. A number of metabolites have been proposed to control the vascular tone of skeletal muscle during exercise. The present study was designed to investigate the role of adenosine in this response by determining the effect of the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline. 2. The gracilis muscle of anaesthetized cats was exposed and made to contract by stimulating the obturator nerve (at 1 Hz, 5 V, 0.1 ms) for 20 min. Gracilis muscle blood flow and tension were measured during exercise and for 20 min following exercise. Initially this was performed in each animal during the infusion of a vehicle solution (50% polyethylene glycol 400, 50% 0.1 M-NaOH, 0.1 ml min-1 I.V.). Exercise was then repeated during infusion of either further vehicle (group I), 8-phenyltheophylline (group II) or 3-propylxanthine (group III), both at 2.7 x 10(7) mol min-1 kg-1. 3. In group 1 (n = 4) gracilis muscle blood flow during the first exercise period increased by 47.5 +/- 11.3 ml min-1 (110 g)-1 and gracilis muscle tension by 8.6 +/- 1.3 kg (100 g muscle mass)-1 at 20 min of exercise. These responses were not significantly different when repeated. 4. In group II (n = 5), blood flow increased by 46.9 +/- 9.9 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 and tension by 6.5 +/- 0.7 kg (100 g muscle mass)-1 during vehicle infusion. Infusion of 8-phenyltheophylline at a rate which abolished the vasodilatation response to 2-chloroadenosine, significantly reduced the muscle blood flow increase to 19.8 +/- 2.7 ml min-1 (100 g muscle mass)-1 (P less than 0.05) but the tension response was unaffected (increased by 7.0 +/- 0.8 kg (100 g muscle mass)-1). 8-Phenyltheophylline did not affect gracilis muscle blood flow or tension at rest. 5. Administration of 3-propylxanthine, which did not modify the vasodilatation response to 2-chloroadenosine, failed to alter the vascular responses to muscle contraction. 6. These results suggest that activation of adenosine receptors can contribute to up to 40% of the vasodilatation

  16. The Role of Muscle Flaps for Salvage of Failed Perforator Free Flaps

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the most heroic efforts, sometimes free flaps fail. Perforator free flaps are not invincible and can suffer the same fate. The real challenge is how to decide what is the next best choice for achieving the desired outcome. Methods: Over the past decade, 298 free perforator flaps were used in our institution. Total failure occurred in 16 patients, and partial failure requiring a second free flap occurred in an additional 6 patients for a true success rate of 93%. All failures had some form of secondary vascularized tissue transfer, which included the use of muscle flaps in 9 (41%) different patients. Results: Initial flap salvage after a failed perforator free flap was attempted with 12 perforator and 5 muscle free flaps as well as 1 perforator and 2 muscle local flaps. These were not all successful, with loss of 3 muscle free flaps and 3 perforator flaps. Tertiary free flap coverage was successful in 3 cases using 2 muscle flaps and 1 perforator free flap. Local fasciocutaneous flaps or primary wound closure was used in the remaining individuals. Conclusions: Microsurgical tissue transfers can be the most rewarding and at the same time the most challenging reconstructive endeavor. Persistence in achieving the desired outcome can require multiple steps. Perforator flaps are an important asset to obtain this goal. However, muscle flaps can still be a useful alternative, and the message is that they should not be overlooked as sometimes a viable option. PMID:26893989

  17. Gracilis muscle as neoanal sphincter for faecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Zailani, M H M; Azmi, M N; Deen, K I

    2010-03-01

    Faecal incontinence is a debilitating chronic clinical condition which may affect the patient and care givers. Modality of treatment is based on severity of the symptoms as well as the anatomical defect itself, availability of resources and expertise. We describe a modified technique of dynamic graciloplasty as neoanal sphincter for the treatment severe faecal incontinence who has failed previous over lapping sphincteroplasty. In our modified version, instead of using implanted intramuscular electrodes and subcutaneous neurostimulator to provide continuous stimulation, the patient will undergo an external stimulation on the nerve of transplanted gracilis periodically and concurrent biofeedback therapy. We believe the technique is relatively easy to learn and very cost effective without any electrodes or neurostimulator related complications. PMID:21265253

  18. Benefits of using omental pedicle flap over muscle flap for closure of open window thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Chikaishi, Yasuhiro; Kuwata, Taiji; Takenaka, Masaru; Oka, Soichi; Hirai, Ayako; Imanishi, Naoko; Kuroda, Koji; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Open window thoracotomy (OWT) as well as its closure are challenging. Transposition of omental pedicle and muscle flaps is often performed for OWT closure; however, the better technique among the two is unknown. The purpose of this series was to evaluate the outcomes of using both omental pedicle and muscle flaps for the aforementioned closure. Methods This was an observational retrospective cohort study on 27 consecutive patients who underwent OWT closure at a single institution between January 2005 and December 2014. The operation was performed using either omental pedicle or muscle flap with thoracoplasty. We compared both techniques in terms of the patient background [sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) before OWT and serum albumin levels before OWT closure], presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, rate of bronchopleural fistula (BPF), duration of OWT, recurrence of local infection, morbidity, duration of indwelling drainage after operation, success, mortality and postoperative hospital stay. Results There were 9 (33.3%) omental pedicle flap procedures and 18 (66.7%) muscle flap procedures. The rate of local recurrence after closure of OWT was significantly higher with muscle flap than with omental pedicle flap (0% vs. 50.0%, P=0.012). The median duration of postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter with omental pedicle flap than that with muscle flap (16.0 vs. 41.5 days, P=0.037). Mortality was observed in 2 patients (11.2%) in the muscle flap group and no patient in the omental pedicle flap group. Success rate was similar between the two groups (100% for omental pedicle flap vs. 83.3% for muscle flap). Conclusions Omental pedicle flap was superior to muscle flap in terms of reducing local recurrence and shortening postoperative hospital stay. However, mortality, morbidity and success rates were not affected by the choice of flap. PMID:27499959

  19. Gracilis Free Muscle Transfer in the Treatment of Pediatric Facial Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pundrique R; Zuker, Ronald M; Borschel, Gregory H

    2016-04-01

    Facial paralysis in children is a disabling functional and aesthetic issue. In cases where recovery is not expected, there are numerous options for reconstruction of the midface "smile." At the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada, we have been using a free functional gracilis muscle transfer. In this article, we review the technical details of the procedure, which we have refined over the past 30 years, and also briefly discuss secondary and adjunctive procedures. PMID:27097141

  20. Assessing safety of negative-pressure wound therapy over pedicled muscle flaps: A retrospective review of gastrocnemius muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Lance, Samuel; Harrison, Lindsey; Orbay, Hakan; Boudreault, David; Pereira, Gavin; Sahar, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for management of open wounds and immobilization of split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) over wounds has been well described. However, there is a concern for potential compromise of flap viability when NPWT is used for skin grafts over pedicled muscle flaps. We have used NPWT to immobilize STSGs in eight patients who underwent a pedicled gastrocnemius muscle flap operation in our department. We applied a negative pressure of -75 mmHg on the muscle flaps for 5 days postoperatively. All wounds healed successfully, with a 97.5 ± 5.5% mean STSG uptake. No flap necrosis was observed. In our series, the use of NPWT for fixation of STSGs over pedicled gastrocnemius muscle flap was effective and had no negative impact on flap viability. PMID:26732293

  1. Fasciocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.N.; Whetzel, T.; Mathes, S.J.; Vasconez, L.O.

    1987-07-01

    A skin and fascia flap from the medial thigh is proposed for vaginal and perineal reconstruction. Dissection, vascular injection, and radiographs of 20 fresh cadaver limbs uniformly demonstrated the presence of a communicating suprafascial vascular plexus in the medial thigh. Three to four nonaxial vessels were consistently found to enter the proximal plexus from within 5 cm of the perineum. Preservation of these vessels permitted reliable elevation of a 9 X 20 cm fasciocutaneous flap without using the gracilis muscle as a vascular carrier. Fifteen flaps in 13 patients were used for vaginal replacement and coverage of vulvectomy, groin, and ischial defects. Depending on the magnitude of the defect, simultaneous and independent elevation of the gracilis muscle provided additional vascularized coverage as needed. Our experience indicates that the medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap is a durable, less bulky, and potentially sensate alternative to the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction.

  2. Facial animation in children with Möbius syndrome after segmental gracilis muscle transplant.

    PubMed

    Zuker, R M; Goldberg, C S; Manktelow, R T

    2000-07-01

    Möbius syndrome is a complex congenital anomaly involving multiple cranial nerves, including the abducens (VI) and facial (II) nerves, and often associated with limb anomalies. Muscle transplantation has been used to address the lack of facial animation, lack of lower lip support, and speech difficulties these patients experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of bilateral, segmental gracilis muscle transplantation to the face using the facial vessels for revascularization and the motor nerve to the masseter for reinnervation. The outcome of the two-stage procedure was assessed in 10 consecutive children with Möbius syndrome by direct interview, speech assessment, and oral commissure movement. Preoperative data were collected from direct questioning, viewing of preoperative videotapes, notes from prior medical evaluations, and rehabilitation medicine and speech pathology assessments. All of the patients developed reinnervation and muscle movement. The children who described self-esteem to be an issue preoperatively reported a significant posttransplant improvement. The muscle transplants produced a smile with an average commissure excursion of 1.37 cm. The frequency and severity of drooling and drinking difficulties decreased postoperatively in the seven symptomatic children. Speech difficulties improved in all children. Specifically, of the six children with bilabial incompetence, three received complete correction and three had significant improvement. Despite the length and complexity of these procedures, complications were minimal. Muscle transplantation had positive effects in all problematic areas, with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement in drooling, drinking, speech, and facial animation. The surgical technique is described in detail and the advantages over regional muscle transfers are outlined. Segmental gracilis muscle transplantation innervated by the motor nerve to the masseter is an effective method of

  3. Development of a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap in cats.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, S A; Fowler, J D; Remedios, A M; Clapson, J B; George, D

    1996-01-01

    Anatomic and experimental evaluation of the feline latissimus dorsi muscle was performed to assess its potential use as a free muscle flap. In the anatomic study, nonselective angiography of the subscapular artery was performed in nine heparinized feline cadavers. The muscle dimensions and vascular anatomy of the dissected latissimus dorsi muscle were recorded. In the experimental study four cats underwent heterotopic transplantation of a partial latissimus dorsi flap, and three cats underwent orthotopic transplantation of a complete latissimus dorsi flap. The mean length and width of the latissimus dorsi muscle was 19.0 and 5.4 cm, respectively. The dominant vascular pedicle was the thoracodorsal artery and vein. The average length and diameter of the thoracodorsal artery was 2.7 cm and 0.6 mm, respectively. Minor vascular pedicles were provided by branches of the intercostal arteries. Numerous choke anastomoses existed between the two pedicle systems. Viability of muscle flaps based on subjective evaluation, angiography, and histopathology, was 66% and 100% in the heterotopic and orthotopic studies, respectively. Flap failure seemed to be caused by both arterial and venous thrombosis. The latissimus dorsi muscle flap met criteria required for application in microvascular reconstruction. The vascular pattern was appropriate and consistent. Donor site morbidity was low, whereas surgical accessibility was high. The muscle satisfied the physical criteria of a free flap. Long-term anastomotic patency and flap viability was shown. PMID:8719085

  4. Preservation of Hand Function Using Muscle Perforator Flaps

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Adequate soft tissue coverage is imperative after any interventions performed to maximize or preserve hand function. Although this can most simply be achieved by primary closure or a skin graft if possible, often a vascularized flap will be preferable, especially if a later secondary procedure is planned. Even moderately sized skin deficits of the upper extremity, and especially if involving the hand itself, can be better covered using a free tissue transfer. Many reasonable options in this regard are available. Muscle perforator flaps, as a relatively new variant of a fasciocutaneous flap, have unique attributes, including availability, diversity, accessibility, large size, and lengthy vascular pedicle, and since no muscle need be included, donor site function is preserved. As is shown here in a series of nine muscle perforator flaps in eight patients, these represent yet another alternative that should be considered if selection of a free flap is indicated to maintain hand function. PMID:18780005

  5. Temporal muscle flap in reconstruction of maxillo-facial tissues

    PubMed Central

    Krzymański, Grzegorz; Dąbrowski, Jarosław; Przybysz, Jan; Domański, Wojciech; Biernacka, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Presents our experience in reconstruction of postsurgical defects with use of temporal muscle flap. Material and methods In the years 1996–2010 we treated 10 patients with malignant neoplasms of maxillo-facial region. Following tumor removal the fascia-muscle flaps of temporal muscle were used for reconstruction. Temporal muscle flaps were applied in 5 cases for reconstructing the defect of eye socket tissue after extensive resections and in the other 5 patients was used for reconstructing the defect of palate following maxillary resections. Results All the flaps of temporal muscle that were used for reconstructing eye sockets incorporated with no local reaction. In one case of flap applied into the oral cavity for tightly separate from nasal, partial necrosis of flap's edge and oro-nasal fistula occurred. Conclusions Fascia-muscular flap of temporal muscle is a simple, easy and effective method of tissue reconstruction in maxillo-facial region following extensive oncologic procedures. PMID:23788888

  6. Lower extremity muscle perforator flaps for lower extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2004-10-01

    A true muscle perforator flap is distinguished by the requisite intramuscular dissection of its musculocutaneous perforator to capture the same musculocutaneous territory but with total exclusion of the muscle, and thereby results in minimal functional impairment. Adhering to this definition, several lower extremity donor sites now are available, each with specific attributes especially useful for consideration in the treatment of lower extremity defects. In this author's experience over the past two decades, 20 lower extremity muscle perforator flaps using multiple donor sites proved advantageous for lower extremity coverage problems as either a local pedicled flap or as a microsurgical tissue transfer. Significant complications occurred in 30 percent of flaps (six of 20) in that further intervention was required. Venous insufficiency and bulkiness were found to be the major inherent shortcomings. However, giant flaps, lengthy and large-caliber vascular pedicles, and the possibility for combined flaps were important assets. The choice of a lower extremity muscle perforator flap for lower extremity reconstruction limited the surgical intervention and morbidity to a single body region. PMID:15457022

  7. Intravascular heparin protects muscle flaps from ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Cooley, B C; Fowler, J D; Gould, J S

    1995-01-01

    Heparin has been found to decrease ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle and other tissue/organ systems. The timing of heparin administration to the muscle vasculature has not been explored. We investigated the use of heparinized blood as a washout solution during ischemia to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury. A rat cutaneous maximus muscle free flap was subjected to a 10-hr period of room temperature ischemia, then was heterotopically transplanted to the groin via microsurgical revascularization to the femoral vessels. In three experimental groups, flaps were subjected to brief ex vivo perfusion with autologous heparinized blood, at 2, 5, or 8 hr into the 10-hr ischemic interval. In the two other groups, the flaps were not perfused, and the animals were systemically heparinized either before ischemia or before transplantation, respectively. A control group underwent no flap perfusion or systemic heparinization. After transplantation, flaps were given a 48-hr period of in vivo reperfusion, then were harvested for evaluation. Flaps undergoing ex vivo perfusion or preischemic heparinization had no significant differences in weight gain (edema) compared with flaps receiving posttransplant heparinization or no heparinization (controls). The dehydrogenase staining of muscle biopsies was significantly faster (indicative of viable tissue) for perfused flaps and the flaps for which the animals received preischemic heparinization, when compared with flaps for which the animals received posttransplant heparinization or no heparinization. From these results, we conclude that heparin offers protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury when it can be introduced into the vascular network either prior to or during the ischemia period. These findings suggest the possibility of using heparinized washout solutions to enhance survival in amputated extremities. PMID:7783611

  8. Objective outcomes analysis following microvascular gracilis transfer for facial reanimation: a review of 10 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bhama, Prabhat K; Weinberg, Julie S; Lindsay, Robin W; Hohman, Marc H; Cheney, Mack L; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Objective assessment of smile outcome after microvascular free gracilis transfer is challenging, and quantification of smile outcomes in the literature is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To report objective excursion and symmetry outcomes from a series of free gracilis cases and investigate the predictive value of intraoperative measurements on final outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective medical chart review was undertaken of all patients who underwent microvascular free gracilis transfer for smile at our institution over the past 10 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcome measures included the following: smile excursion, angle of smile with respect to the vertical midline, and facial symmetry during repose and with smile. Measurements were obtained using an automated tool for assessment of facial landmarks (FACE-Gram). An exhaustive set of intraoperative parameters including degree of recoil of the gracilis muscle following harvest, the degree to which the muscle foreshortened during stimulation of the obturator nerve, final stretched length of the inset muscle, surgeon assessment of neurorrhaphy and pulse pressure, ischemia time, number of sutures used during neurorrhaphy, nerve used to innervate the flap, and surgeon assessment of oral commissure overcorrection were recorded and placed into a linear regression model to investigate correlations with smile. RESULTS From March 2003 to March 2013, 154 microvascular free gracilis transfers were performed for facial reanimation at our institution, 14 (9%) of which were deemed failures. Of the remaining 140 flaps, 127 fulfilled inclusion criteria and constituted the study cohort. Smile excursion, angle excursion, and symmetry of the oral commissure at repose and with smile all improved following gracilis free flap (P < .05). Associations between selected outcomes measures and intraoperative gracilis measurements were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Facial reanimation using free

  9. Therapeutic Outcomes of Pectoralis Major Muscle Turnover Flap in Mediastinitis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Reza; Tashnizi, Mohammad Abbasi; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Salehi, Maryam; Rajabnejad, Ata’ollah; Safa, Mohsen Hatami Ghale; Vejdani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic results and safety of pectoralis major muscle turnover flaps in the treatment of mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures. Methods Data regarding 33 patients with post-CABG deep sternal wound infections (DSWIs) who underwent pectoralis major muscle turnover flap procedures in the Emam Reza and Ghaem Hospitals of Mashhad, Iran were reviewed in this study. For each patient, age, sex, hospital stay duration, remission, recurrence, and associated morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Results Of the 2,447 CABG procedures that were carried out during the time period encompassed by our study, DSWIs occurred in 61 patients (2.5%). Of these 61 patients, 33 patients (nine females [27.3%] and 24 males [72.7%]) with an average age of 63±4.54 years underwent pectoralis major muscle turnover flap placement. Symptoms of infection mainly occurred within the first 10 days after surgery (mean, 10.24±13.62 days). The most common risk factor for DSWIs was obesity (n=16, 48.4%) followed by diabetes mellitus (n=13, 39.4%). Bilateral and unilateral pectoralis major muscle turnover flaps were performed in 20 patients (60.6%) and 13 patients (39.4%), respectively. Complete remission was achieved in 25 patients (75.7%), with no recurrence in the follow-up period. Four patients (12.1%) needed reoperation. The mean hospitalization time was 11.69±6.516 days. Four patients (12.1%) died during the course of the study: three due to the postoperative complication of respiratory failure and one due to pulmonary thromboembolism. Conclusion Pectoralis major muscle turnover flaps are an optimal technique in the treatment of post-CABG mediastinitis. In addition to leading to favorable therapeutic results, this flap is associated with minimal morbidity and mortality, as well as a short hospitalization time. PMID:26290837

  10. [Free rectus abdominis muscle perforating artery flaps for reconstruction of the head and neck defects].

    PubMed

    Koshima, I; Handa, T; Satoh, Y; Akisada, K; Orita, Y; Yamamoto, H

    1995-01-01

    During the past eight years, tissue defects of the head and neck region in a total of 45 patients were repaired with free rectus abdominis muscle perforating artery flaps. These flaps are subclassified into (1) reduced musculocutaneous flaps, (2) thin reduced musculocutaneous flaps, (3) paraumbilical perforator-based flaps, and (4) thin paraumbilical perforator-based flaps. The advantages of these flaps are as follows. Since the flaps involve no or only a small portion of the rectus abdominis muscle, (1) the muscle can be left intact on the abdominal wall, and (2) a thin flap can be easily created by simple defatting of the flap. These flaps overcome the major disadvantages of the conventional rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, i.e., bulkiness of the flap and frequent postoperative abdominal herniation. The territory of the thin flaps is within 10 cm around the perforator. These flaps are suitable for defects in the head and neck region, because simultaneous flap elevation is possible at the time of tumor resection. Paraumbilical perforator-based flaps are suitable for young females and elderly patients. PMID:7897566

  11. Redefining the vascular anatomy of the peroneus brevis muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Ensat, Florian; Weitgasser, Laurenz; Hladik, Michaela; Larcher, Lorenz; Heinrich, Klemens; Skreiner, Anna; Russe, Elisabeth; Fuerntrath, Frank; Kamp, Jonas; Cotofana, Sebastian; Wechselberger, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    The peroneus brevis flap can be used as either proximally or distally based flap for coverage of small to medium-sized defects in the lower leg. The purpose of this study was to clarify the vascular anatomy of the peroneus brevis muscle. An anatomical dissection was performed on 17 fixed adult cadaver lower legs. Altogether, 87 segmental branches (mean 5.1 ± 1.6 per leg) either from the fibular or anterior tibial artery to the muscle were identified. Sixty-two were branches from the fibular artery (mean 3.4 ± 1.1 per fibular artery), whereas 25 (mean 1.4 ± 0.9 per anterior tibial artery) originated from the anterior tibial artery. The distance between the most distal vascular branch and the malleolar tip averaged 4.3 ± 0.6 cm. An axial vascular bundle to the muscle could be identified in all cadavers; in one leg two axial supplying vessels were found. Their average length was 5.5 ± 2.4 cm and the average arterial diameter was 1.1 ± 0.5 mm, the average venous diameter was 1.54 ± 0.7 mm. The constant blood supply to the peroneus brevis muscle by segmental branches from the fibular and tibial artery make this muscle a viable option for proximally or distally pedicled flap transfer. The location of the most proximal and distal branches to the muscle and conclusively the pivot points for flap transfer could be determined. Furthermore, a constant proximal axial vascular pedicle to the muscle may enlarge the clinical applications. Perfusion studies should be conducted to confirm these findings. PMID:25046821

  12. The anatomic basis for a trapezius muscle flap in dogs.

    PubMed

    Philibert, D; Fowler, J D; Clapson, J B

    1992-01-01

    The anatomy of the cervical part of the trapezius muscle and its dominant vascular supply, the prescapular branch of the superficial cervical artery, was studied by dissection and selective angiography of 16 canine cadavers. The prescapular branch of the superficial cervical artery supplies blood to the skin of the caudal half of the neck and the cervical part of the trapezius muscle and is a minor contributor to other muscles of the neck. In these dogs, the mean length of the vascular pedicles was 4.4 cm and the mean diameter was 1.0 mm. With this information, it is possible to design a broad musculocutaneous flap suitable for reconstructive microsurgery in dogs. The potential for successful incorporation of the scapular spine in such a flap remains uncertain. PMID:1455644

  13. Coverage of Amputation Stumps Using a Latissimus Dorsi Flap With a Serratus Anterior Muscle Flap: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Jeon, Seung Bae; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Amputation of the extremities is a definitive reconstructive option, and surgeons should aim to preserve maximum overall function. If the exposed bone cannot be adequately covered using local tissues, the stump can be reconstructed using a number of well-described free flap transfer techniques. Between January 2002 and December 2011, 31 patients with severe injuries to the lower extremities underwent above-the-knee, below-the-knee, and Chopart and Ray amputations. Bony stumps were covered using latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps alone (group 1), or together with serratus anterior muscle flaps (group 2). The groups were compared with respect to age, flap survival, skin flap size, immediate complications, wound sloughing, deep ulceration, need for bone amputation, limb visual analog scale score, time to prosthesis, and follow-up duration. The mean area of the latissimus dorsi skin flap was 255.9 cm, and immediate complications occurred in 8 (25.8%) patients. In the double-padding group, there were fewer cases of deep ulceration than in the single-flap group, and prostheses could be worn sooner. There were no statistically significant differences in other parameters. Successful reconstruction of amputation stumps requires an adequate, durable, weight-bearing, and well-contoured soft tissue cover. A latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap together with a serratus anterior muscle flap provides well-vascularized muscle tissue and a durable skin paddle, leading to less ulceration than conventional flap techniques. PMID:25003415

  14. Abdominal perforator vs. muscle sparing flaps for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liza C.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominally based free flaps have become the mainstay for women that desire to use their own tissue as a means of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. As the techniques have evolved, significant effort has been invested in finding the best means of minimizing morbidity to the abdominal donor site while ensuring a viable reconstructed breast that is aesthetically pleasing. This manuscript reviews and compares the muscle sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MsfTRAM), the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP), and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps, regarding flap success rate, operative times, abdominal donor site morbidity and residual functionality, hospital lengths of stay and associated costs, impact of co-morbid conditions, and resilience after adjuvant radiation treatment. PMID:26161306

  15. Abdominal perforator vs. muscle sparing flaps for breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Butler, Paris D; Wu, Liza C

    2015-06-01

    Abdominally based free flaps have become the mainstay for women that desire to use their own tissue as a means of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. As the techniques have evolved, significant effort has been invested in finding the best means of minimizing morbidity to the abdominal donor site while ensuring a viable reconstructed breast that is aesthetically pleasing. This manuscript reviews and compares the muscle sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MsfTRAM), the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP), and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps, regarding flap success rate, operative times, abdominal donor site morbidity and residual functionality, hospital lengths of stay and associated costs, impact of co-morbid conditions, and resilience after adjuvant radiation treatment. PMID:26161306

  16. [Open window thoracostomy and muscle flap transposition for thoracic empyema].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Y

    2010-07-01

    Open window thoracostomy for thoracic empyema: Open window thoracostomy is a simple, certain and final drainage procedure for thoracic empyema. It is most useful to drain purulent effusion from empyema space, especially for cases with broncho-pleural fistulas, and to clean up purulent necrotic debris on surface of empyema sac. For changing of packing gauzes in empyema space through a window once or twice every day after this procedure, thoracostomy will have to be made on the suitable position to empyema space. Usually skin incision will be layed along the costal bone just at the most expanded position of empyema. Following muscle splitting to thoracic wall, a costal bone just under the incision will be removed as 8-10 cm as long, and opened the empyema space through a costal bed. After the extension of empyema space will be preliminarily examined through a primary window by a finger or a long forceps, it will be decided costal bones must be removed how many (usually 2 or 3 totally) and how long (6-8 cm) to make a window up to 5 cm in diameter. Thickened empyema wall will be cut out just according to a window size, and finally skin edge and empyema wall will be sutured roughly along circular edge. Muscle flap transposition for empyema space: Pediclued muscle flap transposition is one of space-reducing operations for (chronic) empyema Usually this will be co-performed with other several procedures as curettages on empyema surface, closure of bronchopleural fistula and thoracoplasty. This is radically curable for primarily non fistulous empyema or secondarily empyema after open window thoracostomy done for fistula. Furthermore this is less invasive than other radical operations as like pleuro-pneumonectomy, decortication or air-plombage for empyema. There are 2 important points to do this technique. One is a volume of muscle flap and another is good blood flow in flap. The former suitable muscle volume is need to impact empyema space or to close fistula, and the

  17. Management of postirradiation recurrent enterocutaneous fistula by muscle flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, R.C.; Friedman, R.; Fleischer, A.

    1989-07-01

    Occasionally surgeons have to operate on patients who have had previous abdominal or pelvic operations and irradiations for malignancies. Bowel resection with primary anastomosis under these circumstances is fraught with major complications such as anastomotic breakdown with intra-abdominal sepsis or recurrent enterocutaneous fistula, which are refractory to conventional management. New techniques for using vascularized muscle flaps from a distant nonirradiated field to achieve safe repair of the bowel defects in three such instances are presented.

  18. Anteriorly Based Partial Thickness Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Flap Following Parotidectomy.

    PubMed

    Dalmia, Deepak; Behera, Sanjaya Kumar; Bhatia, Jas Simran Singh

    2016-03-01

    The anteriorly based partial thickness sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle flap is among the various methods described to correct parotidectomy defects, but its indications and limitations are not clearly demonstrated in several reports. This study was done to test the aesthetic outcome of this method, its indications and limitations. At Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Memorial hospital, Mumbai, 20 patients presenting with benign parotid tumors underwent parotidectomy. 16 underwent superficial parotidectomy and 3 underwent adequate parotidectomy, 1 had total parotidectomy. The anteriorly based partial thickness SCM muscle flap was used to correct the contour deformity and to prevent Frey syndrome. The aesthetic result was evaluated by assessing and scoring the overall appearance of the scar, the degree of symmetry of the reconstructed parotid region and the site of the donor muscle in comparison to their contralateral normal sides. The overall aesthetic appearance was good in 17 patients, and moderate in 3 patients. 17/20 patients had an overall deep satisfaction with the result. The residual hollowness following total parotidectomy defect and the poor quality of scars were the main reasons affecting the aesthetic outcome. Superficial parotidectomy through modified Blair's incision with immediate reconstruction with anteriorly based partial thickness SCM flap allows a satisfactory aesthetic outcome and minimal donor site morbidity. Scores of the above two parameters were accessed. Patients' satisfaction was assessed by patients questionnaire. PMID:27066413

  19. Rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for primary vaginal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J W; Soisson, A P; Fowler, J M; Carter, J R; Twiggs, L B; Carson, L F

    1993-12-01

    Reconstructive procedures are being performed with increasing frequency in conjunction with pelvic exenterations and other radical gynecologic surgeries. The most common reconstructive procedures include continent urinary diversion, rectosigmoid anastomosis, and vaginal reconstruction. Historically, the gracilis myocutaneous flap has been the procedure of choice for vaginal reconstruction. However, the gracilis myocutaneous flap has a history of partial to severe necrosis, a propensity to prolapse, and leaves ipsilateral donor scars on the thigh. In contrast, neovaginal reconstruction using a relatively new procedure, the distally based rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, has the advantage of using a large, single flap that can be incorporated into the primary incision. This flap is mobilized on a long vascular pedicle, the rectus muscle. In relation to the underlying rectus muscle, the orientation of the cutaneous portion of this flap may be customized to accommodate the pelvic defect or the surgeon's preference. Depending on their primary orientation, they are referred to as either a vertical or transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. The versatility and reliability of the rectus flap is demonstrated here through the presentation of a small pilot series of seven patients. The technique was used for vaginal reconstruction, primarily in conjunction with pelvic exenteration. The flaps were mobilized from the supraumbilical area and had a flap viability of 100% for the 2 years that they have been followed. There were no postoperative incisional or flap infections. There was one infraumbilical fascial dehiscence. The advantages of primary pelvic reconstruction along with the description of the operative techniques are presented. PMID:8112640

  20. Split latissimus dorsi muscle flap repair of acquired, nonmalignant, intrathoracic tracheoesophageal and bronchoesophageal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Hammoudeh, Ziyad S; Gursel, Eti; Baciewicz, Frank A

    2015-06-01

    The development of a fistula between the tracheobronchial tree and oesophagus due to nonmalignant causes is uncommon. Division of the fistula with muscle flap interposition eliminates contact between the tracheobronchial segment and the oesophagus, theoretically decreasing the chance of recurrence as well as providing a robust blood supply to aid in healing. The split latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a well-suited flap for such repairs because of the ability to simultaneously cover two separate apertures (tracheobronchial and oesophageal). The authors describe the split latissimus dorsi muscle flap with step-by-step technique for repair of intrathoracic aerodigestive fistulas. PMID:25697381

  1. Infected Groin (Graft/Patch): Managed with Sartorious Muscle Flap

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dong Yeon; Jung, Hyuk Jae; Ramaiah, Venkaesh G.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Julio A.; Lee, Sang Su

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the natural history, clinical outcome and safety in patients undergoing sartorius muscle flap (SMF) for groin infection, including lymphocele. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent SMF in a single center between 2000 and 2009. Results: Thirty patients (17 male, 13 female) underwent SMF for groin infection, which included infections of 22 artificial femoral bypass grafts (including 2 cryoveins) and 5 common femoral patch grafts, and 3 lymphocele infections (2 cardiac catheterizations and 1 penile cancer lymph node dissection). Wound isolates were most commonly Gram-positive organisms (n=22) with Gram-negative isolates and mixed infections accounting for 4 and 3 cases, respectively. In 9 patients there was no growth of organisms. Adjunctive wound vacuum-asssisted wound closure therapy was performed in 18 patients. Follow-up duration ranged from 8 days to 56 months (mean 14.1 months) after SMF. Reoperation was performed in 3 patients due to wound bleeding (n=1) and reinfection (n=1). One patient underwent graft excision with external bypass operation. There was 1 mortality case due to sepsis during the study period. Conclusion: We found that muscle flap surgery provides successful single-intervention therapy for groin infections including lymphocele. Graft ligation or aggressive excision with bypass surgery should be reserved for patients requiring rapid control of sepsis for lifesaving. PMID:27051655

  2. Chest wall reconstruction using iliac bone allografts and muscle flaps.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tutor, Emilio; Yeste, Luis; Murillo, Julio; Aubá, Cristina; Sanjulian, Mikel; Torre, Wenceslao

    2004-01-01

    Technically we can divide full-thickness thoracic reconstruction into 2 parts: providing a rigid support and ensuring well-vascularized coverage. Since 1986, the authors' center has had ample experience with bone banks and the use of cryopreserved bone grafts, which led them to consider the possibility of using these grafts for full-thickness chest wall reconstruction. They describe 3 patients in whom resection of the tumor and reconstruction of the thorax were carried out using iliac bone allografts covered with muscle flaps (1 pectoralis major and 2 rectus abdominis). None of the patients experienced breathing difficulties, pain, or instability after 14 months, 18 months, and 11 years of follow-up. The result of the reconstruction was excellent in all 3 patients in terms of function and aesthetics. The advantage of allografts compared with synthetic materials is their potential integration; they can become part of the host patient's living tissue. PMID:14676700

  3. Free anterolateral thigh flap raised on musculocutaneous perforators of rectus femoris muscle.

    PubMed

    Ehtesham-ul-Haq; Aslam, Ayesha; Hameed, Shahid; Ahmad, Rao Saood; Majid, Abdul; Waqas, Muhammad

    2011-08-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF) has been in wide clinical use for the last two decades, its major disadvantage has been its variable anatomy. We are presenting a case in which no substantial perforators were found to be arising from either the lateral septum of thigh or Vastus Laterlis muscle. In this case, instead of raising another flap, we used the same skin paddle raised on the musculocutaneous perforators of rectus femoris muscle. PMID:21798144

  4. Tracheoplasty With Use of an Intercostal Muscle Flap for Caustic Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Naamee, Adel; Galvaing, Geraud; Chadeyras, Jean Baptiste; Farhat, Mehdi; Page, Jean Philippe; Bony-Collangettes, Estelle; Tardy, Marie M; Filaire, Marc

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of intercostal muscle flap used in tracheobronchial reconstruction for extensive necrosis after burn lesions of the posterior wall. A 32-year-old man attempted suicide by ingestion of caustic material. He underwent emergency total esogastrectomy, tracheostomy, and feeding jejunostomy. Ten days later, endoscopy showed complete destruction of the membranous trachea, extending from the tracheostomy to the carina. Reconstruction was conducted with the patient under venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation by use of a pedicled intercostal muscle flap. The patient was weaned from respiratory support on the 14th postoperative day. Examination of a biopsy specimen from the flap 7 months after tracheoplasty showed ciliated neoepithelium. PMID:26522573

  5. Salvage of Exposed Groin Vascular Grafts with Early Intervention Using Local Muscle Flaps

    PubMed Central

    May, Brian L.; Zelenski, Nicole A.; Daluvoy, Sanjay V.; Blanton, Matthew W.; Shortell, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peripheral vascular surgery may be complicated by wound infection and potential graft exposure in the groin area. Muscle flap coverage of the graft has been promoted to address these wound complications. The authors present their findings regarding graft salvage rates and patient outcomes using local muscle flaps to address vascular graft complications of the groin. Methods: Data were obtained by retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent a local muscle flap procedure by a single surgeon following vascular graft complication in the groin. Results: Seventeen patients undergoing local muscle flap coverage of a vascular graft were reviewed. Six men and 9 women, 51–80 years old, were included in the study. Wound complications in the groin occurred anywhere from 3 days to 3.5 years following graft placement. Graft exposure was the most common presenting complication (14 of 17 patients). Muscle flap coverage occurred within 15 days of complication presentation in all patients (average, 6.4 days). Seven of the 15 patients experienced postoperative complications within 6 months of the procedure, most commonly wound dehiscence. However, analysis demonstrated that vascular grafts were successfully salvaged in 10 of the 17 patients (59%) over the course of follow-up (range, 104–1748 days). Average time to muscle flap coverage was 4.2 days in patients who retained the graft and 9.6 days in patients who ultimately lost their vascular graft. Conclusion: The authors demonstrate improved vascular graft salvage rate when local muscle flap procedure is performed early after initial wound complication presentation. PMID:26495227

  6. Treatment of Sternoclavicular Joint Osteomyelitis with Debridement and Delayed Resection with Muscle Flap Coverage Improves Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Muesse, Jason L.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Ellsworth, Warren A.; Kim, Min P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of various treatment options for sternoclavicular joint osteomyelitis. We evaluated patients with a diagnosis of sternoclavicular joint osteomyelitis, treated at our hospital from 2002 to 2012. Four treatment options were compared. Three out of twelve patients were successfully cured with antibiotics alone (25%). Debridement with or without negative pressure therapy was successful for one of three patients (33%). Simultaneous debridement, bone resection, and muscle flap coverage of the acquired defect successfully treated one of two patients (50%). Debridement with delayed bone resection and muscle flap coverage was successful in five of five patients (100%). Osteomyelitis of the sternoclavicular joint is a rare disease that has become more prevalent in recent years and can be associated with increasing use of long-term indwelling catheters. Initial debridement with delayed bone resection and pectoralis major muscle flap coverage can effectively treat sternoclavicular joint osteomyelitis. PMID:25379557

  7. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Syunro; Tada, Kaoru; Ai, Hachinota; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The soft tissue at the tip of the olecranon is very thin, leading to the frequent occurrence of wound complications after total elbow arthroplasty. To cover a soft tissue defect of the elbow, the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap is thought to be appropriate for reconstruction of the elbow with regard to its size, location, and blood supply. We got positive clinical results, so we report our experiences of using a flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty. PMID:25400974

  8. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle Flap for Soft Tissue Reconstruction after Total Elbow Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Syunro; Ai, Hachinota; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The soft tissue at the tip of the olecranon is very thin, leading to the frequent occurrence of wound complications after total elbow arthroplasty. To cover a soft tissue defect of the elbow, the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap is thought to be appropriate for reconstruction of the elbow with regard to its size, location, and blood supply. We got positive clinical results, so we report our experiences of using a flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty. PMID:25400974

  9. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Moon, Suk Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae

    2016-01-01

    The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients' age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%). Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.087). Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity. PMID:27366755

  10. Use of the rectus abdominis muscle and fascia flap in reconstruction of epispadias/exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Horton, C E; Sadove, R C; Jordan, G H; Sagher, U

    1988-07-01

    Inferiorly based rectus abdominis muscle flaps and fascial flaps have been used to construct a firm abdominal wall without hernias and to provide coverage of the bladder, bladder neck, and proximal urethra in the secondary reconstruction of patients with epispadias/exstrophy complex. They have also been used to produce an elevation of the mons area, which is lacking in the typical exstrophy patient. Rectus fascial flaps have been the mainstay of abdominal closure when wide diastasis of the rectal muscles is present and when the lower abdomen lacks fascial support. We are pleased with the results of utilizing either the rectus muscle or rectus fascia in this complex condition. We have been using fascial flaps for over 10 years in our epispadias/exstrophy closures and abdominal wall strengthening procedures. We have been using bone grafts and the rectus muscle for the construction of a mons for the past 5 years. Although the rectus muscle procedure to cover the bladder and the bladder neck has been in use for only 2 years, we have seen patients with incontinence restored to a continent state; these patients have not been plagued with fistula problems when a neourethra has to be constructed to elongate the phallus. Previous attempts at urethral repair in this area have been successful in the main, but an occasional fistula at the junction between the penile skin and the abdominopubic skin has resulted. Since using the rectus muscle to cover the bladder and bladder neck area, we have not had this problem. Patients with epispadias/exstrophy remain such difficult problems that every advance in technique should be used to improve results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3391008

  11. Intraoperative hemodynamic evaluation of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lorenzetti, Fulvio; Giordano, Salvatore; Tukiainen, Erkki

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess intraoperatively the hemodynamic changes in the donor vessel of free latissimus dorsi (LD) flap before and after denervation and to analyze flow changes after flap transfer. Twenty-seven patients underwent LD muscle microvascular reconstruction for lower-limb soft tissue defects. Measurements of blood flow were performed intraoperatively by using a 2- to 5-mm probe ultrasonic transit-time flowmeter around the dissected vessels. Registrations were made in the thoracodorsal artery before and after harvesting the flap, after compressing and cutting the motor nerve, and after anastomosis. Mean blood flow of in situ harvested thoracodorsal artery as measured intraoperatively by transit-time flowmeter was (mean ± standard deviation) 16.6 ± 11 mL/min and was significantly increased after raising the flap to 24.0 ± 22 mL/min (p <0.05); it was 25.6 ± 23 mL/min after compressing the motor nerve and was significantly increased after cutting the motor nerve to 32.5 ± 26 mL/min (p <0.05). A significant increase of blood flow to 28.1 ± 19 mL/min was also detected in the thoracodorsal artery after flap transplantation with end-to-side anastomosis (p <0.05). Vascular resistance in the thoracodorsal artery significantly decreased after flap raising and anastomosis (from 7.5 ± 3.4 to 4.0 ± 1.9 and to 4.5 ± 2.4, respectively, p <0.05). LD flap harvesting increases blood flow and decreases resistance in the thoracodorsal artery, especially after denervation. PMID:22492006

  12. Testicular Interposition Flap for Repair of Perineal Urinary Fistulae: A Novel Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Raup, Valary T.; Eswara, Jairam R.; Marshall, Stephen D.; Brandes, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Rectourinary fistulae and urinary-cutaneous fistulae are a rare yet devastating complication. Current options for tissue interposition include rectus, gracilis, or gluteal muscle, omentum, or intestine for use in coloanal pull-through procedures. In elderly patients, testicular interposition flaps may be an excellent tissue option to use when vitalized tissue is necessary to supplement fistula repair. Elderly patients frequently have increased spermatic cord length, potentially offering a longer flap reach than use of a muscle flap. Additionally, mobilizing one of the testicles and developing it through the external inguinal ring may be a less morbid and less costly procedure than harvesting and tunneling a muscle flap. Longer follow-up and further studies are needed to determine the outcomes of this novel technique. PMID:26483985

  13. Surgical repair for tracheo-innominate artery fistula with a muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Yoshihiro; Takase, Kei; Higuchi, Norio; Kikuchi, Sekinori; Ito, Takashi; Tabayashi, Koichi

    2003-11-01

    A 70-year-old woman was quickly diagnosed as having tracheo-innominate artery fistula by three-dimensional computed tomography. Immediate surgical exploration was performed to control the bleeding using a temporary shunt. After the damaged artery was excised, vascular reconstruction was performed to preserve the connection between the proximal and distal ends of the innominate artery with the interposition of a saphenous vein graft. A pedicled sternocleidomastoid muscle flap was successfully used for the tracheal reconstruction. PMID:14650597

  14. Abductor digiti minimi muscle flap transfer to prevent wound healing complications after ORIF of calcaneal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Liang; Huang, Su-Fang; Sun, Xue-Sheng; Zhu, Tao; Lin, Chu; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the transfer of abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle flaps as a method for preventing wound healing complications in cases of closed calcaneal fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Method: Design: Retrospective review. Patients: Twenty-six cases of acute closed calcaneal fracture in patients at risk for serious wound complications or with serious fractures. Intervention: During the ORIF surgery, an ADM muscle flap was removed and used to cover the plate, filling the gap between the plate and skin. Main Outcome Measures: Wound healing rates, postoperative complications, and time to heal. Results: All wounds healed uneventfully, except for one case of minor superficial epithelial necrosis during the early postoperative period, which was treated conservatively. All patients regained ambulatory status with regular foot apparel. At last follow-up, the patients presented no clinical, laboratory, or radiological signs of complications. Conclusions: This ADM muscle flap transfer technique appeared to successfully prevent wound healing complications among patients undergoing ORIF for closed calcaneal fractures. This method offers a promising treatment option for calcaneal fractures in patients at high risk for serious wound complications, and future studies with greater numbers of cases are needed to further investigate its clinical application. PMID:26550221

  15. Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.

  16. Neurovascular free-muscle transfer for the treatment of established facial paralysis following ablative surgery in the parotid region.

    PubMed

    Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori; Asato, Hirotaka; Ueda, Kazuki; Yamada, Atsushi

    2004-05-01

    Neurovascular free-muscle transfer for facial reanimation was performed as a secondary reconstructive procedure for 45 patients with facial paralysis resulting from ablative surgery in the parotid region. This intervention differs from neurovascular free-muscle transfer for treatment of established facial paralysis resulting from conditions such as congenital dysfunction, unresolved Bell palsy, Hunt syndrome, or intracranial morbidity, with difficulties including selection of recipient vessels and nerves, and requirements for soft-tissue augmentation. This article describes the authors' operative procedure for neurovascular free-muscle transfer after ablative surgery in the parotid region. Gracilis muscle (n = 24) or latissimus dorsi muscle (n = 21) was used for transfer. With gracilis transfer, recipient vessels comprised the superficial temporal vessels in 12 patients and the facial vessels in 12. For latissimus dorsi transfer, recipient vessels comprised the facial vessels in 16 patients and the superior thyroid artery and superior thyroid or internal jugular vein in four. Facial vessels on the contralateral side were used with interpositional graft of radial vessels in the remaining patient with latissimus dorsi transfer. Cross-face nerve grafting was performed before muscle transfer in 22 patients undergoing gracilis transfer. In the remaining two gracilis patients, the ipsilateral facial nerve stump was used as the primary recipient nerve. Dermal fat flap overlying the gracilis muscle was used for cheek augmentation in one patient. In the other 23 patients, only the gracilis muscle was used. With latissimus dorsi transfer, the ipsilateral facial nerve stump was used as the recipient nerve in three patients, and a cross-face nerve graft was selected as the recipient nerve in six. The contralateral facial nerve was selected as the recipient nerve in 12 patients, and a thoracodorsal nerve from the latissimus dorsi muscle segment was crossed through the upper lip

  17. Pediatric Arm Reconstruction after Shot-gun Injury Using Peroneal Free-flap and Pedicled Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap: Late Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Caballero, Carlos; Ortiz-Dominguez, Abel

    2016-08-01

    A 15-year-old patient harmed himself upon firing a shotgun that he was carrying when he slipped and fell, causing a destructive wound in the right arm with a medial entry hole and a posterolateral exit hole. The biceps, coracobrachialis, triceps, deltoids, skin cover, and humerus were injured; however, the blood vessels and major nerves of the area were surprisingly not affected. The residual skin muscle defect after debridements was 16 × 5 cm medially and posteriorly, and the bone loss was 7 cm. The wound was reconstructed during a single surgery with a free fibula flap and a pedicled flap of latissimus dorsi. Ten years after surgery, the patient presents neither functional deficit of the injured limb (shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand) nor sequelae in the donor areas; he performs his daily activities without any limitations. This case confirms that the use of free bone flaps and pedicled muscle flaps in pediatric patients can provide excellent long-term results. PMID:27622112

  18. Pediatric Arm Reconstruction after Shot-gun Injury Using Peroneal Free-flap and Pedicled Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap: Late Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Dominguez, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 15-year-old patient harmed himself upon firing a shotgun that he was carrying when he slipped and fell, causing a destructive wound in the right arm with a medial entry hole and a posterolateral exit hole. The biceps, coracobrachialis, triceps, deltoids, skin cover, and humerus were injured; however, the blood vessels and major nerves of the area were surprisingly not affected. The residual skin muscle defect after debridements was 16 × 5 cm medially and posteriorly, and the bone loss was 7 cm. The wound was reconstructed during a single surgery with a free fibula flap and a pedicled flap of latissimus dorsi. Ten years after surgery, the patient presents neither functional deficit of the injured limb (shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand) nor sequelae in the donor areas; he performs his daily activities without any limitations. This case confirms that the use of free bone flaps and pedicled muscle flaps in pediatric patients can provide excellent long-term results. PMID:27622112

  19. Autologous sclera-muscle flaps technique in evisceration with hydroxyapatite implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Song, Yin-Wei; Guo, Jing-Min; Xu, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Jun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM To provide superior cosmetic results and reduce complications, unlike traditional evisceration coupled with implant insertion technique and its modifications, we have developed a novel and simple technique for anophthalmic patients. METHODS All patients who underwent the scleral-muscle flaps procedure in evisceration with the placement of hydroxyapatite implant were included in the study. Main outcome measures were complications such as exposure, infection, chemosis, conjunctival inclusion cysts, granulomas. Meanwhile, implant motility was indirectly measured and the results were collected and analyzed. RESULTS A total of twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Eighteen were men (64.29%) and ten were women (35.71%). Ages ranged from 18 to 65y (mean age, 32 years old). Mean follow-up was 12.32mo (range, 9-16mo). All patients received a hydroxyapatite implant. The average diameter of the implant was 19.29±1.36 mm (range, 18-22 mm). Minor complications occurred in 3 patients, and a major complication was observed in 1 patient. Mean motility were 11.04±1.45 mm horizontally (range, 7-14 mm) and 8.57±1.50 mm vertically (range, 5-12 mm). CONCLUSION The sclera-muscle flaps technique in evisceration with hydroxyapatite implantation is simple and practical that eases the surgical procedure, enables a proper size hydroxyapatite implantation, distinctively reduces complications and provides superior surgery results, especially the motility of the implant. PMID:26309868

  20. Correlation between anthropometric data and length and thickness of the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles used for grafts in reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament☆

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rafael Noschang; Karam, Francisco Consoli; Schwanke, Roberto Luís; Millman, Rubens; Foletto, Zilmar Minetto; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preoperative estimation of the length and diameter of the semitendinosus (ST) and gracilis (G) tendons can assist surgeons and allow them to have the opportunity to choose alternative grafts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and body mass index (BMI) or the patient's age and sex have any correlation with the thickness and the length of ST and G tendons. Methods Data were gathered from 64 patients who underwent the surgical procedure of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the tendons of the ST and G muscles as grafts, between June 2012 and August 2013. Variables such as age, sex, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and length and diameter of the tendons of the ST and G muscles were analyzed. Results There was a positive correlation between the height and total diameter of the quadruple graft (r = 0.254; p = 0.043), total length of the ST tendon (r = 0.450; p < 0.01), diameter of the double ST (r = 0.270; p = 0.031), triple ST (r = 0.347; p = 0.005), length of G tendon (r = 0.249; p = 0.047) and diameter of the double-G (r = 0.258; p = 0.039). However, age (r = -0.015; p = 0.908), weight (r = 0.165; p = 0.193) and body mass index (r = 0.012; p = 0.926) showed no correlation. Conclusion Our results show that age, weight and BMI did not correlate with the diameter and length of the graft, while the height had a positive correlation with the total length of the flexor tendons and the diameter of the graft from the flexors (ST and G). PMID:27069886

  1. Reconstruction of large defect of foot with extensive bone loss exclusively using a latissimus dorsi muscle free flap: a potential new indication for this flap.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Manuel Macemino; Casal, Diogo

    2012-01-01

    In cases of extensive damage to the foot, with significant bone loss, it is generally accepted that reconstruction must include bone flaps or grafts either in the emergency setting or subsequently. In this report, we describe the case of an 18-year-old student with an avulsion injury of the dorsum of his right foot. Consequently, he lost most of the soft tissue over the dorsum of the foot and the cuboid, navicular, and cuneiform bones. A latissimus dorsi free flap was used to reconstruct the defect. A functional pseudoarthrosis developed between the remaining bones of the foot, and the patient experienced satisfactory foot function after rehabilitation. For this reason, no additional reconstructive procedure was undertaken. This case suggests that it might be adequate to use the latissimus dorsi muscle flap more liberally than previously reported in the reconstruction of extensive defects of the dorsum of the foot, including cases with significant bone loss. This option could avoid the morbidity and inconvenience of a second surgery and the need to harvest a bone flap or graft. PMID:21945400

  2. Visualizing transplanted muscle flaps using minimally invasive multi-electrode bioimpedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R.; Zorkova, V.; Min, M.; Rätsep, I.

    2010-04-01

    We describe here an imaging system that uses bioimpedance spectroscopy with multi-electrode array to indicate the state of muscle flap regions under the array. The system is able to differentiate between different health states in the tissue and give early information about the location and size of ischemic sub-regions. The array will be 4*8 electrodes with the spacing of 5mm between the electrodes (the number of electrodes and the spacing may vary). The electrodes are minimally invasive short stainless steel needles, that penetrate 0.3 mm into the tissue with the goal of achieving a wet electric contact. We combine 32 configurations of 4-electrode multi-frequency impedance measurements to derive a health-state map for the transplanted flap. The imaging method is tested on a model consisting of 2 tissues and FEM software (Finite Element Method -COMSOL Multiphysics based) is used to conduct the measurements virtually. Dedicated multichannel bioimpedance measurement equipment has already been developed and tested, that cover the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz.

  3. Management of the infected median sternotomy wound with muscle flaps. The Emory 20-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G; Jurkiewicz, M J; Bostwick, J; Wood, R; Bried, J T; Culbertson, J; Howell, R; Eaves, F; Carlson, G; Nahai, F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to define those patient variables that contribute to morbidity and mortality of median sternotomy wound infection and the results of treatment by debridement and closure by muscle flaps. BACKGROUND: Infection of the median sternotomy wound after open heart surgery is a devastating complication associated with significant mortality. Twenty years ago, these wounds were treated with either open packing or antibiotic irrigation, with a mortality approaching 50% in some series. In 1975, the authors began treating these wounds with radical sternal debridement followed by closure using muscle or omental flaps. The mortality of sternal wound infection has dropped to < 10%. METHODS: The authors' total experience with 409 patients treated over 20 years is described in relation to flap choices, hospital days after sternal wound closure, and incidence rates of morbidity and mortality. One hundred eighty-six patients treated since January 1988 were studied to determine which patient variables had impact on rates of flap closure complications, recurrent sternal wound infection, or death. Variables included obesity, history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes, poststernotomy septicemia, internal mammary artery harvest, use of intra-aortic balloon pump, and perioperative myocardial infarction and were analyzed using chi square tests. Fisher's exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The mortality rate over 20 years was 8.1% (33/49). Additional procedures for recurrent sternal wound infection were necessary in 5.1% of patients. Thirty-one patients (7.6%) required treatment for hematoma, and 11 patients (2.7%) required hernia repair. Among patients treated since 1988, variables strongly associated with mortality were septicemia (p < 0.00001), perioperative myocardial infarction (p = 0.006), and intra-aortic balloon pump (p = 0.0168). Factors associated with wound closure complications were intra-aortic balloon pump

  4. Forelimb muscle function in pig-nosed turtles, Carettochelys insculpta: testing neuromotor conservation between rowing and flapping in swimming turtles

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Angela R. V.; Blob, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in muscle activation patterns can lead to new locomotor modes; however, neuromotor conservation—the evolution of new forms of locomotion through changes in structure without concurrent changes to underlying motor patterns—has been documented across diverse styles of locomotion. Animals that swim using appendages do so via rowing (anteroposterior oscilations) or flapping (dorsoventral oscilations). Yet few studies have compared motor patterns between these swimming modes. In swimming turtles, propulsion is generated exclusively by limbs. Kinematically, turtles swim using multiple styles of rowing (freshwater species), flapping (sea turtles) and a unique hybrid style with superficial similarity to flapping by sea turtles and characterized by increased dorsoventral motions of synchronously oscillated forelimbs that have been modified into flippers (Carettochelys insculpta). We compared forelimb motor patterns in four species of turtle (two rowers, Apalone ferox and Trachemys scripta; one flapper, Caretta caretta; and Carettochelys) and found that, despite kinematic differences, motor patterns were generally similar among species with a few notable exceptions: specifically, presence of variable bursts for pectoralis and triceps in Trachemys (though timing of the non-variable pectoralis burst was similar), and the timing of deltoideus activity in Carettochelys and Caretta compared with other taxa. The similarities in motor patterns we find for several muscles provide partial support for neuromotor conservation among turtles using diverse locomotor styles, but the differences implicate deltoideus as a prime contributor to flapping limb motions. PMID:23966596

  5. Forelimb muscle function in pig-nosed turtles, Carettochelys insculpta: testing neuromotor conservation between rowing and flapping in swimming turtles.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Angela R V; Blob, Richard W

    2013-10-23

    Changes in muscle activation patterns can lead to new locomotor modes; however, neuromotor conservation-the evolution of new forms of locomotion through changes in structure without concurrent changes to underlying motor patterns-has been documented across diverse styles of locomotion. Animals that swim using appendages do so via rowing (anteroposterior oscilations) or flapping (dorsoventral oscilations). Yet few studies have compared motor patterns between these swimming modes. In swimming turtles, propulsion is generated exclusively by limbs. Kinematically, turtles swim using multiple styles of rowing (freshwater species), flapping (sea turtles) and a unique hybrid style with superficial similarity to flapping by sea turtles and characterized by increased dorsoventral motions of synchronously oscillated forelimbs that have been modified into flippers (Carettochelys insculpta). We compared forelimb motor patterns in four species of turtle (two rowers, Apalone ferox and Trachemys scripta; one flapper, Caretta caretta; and Carettochelys) and found that, despite kinematic differences, motor patterns were generally similar among species with a few notable exceptions: specifically, presence of variable bursts for pectoralis and triceps in Trachemys (though timing of the non-variable pectoralis burst was similar), and the timing of deltoideus activity in Carettochelys and Caretta compared with other taxa. The similarities in motor patterns we find for several muscles provide partial support for neuromotor conservation among turtles using diverse locomotor styles, but the differences implicate deltoideus as a prime contributor to flapping limb motions. PMID:23966596

  6. Brief ex vivo perfusion with heparinized and/or citrated whole blood enhances tolerance of free muscle flaps to prolonged ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J D; Li, X; Cooley, B C

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the use of heparinized and/or citrated whole blood as a perfusate for enhancing muscle tolerance to warm ischemia. Unilateral cutaneous trunci muscle flaps were harvested from Sprague-Dawley rats and stored for 10 hr at 22-24 degrees C prior to transplantation to the groin. One group served as a non-perfused control. In three experimental groups, the flaps were hand-perfused ex vivo with 1.0 ml of heparinized, citrated, or heparinized and citrated autogenous whole blood at physiological pressures. Perfusion was administered over a 10-min period 5 hr into the ischemic period. Flaps were revascularized on the femoral vessels and then harvested 48 hr following revascularization. Tissue injury was assessed by calculation of flap weight change (indicator of tissue edema), histochemical evaluation of muscle dehydrogenase activity (nitroblue tetrazolium assay), and light microscopy. All perfused groups had significantly higher muscle dehydrogenase activity compared with non-perfused controls (P < 0.005). Perfusion with combined heparin-citrated blood was significantly more protective than perfusion with either anticoagulant alone (P < 0.025). The only statistically significant reduction in percent flap edema was seen in the combined heparin-citrate perfusion of flaps compared with nonperfused controls (P < 0.05). Histologic evaluation confirmed a reduction in tissue edema in the perfused flaps. We conclude that mid-ischemic perfusion with heparinized and/or citrated blood limits the deleterious effects of extended warm ischemia. PMID:10231122

  7. Radiological Assessment of Bioengineered Bone in a Muscle Flap for the Reconstruction of Critical-Size Mandibular Defect

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fotawei, Randa; Ayoub, Ashraf F.; Heath, Neil; Naudi, Kurt B.; Tanner, K. Elizabeth; Dalby, Matthew J.; McMahon, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive radiographic evaluation of bone regeneration within a pedicled muscle flap for the reconstruction of critical size mandibular defect. The surgical defect (20 mm×15 mm) was created in the mandible of ten experimental rabbits. The masseter muscle was adapted to fill the surgical defect, a combination of calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite cement (CERAMENT™ |SPINE SUPPORT), BMP-7 and rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells (rMSCs) was injected inside the muscle tissue. Radiographic assessment was carried out on the day of surgery and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. At 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scanning and micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) were carried out. Clinically, a clear layer of bone tissue was identified closely adherent to the border of the surgical defect. Sporadic radio-opaque areas within the surgical defect were detected radiographically. In comparison with the opposite non operated control side, the estimated quantitative scoring of the radio-opacity was 46.6% ±15, the mean volume of the radio-opaque areas was 63.4% ±20. Areas of a bone density higher than that of the mandibular bone (+35% ±25%) were detected at the borders of the surgical defect. The micro-CT analysis revealed thinner trabeculae of the regenerated bone with a more condensed trabecular pattern than the surrounding native bone. These findings suggest a rapid deposition rate of the mineralised tissue and an active remodelling process of the newly regenerated bone within the muscle flap. The novel surgical model of this study has potential clinical application; the assessment of bone regeneration using the presented radiolographic protocol is descriptive and comprehensive. The findings of this research confirm the remarkable potential of local muscle flaps as local bioreactors to induce bone formation for reconstruction of maxillofacial bony defects. PMID:25226170

  8. Robotic Assisted Implantation of Ventricular Assist Device after Sternectomy & Pectoralis Muscle Flap

    PubMed Central

    Khalpey, Zain; Sydow, Nicole; Paidy, Samata; Slepian, Marvin J.; Friedman, Mark; Cooper, Anthony; Marsh, Katherine M.; Schmitto, Jan D; Poston, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices are increasingly important in the management of advanced heart failure. Most patients who benefit from these devices have had some prior cardiac surgery, making implantation of higher risk. This is especially true in patients who have had prior pectoralis flap reconstruction after sternectomy for mediastinitis. We outline the course of such a patient, in whom the use of robotic assistance allowed for a less invasive device implantation approach with preservation of the flap for transplantation. PMID:25072555

  9. Monitored extended secondary arterial ischemia in a free muscle transfer.

    PubMed

    Sværdborg, Mille; Birke-Sørensen, Hanne

    2012-02-01

    In reconstructive microsurgery, flap failure can be catastrophic to the patient. Different monitoring methods have been implemented in an attempt to recognize secondary ischemia during its early stages. However, the exact onset of secondary ischemia can be difficult to determine because there are no well-documented and reliable monitoring techniques that offer true continuous monitoring in a clinical setting. Because of the uncertain time in terms of the onset of secondary ischemia, the exact length of ischemia before revascularization, the secondary ischemia time, cannot be obtained. This is probably part of the reason why not much has been published regarding the effect of secondary ischemia time in reference to flap survival. We present a case of a free gracilis muscle flap that was salvaged despite more than 11 hours of arterial ischemia. The flap was monitored using microdialysis and at no time was the ischemia clearly demonstrated by clinical inspection. We conclude that clinical monitoring in some cases can be an unreliable method for monitoring free muscle transfers suffering from arterial ischemia and that further studies are needed for more specific guidelines regarding the critical secondary ischemia time in muscle flaps. PMID:21959552

  10. Design and fabrication of a bat-inspired flapping-flight platform using shape memory alloy muscles and joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Stephen J.; Bunget, George; Seelecke, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on the development of a concept for a micro-air vehicle (MAV) based on a bio-inspired flapping motion that is generated from integrated smart materials. Since many smart materials have their own biomimetic characteristics and the potential to be highly efficient, lightweight, and streamlined, they are ideal candidates for use in structural or actuator components in MAVs. In this work, shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator wires are used as analogs for biological muscles, and super-elastic SMAs are implemented as flexible joints capable of large bending angles. While biological organisms have an intrinsic sensing array composed of nerves, the SMA wires also provide self-sensing by virtue of a phase-dependent resistance change. Study of the biology and flight characteristics of natural fliers concluded that the bat provides an ideal platform for SMA muscle wires because of its comparatively low wingbeat frequency and superb maneuverability. A first-generation prototype is built to further the understanding of fabricating Nature’s designs. The engineering design is then improved further in a second-generation prototype that combines 3D printing and new techniques for embedding SMA wires and shaping SMA joints for improved robustness, reproducibility, and lifetime. These prototypes are on display at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Science’s Nature Research Center, which has the goal of bridging the gaps between biology and engineering.

  11. The dog-ear flap as an alternative for breast reconstruction in patients who have already undergone a DIEAP flap.

    PubMed

    Colebunders, Britt; Depypere, Bernard; Van Landuyt, Koenraad

    2016-05-01

    Breast reconstruction in patients who have previously undergone deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (DIEAP) reconstruction or abdominoplasty is often challenging. Depending on patients' body habitus, several second-choice flaps have been described such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap, profundus femoris artery perforator (PFAP) flap, superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flap, and lumbar artery perforator (LAP) flap. Patients who have undergone a DIEAP flap reconstruction or abdominoplasty occasionally present with dog ears on both sides of the abdominal scar. The adipose tissue and skin of these dog ears are supplied by perforators of the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA). The DCIA flap was first described in 1979 by Taylor. We introduce this abdominal "dog-ear" flap for autologous breast reconstruction. PMID:26951847

  12. Flapping of Insectile Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. Yet the effects of muscle stiffness on the performance of insect wings remain unclear. Here, we construct an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring and submerged in an oscillatory flow. The wing system is free to rotate and flap. We first explore the extent to which the flyer can withstand roll perturbations, then study its flapping behavior and performance as a function of spring stiffness. We find an optimal range of spring stiffness that results in large flapping amplitudes, high force generation and good storage of elastic energy. We conclude by conjecturing that insects may select and adjust the muscle spring stiffness to achieve desired movement. These findings may have significant implications on the design principles of wings in micro air-vehicles.

  13. Improvement of Nasojugal Groove and Wrinkles Following a Skin-Muscle Flap Elevation Through a Subciliary Approach to the Orbital Rim.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Choi, Jong Hwan; Kim, Joo Ho

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to see whether the nasojugal groove and wrinkles can be improved following a skin-muscle flap elevation through a subciliary approach to the orbital rim.Fifty-seven patients having fractures of the orbital floor, wall, or orbital rim were included. A subciliary incision was made 3 to 5 mm below the cilia. A skin-muscle flap was elevated and a 5-mm width of the periosteum of the anterior surface of the maxilla was exposed. Thereafter, the origin of the orbicularis oculi muscle was released from the underlying bony origin. An incision was made at the arcus marginalis. After reconstruction, the detached arcus marginalis was sutured to the periosteum of the infraorbital rim and the subciliary incision was closed. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were analyzed with the validated assessment scales for midface.In the 57 sides operated on, the postoperative, mean assessment score was significantly lower (0.56 ± 0.66) on the operated side than on the contralateral side (0.84 ± 1.00) (P = 0.002). In the 37 sides excluding the patients in whom the initial score was 0, and the postoperative, mean assessment score was significantly lower (0.84 ± 0.65) on the operated side than on the contralateral side (1.19 ± 1.05) (P = 0.010).The skin-muscle flap elevated through the subciliary approach to reach the orbital rim improved the nasojugal groove despite the fat removal or repositioning was not performed. The reason for this improvement the authors think is orbicularis oculi muscle had been separated from its origin. PMID:27100651

  14. A case of post-upper lobectomy empyema treated by serratus anterior muscle and pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps plombage via open-window thoracostomy.

    PubMed

    Kitami, Akihiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Shuichi; Noriyoshi, Sumiya

    2004-06-01

    A 62-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for operation for Aspergillus empyema with a fungus ball in the right upper lobe. We performed a right upper lobectomy and decortication of the middle and lower lobes through a standard posterolateral thoracotomy with dissection of the latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles, in October 2000. Twenty-one days postoperatively (POD), he developed an empyema and a bronchopleural fistula. We performed open-window thoracostomy through the axilla with removal of the third and fourth ribs at 41 POD, and sterilized the open drainage cavity in the out-patient clinic 11 months after discharge. Although the condition of the bronchopleural fistulas was not improved, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was found in the purulent discharge, the discharge decreased. Finally, a pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous and serratus anterior muscle flap plombage was performed 11 months after initial operation. The patient is now well and works as a driver 21 months after discharge. We conclude that muscle flaps of the pedicled latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles can be useful for plombage of the cavity in cases of post-standard thoracotomy. PMID:15312015

  15. Perforator Flaps in Head and Neck Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chana, Jagdeep S.; Odili, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Free tissue transfer has revolutionized the management of complex head and neck defects. Perforator flaps represent the most recent advance in the development of free flap surgery. These flaps are based on perforating vessels and can be harvested without significant damage to associated muscles, thereby reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with muscle-based flaps. Elevation of perforator flaps requires meticulous technique and can be more challenging than raising muscle-based flaps. Use of a Doppler device enables reliable identification of the perforating vessels and aids in the design of free-style free flaps, where the flaps are designed purely according to the perforator located. The major advantage of free-style free flaps is that an unlimited number of flaps can potentially be designed on much shorter pedicles. The anterolateral thigh flap is the most commonly used perforator flap in head and neck reconstruction. Its use is described in detail, as is use of other less common perforator flaps. This article also describes head and neck reconstruction in a region-specific manner and gives a short-list of suitable flaps based on the location of the defect. PMID:22550446

  16. [Reconstruction of the anterior chest wall by a sandwich-type combination of a synthetic support and a muscle flap from the latissimus dorsi. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Lanfrey, E; Grolleau, J L; Glock, Y; Chavoin, J P; Costagliola, M

    1996-04-01

    Reconstruction of the chest wall after balistic or other trauma requires good and muscle cover and creation of a new, stable and airtight wall. The authors present a case of balistic trauma of the right anterolateral chest wall which was urgently debrided and subsequently reconstructed by sandwich combination of a latissimus dorsi muscle flap and synthetic material composed of a sheet of PTFE and creation of two methylmethylacrylate ribs. The advantage of this technique is that it avoids the use of autologous tissue from an already weakened chest wall and confers a new chest stability in several sites corresponding to the wall defect with easily available and easy-to-use materials. PMID:8761064

  17. Free thin paraumbilical perforator-based flaps.

    PubMed

    Koshima, I; Moriguchi, T; Soeda, S; Tanaka, H; Umeda, N

    1992-07-01

    A free paraumbilical perforator-based flap fed by a muscle perforator from the inferior deep epigastric artery and with no muscle was used in 13 patients. Among them, a free thin paraumbilical perforator-based flap with a thin layer of fat, to protect the subdermal plexus of the vessels, was used in seven patients. The dominant pedicle perforator of this thin flap is usually located around the umbilicus and a large flap can be obtained. Its critical length-to-breath ratio is considered to be 4:3. The advantages of this flap are a long and large vascular pedicle, rare postoperative abdominal herniation, little bulkiness of the flap, and a relatively large skin territory. The disadvantages are technical difficulties in dissection of the perforator and anatomical variation in the location of the perforator. We believe this flap largely overcomes the problems of the conventional rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. PMID:1386718

  18. Reconstruction of coup de sabre deformity (linear localized scleroderma) by using galeal frontalis muscle flap and demineralized bone matrix combination.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, Tarik; Yazici, Ilker; Vargel, Ibrahim; Karakaya, Esen Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this clinical report, we are presenting the combination of demineralized bone matrix combined with bilateral galea frontalis flaps. Based on our 6-month results, this seems to be a reasonable combination to accomplish long-lasting restoration of forehead defects related to en coup de sabre linear localized scleroderma. PMID:21233742

  19. Use of Oral Mucoperiosteal and Pterygo-Masseteric Muscle Flaps as Interposition Material in Surgery of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyanechi, CE; Osunde, OD; Bassey, GO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common complication of surgery for the release of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is relapse of the ankylosis. To prevent re-ankylosis, a variety of interpositional materials have been used. Aim: The aim was to compare the surgical outcome of oral mucoperiosteal flap, not hitherto used as interpositional material, with pterygo-masseteric muscles flap after surgical release of TMJ ankylosis. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of all consecutive patients treated for the release of complete TMJ bony ankylosis, from January 2003 to December 2012, at the Oral and Maxillofacial unit of our institution. The patients were randomized into two groups: The pterygo-masseteric group comprises 22 patients while the oral mucoperiosteal group had 23 patients. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and postoperative complications over a 5 year follow-up period were obtained, and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13, Chicago, IL, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 28 mean 20.3 (3.35) years while the duration of ankylosis ranged from 2 to 16 mean 5.1 (3.4) years. The baseline demographic (gender; P = 0.92; side; P = 0.58) and clinical characteristics in terms of etiology (P = 0.60) and age (P = 0.52) were comparable in both treatment groups. All the patients presented with complete bony TMJ ankylosis with a preoperative inter-incisal distance of <0.5 cm. The intraoperative mouth opening achieved ranged from 4 cm to 5 cm, mean 4.6 (0.27) cm and this was not different for either group (P = 0.51). The patients were followed up postoperatively for a period ranging from 3 to 5 years, mean 3.4 (0.62) years. The mouth opening decreased, over the period of postoperative review, from the initial range of 4–5 cm to 2.9–3.6 cm, and this was not different in both groups (P = 0

  20. Leg for life? The use of sartorius muscle flap for the treatment of an infected vascular reconstructions after VA-ECMO use. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Patrut, George V.; Neamtu, Claudiu; Ionac, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO1) systems are a life-saving option in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS2), but may be encumbered by severe vascular complications in the groin. Presentation of case A pregnant woman was admitted with respiratory failure due to H1N1 influenza. VA-ECMO was inserted percutaneously by the intensivists and then accidentally removed by the patient after 8 days. 24 h later VA-ECMO was reinstalled with surgical denudation of femoral vessels in another department. 2 h later, due to active bleeding and signs of limb ischemia, the patient was referred to our department and emergency trombectomy and patch angioplasty with PTFE were performed. Evolution was further bad with wound infection (Pseudomonas, Proteus), which imposed large debridement, replacing the PTFE patch with 2 parallel venous patches and wound reconstruction through sartorius muscle rotation. The wound underwent negative pressure therapy for 10 days and was skin grafted. The patient recovered under systemic antibiotic and virostatic therapy. Discussion Major complications of using VA-ECMO devices are related to vascular access, most common bleeding at the puncture site and acute limb ischemia. In the groin, sartorius muscle flap is the most used for vascular coverage and small tissue defect reconstruction because of the ease in harvesting and low donor-site complications. Conclusion Although ischemic complications associated with VA-ECMO are accepted by intensivists under the slogan “leg for life”, for the repair of the femoral artery in the presence of groin infection the sartorius muscle remains an efficient solution for limb salvage. PMID:26408936

  1. Increasing options in autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction: four free flaps for 'stacked' bilateral breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Warren Matthew; Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V

    2016-04-01

    For autologous breast reconstruction, there are cases where one free flap cannot provide the volume of tissue required, and the concept of 'stacked' bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) flaps was developed, in which hemi-abdominal flaps are raised on each deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), and both flaps transferred to the chest. In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction, stacked flaps may be required to achieve volume replacement, however options are not described. We demonstrate the use of stacked free flaps for bilateral breast reconstruction, using one DIEP flap stacked with one transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap for each side. A 49-year-old woman, with BRCA1 mutation, presented for risk reduction mastectomies. Flap design was planned to achieve maximal projection and primary nipple reconstruction. This was able to be achieved by using the DIEP flap de-epithelialised and completely buried, with the flap orientated with the pedicle on its superficial surface, and the TUG flap lying superficially with its skin paddle used for nipple reconstruction and able to be monitored clinically. There were no flap or donor related complications and good aesthetic outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a further option in microsurgical breast reconstruction for patients in whom there is a paucity of abdominal tissue for reconstruction. PMID:27047791

  2. The use of a sternothyroid muscle flap to prevent the re-recurrence of a recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula found 10 years after the primary repair.

    PubMed

    Takayasu, Hajime; Masumoto, Kouji; Ishikawa, Miki; Sasaki, Takato; Ono, Kentaro

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is still difficult to diagnose and repair. In almost all cases, recurrence appears relatively soon after the primary surgery. We herein describe a case of recurrent TEF that appeared 10 years after the primary repair. At 2 years of age, the patient suffered from mental retardation due to encephalitis and developed a hiatus hernia with gastro-esophageal reflux. He underwent the repair of a hiatus hernia and fundoplication at 3 years of age. However, the hiatus hernia recurred 6 months after the operation. The patient suffered from recurrent pneumonia for 6 years after the appearance of the recurrent hiatus hernia. At 9 years of age, he was hospitalized frequently due to recurrent severe pneumonia. After admission at 9 years of age, an endoscopic study under general anesthesia was performed and revealed subglottic stenosis and a dilated esophagus with a recurrent hiatus hernia. Tracheotomy or laryngotracheal separation was first planned in order to improve his upper airway and facilitate the safer repair of the recurrent hiatus hernia. After laryngotracheal separation, the patient still suffered from severe pneumonia. In addition, a small volume of nutritional supplement was aspirated from the tracheostomy. Thus, recurrent TEF was suspected. Tests using dye under both esophagoscopy and bronchoscopy confirmed recurrent TEF. The fistula recurred in the cervical area because of the elevation of the esophagus due to the recurrent hiatus hernia. The fistula was surgically closed, with a sternothyroid muscle flap to prevent re-recurrence. At 4 months after this operation, the recurrent hiatus hernia was repaired. Thereafter, the patient's respiratory symptoms showed a dramatic improvement. The patient is now doing well and free from further recurrences of TEF and hiatus hernia at 2 years after the final operation. PMID:27589983

  3. Increasing options in autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction: four free flaps for ‘stacked’ bilateral breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.

    2016-01-01

    For autologous breast reconstruction, there are cases where one free flap cannot provide the volume of tissue required, and the concept of ‘stacked’ bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) flaps was developed, in which hemi-abdominal flaps are raised on each deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), and both flaps transferred to the chest. In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction, stacked flaps may be required to achieve volume replacement, however options are not described. We demonstrate the use of stacked free flaps for bilateral breast reconstruction, using one DIEP flap stacked with one transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap for each side. A 49-year-old woman, with BRCA1 mutation, presented for risk reduction mastectomies. Flap design was planned to achieve maximal projection and primary nipple reconstruction. This was able to be achieved by using the DIEP flap de-epithelialised and completely buried, with the flap orientated with the pedicle on its superficial surface, and the TUG flap lying superficially with its skin paddle used for nipple reconstruction and able to be monitored clinically. There were no flap or donor related complications and good aesthetic outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a further option in microsurgical breast reconstruction for patients in whom there is a paucity of abdominal tissue for reconstruction. PMID:27047791

  4. Tensor fascia lata flap versus tensor fascia lata perforator-based island flap for the coverage of extensive trochanteric pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Hwan; Kim, Sang Wha; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Chang Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Tensor fascia lata (TFL) musculocutaneous flaps often require a donor site graft when harvesting a large flap. However, a major drawback is that it also sacrifices the muscle. To overcome this disadvantage, we designed a TFL perforator-based island flap that was harvested from a site near the defect and involved transposition within 90 degrees without full isolation of the pedicles. We performed procedures on 17 musculocutaneous flaps and 23 perforator-based island flaps, and compared the outcomes of these surgeries. The overall complication rate was 27.5% (11 regions). There were 7 complications related to the musculocutaneous flaps and 4 complications related to the perforator flaps. Although there were no statistical differences between those groups, lower complication rates were associated with procedures involving perforator flaps. The TFL perforator procedure is a simple and fast operation that avoids sacrificing muscle. This decreases complication rates compared to true perforator flap techniques that require dissection around the perforator or pedicle. PMID:23392259

  5. Physical characterization of gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Lebert, M; Porst, M; Richter, P; Hader, D P

    1999-09-01

    Gravitaxis in unicellular microorganisms like Euglena gracilis has been known for more than 100 years. The current model explains this phenomenon on the basis of a specific density difference between cell body and surrounding medium. In order to test the feasibility of the current model in terms of physical considerations the specific density of different Euglena gracilis cultures was determined. Depending on the culture conditions the specific density was in a range between 1.046 g mL-1 and 1.054 g mL-1. Size and gravitaxis measurements were performed in parallel, which allowed to relate the force applied to the lower membrane to the kinetic properties of gravitactic reorientation. A linear relationship between force and gravitaxis kinetics was found. A comparison between estimated activation energy of the proposed stretch-sensitive ion channels and energy supplied by the displacement of the lower membrane by the sedimentation of the cell body revealed that a focusing, an amplification and/or an integration period over time must be involved in the gravitactic signal transduction chain. Analysis of stimulus-response curves revealed an integration period of about 5 seconds before a gravitactic reorientation starts. The kinetics of gravitaxis at 1 x gn, and 0.12 x gn, was found to be similar. A hypothesis is presented that explains this finding on the basis of a combination of an integration period and an all-or-none reaction during gravitactic reorientation. PMID:11542915

  6. Extended thoracodorsal artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Rancati, Alberto; Escudero, Ezequiel; Artero, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    A total of 45 patients underwent partial or total autologous breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy, skin-reducing mastectomy, and quadrantectomy using a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap. The detailed surgical technique with its variations is explained in this report. The propeller, flip-over, conventional perforator, and muscle-sparing flaps have been described and evaluated. The flaps were partially or completely de-epithelialized. The conventional TDAP can be enlarged or "extended" as the traditional latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous (LD-MC) flap by incorporating the superior and inferior fat compartments. It can be referred to as the "extended TDAP flap". This technique augments the flap volume. In addition, this flap can serve as a scaffold for lipofilling to obtain autologous breast reconstruction in medium to large cases. There were two complete failures due to technical errors during flap elevation. Distal partial tissue suffering was observed in four flaps. These flaps were longer than usual; they reached the midline of the back. It is advisable to discard the distal medial quarter of the flap when it is designed up to the midline to avoid steatonecrosis or fibrosis. A retrospective analysis of the 39 flaps that survived completely revealed a satisfactory result in 82% of the cases. The main disadvantage of this procedure is the final scar. The TDAP flap is a reliable and safe method for partial or total breast autologous reconstruction. PMID:26645006

  7. Functioning free gracilis transfer to reconstruct elbow flexion and quality of life in global brachial plexus injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Jian-Tao; Fu, Guo; Li, Xiang-Ming; Qin, Ben-Gang; Hou, Yi; Qi, Jian; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Gu, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In the study, the functional recovery and relative comprehensive quality of life of cases of global brachial plexus treated with free functioning muscle transfers were investigated. Patients who received functioning gracilis muscle transfer between August 1999 and October 2014 to reconstruct elbow flexion, wrist and fingers extension were recruited. The mean age of the patients was 26.36 (range, 16–42) years. The mean period of time from gracilis transfer to the last follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 12–185 months). Muscle power, active range of motion of the elbow flexion, wrist extension, and total active fingers extension were recorded. SDS, SAS and DASH questionnaires were given to estimate patients’ quality of life. 35.71% reported good elbow flexion and 50.00% reported excellent elbow flexion. The average ROM of the elbow flexion was 106.5° (range, 0–142°) and was 17.00° (range, 0–72°) for wrist extension. The average DASH score was 51.14 (range, 17.5–90.8). The prevalence of anxiety and depression were 42.86% and 45.24%. Thrombosis and bowstringing were the most common short and long-term complications. Based on these findings, free gracilis transfer using accessory nerve as donor nerve is a satisfactory treatment to reconstruct the elbow flexion and wrist extension in global-brachial-plexus-injured patients. PMID:26935173

  8. Management of fourth degree obstetric perineal tear without colostomy using non - stimulated gracilis - our experience over eleven years

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Jiten; Patil, Anuradha J.; Musande, Bhaskar; Bhamare, Abhishek B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although gracilis muscle transposition for faecal incontinence has been well-described method, its literature for use in obstetric perineal tear without colostomy is sparse. In this study, we have tried to analyse its use in fourth-degree obstetric perineal tears. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with recto-vaginal fistula with faecal incontinence secondary to obstetric perineal tear were retrospectively studied between February 2003 and May 2014. The recto-vaginal fistula was explored, dissected and identification of sphincters was done using muscle stimulator. Fistula closure was done followed by sphincter repair, vaginal tightening procedure and single gracilis transposition. None of the patients had covering colostomy. Faecal incontinence was assessed pre- and post-operatively by digital rectal examination (single examiner), Park's score and Corman's score in all cases and using barium hold and transperineal ultrasonography, manometric studies in a few cases. The outcome was measured at an average follow-up of 8.8 months (7–24 months). Results: As per Park's score 26 patients had Grade I continence, two had Grade II and two patients had Grade III continence. Corman's score improved from fair to excellent in 26 patients. The patients in whom manometry was performed showed a remarkable rise in both resting and squeeze pressures. Two patients developed post-operative infections in upper 1/3 thigh incision site and three patients at gluteal region scar site. Conclusion: Satisfactory continence following gracilis muscle could be achieved. PMID:27274119

  9. The clinical application of anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao-Chou; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Shieh, Shyh-Jou

    2011-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap can provide a large skin paddle nourished by a long and large-caliber pedicle and can be harvested by two-team work. Most importantly, the donor-site morbidity is minimal. However, the anatomic variations decreased its popularity. By adapting free-style flap concepts, such as preoperative mapping of the perforators and being familiar with retrograde perforator dissection, this disadvantage had been overcome gradually. Furthermore, several modifications widen its clinical applications: the fascia lata can be included for sling or tendon reconstruction, the bulkiness could be created by including vastus lateralis muscle or deepithelization of skin flap, the pliability could be increased by suprafascial dissection or primary thinning, the pedicle length could be lengthening by proximally eccentric placement of the perforator, and so forth. Combined with these technical and conceptual advancements, the anterolateral thigh flap has become the workhorse flap for soft-tissue reconstructions from head to toe. PMID:22567234

  10. The infrahyoid flap: a comprehensive review of an often overlooked reconstructive method.

    PubMed

    Deganello, Alberto; Leemans, C René

    2014-08-01

    The infrahyoid flap is a myocutaneous pedicled flap mainly nourished by the superior thyroid vessels through the perforators of the infrahyoid muscles. This thin and pliable flap provides a skin island of about 7 by 4 cm from the central part of the anterior neck. The flap can be transferred on its pedicle of superior thyroid artery and vein to reconstruct medium sized head and neck defects created after cancer ablation. We have successfully used this flap in a series of 40 cases with no total flap loss and with 1 case of superficial skin necrosis. The aim of this review is to highlight the clinical usefulness of this pedicled flap even in the microvascular free flap era. A comprehensive review of the available literature reporting on the infrahyoid flap has been carried out using a web search. The history of the infrahyoid flap, the surgical technique with technical innovations, the clinical utility and limitations of this flap, are reported and discussed. Among the 7 larger series (cohort larger than 50 cases) a total of 956 flaps were performed, and the global success rate was 91.7%, with failures being mainly related to partial skin necrosis, as the rate of total (skin and muscle) flap necrosis was only 1%. This flap is reliable, easy to harvest during neck dissection, oncologically safe, it does carry a negligible donor site morbidity. This paper highlights how the infrahyoid flap can represent an excellent reconstructive solution in selected patients and head and neck sites. PMID:24856306

  11. Immediate nipple reconstruction with thoracodorsal artery perforator flap in breast reconstruction by latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in patients with Poland's syndrome.

    PubMed

    He, Jinguang; Xu, Hua; Wang, Tao; Qiao, Yufei; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Loss of long-term projection is the major disadvantage of nipple reconstruction using local flaps. We report a technique of immediate perforator flap nipple reconstruction in breast reconstruction by latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap in patients with Poland's syndrome. From March 2007 to July 2012, 12 female patients (age range, 15-21 years) underwent breast reconstructions and immediate nipple reconstructions. A thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) flap was simultaneously raised on the LD muscle flap and folded by itself to form the nipple. Both the LD flap and TAP flaps survived postoperatively. The nipple projection was measured by a caliper, and the average loss was 29% by the 1-year follow-up. Eleven patients considered the aesthetic appearance of reconstructed breast and nipple to be very good or good. The immediate nipple reconstruction with TAP flap could be safely performed and results in considerable satisfaction in breast reconstruction by LD myocutaneous flap in patients with Poland's syndrome. PMID:25752505

  12. Regional anesthesia alone for pediatric free flaps.

    PubMed

    Bjorklund, Kim A; Venkatramani, Hari; Venkateshwaran, Govindaswamy; Boopathi, Vadivel; Raja Sabapathy, S

    2015-05-01

    Microvascular surgery plays an important reconstructive role in the pediatric population. Successful outcomes rely on surgical technique as well as anesthesia. Regional anesthesia contributes to successful free tissue transfer through sympathetic blockade, postoperative pain control, and elimination of risks and costs associated with general anesthesia. While regional anesthesia in microsurgery is discussed in the literature for adult and elderly patients, no studies focus on the pediatric population. Accordingly, this paper reviews 20 pediatric patients undergoing microvascular surgery (anterolateral thigh, n = 9; gracilis, n = 3; toe transfer, n = 6; and fibula, n = 2) with regional anesthesia and sedation. All patients underwent spinal epidural anesthesia, and seven also received brachial plexus blocks. The average duration of anesthesia was 3-4 h (anterolateral thigh (ALT) and gracilis) and 6-8 h (toe transfer and fibula). No anesthesia-related complications or flap failures occurred. We conclude that regional anesthesia has important benefits in pediatric microsurgery and it is a safe and cost-effective alternative to general anesthesia. PMID:25858275

  13. Noninvasive remote ischemic preconditioning for global protection of skeletal muscle against infarction.

    PubMed

    Addison, Patrick D; Neligan, Peter C; Ashrafpour, Homa; Khan, Asim; Zhong, Anguo; Moses, Michael; Forrest, Christopher R; Pang, Cho Y

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of action of a noninvasive remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) technique for the protection of multiple distant skeletal muscles against ischemic necrosis (infarction). It was observed in the pig that three cycles of 10-min occlusion and reperfusion in a hindlimb by tourniquet application reduced the infarction of latissimus dorsi (LD), gracilis (GC), and rectus abdominis (RA) muscle flaps by 55%, 60%, and 55%, respectively, compared with their corresponding control (n = 6, P < 0.01) when they were subsequently subjected to 4 h of ischemia and 48 h of reperfusion. This infarct-protective effect of remote IPC in LD muscle flaps was abolished by an intravenous bolus injection of the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (3 mg/kg) 10 min before remote IPC and a continuous intravenous infusion (3 mg/kg) during remote IPC and by an intravenous bolus injection of the selective delta 1-opioid receptor antagonist 7-benzylidenealtrexone maleate (3 mg/kg). However, this infarct-protective effect of remote IPC was not affected by an intravenous bolus injection of the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium chloride (20 mg/kg) or the nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (10 mg/kg) or by a local intra-arterial injection of the adenosine1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (3 mg/muscle flap) given 10 min before remote IPC. It was also observed that this remote IPC of skeletal muscle against infarction was associated with a slower rate of muscle ATP depletion during the 4 h of sustained ischemia and a reduced muscle neutrophilic myeloperoxidase activity after 1.5 h of reperfusion. These observations led us to speculate that noninvasive remote IPC by brief cycles of occlusion and reperfusion in a pig hindlimb is effective in global protection of skeletal muscle against infarction. This infarct-protective effect is most likely triggered by the activation

  14. Segmented vortex flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Segmented vortex flaps were suggested as a means of delaying the vortex spill-over causing thrust loss over the outboard region of single-panel flaps. Also proposed was hinge-line setback for exploiting leading-edge suction in conjunction with vortex flaps to improve the overall thrust per unit flap area. These two concepts in combination were tested on a 60-deg cropped delta wing model. Significant improvement in flap efficiency was indicated by a reduction of the flap/wing area from 11.4% of single-panel flap to 6.3% of a two segment delta flap design, with no lift/drag penalty at lift coefficients between 0.5 and 0.7. The more efficient vortex flap arrangement of this study should benefit the performance attainable with flaps of given area on wings of moderate leading-edge sweep.

  15. Free combined composite flaps using the lateral circumflex femoral system for repair of massive defects of the head and neck regions: an introduction to the chimeric flap principle.

    PubMed

    Koshima, I; Yamamoto, H; Hosoda, M; Moriguchi, T; Orita, Y; Nagayama, H

    1993-09-01

    Chimeric composite flaps combined using microanastomoses consist of two or more flaps or tissues, each with an isolated pedicle and a single vascular source. Free combined chimeric flaps using the lateral circumflex femoral system were used to treat massive composite defects of the head and neck in 10 cases. A combined anterolateral thigh flap and vascularized iliac bone graft based on the lateral circumflex femoral system and the deep circumflex iliac system was the most commonly used combination. An anteromedial thigh flap and a paraumbilical perforator-based flap were also combined with this principal combination. The advantages of this chimeric flap over other osteocutaneous flaps are: (1) The flap is relatively thin and the pedicle vessels are up to 10 cm longer and are wider than those of other flaps for easier harvesting of the flap. (2) It is unnecessary to reposition the patient. (3) The vascular pedicle to the skin can be separated from that of the bone. (4) The donor site is not close to the recipient site. (5) The donor scar is in an unexposed area. (6) The skin territory of this flap is extremely wide. (7) A combined anterolateral and anteromedial thigh flap and vascularized iliac bone graft can be easily obtained as an extended combined osteocutaneous flap. (8) Other neighboring skin flaps, such as a groin flap, a paraumbilical perforator-based flap, or a medial thigh flap, can be combined with this chimeric flap because several major muscle branches to be anastomosed derive from the lateral circumflex femoral system. Chimeric composite flaps using the lateral circumflex femoral system are considered suitable for the repair of massive composite defects of the head and neck. PMID:8341739

  16. Deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) free flap without DCIA: report of a unique case.

    PubMed

    Jairath, David; Hage, J Joris

    2004-10-01

    The iliac crest free flap is a reliable source of cancellous bone, muscle, and skin. The vascularization of this flap arises from the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) which allegedly is always present. The authors report a unique case of successful microvascular transplantation of an iliac crest osteomyocutaneous free flap in a patient in whom the DCIA and DCIV were absent. PMID:15534778

  17. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE RESULTS ACHIEVED IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH TWO KINDS OF AUTOLOGOUS GRAFTS: PATELLAR TENDON VERSUS SEMITENDINOUS AND GRACILIS

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Monteiro, Diego Antico; Dias, Leonardo; Correia, Dárcio Maurício; Cohen, Moisés; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to compare the arthrometric and isokinetic examination results from two types of autologous grafts: the central third of the patellar ligament and a graft formed by the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, within the same rehabilitation protocol, six months after the surgery. Methods: the results from examinations carried out on 63 patients were analyzed. These patients were divided in two groups: one group of 30 patients who received a patellar tendon graft and another group of 33 patients who received a graft from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles. Both the grafts were attached in the same way, with Endobutton™ for suspensory fixation to the femur and a bioabsorbable interference screw for fixation in the tibial tunnel. Results: arthrometry 30 did not present any statistical difference between the two study groups. On the other hand, the isokinetic evaluation showed that the patellar tendon group had a larger mean peak torque of flexion and greater extension deficit, while the semitendinosus/gracilis group had a better mean flexion/extension ratio and greater percentage of flexion deficit. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups when measuring peak torque extension. Conclusion: therefore, when the patellar tendon was used, there was greater extensor deficit and, when the semitendinosus/gracilis tendons were used, there was greater flexor deficit. PMID:27004173

  18. Secondary reconstruction with a transverse colon covered with a pectoralis major muscle flap and split thickness skin grafts for an esophageal defect and wide skin defects of the anterior chest wall.

    PubMed

    Sadanaga, Noriaki; Morinaga, Keigo; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Necrosis of a reconstructed organ after esophagectomy is a rare postoperative complication. However, in case this complication develops, severe infectious complications can occur, and subsequent surgical reconstruction is quite complicated. To treat esophageal conduit necrosis after esophageal reconstruction with the terminal ileum and ascending colon, we reconstructed the esophagus using a transverse colon, which was covered with a pectoralis major muscle flap to reinforce the anastomotic site. In addition, split thickness skin grafts were applied to the wide skin defect to cover the reconstructed organs at the antesternal route. Widely extended split thickness skin grafts can adhere to the reconstructed organs without excessive tension. Therefore, this method enabled successful treatment of an esophageal defect and wide skin defects of the anterior chest wall. PMID:26943390

  19. Gravitaxis and graviperception in Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häder, D.-P.; Lebert, M.; Richter, P.

    Gravitactic orientation in the flagellate Euglena gracilis is mediated by an active physiological receptor rather than a passive alignment of the cells. During a recent space flight on the American shuttle Columbia the cells were subjected to different accelerations between 0 and 1.5 x g and tracked by computerized real-time image analysis. The dependence of orientation on acceleration followed a sigmoidal curve with a threshold at <=0.16 x g and a saturation at about 0.32 x g. No adaptation of the cells to the conditions of weightlessness was observed over the duration of the space mission (12 days). Under terrestrial conditions graviorientation was eliminated when the cells were suspended in a medium the density of which (Ficoll) equaled that of the cell body (1.04 g/ml) and was reversed at higher densities indicating that the whole cytoplasm exerts a pressure on the respective lower membrane. There it probably activates stretch-sensitive calcium specific ion channels since gravitaxis can be affected by gadolinium which is a specific inhibitor of calcium transport in these structures. The sensory transduction chain could involve modulation of the membrane potential since ion channel blockers, ionophores and ATPase inhibitors impair graviperception.

  20. Circadian rhythm of gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Lebert, M; Porst, M; Hader, D P

    1999-09-01

    Euglena gracilis, a unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate is a model system for environmentally controlled behavioral reactions. One pronounced reaction is the orientation with respect to gravity. In synchronized cultures with no cell growth a distinct circadian rhythm of negative gravitactic orientation could be observed. The main maximum of sensitivity was detected 5 h after the beginning of the subjective day, the main minimum 5 h before the beginning of the subjective day. Transferring synchronized cultures to continuous light resulted in an almost instantaneous loss of rhythmicity. In contrast, after transfer to permanent darkness cells exhibited a circadian rhythm with a progressive shortening of the period for more than 5 days. These findings are in contrast to the circadian rhythm of phototaxis in Euglena, where a free-running period of 24 h was observed. Parallel measurements of negative gravitactic orientation, velocity, cell shape as well as cAMP concentration in synchronized cultures revealed a circadian rhythm of all reactions. The results are discussed with regard to the possible role of cell shape and cAMP in gravitactic orientation. PMID:11542916

  1. What Is the Ideal Free Flap for Soft Tissue Reconstruction? A Ten-Year Experience of Microsurgical Reconstruction Using 334 Latissimus Dorsi Flaps From a Universal Donor Site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Sang Wha; Youn, Seungki; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2015-07-01

    Microsurgical free tissue transfer is regarded as the best available method of tissue reconstruction for intractable defects. The ideal soft tissue flap is thought to be the anterolateral thigh flap. On the basis of 334 procedures involving the latissimus dorsi (LD) flap, we discuss the advantages of the LD flap over the current universal option, and we aimed to establish whether the LD could also gain universal status in all reconstructive fields.Three hundred thirty-four reconstructive procedures using the LD flap were performed in 322 patients between September 2002 and July 2012. In accordance with defect characteristics, we performed 334 procedures using flaps, which included the LD muscle flap with skin graft, the myocutaneous flap, the muscle-sparing flap, the perforator flap, the chimeric flap, and the 2-flap technique using the serratus anterior branch.Flap-related complications occurred in 21 patients (6.3%), including total and partial flap failure. In 253 cases, the donor site was closed primarily, and in the remaining cases, we used split-thickness skin grafts. Donor-site complications occurred in 20 cases (6%). In 11 of the 182 cases, no suitable perforators were identified during surgery.The advantages of the LD as a donor site include the possibility of various harvesting positions without position change, versatility of components, availability of muscle to fill extensive defects, and presence of thick fascia to enable full abdominal reconstruction. On the basis of our experience, we concluded that this flap has the potential to be used as widely as, or in preference to, the anterolateral thigh flap in most reconstructive areas. PMID:25785382

  2. The Retrograde Ulnar Dorsal Flap: Surgical Technique and Experience as Island Flap in Coverage of Hand Defects.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Amador, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Flaps from the forearm are often used to reconstruct soft-tissue defects in the hand. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap has the advantage that it does not sacrifice a major vascular axis. The anatomic bases of this flap are the proximal and distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery. The distal branch is partially accompanied with the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve, and arrives under the abductor digiti quinti muscle making anastomoses with the deep branch of the ulnar artery. The proximal branch reaching the proximal third of the forearm, and anastomose with perforating branches of the ulnar artery. I used this island flap in 12 patients with coverage defects on the hand. The biggest flap was 13×6 cm. Only 1 flap had partial necrosis which did not lead to problems. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap is a flap designed with reverse flow from the distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery, and which does not sacrifice the ulnar artery. The donor defect on the forearm ulnar side had a greater esthetic acceptance. Knowing other distal anastomoses, described by other authors later, dorsal at the base of the fourth interdigital space grant greater security to the retrograde ulnar dorsal flap. It is worth highlighting the importance of preserving the adipofascial tissue around the pedicle. Experience with this flap permits us to state that it is a safe and reproducible flap to cover any defect on the dorsal of the hand as well as the first web space. PMID:26079665

  3. Slotted variable camber flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Variable camber actuator assemblies broaden the range of speeds at which lift to drag performance is maximized for slotted flap wings. Lift is improved over a broader range of cruising speeds by varying wing camber with rotational flap movements that do not introduce wing slots and induced drag. Forward flaps are secured to forward flange links which extended from, and are a part of forward flap linkage assemblies. The forward flaps rotate about flap pivots with their rotational displacement controlled by variable camber actuator assemblies located between the forward flaps and the forward flange links. Rear flaps are held relative to the forward flaps by rear flap linkage assemblies which may act independently from the forward flap linkage assemblies and the variable camber actuator assemblies. Wing camber is varied by rotating the flaps with the variable camber actuator assemblies while the flaps are in a deployed or tucked position. Rotating the flaps in a tucked position does not introduce significant wing surface discontinuities, and reduces aircraft fuel consumption on most flight profiles.

  4. Characterization of the mitogenome of Uropsilus gracilis and species delimitation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Quanfen; Tu, Feiyun; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shaoying

    2016-05-01

    The species diversity within the genus Uropsilus were underestimated: 10 species among the genus Uropsilus have been proposed. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of U. gracilis, with the topotype, was determined. It is 16,536 bp in length, comprising of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The composition and arrangement of its genes are similar to most other mammals. The total base composition of the mitogenome is A, 33.4%; T, 30.3%; C, 22.7% and G, 13.6%, with a rich content of A+T pattern. We performed the similarity comparison based on 13 PCGs of three species of Asiatic shrew-like mole, U. gracilis, U. sp. 1 and U. soricipes. Pairwise sequence alignment showed that similarity data of U. gracilis versus U. sorcipes are significantly higher than those of U. gracilis versus U. sp.1. This pointed toward a cryptic species (U. sp.1) from Jiajin Mountains rather than U. gracilis. PMID:25329296

  5. Electrostimulated gracilis neosphincter for faecal incontinence and in total anorectal reconstruction: still an experimental procedure?

    PubMed

    Altomare, D F; Rinaldi, M; Pannarale, O C; Memeo, V

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of converting an easily fatiguable muscle like the gracilis muscle into a fatigue-resistant one using chronic electrostimulation has renewed interest in Pickrell's procedure. Between July 1991 and June 1996, 9 patients (2 M; 7 F) mean age = 45 y (range 14-72) underwent dynamic graciloplasty using Medtronic electrostimulators. Five patients had faecal incontinence (2 congenitally anomaly, 1 neurological, 2 post-operative) and 4 had a perineal colostomy performed either simultaneously (two cases) or at 3 to 4 years after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Early post-operative complications included distal tendon necrosis [1], perineal colostomy breakdown [1], detachment of the gracilis tendon [2] and seroma in the thigh [1]. Long-term complications included rectocele with faecal impaction in one patient with imperforate anus, anal stricture in one patient who had refashioning of a perineal colostomy, and displacement of the lead from the main nerve in 3 with external expulsion in 2. The patient with anal stricture was successfully treated with anoplasty but subsequently returned to an abdominal colostomy due to stricture recurrence 2 years later. The rectocele was successfully treated using a transvaginal approach. Electrical conversion of the muscle was completed in all patients but long term functional results are available for only 5 cases. Manometry revealed a significant improvement in anal pressure under electro-stimulation and the continence grading scale score significantly improved in 4 patients. The technique is applicable to a very selected group of patients with no other options but is still in the experimental phase and should not be performed outside controlled trials. Repeated hospitalisation and reoperations are often required although the complication rate may diminish and improve with experience. PMID:9401848

  6. Periodic and chaotic flapping of insectile wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Kanso, E.

    2015-11-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. The maximum power output of these flight muscles is insufficient to maintain such wing oscillations unless there is good elastic storage of energy in the insect flight system. Here, we explore the intrinsic self-oscillatory behavior of an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring. We study the wings behavior as a function of the total energy and spring stiffness. Three types of behavior are identified: end-over-end rotation, chaotic motion, and periodic flapping. Interestingly, the region of periodic flapping decreases as energy increases but is favored as stiffness increases. These findings are consistent with the fact that insect wings and flight muscles are stiff. They further imply that, by adjusting their muscle stiffness to the energy level at which they are operating, insects can maintain periodic flapping mechanically for a range of operating conditions.

  7. [Toxic effects of high concentrations of ammonia on Euglena gracilis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia is among the common contaminants in aquatic environments. The present study aimed at evaluation of the toxicity of ammonia at high concentration by detecting its effects on the growth, pigment contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and DNA damage (comet assay) of a unicellular microalga, Euglena gracilis. Ammonia restrained the growth of E. gracilis, while at higher concentrations, ammonia showed notable inhibition effect, the growth at 2 000 mg x L(-1) was restrained to 55.7% compared with that of the control; The contents of photosynthetic pigments and protein went up with increasing ammonia dosage and decreased when the ammonia concentration was above 1000 mg x L(-1); In addition, there was an obvious increase in SOD and POD activities, at higher concentration (2 000 mg x L(-1)), activities of SOD and POD increased by 30.7% and 49.4% compared with those of the control, indicating that ammonia could promote activities of antioxidant enzymes in E. gracilis; The degree of DNA damage observed in the comet assay increased with increasing ammonia concentration, which suggested that high dose of ammonia may have potential mutagenicity on E. gracilis. PMID:24455949

  8. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter gracilis ATCC 33236T

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human oral pathogen Campylobacter gracilis has been isolated from periodontal and endodontal infections, and also from non-oral head, neck or lung infections. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the human periodontal isolate ATCC 33236T (=FDC 1084), which is the first closed genome...

  9. ULTRAVIOLET INACTIVATION OF CHLOROPLAST FORMATION IN SYNCHRONOUSLY DIVIDING EUGLENA GRACILIS.

    PubMed

    PETROPULOS, S F

    1964-07-24

    Ultraviolet inactivation of chloroplast formation was studied in synchronously dividing cultures of Euglena gracilis. Sensitivity to sublethal doses given at intervals throughout the cell cycle was greater just before cell division than during division. There was approximately a twofold difference in the doseresponse relationships for the periods of high and low sensitivity. PMID:14172598

  10. Perforator propeller flaps for sacral and ischial soft tissue reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Korambayil, Pradeoth M.; Allalasundaram, KV; Balakrishnan, TM

    2010-01-01

    The perforator-based flaps in the sacral and ischial region is designed according to the localization of perforators that penetrate the gluteus maximus muscle, reach the intra-fascial and supra-fascial planes with the overlying skin forming a rich vascular plexus. The perforator-based flaps described in this article are highly vascularized, have minimal donor site morbidity, and do not require the sacrifice of the gluteus maximus muscle. In a period between April 2008 and March 2009, six patients with sacral pressure sore were reconstructed with propeller flap method based on superior gluteal and parasacral artery perforators. One flap loss was noted. Three cases of ischial pressure sore were reconstructed with longitudinal propeller flap cover, based on inferior gluteal artery perforator. One flap suffered wound infection and dehiscence. Two cases of pilonidal sinus were reconstructed with propeller flap based on parasacral perforators. Both the flaps survived without any complications. Donor sites were closed primarily. In the light of this, they can be considered among the first surgical choices to re-surface soft tissue defects of the sacral and ischial regions. In the series of 11 patients, two patients (18%) suffered complications. PMID:21217972

  11. Pectoralis myocutaneous flap for salvage of necrotic wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.C.; Davis, R.K.; Koltai, P.J.

    1985-02-01

    The authors have utilized six pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps in attempts to salvage extensive necrotic wounds of the pharynx and neck. The flap was employed in the following situations: massive necrosis of the entire neck skin with both carotid artery systems exposed, radiation necrosis of the neck skin with exposure of carotid artery, dehiscence of gastric pull-up from pharynx with resultant carotid exposure, failed trapezius flap in a radionecrotic oral cavity, and two cases of pharyngocutaneous fistula with extensive soft tissue necrosis. These flaps achieved healing in all cases. One death occurred 3 weeks following complete cutaneous healing secondary to a ruptured carotid pseudoaneurysm. One flap underwent total skin loss but the entirety of the muscle survived and the fistula was successfully closed with the back of the muscle being subsequently skin grafted. One case of dehiscence of the flap from oral mucosa resulted in a minor exposure of mandible with limited osteoradionecrosis controlled by topical means. This flap has performed extremely well in these precarious and difficult situations that previously may not have been salvageable. It has also been effective in abbreviating the required hospitalization and wound care. The authors conclude that the pectoralis myocutaneous flap should be the primary choice for the management of extensive postsurgical wound necrosis.

  12. Management of Large Sternal Wound Infections With the Superior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap.

    PubMed

    Eburdery, H; Grolleau, J L; Berthier, C; Bertheuil, N; Chaput, B

    2016-01-01

    The management of sternal wound infections often requires pedicled flaps. In recent years, the emergence of perforator flaps has changed our management of wounds involving tissue loss. For sternal wounds, the superior epigastric artery perforator (SEAP) flap can be used with the propeller procedure with minimal donor site morbidity. In our practice, this flap has replaced the traditional latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major flaps in the treatment of many sternal wounds. We report our experience with 4 patients with large sternal wound infection after cardiothoracic operations. The SEAP flap appears a safe alternative for low-morbidity coverage of sternal infections. Moreover, muscle flaps remain available in case the SEAP flap fails. PMID:26694288

  13. The trapezius osteomusculocutaneous flap in dogs.

    PubMed

    Philibert, D; Fowler, J D

    1993-01-01

    A pedicled osteomusculocutaneous flap, composed of the cervical part of the trapezius muscle with its overlying skin and the central spine and body of the scapula, was elevated on the prescapular branch of the superficial cervical vascular pedicle in four dogs. The flap was replaced in an orthotopic location. Bone viability was evaluated using histology, fluorescence bone labeling, and angiography. Bone from the scapular spines had a high percentage of viable osteocytes, positive fluorescence, and vessels were outlined in the angiographic study. Bone from the body of the scapula was not viable based on similar criteria. PMID:8116199

  14. The radix nasi island flap: a versatile musculocutaneous flap for defects of the eyelids, nose, and malar region.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Tamer

    2009-03-01

    A versatile musculocutan flap from the radix nasi region, the radix nasi island flap, is described. The flap has an axial blood supply derived from the dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery which is anastomosed to the terminal branch of the facial artery. The flap includes the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and procerus muscle. Ten patients, aged 50 to 86 years, have been reconstructed with this flap for defects in the nose (in 4 cases), midface (in 4 cases) and lower eyelids (in 2 cases). The mean flap size was 17 x 23 mm (range: 15 x 20 to 20 x 27 mm). All flaps fully survived. Additional complications and morbidity were not observed. The donor sites were closed a primarily closure in all cases. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months (mean: 8.2 months). The radix nasi flap is a safe flap, has minimal donor site morbidity, and is especially suited for nasal and midface reconstruction in terms of attaining a suitable color and thickness. PMID:19305249

  15. Analysis of the gravitaxis signal transduction chain in Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Adeel

    Abstract Euglena gracilis is a photosynthetic, eukaryotic flagellate. It can adapt autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of growth and respond to different stimuli, this makes it an organism of choice for different research disciplines. It swims to reach a suitable niche by employing different stimuli such as oxygen, light, gravity and different chemicals. Among these stimuli light and gravity are the most important. Phototaxis (locomotion under light stimulus) and gravitaxis (locomotion under gravity stimulus) synergistically help cells to attain an optimal niche in the environment. However, in the complete absence of light or under scarcity of detectable light, cells can totally depend on gravity to find its swimming path. Therefore gravity has certain advantages over other stimuli.Unlike phototatic signal transduction chain of Euglena gracilis no clear primary gravity receptor has been identified in Euglena cells so far. However, there are some convincing evidence that TRP like channels act as a primary gravity receptor in Euglena gracilis.Use of different inhibitors gave rise to the involvement of protein kinase and calmodulin proteins in signal transduction chain of Euglena gracilis. Recently, specific calmodulin (Calmodulin 2) and protein kinase (PKA) have been identified as potential candidates of gravitactic signal transduction chain. Further characterization and investigation of these candidates was required. Therefore a combination of biochemical and genetic techniques was employed to localize proteins in cells and also to find interacting partners. For localization studies, specific antibodies were raised and characterized. Specificity of antibodies was validated by knockdown mutants, Invitro-translated proteins and heterologously expressed proteins. Cell fractionation studies, involving separation of the cell body and flagella for western blot analysis and confocal immunofluorescence studies were performed for subcellular localization. In order to find

  16. Distally Based Abductor Hallucis Adipomuscular Flap for Forefoot Plantar Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanglim; Kim, Min Bom; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Jeong Kook; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Soft tissue and bone defects of the lower leg, ankle, and heel region often require coverage by local or distant flaps. The authors successfully used the distally based adipomuscular abductor hallucis flap for the treatment of 7 patients with soft tissue defect on the plantar forefoot after diabetic ulcer (n = 2), excision of melanoma at the medial forefoot (n = 3), and posttraumatic defects of the plantar forefoot (n = 2). The size of the defects ranged from 6 to 36 cm. All defects were covered successfully without major complications. The distally based adipomuscular flap from the abductor hallucis muscle provides a reliable coverage for small and moderate defects of the plantar and medial forefoot. This flap is often preferable to the use of free flaps because the surgery is rapidly performed and does not require microsurgical expertise. PMID:25565013

  17. Intercostal artery perforator propeller flap for reconstruction of trunk defects following sarcoma resection.

    PubMed

    Zang, Mengqing; Yu, Shengji; Xu, Libin; Zhao, Zhenguo; Zhu, Shan; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Yuanbo

    2015-06-01

    Trunk defects following soft tissue sarcoma resection are usually managed by myocutaneous flaps or free flaps. However, harvesting muscle will cause functional morbidities and some trunk regions lack reliable recipient vessels. The intercostal arteries give off multiple perforators, which distribute widely over the trunk and can supply various pedicle flaps. Our purpose is to use various intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps for trunk oncologic reconstruction. Between November 2013 and July 2014, nine intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps were performed in seven patients to reconstruct the defects following sarcoma resection in different regions of the trunk, including the back, lumbar, chest, and abdomen. Two perforators from intercostal arteries were identified for each flap using Doppler ultrasound probe adjacent to the defect. The perforator with visible pulsation was chosen as the pedicle vessel. An elliptical flap was raised and rotated in a propeller fashion to repair the defects. There were one dorsal intercostal artery perforator flap, four dorsolateral intercostal artery perforator flaps, three lateral intercostal artery perforator flaps, and one anterior intercostal artery perforator flap. The mean skin paddle dimension was 9.38 cm in width (range 6-14 cm) and 21.22 cm in length (range 13-28 cm). All intercostal artery perforator flaps survived completely, except for marginal necrosis in one flap harvested close to the previous flap donor site. The intercostal artery perforator propeller flap provides various and valuable options in our reconstructive armamentarium for trunk oncologic reconstruction. To our knowledge, this is the first case series of using intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps for trunk oncologic reconstruction and clinical application of dorsolateral intercostal artery perforator flaps. PMID:25801799

  18. The platysma myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Baur, Dale A; Williams, Jonathan; Alakaily, Xena

    2014-08-01

    Reconstructing defects of the oral mucosa or skin of the lower one-third of the face can be accomplished by a variety of techniques. This article presents two versions of the platysma myocutaneous flap, which is a reliable, axial pattern, pedicled flap capable of providing excellent one-stage reconstruction of such defects. As discussed herein, the superiorly based and posteriorly based versions of the flap have wide application in the oral and facial region. Also provided is a review of other uses of this flap in head and neck surgery. PMID:24958382

  19. Keyhole Flap Nipple Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Camille G.; Iman, Al-Haj; Spiegel, Aldona J.; Cronin, Ernest D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Nipple-areola reconstruction is often one of the final but most challenging aspects of breast reconstruction. However, it is an integral and important component of breast reconstruction because it transforms the mound into a breast. We performed 133 nipple-areola reconstructions during a period of 4 years. Of these reconstructions, 76 of 133 nipple-areola complexes were reconstructed using the keyhole flap technique. The tissue used for the keyhole dermoadipose flap technique include transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps (60/76), latissimus dorsi flaps (15/76), or mastectomy skin flaps after tissue expanders (1/76). The average patient follow-up was 17 months. The design of the flap is based on a keyhole configuration. The base of the flap determines the width of the future nipple, whereas the length of the flap determines the projection. We try to match the projection of the contralateral nipple if present. The keyhole flap is simple to construct yet reliable. It provides good symmetry and projection and avoids the creation of new scars. The areola is then tattooed approximately 3 months after the nipple reconstruction.

  20. Keyhole Flap Nipple Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joseph I; Cash, Camille G; Iman, Al-Haj; Spiegel, Aldona J; Cronin, Ernest D

    2016-05-01

    Nipple-areola reconstruction is often one of the final but most challenging aspects of breast reconstruction. However, it is an integral and important component of breast reconstruction because it transforms the mound into a breast. We performed 133 nipple-areola reconstructions during a period of 4 years. Of these reconstructions, 76 of 133 nipple-areola complexes were reconstructed using the keyhole flap technique. The tissue used for the keyhole dermoadipose flap technique include transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps (60/76), latissimus dorsi flaps (15/76), or mastectomy skin flaps after tissue expanders (1/76). The average patient follow-up was 17 months. The design of the flap is based on a keyhole configuration. The base of the flap determines the width of the future nipple, whereas the length of the flap determines the projection. We try to match the projection of the contralateral nipple if present. The keyhole flap is simple to construct yet reliable. It provides good symmetry and projection and avoids the creation of new scars. The areola is then tattooed approximately 3 months after the nipple reconstruction. PMID:27579228

  1. Pharmacologic manipulation of the microcirculation in cutaneous and myocutaneous flaps in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, C.Y.; Neligan, P.C.; Nakatsuka, T.; Sasaki, G.H.

    1985-04-01

    The vascular effects of isoxsuprine, diazoxide, and isoproterenol were studied in arterial buttock flaps and latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps in pigs. Capillary blood flow to the skin and muscles of these flaps was measured by the radioactive microsphere (15-mu diameter) technique 6 hours postoperatively under pentobarbital anesthesia. It was observed that isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, was not effective in augmentation of skin blood flow in the arterial buttock flaps. However, isoproterenol significantly increased capillary blood flow to the arterialized portion of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps compared with controls. Isoxsuprine and diazoxide (vascular smooth muscle relaxants) significantly (p less than 0.05) increased total capillary blood flow to the skin of arterial buttock flaps and to the skin and muscles of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps. However, the increase in capillary blood flow occurred mainly in the arterialized portion of these flaps. The capillary blood flow, which was supplied by the small arteries in the distal portion of the arterial buttock and latissimus dorsi flaps, was not increased by treatment with isoxsuprine or diazoxide. Therefore, there was also no increase in the maximum distance of capillary blood flow from the pedicle to the distal end of the flaps. These observations led the authors to hypothesize that different sizes (diameters) of arteries in the skin and muscle have different reactivity (or sensitivity) to vasodilatory drugs. In the present experiment, the large dominant artery of the arterial buttock and latissimus dorsi flaps responded to isoxsuprine or diazoxide (vascular smooth-muscle relaxants), resulting in an increase in blood supply to the capillaries in the proximal portion of the flaps.

  2. Protein synthesis in cadmium- and pentachlorophenol-tolerant Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Barque, J.P.; Abahamid, A.; Chacun, H.

    1995-07-01

    This work is a preliminary characterization of two adapted Euglena gracilis cell lines, one to cadmium and the other to pentachlorophenol. Growth curve analysis indicate that tolerance to one pollutant did not protect against the second pollutant. These suggest that metabolic pathways that are induced by one pollutant are specific for this pollutant. This specificity is detectable at the level of gene expression. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  3. The Red Seaweed Gracilaria gracilis as a Multi Products Source

    PubMed Central

    Francavilla, Matteo; Franchi, Massimo; Monteleone, Massimo; Caroppo, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    In recent years seaweeds have increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural compounds and biomaterials. In the present investigation, the biochemical composition of the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis, collected seasonally in the Lesina Lagoon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Lesina, Italy), was assayed by means of advanced analytical techniques, such as gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and spectrophotometric tests. In particular, analysis of lipids, fatty acids, sterols, proteins, phycobiliproteins and carbohydrates as well as phenolic content, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were performed. In winter extracts of G. gracilis, a high content of R-phycoerythrin together with other valuable products such as arachidonic acid (PUFA ω-6), proteins and carbohydrates was observed. High antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were also detected in summer extracts of the seaweed together with a high content of total phenols. In conclusion, this study points out the possibility of using Gracilaria gracilis as a multi products source for biotechnological, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications even although more investigations are required for separating, purifying and characterizing these bioactive compounds. PMID:24084791

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Gracile shrew mole, Uropsilus gracilis (Soricomorpha: Talpidae).

    PubMed

    Tu, Feiyun; Fan, Zhenxin; Chen, Shunde; Yin, Yonghua; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xiuyue; Liu, Shaoying; Yue, Bisong

    2012-10-01

    The Gracile shrew mole (Uropsilus gracilis) belongs to the family Talpidae, which distributes in southwestern China, extending to northern Myanmar. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of U. gracilis was sequenced. It was determined to be of 16,533 bases. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of U. gracilis and other 12 insectivores were used for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, which showed that U. gracilis was clustered together with U. soricipes, and Urotrichus should be prior to Galemys. PMID:22920311

  5. A bilobed thoracoabdominal myocutaneous flap for large thoracic defects.

    PubMed

    Charanek, Ali M

    2014-04-01

    The author presents a surgical procedure for chest-wall soft tissue reconstruction due to large losses based on a modified thoracoabdominal myocutaneous flap. Designed in a bilobed shape, it rests on the superior epigastric vessels and may include the cranial one fourth of the rectus abdominis muscle and the premuscular fascia of external oblique muscle and constitutes one of the largest flaps based on a single minor artery. Local recurrent breast tumors and adjuvant therapy associated to obesity, high blood pressure, type II diabetes, and tobacco abuse on previously debilitated patients render the usual reconstructive procedure difficulties. These become indications for this flap, whose safety is improved by maintaining the deep fascia of the external oblique muscle attached to the flap to preserve the network of the arteries close to the fascia and a wide-ranging interarterial choke anastomosis alongside the lateral projection of the flap on the thorax. Thus, a wide range of angles allows us to reach even the opposite site of the thorax over the sterna area with an easy closure of the donor site facilitated by the vertical portion of the abdominal donor site. The flap was used in 55 patients, and no serious complications, including necrosis, notable dehiscence, hematoma, seroma, or abdominal wall weakness, were observed. The overall aspect is acceptable with the visible scars over the upper part of the abdomen. PMID:23503434

  6. Tensor Facia Lata-iliac crest osteocutaneous flap for orbitomaxillary reconstruction: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Kuriakose, Moni A.

    2010-01-01

    Tensor Fascia Lata muscle and musculocutaneous flap has been used in the past for reconstruction of trunk defects and also as a free flap for soft tissue reconstruction elsewhere in the body. Transferring the iliac crest along with the muscle as a free flap has been described earlier, reported for bridging calcaneal defect and small mandibular defects. The use of this flap as a source of free vascularised bone has not been widely practised since these initial few reports. Anatomical studies were carried out to assess the feasibility of using this flap for reconstructing maxillary and other head and neck defects, following which it was successfully used for these indications. The preliminary report describes the flap anatomy, method of harvest and its potential uses in head and neck reconstruction. PMID:20924442

  7. [Experience with the s-GAP flap for autologous breast reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Werdin, F; Peek, A; Schuster, H; Baumeister, S

    2008-08-01

    In breast reconstruction with autologous tissue the DIEP flap has become the gold standard in recent years. The superior gluteal artery perforator (s-GAP) flap is an alternative harvested from the buttock. We present our experience with the s-GAP flap and discuss its role in breast reconstruction. All s-GAP flaps performed for breast reconstruction in the Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Behandlungszentrum Vogtareuth from June 2002 until February 2007 were retrospectively analysed. Out of 59 flaps 4 flaps failed, the success rate was 94 %. Partial or fat necrosis occurred in 2 cases. The s-GAP flap served as a safe reconstructive alternative to the DIEP flap. Advantages of the s-GAP flap are reliable perforators, the safe vascular supply and the firm fat structure which facilitates the breast reconstruction. The donor site morbidity is minimal, the gluteal muscles stay intact and the scar is easy to hide in the underwear. Disadvantages are a demanding preparation with a prolonged operating time compared to the DIEP flap. The s-GAP flap is a reliable and safe option for autologeous breast reconstruction. It is the method of choice for staged bilateral breast reconstruction or if the DIEP flap is not available, particularly in the thin patient. PMID:18716984

  8. Free craniotomy versus osteoplastic craniotomy, assessment of flap viability using 99mTC MDP SPECT.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Ilan; Golan, Haim; Merkin, Vladimir; Melamed, Israel; Benifla, Mony

    2016-09-01

    There are currently two accepted neurosurgical methods to perform a bony flap. In an osteoplastic flap, the flap is attached to surrounding muscle. In a free flap, the flap is not attached to adjacent tissues. The former is less common due to its complexity and the extensive time required for the surgery; yet the rate of infection is significantly lower, a clear explanation for which is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the osteoplastic flap acts as a live implant that resumes its blood flow and metabolic activity; contrasting with the free flap, which does not have sufficient blood flow, and therefore acts as a foreign body. Seven patients who underwent craniotomy with osteoplastic flaps and five with free flaps had planar bone and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of the skull at 3-7days postoperative, after injection of the radioisotope, 99m-technetium-methylene diphosphonate (99m-Tc-MDP). We compared radioactive uptake as a measure of metabolic activity between osteoplastic and free flaps. Mean normalized radioactive uptakes in the centers of the flaps, calculated as the ratios of uptakes in the flap centers to uptakes in normal contralateral bone, were [mean: 1.7 (SD: 0.8)] and [0.6 (0.1)] for the osteoplastic and free flap groups respectively and were [2.4 (0.8)] and [1.3 (0.4)] in the borders of the flaps. Our analyses suggest that in craniotomy, the use of an osteoplastic flap, in contrast to free flap, retains bone viability. PMID:27068014

  9. Complications and oncologic outcomes of pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Somintara, Ongart; Lertsithichai, Panuwat; Kongdan, Youwanush; Supsamutchai, Chairat; Sukpanich, Rupporn

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several techniques for harvesting the pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap after mastectomy in breast cancer patients. We examined the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique and determined factors associated with its complications and oncological outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the results of 168 TRAM flaps performed between January 2003 and December 2010, focusing on complications and oncologic outcomes. Results Among the 168 pedicled TRAM flap procedures in 158 patients, flap complications occurred in 34%. Most of the flap complications included some degree of fat necrosis. There was no total flap loss. Flap complications were associated with elderly patients and the presence of major donor site complications. Abdominal bulging and hernia occurred in 12% of patients. The bi-pedicled TRAM flap and higher body mass index (BMI) were significant factors associated with increased donor site complications. Seven patients (4%) developed loco-regional recurrence. Within a median follow-up of 27 months, distant metastasis and death occurred in 6% and 4% of patients, respectively. Conclusions The pedicled TRAM flap using the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique in the present study is consistent with the results from previous studies in flap complication rates and oncological outcomes. PMID:27563562

  10. Perfusion and Oxygenation of Random Advancement Skin Flaps Depend More on the Length and Thickness of the Flap Than on the Width to Length Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Memarzadeh, Khashayar; Sheikh, Rafi; Blohmé, Jonas; Torbrand, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to investigate the relationship between the dimensions (length, width, and thickness) of random advancement skin flaps and retained tissue perfusion and oxygenation. Methods: Flaps were raised on the flanks of pigs. The flaps were either 0.5 or 1.0 cm wide, thin (dissected halfway through the subcutaneous tissue) or thick (dissected down to the muscle fascia). Tissue perfusion was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry, and tissue oxygenation (pO2) was measured using a Licox system, every 0.5 cm along the flaps’ length. Tissue temperature was visualized by high-resolution infrared camera. Results: Perfusion and oxygenation decreased gradually from the base to the tip of the flap, reaching approximately 40% of presurgical values (2.0 cm) and approximately 20% (2.5 cm) from the base of the flap. There was virtually no blood flow, nor oxygen tension, 3.0 cm from the base of the flap. The width to length ratio of the flap did not determine blood flow or oxygenation, being approximately 30% in a 0.5 cm wide and 2 cm long flap, and 0% in a 1.0 cm wide and 4 cm long flap, both with a width to length ratio of 1:4. Blood flow and oxygenation were preserved to a greater extent in the thick flaps (∼40%) than in the thin flaps (∼20%), in a 0.5 cm wide and 2 cm long flap. Conclusions: The dissection of a random advancement flap results in hypoperfusion and oxygenation that cannot be predicted by the width to length ratio but depend on the length and thickness of the flap. PMID:26958105

  11. In Vivo Photocycle of the Euglena gracilis Photoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Barsanti, Laura; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Walne, Patricia L.; Gualtieri, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    We present the light-induced photocycle of the paraflagellar swelling of Euglena gracilis. The kinetics of this process was reconstructed by sampling its fluorescence emission and switching the excitation light from 365 nm to 436 nm. Stable intermediates in the photocycle were manifested. The measured millisecond resolution kinetics best fits a Michaelis-Menten equation. The data provide strong evidence that the paraflagellar swelling, a three-dimensional natural crystal of a light-detecting protein, is the true Euglena photoreceptor. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 5FIGURE 6 PMID:9017185

  12. A triceps musculocutaneous flap for chest-wall defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hartrampf, C.R. Jr.; Elliott, L.F.; Feldman, S. )

    1990-09-01

    A posterior upper arm flap based on the profunda brachii vessels has been described to cover soft-tissue defects in the upper anterolateral chest. In our series, the posterior upper arm skin is elevated with the long head of the triceps muscle to cover seven chest-wall defects resulting from indolent postradiation open wounds following partial TRAM flap failure (n = 2), soft-tissue deficiencies following partial TRAM flap loss (n = 3), and primarily as an ancillary flap in TRAM flap breast reconstruction (n = 2). This flap also may be used to supply well-vascularized tissue in the regions of the shoulder, axilla, and posterolateral back. A prerequisite for this operation is redundant tissue of the upper arm often present in middle-aged women and in patients with lymphedema following mastectomy. In our series of seven patients, all donor sites were closed primarily, and there was no subjective functional deficit following transfer of the long head of the triceps muscle.

  13. Breast reconstruction with the fasciocutaneous infragluteal free flap (FCI).

    PubMed

    Papp, Christoph; Windhofer, Christian; Gruber, Sabine

    2007-02-01

    Thin patients who will not accept breast reconstruction with foreign material may not have enough tissue associated with the TRAM or latissimus muscle to achieve an acceptable reconstruction. We feel the next choice is tissue from the infragluteal region raised and moved as a free fasciocutaneous flap (FCI) based on the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery. This (FCI) has not been described for this to our knowledge. Thirty-five FCI flaps were done for 28 patients between 1998 and 2005 for autologous breast reconstruction, as well as simultaneous augmentation of the contralateral breast in 4 of these patients. There was no flap loss. Complications include seroma, scar pain, and fat necrosis and are reported and discussed. We suggest that the FCI flap be considered as a worthy alternative for autologous breast reconstruction in thin patients. PMID:17245137

  14. Free microvascular transplantation of the trapezius musculocutaneous flap in dogs.

    PubMed

    Philibert, D; Fowler, J D; Clapson, J B

    1992-01-01

    A musculocutaneous flap based on the prescapular branch of the superficial cervical artery and including the cervical part of the trapezius muscle and overlying skin was transplanted over a defect created on the medial side of the contralateral tibia in four dogs by using microvascular technique. The donor and recipient sites in three dogs were examined clinically for 21 days, after which they were examined angiographically and histologically. All dogs were free of lameness by hour 48. Seromas formed at the donor site between days 7 and 15. One vascular pedicle was traumatized at hour 40, and the dog was euthanatized. Three flaps survived with minimal necrosis. Edema of the flaps was severe from days 5 to 11. Angiograms showed complete perfusion of the flaps, and survival was confirmed histologically. Esthetic appearance and function were good in one dog at month 7. PMID:1455645

  15. Buccinator Myomucosal Flap for Treatment of Osteoradionecrosis of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The use of a myomucosal flap from the buccinator muscle is a valuable reconstruction method for intraoral defects. In this paper, we report the clinical advantages of using a buccinator myomucosal flap for the treatment of partial mandibular defects caused by osteoradionecrosis. We implemented a buccinator myomucosal flap for the reconstruction of a partial mandibular defect in a 55-year-old man with tonsil cancer and partial mandibular defects caused by osteoradionecrosis. The total operating time was 90 minutes. Twelve months after the reconstruction, the patient remains free of disease. A buccinator myomucosal flap can be used for the reconstruction of partial mandibular defects caused by osteoradionecrosis. It is a reliable method for reconstructing small mandibular defects. PMID:26976033

  16. Oral reconstruction with submental flap

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply. PMID:24205473

  17. Flap reconstruction of the knee: A review of current concepts and a proposed algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Gravvanis, Andreas; Kyriakopoulos, Antonios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsoutsos, Dimosthenis

    2014-01-01

    A literature search focusing on flap knee reconstruction revealed much controversy regarding the optimal management of around the knee defects. Muscle flaps are the preferred option, mainly in infected wounds. Perforator flaps have recently been introduced in knee coverage with significant advantages due to low donor morbidity and long pedicles with wide arc of rotation. In the case of free flap the choice of recipient vessels is the key point to the reconstruction. Taking the published experience into account, a reconstructive algorithm is proposed according to the size and location of the wound, the presence of infection and/or 3-dimensional defect. PMID:25405089

  18. Reconstruction of posterior neck and skull with vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap

    SciTech Connect

    Mathes, S.J.; Stevenson, T.R.

    1988-10-01

    The vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap has been successfully utilized for reconstruction in 13 patients with complex posterior skull and neck defects. This flap based on its vascular pedicle, the descending branch of the transverse cervical artery, provides well-vascularized tissue for coverage of defects related to chronic osteomyelitis, tumor extirpation, osteoradionecrosis, and dehisced cervical laminectomy wounds. Emphasis on flap design, including the location of the skin island, allows adequate wound coverage, direct donor site closure, and muscle function preservation. With its large size and wide arc of rotation, the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap provides reliable coverage for posterior trunk, cervical, and skull defects.

  19. Control of Flap Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.

  20. Neurotization of free gracilis transfer with the brachialis branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion in lower trunk brachial plexus injury: an anatomical study and case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Zou, Xue-jun; Fu, Guo; Qin, Ben-Gang; Yang, Jian-Tao; Li, Xiang-Ming; Hou, Yi; Qi, Jian; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Gu, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of using free gracilis muscle transfer along with the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion in lower trunk brachial plexus injury according to an anatomical study and a case report. METHODS: Thirty formalin-fixed upper extremities from 15 adult cadavers were used in this study. The distance from the point at which the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve originates to the midpoint of the humeral condylar was measured, as well as the length, diameter, course and branch type of the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve. An 18-year-old male who sustained an injury to the left brachial plexus underwent free gracilis transfer using the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve as the donor nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion. Elbow flexion power and hand grip strength were recorded according to British Medical Research Council standards. Postoperative measures of the total active motion of the fingers were obtained monthly. RESULTS: The mean length and diameter of the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve were 52.66±6.45 and 1.39±0.09 mm, respectively, and three branching types were observed. For the patient, the first gracilis contraction occurred during the 4th month. A noticeable improvement was observed in digit flexion one year later; the muscle power was M4, and the total active motion of the fingers was 209°. CONCLUSIONS: Repairing injury to the lower trunk of the brachial plexus by transferring the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to the anterior branch of the obturator nerve using a tension-free direct suture is technically feasible, and the clinical outcome was satisfactory in a single surgical patient. PMID:27166768

  1. Neuroendocrine control of physiological color change in Chameleo gracilis.

    PubMed

    Okelo, O

    1986-11-01

    Color changes in Chameleo gracilis are under neuroendocrine control. Denervation of the limbs, by removal of the sciatic or brachial nerves, does not interfere with the normal color changes in the affected limbs. Denervated skins, placed back onto C. gracilis, show color changes in synchrony with the rest of the animal. Pieces of isolated skin turn very dark or black in alpha-melanophore stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and green in adrenaline, but do not show any color changes in physiological saline. Hypophysectomized animals turn green but never turn dark. Injections of alpha-MSH cause intact or hypophysectomized animals to turn dark or black, while injections of adrenaline cause them to turn light green. Injections of physiological saline have no effect. Crude pituitary extracts cause darkening of isolated skins or of intact animals injected with such extracts. Similar treatment with crude extracts of adrenal glands causes the skins to become light green. Electrical stimulation of transected spinal cord leads to localized lightening of the skin but never to darkening of the same. Light, temperature, darkness, and color of the surroundings influence color change. Color change to green at night and to darker colors in the daytime suggests a possible circadian rhythm in the phenomenon. PMID:3557095

  2. Unexpectedly Streamlined Mitochondrial Genome of the Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Dobáková, Eva; Flegontov, Pavel; Skalický, Tomáš; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the excavate flagellate Euglena gracilis. Its gene complement is reduced as compared with the well-studied sister groups Diplonemea and Kinetoplastea. We have identified seven protein-coding genes: Three subunits of respiratory complex I (nad1, nad4, and nad5), one subunit of complex III (cob), and three subunits of complex IV (cox1, cox2, and a highly divergent cox3). Moreover, fragments of ribosomal RNA genes have also been identified. Genes encoding subunits of complex V, ribosomal proteins and tRNAs were missing, and are likely located in the nuclear genome. Although mitochondrial genomes of diplonemids and kinetoplastids possess the most complex RNA processing machineries known, including trans-splicing and editing of the uridine insertion/deletion type, respectively, our transcriptomic data suggest their total absence in E. gracilis. This finding supports a scenario in which the complex mitochondrial processing machineries of both sister groups evolved relatively late in evolution from a streamlined genome and transcriptome of their common predecessor. PMID:26590215

  3. Unexpectedly Streamlined Mitochondrial Genome of the Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Dobáková, Eva; Flegontov, Pavel; Skalický, Tomáš; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the excavate flagellate Euglena gracilis. Its gene complement is reduced as compared with the well-studied sister groups Diplonemea and Kinetoplastea. We have identified seven protein-coding genes: Three subunits of respiratory complex I (nad1, nad4, and nad5), one subunit of complex III (cob), and three subunits of complex IV (cox1, cox2, and a highly divergent cox3). Moreover, fragments of ribosomal RNA genes have also been identified. Genes encoding subunits of complex V, ribosomal proteins and tRNAs were missing, and are likely located in the nuclear genome. Although mitochondrial genomes of diplonemids and kinetoplastids possess the most complex RNA processing machineries known, including trans-splicing and editing of the uridine insertion/deletion type, respectively, our transcriptomic data suggest their total absence in E. gracilis. This finding supports a scenario in which the complex mitochondrial processing machineries of both sister groups evolved relatively late in evolution from a streamlined genome and transcriptome of their common predecessor. PMID:26590215

  4. Ecotoxicological effects of graphene oxide on the protozoan Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Haitao; Wang, Lizhi; Guo, Shaofen; Li, Xiuling

    2015-06-01

    Potential environmental risks posed by nanomaterials increase with their extensive production and application. As a newly emerging carbon material, graphene oxide (GO) exhibits excellent electrochemical properties and has promising applications in many areas. However, the ecotoxicity of GO to organisms, especially aquatic organisms, remains poorly understood. Accordingly, this study examined the toxicity of GO with protozoa Euglena gracilis as test organism. Growth inhibition test was initially performed to investigate acute toxic effects. Protozoa were subsequently exposed to GO ranging from 0.5 mg L(-1) to 5 mg L(-1) for 10 d. The growth, photosynthetic pigment content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, ultrastructure of the protozoa, as well as the shading effect of GO, were analyzed to determine the mechanism of the toxicity effect. Results showed that the 96 h EC50 value of GO in E. gracilis was 3.76±0.74 mg L(-1). GO at a concentration of 2.5 mg L(-1) exerted significant (P<0.01) adverse effects on the organism. These effects were evidenced by the inhibition of growth and the enhancement of malondialdehyde content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Shading effect and oxidative stress may be responsible for GO toxicity. PMID:25703902

  5. Generalized receptor law governs phototaxis in the phytoplankton Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Maritan, Amos; Stocker, Roman; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Phototaxis, the process through which motile organisms direct their swimming toward or away from light, is implicated in key ecological phenomena (including algal blooms and diel vertical migration) that shape the distribution, diversity, and productivity of phytoplankton and thus energy transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems. Phototaxis also finds important applications in biofuel reactors and microbiopropellers and is argued to serve as a benchmark for the study of biological invasions in heterogeneous environments owing to the ease of generating stochastic light fields. Despite its ecological and technological relevance, an experimentally tested, general theoretical model of phototaxis seems unavailable to date. Here, we present accurate measurements of the behavior of the alga Euglena gracilis when exposed to controlled light fields. Analysis of E. gracilis' phototactic accumulation dynamics over a broad range of light intensities proves that the classic Keller-Segel mathematical framework for taxis provides an accurate description of both positive and negative phototaxis only when phototactic sensitivity is modeled by a generalized "receptor law," a specific nonlinear response function to light intensity that drives algae toward beneficial light conditions and away from harmful ones. The proposed phototactic model captures the temporal dynamics of both cells' accumulation toward light sources and their dispersion upon light cessation. The model could thus be of use in integrating models of vertical phytoplankton migrations in marine and freshwater ecosystems, and in the design of bioreactors. PMID:25964338

  6. Blowing Flap Experiment: PIV Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Bremmer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the flap vortex system. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  7. [Harvesting technique of chimeric multiple paddles fibular flap for wide oromandibular defects].

    PubMed

    Foy, J-P; Qassemyar, Q; Assouly, N; Temam, S; Kolb, F

    2016-08-01

    Carcinological head and neck reconstruction still remains a challenge due to the volume and varied tissues needed. Large and wide oromandibular defects require, not just the bone but also soft tissues for the pelvilingual reconstruction and therefore, a second free flap may become necessary in addition to a fibular flap. The option of an unique chimeric flap based on the fibular artery and its branches is less known whereas it offers the advantage of a unique flap with bone, muscle and multiple skin paddles, independent of each other. The aim of this technical note is to present step by step the surgical procedure of this chimeric flap and share this method that avoids a second free flap. PMID:26497269

  8. Use of the serratus anterior free flap to treat a recurrent oroantral fistula.

    PubMed

    Deune, E Gene; Manson, Paul N

    2004-03-01

    We describe the successful use of the serratus anterior free muscle flap to obliterate a recurrent oroantral fistula in a 39-year old male who 19 years before this surgery had sustained a high velocity impact to his right face with multiple subsequent corrective surgeries. There was no complication from the serratus anterior free flap surgery and no postoperative scapular winging. The serratus anterior muscle is a versatile flap and ideal for various defects. It should be considered for obliteration of oroantral fistulas when no local or regional tissue is available because of previous surgery or trauma. PMID:15167258

  9. Externally blown flap impingement noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasagna, P. L.; Putnam, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of the noise produced by the impingement of the jet exhaust on the wing and flap for an externally blown flap system were conducted with a CF700 turbofan engine and an F-111B wing panel. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The presence of the wing next to the test nozzles increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection angle. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested. Tests showed that the single-slotted flap deflected 60 deg, produced less noise than the double-slotted flaps. Also, maintaining the maximum distance between the exit nozzle and flap system resulted in a minor reduction in noise.

  10. Unilateral absence of thigh muscles confirmed by CT scan.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J E; Currarino, G

    1981-01-01

    A 5-month-old infant is presented with congenital absence of a group of muscles of the right thigh including the three adductors, gracilis, semimembranosus and semitendinosus. The diagnosis was suspected from the conventional radiographs and was confirmed by computerized tomography. PMID:7322654

  11. Recent advances for FLAP inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Daniel; Davidsson, Öjvind; Whatling, Carl

    2015-07-01

    A number of FLAP inhibitors have been progressed to clinical trials for respiratory and other inflammatory indications but so far no drug has reached the market. With this Digest we assess the opportunity to develop FLAP inhibitors for indications beyond respiratory disease, and in particular for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We also show how recently disclosed FLAP inhibitors have structurally evolved from the first generation FLAP inhibitors paving the way for new compound classes. PMID:26004579

  12. Bilobed flap in sole surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conejo-Mir, J.; Bueno Montes, J.; Moreno Gimenez, J.C.; Camacho-Martinez, F.

    1985-09-01

    The bilobed flap is a simple reconstructive technique principally used to correct substantial defects in the facial region. The authors present their experience with this local flap in the difficult plantar area, with excellent short-term functional results. They describe the special characteristics of the bilobed flap in this zone, and comment on its indications and possible complications.

  13. 7-flap perineal urethrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Daniel C.; Morey, Allen F.

    2015-01-01

    Perineal urethrostomy (PU) has been performed with success for the treatment of refractory and advanced urethral stricture disease for at least the past six decades. Here, we review the indications and outcomes of PU for indications such as complex hypospadias repair and urethral stricture disease resulting from trauma, infection, and failure of prior urethroplasty. We also describe the role of 7-flap PU, a novel alternative to the conventional approach that offers the surgeon added flexibility in tailoring urethrostomy creation based on intraoperative findings. The authors’ updated experience with 7-flap PU demonstrates a comparable 95% success rate in patients with a wide variety of stricture etiology. PU through either a conventional approach or a 7-flap technique is a valuable option for improving the quality of life in patients with debilitating urethral stricture disease. PMID:26816809

  14. Motion of Euglena gracilis: Active fluctuations and velocity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanczuk, P.; Romensky, M.; Scholz, D.; Lobaskin, V.; Schimansky-Geier, L.

    2015-07-01

    We study the velocity distribution of unicellular swimming algae Euglena gracilis using optical microscopy and active Brownian particle theory. To characterize a peculiar feature of the experimentally observed distribution at small velocities we use the concept of active fluctuations, which was recently proposed for the description of stochastically self-propelled particles [Romanczuk, P. and Schimansky-Geier, L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230601 (2011)]. In this concept, the fluctuating forces arise due to internal random performance of the propulsive motor. The fluctuating forces are directed in parallel to the heading direction, in which the propulsion acts. In the theory, we introduce the active motion via the depot model [Schweitzer, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5044 (1998)]. We demonstrate that the theoretical predictions based on the depot model with active fluctuations are consistent with the experimentally observed velocity distributions. In addition to the model with additive active noise, we obtain theoretical results for a constant propulsion with multiplicative noise.

  15. Action of Nalidixic Acid on Chloroplast Replication in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Lyman, H; Jupp, A S; Larrinua, I

    1975-02-01

    The role of light in nalidixic acid bleaching of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris was investigated. The kinetics of loss of the chloroplast-associated DNA and the sensitivity of chloroplast replication to ultraviolet light was followed during treatment with nalidixic acid. By using the mutant P(4)ZUL, and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-, 1-dimethylurea, it was demonstrated that the requirement for light was a functioning photosynthetic electron transport system. Ultracentifugal analysis showed a substantial decrease in chloroplast-associated DNA after 6 hours of treatment with nalidixic acid. Ultraviolet target analysis revealed that the number of chloroplast genomes per cell had been reduced. The possible role of light and implications of the reduction in chloroplast genomes for chloroplast replication are discussed. PMID:16659089

  16. Gravitaxis of Euglena gracilis depends only partially on passive buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Peter R.; Schuster, Martin; Lebert, Michael; Streb, Christine; Häder, Donat-Peter

    In darkness, the unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis shows a pronounced negative gravitactic behavior, and the cells swim actively upward in the water column. Up to now it was unclear whether this behavior is based on a passive (physical) alignment mechanism (e.g., buoyancy due to a fore-aft asymmetry of the cell body) or on an active physiological mechanism. A sounding rocket experiment was performed in which the effect of sub-1g-accelerations (0.05, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.2g) on untreated living cells and immobilized (fixation with liquid nitrogen) cells was observed. By means of computerized image analysis the angles of the cells long axis with respect to the acceleration vector were analyzed in order to calculate and compare the reorientation kinetics of the immobilized cells versus that of the controls. In both groups, the reorientation kinetics depended on the dose, but the reorientation of the living cells was about five times faster than that of the immobilized cells. This indicates that in young cells gravitaxis can be explained by a physical mechanism only to a small extend. In older cultures, in which the cells often have a drop shaped cell body, the physical reorientation is considerably faster, and a more pronounced influence of passive alignment caused by fore/aft asymmetry (drag-gravity model) can not be excluded. In addition to these results, Euglena gracilis cells seem to respond very sensitively to small accelerations when they are applied after a longer microgravity period. The data indicate that gravitactic orientation occurred at an acceleration as low as 0.05g.

  17. Clinical anatomy of the internal oblique muscle.

    PubMed

    Ramasastry, S S; Granick, M S; Futrell, J W

    1986-01-01

    In recent years microvascular free tissue transfer has become a well accepted reconstructive technique. The current trend in flap research seems to be the development of more refined flaps to meet specific needs with minimal donor site morbidity. The internal oblique muscle provides a broad, thin, well-vascularized flap which is ideally suited for restoration of contour with excellent aesthetic results. In addition, the iliac crest may be raised in continuity based on the same vascular pedicle, i.e. the deep circumflex iliac vessels. The purpose of this article is to describe the anatomic details necessary for the clinical application of this versatile flap. Thirty specimens of the internal oblique muscle flap were dissected and studied using Microfil injection techniques, including xerograms. In about 80 percent of the flaps, a single ascending branch of the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) enters the undersurface of the muscle, arborizing within the muscle. In the remaining 20 percent, two or three branches enter the muscle separately, originating on the DCIA. The arc of rotation extends into the ipsilateral groin for coverage of exposed femoral vessels, along the pubis and the anterior perineum. The length of the vascular pedicle is to 6 to 7 cm and the vessel diameter is 2.0 to 3.0 mm, making the flap suitable for free tissue transfer. PMID:2935630

  18. Experimental Study on the Euglena gracilis for Micro-Transportation using a Phototatic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Nguyen, Vu Dat; Byun, Doyoung

    2012-11-01

    Recently, there has been growing interests in micro or nano-scale biological organisms for the micro-robotics to develop actively controlled micro or nano-level machines. The Euglena gracilis is a genus of unicellular protists, whose body size ranges from 30 to 70 μm. The Euglena gracilis contains an eyespot, a primitive organelle that filters sunlight into the light-detecting, photo-sensitive structures. It actively swims at the base of the flagellum. In this study, we investigated the controllability of Euglena gracilis for transporting a structure attaching itself. When a LED light is detected, the Euglena gracilis accordingly adjust its position to enhance photosynthesis. Using the phototactic control, we achieved the efficient transportation of a micro-structure. Partially funded by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF, 2011-0016461) and the Industrial Core Technology Development Project through the Ministry of Knowledge and Commerce.

  19. Externally blown flap impingement noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.; Lasagna, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of externally blown flap impingement noise was conducted using a full-scale turbofan engine and aircraft wing. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine exhaust system was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The daisy nozzle caused the jet velocity to decay about 35 percent at the flap. The presence of the wing next to the conical nozzle increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested.

  20. Noise Reduction of Aircraft Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.

  1. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Zhang, Yongjun; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC(50) = 35.88 μg/mL) and CVA16 (IC(50) = 42.91 μg/mL). Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions. PMID:22666293

  2. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Zhang, Yongjun; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 35.88 μg/mL) and CVA16 (IC50 = 42.91 μg/mL). Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions. PMID:22666293

  3. Production of a thermal stress resistant mutant Euglena gracilis strain using Fe-ion beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Marukawa, Yuka; Arashida, Ryo; Abe, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Euglena gracilis is a common phytoplankton species, which also has motile flagellate characteristics. Recent research and development has enabled the industrial use of E. gracilis and selective breeding of this species is expected to further expand its application. However, the production of E. gracilis nuclear mutants is difficult because of the robustness of its genome. To establish an efficient mutation induction procedure for E. gracilis, we employed Fe-ion beam irradiation in the RIKEN RI beam factory. A decrease in the survival rate was observed with the increase in irradiation dose, and the upper limit used for E. gracilis selective breeding was around 50 Gy. For a practical trial of Fe-ion irradiation, we conducted a screening to isolate high-temperature-tolerant mutants. The screening yielded mutants that proliferated faster than the wild-type strain at 32 °C. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation on E. gracilis selective breeding. PMID:27075598

  4. Technical refinements of composite thoracodorsal system free flaps for 1-stage lower extremity reconstruction resulting in reduced donor-site morbidity.

    PubMed

    Bannasch, Holger; Strohm, Peter C; Al Awadi, Khalid; Stark, G Björn; Momeni, Arash

    2008-04-01

    A multitude of local flaps has been suggested for lower extremity reconstruction. However, the gold standard for defect coverage remains free tissue transfer. In this regard, the scapular vascular axis is a well-established source of expendable skin, fascia, muscle, and bone for use in free flap reconstruction of defects requiring bone and soft tissue in complex 3-dimensional relationships. Composite bone and soft-tissue flaps derived from the subscapular vascular axis include the osteocutaneous scapular flap, the "latissimus/bone flap," and the thoracodorsal artery perforator-scapular osteocutaneous flap.Patient outcome following reconstruction of lower extremity defects with composite free flaps from the thoracodorsal system were analyzed. Here, we demonstrate the execution of technical refinements on free composite flap transfers based on the thoracodorsal vascular axis, thus resulting in a stepwise reduction of donor-site morbidity. PMID:18362565

  5. The Deltopectoral Flap Revisited: The Internal Mammary Artery Perforator Flap.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Amir; Atiyeh, Bishara; Karami, Reem; Adelman, David M; Papazian, Nazareth J

    2016-03-01

    Pharyngo-esophageal and tracheostomal defects pose a challenge in head and neck reconstruction whenever microanastomosis is extremely difficult in hostile neck that is previously dissected and irradiated. The deltopectoral (DP) flap was initially described as a pedicled flap for such reconstruction with acceptable postoperative results. A major drawback is still that the DP flap is based on 3 perforator vessels leading to a decreased arc of rotation. The DP flap also left contour deformities in the donor site. The internal mammary artery perforator flap was described as a refinement of the deltopectoral flap. It is a pedicled fasciocutaneous flap based on a single perforator, with comparable and reliable blood supply compared with the DP flap, giving it the benefit of having a wide arc of rotation. It is both thin and pliable, with good skin color match and texture. The donor site can be closed primarily with no esthetic deformity and minimal morbidity. The procedure is relatively simple and does not require microvascular expertise. In this report, the authors describe a patient in whom bilateral internal mammary artery perforator flaps were used for subtotal pharyngo-esophageal reconstruction and neck resurfacing. The flaps healed uneventfully bilaterally with no postoperative complications. PMID:26854779

  6. Analysis of evolutionary relationship between Astasia longa and Euglena gracilis by using RAPD Technique and cladistic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiang-Xin; Shi, Zhi-Xin; Gan, Xiao-Ni; Xie, Shu-Lian

    2001-03-01

    Although both Astasia longa and Euglena gracilis belong to different genera, they share many morphological characters except that A. longa has no chloroplast. In the 1940's, on the basis of the finding that in darkness or upon addition of some chemicals, E. gracilis would fade reversibly or irreversibly, some scholars hypothesised that A. longa evolved from E. gracilis by losing chloroplast. The author's use of RAPD and cladistic analyses in a study on the evolutionary relationship between A. longa and E. gracilis showed that the A. longa's relationship with E. gracilis was closer than that with other green euglenoids. This proves the hypothesis that A. longa evolved from E. gracilis is reasonable. The results of this study suggest that saprophytic colorless euglenoids were transformed from green euglenoids by losing their choroplasts.

  7. The use of fabricated chimeric flap for reconstruction of extensive foot defects.

    PubMed

    Song, Baoqiang; Chen, Jianwu; Han, Yan; Hu, Yalan; Su, Yingjun; Li, Yang; Zhang, Juan; Guo, Shuzhong

    2016-05-01

    Repair of extensive foot defects requires both adequate tissues for wound coverage and special tissues for functional reconstruction. To maximize its function reconstruction, fabricated chimeric flaps consisting of multiple separate flaps were designed to reconstruct such defects. Five patients suffered extensive foot defects with sizes ranging from 23 × 12 cm to 38 × 14 cm(2) in multiple regions including heel, forefoot, dorsum, ankle, anterior leg, and even toes. Causes included crushing injuries, avulsion injuries, and scar excision. Most areas of the defects except heel were first covered by latissimus dorsi muscle flap or anterolateral thigh flap and their pedicles were anastomosed with recipient vessels. Then free medial plantar flaps were transferred for heel reconstruction and their pedicles were further attached to either side branches of the main source vessel or to its distal continuation. All chimeric flaps survived uneventfully and all patients were able to walk in normal footwear during the 1.5- to 4-years follow-up. None of the flaps developed ulcer and flap breakdown. The assessment by Maryland Foot Score showed that four of the five patients gained a "good" recovery and one patient showed moderate improvement of foot functions. Appearances of reconstructed heels were near-normal. The results indicate that fabricated chimeric flap has good design flexibility and may provide an option for functional reconstruction of extensive foot defects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:303-309, 2016. PMID:25752811

  8. Uncommon Flaps for Chest Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Matros, Evan; Disa, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    The omentum, external oblique musculocutaneous, and thoracoepigastric flaps are uncommonly used for chest wall reconstruction. Nevertheless, awareness and knowledge of these flaps is essential for reconstructive surgeons because they fill specific niche indications or serve as lifeboats when workhorse flaps are unavailable. The current report describes the anatomic basis, technical aspects of flap elevation, and indications for these unusual flaps. PMID:22294943

  9. Reconstruction of the dynamic velopharyngeal function by combined radial forearm-palmaris longus tenocutaneous free flap, and superiorly based pharyngeal flap in postoncologic total palatal defect.

    PubMed

    Nuri, Takashi; Ueda, Koichi; Yamada, Akira; Okada, Masashi; Hara, Mai

    2015-04-01

    We attempted to reconstruct dynamic palatal function using a radial forearm-palmaris longus tenocutaneous free flap in conjunction with a pharyngeal flap for a postoncologic total-palate defect in a 67-year-old male patient. This reconstruction involved 3 important tasks, namely, separating the oral and nasal cavities, preserving the velopharyngeal space to avoid sleep apnea, and maintaining velopharyngeal closure to avoid nasal regurgitation during swallowing. In our technique, the radial forearm flap separates the oral and nasal cavities with an open rhinopharyngeal space, and a superiorly based pharyngeal flap, which is sutured to the posterior end of the forearm flap, limits the rhinopharyngeal space, and forms the bilateral velopharyngeal port. Furthermore, the palmaris longus tendon, which is attached to the forearm flap, is secured to the superior constrictor muscle to create a horizontal muscle sling. Contraction of the superior constrictor muscle leads to shrinkage of the sling, resulting in velopharyngeal closure. Swallowing therapy was started 4 weeks after the surgery. The patient could resume oral intake without any difficulties 6 months after the surgery. Speech intelligibility changed from severe to minimal hypernasality. PMID:25749212

  10. Random Pattern Vertically Oriented, Partial Thickness Buccinator Myomucosal Flap for Intraoral Reconstruction:A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Reconstruction of the oral cavity with a flap design containing the buccal mucosa and buccinator muscle but excluding the facial artery and vein is the topic of these case reports. Case Reports: This article uses random pattern vertically oriented partial thickness buccinator myomucosal flap for intraoral reconstruction in two cases. The first was for lining the mandibular anterior vestibule in a trauma patient. The second was for oral side coverage of bone graft in special cleft patient. In both patients, this flap survived and good bone coverage with non-keratinized mucosa was obtained. Conclusion: Thin long buccal myomucosal flap not including facial artery and vein can survive. PMID:27429953

  11. Towards an advanced vortex flap system: The cavity flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    An extension of the vortex flap concept was explored with the aim of providing high-alpha flight control capability coupled with maneuver drag reduction for highly swept wing configurations. A retractable lower surface flap mounted on a translating hinge is proposed, allowing chordwise extension as well as deflection, the two movements being independently controlled. The frontal cavity formed by the partially extended and deflected flap captures a vortex above a certain angle of attack. The cavity vortex downwash alleviates the effective incidence of the wing leading edge, thus modulating vortex lift; at the same time, the induced suction in the cavity generates thrust. These postulated aerodynamic features of the cavity flap were validated through low speed tunnel pressure and visualization tests on a 65 deg swept oblique wing model, which also provided initial trends of the leading edge vortex alleviation and cavity suction with respect to flap extension, deflection and angle of attack. Force tests on a 60 deg delta model further showed the cavity flap L/D performance to compare favorably with the conventional vortex flap. A two segment flap arrangement with independently control led segments was envisaged for exploiting the vortex modulation capability of the cavity flap for pitch, roll and yaw control, in addition to drag reduction at high angles of attack.

  12. Investigation of the Gracilaria gracilis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) proteome response to nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Rene K; Rafudeen, Muhammad S; Coyne, Vernon E

    2016-06-01

    Inorganic nitrogen has been identified as the major growth-limiting nutritional factor affecting Gracilaria gracilis populations in South Africa. Although the physiological mechanisms implemented by G. gracilis for adaption to low nitrogen environments have been investigated, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these adaptions. This study provides the first investigation of G. gracilis proteome changes in response to nitrogen limitation and subsequent recovery. A differential proteomics approach employing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to investigate G. gracilis proteome changes in response to nitrogen limitation and recovery. The putative identity of 22 proteins that changed significantly (P < 0.05) in abundance in response to nitrogen limitation and recovery was determined. The identified proteins function in a range of biological processes including glycolysis, photosynthesis, ATP synthesis, galactose metabolism, protein-refolding and biosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and cytoskeleton remodeling. The identity of fructose 1,6 biphosphate (FBP) aldolase was confirmed by western blot analysis and the decreased abundance of FBP aldolase observed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was validated by enzyme assays and western blots. The identification of key proteins and pathways involved in the G. gracilis nitrogen stress response provide a better understanding of G. gracilis proteome responses to varying degrees of nitrogen limitation and is the first step in the identification of biomarkers for monitoring the nitrogen status of cultivated G. gracilis populations. PMID:27273530

  13. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Schonauer, Fabrizio; Marlino, Sergio; Turrà, Francesco; Graziano, Pasquale; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Superficial ulnar artery is a rare finding but shows significant surgical implications. Its thinness and pliability make this flap an excellent solution for soft tissue reconstruction, especially in the head and neck region. We hereby report a successful free superficial ulnar artery perforator forearm flap transfer for tongue reconstruction. A 64-year-old man presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left tongue underwent a wide resection of the tumor, left radical neck dissection, and reconstruction of the tongue and the left tonsillar pillar with the mentioned flap. No complications were observed postoperatively. The flap survived completely; no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up was detected. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap has shown to be a safe alternative to other free tissue flaps in specific forearm anatomic conditions. PMID:25102397

  14. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Regional flaps - self-care; Distant flaps - self-care; Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care ... the dressing and area around it clean and free from dirt or sweat. Don't let the ...

  15. Externally blown flap noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center cold-flow model externally blown flap (EBF) noise research test program is summarized. Both engine under-the-wing and over-the-wing EBF wing section configurations were studied. Ten large scale and nineteen small scale EBF models were tested. A limited number of forward airspeed effect and flap noise suppression tests were also run. The key results and conclusions drawn from the flap noise tests are summarized and discussed.

  16. The vortex flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerge, Brandon T.

    The Vortex Flap is a new type of mechanically driven high-lift device consisting of a rotating cylinder placed underneath and near the trailing edge of an airfoil. Wind tunnel tests were designed and conducted in the Washington University Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Wind tunnel tests indicate that the Vortex Flap produces notable lift coefficient increments and increases maximum lift coefficients, particularly for the low Reynolds number range tested. The best configurations of the configurations investigated (not necessarily optimal) produce lift increments of 300-900% at low-to-moderate angles of attack, and increase the maximum lift coefficient on the order of 200%. The large lift increments found, particularly at low angles of attack, underscore the ability to drive the airfoil to high lift coefficients even at low angles of attack, a potentially useful characteristic for certain flight maneuvers. Regions of fairly high L/D (on the order of 10) as well as low L/D performance were identified. The nondimensional cylinder rotation speed was found to be the most important experimental parameter. Methods for correcting wind tunnel data were developed and outlined, and a Response Surface Method was applied to the corrected data for ease of interpretation. Performance comparisons between the Vortex Flap and other trailing-edge high-lift devices are included. To demonstrate the potential of the device, a Navy mission specification for a VTOL ship-borne UAV, currently filled by a rotary-wing aircraft, is analyzed using a hypothetical fixed wing aircraft and the Vortex Flap. It is demonstrated that, under certain reasonable wind-over-deck conditions, such an aircraft could hypothetically fill a VTOL mission.

  17. Generalized receptor law governs phototaxis in the phytoplankton Euglena gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Maritan, Amos; Stocker, Roman; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Phototaxis, the process through which motile organisms direct their swimming toward or away from light, is implicated in key ecological phenomena (including algal blooms and diel vertical migration) that shape the distribution, diversity, and productivity of phytoplankton and thus energy transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems. Phototaxis also finds important applications in biofuel reactors and microbiopropellers and is argued to serve as a benchmark for the study of biological invasions in heterogeneous environments owing to the ease of generating stochastic light fields. Despite its ecological and technological relevance, an experimentally tested, general theoretical model of phototaxis seems unavailable to date. Here, we present accurate measurements of the behavior of the alga Euglena gracilis when exposed to controlled light fields. Analysis of E. gracilis’ phototactic accumulation dynamics over a broad range of light intensities proves that the classic Keller–Segel mathematical framework for taxis provides an accurate description of both positive and negative phototaxis only when phototactic sensitivity is modeled by a generalized “receptor law,” a specific nonlinear response function to light intensity that drives algae toward beneficial light conditions and away from harmful ones. The proposed phototactic model captures the temporal dynamics of both cells’ accumulation toward light sources and their dispersion upon light cessation. The model could thus be of use in integrating models of vertical phytoplankton migrations in marine and freshwater ecosystems, and in the design of bioreactors. PMID:25964338

  18. Enhanced root production in Haplopappus gracilis grown under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  19. Polysaccharide extraction from Sphallerocarpus gracilis roots by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tingting; Sun, Xiangyu; Tian, Chengrui; Luo, Jiyang; Zheng, Cuiping; Zhan, Jicheng

    2016-07-01

    The extraction process of Sphallerocarpus gracilis root polysaccharides (SGRP) was optimized using response surface methodology with two methods [hot-water extraction (HWE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE)]. The antioxidant activities of SGRP were determined, and the structural features of the untreated materials (HWE residue and UAE residue) and the extracted polysaccharides were compared by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the optimal UAE conditions were extraction temperature of 81°C, extraction time of 1.7h, liquid-solid ratio of 17ml/g, ultrasonic power of 300W and three extraction cycles. The optimal HWE conditions were 93°C extraction temperature, 3.6h extraction time, 21ml/g liquid-solid ratio and three extraction cycles. UAE offered a higher extraction yield with a shorter time, lower temperature and a lower solvent consumption compared with HWE, and the extracted polysaccharides possessed a higher antioxidant capacity. Therefore, UAE could be used as an alternative to conventional HWE for SGRP extraction. PMID:27032488

  20. Identification and functional analysis of peroxiredoxin isoforms in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Shun; Maruta, Takanori; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Euglena gracilis lacks catalase and contains ascorbate peroxidase (APX) which is localized exclusively in the cytosol. Other enzymes that scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Euglena have not yet been identified; therefore, ROS metabolism, especially in organelles, remains unclear in Euglena. The full-length cDNAs of four Euglena peroxiredoxins (EgPrxs) were isolated in this study. EgPrx1 and -4 were predicted to be localized in the cytosol, and EgPrx2 and -3 in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The catalytic efficiencies of recombinant EgPrxs were similar to those of plant thiol-peroxidases, but were markedly lower than those of APX from Euglena. However, transcript levels of EgPrx1, -2, and -3 were markedly higher than those of APX. The growth rate of Euglena cells, in which the expression of EgPrx1 and -4 was suppressed by gene silencing, was markedly reduced under normal conditions, indicating physiological significance of Prx proteins. PMID:25036955

  1. The Versatile Modiolus Perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Thomsen, Jorn Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perforator flaps are well established, and their usefulness as freestyle island flaps is recognized. The whereabouts of vascular perforators and classification of perforator flaps in the face are a debated subject, despite several anatomical studies showing similar consistency. In our experience using freestyle facial perforator flaps, we have located areas where perforators are consistently found. This study is focused on a particular perforator lateral to the angle of the mouth; the modiolus and the versatile modiolus perforator flap. Methods: A cohort case series of 14 modiolus perforator flap reconstructions in 14 patients and a color Doppler ultrasonography localization of the modiolus perforator in 10 volunteers. Results: All 14 flaps were successfully used to reconstruct the defects involved, and the location of the perforator was at the level of the modiolus as predicted. The color Doppler ultrasonography study detected a sizeable perforator at the level of the modiolus lateral to the angle of the mouth within a radius of 1 cm. This confirms the anatomical findings of previous authors and indicates that the modiolus perforator is a consistent anatomical finding, and flaps based on it can be recommended for several indications from the reconstruction of defects in the perioral area, cheek and nose. Conclusions: The modiolus is a well-described anatomical area containing a sizeable perforator that is consistently present and readily visualized using color Doppler ultrasonography. We have used the modiolus perforator flap successfully for several indications, and it is our first choice for perioral reconstruction. PMID:27257591

  2. Flag flapping in a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas; Shoele, Kourosh; Mittal, Rajat; Jha, Sourabh; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    We study the flapping of a flag in an inviscid channel flow. We focus especially on how quantities vary with channel spacing. As the channel walls move inwards towards the flag, heavier flags become more unstable, while light flags' stability is less affected. We use a vortex sheet model to compute large-amplitude flapping, and find that the flag undergoes a series of jumps to higher flapping modes as the channel walls are moved towards the flag. Meanwhile, the drag on the flag and the energy lost to the wake first rise as the walls become closer, then drop sharply as the flag moves to a higher flapping mode.

  3. Etanercept protects myocutaneous flaps from ischaemia reperfusion injury: An experimental study in a rat tram flap model.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Burak; Çevik, Özge; Çilingir, Özlem Tuğçe

    2016-08-01

    Background Being an inevitable component of free tissue transfer, ischemia-reperfusion injury tends to contribute to flap failure. TNF-α is an important proinflammatory cytokine and a prominent mediator of the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Etanercept, a soluble TNF-α binding protein, has shown anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in animal models of renal and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. We have designed an experimental study to investigate the effect of etanercept on myocutaneous ischemia-reperfusion injury on transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap model in rats. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: In group 1 (sham), the TRAM flap was raised and sutured back without further intervention. In group 2 (control), the flap was raised and the ischemia-reperfusion protocol was followed. In group 3, etanercept (10 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered 10 minutes before reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion period, biochemical and histolopathological evaluations were performed on serum and tissue samples. Results In the etanercept group the IMA and 8-OHdG levels (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively) were found significantly lower, and the GSH and SOD levels (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) significantly higher in comparison to the control group. The histopathological analysis has revealed a lower degree of hyalinization, degenerated muscle fibers and nuclear change in the etanercept group compared to the control group. Conclusion The results of our experimental study indicate that etanercept offers protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle tissue, enhancing the TRAM flap viability. The ability of etanercept to induce ischemic tolerance suggests that it may be applicable in free-flap surgery. PMID:26950289

  4. Lower lip repair using double opposing rectangular rotation flaps with reconstruction of the mentolabial groove and mental protuberance.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, H; Makiguchi, T; Takayama, Y; Yokoo, S

    2014-09-01

    The use of a rectangular flap is a well known technique for upper lip repair in cleft lip, but is less common for lower lip repair after tumour resection. We have found this type of flap to be favourable for lower lip reconstruction, especially for the lip to mental region. We describe herein an improvement to the technique in which two opposing rectangular flaps, with the length of one side equal to the vertical distance from the mentolabial groove to the vermilion border, were raised on the lateral sides of a U-shaped defect. Reconstruction was performed by interdigitation of the two flaps and a bilateral vermilion advancement flap. This new approach allows a distinct mentolabial groove and mental protuberance to be created by utilizing two opposing rectangular flaps and redundant tissue, without sacrificing sensation and muscle function. Our results suggest that the technique provides excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes in restoration of the lower lip in properly selected patients. PMID:24997680

  5. Adynamic and dynamic muscle transposition techniques for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barišić, Goran; Krivokapić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Gracilis muscle transposition is well established in general surgery and has been the main muscle transposition technique for anal incontinence. Dynamization, through a schedule of continuous electrical stimulation, converts the fatigue-prone muscle fibres to a tonic fatigue-resistant morphology with acceptable results in those cases where there is limited sphincter muscle mass. The differences between gluteoplasty and graciloplasty, as well as the techniques and complications of both procedures, are outlined in this review. Overall, these techniques are rarely carried out in specialized units with experience, as there is a high revision and explantation rate. PMID:24759348

  6. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions–a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY505/515, and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel. PMID:27212384

  7. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions-a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY(505/515), and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel. PMID:27212384

  8. Toxic effects of individual and combined effects of BTEX on Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Lee, Jong-Wha; Sichani, Homa Teimouri; Ng, Jack C

    2015-03-01

    BTEX is a group of volatile organic compounds consisting of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Environmental contamination of BTEX can occur in the groundwater with their effects on the aquatic organisms and ecosystem being sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of individual and mixed BTEX on Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis). We examined the growth rate, morphological changes and chlorophyll contents in E. gracilis Z and its mutant SMZ cells treated with single and mixture of BTEX. BTEX induced morphological change, formation of lipofuscin, and decreased chlorophyll content of E. gracilis Z in a dose response manner. The toxicity of individual BTEX on cell growth and chlorophyll inhibition is in the order of xylenes>ethylbenzene>toluene>benzene. SMZ was found more sensitive to BTEX than Z at much lower concentrations between 0.005 and 5 μM. The combined effect of mixed BTEX on chlorophyll contents was shown to be concentration addition (CA). Results from this study suggested that E. gracilis could be a suitable model for monitoring BTEX in the groundwater and predicting the combined effects on aqueous ecosystem. PMID:25463212

  9. [Secondary reconstruction, after maxillectomy, using an osteocutaneous flap from the fibula. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, S; Raffaini, M; Caradonna, L; Sesenna, E

    1997-10-01

    Surgical functional reconstruction after partial maxillectomy with fibula free flap. A bilateral upper alveolar bone, gingival and palatal defect after tumor resection, has various problems originating from reconstruction with prosthesis or temporalis muscle flap. We report a secondary reconstructive procedure using the fibula osteocutaneous free flap. The combined bone segments created the upper alveolar arch, and the skin paddle closed the palatal defect. This procedure restored the patient to masticatory function of the upper jaw, intelligible speech and natural facial appearance. As a result quality of life of patient was extremely improved. PMID:9432561

  10. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery: a new design for repairing composite tissue defects in anterior knee

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guangfeng; Nie, Kaiyu; Jin, Wenhu; Wei, Zairong; Qi, Jianping; Wang, Dali

    2015-01-01

    So far it has been difficult to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. Saphenous artery flap has been widely used to repair complex wounds, but the design and clinical application of composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery were not reported. In this research, we design a new composite tissue flap by carrying fascial flap in the medial gastrocnemius muscle with perforators flap in saphenous artery to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. By anatomic observation and analysis, we find that there exists blood-supply in netty form among saphenous arteries, medial artery below the knee, intermuscular branch in high-order position of posterior tibial artery and perforating branch in medial artery of calf. We chose saphenous artery as blood-supplying artery; utilized the netty blood-supplying mode in middle-up and medial part of shank; cut the composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle; reconstructed the ligamentum patellae using medial head of gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles’s tendon; and covered the wounds at front side of knee with flap. Composite tissues were survived completely, free from infection at wounds and exosmosis of joint fluid. Motion function of knee-joint proved satisfactory, and ambulatory function was recovered. There was no complication in donor site. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle is one of the most ideal solutions for repairing the composite tissue defects at front side of knee joint. PMID:26885090

  11. Satisfaction following Unilateral Breast Reconstruction: A Comparison of Pedicled TRAM and Free Abdominal Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Schwitzer, Jonathan A.; Miller, H. Catherine; Pusic, Andrea L.; Matros, Evan; Mehrara, Babak J.; McCarthy, Colleen M.; Lennox, Peter A.; Van Laeken, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare patient satisfaction following unilateral pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) and free abdominal flap reconstruction. Methods: Patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using pedicled TRAM or free abdominal flaps (muscle-sparing TRAM or deep inferior epigastric perforator flap) and completed the BREAST-Q were identified from 2 prospectively maintained databases. BREAST-Q scores were assessed and compared for Satisfaction with Breasts, Outcome, and Physical Well-being Chest/Abdomen. Results: Of the 138 patients who completed the BREAST-Q, 84 underwent pedicled TRAM flap reconstruction and 54 underwent free abdominal flap reconstruction. Overall, pedicled TRAM flap patients scored higher than free abdominal flap patients on all 4 BREAST-Q scales. This difference reached statistical significance in Satisfaction with Breasts (+7.74; P = 0.02). Similar results were found among patients who completed the BREAST-Q at <3 years postoperation. However, among patients at ≥3 years postoperation, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups, with the pedicled flap cohort scoring higher in Satisfaction with Breasts and Physical Well-being Chest and the free abdominal flap cohort scoring higher in Satisfaction with Outcome and Physical Well-being Abdomen scores. Conclusions: Patients who underwent unilateral pedicled TRAM flap reconstruction experienced greater initial breast satisfaction than patients who underwent unilateral free abdominal flap reconstruction, but satisfaction equalized between the two over time, suggesting that long-term satisfaction may be equivalent between the 2 methods of reconstruction. PMID:26495195

  12. A Novel Endoscopic-Assisted Harvesting of Pedicled Freestyle Fasciocutaneous Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jen-Wu; Lin, Yi-Ying; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Yen, David Hung-Tsang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The endoscopy-assisted technique has been demonstrated in harvesting muscle flaps; however, for pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps, few studies have applied this technique. We present a surgical procedure utilizing endoscopic-assisted method to identify the perforators of pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects. From August to December 2012, 9 consecutive patients underwent endoscopic-assisted harvesting of fasciocutaneous flaps for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects. All of the defects were caused by trauma with tendon or bone exposure. Postoperatively, all patients were requested to return for outpatient follow-up visits for at least 3 months. The age of the 9 patients (8 men and 1 woman) ranged from 20 to 79 years (median 59 years). The defects ranged in size from 2 × 2 to 6 × 8 cm2. Two patients received anterolateral thigh transmuscular perforator flaps, 5 patients received fibular septocutaneous perforator flaps, and 2 patients received medial gastrocnemius transmuscular perforator flaps. The median incision length was 10 cm, and the median operative time was 120 minutes. None of the patients had intraoperative complications, and intraoperative bleeding was minimal (<50 mL). At the end of the 3-month follow-up period, none of the patients had any complications on either recipient or donor site, including total or partial necrosis of the flaps, flap dehiscence, hematomas, seromas, wound infections, or any conditions that indicated additional unplanned operative procedures. All of the patients had surviving flaps. Our results demonstrated that the endoscopic-assisted method could be a valuable and reliable alternative in harvesting pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps. PMID:25715266

  13. Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise - the Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.

  14. Cholecystectomy after breast reconstruction with a pedicled autologous tram flap. Types of surgical access.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Magdalena; Kostro, Justyna; Jankau, Jerzy; Bigda, Justyna; Skorek, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    The number of breast reconstruction procedures has been increasing in recent years. One of the suggested treatment methods is breast reconstruction with a pedicled skin and muscle TRAM flap (transverse rectus abdominis muscle - TRAM). Surgical incisions performed during a cholecystectomy procedure may be located in the areas significant for flap survival. The aim of this paper is to present anatomical changes in abdominal walls secondary to pedicled skin and muscle (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction, which influence the planned access in cholecystectomy procedures. The authors present 2 cases of cholecystectomy performed due to cholelithiasis in female patients with a history of TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedures. The first patient underwent a traditional method of surgery 14 days after the reconstruction due to acute cholecystitis. The second patient underwent a laparoscopy due to cholelithiasis 7 years after the TRAM procedure. In both cases an abdominal ultrasound scan was performed prior to the operation, and surgical access was determined following consultation with a plastic surgeon. The patient who had undergone traditional cholecystectomy developed an infection of the postoperative wound. The wound was treated with antibiotics, vacuum therapy and skin grafting. After 7 weeks complete postoperative wound healing and correct healing of the TRAM flap were achieved. The patient who had undergone laparoscopy was discharged home on the second postoperative day without any complications. In order to plan a safe surgical access, it is necessary to know the changes in the anatomy of abdominal walls following a pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedure. PMID:25337177

  15. Deep circumflex iliac perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2003-07-01

    The increased freedom of the DCIP flap from the harvested iliac crest facilitates correct positioning. To ensure that the DCIP flap can be safely elevated, however, the presence of perforators (approximately 1 cm in diameter) must be confirmed preoperatively and intraoperatively. PMID:12916597

  16. Phototactic number-density flux in the localized bioconvection of Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    Euglena gracilis is a unicellular phototactic flagellate; it escapes from light sources if the light intensity is higher than 200 W/m2 (negative phototaxis). When the suspension of E. gracilis is illuminated from the bottom by strong light, bioconvection patterns are generated. In the case of E. gracilis, the patterns can be spatially localized. The localization mechanism has not been clarified. We report experimental results related to the localization mechanism. In particular, we experimentally measured the strength of the phototaxis in the lateral direction as well as vertical direction. We prepared a thin container in which the suspension is included, and gave the linearly-changing light intensity. We found the number density gets a peak at a particular light intensity, which never happens if the suspension has the vertical phototaxis only. Further, we succeeded in getting the function representing lateral phototaxis. The relationship between the measured functions and the localized convection cells will be also reported.

  17. Localized Bioconvection Patterns and Their Initial State Dependency in Euglena gracilis Suspensions in an Annular Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Erika; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    Localized patterns of bioconvection in Euglena gracilis suspensions were experimentally analyzed in an annular container. Near the critical mean density of convection, we succeeded in isolating two basic types of localized convection patterns. One was an almost stationary pattern consisting of two convection cells centered by an isolated high-density region of the microorganism where a downflow was generated, which we call a "bioconvection unit". The other was a traveling wave pattern consisting of an array of moving high-density waves bounded in a certain area. The effect of the mean density of E. gracilis on the emergence of the localized convection pattern was also examined. Near the critical mean density, we found that the emergence probability of the localized convection pattern depends on the initial state, i.e., whether E. gracilis has a uniform or localized distribution, which suggests that the system is bistable. Such bistability is often accompanied by localized structures in spatially extended dissipative systems.

  18. Fine structure of the ganglion of Cephalodiscus gracilis (Pterobranchia, Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Rehkämper, G; Welsch, U; Dilly, P N

    1987-05-01

    The ganglion of Cephalodiscus gracilis M'Intosh 1882 is entirely intraepithelial and located in the dorsal epidermis immediately behind the tentacular apparatus that is formed by the mesosome (collar). A characteristic feature of the ganglion is a well-developed neuropile in which different types of nerve fibres can be discerned, many of which contain small granules with electron-dense contents. There are no glia-like cells in association with these fibres. Only slender basal processes of epidermal epithelial cells traverse the neuropile. In the depth of the epithelium the neuropile borders the epidermal basal lamina; apically it is covered by a layer of cell bodies, the majority of which belong to what appear to be ordinary ciliated epidermal cells. Besides these epidermal cells the perikarya of two additional types of cells, which are considered to be neurons, can be discerned. One type is characterised by many rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns and mitochondria, the other by abundant small, electron-dense granules. The nuclei of these cells are comparatively pale and contain a prominent nucleolus. The neuron cell bodies do not form a distinct layer; but they are loosely distributed somewhat deeper than those of the ordinary epidermal cells. They probably send off an apical process to the epidermal surface and a basally directed one into the neuropile. The ganglion has been compared to the nervous systems in cnidarians, some spiralians, and especially other hemichordates, echinoderms, and chordates; it is found to be of primitive rather than degenerate nature. Furthermore, the possible functional significance of its close connection to the food-capturing tentacular apparatus is discussed. PMID:3584559

  19. The microvascular anastomotic coupler for venous anastomoses in free flap breast reconstruction improves outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, Warren Matthew; Chowdhry, Muhammad; Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Chow, Whitney T.H.; Griffiths, Matthew; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Venous couplers are ubiquitous around the world and are a useful tool for the reconstructive microsurgeon. A systematic review of coupler performance studies demonstrated a thrombosis rate range of 0% to 3%, whilst the average time of using the device is 5 minutes. There is sparse published data on cost analysis and the impact of operator experience on the anastomotic coupler device success. Improvements in outcomes other than time benefits have also not been shown. This study aims to address these deficiencies in the literature. Methods A retrospective clinical study was undertaken, aiming to compare equivalent groups of patients that had free flap surgery with venous micro-anastomoses with those that had sutured anastomoses. The cohort comprised all patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction at the St Andrew’s Centre for Plastic Surgery & Burns from January 2009 to December 2014. Results Between January 2010 to December 2014, 1,064 patients underwent 1,206 free flap breast reconstructions. The average age of patients was 50 years. Seventy percent of patients underwent mastectomy and immediate reconstruction during this period with the remaining 30% having a delayed reconstruction. The 1,206 free flaps comprised of 83 transverse myocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flaps, and 1,123 deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps. In total the coupler was used in 319 flaps, 26% of the cohort. There was a statistically significant clinical benefit in using the anastomotic coupler for venous anastomosis. Overall, the return to theatre rate was 12.69% whilst the overall flap loss rate was 0.75%. The overall coupler failure rate was significantly less at 1.4% whilst sutured vein failure rate was 3.57% (P=0.001). Conclusions The anastomotic coupler for venous anastomosis in free flap surgery is associated with reduced operating times, reduced take-backs to theatre and cost benefits. This is the first study to demonstrate clear clinical benefits

  20. Seromuscular Colonic Flap for Intrapelvic Soft-Tissue Coverage: A Reconstructive Option for Plastic Surgeons When Traditionally Used Flaps Are Not Available

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Johnathon; Winocour, Sebastian; Hammoudeh, Ziyad S.; Nelson, Heidi; Rose, Peter; Tran, Nho V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reconstruction of intrapelvic defects can be a challenging problem in patients with limited regional muscle flap options and previously resected omentum. In such situations, alternative methods of mobilizing vascularized tissue may be required. Methods. A case of a patient that underwent pelvic extirpation for recurrent rectal cancer who had limited donor sites for flap reconstruction is presented. The mucosa was removed from a blind loop of colon, and a pedicled seromuscular flap based on the colonic mesentery was placed into the pelvis for vascularized soft-tissue coverage and elimination of dead space. Results. The postoperative course was only complicated by a small subcutaneous fluid collection beneath the sacrectomy skin incision, which was drained with radiological assistance. The patient recovered without any major postoperative complications. Conclusion. Seromuscular colonic flap is a useful option for soft-tissue coverage after pelvic extirpation and should be considered by plastic surgeons when other reconstruction options are not available. PMID:26688771

  1. Theory of flapping flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippisch, Alexander

    1925-01-01

    Before attempting to construct a human-powered aircraft, the aviator will first try to post himself theoretically on the possible method of operating the flapping wings. This report will present a graphic and mathematical method, which renders it possible to determine the power required, so far as it can be done on the basis of the wing dimensions. We will first consider the form of the flight path through the air. The simplest form is probably the curve of ordinary wave motion. After finding the flight curve, we must next determine the change in the angle of attack while passing through the different phases of the wave.

  2. Peculiar indications for the pedicled or free rectus abdominis flap in reconstructive surgery. A review of our experience.

    PubMed

    Sinsel, N K; Guelinckx, P J

    1995-01-01

    Among all known flaps, the rectus abdominis muscle flap possesses an unique diversity in flap designs due to the special vascular supply of the abdominal wall. The axial vascularization of the rectus abdominis muscle gives ofF several musculocutaneous perforators, which are mainly located in the periumbilical region. Abdominal wall skin perfusion is guaranteed by spoke-wheel like vessels arising from these perforators. Subsequently several designs (muscle, myocutaneous and myosubcutaneous) are possible, by varying the included tissue and the position of the skin island. We described 7 cases where the rectus abdominis muscle was used as a muscle or myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of large defects. In most cases a pedicled transfer was necessary, possible and sufficient to reconstruct the difficult defects in various body regions. Great amounts of well perfused tissue can be transferred with still possible primary closure of the donor site. Due to its rich perfusion and constancy of vascular pattern, it represents an excellent and safe pedicled reconstructive procedure for large defects of the thorax, the abdomen, the forearm or the hip and pelvis where free tissue transfers are impossible or contraindicated. No other local transposition would have achieved this goal, due to the lack of volume and mobility. Moreover the flap is ideal for reconstruction of contour deficiencies due to the abundance of fat, as for example in breast or buttock reconstruction. However the flap is not the first choice for traumatic and infected wounds where fat tissue is not desired. PMID:8571724

  3. Different effects of eubacterial and eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors on chloroplasts ofEuglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajčovič, Juraj; Ebringer, Libor

    1990-03-01

    Inhibitors of eubacterial and eukaryotic DNA topoisomerases type II exhibited different effects on chloroplasts of the flagellateEuglena gracilis. Antibacterial agents (cinoxacin, nalidixic and oxolinic acids, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin) from the group of quinolones and coumarins (coumermycin A1, clorobiocin and novobiocin) — all inhibitors of prokaryotic DNA topoisomerase II — were very potent eliminators of chloroplasts fromE. gracilis. In contrast, antitumor drugs (adriamycin, etoposide, teniposide and mitoxantrone) — antagonists of the eukaryotic counterpart — did not affect these semiautonomous photosynthetic organelles. These findings point out again the close evolutionary relationships between eubacteria and chloroplasts and are in agreement with the hypothesis of an endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts.

  4. The complete mitogenome of the Australian crayfish Geocharax gracilis Clark 1936 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Huan You; Lee, Yin Peng; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The mitogenome of the black yabby, Geocharax gracilis, was sequenced using the MiSeq Personal Sequencer. It has 15,924 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of G. gracilis mitogenome is 32.18% for T, 22.32% for C, 34.83% for A, and 10.68% for G, with an AT bias of 67.01%. The mitogenome gene order is typical for that of parastacid crayfish with the exception of some minor rearrangements involving tRNA genes. PMID:24845437

  5. Heavy metal tolerance in a cadmium-resistant population of Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Bariaud, A.; Mestre, J.C.

    1984-05-01

    The authors have previously described some aspects of the cadmium toxic action on Euglena gracilis cells in vitro cultured. They showed the acquisition by the Euglena populations of a Cd/sup 2 +/ resistance to toxic concentrations. In this paper, the growth of a Cd-resistant and a non-resistant strain of Euglena gracilis in media containing Hg/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Se/sup 4 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/ or Co/sup 2 +/ is compared, in order to ascertain the mechanism to tolerance in this alga.

  6. A small portion of plastid transcripts is polyadenylated in the flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Záhonová, Kristína; Hadariová, Lucia; Vacula, Rostislav; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Eliáš, Marek; Krajčovič, Juraj; Vesteg, Matej

    2014-03-01

    Euglena gracilis possesses secondary plastids of green algal origin. In this study, E. gracilis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from polyA-selected mRNA were searched and several ESTs corresponding to plastid genes were found. PCR experiments failed to detect SL sequence at the 5'-end of any of these transcripts, suggesting plastid origin of these polyadenylated molecules. Quantitative PCR experiments confirmed that polyadenylation of transcripts occurs in the Euglena plastids. Such transcripts have been previously observed in primary plastids of plants and algae as low-abundance intermediates of transcript degradation. Our results suggest that a similar mechanism exists in secondary plastids. PMID:24492004

  7. The Flap Sandwich Technique for a Safe and Aesthetic Skull Base Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yano, Tomoyuki; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Tanaka, Kentarou; Iida, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    For safe and reliable skull base reconstruction combined with repair of cranial bone defects, we introduce the flap sandwich technique in this study. A titanium mesh is often used to repair structural cranial bone defects because it has less donor site morbidity and is easy to handle. However, titanium mesh has disadvantages of exposure and infection postoperatively. To improve surgical outcomes, we applied the flap sandwich technique to 3 cases of skull base reconstruction combined with cranial bone defect repair. Two anterior skull base defects and 1 middle skull base defect were included in this study. The subjects were all women, aged 30, 58, and 62 years. One patient had former multiple craniotomies and another patient had preoperative radiotherapy. The flap sandwich technique involves structural cranial bone reconstruction with a titanium mesh and soft tissue reconstruction with a chimeric anterolateral thigh free flap. First, the dead space between the repaired dura and the titanium mesh is filled with vastus lateralis muscle, and then structural reconstruction is performed with a titanium mesh. Finally, the titanium mesh is totally covered with the adiposal flap of the anterolateral thigh free flap. The muscle flap protects the dead space from infection, and the adiposal flap covers the titanium mesh to reduce mechanical stress on the covered skin and thus prevent the exposure of the titanium mesh through the scalp. By applying this technique, there was no intracranial infection or titanium mesh exposure in these 3 cases postoperatively, even though 2 patients had postoperative radiotherapy. Additionally, the adiposal flap could provide a soft and natural contour to the scalp and forehead region, and this gives patients a better facial appearance even though they have had skull base surgery. PMID:25954846

  8. [The plasty for the hip region sores, using the flap, consisting of M. tensor fasciae latae].

    PubMed

    Pasichniy, D A

    2015-02-01

    The method of plasty for the hip region sores, based on transposition of proximal part of m. tensor fascia latae in content of the flap, using her transsection between place of attachment to spina iliaca anterior superior and place of the main vascular pedicle entry into the muscle, was proposed, what permits to prevent vast mobilization of the muscle and to secure existing in normal conditions and formed in pathological conditions anas- tomoses between vascular net of the flap and surrounding tissues. The method proposed was successfully applied for plasty of the hip region sores of degrees III-IV in 2 patients. PMID:25985701

  9. Kinematics of flap-bounding flight in the zebra finch over a wide range of speeds

    PubMed

    Tobalske; Peacock; Dial

    1999-07-01

    It has been proposed elsewhere that flap-bounding, an intermittent flight style consisting of flapping phases interspersed with flexed-wing bounds, should offer no savings in average mechanical power relative to continuous flapping unless a bird flies 1.2 times faster than its maximum range speed (Vmr). Why do some species use intermittent bounds at speeds slower than 1.2Vmr? The 'fixed-gear hypothesis' suggests that flap-bounding is used to vary mean power output in small birds that are otherwise constrained by muscle physiology and wing anatomy to use a fixed muscle shortening velocity and pattern of wing motion at all flight speeds; the 'body-lift hypothesis' suggests that some weight support during bounds could make flap-bounding flight aerodynamically advantageous in comparison with continuous flapping over most forward flight speeds. To test these predictions, we studied high-speed film recordings (300 Hz) of wing and body motion in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata, mean mass 13.2 g, N=4) taken as the birds flew in a variable-speed wind tunnel (0-14 m s-1). The zebra finches used flap-bounding flight at all speeds, so their flight style was unique compared with that of birds that facultatively shift from continuous flapping or flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds. There was a significant effect of flight speed on all measured aspects of wing motion except percentage of the wingbeat spent in downstroke. Changes in angular velocity of the wing indicated that contractile velocity in the pectoralis muscle changed with flight speed, which is not consistent with the fixed-gear hypothesis. Although variation in stroke-plane angle relative to the body, pronation angle of the wing and wing span at mid-upstroke showed that the zebra finch changed within-wingbeat geometries according to speed, a vortex-ring gait with a feathered upstroke appeared to be the only gait used during flapping. In contrast, two small species that use continuous flapping

  10. A case report of total breast reconstruction using an inframammary adipofascial flap with an implant

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Tomoko; Yamakawa, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can be used in combination with autologous flaps such as a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap to achieve symmetry. However, the LD and TDAP flaps require a different skin incision from that which is used for the mastectomy. As a new autologous flap for use in combination with prosthetic-based breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), we used an inframammary adipofascial flap. Presentation of case The patient was a 27-year-old female with moderate ptotic breasts, who had ductal carcinoma in situ in the lower outer quadrant of her left breast. After NSM through the inframammary fold (IMF) incision, the subcutaneous fat of the intended inframammary area was undermined, and the tongue shaped adipofascial flap was pulled up in the intended area. After inserting a tissue expander under the major pectoral muscle, this adipofascial flap was reflected back to the inferior portion of the breast area. After modeling the breast mound with this flap, the inframammary skin incision was sutured. Eleven months later, the patient underwent surgery to replace the expander with a permanent implant. Eight months after the replacement with an implant, the cosmetic result is good. Discussion This procedure can be performed through the same skin incision on the IMF as NSM. Total breast reconstruction using the inframammary adipofascial flap with an implant can be an alternative approach to achieving symmetry in some patients. Conclusion This method is useful for breast reconstruction after NSM for young patients with moderate-ptotic breasts. PMID:27107500

  11. Flap Edge Noise Reduction Fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.

  12. Dancing girl flap: a new flap suitable for web release.

    PubMed

    Shinya, K

    1999-12-01

    To create a deep web, a flap must be designed to have a high elongation effect in one direction along the mid-lateral line of the finger and also to have a shortening effect in the other direction, crossing at a right angle to the mid-lateral line. The dancing girl flap is a modification of a four-flap Z-plasty with two additional Z-plasties. It has a high elongation effect in one direction (>550%) and a shortening effect in the other direction at a right angle (<33%), creating a deep, U-shaped surface. This new flap can be used to release severe scar contracture with a web, and is most suitable for incomplete syndactyly with webs as high as the proximal interphalangeal joint. PMID:10597822

  13. Keystone Flap: Versatile Flap for Reconstruction of Limb Defects

    PubMed Central

    Janna, Rakesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is always a constant search for a new solution to tackle defects in the limbs. The technique has to be simple, easily reproducible and performed within a short duration. The answer is keystone island flap keystone flap is a simple, less time consuming, durable and easily reproducible option to reconstruct most of the limb defects. Aim: The aim of this article is to study the usefulness of keystone flap in reconstruction of various upper and lower limb defects. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review involves study of 20 patients undergoing keystone flap reconstruction for various defects from 2012 to 2014. Patient demographic data, medical histories, comorbidities, surgical indications, defect characteristics and locations, hospitalization, complications and follow-up were evaluated and are presented as uncontrolled case series. Results: Ages of the patients were ranging from 18 to 65 y with an average of 38.75y. Among the defects, 10 were following trauma (50%), 5 were due to tumour resection (25%), 3 followed debridement of abscess (15%) and another 2 defects were due to surgical wound dehiscence (10%). The largest defect covered by this flap in our study measured 45 x 18 cm and the smallest defect was 8 x4 cm. The average intra-operative time was 45.5 min (range 20-90 min). Fourteen flaps were done to cover lower limb defects (70%), 4 for upper limb defects and 2 were for defects in the axilla. Partial flap necrosis was observed in one case. The average duration of hospital stay of patients was 3.45 d. All patients were followed until they achieved stable, healed wound.The overall success rate was 95%. Conclusion: Keystone flap can be safely used to cover various limb defects with minimal pain, a sensate cover and excellent cosmetic outcome, minimizing the need for microsurgical techniques or prolonged operative time. PMID:25954659

  14. Soil sterilization alters interactions between the native grass Bouteloua gracilis and invasive Bromus tectorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The invasive grass Bromus tectorum negatively impacts grassland communities throughout the western U.S. We asked whether soil biota growing in association with a native grass (Bouteloua gracilis) increase growth and competitive ability of Bromus, and whether responses vary between soils collec...

  15. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to several chronic diseases including cancer and atherosclerosis. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is a special folk medicinal plant in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions of the stem of K. gracilis. TEAC, total phenolic compound content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were analyzed. Among all fractions, the chloroform fraction showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities. The chloroform fraction also had the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Chloroform fractions also decreased LPS-induced NO production and expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions were studied in vitro using HepG2 cells, and the results were consistent with their antioxidant capacities. Chloroform fractions had the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC(50) of 136.85 ± 2.32 μg/ml. Eupafolin also had good pharmacological activity in the antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antiproliferative. Eupafolin might be an important bioactive compound in the stem of K. gracilis. The above experimental data indicated that the stem of K. gracilis is a potent antioxidant medicinal plant, and such efficacy may be mainly attributed to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:22083996

  16. Optimization of complex medium composition for heterotrophic cultivation of Euglena gracilis and paramylon production.

    PubMed

    Ivušić, Franjo; Šantek, Božidar

    2015-06-01

    Heterotrophic cultivation of Euglena gracilis was carried out on synthetic (Hutner medium) and complex cultivation media in order to optimize production of β-1,3-glucan (paramylon). For preparation of complex media, various industrial by-products (e.g., molasses, corn steep solid, yeast extract, and beef extract) were used with or without addition of pure compounds [glucose, galactose, fructose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, and (NH4)2HPO4]. Heterotrophic cultivation of E. gracilis was performed in Erlenmeyer flasks and additionally confirmed during research in the stirred tank bioreactor. The results clearly show that E. gracilis can easily metabolize glucose and fructose as carbon sources and corn steep solid as complex nitrogen and growth factors source for biomass growth and paramylon synthesis. Furthermore, it was also proved that addition of (NH4)2HPO4, beef extract, or gibberellic acid did not have positive effect on the biomass growth and paramylon synthesis. After optimization of complex medium composition and verification in the stirred tank bioreactor, it was concluded that medium composed of glucose (20 g/L) and corn steep solid (30 g/L) is the most suitable complex medium for industrial cultivation of E. gracilis and paramylon production. PMID:25601569

  17. Water Deficit and Seasonality Study on Essential Oil Constituents of Lippia gracilis Schauer Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Elizangela Mércia de Oliveira; Pinto, Jéssika Andreza Oliveira; Fontes, Saymo Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Bacci, Leandro; de Jesus, Hugo César Ramos; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Lippia gracilis genotypes, in the dry and rainy seasons, and with and without irrigation. The extraction of essential oil was realized by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition analysis was performed using a GC-MS/FID. The leaves of the L. gracilis genotypes provide essential oil with content between 1.25% and 1.92% in the rainy season and 1.42% and 2.70% in the dry season; when irrigation was used the content was between 1.42% and 2.87%, without irrigation contents were between 1.60% and 3.00%. The chemical composition of L. gracilis showed high levels of terpenes. The major constituent of genotypes LGRA-106 was thymol and carvacrol was the major constituent for the other genotypes. Concentrations showed little variation between seasons, demonstrating the stability of the chemical composition of L. gracilis even with different climatic conditions. PMID:25302321

  18. Effects of cadmium on growth and superoxide dismutase activity of the marine microalga Tetraselmis gracilis (Prasinophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, O.K.; Asano, C.S.; Aidar, E.; Colepicolo, P.

    1996-02-01

    Marine planktonic algae are frequently exposed to metallic contaminants. Because heavy metals can be assimilated and accumulated by algal cells, they can then be transferred to higher trophic levels of food chains. We studied the effects of cadmium on protein production and the growth of the marine prasinophyte Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin) Butcher. By means of toxicological assays, we estimated the LC{sub 50} of cadmium as 3.2 ppm and 1.8 ppm after 48 h and 96 h of exposure to this heavy metal, respectively. The growth of curves and survival percentages of cell cultures in the presence of cadmium were determined, and a proportional reduction of both parameters with increasing metal concentrations of cadmium, T. gracilis contained high levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, one of the main enzymes of the cell`s antioxidant defense mechanism. Under these growth conditions, total SOD activity in crude extracts was increased by 41% (at 1.5 ppm) and 107% (at 3.0 ppm). Assays of SOD activity in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels also showed a similar induction by cadmium. These results show that cadmium has potentially toxic properties since it significantly inhibited the growth of T. gracilis at low concentrations and promoted by induction of SOD activity, suggestive of an oxidative stress state. Besides being the first report of SOD in T. gracilis, this work describes experimental evidence of SOD induction by cadmium in this species. 56 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Sulfated modification of the polysaccharide from Sphallerocarpus gracilis and its antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunfei; Song, Shen; Wei, Yanxia; Wang, Fengxia; Zhao, Min; Guo, Jie; Zhang, Ji

    2016-06-01

    Sphallerocarpus gracilis (S. gracilis) is a little-investigated edible plant and used as traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, polysaccharide extracted from S. gracilis,deproteined and purified. The polysaccharide (SGP) was chemically modified to obtain its sulfated derivatives (S-SGP) using the method of chlorosulfonic acid/pyridine (CSA/Pyr). In order to acquire the derivative with the highest degree of substitution (DS), the optimum conditions of the sulfation were obtained based on response surface design (RSD), and the structural characterizations and antioxidant properties of the S-SGP were comparatively investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), GC-MS analysis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and DPPH radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay, superoxide radical assay, and reducing power assay, respectively. Results showed that the modification was successful, and obtained the optimum combination of conditions. Compared with SGP, the sulfated polysaccharide with relatively the decreased degree of molecular weight (Mw) but the same composition of monosaccharides exhibited better antioxidant activities in DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide radical and reducing power assay. These results indicated that the antioxidant activities in vitro of the S-SGP from S. gracilis may be related to combined effects of Mw, monosaccharide composition, and sulfate content. PMID:26893048

  20. An Application of Keystone Perforator Island Flap for Closure of Lumbosacral Myelomeningocele Defects.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Sung; Morrison, Edwin; Lo, Cheng; Leong, James

    2016-09-01

    Myelomeningocele, also known as spina bifida, is the commonest form of neural tube defect in which both meninges and spinal cord herniate through a large vertebral defect. It may be located at any spinal level; however; lumbosacral involvement is most common. After birth, the closure of spinal lesion is preferably undertaken in the first 48 hours to minimize the risk of injury and central nervous system infection. Relatively small skin defects overlying the dural repair may be directly closed. However, larger defects require reconstructive closure. Numerous methods of reconstruction have been described, such as split skin graft, local flaps or lumbosacral fasciocutaneous flaps, muscle flaps using latissimus dorsi, gluteal or paraspinous muscles, and perforator flaps namely superior gluteal artery perforators, and dorsal intercostal artery perforator flaps. At Monash Health, Victoria, we have used the keystone perforator island flaps to reconstruct lumbosacral myelomeningocele defects on 5 newborns between January 2008 and January 2014. This article evaluates the short-term and long-term outcomes of these patients who were followed up for 10 to 66 months. PMID:26418773

  1. Sustained benefit of temporary limited reperfusion in skeletal muscle following ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.; Cambria, R.; Kerr, J.; Hobson, R.W. 2d. )

    1990-09-01

    Limiting the rate of reperfusion blood flow following prolonged ischemia in skeletal muscle has been shown beneficial. However, the persistence of this benefit with reinstitution of normal blood flow remains undefined. We investigated the role of temporary limited reperfusion on ischemia-reperfusion injury in an isolated gracilis muscle model in six anesthetized dogs. Both gracilis muscles were subjected to 6 hr of ischemia followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. Reperfusion blood flow was limited for the first hour in one gracilis muscle to its preischemic rate followed by a second hour of normal reperfusion (LR/NR). The contralateral muscle underwent 2 hr of normal reperfusion (NR/NR). Muscle injury was quantified by technetium-99m pyrophosphate (TcPyp) uptake and by histochemical staining using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) with planimetry of the infarct size. Capillary permeability was evaluated by muscle weight gain. Results are reported as the mean +/- SEM. These data demonstrate a sustained benefit from temporary limited reperfusion. This methodology should be considered in the surgical management of the acutely ischemic limb.

  2. Chimeric Superficial Circumflex Iliac Perforator Flap Including External Oblique Fascia: A Refinement of Conventional Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Garrido, Manuel; Vega Garcia, Carmen; Pons Playa, Gemma; Masiá Ayala, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The superficial circumflex iliac perforator (SCIP) flap is one of the most suitable flaps to cover distal extremity defects due to its lack of bulkiness and donor site concealment. However, it is less popular than other perforator flaps due to its anatomical variations, short pedicle length, and small caliber vessels. We describe a novel design for the SCIP flap, consisting of a chimeric flap with a piece of the external oblique muscle fascia. The purpose of this design is to cover and protect the vascular anastomosis in distal lower limb defects where recipient vessels are superficial and skin coverage is poor. In addition, lengthening the pedicle with this design makes the flap more versatile. The addition of a cuff of fascia in harvesting of the SCIP flap lengthens the pedicle, allowing easier insetting of the skin paddle and providing complete protection and coverage of the vessels. This procedure allows greater versatility in inset of the skin paddle and is particularly suitable in cases where recipient vessels are superficial or when skin coverage is poor. PMID:27482505

  3. Flap monitoring using infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Alex; Wright, Leigh P.; Elmandjra, Mohamed; Mao, Jian-min

    2006-02-01

    We report results of clinical trials on flap monitoring in 65 plastic surgeries. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation of flap tissue (StO II) was monitored non-invasively by using ODISsey TM tissue oximeter, an infrared spectroscopic device. StO II measurements were conducted both intra-operatively and post-operatively. From the intra-operative measurements, we observed that StO II values dropped when the main blood vessels supplying the flap were clamped in surgery, and that StO II jumped after anastomosis to a value close to its pre-operative value. From post-operative monitoring measurements for the 65 flap cases, each lasted two days or so, we found that the StO II values approach to a level close to the baseline if the surgery was successful, and that the StO II value dropped to a value below 30% if there is a perfusion compromise, such as vascular thrombosis.

  4. Tadalafil significantly reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in skin island flaps

    PubMed Central

    Kayiran, Oguz; Cuzdan, Suat S.; Uysal, Afsin; Kocer, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous pharmacological agents have been used to enhance the viability of flaps. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unwanted, sometimes devastating complication in reconstructive microsurgery. Tadalafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 is mainly used for erectile dysfunction, and acts on vascular smooth muscles, platelets and leukocytes. Herein, the protective and therapeutical effect of tadalafil in I/R injury in rat skin flap model is evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sixty epigastric island flaps were used to create I/R model in 60 Wistar rats (non-ischemic group, ischemic group, medication group). Biochemical markers including total nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were analysed. Necrosis rates were calculated and histopathologic evaluation was carried out. Results: MDA, MPO and total nitrite values were found elevated in the ischemic group, however there was an evident drop in the medication group. Histological results revealed that early inflammatory findings (oedema, neutrophil infiltration, necrosis rate) were observed lower with tadalafil administration. Moreover, statistical significance (P < 0.05) was recorded. Conclusions: We conclude that tadalafil has beneficial effects on epigastric island flaps against I/R injury. PMID:23960309

  5. Serratus anterior-rib composite flap: anatomic studies and clinical application to hand reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hui, K C; Zhang, F; Lineaweaver, W C; Moon, W; Buncke, G M; Buncke, H J

    1999-02-01

    Because of its relative ease of dissection, increased length of the vascular pedicle, and excellent diameter for anastomosis, the serratus anterior-rib composite flap has been used to reconstruct bony and soft-tissue defects in the face and lower extremities. However, no data are available on optimal rib level or harvest location. The authors report the results of the vascular anatomy of this flap in 6 fresh cadavers and 2 clinical patients using this flap to reconstruct a defect in the hand. Arteriograms were performed through the thoracodorsal artery, and microscopic dissections were done at the rib periosteum. The sixth through the ninth ribs showed consistent filling of their respective intercostal vessels. The rib segments near the anterior axillary line had the most abundant communicating vessels between the serratus and the periosteum. In two patients, the serratus-rib composite free flap provided excellent bone and muscle length for reconstructing the first metacarpal defect. PMID:10029475

  6. Autologous reconstruction of a complex form of Poland syndrome using 2 abdominal perforator free flaps.

    PubMed

    Masia, Jaume; Pons, Gemma; Loschi, Pietro; Sanchez Porro-Gil, Lidia; Nardulli, Maria Luisa; Olivares, Leyre

    2015-05-01

    Poland syndrome is the most frequent cause of congenital breast aplasia and hypoplasia. Breast and possible chest wall deformities can be treated with several surgical techniques, including implants, and pedicled or free flaps.We describe the case of a young patient with severe Poland syndrome with amastia, athelia, and deformity of the chest wall, and aplasia of 2 ribs. Marked hypoplasia of the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle ruled out a reliable reconstructive option.Two perforator flaps were performed in a single-stage operation. A hemi-deep inferior epigastric perforator flap was harvested to correct the chest deformity, whereas the contralateral superficial inferior epigastric artery flap allowed breast reconstruction.No complications occurred and a subjectively and objectively pleasing cosmetic result was maintained at 3-year follow-up. PMID:24322640

  7. Full scale upper surface blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.; Jones, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A highly noise suppressed TF 34 engine was used to investigate the noise of several powered lift configurations involving upper surface blown (USB) flaps. The configuration variables were nozzle type (i.e. slot and circular with deflector), flap chord length, and flap angle. The results of velocity surveys at both the nozzle exit and the flap trailing edge are also presented and used for correlation of the noise data. Configurations using a long flap design were 4 db quieter than a short flap typical of current trends in USB flap design. The lower noise for the long flap is attributed primarily to the greater velocity decay of the jet at the flap trailing edge. The full-scale data revealed substantially more quadrupole noise in the region near the deflected jet than observed in previous sub-scale tests.

  8. Modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flaps transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Song, Dajiang; Li, Jinsong; Xu, Jian; Lv, Hongbin

    2015-04-01

    The paper aims to improve the operative technique of osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap harvesting, further minimise morbidity of donor site, and improve the effect of recipient site reconstruction. From March 2005 to March 2011, 55 cases of osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap harvested by different methods were performed to reconstruct the defects of the extremities. Twenty-nine cases were reconstructed with a traditional deep circumflex iliac artery osteomusculocutaneous flap. Twenty-six cases were repaired with modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flaps. In 29 cases with a traditional DCIA osteomusculocutaneous flap, two cases showed the injured lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Flapnecrosis was significant in two cases. Arterial compromise occurred in one case 5 days after operation completion and led to flap failure. Three flaps developed postoperative venous congestion, but only one flap received re-exploration. In the other two cases, some stitches were removed for decompression. All three flaps survived. In two cases, marginal flap necrosis occurred, but no secondary skin grafting was required. In 26 cases with modified flap transplantation, one case showed the injured lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. All flaps survived totally. Osseous integration was achieved in all 55 cases in 3 ∼ 9 months after operation. The modified osteomyocutaneous iliac crest flap technique enhances flap safety, provides the additional advantages of reducing donor-site morbidity, and improves the recipient-site contour. PMID:25001367

  9. Breast reconstruction with a turbocharged transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap on the contralateral perforator.

    PubMed

    Sbalchiero, Juliano Carlos; de Albuquerque Leal, Paulo Roberto; dos Santos, César Cabello

    2014-11-01

    Seventeen patients were submitted to delayed unilateral breast reconstruction using pedicled, muscle-sparing turbocharged transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap based on the contralateral perforator vessels. The lateral portion of the rectus abdominis muscle on the pedicled side was preserved in 12 patients. Zones II and IV were included in the flap in all cases. Mean duration of surgery was 7 hours and 15 minutes. Four complications developed in the abdominal donor site: contralateral abdominal bulging (n=1), minor suture dehiscence (n=2), and epidermolysis at the border of the abdominal flap and umbilical scar (n=1). Three partial losses (10%-30%) occurred in the reconstructed breast (17.64% of cases), whereas 2 cases of fat necrosis were associated with partial losses. One patient developed deep vein thrombosis with pulmonary embolism; however, outcome was favorable. This proved a viable alternative for breast reconstruction, with satisfactory results in most patients and acceptable morbidity and surgical time. PMID:24625511

  10. Experience in Reconstruction for Small Digital Defects With Free Flaps.

    PubMed

    Hung, Min-Hsiang; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Chao, Wai-Nang

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the digits resulting in soft tissue or bone loss require reconstruction. Traditionally, local flaps, such as homodigital flaps, heterodigital flaps, pedicled flaps, or distant flaps, are used for digital resurfacing. However, free tissue transfers can be used in selected patients. In this study, we present the use of different free flaps including groin skin flaps, groin osteocutaneous flaps, groin chimeric flaps, second dorsal metacarpal artery flaps, and partial toe flaps for digital reconstruction. A total of 19 digits were treated with 16 free flaps in our hospital. Of the flaps used, 5 were free groin skin flaps, 4 were free partial toe flaps, 3 were free groin chimeric flaps, 2 were free groin osteocutaneous flaps, and 2 were free second dorsal metacarpal artery flaps. The average flap size was 4.7 × 2.0 cm (range, 1.5 × 1 to 5 × 4 cm), and the average operative time was 6.0 hours (range, 4-9 hours). All flaps survived without partial or total necrosis. In conclusion, the free flap is a reliable and safe alternative for digital reconstruction. Moreover, the free groin flap provides not only a chimeric pattern for multiple fingers coverage but also an osteocutaneous pattern for thumb lengthening. The free second dorsal metacarpal artery flap provides a tenocutaneous pattern for tendon reconstruction and soft tissue coverage simultaneously, and the free partial toe flap is an excellent alternative for pulp reconstruction in terms of aesthetic appearance and functional outcome. PMID:26808771

  11. Perfusion in free breast reconstruction flap zones assessed with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Schrey, Aleksi; Kinnunen, Ilpo; Kalliokoski, Kari; Minn, Heikki; Grénman, Reidar; Vahlberg, Tero; Niemi, Tarja; Suominen, Erkki; Aitasalo, Kalle

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine the postoperative blood perfusion (BF(PET)) and perfusion heterogeneity (BF(PET) HG) in free microvascular breast reconstruction flap zones with positron emission tomography (PET). Regional BF(PET) and BF(PET) HG of the adipose tissue in medial, central, and lateral parts of 13 free flaps were assessed on the first postoperative morning with PET using oxygen-15-labeled water ([(15)O]H(2)O) in 12 patients undergoing breast reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) or a transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap. The mean BF(PET) values did not differ between DIEP and TRAM flaps (P = 0.791). The mean BF(PET) values were higher in zone III compared with zone I (P = 0.024). During follow-up, fat necrosis was identified in three patients in the medial part (zone II) of the flap. However, the adipose tissue BF(PET) assessed on the first postoperative day from all zones of the flap using PET with radiowater was normal. The BF(PET) HG was higher in the control side (i.e., in the healthy breast tissue) compared with the flap (P = 0.042). The BF(PET) HG was lower in zone III than in zone I (P = 0.03) and in zone II (P < 0.001). In this pilot study, PET was used for the first time for studying the adipose tissue perfusion in different zones in free flaps in a clinical setup, finding that the mean BF(PET) values did not differ between DIEP and TRAM flaps, and that zone II was sometimes not as well perfused as zone III supporting revisited zone division. PMID:20878725

  12. Treatment of degloving injury involving multiple fingers with combined abdominal superficial fascial flap, dorsalis pedis flap, dorsal toe flap, and toe-web flap

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fengshan; Wang, Guangnan; Li, Gaoshan; Ping, Juan; Mao, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to summarize the treatment of degloving injury involving multiple fingers using combined abdominal superficial fascial flap, dorsalis pedis flap, dorsal toe flap, and toe-web flap. Patients and methods Each degloved finger was debrided under microscopic guidance and embedded in the superficial layer of the abdominal fascia. The abdominal skin was sutured to the skin on the back and side of the hand to promote circumferential healing. After removal, the only remaining injured region was on the flexor surface, and this was repaired by multiple dorsal toe flaps, toe-web flaps, and dorsalis pedis flaps to provide blood vessels and sensory nerves. All fingers had proper flap thickness 3–6 months after surgery, and required only lateral Z-plasty modification with web deepening and widening to narrow the fingers and extend their relative length. Results We completed flap-graft and finger narrowing for 25 fingers in eight patients. Abdominal skin flaps and dorsal toe flaps were grafted, and resulted in both firmness and softness, providing finger flexibility. The dorsal toe flap provided good blood circulation and sensory nerves, and was used to cover the finger-flexor surface to regain sensation and stability when holding objects. During the 1–8 years of follow-up, sensation on the finger-flexor side recovered to the S3–4 level, and patient satisfaction based on the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was 4–5. Flap ulcers or bone/tendon necrosis were not observed. Conclusion Treatment of degloving injury involving multiple fingers with combined abdominal superficial fascial flap, dorsalis pedis flap, dorsal toe flap, and toe-web flap was effective and reliable. PMID:26229479

  13. Phenological bud bank development of Bouteloua gracilis, Hesperostipa comata, and Pascopyrum smithii during drought in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative reproduction in rangelands relies on tiller recruitment from belowground bud banks. Improved understanding of species-specific bud production and phenology would facilitate timing of aboveground management strategies. Twelve individual plants of the warm season grass (Bouteloua gracilis...

  14. PIV Measurements on a Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several blowing flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main-element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the vortex system or accelerated the merging of the side vortex to the flap top surface. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  15. The deep circumflex iliac artery perforator flap (DCIAP)--a reconstructive option for the large composite oro-mandibular cutaneous defect.

    PubMed

    Bisase, Brian; Sloane, James; Coombes, Darryl M; Norris, Paul M

    2013-12-01

    The deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap is often used for mandibular reconstruction but it is bulky and causes additional donor-site morbidity because of the inclusion of an "obligatory internal oblique muscle". Large composite segmental mandibular resections that consist of floor of mouth, subtotal tongue, and adjacent facial skin are a challenge in terms of reconstruction. They often require 2 free flaps or a free scapular flap and both have disadvantages. The deep circumflex iliac artery perforator (DCIAP) flap with a cutaneous component overcomes the disadvantages. We describe reconstructions with DCIAP flaps in 3 patients with large mandibular composite segmental defects. We report our experience of the flap and discuss some of the difficulties we encountered and the points we learned perioperatively. PMID:23891263

  16. Experimental Study of Wake / Flap Interaction Noise and the Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.

  17. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  18. Protein degradation in Euglena gracilis: Purification and characterization of the major proteinase

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Y.J.

    1988-01-01

    Protolysis in a crude extract of Euglena gracilis was characterized by autolysis and the hydrolysis of {sup 125}I-labeled bovine serum albumin ({sup 125}I-BSA). Both procedures showed similar properties: stimulation by dithiothreitol, inhibition by leupeptin, and the same pH optima. Hydrolysis of {sup 125}I-BSA increased with growth stage and with the depletion of nutrient in the medium. The major proteolytic enzyme was purified to near homogeneity from extracts of dark-grown, stationary-phase Euglena gracilis by acid treatment, and by chromatography on CM-cellulose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxyapatite using {sup 125}I-BSA as substrate. The molecular weight of the proteinase was 30,000 when determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and 15,000 when estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme therefore appears to be composed of two subunits.

  19. Cadmium-induced synthesis of HSP70 and a role of glutathione in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masumi; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2004-01-01

    The effect of cadmium-induced oxidative stress, with or without glutathione supplementation, was investigated in the single cell eukaryotic phytoflagellate, Euglena gracilis strains Z and its achlorophyllous mutant SMZ as experimental models. Both these strains actively synthesize thiols to prevent or resist cadmium toxicity. The content of glutathione, as a representative antioxidant, was also examined in both strains. Exposure to cadmium induced heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) synthesis in both strains of E. gracilis. Glutathione supplementation also induced HSP70. Overall, these results indicate that glutathione was closely linked to the induction of stress-related proteins. The sensitivity to cadmium-stress was higher in strain Z than SMZ. The results suggest that chloroplasts may have a role in the regulation of HSP70 expression. The relationship between HSP70 and GSH levels is still far from understood, and further research may shed light upon their up-regulation in the presence of Cd. PMID:15720831

  20. Bacterial communities in the gut of the freshwater copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Homonnay, Zalán G; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika M

    2012-02-01

    Eudiaptomus gracilis is the most abundant member of the zooplankton, plays a key role in the food web of Lake Balaton (Hungary). In the present study the composition of bacterial communities of this copepod was investigated based on cultivation and molecular cloning. The cultivated bacterial strains from the gut homogenate samples of Eudiaptomus gracilis belonged to four different clades: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Proteobacteria. Clone library showed high species diversity, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus lineage and Cyanobacteria were detected. The isolated strains were very effective in degradation of different biopolymers. Many of the detected bacteria are known as opportunistic human or fish pathogens (Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Chryseobacterium sp. and Staphylococcus sp.). PMID:21780147

  1. New model of flap-gliding flight.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2015-07-21

    A new modelling approach is presented for describing flap-gliding flight in birds and the associated mechanical energy cost of travelling. The new approach is based on the difference in the drag characteristics between flapping and non-flapping due to the drag increase caused by flapping. Thus, the possibility of a gliding flight phase, as it exists in flap-gliding flight, yields a performance advantage resulting from the decrease in the drag when compared with continuous flapping flight. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization for the mathematical relations describing flap-gliding flight, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that there is an energy saving of flap-gliding flight in the entire speed range compared to continuous flapping flight. The energy saving reaches the highest level in the lower speed region. The travelling speed of flap-gliding flight is composed of the weighted average of the differing speeds in the flapping and gliding phases. Furthermore, the maximum range performance achievable with flap-gliding flight and the associated optimal travelling speed are determined. PMID:25841702

  2. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flap interconnection. 23.701 Section 23.701... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection. (a) The main wing flaps and related movable surfaces as a...

  3. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flap interconnection. 23.701 Section 23.701... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection. (a) The main wing flaps and related movable surfaces as a...

  4. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flap interconnection. 23.701 Section 23.701... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection. (a) The main wing flaps and related movable surfaces as a...

  5. The bilobed flap for popliteal defect reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kelahmetoglu, Osman; Yagmur, Caglayan; Aslan, Ozan; Firinciogullari, Remzi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bilobed flaps were first introduced to close small nasal defects. We reconstructed a defect of the popliteal fossa using a random-pattern bilobed flap. We recommend the use of random-pattern bilobed flaps as a reliable technique for covering defects of the popliteal fossa.

  6. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  7. Assessing benzene-induced toxicity on wild type Euglena gracilis Z and its mutant strain SMZ.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Arthur, Dionne M; Sichani, Homa Teimouri; Xia, Qing; Ng, Jack C

    2013-11-01

    Benzene is a representative member of volatile organic compounds and has been widely used as an industrial solvent. Groundwater contamination of benzene may pose risks to human health and ecosystems. Detection of benzene in the groundwater using chemical analysis is expensive and time consuming. In addition, biological responses to environmental exposures are uninformative using such analysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to employ a microorganism, Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) as a putative model to monitor the contamination of benzene in groundwater. To this end, we examined the wild type of E. gracilis Z and its mutant form, SMZ in their growth rate, morphology, chlorophyll content, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in response to benzene exposure. The results showed that benzene inhibited cell growth in a dose response manner up to 48 h of exposure. SMZ showed a greater sensitivity compared to Z in response to benzene exposure. The difference was more evident at lower concentrations of benzene (0.005-5 μM) where growth inhibition occurred in SMZ but not in Z cells. We found that benzene induced morphological changes, formation of lipofuscin, and decreased chlorophyll content in Z strain in a dose response manner. No significant differences were found between the two strains in ROS formation and DNA damage by benzene at concentrations affecting cell growth. Based on these results, we conclude that E. gracilis cells were sensitive to benzene-induced toxicities for certain endpoints such as cell growth rate, morphological change, depletion of chlorophyll. Therefore, it is a potentially suitable model for monitoring the contamination of benzene and its effects in the groundwater. PMID:24034892

  8. Kalanchosides A-C, new cytotoxic bufadienolides from the aerial parts of Kalanchoe gracilis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Yu-Lin; Wu, Tian-Shung; Bastow, K F; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2006-11-01

    [Structure: see text] Three new compounds, kalanchosides A-C (1-3), as well as five known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Kalanchoe gracilis. The compound structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. All eight isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines, with potency reaching the nanomolar range. However, only bryophyllin B (8) inhibited HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte cells. PMID:17078679

  9. The Genome of Nitrospina gracilis Illuminates the Metabolism and Evolution of the Major Marine Nitrite Oxidizer

    PubMed Central

    Lücker, Sebastian; Nowka, Boris; Rattei, Thomas; Spieck, Eva; Daims, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In marine systems, nitrate is the major reservoir of inorganic fixed nitrogen. The only known biological nitrate-forming reaction is nitrite oxidation, but despite its importance, our knowledge of the organisms catalyzing this key process in the marine N-cycle is very limited. The most frequently encountered marine NOB are related to Nitrospina gracilis, an aerobic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium isolated from ocean surface waters. To date, limited physiological and genomic data for this organism were available and its phylogenetic affiliation was uncertain. In this study, the draft genome sequence of N. gracilis strain 3/211 was obtained. Unexpectedly for an aerobic organism, N. gracilis lacks classical reactive oxygen defense mechanisms and uses the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle for carbon fixation. These features indicate microaerophilic ancestry and are consistent with the presence of Nitrospina in marine oxygen minimum zones. Fixed carbon is stored intracellularly as glycogen, but genes for utilizing external organic carbon sources were not identified. N. gracilis also contains a full gene set for oxidative phosphorylation with oxygen as terminal electron acceptor and for reverse electron transport from nitrite to NADH. A novel variation of complex I may catalyze the required reverse electron flow to low-potential ferredoxin. Interestingly, comparative genomics indicated a strong evolutionary link between Nitrospina, the nitrite-oxidizing genus Nitrospira, and anaerobic ammonium oxidizers, apparently including the horizontal transfer of a periplasmically oriented nitrite oxidoreductase and other key genes for nitrite oxidation at an early evolutionary stage. Further, detailed phylogenetic analyses using concatenated marker genes provided evidence that Nitrospina forms a novel bacterial phylum, for which we propose the name Nitrospinae. PMID:23439773

  10. Isolation and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of the Chemical Constituents from Cephalantheropsis gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Fen; Hsu, Yu-Lin; Lee, Chao-Ying; Wu, Chia-Hua; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chuang, Ta-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Cephalantheropsis gracilis afforded five new compounds: cephalanthrin-A (1), cephalanthrin-B (2), cephathrene-A (3), cephathrene-B (4), methyl 2-(aminocarbonyl)phenylcarbamate (5), and 52 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Among the compounds isolated, tryptanthrin (6), phaitanthrin A (7), cephalinone D (19), and flavanthrin (30) showed significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 cell lines. PMID:25686035

  11. Macrocnemis gracilis, a new genus and species of Idiocnemidinae (Zygoptera: Platycnemididae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Theischinger, G; Gassmann, D; Richards, S J

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species belonging to the damselfly subfamily Idiocnemidinae from Papua New Guinea, Macrocnemis gracilis gen. nov. sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the largest known member of the Papuan idiocnemidine radiation, and its affinities to existing genera remain unclear. The new taxon is currently known with certainty only from small streams flowing through mid-montane rainforest in the Hindenburg Range of Papua New Guinea's rugged central cordillera. PMID:26250243

  12. Muscle MRI findings in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Anna; Deschauer, Marcus; Carlier, Robert-Yves; Schrank, Bertold; Seeger, Jürgen; Walter, Maggie C; Schoser, Benedikt; Reilich, Peter; Leturq, France; Radunovic, Aleksandar; Behin, Anthony; Laforet, Pascal; Eymard, Bruno; Schreiber, Herbert; Hicks, Debbie; Vaidya, Sujit S; Gläser, Dieter; Carlier, Pierre G; Bushby, Kate; Lochmüller, Hanns; Straub, Volker

    2012-10-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L) is an adult-onset slowly progressive muscular dystrophy associated with recessive mutations in the ANO5 gene. We analysed the muscle MRI pattern in a cohort of 25 LGMD2L patients in order to understand the extent and progression of muscle pathology in LGM2L and assess if muscle MRI might help in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. Our results showed a homogeneous pattern of muscle pathology on muscle MRI, with a predominant involvement of the posterior compartment muscles in both the thighs and calves. The muscles of the anterior compartments in the leg together with the sartorius and gracilis muscles were best preserved, which partially overlaps with patterns observed for other recessive LGMDs. Muscle MRI therefore does not appear to be as useful in the diagnostic work up of LGMD2L as for other neuromuscular diseases, such as Bethlem myopathy or myofibrillar myopathy. PMID:22980763

  13. Identification and characterization of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takahisa; Kimura, Ayako; Sakuyama, Harumi; Tamoi, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Euglena gracilis has the ability to accumulate a storage polysaccharide, a β-1,3-glucan known as paramylon, under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, E. gracilis cells degrade paramylon and synthesize wax esters. Cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) appears to be a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis and position branch point of carbon partitioning between paramylon and wax ester biosynthesis. We herein identified and characterized cytosolic FBPase from E. gracilis. The Km and Vmax values of EgFBPaseIII were 16.5 ± 1.6 μM and 30.4 ± 7.2 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. The activity of EgFBPaseIII was not regulated by AMP or reversible redox modulation. No significant differences were observed in the production of paramylon in transiently suppressed EgFBPaseIII gene expression cells by RNAi (KD-EgFBPaseIII); nevertheless, FBPase activity was markedly decreased in KD-EgFBPaseIII cells. On the other hand, the growth of KD-EgFBPaseIII cells was slightly higher than that of control cells. PMID:26214137

  14. Trophic transfer of gold nanoparticles from Euglena gracilis or Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Yoon, Sung-Ji; Shin, Yu-Jin; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the trophic transfer of nanoparticles (NPs) is important because NPs are small enough to easily penetrate into organisms. In this study, we evaluated the trophic transfer of gold NPs (AuNPs) within the aquatic food chain. We observed AuNPs transfer from 2 species of primary producers (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or Euglena gracilis) to the primary consumer (Daphnia magna). Also, bioaccumulation of AuNPs in E. gracilis was higher than that in C. reinhardtii. The reasons for the difference in Au accumulation may be the physical structure of these organisms, and the surface area that is available for interaction with NPs. C. reinhardtii has a cell wall that may act as a barrier to the penetration of NPs. The size of E. gracilis is larger than that of C. reinhardtii. This study demonstrates the trophic transfer of AuNPs from a general producer to a consumer in an aquatic environment. PMID:25756227

  15. Intraoral anastomosis of a prelaminated radial forearm flap in reconstruction of a large persistent cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Landes, Constantin; Cornea, Petruta; Teiler, Anna; Ballon, Alexander; Sader, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In this report, we present a case of a prelaminated radial forearm flap in reconstruction of a large persistent cleft palate with transoral single arterial and three venous anastomoses. A 17-years-old female patient presented a large cleft palate defect and complete dentition, dysmelia of both arms and bilateral thumb aplasia. A radial flap was prelaminated using oral mucosa 5 days prior to transplantation. Five days after flap prelamination, the facial artery and vein, submandibular vein, and a venous branch to the masseter muscle behind the buccinator muscle fibers were exposed through an intraoral incision lateral to the inferior right mucogingival junction. The radial artery, its bilateral accompanying veins, and the cephalic vein of transplanted flap were anastomosed transorally to the facial vessels, submandibular vein, and masseter branch. The vessel pedicle ran through the palatoglossal arch dorsal to the second upper molar. Good flow and flap perfusion were evinced, and further-on successful healing was achieved. The case encourages similar treatment in comparable situations avoiding facial nerve hazard and extraoral scars. PMID:24174205

  16. Selection of ideal perforators and the use of a free-style free flap during dissection of an anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction in the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chang-Cheng; Shen, Jen-Hsiang; Chan, Karen Kar-Wun; Wei, Fu-Chan

    2016-09-01

    The technique of raising an anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap has been revolutionised by free-style retrograde intramuscular dissection of perforators to overcome anatomical variations, but choosing the appropriate perforator is still the key to success. We have shown this in a 41-year-old man with cancer of the buccal mucosa treated by wide excision and reconstruction with an ALT free flap that failed because of formation of microthrombi within the perforator. We identified only one tiny perforator that followed an 8cm, tortuous course within the vastus lateralis muscle. A long, narrow lumen in the perforator increases resistance proportionally to the length and four times the radius. Difficult dissection of the root makes the vessels prone to spasm. If no sizeable perforator is found, adjacent tissues on the medial or proximal thigh could be raised as alternative free-style flaps. PMID:27086511

  17. Modified Facial Artery Musculomucosal Flap for Reconstruction of Posterior Skull Base Defects

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liyue; Lavigne, Philippe; Lavigne, François; Ayad, Tareck

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The superiorly pedicled facial artery musculomucosal (FAMM) flap has been successfully used for reconstruction of head and neck defects since 1992. Common sites of defects include the oral cavity and oropharynx. This article presents a clinical case in which we have successfully used a newly developed modification of the FAMM flap for bulky nasopharyngeal and skull base reconstruction. Results Our patient is a 71-year-old man who presented with a large parapharyngeal and clival chordoma. After tumor removal through combined endoscopic and cervical approach, the internal carotid artery (ICA) in the nasopharyngeal portion was left exposed. A modified superiorly based FAMM flap measuring up to 10 cm in length and 2.5 cm in width was successfully harvested and used to completely cover the defect and the ICA. The flap survived local radiation therapy at the long-term follow-up. Conclusion We have developed a new modification of the FAMM flap, using the fascia of the masseter muscle. This is the first reported case in the literature using a modified FAMM flap for the reconstruction of nasopharyngeal and skull base defect. PMID:27330928

  18. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore. PMID:26495200

  19. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore. PMID:26495200

  20. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  1. Four-flap Breast Reconstruction: Bilateral Stacked DIEP and PAP Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, James L.; Allen, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction when the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap alone does not provide sufficient volume for body-specific reconstruction, stacking each DIEP flap with a second free flap will deliver added volume and maintain a purely autologous reconstruction. Stacking the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap with the DIEP flap offers favorable aesthetics and ideal operative efficiency. We present the indications, technique, and outcomes of our experience with 4-flap breast reconstruction using stacked DIEP/PAP flaps. Methods: The authors performed 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction in 20 patients who required bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. The timing of reconstruction, average mastectomy/flap weights, and operative time are reported. Complications reviewed include fat necrosis, dehiscence, hematoma, seroma, mastectomy flap necrosis, and flap loss. Results: Twenty patients underwent 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction. Surgical time averaged 7 hours and 20 minutes. The primary recipient vessels were the antegrade and retrograde internal mammary vessels. No flap losses occurred. Complications included 1 hematoma, 1 incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis successfully treated with anastomotic revision, 1 incidence of thigh donor site dehiscence, and 3 episodes of minor mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Conclusions: Four-flap breast reconstruction is a favorable autologous reconstructive option for patients requiring bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. Stacking DIEP/PAP flaps as described is both safe and efficient. Furthermore, this combination provides superior aesthetics mirroring the natural geometry of the breast. Bilateral stacked DIEP/PAP flaps represent our first choice for breast reconstruction in this patient population. PMID:26090273

  2. Cost-effectiveness of monitoring free flaps.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Shiva; Sharp, David; Jardim, Christopher; Batstone, Martin D

    2016-06-01

    Methods of free flap monitoring have become more sophisticated and expensive. This study aims to determine the cost of free flap monitoring and examine its cost effectiveness. We examined a group of patients who had had free flaps to the head and neck over a two-year period, and combined these results with costs obtained from business managers and staff. There were 132 free flaps with a success rate of 99%. The cost of monitoring was Aus $193/flap. Clinical monitoring during this time period cost Aus$25 476 and did not lead to the salvage of any free flaps. Cost equivalence is reached between monitoring and not monitoring only at a failure rate of 15.8%. This is to our knowledge the first study to calculate the cost of clinical monitoring of free flaps, and to examine its cost-effectiveness. PMID:27015730

  3. Scrotal reconstruction with modified pudendal thigh flaps.

    PubMed

    Mopuri, Nabil; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; Iwuagwu, Fortune C

    2016-02-01

    Scrotal skin loss can occur following trauma, Fournier's gangrene, post tumour excision, burns, etc. There are many techniques described in the literature including residual scrotal skin mobilization, skin grafts, pedicled and free flaps. The management is complex and challenging shown by the multiplicity of flaps and techniques described in the literature. We used a modified pudendal thigh flap to reconstruct scrotal defects in five patients. This study describes the vascularity of the flap, technique of elevation and the inset of the flap. The elevation and particularly the insetting make it different from other flaps raised on this vascular network for scrotal reconstruction. This pedicled flap is robust, reliable, resilient and produces a neo-scrotum that looks natural in appearance, offers good-quality skin cover and cushion to the testes as well as protective sensation. PMID:26774357

  4. Flap--edge flowfield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, John D.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    1997-11-01

    Recent studies of airframe noise suggest that the wing and flap trailing--edges as well as the flap side--edge are areas of significant noise generation. To identify the fluid dynamic processes associated with these noise sources, we are examining the flow--field around a NACA 63--215 Mod B main element airfoil configured with a half--span Fowler flap. The tests are performed in a low--speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of ~ 6.0×10^5. A hot wire traverse system is used to map the mean velocities and turbulence intensities in the near wake region of the flow. Measurements of the pressure fluctuations along the flap side--edge and in the cove of the airfoil configuration are made with pressure transducers mounted inside the airfoil. The experimental data are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical simulation of a slightly higher Reynolds number flow ( ~ 1.5×10^6) around a geometrically similar airfoil configuration.

  5. Force Generation by Flapping Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Donnelly, M.

    1996-11-01

    Aquatic animals like fish use flapping caudal fins to produce axial and cross-stream forces. During WW2, German scientists had built and tested an underwater vehicle powered by similar flapping foils. We have examined the forces produced by a pair of flapping foils. We have examined the forced produced by a pair of flapping foils attached to the tail end of a small axisymmetric cylinder. The foils operate in-phase (called waving), or in anti-phase (called clapping). In a low-speed water tunnel, we have undertaken time-dependent measurements of axial and cross-stream forces and moments that are exerted by the vortex shedding process over the entire body. Phase-matched LDV measurements of vorticity-velocity vectors, as well as limited flow visualization of the periodic vortex shedding process have also been carried out. The direction of the induced velocity within a pair of shed vortices determines the nature of the forces produced, viz., thrust or drag or cross-stream forces. The clapping mode produces a widely dispersed symmetric array of vortices which results in axial forces only (thrust and rag). On the other hand, the vortex array is staggered in the waving mode and cross-stream (maneuvering) forces are then generated.

  6. Medial sural artery perforator free flap: legitimate use as a solution for the ipsilateral distal lower extremity defect.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2014-03-01

    The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap captures the cutaneous territory of the medial calf, and can potentially be advantageous as a thin free flap, even in the most obese individual, for coverage of most foot and/or ankle defects where bulk is a liability. The anatomy is fairly constant, as usually at least one reasonably large perforator can always be found emanating from the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. As a microsurgical tissue transfer, a long vascular pedicle of large caliber is routinely possible which facilitates any requisite microanastomoses.Over the past decade from our free flap registry, 14 patients with distal lower extremity wounds were covered specifically with a perforator flap based on the ipsilateral medial sural artery; out of which only 2 (14%) were females.In this series using a MSAP free flap, there was only one failure requiring salvage by a different free flap. All but one case was a sequel of trauma, and these involved all zones of the foot and ankle. A skin graft of the donor site was necessary in 5/14 (36%) patients. In no cases did the flap subsequently impede the use of shoes nor hinder ambulation.The study concluded the major disadvantage of the MSAP flap is the nonaesthetic scar left at the donor site which can be quite conspicuous, especially if a skin graft had to be used. Yet even this detriment can be acceptable for ipsilateral distal lower extremity defects where reconstruction of the defect itself may be cosmetically unappealing. This may be the best indication for the MSAP flap to be considered first as the free flap of choice. PMID:24114709

  7. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  8. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Baytinger, V. F. Kurochkina, O. S. Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-17

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  9. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  10. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  11. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  12. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  13. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All

  14. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Cynoglossus gracilis and a comparative analysis with other Cynoglossinae fishes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Liu, Yang; Guo, Hua; Zhao, Fazhen; Chen, Songlin

    2016-10-15

    Mitochondrial genomes can provide basic information for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary studies. We present here the mitochondrial genome of Cynoglossus gracilis, which is 16,565bp in length. Numerous distinct regions were identified, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, a light-strand replication origin, and a control region. Interestingly, we detected rearrangement of genes in C. gracilis, including a control region translocation, tRNA(Gln) gene inversion, and tRNA(Ile) gene shuffling. Additionally, a phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of the 13 PCGs using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods reveals that C. gracilis is closely related to Cynoglossus semilaevis. This study provides important mitogenomic data for analyzing phylogenetic relationships in the Cynoglossinae. PMID:27312953

  15. High-throughput label-free image cytometry and image-based classification of live Euglena gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Ugawa, Masashi; Nozawa, Taisuke; Iwata, Osamu; Maki, Masanori; Okada, Genki; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Sun, Xinlei; Tiamsak, Pimsiri; Tsumura, Norimichi; Suzuki, Kengo; Di Carlo, Dino; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate high-throughput label-free single-cell image cytometry and image-based classification of Euglena gracilis (a microalgal species) under different culture conditions. We perform it with our high-throughput optofluidic image cytometer composed of a time-stretch microscope with 780-nm resolution and 75-Hz line rate, and an inertial-focusing microfluidic device. By analyzing a large number of single-cell images from the image cytometer, we identify differences in morphological and intracellular phenotypes between E. gracilis cell groups and statistically classify them under various culture conditions including nitrogen deficiency for lipid induction. Our method holds promise for real-time evaluation of culture techniques for E. gracilis and possibly other microalgae in a non-invasive manner. PMID:27446699

  16. High-throughput label-free image cytometry and image-based classification of live Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Ugawa, Masashi; Nozawa, Taisuke; Iwata, Osamu; Maki, Masanori; Okada, Genki; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Sun, Xinlei; Tiamsak, Pimsiri; Tsumura, Norimichi; Suzuki, Kengo; Di Carlo, Dino; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate high-throughput label-free single-cell image cytometry and image-based classification of Euglena gracilis (a microalgal species) under different culture conditions. We perform it with our high-throughput optofluidic image cytometer composed of a time-stretch microscope with 780-nm resolution and 75-Hz line rate, and an inertial-focusing microfluidic device. By analyzing a large number of single-cell images from the image cytometer, we identify differences in morphological and intracellular phenotypes between E. gracilis cell groups and statistically classify them under various culture conditions including nitrogen deficiency for lipid induction. Our method holds promise for real-time evaluation of culture techniques for E. gracilis and possibly other microalgae in a non-invasive manner. PMID:27446699

  17. Davis flap: the glory still present

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Upper third defects of the ear are too large to be closed primarily without distorting the auricle. Full thickness defects can be reconstructed with local flaps. In this article, Davis flap was used to fill the upper third defects of the ear with some modifications. Patients and methods: Eight patients underwent reconstruction of full thickness auricular defects with Davis flaps from July 2012 to December 2014. The posterior surface of the flap and the raw area of conchal area were covered by full thickness graft taken from posterior surface of ear. Results: All flaps survived. No congestion was noted. The donor sites and skin grafts healed uneventfully. Conclusion: Davis flap is a simple and reproducible tool for reconstruction of upper third of ear. PMID:27274439

  18. Pressure Distribution Over Airfoils with Fowler Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Anderson, Walter B

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests made of a Clark y airfoil with a Clark y Fowler flap and of an NACA 23012 airfoil with NACA Fowler flaps. Some of the tests were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel and others in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section both on the main airfoils and on the flaps for several angles of attack with the flaps located at the maximum-lift settings. A test installation was used in which the model was mounted in the wind tunnel between large end planes so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The data are given in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as plots of calculated coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combinations and for the flaps alone.

  19. Euglena gracilis and Trypanosomatids possess common patterns in predicted mitochondrial targeting presequences.

    PubMed

    Krnáčová, Katarína; Vesteg, Matej; Hampl, Vladimír; Vlček, Čestmír; Horváth, Anton

    2012-10-01

    Euglena gracilis possessing chloroplasts of secondary green algal origin and parasitic trypanosomatids Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major belong to the protist phylum Euglenozoa. Euglenozoa might be among the earliest eukaryotic branches bearing ancestral traits reminiscent of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) or missing features present in other eukaryotes. LECA most likely possessed mitochondria of endosymbiotic α-proteobacterial origin. In this study, we searched for the presence of homologs of mitochondria-targeted proteins from other organisms in the currently available EST dataset of E. gracilis. The common motifs in predicted N-terminal presequences and corresponding homologs from T. brucei, T. cruzi and L. major (if found) were analyzed. Other trypanosomatid mitochondrial protein precursor (e.g., those involved in RNA editing) were also included in the analysis. Mitochondrial presequences of E. gracilis and these trypanosomatids seem to be highly variable in sequence length (5-118 aa), but apparently share statistically significant similarities. In most cases, the common (M/L)RR motif is present at the N-terminus and it is probably responsible for recognition via import apparatus of mitochondrial outer membrane. Interestingly, this motif is present inside the predicted presequence region in some cases. In most presequences, this motif is followed by a hydrophobic region rich in alanine, leucine, and valine. In conclusion, either RR motif or arginine-rich region within hydrophobic aa-s present at the N-terminus of a preprotein can be sufficient signals for mitochondrial import irrespective of presequence length in Euglenozoa. PMID:23064754

  20. 14 CFR 25.701 - Flap and slat interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flaps or slats retracted on one side and extended on the other, the motion of flaps or slats on opposite...) For airplanes with flaps or slats that are not subjected to slipstream conditions, the structure...

  1. 14 CFR 25.701 - Flap and slat interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flaps or slats retracted on one side and extended on the other, the motion of flaps or slats on opposite...) For airplanes with flaps or slats that are not subjected to slipstream conditions, the structure...

  2. 14 CFR 25.701 - Flap and slat interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... flaps or slats retracted on one side and extended on the other, the motion of flaps or slats on opposite...) For airplanes with flaps or slats that are not subjected to slipstream conditions, the structure...

  3. Four Flaps Technique for Neoumbilicoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Taek; Kwon, Chan; Rhee, Seung Chul; Cho, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    The absence or disfigurement of the umbilicus is both cosmetically and psychologically distressing to patients. The goal of aesthetically pleasing umbilical reconstruction is to create a neoumbilicus with sufficient depth and good morphology, with natural-looking superior hooding and minimal scarring. Although many reports have presented techniques for creating new and attractive umbilici, we developed a technique that we term the "four flaps technique" for creating a neoumbilicus in circumstances such as the congenital absence of the umbilicus or the lack of remaining umbilical tissue following the excision of a hypertrophic or scarred umbilicus. This method uses the neighboring tissue by simply elevating four flaps and can yield sufficient depth and an aesthetically pleasing shape with appropriate superior hooding. PMID:26015893

  4. Reproduction of the fish Poeciliopsis gracilis (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) in Coatetelco, a tropical shallow lake in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Márquez, José Luis; Peñia-Mendoza, Bertha; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías H; Sánchez-Herrera, Abby K; Sastré-Baez, Leonardo

    2008-12-01

    A reproductive analysis of 1225 specimens of Poeciliopsis gracilis obtained through monthly samples from Coatetelco, a tropical shallow lake in Central Mexico, was made. There was an evident sexual dimorphism, including a difference in body size at the onset of reproduction. Sex ratio deviated significantly from unity. Monthly variations in gonadosomatic (GSI), hepatosomatic (HSI) indexes and ovarian development stages showed that the spawning season was from July to October, coinciding with the rainy season and phytoplankton biomass increase. The largest sizes were 50 mm for females and 43 mm for males. PMID:19419082

  5. Investigation of metal ion accumulation in Euglena gracilis by fluorescence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H.; Ren, Q. G.; Mi, Y.; Shi, X. F.; Yao, H. Y.; Jin, C. Z.; Huang, Y. Y.; He, W.; Zhang, J.; Liu, B.

    2002-04-01

    Single cell synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe measurements as well as X-ray absorption near edge structure experiments have been done at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility on Euglena Gracilis cells. Concentrations of the metal ions Mn 2+, Nd 3+, Ce 3+ and other trace elements, such as Ca, Fe, Zn, etc. have been measured both by single cell SXRF and bulk PIXE technique. It was found that the content of Ca, Fe and Zn was lower after the uptake of rare earths or Mn by the cells, while the valence states of Mn 2+, Ce 3+ and Nd 3+ were unaltered. The results related to cytochemistry are also discussed.

  6. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P. R.; Liu, Y.; An, Y.; Li, X.; Nasir, A.; Strauch, S. M.; Becker, I.; Krüger, J.; Schuster, M.; Ntefidou, M.; Daiker, V.; Haag, F. W. M.; Aiach, A.; Lebert, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH+4 (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4.

  7. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems.

    PubMed

    Richter, P R; Liu, Y; An, Y; Li, X; Nasir, A; Strauch, S M; Becker, I; Krüger, J; Schuster, M; Ntefidou, M; Daiker, V; Haag, F W M; Aiach, A; Lebert, M

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH4+ (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4. PMID:26177616

  8. Axial pattern skin flaps in cats.

    PubMed

    Remedios, A M; Bauer, M S; Bowen, C V; Fowler, J D

    1991-01-01

    The major direct cutaneous vessels identified in the cat include the omocervical, thoracodorsal, deep circumflex iliac, and caudal superficial epigastric arteries. Axial pattern skin flaps based on the thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric arteries have been developed in cats. Rotation of these flaps as islands allows skin coverage to the carpus and metatarsus, respectively. The thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric flaps provide a practical, one-step option in the reconstruction of large skin defects involving the distal extremities of cats. PMID:2011063

  9. Craniotomy flap osteomyelitis: a diagnostic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenkopf, B.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Bauman, J.M.; Cawthon, M.A.; Patton, J.A.; Friedman, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Nine cases of suspected craniotomy flap osteomyelitis evaluated by combined bone and gallium scanning are presented. In six cases, the clinical data were inconclusive and evaluation by radionuclide imaging provided an accurate negative diagnosis. The other three cases considered positive by this technique were proven infected at subsequent exploration and flap removal. The use of radionuclide bone and gallium imaging should be considered in cases of possible craniotomy flap osteomyelitis.

  10. Wing flapping with minimum energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    A technique employed by Prandtl and Munk is adapted for the case of a wing in flapping motion to determine its lift distribution. The problem may be reduced to one of minimizing induced drag for a specified and periodically varying bending moment at the wing root. It is concluded that two wings in close tandem arrangement, moving in opposite phase, would eliminate the induced aerodynamic losses calculated

  11. Muscle CT scan findings in McLeod syndrome and chorea-acanthocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S; Tachibana, N; Tabata, K I; Fujimori, N; Hayashi, R I; Takahashi, J; Ikeda, S I; Hanyu, N

    2000-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans of lower leg muscles reveal a selective pattern of fat infiltration in the posterior compartment with spared gracilis, semitendinosus, and the lateral head of the gastrocnemius in both McLeod syndrome and chorea-acanthocytosis, which are disorders characterized by the presence of circulating acanthocytes. The selectivity of affected muscles indicates that late onset and slowly progressive muscular atrophy in both diseases could be a consequence of primary myopathy. Asymmetrical muscle involvement may be seen during the process of degeneration only in McLeod syndrome, however, and may be helpful in distinguishing this disease from chorea-acanthocytosis. PMID:10883007

  12. A water tunnel study of Gurney flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Several Gurney flap configurations were tested in the NASA Langley 16 x 24 inch Water Tunnel. These devices provided an increased region of attached flow on a wing upper surface relative to the wing without the flaps. The recirculation region behind the flap was visualized and shown to be consistent with hypotheses stated in previous research. Although the test Reynolds number for this study was several orders of magnitude below those in previous investigations, the effect of the Gurney flaps is in qualitative agreement with them. This is as would be expected from first order effects for high lift devices.

  13. An investigation of the flap edge flowfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, John David

    To identify and understand the fluid dynamic processes associated with flow in the region of a flap side edge, a NACA 63-215 Mod B main element with a half-span Fowler flap was tested in the JIAA Low Speed Wind Tunnel at Stanford University. Measurements were made using a variety of techniques to capture the effects of the flap edge vortex. Pressure sensitive paint was applied to the upper surface of both the flap and main element, as well as to the flap side edge. Fast response pressure transducers were mounted interior to the model to measure surface pressure fluctuations on the flap side edge. Single component hotwire data was taken in the near wake region of the flap edge. In addition to the data experimentally obtained, a computational data set of a geometrically similar model at a flight Reynolds number was used for comparison. The data indicates the presence of a dual vortex structure along the flap side edge. This structure is seen to grow, merge, and ultimately become a single symmetric vortex as it progresses downstream. Surface pressure fluctuations on the side edge scale as three power laws with free stream velocity as different flow regions are encountered. By varying the model rigging, indications of a confined source region for the pressure fluctuations were observed. A spatial survey of the correlation between flap side edge surface pressure fluctuations and the near-wake fluctuating velocity field shows increased correlation coefficients for the region surrounding the vortex core.

  14. Microsurgical free flaps: Controversies in maxillofacial reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    George, Rinku K.; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructive microsurgery for oral and maxillofacial (OMF) defects is considered as a niche specialty and is performed regularly only in a handful of centers. Till recently the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) was considered to be the benchmark for OMF reconstruction. This philosophy is changing fast with rapid advancement in reconstructive microsurgery. Due to improvement in instrumentation and the development of finer techniques of flap harvesting we can positively state that microsurgery has come of age. Better techniques, microscopes and micro instruments enable us to do things previously unimaginable. Supramicrosurgery and ultrathin flaps are a testimony to this. Years of innovation in reconstructive microsurgery have given us a reasonably good number of very excellent flaps. Tremendous work has been put into producing some exceptionally brilliant research articles, sometimes contradicting each other. This has led to the need for clarity in some areas in this field. This article will review some controversies in reconstructive microsurgery and analyze some of the most common microvascular free flaps (MFF) used in OMF reconstruction. It aims to buttress the fact that three flaps-the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) and fibula are the ones most expedient in the surgeon's arsenal, since they can cater to almost all sizeable defects we come across after ablative surgery in the OMF region. They can thus aptly be titled as the workhorses of OMF reconstruction with regard to free flaps. PMID:23662264

  15. Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows.

    PubMed

    Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers. PMID:24343130

  16. Basic Perforator Flap Hemodynamic Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Youlun; Ding, Maochao; Wang, Aiguo; Zhuang, Yuehong; Chang, Shi-Min; Mei, Jin; Hallock, Geoffrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A mathematical model to help explain the hemodynamic characteristics of perforator flaps based on blood flow resistance systems within the flap will serve as a theoretical guide for the future study and clinical applications of these flaps. Methods: There are 3 major blood flow resistance network systems of a perforator flap. These were defined as the blood flow resistance of an anastomosis between artery and artery of adjacent perforasomes, between artery and vein within a perforasome, and then between vein and vein corresponding to the outflow of that perforasome. From this, a calculation could be made of the number of such blood flow resistance network systems that must be crossed for all perforasomes within a perforator flap to predict whether that arrangement would be viable. Results: The summation of blood flow resistance networks from each perforasome in a given perforator flap could predict which portions would likely survive. This mathematical model shows how this is directly dependent on the location of the vascular pedicle to the flap and whether supercharging or superdrainage maneuvers have been added. These configurations will give an estimate of the hemodynamic characteristics for the given flap design. Conclusions: This basic mathematical model can (1) conveniently determine the degree of difficulty for each perforasome within a perforator flap to survive; (2) semiquantitatively allow the calculation of basic hemodynamic parameters; and (3) allow the assessment of the pros and cons expected for each pattern of perforasomes encountered clinically based on predictable hemodynamic observations.

  17. A new classification of spreader flap techniques.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Jochen; Kovacevic, Milos

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce various spreader flap technique modifications to adjust the width of the middle nasal vault in patients who underwent rhinoplasties with humpectomy. Decisive modifications of current spreader flap techniques were performed to allow a more natural restoration of the middle nasal vault and the internal nasal valve after humpectomy. Additional steps provide tools to adjust the width and shape of the middle nasal vault according to patients' requirements. The techniques were categorized into "basic spreader flaps," "flaring spreader flaps," "support spreader flaps," and "interrupted spreader flaps." The various spreader flap techniques were used during 576 primary septorhinoplasties in patients with hump noses, hump/crooked noses, or hump/tension noses. The average follow-up was 19 months. Patients who received basic spreader flaps or a flaring spreader flaps tended to show a slightly too wide middle nasal vault, revision surgery was necessary in four of these cases. All other patients showed an appropriate width in the middle nasal vault and an aesthetically pleasing course of the dorsal aesthetic lines. No signs of inverted v deformities or collapse of the internal nasal valve were observed in any of the patients. Patients who had reported impaired nasal breathing preoperatively described clearly improved subjective symptoms. The described techniques appear to be appropriate and highly promising as a supplement to existing procedures for reconstructing the middle nasal vault and internal nasal valves. No additional cartilage grafts are needed. PMID:24327250

  18. Arterialized Venous Bone Flaps: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Borumandi, Farzad; Higgins, James P.; Buerger, Heinz; Vasilyeva, Anna; Benlidayi, Memmet Emre; Sencar, Leman; Gaggl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In arterialized venous flaps (AVFs) the venous network is used to revascularize the flap. While the feasibility of AVFs in soft tissues has been reported there is no study on osseous AVFs. In this study we aim to assess the flap survival of osseous AVFs in a pig model. Medial femoral condyle flaps were elevated in 18 pigs. Three groups were created: AVF (n = 6), conventional arterial flap (cAF, n = 6) and bone graft (BG, n = 6). The AVFs were created by anastomosis of genicular artery with one vena comitans while leaving one efferent vein for drainage. After 6 months the specimens were harvested. The histology and histomorphometry of of the bone in cAF and AVF was significantly superior to bone grafts with a higher bone volume in AVFs (p = 0.01). This study demonstrates that osseous free flaps may be supported and survive using the technique of arterialization of the venous network. The concept of AVFs in osseous flaps may be feasible for revascularization of free flaps with an inadequate artery but well developed veins. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to assess the feasibility of clinical use of arterialized venous bone flaps. PMID:27558705

  19. Arterialized Venous Bone Flaps: An Experimental Investigation.

    PubMed

    Borumandi, Farzad; Higgins, James P; Buerger, Heinz; Vasilyeva, Anna; Benlidayi, Memmet Emre; Sencar, Leman; Gaggl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In arterialized venous flaps (AVFs) the venous network is used to revascularize the flap. While the feasibility of AVFs in soft tissues has been reported there is no study on osseous AVFs. In this study we aim to assess the flap survival of osseous AVFs in a pig model. Medial femoral condyle flaps were elevated in 18 pigs. Three groups were created: AVF (n = 6), conventional arterial flap (cAF, n = 6) and bone graft (BG, n = 6). The AVFs were created by anastomosis of genicular artery with one vena comitans while leaving one efferent vein for drainage. After 6 months the specimens were harvested. The histology and histomorphometry of of the bone in cAF and AVF was significantly superior to bone grafts with a higher bone volume in AVFs (p = 0.01). This study demonstrates that osseous free flaps may be supported and survive using the technique of arterialization of the venous network. The concept of AVFs in osseous flaps may be feasible for revascularization of free flaps with an inadequate artery but well developed veins. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to assess the feasibility of clinical use of arterialized venous bone flaps. PMID:27558705

  20. The Effect of 3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea on Chloroplast Development and Maintenance in Euglena gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Stanley C.; Stern, Arthur I.

    1970-01-01

    The ultrastructure of light-grown Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris was examined by the techniques of thin sectioning and freeze-etching. Thin sectioning revealed the typical organelles previously observed in chemically fixed Euglena. In addition to confirming the observations on thin sections, the freeze-etch technique has revealed the presence in E. gracilis of a complex multilaminar pellicle, and an ordered arrangement to the paramylon granule. The chloroplast thylakoids are particulate and similar to those observed in higher plants. Images PMID:5427117

  1. Quadruple-component superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap: A chimeric SCIP flap for complex ankle reconstruction of an exposed artificial joint after total ankle arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Saito, Takafumi; Ishiura, Ryohei; Iida, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is becoming popular in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ankle joint degeneration. However, ankle wound complications can occur after TAA, which sometimes requires challenging reconstruction due to anatomical complexity of the ankle. Superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA) perforator (SCIP) flap has been reported to be useful for various reconstructions, but no case has been reported regarding a chimeric SCIP flap for complex ankle reconstruction. We report a case of complex ankle defect successfully reconstructed with a free quadruple-component chimeric SCIP flap. A 73-year-old female patient with RA underwent TAA, and suffered from an extensive ankle soft tissue defect (13 × 5 cm) with exposure of the implanted artificial joint and the extensor tendons. A chimeric SCIP flap was raised based on the deep branch and the superficial branch of the SCIA, which included chimeric portions of the sartorius muscle, the deep fascia, the inguinal lymph node (ILN), and the skin/fat. The flap was transferred to the recipient ankle. The sartorius muscle was used to cover the artificial joint, the deep fascia to reconstruct the extensor retinaculum, the ILN to prevent postoperative lymphedema, and the adiposal tissue to put around the extensor tendons for prevention of postoperative adhesion. Postoperatively, the patient could walk by herself without persistent leg edema or bowstringing of the extensor tendons, and was satisfied with the concealable donor scar. Although further studies are required to confirm efficacy, multicomponent chimeric SCIP has a potential to be a useful option for complex defects of the ankle. PMID:27423250

  2. Outperforming hummingbirds’ load-lifting capability with a lightweight hummingbird-like flapping-wing mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vandepitte, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The stroke-cam flapping mechanism presented in this paper closely mimics the wing motion of a hovering Rufous hummingbird. It is the only lightweight hummingbird-sized flapping mechanism which generates a harmonic wing stroke with both a high flapping frequency and a large stroke amplitude. Experiments on a lightweight prototype of this stroke-cam mechanism on a 50 mm-long wing demonstrate that a harmonic stroke motion is generated with a peak-to-peak stroke amplitude of 175° at a flapping frequency of 40 Hz. It generated a mass lifting capability of 5.1 g, which is largely sufficient to lift the prototype's mass of 3.39 g and larger than the mass-lifting capability of a Rufous hummingbird. The motor mass of a hummingbird-like robot which drives the stroke-cam mechanism is considerably larger (about five times) than the muscle mass of a hummingbird with comparable load-lifting capability. This paper presents a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle which is designed to possess the same lift- and thrust-generating principles of the Rufous hummingbird. The application is indoor flight. We give an overview of the wing kinematics and some specifications which should be met to develop an artificial wing, and also describe the applications of these in the mechanism which has been developed in this work. PMID:27444790

  3. Hydrogen clearance: Assessment of technique for measurement of skin-flap blood flow in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J.G.; Kerrigan, C.L. )

    1991-10-01

    The hydrogen clearance technique has been used for many years by investigators to determine brain blood flow and has been partially validated in this setting using other methods of blood flow measurement. The method has been modified to allow blood flow measurements in skin, but the accuracy of H2 clearance for measuring skin blood flow has not been determined. Multiple blood flow measurements were performed using H2 clearance and radioactive microspheres on skin flaps and control skin in pigs. On 12 pigs, a total of 117 flap and 42 control skin measurements were available for analysis. There was no significant difference between the two techniques in measuring mean control skin blood flow. In skin flaps, H2 clearance was significantly correlated to microsphere-measured blood flow, but it consistently gave an overestimate. Sources of error may include injury to the tissues by insertion of electrodes, consumption of H2 by the electrodes, or diffusion of H2 from the relatively ischemic flap to its well-vascularized bed. Further studies are necessary to determine the cause of this error and to measure the technique's accuracy in skeletal muscle and other flaps.

  4. Outperforming hummingbirds' load-lifting capability with a lightweight hummingbird-like flapping-wing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Leys, Frederik; Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vandepitte, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The stroke-cam flapping mechanism presented in this paper closely mimics the wing motion of a hovering Rufous hummingbird. It is the only lightweight hummingbird-sized flapping mechanism which generates a harmonic wing stroke with both a high flapping frequency and a large stroke amplitude. Experiments on a lightweight prototype of this stroke-cam mechanism on a 50 mm-long wing demonstrate that a harmonic stroke motion is generated with a peak-to-peak stroke amplitude of 175° at a flapping frequency of 40 Hz. It generated a mass lifting capability of 5.1 g, which is largely sufficient to lift the prototype's mass of 3.39 g and larger than the mass-lifting capability of a Rufous hummingbird. The motor mass of a hummingbird-like robot which drives the stroke-cam mechanism is considerably larger (about five times) than the muscle mass of a hummingbird with comparable load-lifting capability. This paper presents a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle which is designed to possess the same lift- and thrust-generating principles of the Rufous hummingbird. The application is indoor flight. We give an overview of the wing kinematics and some specifications which should be met to develop an artificial wing, and also describe the applications of these in the mechanism which has been developed in this work. PMID:27444790

  5. "Mini-Flow-Through" Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap for Breast Reconstruction with Preservation of Both Internal Mammary and Deep Inferior Epigastric Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Jun; Yasumura, Kazunori; Mikami, Taro; Kobayashi, Shinji; Maegawa, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    This procedure was developed for preservation of the rectus muscle components and deep inferior epigastric vessel after deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvesting. A 53-year-old woman with granuloma caused by silicone injection underwent bilateral nipple-sparing mastectomies and immediate reconstruction with "mini-flow-through" DIEP flaps. The flaps were dissected based on the single largest perforator with a short segment of the lateral branch of the deep inferior epigastric vessel that was transected as a free flap for breast reconstruction. The short segments of the donor deep inferior epigastric vessel branch are primarily end-to-end anastomosed to each other. A short T-shaped pedicle mini-flow-through DIEP flap is interposed in the incised recipient's internal mammary vessels with two arterial and four concomitant venous anastomoses. Although it requires multiple vascular anastomoses and a short pedicle for the flap setting, the mini-flow-through DIEP flap provides a large pedicle caliber, enabling safer microsurgical anastomosis and well-vascularized tissue for creating a natural breast without consuming time or compromising the rectus muscle components and vascular flow of both the deep inferior epigastric and internal mammary vessels. PMID:26618128

  6. Evolution of avian flight: muscles and constraints on performance.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-09-26

    Competing hypotheses about evolutionary origins of flight are the 'fundamental wing-stroke' and 'directed aerial descent' hypotheses. Support for the fundamental wing-stroke hypothesis is that extant birds use flapping of their wings to climb even before they are able to fly; there are no reported examples of incrementally increasing use of wing movements in gliding transitioning to flapping. An open question is whether locomotor styles must evolve initially for efficiency or if they might instead arrive due to efficacy. The proximal muscles of the avian wing output work and power for flight, and new research is exploring functions of the distal muscles in relation to dynamic changes in wing shape. It will be useful to test the relative contributions of the muscles of the forearm compared with inertial and aerodynamic loading of the wing upon dynamic morphing. Body size has dramatic effects upon flight performance. New research has revealed that mass-specific muscle power declines with increasing body mass among species. This explains the constraints associated with being large. Hummingbirds are the only species that can sustain hovering. Their ability to generate force, work and power appears to be limited by time for activation and deactivation within their wingbeats of high frequency. Most small birds use flap-bounding flight, and this flight style may offer an energetic advantage over continuous flapping during fast flight or during flight into a headwind. The use of flap-bounding during slow flight remains enigmatic. Flap-bounding birds do not appear to be constrained to use their primary flight muscles in a fixed manner. To improve understanding of the functional significance of flap-bounding, the energetic costs and the relative use of alternative styles by a given species in nature merit study.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528773

  7. Esthetic Craniofacial Bony and Skull Base Reconstruction Using Flap Wrapping Technique.

    PubMed

    Yano, Tomoyuki; Suesada, Nobuko; Usami, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    For a safe and esthetic skull base reconstruction combined with repair of craniofacial bone defects, the authors introduce the flap wrapping technique in this study. This technique consists of skull base reconstruction using the vastus lateralis muscle of an anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap, and structural craniofacial bony reconstruction using an autologous calvarial bone graft. The key to this technique is that all of the grafted autologous bone is wrapped with the vascularized fascia of the ALT free flap to protect the grafted bone from infection and exposure. Two anterior skull base tumors combined with craniofacial bony defects were included in this study. The subjects were a man and a woman, aged 18 and 64. Both patients had preoperative proton beam therapy. First, the skull base defect was filled with vastus lateralis muscle, and then structural reconstruction was performed with an autologous bone graft and a fabricated inner layer of calvarial bone, and then the grafted bone was completely wrapped in the vascularized fascia of the ALT free flap. By applying this technique, there was no intracranial infection or grafted bone exposure in these 2 patients postoperatively, even though both patients had preoperative proton beam therapy. Additionally, the vascularized fascia wrapped bone graft could provide a natural contour and prevent collapse of the craniofacial region, and this gives patients a better facial appearance even though they have had skull base surgery. PMID:27300454

  8. Feasibility of a bilateral regional sternocleidomastoid muscular flap in the closure of a persistent acquired tracheopharyngeal fistula.

    PubMed

    Goh, Liang Chye; Santhi, Kalimuthu; Arvin, Balachandran; Mohd Razif, Mohamad Yunus

    2016-01-01

    An acquired persistent tracheopharyngeal fistula secondary to an infected tracheopharyngeal voice prosthesis is a common cause of recurrent aspiration pneumonia in a postlaryngectomy patient. We report a case of a successfully treated tracheopharyngeal fistula whereby both the sternocleidomastoid muscles were used as muscular flaps to close the defect and its outcome. PMID:27566213

  9. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Martínez, M Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2015-05-15

    The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd(2+)) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5×10(6)cellsmL(-1)) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O₂, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25-33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd(2+) which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd(2+) induced a higher MDA production. Cd(2+) stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd(2+) from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd(2+) under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O₂ concentration is particularly low. PMID:25698571

  10. Effect of aluminum on cellular division and photosynthetic electron transport in Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas acidophila.

    PubMed

    Perreault, François; Dewez, David; Fortin, Claude; Juneau, Philippe; Diallo, Amirou; Popovic, Radovan

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated aluminum's effect on cellular division and the photosynthetic processes in Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas acidophila at pH 3.0, at which Al is present mostly as Al(3+), AlSO(4) (+), and Al(SO(4))(2) (-). These algal species were exposed to 100, 188, and 740 microM Al, and after 24 h cell-bound Al was significantly different from control only for the highest concentration tested. However, very different effects of Al on algal cellular division, biomass per cell, and photosynthetic activity were found. Aluminum stimulated cell division but decreased at some level biomass per cell in C. acidophila. Primary photochemistry of photosynthesis, as Photosystem II quantum yield, and energy dissipation via nonphotochemical activity were slightly affected. However, for E. gracilis, under the same conditions, Al did not show a stimulating effect on cellular division or photosynthetic activity. Primary photochemical activity was diminished, and energy dissipation via nonphotochemical pathways was strongly increased. Therefore, when Al is highly available in aquatic ecosystems, these effects may indicate very different response mechanisms that are dependent on algal species. PMID:20821518

  11. Acclimation of a marine diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, to ambient levels of UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazzard, C.E.; Kinzie, R.A. III ); Taguchi, S. )

    1990-01-09

    Semi-continuous cultures of Chaetoceros gracilis were maintained in two ultraviolet (UV) exposure treatments for 23 days in natural sunlight. In one treatment algae received only wavelengths above 380 nm, while the second received total ambient UV. After acclimation, samples from both treatments were incubated in quartz bottles under ambient solar radiation. At the onset of the experiment, the cultures which were grown under reduced UV were growing 44.6% faster than the UV exposed cultures and contained 39.4% more chlorophyll/cell. After 24 hours of exposure to ambient UV, the growth rate for the reduced UV cultures decreased by 635% while that of the UV exposed cultures remained unchanged. Total productivity/chl a was significantly lower in the UV shaded cultures throughout the 24 hour period, while the rate of carbon release though dark respiration was significantly greater in the cultures which had been acclimated in ambient UV conditions. Relative amounts of carbon incorporation into lipids, intermediate weight compounds, polysaccharides and nucleic acids, and protein were significantly different between the treatments in all but the polysaccharide fraction. UV shaded cultures incorporated a higher percentage of fixed carbon into protein and lipid than UV exposed cultures while incorporating less into the intermediate weight compounds. This study suggests that naturally occurring Chaetoceros gracilis cells are able to resist the inhibitory effects of ambient UV radiation by a protective mechanism which is initiated by the presence of UV.

  12. Effects of Low-Temperature Acclimation and Oxygen Stress on Tocopheron Production in Euglena gracilis Z

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Bruce A.; Gray, Rodney J. H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Tomlins, Richard I.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of low-temperature acclimation and oxygen stress on tocopheron production were examined in the unicellular phytoflagellate Euglena gracilis Z. Cells were cultured photoheterotrophically at 27.5 ± 1°C with 5% carbon dioxide-95% air and 740 microeinsteins m−2 s−1 (photosynthetically active radiation) and served as controls. Low-temperature acclimation (12.5 ± 1°C) and high-oxygen stress (5% carbon dioxide-95% oxygen) were individually examined in the mass culturing of the algae. Chromatographic analyses demonstrated a six-to sevenfold enhancement of α-tocopherol production in temperature-stressed cells, along with a concomitant decline in the levels of α-tocotrienol and the absence of other tocopherol homologs. Oxygen-stressed cultures demonstrated the presence of high levels of α-tocopherylquinone; α-tocopheron and its homologs and precursors were absent or declined markedly. These findings are discussed in terms of the feasibility of microbial production of natural tocopherols. In addition, these results lend themselves to speculation regarding the biological role(s) of tocopherols as antioxidants and free radical scavengers in reducing photo-induced oxidative damage or lipid peroxidation toxicities or both in photosynthetically active E. gracilis Z. PMID:16346941

  13. The transcriptome of Euglena gracilis reveals unexpected metabolic capabilities for carbohydrate and natural product biochemistry.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Ellis C; Trick, Martin; Hill, Lionel; Rejzek, Martin; Dusi, Renata G; Hamilton, Chris J; Zimba, Paul V; Henrissat, Bernard; Field, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Euglena gracilis is a highly complex alga belonging to the green plant line that shows characteristics of both plants and animals, while in evolutionary terms it is most closely related to the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma and Leishmania. This well-studied organism has long been known as a rich source of vitamins A, C and E, as well as amino acids that are essential for the human diet. Here we present de novo transcriptome sequencing and preliminary analysis, providing a basis for the molecular and functional genomics studies that will be required to direct metabolic engineering efforts aimed at enhancing the quality and quantity of high value products from E. gracilis. The transcriptome contains over 30,000 protein-encoding genes, supporting metabolic pathways for lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates and vitamins, along with capabilities for polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis. The metabolic and environmental robustness of Euglena is supported by a substantial capacity for responding to biotic and abiotic stress: it has the capacity to deploy three separate pathways for vitamin C (ascorbate) production, as well as producing vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and, in addition to glutathione, the redox-active thiols nor-trypanothione and ovothiol. PMID:26289754

  14. Total ‘rib’-preservation technique of internal mammary vessel exposure for free flap breast reconstruction: A 5-year prospective cohort study and instructional video

    PubMed Central

    Rosich-Medina, Anais; Bouloumpasis, Serafeim; Di Candia, Michele; Malata, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The total ‘rib’-preservation method of dissecting out the internal mammary vessels (IMV) during microvascular breast reconstruction aims to reduce free flap morbidity at the recipient site. We review our five-year experience with this technique. Patients & methods An analysis of a prospectively collected free flap data cohort was undertaken to determine the indications, operative details and reconstructive outcomes in all breast reconstruction patients undergoing IMV exposure using the total ‘rib’-preservation method by a single surgeon. Results 178 consecutive breast free flaps (156 unilateral, 11 bilateral) were performed from 1st June 2008 to 31st May 2013 in 167 patients with a median age of 50 years (range 28–71). There were 154 DIEP flaps, 14 SIEA flaps, 7 muscle-sparing free TRAMs, 2 IGAP flaps and one free latissimus dorsi flap. 75% of the reconstructions (133/178) were immediate, 25% (45/178) were delayed. The mean inter-costal space distance was 20.9 mm (range 9–29). The mean time taken to expose and prepare the recipient IMV's was 54 min (range 17–131). The mean flap ischaemia time was 95 min (range 38–190). Free flap survival was 100%, although 2.2% (4 flaps) required a return to theatre for exploration and flap salvage. No patients complained of localised chest pain or tenderness at the recipient site and no chest wall contour deformity has been observed. Discussion & conclusion The total ‘rib’-preservation technique of IMV exposure is a safe, reliable and versatile method for microvascular breast reconstruction and should be considered as a valid alternative to the ‘rib’-sacrificing techniques. PMID:26468373

  15. [The super extended sub-mental flap or combo sub-mental flap].

    PubMed

    Martin, D

    2014-08-01

    The author presents a technical variation of the sub-mental flap including in a conventional pedicled flap both sub-mental axes and their anastomoses on the midline. The assessment of the first flaps raised according to this method confirms the improvement of the distal blood supply. It allows the possibility to harvest "super extended" flaps reaching the contralateral auricular lobula. This variation can be considered as an axial flap which only the tip, located beyond the mandibular angle, is at random. The evolution of the sub-mental flap from its original description to this variation called "combo sub-mental flap" is then presented. Its reliability and the technical simplification it provides will have to be assessed in the future. PMID:24840945

  16. Secondary onlay free flap reconstruction of glossectomy defects following initial successful flap restoration.

    PubMed

    Rihani, Jordan; Lee, Thomas; Ducic, Yadranko

    2013-08-01

    Patients who undergo tongue reconstruction over time may develop gradual worsening of dysarthria and dysphagia secondary to flap atrophy. At our institution, these patients undergo a secondary flap onlay procedure for augmentation of the neotongue. We review a total of 11 patients with total glossectomy defect who underwent secondary tongue augmentation with secondary onlay free flap consisting of radial forearm free flap (n = 6) and rectus free flap (n = 5). There was improvement in swallowing in 7 of 11 patients. Five (45.4%) patients achieved gastric tube independence. Seven (63.6%) patients achieved a varying degree of oral intake. All patients achieved tracheostomy independence. Dysarthria was improved in all patients. There were no flap failures. Therefore, a secondary onlay flap technique is feasible and may improve dysphagia and dysarthria to achieve gastric tube and tracheostomy independence in total glossectomy patients with delayed tongue atrophy. PMID:23625797

  17. Distally based sural artery flap without sural nerve.

    PubMed

    Motamed, Sadrollah; Yavari, Masood; Mofrad, Hamid Reza Hallaj; Rafiee, Reza; Shahraki, Feaz Niazi

    2010-01-01

    The distal third of the tibia, ankle and heel area is difficult to reconstruct. For small to medium size defects, local flaps are often an easier alternative than free flap. In lower limb surgery, the sural flap is based on this principle and this flap is becoming increasingly popular. The distally based superficial sural artery flap, first described as a distally based neuro skin flap by masquelet et al., is a skin island flap supplied by the vascular axis of the sural nerve. The main disadvantage of distally based sural artery flap is sacrifice of the sural nerve because it is described the concept of neurocutaneus island flap. We describe one case of reverse sural flap without sural nerve .The aim of this paper is to establish the reliability of this flap even without sural nerve. PMID:21133008

  18. Engineered Skeletal Muscle Units for Repair of Volumetric Muscle Loss in the Tibialis Anterior Muscle of a Rat

    PubMed Central

    VanDusen, Keith W.; Syverud, Brian C.; Williams, Michael L.; Lee, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is the traumatic, degenerative, or surgical loss of muscle tissue, which may result in function loss and physical deformity. To date, clinical treatments for VML—the reflected muscle flap or transferred muscle graft—are limited by tissue availability and donor site morbidity. To address the need for more innovative skeletal muscle repair options, our laboratory has developed scaffoldless tissue-engineered skeletal muscle units (SMUs), multiphasic tissue constructs composed of engineered skeletal muscle with engineered bone-tendon ends, myotendinous junctions, and entheses, which in vitro can produce force both spontaneously and in response to electrical stimulation. Though phenotypically immature in vitro, we have shown that following 1 week of implantation in an ectopic site, our muscle constructs develop vascularization and innervation, an epimysium-like outer layer of connective tissue, an increase in myosin protein content, formation of myofibers, and increased force production. These findings suggest that our engineered muscle tissue survives implantation and develops the interfaces necessary to advance the phenotype toward adult muscle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of our SMUs to restore muscle tissue to sites of acute VML. Our results indicate that our SMUs continue to mature in vivo with longer recovery times and have the potential to repair VML sites by providing additional muscle fibers to damaged muscles. We conclude from this study that our SMUs have the potential to restore lost tissue volume in cases of acute VML. PMID:24813922

  19. Free flap pulse oximetry utilizing reflectance photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Zaman, T; Kyriacou, P A; Pal, S K

    2013-01-01

    The successful salvage of a free flap is dependent on the continuous monitoring of perfusion. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available post-operative monitoring technique to reliably assess the viability of free flaps by continuously monitoring free flap blood oxygen saturation. In an attempt to overcome the limitations of the current techniques a reflectance photoplethysmographic (PPG) processing system has been developed with the capability of real-time estimation of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels implemented in LabVIEW. This system was evaluated in clinical measurements on five patients undergoing breast reconstruction using Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator (DIEP) flap. Good quality PPG signals were obtained from the flaps and fingers simultaneously. The estimated free flap SpO2 values were in broad agreement with the oxygen saturation readings from the commercial pulse oximeter. The results suggest that reflectance free flap photoplethysmography can be used as a continuous monitoring technique to non-invasively monitor the perfusion of free flaps. PMID:24110620

  20. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap interconnection. 23.701 Section 23.701 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.701 Flap...

  1. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flap interconnection. 23.701 Section 23.701 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.701 Flap...

  2. Use of free flaps in burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Tvrdek, M; Nejedlý, A; Kletenský, J; Pros, Z; Broz, L

    1994-01-01

    The present currently used method of treating and reconstructing injuries caused by electric current and deep thermal injuries is compared with the method of early reconstruction using free flaps. Brief summary of present experience substantiating this method is presented. The three presented clinical cases show subacute reconstruction in this type of injury by free flaps transfer. PMID:7618395

  3. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  4. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  5. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  6. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  7. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  8. The posterior calf fascial free flap.

    PubMed

    Walton, R L; Matory, W E; Petry, J J

    1985-12-01

    Six posterior calf fascial free flaps were employed to reconstruct defects of the upper and lower extremities. One flap failed due to a constricting dressing. Two flaps sustained partial loss secondary to bleeding and hematoma formation. One flap dehisced at the distal suture line due to mobility of an underlying fracture. All surviving flaps eventually healed and resulted in stable, thin coverage. Donor-site morbidity has been minimal. Shortcomings of this flap model have been defined in the peculiarities of its thinness, diffuse vascular oozing, the extent of the vascular territory, and in postoperative monitoring. These problems are analyzed and recommendations for their resolution are presented. Fascia represents a unique tissue which offers an exciting new dimension in the reconstruction of certain defects--particularly those in which thinness is a desirable option. In the posterior calf model, the inclusion of fat represents an alternative modification that allows the surgeon to tailor the design to a variety of problems where fascia alone is too thin and a cutaneous flap is too thick. This concept may find its greatest application in wounds involving the hand or foot. We believe that this and other fascial flap prototypes may offer an ideal solution for reconstruction of major wounds of the extremities. PMID:3906718

  9. Thumb Reconstruction Using Foucher’s Flap

    PubMed Central

    Kola, Nardi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extensive pulp defects of the thumb, with the exposure of tendon or bone, are challenging reconstructive problems. Surgical treatment includes the use of local, regional, and free flaps. AIM: This paper is focused in Foucher’s neuro vascular flap. First DMCA or Foucher’s pedicle flap is a successful thumb reconstruction method, especially in patients not disturbed by its cosmetic appearance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The first dorsal metacarpal artery (FDMCA) arises from the radial artery in the first intermetacarpal space, just distal to the tendon of the extensor pollicis longus. Pulp area of the thumb is the area where Foucher’s flap is more utilizable. This technique has other applications such as first web reconstruction, thumb lengthening, and following resection of tumors on the dorsum of the hand. RESULTS: We have in study 7 cases with work related trauma in two years period of time, between 2012 and 2014. We had only one partial flap survival and all the other flaps survived entirely. We have also taken in consideration subjective satisfaction with a range score from 4 to 10, cold intolerance, flap area and donor site sensibility with a range score from low to medium to normal. CONCLUSION: Careful pedicle discovery, secured elevation, pedicle strangulation prevention are very important for flap survival.

  10. Alteration of Wax Ester Content and Composition in Euglena gracilis with Gene Silencing of 3-ketoacyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masami; Andoh, Hiroko; Koyama, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Yomi; Nakai, Takeo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    Euglena gracilis produces wax ester under hypoxic and anaerobic culture conditions with a net synthesis of ATP. In wax ester fermentation, fatty acids are synthesized by reversing beta-oxidation in mitochondria. A major species of wax ester produced by E. gracilis is myristyl myristate (14:0-14:0Alc). Because of its shorter carbon chain length with saturated compounds, biodiesel produced from E. gracilis wax ester may have good cold flow properties with high oxidative stability. We reasoned that a slight metabolic modification would enable E. gracilis to produce a biofuel of ideal composition. In order to produce wax ester with shorter acyl chain length, we focused on isozymes of the enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT), a condensing enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway in E. gracilis. We performed a gene silencing study of KAT isozymes in E. gracilis. Six KAT isozymes were identified in the E. gracilis EST database, and silencing any three of them (EgKAT1-3) altered the wax ester amount and composition. In particular, silencing EgKAT1 induced a significant compositional shift to shorter carbon chain lengths in wax ester. A model fuel mixture inferred from the composition of wax ester in EgKAT1-silenced cells showed a significant decrease in melting point compared to that of the control cells. PMID:25860691

  11. Acaricidal activity of Lippia gracilis essential oil and its major constituents on the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Elizangela Mércia de Oliveira; Costa, Livio Martins; Pinto, Jessika Andreza Oliveira; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; de Araujo, Sandra Alves; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Bacci, Leandro; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil obtained from different L. gracilis genotypes and their major components, carvacrol and thymol against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (cattle tick) larvae and engorged females. The larval test was performed parallel to the adult immersion test for engorged females for four L. gracilis genotypes. Similar tests were further performed for their major compounds carvacrol and thymol. Carvacrol (LC50 of 0.22 and 4.46 mg/mL, to larvae and engorged females, respectively) was more efficient than thymol (LC50 of 3.86 and 5.50 mg/mL, to larvae and engorged females, respectively). The lethal concentrations obtained for the isolated essential oil from genotypes LGRA-201 against larvae (1.31 mg/mL) and LGRA-106 against engorged females (4.66 mg/mL) confirmed the acaricidal activity of L. gracilis essential oil and its effectiveness in controlling the southern cattle tick. PMID:23337330

  12. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the ...

  13. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  14. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  15. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  16. Piezoelectrically actuated insect scale flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sujoy; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2010-04-01

    An energy method is used in order to derive the non-linear equations of motion of a smart flapping wing. Flapping wing is actuated from the root by a PZT unimorph in the piezofan configuration. Dynamic characteristics of the wing, having the same size as dragonfly Aeshna Multicolor, are analyzed using numerical simulations. It is shown that flapping angle variations of the smart flapping wing are similar to the actual dragonfly wing for a specific feasible voltage. An unsteady aerodynamic model based on modified strip theory is used to obtain the aerodynamic forces. It is found that the smart wing generates sufficient lift to support its own weight and carry a small payload. It is therefore a potential candidate for flapping wing of micro air vehicles.

  17. Scrubbing noise of externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the aeroacoustic mechanism that produces externally blown flap (EBF) scrubbing noise, i.e. a surface-radiated noise which is generally strongest normal to UTW deflected flaps. Scrubbing noise was not radiated from portions of the surface adjacent to strong, locally coherent turbulent eddies. Instead, scrubbing noise seemed to come from weak loading fluctuations that were coherent along the scrubbed span. These loading fluctuations probably were induced by the convected large-scale vortex structure of the attached exhaust jet. Deflecting a UTW flap would reduce the distance between the vortex trajectory and the flap surface, increasing the resulting dipole noise and rotating its directivity. In contrast, deflecting a USB flap would increase this distance, so that observable scrubbing noise would be radiated only from the undeflected forward portion of the wing.

  18. Facial artery flaps in facial oncoplastic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Tommaso

    2013-10-01

    The face is one of the common sites for cutaneous cancer localization. It is well known that the face is the localization of more than 50% of skin cancers. Nowadays, the principles of modern "oncoplasty" recommend the complete excision of the cancer and the reconstruction with respect to cosmetic features of the face in terms of good color, good softness, and good texture of the flaps, utilized in cancer repair. The oncological and cosmetic results of facial reconstruction are strictly linked and the modern plastic and reconstructive surgeon must respect both oncological and cosmetic aspects. For that reason the best solution in facial cancer repair is the utilization of locoregional flaps based on the tributary vessels of the facial artery. In consideration of the dimension of recipient area to repair, the retroangular flap (RAF) or the submental flap could be used. This article is voted to illustrate a very large and long-term casuistry dedicated to these flaps. PMID:24037925

  19. Use of Superficial Temporal Fascia Flap for Treatment of Postradiation Trismus: An Innovation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit; Roy, Indranil Deb; Deshmukh, Tushar S; Bhandari, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Post radiation trismus severely reduces the quality of life. Radiation causes fibrosis of muscles of mastication resulting in severe restriction of mouth opening. Treatment options are limited as most of the local flaps are in the radiation zone. The present case is the first case in existing literature where, following the release of fibrosis secondary to radiation, superficial temporal fascia (STF) was used to cover the defect with excellent results and no recurrence after a year of follow up. PMID:26468832

  20. Comparing clinical data and muscle imaging of DYSF and ANO5 related muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Ten Dam, Leroy; van der Kooi, Anneke J; Rövekamp, Fleur; Linssen, Wim H J P; de Visser, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    In this retrospective cross-sectional study clinical and muscle imaging data of patients with Miyoshi distal myopathy phenotype (MMD1 and MMD3) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2L (LGMD2L) were described. MMD1 and MMD3 are genetically heterogenous diseases based on DYSF and ANO5 gene defects. MMD3 and LGMD2L are clinically different diseases caused by an ANO5 gene defect. All groups showed predominant fatty degeneration of the gluteus minimus muscle and of the posterior segments of the thigh and calf muscles with sparing of the gracilis muscle. Muscle atrophy, hypertrophy and asymmetric muscle involvement on muscle imaging did not differ between groups. The pattern of fatty degeneration of muscles and of muscle weakness shows only minor differences between MMD1 (n=6) and MMD3 (n=8) patients with more frequently fatty degeneration of the rectus femoris, anterior tibial, and extensor digitorum muscles and more frequently muscle weakness in the anterior tibial, peroneal and calf muscle in MMD1. In the ANO5 related phenotypes the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle was less frequently involved in LGMD2L (n=13) and no differences in the incidence of muscle weakness was found. Therefore, MMD3 and LGMD2L should be considered as part of one spectrum of ANO5 related muscle disease. PMID:25176504

  1. Antioxidant support in composite musculo-adipose-fasciocutaneous flap applications: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kapi, Emin; Kulahci, Yalcin; Gedik, Ercan; Ozekinci, Selver; Isik, Fatma Birgul; Celik, Yusuf; Selcuk, Caferi Tayyar; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2014-02-01

    Free radicals are chemicals that play roles in the etio-pathogenesis of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Various antioxidants have been used in an attempt to mitigate the damage induced by these chemicals. In the present study, the antioxidative effects of grape seed extract (proanthocyanidin), tomato extract (lycopene), and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on a composite re-established-flow inferior epigastric artery based rectus abdominis muscle-skin flap model on which experimental ischaemia was induced were investigated. The rats have been administered antioxidants for 2 weeks prior to the surgery and for 2 more weeks thereafter. Macroscopic, histopathological, and biochemical analyses were carried out at the decision of the experiment. It was found that flap skin island necrosis was significantly reduced in the proanthocyanidin, lycopene, vitamin C groups (p < 0.001). Statistical analyses showed significant decreases in inflammation, oedema, congestion, and granulation tissue in the proanthocyanidin and lycopene groups compared to the vitamin C and control groups (p < 0.001). When the viability rates of fat and muscle tissues were examined, significant improvements were found in the proanthocyanidin and lycopene groups in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.001). Serum antioxidant capacity measurements revealed significant differences in the lycopene group compared to all other groups (p < 0.001). It is concluded that lycopene and proanthocyanidin are protective antioxidants in rat composite muscle-skin flap ischaemia-reperfusion models. PMID:23731129

  2. Pudendal thigh flap for repair of rectovaginal fistula.

    PubMed

    Sathappan, S; Rica, M A I

    2006-08-01

    The pudendal thigh flap or the Singapore flap is a versatile flap that can be used in the repair of recto-vaginal fistulae. Apart from the potential problem of hair growth, this neurovascular flap proves to be surprisingly simple in technique, robust and has a high potential for normal or near-normal function. PMID:17240589

  3. The Vasodilator Effect of a Cream Containing 10% Menthol and 15% Methyl Salicylate on Random-Pattern Skin Flaps in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dölen, Utku Can; Sungur, Nezih; Koca, Gökhan; Ertunç, Onur; Bağcı Bosi, Ayşe Tülay; Koçer, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Background It is still difficult to prevent partial or full-thickness flap necrosis. In this study, the effects of a cream containing menthol and methyl salicylate on the viability of randompattern skin flaps were studied. Methods Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two equal groups. Caudally based dorsal random-pattern skin flaps were elevated, including the panniculus carnosus. In the study group, 1.5 mL of a cream containing menthol and methyl salicylate was applied to the skin of the flap, and saline solution (0.9%) was used in the control group. Upon completion of the experiment, flap necrosis was analyzed with imaging software and radionuclide scintigraphy. Histopathological measurements were made of the percentage of viable flaps, the number of vessels, and the width of the panniculus carnosus muscle. Results According to the photographic analysis, the mean viable flap surface area in the study group was larger than that in the control group (P=0.004). According to the scintigrams, no change in radioactivity uptake was seen in the study group (P>0.05). However, a significant decrease was observed in the control group (P=0.006). No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of the percentage of viable flaps, the number of vessels, or the width of the panniculus carnosus muscle (P>0.05). Conclusions Based on these results, it is certain that the cream did not reduce the viability of the flaps. Due to its vasodilatory effect, it can be used as a component of the dressing in reconstructive operations where skin perfusion is compromised. PMID:26618115

  4. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction for Recurrent Patellar Instability Using a Gracilis Autograft without Bone Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Kim, Hee-June; Ra, In-Hoo

    2015-01-01

    Background Several tendon graft and fixation methods have been introduced in medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction for recurrent patellar dislocation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of MPFL reconstruction using a gracilis autograft fixation without bone tunnel in patients with recurrent patellar instability. Methods Nine patients (four males and five females) diagnosed with recurrent patellar instability from July 2009 to January 2013 and had MPFL reconstruction using a gracilis autograft were included. The average age of the patients was 24.6 years (range, 13 to 48 years), and the average follow-up period was 19.3 months (range, 12 to 30 months). For every patient, femoral attachment was fixed using suture anchors securing the patella by suturing the periosteum and surrounding soft tissue. Clinical evaluation included the Kujala, Lysholm, and Tegner scores; in addition, patients were examined for any complication including recurrent dislocation. The congruence angle and patella alta were assessed radiologically before and after surgery. Results The Kujala score improved from an average of 42.7 ± 8.4 before surgery to 79.6 ± 13.6 (p = 0.008) at final follow-up; the Lysholm score improved from 45.8 ± 5.7 to 82.0 ± 10.5 (p = 0.008); and the Tegner score improved from 2.8 ± 0.8 to 5.6 ± 1.5 (p = 0.007). The Insall-Salvati ratio changed from 1.16 ± 0.1 (range, 0.94 to 1.35) before surgery to 1.14 ± 0.1 (range, 0.96 to 1.29; p = 0.233) at the final follow-up without significance. The congruence angle significantly improved from 26.5° ± 10.6° (range, 12° to 43°) before surgery to -4.0° ± 4.3° (range, -12° to 5°; p = 0.008) at final follow-up. Subluxation was observed in one patient and hemarthrosis occurred in another patient 2 years after surgery, but these patients were asymptomatic. Conclusions We achieved good results with a patellar fixation technique in MPFL reconstruction using a gracilis autograft employing

  5. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers.

    PubMed

    Becker, Alexander D; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing-wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. These results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups. PMID:26439509

  6. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-06

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in amore » group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. Lastly, these results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.« less

  7. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-01

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing-wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. These results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.

  8. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. These results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups. PMID:26439509

  9. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-06

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. Lastly, these results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.

  10. Topology optimization of pressure adaptive honeycomb for a morphing flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Roelof; Scheepstra, Jan; Barrett, Ron

    2011-03-01

    The paper begins with a brief historical overview of pressure adaptive materials and structures. By examining avian anatomy, it is seen that pressure-adaptive structures have been used successfully in the Natural world to hold structural positions for extended periods of time and yet allow for dynamic shape changes from one flight state to the next. More modern pneumatic actuators, including FAA certified autopilot servoactuators are frequently used by aircraft around the world. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM) show good promise as aircraft actuators, but follow the traditional model of load concentration and distribution commonly found in aircraft. A new system is proposed which leaves distributed loads distributed and manipulates structures through a distributed actuator. By using Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH), it is shown that large structural deformations in excess of 50% strains can be achieved while maintaining full structural integrity and enabling secondary flight control mechanisms like flaps. The successful implementation of pressure-adaptive honeycomb in the trailing edge of a wing section sparked the motivation for subsequent research into the optimal topology of the pressure adaptive honeycomb within the trailing edge of a morphing flap. As an input for the optimization two known shapes are required: a desired shape in cruise configuration and a desired shape in landing configuration. In addition, the boundary conditions and load cases (including aerodynamic loads and internal pressure loads) should be specified for each condition. Finally, a set of six design variables is specified relating to the honeycomb and upper skin topology of the morphing flap. A finite-element model of the pressure-adaptive honeycomb structure is developed specifically tailored to generate fast but reliable results for a given combination of external loading, input variables, and boundary conditions. Based on two bench tests it is shown that this model correlates well

  11. BATMAV: a 2-DOF bio-inspired flapping flight platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Seelecke, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Due to the availability of small sensors, Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) can be used for detection missions of biological, chemical and nuclear agents. Traditionally these devices used fixed or rotary wings, actuated with electric DC motortransmission, a system which brings the disadvantage of a heavier platform. The overall objective of the BATMAV project is to develop a biologically inspired bat-like MAV with flexible and foldable wings for flapping flight. This paper presents a flight platform that features bat-inspired wings which are able to actively fold their elbow joints. A previous analysis of the flight physics for small birds, bats and large insects, revealed that the mammalian flight anatomy represents a suitable flight platform that can be actuated efficiently using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) artificial-muscles. A previous study of the flight styles in bats based on the data collected by Norberg [1] helped to identify the required joint angles as relevant degrees of freedom for wing actuation. Using the engineering theory of robotic manipulators, engineering kinematic models of wings with 2 and 3-DOFs were designed to mimic the wing trajectories of the natural flier Plecotus auritus. Solid models of the bat-like skeleton were designed based on the linear and angular dimensions resulted from the kinematic models. This structure of the flight platform was fabricated using rapid prototyping technologies and assembled to form a desktop prototype with 2-DOFs wings. Preliminary flapping test showed suitable trajectories for wrist and wingtip that mimic the flapping cycle of the natural flyer.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  13. Reconstruction of Chopart’s Amputation Stump Using Artificial Dermis Combined with Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mari; Takeuchi, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A 63-year-old man dropped a metal chunk onto his left foot during his work and suffered a crush injury of the left forefoot. He underwent Chopart’s amputation followed by stump coverage with sole skin at the orthopedic department on the same day. He was referred to our department for reconstruction because of poor vascularization and subsequent necrosis of tissue at the stump. After the necrotic tissue was debrided, exposure of the talus bone was noted. An artificial dermis was then applied to the stump wound, followed by local negative pressure wound therapy. After 3 weeks, the generation of a strong dermis-like tissue was observed at the site of artificial dermis grafting. We then performed flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap grafting to reconstruct the stump wound. This procedure involved suturing of the peroneal muscle group and tibialis anterior muscle, which were cut off during Chopart’s amputation, and suturing the soft tissue surrounding the calcaneus firmly to the fascia lata of the anterolateral thigh flap, followed by suturing of the flap to the skin defect of the left foot. There were neither postoperative complications, such as skin ulcer and equinus/varus deformity, nor need for secondary repair of the grafted flap, so the patient was able to smoothly enter a rehabilitation program including gait training. The current reconstruction technique for the tissue defect following Chopart’s amputation, consisting of artificial dermis grafting, negative pressure wound therapy, and flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap grafting, enabled safe and smooth gait rehabilitation with a forefoot prosthesis. PMID:26893983

  14. The use of propeller perforator flaps for diabetic limb salvage: a retrospective review of 25 cases

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Alexandru V.; Matei, Ileana R.; Capota, Irina M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral vascular disease and/or diabetic neuropathy represent one of the main etiologies for the development of lower leg and/or diabetic foot ulcerations, and especially after acute trauma or chronic mechanical stress. The reconstruction of such wounds is challenging due to the paucity of soft tissue resources in this region. Various procedures including orthobiologics, skin grafting (SG) with or without negative pressure wound therapy and local random flaps have been used with varying degrees of success to cover diabetic lower leg or foot ulcerations. Other methods include: local or regional muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps, free muscle and fasciocutaneous, or perforator flaps, which also have varying degrees of success. Patients and methods This article reviews 25 propeller perforator flaps (PPF) which were performed in 24 diabetic patients with acute and chronic wounds involving the foot and/or lower leg. These patients were admitted beween 2008 and 2011. Fifteen PPF were based on perforators from the peroneal artery, nine from the posterior tibial artery, and one from the anterior tibial artery. Results A primary healing rate (96%) was obtained in 18 (72%) cases. Revisional surgery and SG for skin necrosis was performed in six (24%) cases with one complete loss of the flap (4%) which led to a lower extremity amputation. Conclusions The purpose of this article is to review the use of PPF as an effective method for soft tissue coverage of the diabetic lower extremity and/or foot. In well-controlled diabetic patients that present with at least one permeable artery in the affected lower leg, the use of PPF may provide an alternative option for soft tissue reconstruction of acute and chronic diabetic wounds. PMID:23050066

  15. An aeroelastic instability provides a possible basis for the transition from gliding to flapping flight

    PubMed Central

    Curet, Oscar M.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, kinematics and stiffness properties of lifting surfaces play a key role in the aerodynamic performance of vertebrate flight. These surfaces, as a result of their flexible nature, may move both actively, owing to muscle contraction, and passively, in reaction to fluid forces. However, the nature and implications of this fluid–structure interaction are not well understood. Here, we study passive flight (flight with no active wing actuation) and explore a physical mechanism that leads to the emergence of a natural flapping motion. We model a vertebrate wing with a compliant shoulder and the ability to camber with an idealized physical model consisting of a cantilevered flat plate with a hinged trailing flap. We find that at low wind speed the wing is stationary, but at a critical speed the wing spontaneously flaps. The lift coefficient is significantly enhanced once the wing starts to oscillate, although this increase in lift generation is accompanied by an increase in drag. Flow visualization suggests that a strong leading edge vortex attached to the wing during downstroke is the primary mechanism responsible for the enhanced lift. The flapping instability we observe suggests a possible scenario for an evolutionary transition from gliding to powered flapping flight in animals that possess compliant wings capable of passive camber. Although the flapping state is accompanied by a lower lift-to-drag ratio, the increased lifting capability it confers might have enabled increased body mass, improved foraging performance and/or flight at lower speeds, any of which might have been selectively advantageous. PMID:23303221

  16. The first complete mitochondrial genome of stag beetle from China, Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera, Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Yu-Yan; Fang, Jie; Wan, Xia

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that is endemic to Southern China is determined. The circular genome is 736 bp in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Gene order is identical to that of the putative ancestral arrangement of insects. The nucleotide composition of heavy strand is A (36.6%), C (22.6%), T (29.5%) and G (11.3%). All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon except for the gene COI that uses AAC as the start codon. tRNA-Ser (AGN) uses the anticodon UCU instead of the commonly used GCU. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses support the monophyly of Lucanidae and the sister relationship of Nigidionus and the remaining sampled genera. Two species of Prosopocoilus were not recovered as a monophyletic group. PMID:26024142

  17. Oxidative phosphorylation during glycollate metabolism in mitochondria from phototrophic Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Collins, N; Brown, R H; Merrett, M J

    1975-09-01

    Mitochondria were isolated by gradient centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients from broken cell suspensions of phototrophically grown Euglena gracilis. An antimycin A-sensitive but rotenone-insensitive glycollate-dependent oxygen uptake was demonstrated in isolated mitochondria. The partial reactions of glycollate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c oxidase were demonstrated by using Euglena cytochrome c as exogenous electron acceptor/donor. Isolated mitochondria contain glycollate dehydrogenase and glyoxylate-glutamate aminotransferase and oxidize exogenous glycine. A P:O ratio of 1.7 was obtained for glycollate oxidation, consistent with glycollate electrons entering the Euglena respiratory chain at the flavoprotein level. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to photorespiration in algae. PMID:813630

  18. Effects of pH on the growth rate, motility and photosynthesis in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Danilov, R A; Ekelund, N G

    2001-01-01

    The influence of pH 3-10 on the growth, motility and photosynthesis in Euglena gracilis was demonstrated during a 7-d cultivation. The cells did not survive at pH < 4 and > 8, highest growth rate being detected at pH 7. Motility followed a similar pattern as growth rate. Photosynthetic response curves were shown to be of the same type over the whole pH range. High respiration was characteristic for cells grown at pH 5 and 6, the lowest one at 7. At high and also at low pH more active respiration was found which can be considered as a protective response on proton stress. Respiration was not completely inhibited with potassium cyanide. Photosynthesis was the most effective at pH 6; lower and higher pH decreased photosynthetic efficiency. pH affected more the growth rate than the photosynthesis. PMID:11898347

  19. A new homolog of FocA transporters identified in cadmium-resistant Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Delomenie, Claudine; Foti, Emilie; Floch, Enora; Diderot, Vimala; Porquet, Dominique; Dupuy, Corinne; Bonaly, Jacqueline . E-mail: Jacqueline.bonaly@u-psud.fr

    2007-06-29

    To better understand the cellular mechanism of stress resistance to various pollutants (cadmium, pentachlorophenol), we undertook a survey of the Euglena gracilis transcriptome by mRNA differential display and cDNA cloning. We performed a real-time RT-PCR analysis upon four selected genes. One of them significantly changed its expression level in response to stress treatments: B25 gene was overexpressed in Cd-resistant cells whereas it was down-regulated in PCP-adapted cells. By Race assays we obtained for B25 a 1093 bp cDNA. The deduced protein was identified as a bacterial formate/nitrite transporter (FocA) homolog and the gene was named EgFth. From all the data, we concluded that EgFth overexpression was related to chronic exposure to cadmium.

  20. The effect of rapamycin on biodiesel-producing protist Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Mukaida, Shiho; Ogawa, Takumi; Ohishi, Kazuko; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Daisaku; Arita, Masanori

    2016-06-01

    Rapamycin induces autophagy with lipid remodeling in yeast and mammalian cells. To investigate the lipid biosynthesis of Euglena gracilis, rapamycin was supplemented in comparison with two model algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Cyanidioschyzon merolae. In Euglena, rapamycin induced the reduction of chlorophylls and the accumulation of neutral lipids without deterring its cell proliferation. Its lipidomic profile revealed that the fatty acid composition did not alter by supplementing rapamycin. In Chlamydomonas, however, rapamycin induced serious growth inhibition as reported elsewhere. With a lower concentration of rapamycin, the alga accumulated neutral lipids without reducing chlorophylls. In Cyanidioschyzon, rapamycin did not increase neutral lipids but reduced its chlorophyll content. We also tested fatty acid elongase inhibitors such as pyroxasulfone or flufenacet in Euglena with no significant change in its neutral lipid contents. In summary, controlled supplementation of rapamycin can increase the yield of neutral lipids while the scheme is not always applicable for other algal species. PMID:26872547

  1. Biochemical, immunological, metabolic, and molecular studies on flagellar development in Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The emergent flagellum of Euglena gracilis arises from an anterior invagination of the organism and possesses, along with the typical eukaryotic axoneme, a glycoprotein surface layer, a complement of structurally complex mastigonemes and a paraxial rod. Nonionic detergent extraction of isolated flagella yielded a fraction containing 21% of the flagellar protein. This fraction contained at least 25 components. In vivo radiolabeling experiments indicated that Euglena possessed a pool of flagellar precursors. This was evidence by the observation that flagellar proteins radiolabeled during an initial regeneration could be mobilized to flagella of a subsequent regeneration. At least one component in the pool was present in sufficient quantity to support an entire regeneration. This protein was tentatively identified as a mastigonemal protein of M{sub r} {approximately} 220,000. A cDNA library was constructed to investigate flagellar gene expression in Euglena.

  2. Physiological characterization of gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis and Astasia longa studied on sounding rocket flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P. R.; Lebert, M.; Tahedl, H.; Häder, D.-P.

    Euglena gracilis is a photosynthetic, unicellular flagellate found in eutrophic freshwater habitats. The organisms control their vertical position in the water column using gravi- and phototaxis. Recent experiments demonstrated that negative gravitaxis cannot be explained by passive buoyancy but by an active physiological mechanism. During space experiments, the threshold of gravitaxis was determined to be between 0.08 and 0.12 x g. A strong correlation between the applied acceleration and the intracellular cAMP and Ca2+ was observed. The results support the hypothesis, that the cell body of Euglena, which is denser than the surrounding medium exerts a pressure onto the lower membrane and activates mechanosensitive Ca2+ channels. Changes in the membrane potential and the cAMP concentration are most likely subsequent elements in a signal transduction chain, which results in reorientation strokes of the flagellum.

  3. A study of the pharmacologic control of blood flow to delayed skin flaps using xenon washout. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, P.M.; Lilien, D.L.; Buncke, H.J.

    1983-03-01

    These experiments indicate that there are two components to the delay phenomenon. The first component is passive vasodilation owing to loss in the acute flaps originating from the sympathetic nerve terminals. The second component is active vasodilation not involving loss of a second vasoconstrictor mechanism or sensitization of the beta-receptors. Overall, the increase in blood flow associated with the delay phenomenon was seen to begin near the base of the flap and proceed distally. While the second component could not be identified, its characteristics suggest that its site of action is directly at the smooth-muscle or vascular-architecture level without involving the beta-receptors for vasodilation.

  4. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the growth and ultrastructure of green algae, Ankistrodesmus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Asselborn, Viviana; Fernández, Carolina; Zalocar, Yolanda; Parodi, Elisa R

    2015-10-01

    The effect of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos on the growth, biovolume, and ultrastructure of the green microalga Ankistrodesmus gracilis was evaluated. Concentrations of 9.37, 18.75, 37.5, 75 and 150mgL(-1) of chlorpyrifos were assayed along with a control culture. At the end of the bioassay the ultrastructure of algal cells from control culture and from cultures exposed to 37.5 and 150mgL(-1) was observed under transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 and 48h, treatments with 75 and 150mgL(-1) inhibited the growth of A. gracilis; whereas after 72 and 96h, all the treatments except at 9.37mgL(-1) significantly affected the algae growth. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) after 96h was 22.44mgL(-1) of chlorpyrifos. After the exposure to the insecticide, an increase in the biovolume was observed, with a larger increase in cells exposed to 75 and 150mgL(-1). Radical changes were observed in the ultrastructure of cells exposed to chlorpyrifos. The insecticide affected the cell shape and the distribution of the crests in the wall. At 37.5mgL(-1) electodense bodies were observed along with an increase in the size and number of starch granules. At 150mgL(-1) such bodies occupied almost the whole cytoplasm together with lipids and remains of thylakoids. Autospores formation occurred normally at 37.5mgL(-1) while at 150mgL(-1) karyokinesis occurred, but cell-separation-phase was inhibited. The present study demonstrates that the exposure of phytoplankton to the insecticide chlorpyrifos leads to effects observed at both cellular and population level. PMID:26099464

  5. Transient freezing behavior in photophobic responses of Euglena gracilis investigated in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon; Maeda, Mizuo

    2014-10-01

    We found that the transient freezing behavior in photophobic responses of Euglena gracilis is a good indicator of the metabolic status of the cells. The transient blue light photophobic responses of E. gracilis cells were investigated on-chip using a new measurement, 'trace momentum' (TM), to evaluate their swimming activity quantitatively in real time. When blue light of intensity >30 mW cm(-2) was repeatedly switched on and off, a large negative spike in the TM was observed at the onset of the 'blue-light-off' phase. Single-cell trace analysis at a blue light intensity of 40 mW cm(-2) showed that 48% (on average, n = 15) of tumbling Euglena cells ceased activity ('freezing') for 2-30 s at the onset of blue-light-off before commencing forward motion in a straight line (termed 'straightforward swimming'), while 45% smoothly commenced straightforward swimming without delay. The proportion of freezing Euglena cells depended on the blue light intensity (only 20% at 20 mW cm(-2)). When the cells were stimulated by four blue light pulses at the higher intensity, without pre-exposure, the transient freezing behavior was more prominent but, on repeating the stimuli after an 80 min interval in red light, the same cells did not freeze. This shows that the metabolism of the cells had changed to anti-freezing during the interval. The relationship between the interval time with/without light irradiation and the blue light adaptation was elucidated experimentally. The origin of the freezing behavior is considered to be a shortage of a metabolic substance that promotes smooth switching of flagellum movement from in situ rotation mode to a straightforward swimming mode. PMID:25074906

  6. Dynamic response of a piezoelectric flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Alok; Khandwekar, Gaurang; Venkatesh, S.; Mahapatra, D. R.; Dutta, S.

    2015-03-01

    Piezo-composite membranes have advantages over motorized flapping where frequencies are high and certain coupling between bending and twisting is useful to generate lift and forward flight. We draw examples of fruit fly and bumble bee. Wings with Piezo ceramic PZT coating are realized. The passive mechanical response of the wing is characterized experimentally and validated using finite element simulation. Piezoelectric actuation with uniform electrode coating is characterized and optimal frequencies for flapping are identified. The experimental data are used in an empirical model and advanced ratio for a flapping insect like condition for various angular orientations is estimated.

  7. The plane problem of the flapping wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, Walter

    1954-01-01

    In connection with an earlier report on the lifting vortex sheet which forms the basis of the following investigations this will show how the methods developed there are also suitable for dealing with the air forces for a wing with a circulation variable with time. The theory of a propulsive wing flapping up and down periodically in the manner of a bird's wing is developed. This study shows how the lift and its moment result as a function of the flapping motion, what thrust is attainable, and how high is the degree of efficiency of this flapping propulsion unit if the air friction is disregarded.

  8. Platysma flap using dual skin paddles.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, El Muiz A; Bhatia, Sunil K; Hammond, Doug E

    2016-07-01

    The platysma myocutaneous flap is rarely reported as an option for reconstruction in the head and neck. In our experience it is a reliable flap that is easy to raise, has a limited risk of morbidity at the donor site, and allows for early recommencement of oral function. We report a patient with an unusually aggressive orocutaneous fistula that complicated the simple extraction of teeth. We modified the platysma flap to provide two independent skin paddles so we could reconstruct both the intraoral and cutaneous defects simultaneously with a good clinical outcome. PMID:26947107

  9. New drag laws for flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agre, Natalie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    Classical aerodynamic theory predicts that a steadily-moving wing experiences fluid forces proportional to the square of its speed. For bird and insect flight, however, there is currently no model for how drag is affected by flapping motions of the wings. By considering simple wings driven to oscillate while progressing through the air, we discover that flapping significantly changes the magnitude of drag and fundamentally alters its scaling with speed. These measurements motivate a new aerodynamic force law that could help to understand the free-flight dynamics, control, and stability of insects and flapping-wing robots.

  10. Blended Cutout Flap for Reduction of Jet-Flap Interaction Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czech, Michael J (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system includes a wing and a trailing edge device coupled to the wing. The trailing edge device is movable relative to the wing, and includes a leading edge and a trailing edge having a center flap portion and a plurality of outer edge portions integrally combined with the center flap portion such that the center flap portion is shorter in width than that of outer edge portions.

  11. Descriptions of Eumonhystera borealis n. sp., Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp., and a Redescription of S. gracilis de Man 1876 (Nemata) from Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    TurpeenniemI, T. A.

    1997-01-01

    The free-living nematodes Eumonhystera borealis n. sp., Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp., and S. gracilis de Man 1876 from Bothnian Bay in the northern Baltic Sea are described and illustrated. Eumonhystera borealis n. sp. differs from other species by its small body size (314-393 μm), narrow body (a = 37-49), and large anterior amphids. In Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp. the amphids are posterior to the buccal cavity, and it differs from other similar species by having two sclerotized rings in the posterior part of the buccal cavity. An intersex is reported for S. gracilis. Sphaerolaimus gracilis is cannibalistic or a predator of other species, with a preference for E. borealis n. sp. Sphaerolaimus occidentalis n. sp. coexists with S. gracilis at depths of 80 m but not at 12 m. PMID:19274135

  12. Propeller Flap Reconstruction in Post Oncological Thigh Defect: "The Move in Flap".

    PubMed

    Nambi, G I; Salunke, Abhijeet Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the limb after tumor resection is challenging question for oncosurgeons. The management differs from reconstruction of post traumatic defects due to the complexity of the primary surgery and subsequent radiation. The conventional propeller flap is based on a perforator which is located close to the defect; but in present case the perforator was located far away from the defect. So we describe it as "Move in flap" as the flap rotated a large volume of soft tissue lying between the defect and the perforator. We present a case of post oncological thigh defect with reconstruction using a propeller flap based on distal anteromedial perforator. PMID:26405422

  13. Locoregional use of lateral thoracic artery perforator flap as a propeller flap.

    PubMed

    Baghaki, Semih; Cevirme, Mirza; Diyarbakirli, Murat; Tatar, Cihad; Aydin, Yagmur

    2015-05-01

    Although thoracodorsal system is a fundamental source of various flaps, lateral thoracic region has not been a popular flap donor area. There is limited data on the use of lateral intercostal artery perforator flap and lateral thoracic artery perforator flap. In this case series, lateral thoracic artery perforator flap has been used in locoregional (axilla, pectoral region, and arm) reconstruction as an island or propeller flap.Eighteen patients have been operated on between September 2010 and January 2013. The age of the patients ranged between 16 and 68 years with a median of 38 years. A thorough chart review has been performed with preoperative and postoperative photographs. Duration of hospitalization, complication rate and long term results have been documented.Nine patients had severe burn contracture of axilla, 7 patients had axillary hidradenitis suppurativa, 1 patient had giant neurofibroma of arm, and 1 patient had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of pectoral area. Seventeen flaps survived totally, and in 1 flap, distal superficial slough of skin has been observed. No recurrence in hidradenitis or peripheral nerve sheath tumor has been observed. Donor site scar is well hidden in anatomical position. The range of motion of affected extremities returned to normal after reconstruction.Lateral thoracic area provides a reliable flap option with a wide arc of rotation when lateral thoracic artery perforators are used. PMID:25875722

  14. ["Separation delay" on random flap: an experimental and clinical practice on delayed flap].

    PubMed

    Zhao, S Q

    1990-08-01

    A new technique of delayed flap, that is called "Separation delay" by the authors, has succeeded in animal experiment and clinical practice. In the years of 1985-1989, 11 cases of random skin flaps on the patients had been performed with the new method. All the flaps look like table tennis rackets. It's pedicle is very narrow, simultaneously, the flap itself is very large. So it is quite suitable for repairing a neighbouring wound surface. It can be rotated 180 degrees. "The Separation delay" is a handy way without microsurgical technique. It is also an useful and reliable technique for resurfacing wound on plastic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:2086104

  15. [Larval growth and survival of Echinometra lucunter (Echinoidea: Echinometridae) fed with microalgae Chaetoceros gracilis and Isochrysis galbana].

    PubMed

    Astudillo, David; Rosas, Jesús; Velásquez, Aidé; Cabrera, Tomas; Maneiro, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Thirty sexually mature sea urchins (Echinometra lucunter; diameter 45.8 +/- 17.5 mm) were collected at Macanao, Margarita Island, Venezuela (11 degrees 48'29" N / 64 degrees 13'10" W). They were injected potassium chloride (50 M) directly into the celomic cavity. After two minutes 90% spawned (17 females and 10 males), the others never spawned. Fertilization was 87.0 +/- 12.6% (1:100 oocytes/sperm) at 29 +/- 2 degrees C. The fertile eggs were placed in three treatment gropsu with nine containers (18 liters; 2 eggs/ml) each, all with bottom aeration. Treatments were: Chaetoceros gracilis; Isochrysis galbana, and a mixture of both microalgae (respectively: 20 000 and 60,000 cell/ml for each microalgae, 1:1 for the mixture). Salinity, pH, temperature and larval survival were determinated daily. The study ended when the post-metamorphic phase was completed. The embryonic development time was 16.3 +/- 0.2 h until the prism stage at pH 8.4 +/- 0.1; 38 +/- 1 psu and 28 +/- 1.4 degrees C. The two-arms larval stage was reached at 24 h: 33 min, with a total length of 190 +/- 16.3 microm fed on C. gracilis, 152 +/- 19.0 microm with I. galbana and 182.4 +/- 14.1 microm with the mixture. The larvae next to metamorphosis reabsorbed the arms and had the characteristic shape of juvenile urchins at 12 days with 670.2 +/- 22.2 microm fed on C. gracilis, 665 +/- 12.1 microm fed on I. galbana and 670 +/- 14.1 microm fed on the mixture. The accumulated survival to the juvenile stage was 14.7 +/- 3.8% when fed on C. gracilis, higher than the other treatments (5.4 +/- 1.2; 14.0 +/- 2.6). E. lucunter is an excellent prospect to be commercially cultured because of its short embryonic (16 hours) and larval development time (12 days) and good survival rate when fed on monoculture (C. gracilis and I. galbana) or mixed diet (we recommend C. gracilis). PMID:17469264

  16. Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the mandible: reliable soft tissue reconstruction using a local myofascial flap.

    PubMed

    Lemound, Juliana; Eckardt, Andrè; Kokemüller, Horst; von See, Constantin; Voss, Pit Jacob; Tavassol, Frank; Rücker, Martin; Rana, Majeed; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2012-08-01

    For the treatment of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BP-associated ONJ), poor cure rates are reported. In many cases, repeated osseous exposition and infection may occur. The currently recommended management of affected patients is antibiotic treatment and bony decortication, which is often complicated by soft tissue deficits due to chronic infection. In severe cases osteonecrosis can be managed often only by continuity resections of the mandible. For this purpose, we developed a new surgical procedure, which allows an effective closure of difficult jaw wounds in the lateral mandible. In the last 3 years, 20 patients with BP-associated osteonecrosis of the lower jaw were treated successfully with a modified defect-covering method using a myofascial flap. A mylohyoid muscle flap was detached from mylohyoid line and used to cover the bony defect. During 19 months mean follow-up, 90% of patients were asymptomatic, the oral mucosa was intact, and no exposed bone was observed. In consequence, we are able to demonstrate that a mylohyoid muscle flap provides a reliable wound closure in the lower jaw in patients treated with BPs. Although there are still no consensual therapy guidelines for patients affected by BP-associated ONJ, the results of the presented study provide evidence for an effective surgical therapy with long-term success. Covering compromised bone with well-vascularized tissue, a muscle flap, increased healing chances by enabling and supporting the necessary nutrition and defense against opportunistic infections. This therapy concept showed a good clinical outcome. PMID:21818568

  17. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  18. P-47 Thunderbolt with dive recovery flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    Caption: 'The dive recovery flaps on this P-47 Thunderbolt are barely visible underneath the wings. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (pages 52-53 and 130), by James Schultz.

  19. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal After mastectomy or amputation Donor sites for grafts and flaps are chosen ... surgery than the wound due to newly exposed nerve endings.

  20. A dynamical system for interacting flapping swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Anand; Ramananarivo, Sophie; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation into the dynamics of interacting flapping swimmers. Our study is motivated by the recent experiments of Becker et al., who studied a one-dimensional array of self-propelled flapping wings that swim within each other's wakes in a water tank. They discovered that the system adopts certain ``schooling modes'' characterized by specific spatial phase relationships between swimmers. To rationalize these phenomena, we develop a discrete dynamical system in which the swimmers are modeled as heaving airfoils that shed point vortices during each flapping cycle. We then apply our model to recent experiments in the Applied Math Lab, in which two tandem flapping airfoils are free to choose both their speed and relative positions. We expect that our model may be used to understand how schooling behavior is influenced by hydrodynamics in more general contexts. Thanks to the NSF for its support.

  1. Postirradiation flap infection about the oral cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Cabbabe, E.B.; Herbold, D.R.; Sunwoo, Y.C.; Baroudi, I.F.

    1983-06-01

    Postirradiation alteration of oral flora is well documented in the literature. Infection as a complication leading to partial or complete loss of a flap used to reconstruct a defect in the oral cavity is a worrisome outcome. We describe how a flap that was judged clinically to be viable became overwhelmingly infected with the Klebsiella oxytoca, an oral cavity pathogen encountered in this patient following irradiation. Local and systemic changes led to detachment of the flap. This complication may be explained, in view of the absence of venous congestion or arterial ischemia both clinically and pathologically, by the proven contamination of the flap by the Klebsiella pathogen. Local factors resulted in lower resistance and subsequent overwhelming infection. Discussion of the case, review of pertinent literature, and proposed solutions are presented.

  2. Dipteran wing motor-inspired flapping flight versatility and effectiveness enhancement.

    PubMed

    Harne, R L; Wang, K W

    2015-03-01

    Insects are a prime source of inspiration towards the development of small-scale, engineered, flapping wing flight systems. To help interpret the possible energy transformation strategies observed in Diptera as inspiration for mechanical flapping flight systems, we revisit the perspective of the dipteran wing motor as a bistable click mechanism and take a new, and more flexible, outlook to the architectural composition previously considered. Using a representative structural model alongside biological insights and cues from nonlinear dynamics, our analyses and experimental results reveal that a flight mechanism able to adjust motor axial support stiffness and compression characteristics may dramatically modulate the amplitude range and type of wing stroke dynamics achievable. This corresponds to significantly more versatile aerodynamic force generation without otherwise changing flapping frequency or driving force amplitude. Whether monostable or bistable, the axial stiffness is key to enhance compressed motor load bearing ability and aerodynamic efficiency, particularly compared with uncompressed linear motors. These findings provide new foundation to guide future development of bioinspired, flapping wing mechanisms for micro air vehicle applications, and may be used to provide insight to the dipteran muscle-to-wing interface. PMID:25608517

  3. Dipteran wing motor-inspired flapping flight versatility and effectiveness enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Harne, R. L.; Wang, K. W.

    2015-01-01

    Insects are a prime source of inspiration towards the development of small-scale, engineered, flapping wing flight systems. To help interpret the possible energy transformation strategies observed in Diptera as inspiration for mechanical flapping flight systems, we revisit the perspective of the dipteran wing motor as a bistable click mechanism and take a new, and more flexible, outlook to the architectural composition previously considered. Using a representative structural model alongside biological insights and cues from nonlinear dynamics, our analyses and experimental results reveal that a flight mechanism able to adjust motor axial support stiffness and compression characteristics may dramatically modulate the amplitude range and type of wing stroke dynamics achievable. This corresponds to significantly more versatile aerodynamic force generation without otherwise changing flapping frequency or driving force amplitude. Whether monostable or bistable, the axial stiffness is key to enhance compressed motor load bearing ability and aerodynamic efficiency, particularly compared with uncompressed linear motors. These findings provide new foundation to guide future development of bioinspired, flapping wing mechanisms for micro air vehicle applications, and may be used to provide insight to the dipteran muscle-to-wing interface. PMID:25608517

  4. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic

  5. Dynamic responses of a two-dimensional flapping foil motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xi-Yun; Liao, Qin

    2006-09-01

    The investigation of a flapping foil, which is used as a basic mode of the flapping-based locomotion in insects, birds, and fish, is performed by solving the Navier-Stokes equations numerically. In this Brief Communication we provide insight into the understanding of dynamics of a flapping foil. A critical flapping Reynolds number based on the flapping frequency and amplitude, above which a forward flapping movement occurs, is predicted. The dynamics of the flapping foil are analyzed in two dynamic responses, i.e., an oscillatory movement and a steady movement, which depend on the density ratio between the foil and the surrounded fluid. The steady movement response is related to the forward flapping motion. The Strouhal number that governs a vortex shedding for the forward flapping foil is calculated and lies in the range where flying and swimming animals will be likely to tune for high propulsive efficiency.

  6. The Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Flap Viability of Rat Perforator Abdominal Flaps.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, İbrahim Alper; Küçüker, İsmail; Önger, Mehmet Emin; Engin, Murat Sinan; Keleş, Musa Kemal; Demir, Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Background Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a substance abundant in green tea. In this study, the effects of EGCG on perforator flap viability were investigated. Methods A total of 40 rats were assigned to four groups of 10 each. In each subject, a 4 × 6 cm abdominal skin flap was raised and adapted back onto its place. In the control group, no further procedures were taken. In the flap group, 40 mg/kg/d EGCG was injected into the flap. In the gavage group, 100 mg/kg/d EGCG was given through a feeding tube. In the intraperitoneal group, 50 mg/kg/d EGCG was injected intraperitoneally. On the 7th postoperative day, flaps were photographed and the viable areas were measured and compared via a one-way analysis of variance. Results The ratios of viable and contracted flap area were 9.15/12.01, 4.59/16.46, 11.56/11.20, and 11.65/10.77 cm(2) for the control, flap group, gavage group, and intraperitoneal group, respectively. While the flap group yielded the worst results in the sense of flap contraction and viability (p < 0.001), the gavage and intraperitoneal groups were significantly better than those of the control group (p = 0.03). Histologically, epidermal, papillary dermal, and capillary tissue volumes were evaluated. In comparison to the control group, the flap group yielded significantly increased epidermal and dermal volumes (p = 0.03), however, these values were significantly decreased (p = 0.04) in the gavage and intraperitoneal groups. Capillary volumes were significantly decreased in EGCG treatment groups (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our experiment has shown that oral and intraperitoneal administration of EGCG increases the perforator flap viability when compared with controls, while direct injection decreases the viability. PMID:26919381

  7. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  8. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs of a muscle disorder, tests such as an electromyogram , ...

  9. Muscle aches

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cause of muscle aches and pain is fibromyalgia , a condition that causes tenderness in your muscles ... imbalance, such as too little potassium or calcium Fibromyalgia Infections, including the flu, Lyme disease , malaria , muscle ...

  10. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  11. Major donor area complication after a mandibular reconstruction with an osseous fibular free flap: pseudo-compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Keklik, Barş; Özden, Burcu Celet; Uçar, Adem; Cizmeci, Orhan

    2012-03-01

    The popularity of the fibular free flap in mandibular reconstructions is persisting, and major donor area complications rarely occur after fibular free flap operations. Still, we have observed a pseudo-compartment syndrome in a 52-year-old patient on the 12th postoperative day after a mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap. When an obstruction in the deep venous system (deep vein thrombosis) was observed in the Doppler ultrasound-guided imaging, the patient has been taken to the operating room for an emergency surgery and the donor area has been completely reopened (in the manner of a fasciotomy). After this procedure, the circulation in the foot appeared to return to normal. The exposed muscles of the patient, who was started on a low-molecular-weight heparin treatment for the deep vein thrombosis, have been closed with skin grafts on the 10th day. No functional loss was observed during the 2-month follow-up period. PMID:22421858

  12. Beroe gracilis (Ctenophora) from the Humboldt Current System: first occurrence of this species in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Feliú, Guillermo; Palma, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Beroe gracilis Künne, 1939 is a small neritic ctenophore, previously recorded only from cold waters of the northern hemisphere. The present study provides the first record of the species in the southern hemisphere, found in the surface layer of the Humboldt Current System off the central Chilean coast (32°-36.5° S). A complete description of this material is provided. PMID:25081170

  13. Influence of Different Light-Dark Cycles on Motility and Photosynthesis of Euglena gracilis in Closed Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Strauch, Sebastian M.; Ntefidou, Maria; Schuster, Martin; Daiker, Viktor; Nasir, Adeel; Haag, Ferdinand W.M.; Lebert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The unicellular photosynthetic freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis is a promising candidate as an oxygen producer in biological life-support systems. In this study, the capacity of Euglena gracilis to cope with different light regimes was determined. Cultures of Euglena gracilis in closed bioreactors were exposed to different dark-light cycles (40 W/m2 light intensity on the surface of the 20 L reactor; cool white fluorescent lamps in combination with a 100 W filament bulb): 1 h–1 h, 2 h–2 h, 4 h–4 h, 6 h–6 h, and 8 h–16 h, respectively. Motility and oxygen development in the reactors were measured constantly. It was found that, during exposure to light-dark cycles of 1 h–1 h, 2 h–2 h, 4 h–4 h, and 6 h–6 h, precision of gravitaxis as well as the number of motile cells increased during the dark phase, while velocity increased in the light phase. Oxygen concentration did not yet reach a plateau phase. During dark-light cycles of 8 h–16 h, fast changes of movement behavior in the cells were detected. The cells showed an initial decrease of graviorientation after onset of light and an increase after the start of the dark period. In the course of the light phase, graviorientation increased, while motility and velocity decreased after some hours of illumination. In all light profiles, Euglena gracilis was able to produce sufficient oxygen in the light phase to maintain the oxygen concentration above zero in the subsequent dark phase. Key Words: Euglena gracilis—Bioreactor—Light-dark cycle—Motility—Gravitaxis. Astrobiology 14, 848–858. PMID:25279932

  14. Influence of different light-dark cycles on motility and photosynthesis of Euglena gracilis in closed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Richter, Peter R; Strauch, Sebastian M; Ntefidou, Maria; Schuster, Martin; Daiker, Viktor; Nasir, Adeel; Haag, Ferdinand W M; Lebert, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The unicellular photosynthetic freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis is a promising candidate as an oxygen producer in biological life-support systems. In this study, the capacity of Euglena gracilis to cope with different light regimes was determined. Cultures of Euglena gracilis in closed bioreactors were exposed to different dark-light cycles (40 W/m(2) light intensity on the surface of the 20 L reactor; cool white fluorescent lamps in combination with a 100 W filament bulb): 1 h-1 h, 2 h-2 h, 4 h-4 h, 6 h-6 h, and 8 h-16 h, respectively. Motility and oxygen development in the reactors were measured constantly. It was found that, during exposure to light-dark cycles of 1 h-1 h, 2 h-2 h, 4 h-4 h, and 6 h-6 h, precision of gravitaxis as well as the number of motile cells increased during the dark phase, while velocity increased in the light phase. Oxygen concentration did not yet reach a plateau phase. During dark-light cycles of 8 h-16 h, fast changes of movement behavior in the cells were detected. The cells showed an initial decrease of graviorientation after onset of light and an increase after the start of the dark period. In the course of the light phase, graviorientation increased, while motility and velocity decreased after some hours of illumination. In all light profiles, Euglena gracilis was able to produce sufficient oxygen in the light phase to maintain the oxygen concentration above zero in the subsequent dark phase. PMID:25279932

  15. Maxillofacial reconstruction with nasolabial and facial artery musculomucosal flaps.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Daniel Cameron; Lam, Din; Oh, Esther S

    2014-08-01

    The nasolabial and facial artery musculomucosal (FAMM) flaps are predictable methods to reconstruct perioral and intraoral defects with vascularized tissue. The nasolabial flap can be harvested as an axial or random patterned flap, whereas the FAMM flap is truly an axial patterned flap, with either a superior or an inferior base. Both flaps have been widely used to provide predictable results, with low morbidity. Future studies are needed to further prove their use in compromised patients, including patients with a history of head and neck radiation and neck dissections. PMID:25086694

  16. Current techniques in preoperative imaging for abdomen-based perforator flap microsurgical breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mathes, David W; Neligan, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Perforator-based microsurgical reconstruction of the breast has steadily increased since the introduction of the technique in the 1990s. The procedure appears to offer less postoperative pain, lower abdominal morbidity, and better preservation of the rectus muscles than the more conventional flaps. However, the major disadvantage of these flaps that they can be difficult to harvest, resulting in a longer operative times. The challenges in flap dissection are a result of the variability in the vascular anatomy of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and its perforating branches through the rectus muscle. The location, number, and caliber of the perforators and the intramuscular trajectory of the DIEA branches vary greatly not only from individual to individual, but from one hemiabdomen to the other. The establishment of a presurgical map of the vessels on the abdomen facilitates surgical planning and may decrease operating room time, reduce intraoperative complications, and possibly improve outcomes. This article reviews the available techniques for preoperative planning with the currently available imaging modalities of handheld Doppler, color Doppler (duplex) ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. PMID:20024888

  17. Combined posterior flap and anterior suspended flap dacryocystorhinostomy: A modification of external dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Amarendra; Saikia, S. P.; Bhuyan, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) remains a reliable surgical technique for the treatment of obstruction of lacrimal drainage system beyond the common canalicular opening. Aim: To describe a simple modified double flap external DCR technique. Materials and Methods: Ninety six consecutive cases of chronic dacryocystitis with or without mucocele were selected irrespective of age and sex. In a modification to routine external DCR, a modified technique was followed, where both anterior and posterior flaps of lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa are created and sutured. Two double armed sutures were used to join the edges of anterior flaps, and elevate them anteriorly to avoid adhesion or apposition with underlying sutured posterior flaps, and to approximate the deep plane of the wound. Results: At the end of average follow-up period of 13 months, we observed 98.9% objective and 96.8% subjective success rates. The average operation time was 45 minutes. No significant intraoperative or postoperative complications were noticed. Conclusion: We believe that combined posterior flap and anterior suspended flap DCR technique is simple to perform and has the advantage of both double flap DCR and anterior suspension of anterior flaps. The results of the study showed the efficacy of this simple modification. PMID:20606867

  18. The evolving breast reconstruction: from latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap to a propeller thoracodorsal fasciocutaneous flap

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized for morbidity and complications. The TAP-flap does not seem to impair the function of the shoulder or arm and the morbidity appears to be scarce. However, an implant is often needed in combination with the TAP-flap, which results in implant related morbidity over time. The TAP-flap seems to be a promising tool for oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery and will certainly become an invaluable addition to breast reconstructive methods. PMID:25207206

  19. Effects of temperature, CO2/O2 concentrations and light intensity on cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Azuma, H.; Kiyota, M.

    2005-01-01

    Microalgae culture is likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO2 to O2 and remedying water quality as well as aquatic higher plants. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, was investigated as a fundamental study to determine the optimum culture conditions for microalgae production in aquatic food production modules including both microalgae culture and fish culture systems. E. gracilis was cultured under conditions with five levels of temperatures (25-33 degrees C), three levels of CO2 concentrations (2-6%), five levels of O2 concentrations (10-30%), and six levels of photosynthetic photon flux (20-200 micromoles m-2 s-1). The number of Euglena cells in a certain volume of solution was monitored with a microscope under each environmental condition. The multiplication rate of the cells was highest at temperatures of 27-31 degrees C, CO2 concentration of 4%, O2 concentration of 20% and photosynthetic photon flux of about 100 micromoles m-2 s-1. The results demonstrate that E. gracilis could efficiently produce biomass and convert CO2 to O2 under relatively low light intensities in aquatic food production modules. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  20. Effects of temperature, CO 2/O 2 concentrations and light intensity on cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Azuma, H.; Kiyota, M.

    Microalgae culture is likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO 2 to O 2 and remedying water quality as well as aquatic higher plants. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, was investigated as a fundamental study to determine the optimum culture conditions for microalgae production in aquatic food production modules including both microalgae culture and fish culture systems. E. gracilis was cultured under conditions with five levels of temperatures (25-33 °C), three levels of CO 2 concentrations (2-6%), five levels of O 2 concentrations (10-30%), and six levels of photosynthetic photon flux (20-200 μmol m -2 s -1). The number of Euglena cells in a certain volume of solution was monitored with a microscope under each environmental condition. The multiplication rate of the cells was highest at temperatures of 27-31 °C, CO 2 concentration of 4%, O 2 concentration of 20% and photosynthetic photon flux of about 100 μmol m -2 s -1. The results demonstrate that E. gracilis could efficiently produce biomass and convert CO 2 to O 2 under relatively low light intensities in aquatic food production modules.

  1. Design and experimental results for a turbine with jet flap stator and jet flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bettner, J. L.; Blessing, J. O.

    1973-01-01

    The overall performance and detailed stator performance of a negative hub reaction turbine design featuring a moderately low solidity jet flap stator and a jet flap rotor were determined. Testing was conducted over a range of turbine expansion ratios at design speed. At each expansion ratio, the stator jet flow and rotor jet flow ranged up to about 7 and 8 percent, respectively, of the turbine inlet flow. The performance of the jet flap stator/jet flap rotor turbine was compared with that of a turbine which used the same jet flap rotor and a conventional, high solidity plan stator. The effect on performance of increased axial spacing between the jet stator and rotor was also investigated.

  2. Comparing semilunar coronally positioned flap to standard coronally positioned flap using periodontal clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Carlos Augusto; da Silva, Wilson Aparecido Dias; Tonet, Karine; Secundes, Mayron Barros; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of 2 surgical root coverage techniques--semilunar coronally positioned flap and coronally advanced flap--using the clinical parameters of periodontal tissues from patients with Miller Class I gingival recession. Twenty patients (20-50 years of age) were selected. Basic periodontal treatment was performed, and plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and height of the attached gingiva were determined. Each patient was placed into 1 of 2 groups: Group 1 patients underwent the semilunar coronally positioned flap technique, and Group 2 patients underwent the coronally advanced flap technique. Patients were assessed for 180 days. Both groups showed significant reduction of plaque and gingival indices and an improvement in clinical attachment levels and probing depth. However, results showed the standard coronally positioned flap technique was deemed more effective due to significant clinical attachment level gains. PMID:24598495

  3. Identification and enzymatic characterization of an endo-1,3-β-glucanase from Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Takumi; Nakano, Yuki; Takahashi, Machiko; Konno, Naotake; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Arashida, Ryo; Marukawa, Yuka; Yoshida, Eriko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo

    2015-08-01

    Euglena produces paramylon as a storage polysaccharide, and is thought to require β-1,3-glucan degrading enzymes to release and utilize the accumulated carbohydrate. To investigate β-1,3-glucan degradation in Euglena, endo-1,3-β-glucanases were partially purified from Euglena gracilis by hydrophobic, gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Tryptic digests and mass-spectrometric analysis identified three proteins in the purified fraction as a member of glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 17 and two members of GH81. These genes were cloned from an Euglena cDNA pool by PCR. EgCel17A fused with a histidine-tag at the carboxy terminus was heterologously produced by Aspergillus oryzae and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Purified EgCel17A had a molecular weight of about 40kDa by SDS-PAGE, which was identical to that deduced from its amino acid sequence. The enzyme showed hydrolytic activity towards β-1,3-glucans such as laminarin and paramylon. Maximum activity of laminarin degradation by EgCel17A was attained at pH 4.0-5.5 and 60°C after 1h incubation or 50°C after 20h incubation. The enzyme had a Km of 0.21mg/ml and a Vmax of 40.5units/mg protein for laminarin degradation at pH 5.0 and 50°C. Furthermore, EgCel17A catalyzed a transglycosylation reaction by which reaction products with a higher molecular weight than the supplied substrates were initially generated; however, ultimately the substrates were degraded into glucose, laminaribiose and laminaritriose. EgCel17A effectively produced soluble β-1,3-glucans from alkaline-treated Euglena freeze-dried powder containing paramylon. Thus, EgCel17 is the first functional endo-1,3-β-glucanase to be identified from E. gracilis. PMID:26028521

  4. A novel technique for cheek mucosa defect reconstruction using a pedicled buccal fat pad and buccinator myomucosal island flap.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvano; Ferri, Andrea; Bianchi, Bernardo; Copelli, Chiara; Magri, Alice Sara; Sesenna, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Reconstruction of cheek mucosa defects following tumor resections can be approached with several techniques, depending on size of the defect. Fasciocutaneous and perforators free flaps are widely employed today for such reconstructions. However, small defects or general health of the patient may limit their indications. Furthermore, approaching moderate size defects, some techniques, like temporalis muscle or fascia pedicled flaps, lead to contracture with limitation of mouth opening or trisma, and others, like intraoral local flaps, do not provide enough tissue for the reconstructions. In this work the authors propose, for reconstructing these kind of defects, the use of a buccinator myomucosal island flap and a buccal fat pad pedicled flap association. A case is reported and the surgical technique is explained. This new reconstructive technique can easily be used for reconstructing moderate-sized cheek defects, achieving optimal results: the internal mucosal lining is restored in few weeks without any retraction, contracture, of scars on the face limiting the aesthetic outcome and mouth opening. PMID:18620893

  5. Tips and Outcomes of a New DIEP Flap Inset in Delayed Breast Reconstruction: The Dual-Plane Technique.

    PubMed

    Gravvanis, Andreas; Kakagia, Despoina; Samouris, George; Galani, Eleni; Tsoutsos, Dimosthenis

    2016-06-01

    Purpose The dual-plane deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap inset technique is herein presented with tips for optimizing the aesthetic outcome in delayed autologous breast reconstruction after radiation therapy. Patients and Methods A total of 42 women who underwent microsurgical reconstruction with a free DIEP flap participated in this prospective study. The flap was inset in a dual plane lying behind the pectoralis major at the upper pole and in front of the muscle at the lower pole of the reconstructed breast. Results The dual-plane flap inset resulted in natural transition from native and reconstructed tissues, excellent scar quality, optimal outline of the breast, and overall breast appearance. Moreover, dual-plane reconstruction was associated with constantly high patient satisfaction without wearing brassiere due to fullness of the upper pole and minimal ptosis with time. Conclusion The dual-plane DIEP flap inset results in optimal scar quality, breast shape, and fullness of the upper pole, resulting in high patient satisfaction. PMID:27077210

  6. Total Posterior Leg Open Wound Management With Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap: Case and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Soleiman; Chou, Stephanie; Rosing, James; Sahar, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue coverage of the exposed Achilles tendon is a unique reconstructive challenge. In this report, we describe the management of a large posterior leg wound with exposed Achilles tendon using a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. A careful review of alternative reconstructive options is included, along with their respective advantages and disadvantages. A 32-year-old white man suffered a fulminant right lower extremity soft tissue infection requiring extensive debridement of the entire posterior surface of the right leg. The resulting large soft tissue defect included exposure of the Achilles tendon. Reconstruction of the defect was achieved with an ALT flap and split-thickness skin graft for coverage of the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. The patient was able to ambulate independently within 2 months of the procedure. PMID:24106563

  7. Four flap suspension technique for prevention of bottoming out after breast reduction

    PubMed Central

    Kankaya, Yüksel; Sungur, Nezih; Aslan, Özlem çolak; Gürsoy, Koray; Özer, Kadri; Koçer, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Bottoming-out deformity is accepted as the most important disadvantage of inferior pedicle breast reduction. For prevention of this deformity, different techniques are used in combination with inferior pedicle. In this study, we aimed to prevent bottoming-out deformity by producing an internal bra effect through combination of inferior pedicle technique with 2 superior and 2 inferior dermal flaps that were raised from each side of the pedicle. Methods Thirteen patients whose medical records became available during the follow-up period at Ankara Training and Research Hospital from January 2010 to January 2015 were included in this study. We retrospectively obtained patient medical records including demographic characteristics and clinical data. Superior dermal flaps were planned on both sides of the pedicle 2 cm inferior to the lower border of areola and inferior dermal flaps were planned 6 cm inferior to the superior dermal flaps. The superior and inferior dermal flaps were secured to the periosteum of the 2nd and 4th ribs respectively with permanent sutures. Results Preoperatively, the average distance between the inframammary fold and areola was 13.9 cm (range, 11-18 cm). The average amount of breast parenchymal resection was 745 g (range, 612-1,496 g). The average distance between the inframammary fold and the lower border of the areola was 7.9 cm (range, 7.5-9 cm) on the postoperative first-year measurements. Conclusion In conclusion, according to our study, suspension technique to prevent bottoming-out deformity is associated with an easier technique without the need for alloplastic or allogenic materials. Since fixation is performed to the ribs instead of soft tissues like the pectoral fascia or muscle, we believe that this fixation is more long lasting and can be an effective alternative to other suspension techniques. PMID:26793687

  8. 14 CFR 25.701 - Flap and slat interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equivalent means. (b) If a wing flap or slat interconnection or equivalent means is used, it must be designed... be designed for the loads imposed when the wing flaps or slats on one side are carrying the...

  9. Reconstruction Using Locoregional Flaps for Large Skull Base Defects.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Takaharu; Motomura, Hisashi; Ayabe, Shinobu

    2015-06-01

    We present a modified locoregional flap for the reconstruction of large anterior skull base defects that should be reconstructed with a free flap according to Yano's algorithm. No classification of skull base defects had been proposed for a long time. Yano et al suggested a new classification in 2012. The lb defect of Yano's classification extends horizontally from the cribriform plate to the orbital roof. According to Yano's algorithm for subsequent skull base reconstructive procedures, a lb defect should be reconstructed with a free flap such as an anterolateral thigh free flap or rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap. However, our modified locoregional flap has also enabled reconstruction of lb defects. In this case series, we used a locoregional flap for lb defects. No major postoperative complications occurred. We present our modified locoregional flap that enables reconstruction of lb defects. PMID:26225296

  10. Flapping wing PIV and force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Benjamin H.

    Flapping wing aerodynamics has been of interest to engineers recently due in part to the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) MAV (Micro-Aerial Vehicle) initiative. MAVs are small unmanned aerial vehicles with length scales similar to birds and insects. Flapping wing MAVs would serve as mobile and stealthy sensing platforms capable of gathering intelligence in hazardous and physically inaccessible locations. Traditional means of lift and thrust generation become inefficient when scaled to these sizes, therefore a flapping wing propulsion system will be necessary. The design of a flapping wing MAV requires the ability to measure forces and velocities around the wing. Three components of velocity were measured in the wake of a two dimensional (2D) flapping airfoil model using a novel application of stereoscopic DPIV (Digital Particle Image Velocimetry). One component of force was measured using a newly proposed method outlined in the dissertation. The force measurement technique relies on a specific sequence of data acquisition, which has the benefit of reducing measurement uncertainty and noise. No experiments of this type have been conducted, and no direct aerodynamic force data exists for the low Reynolds numbers applicable to flapping wing MAVs. The well-established stereoscopic DPIV technique produces relatively low uncertainties while the new force measurement technique has not been previously tested. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that aerodynamic forces are attainable for chord Reynolds numbers as low as 1,000, which is significantly lower than previous studies. PIV measurements reveal symmetric and asymmetric wake topologies for a NACA 0012 and flat plate airfoil. A sinusoidally heaving flat plate airfoil produces highly deflected wakes for a wider range of flapping conditions than a NACA 0012 airfoil. Deflected wakes are of potentially interest since both lift and thrust components of force are developed. The flat plate also

  11. Flow field of flexible flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallstrom, Erik

    The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded

  12. Evaluation of muscle injury using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A. D.; Jaweed, M.; Evans, H.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate spin echo T2 relaxation time changes in thigh muscles after intense eccentric exercise in healthy men. Spin echo and calculated T2 relaxation time images of the thighs were obtained on several occasions after exercise of one limb; the contralateral limb served as control. Muscle damage was verified by elevated levels of serum creatine kinase (CK). Thirty percent of the time no exercise effect was discernible on the magnetic resonance (MR) images. In all positive MR images (70%) the semitendinosus muscle was positive, while the biceps femoris, short head, and gracilis muscles were also positive in 50% and 25% of the total cases, respectively. The peak T2 relaxation time and serum CK were correlated (r = 0.94, p<0.01); temporal changes in muscle T2 relaxation time and serum CK were similar, although T2 relaxation time remained positive after serum CK returned to background levels. We conclude that magnetic resonance imaging can serve as a useful tool in the evaluation of eccentric exercise muscle damage by providing a quantitative indicator of damage and its resolution as well as the specific areas and muscles.

  13. Deltopectoral Flap in the Era of Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Chan, R. C. L.; Chan, J. Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Our study aimed to review the role of deltopectoral (DP) flap as a reconstructive option for defects in the head and neck region in the microvascular era. Methods. All patients who received DP flap reconstruction surgery at the Department of Surgery, Queen Mary Hospital, between 1999 and 2011 were recruited. Demographic data, indications for surgery, defect for reconstruction, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results. Fifty-four patients were included. All but two patients were operated for reconstruction after tumour resection. The remaining two patients were operated for necrotizing fasciitis and osteoradionecrosis. The majority of DP flaps were used to cover neck skin defect (63.0%). Other reconstructed defects included posterior pharyngeal wall (22.2%), facial skin defect (11.1%), and tracheal wall (3.7%). All donor sites were covered with partial thickness skin graft. Two patients developed partial flap necrosis at the tip and were managed conservatively. The overall flap survival rate was 96.3%. Conclusions. Albeit the technical advancements in microvascular surgery, DP still possesses multiple advantages (technical simplicity, reliable axial blood supply, large size, thinness, and pliability) which allows it to remain as a useful, reliable, and versatile surgical option for head and neck reconstruction. PMID:25374953

  14. Toxicity assessment of a common laundry detergent using the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Synthetic detergents are among the commonly used chemicals in everyday life. Detergents, reaching aquatic environments through domestic and municipal wastewater, can cause many different effects in aquatic organisms. The present study was aimed at the toxicity evaluation of a commonly used laundry detergent, Ariel, using the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis as a biotest organism. Different parameters of the flagellate like motility, swimming velocity, cell shape, gravitactic orientation, photosynthesis and concentration of light harvesting pigments were used as end points for the toxicity assessment. No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) and EC(50) values were calculated for the end point parameters at four different incubation times, i.e. 0, 6, 24 and 72 h. After 72 h incubation, swimming velocity of the cells was found to be the most sensitive parameter giving NOEC and EC(50) values of 10.8 and 34 mg L(-1), respectively. After 72 h exposure to the detergent, chlorophyll a and total carotenoids were significantly decreased in cultures treated with Ariel at concentrations of 50 mg L(-1) and above while chlorophyll b significantly decreased at concentrations above 750 mg L(-1). The maximum inhibitory effect on the quantum yield of photosystem II was observed after 24 h exposure and thereafter a recovery trend was observed. Motility, gravitaxis and cell shape were strongly impaired immediately upon exposure to the detergent, but with increasing exposure time these parameters showed acclimatization to the stress and thus the NOEC values obtained after 72 h were higher than those immediately after exposure. PMID:21601907

  15. Dental microwear reveals mammal-like chewing in the neoceratopsian dinosaur Leptoceratops gracilis.

    PubMed

    Varriale, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Extensive oral processing of food through dental occlusion and orbital mandibular movement is often cited as a uniquely mammalian trait that contributed to their evolutionary success. Save for mandibular translation, these adaptations are not seen in extant archosaurs or lepidosaurs. In contrast, some ornithischian dinosaurs show evidence of precise dental occlusion, habitual intraoral trituration and complex jaw motion. To date, however, a robust understanding of the diversity of jaw mechanics within non-avian dinosaurs, and its comparison with other vertebrates, remains unrealized. Large dental batteries, well-developed dental wear facets, and robust jaws suggests that neoceratopsian (horned) dinosaurs were capable chewers. But, biomechanical analyses have assumed a relatively simple, scissor-like (orthal) jaw mechanism for these animals. New analyses of dental microwear, presented here, show curvilinear striations on the teeth of Leptoceratops. These features indicate a rostral to caudal orbital motion of the mandible during chewing. A rostrocaudal mandibular orbit is seen in multituberculates, haramiyid allotherians, and some rodents, and its identification in Leptoceratops gracilis is the first evidence of complex, mammal-like chewing in a ceratopsian dinosaur. The term circumpalinal is here proposed to distinguish this new style of chewing from other models of ceratopsian mastication that also involve a palinal component. This previously unrecognized complexity in dinosaurian jaw mechanics indicates that some neoceratopsian dinosaurs achieved a mammalian level of masticatory efficiency through novel adaptive solutions. PMID:27441111

  16. Dental microwear reveals mammal-like chewing in the neoceratopsian dinosaur Leptoceratops gracilis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Extensive oral processing of food through dental occlusion and orbital mandibular movement is often cited as a uniquely mammalian trait that contributed to their evolutionary success. Save for mandibular translation, these adaptations are not seen in extant archosaurs or lepidosaurs. In contrast, some ornithischian dinosaurs show evidence of precise dental occlusion, habitual intraoral trituration and complex jaw motion. To date, however, a robust understanding of the diversity of jaw mechanics within non-avian dinosaurs, and its comparison with other vertebrates, remains unrealized. Large dental batteries, well-developed dental wear facets, and robust jaws suggests that neoceratopsian (horned) dinosaurs were capable chewers. But, biomechanical analyses have assumed a relatively simple, scissor-like (orthal) jaw mechanism for these animals. New analyses of dental microwear, presented here, show curvilinear striations on the teeth of Leptoceratops. These features indicate a rostral to caudal orbital motion of the mandible during chewing. A rostrocaudal mandibular orbit is seen in multituberculates, haramiyid allotherians, and some rodents, and its identification in Leptoceratops gracilis is the first evidence of complex, mammal-like chewing in a ceratopsian dinosaur. The term circumpalinal is here proposed to distinguish this new style of chewing from other models of ceratopsian mastication that also involve a palinal component. This previously unrecognized complexity in dinosaurian jaw mechanics indicates that some neoceratopsian dinosaurs achieved a mammalian level of masticatory efficiency through novel adaptive solutions. PMID:27441111

  17. Polarotaxis, gravitaxis and vertical phototaxis in the green flagellate, Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Hader, D P

    1987-03-01

    A fully automatic computer-controlled video analysis system has been used to study the movement of the green unicellular flagellate, Euglena gracilis in a horizontal or vertical cuvette. In darkness, in the absence of gaseous gradients, most cells swim straight upwards. While in a horizontal cuvette the transition between positive and negative phototaxis is found at about 1.5 W m-2, an excess of 30 W m-2 is required to reverse the upward swimming (due to the combined stimulus of negative gravitaxis and positive phototaxis) in a vertical cuvette. By studying the swimming direction in horizontal and vertical cuvettes in polarized light irradiated from above or from the side, respectively, the dichroic orientation of the photoreceptor molecules can be determined in three dimensions with respect to the axes of the cell; In a horizontal cuvette, in a linearly polarized beam from above, the cells orient predominantly at an angle of about 30 degrees clockwise off the electric dipole transition moment as seen from above. The behavior in a vertical cuvette with polarized light entering from above indicates that the photoreceptor pigments are dichroically oriented 60 degrees counterclockwise from the flagellar plane (seen from the front end of the cell). Experiments with horizontal polarized light indicate that the photoreceptor transition moment deviates 25 degrees clockwise off the long axis of the cell. PMID:11536573

  18. Light regulation of the cell cycle and gene expression in Euglena gracilis bacillaris

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Muh-ching

    1988-05-01

    Light regulation of the cell division cycle in the photosynthetic unicellular alga Euglena gracilis bacillaris was studied. By inoculating stationary phase, non-dividing cells into fresh media, and exposing the diluted cells to either light or darkness, it was determined that initiation of DNA synthesis is light dependent and requires continuous exposure to more than six hours of light. It is proposed that this is to allow the accumulation of an initiating factor that will enable DNA synthesis to begin. The initiating factor has a half-life of 5 hours in the dark. Flow cytometry analysis shows that once cells are committed to the cell cycle, they will complete the cycle in the dark. The levels of several photosynthetic messenger RNAs have been studied under alternating light-dark conditions and continuous light conditions. RNA levels for psbA, which encodes the Photosynthem II herbicide binding protein known as D1, display a strong circadian rhythm that persists for more than 3 days in continuous light. RNA levels for rbcL, which encodes the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and for rbcS, which encodes the small subunit of that enzyme, have a shorter free-running circadian cycle. The chloroplast-encoded rbcL is more sensitive to cell cycle state because it does not accumulate in stationary phase cultures while the nuclear-encoded rbcS does accumulate.

  19. Low-resolution characterization of the 3D structure of the Euglena gracilis photoreceptor

    SciTech Connect

    Barsanti, Laura; Coltelli, Primo; Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Vesentini, Nicoletta; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2008-10-24

    This paper deals with the first characterization of the structure of the photoreceptive organelle of the unicellular alga Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta). This organelle has a three-dimensional organization consisting of up to 50 closely stacked membrane lamellae. Ionically induced unstacking of the photoreceptor lamellae revealed ordered arrays well suited to structural analysis by electron microscopy and image analysis, which ultimately yielded a low-resolution picture of the structure. Each lamella is formed by the photoreceptive membrane protein of the cell assembled within the membrane layer in a hexagonal lattice. The first order diffraction spots in the calculated Fourier transform reveals the presence of 6-fold symmetrized topography (better resolution about 90 A). The 2D and 3D structural data are very similar with those recently published on proteorodopsin, a membrane protein used by marine bacterio-plankton as light-driven proton pump. In our opinion these similarity indicate that a photoreceptive protein belonging to the same superfamily of proteorodopsin could form the Euglena photoreceptor.

  20. Induced changes in chloroplast protein accumulation during heat bleaching in Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, W.; Wilson, C.J. )

    1988-02-01

    When growing cultures of light-grown Euglena gracilis Z are exposed to slightly elevated temperatures (33{degree}C) there is a time-dependent decrease in chlorophyll (bleaching) and a gradual transformation of chloroplasts into rudimentary plastids. A study was undertaken whose primary objective was to document major changes in polypeptide composition in the stroma and in thylakoids of cells that have been exposed to the bleaching temperature for up to 57 hours. A novel polypeptide of about 60,000 to 63,000 M{sub r} whose function is presently unknown, accumulates in the stroma and in thylakoids in response to growth at the bleaching temperature. The levels of the large and small subunit of ribuolosebisphosphate carboxylase, on the other hand, decrease to very low levels at about 33 hours and remain very low for the duration of the temperature treatment. Of two polypeptides associated with the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex of photosystem II (28,000 and 24,500 M{sub r}) only the level of the smaller polypeptide decreases at the elevated temperature. The levels of 28,000 M{sub r} species remain virtually unchanged throughout the temperature treatment period.

  1. A nuclear gene of eubacterial origin in Euglena gracilis reflects cryptic endosymbioses during protist evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Henze, K; Badr, A; Wettern, M; Cerff, R; Martin, W

    1995-01-01

    Genes for glycolytic and Calvin-cycle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of higher eukaryotes derive from ancient gene duplications which occurred in eubacterial genomes; both were transferred to the nucleus during the course of endosymbiosis. We have cloned cDNAs encoding chloroplast and cytosolic GAPDH from the early-branching photosynthetic protist Euglena gracilis and have determined the structure of its nuclear gene for cytosolic GAPDH. The gene contains four introns which possess unusual secondary structures, do not obey the GT-AG rule, and are flanked by 2- to 3-bp direct repeats. A gene phylogeny for these sequences in the context of eubacterial homologues indicates that euglenozoa, like higher eukaryotes, have obtained their GAPDH genes from eubacteria via endosymbiotic (organelle-to-nucleus) gene transfer. The data further suggest that the early-branching protists Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica--which lack mitochondria--and portions of the trypanosome lineage have acquired GAPDH genes from eubacterial donors which did not ultimately give rise to contemporary membrane-bound organelles. Evidence that "cryptic" (possibly ephemeral) endosymbioses during evolution may have entailed successful gene transfer is preserved in protist nuclear gene sequences. PMID:7568085

  2. Regional analysis of the recruitment of the perennial grass, Bouteloua gracilis: Effects of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Coffin, D.P.; Lauenroth, W.K. )

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the recruitment potential by seedlings of the perennial C[sub 4] grass, Bouteloua gracillis (blue grama) for the central grassland region of the U.S. under current climatic conditions and for changes in climate. Four grassland types are found within this large region. B. gracillis dominates the vegetation for one grassland type, the shortgrass steppe, and is common in the other three types (northern and southern mixedgrass, and tallgrass prairies). The geographic distribution of abundance of this species may be explained by its potential for recruitment by seedlings. We used a multi-layer daily time step soil water model to evaluate the probability of recruitment of B. gracilis seedlings for a range of soil textures and a range of current and expected changes in climatic conditions representative of the region. Simulations were conducted using daily precipitation and temperature data for > 200 weather stations. Probability of recruitment increased with increasing temperature and precipitation, and was also positively related to silt content of the soil. Probabilities were lowest in the coolest and driest areas, including parts of the shortgrass steppe. The effects of climate change on recruitment was dependent upon the balance between increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation.

  3. Characterization of the 70,000 dalton heat shock proteins of Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Leustek, T.; Amir-Shapira, D.; Dalie, B.; Weissbach, H.; Brot, N. ); Welch, W. )

    1989-04-01

    The heat shock response of Euglena gracilis was studied and the proteins synthesized were identified. Cells were pulse-labeled with ({sup 35}S) sulfate at 21{degrees}C or 36{degrees}C and the proteins synthesized were analyzed by acrylamide gel analysis. The rate of synthesis of at least 4 major and 6 minor polypeptides, ranging from 25 Kd to 116 Kd increased in both light and dark grown cultures. Two polypeptides, 68 Kd and 69 Kd, were found to cross-react by immunoblot analysis with monoclonal antibodies raised against human 72 and 73 Kd heat shock proteins. Both the 68 Kd and 69 Kd proteins were expressed at 21{degrees}C; however, the synthesis of only the 68 Kd protein increased at 36{degrees}C. The 68 Kd heat inducible protein was present in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not the chloroplast, in cells grown at 21{degrees}C or exposed to 36{degrees}C. Both 68 Kd and 69 Kd proteins copurified during ATP-agarose affinity chromatography. Preliminary evidence indicates that the 68 Kd protein is phosphorylated in the presence of Ca{sup ++} and these proteins exhibit ATPase activity.

  4. Zinc and iron metabolism in Euglena gracilis: metal redistribution during Zn and Fe deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.; Gingrich, D.; Antholine, W.E.; Petering, D.H.

    1986-05-01

    The normal cytosolic distribution of Zn and Fe in Euglena gracilis and their changes during Zn and Fe deficiency and repletion in relationship to cell proliferation were examined. Using Sephadex G-75 chromatography, two metal pools were found-Zn and Fe bound to high molecular weight (HMW) proteins and a pool of low molecular weight (LMW) Zn and Fe of less than 2000 daltons (ZnL, FeL), containing 80-90% of the cytosolic Zn and Fe. ZnL and FeL can be separated on Sephadex G-15 and by HPLC techniques. According to ESR analysis both HMW and LMW iron is high spin Fe(III). Under conditions of Zn deficiency, cell proliferation is halted after 48 hrs. in concert with the depletion of the ZnL. Within error, HMW protein bound Zn is unaffected. ZnL appears to be a labile store of Zn to supply the cell with this essential metal. In contrast, during Fe deficiency cell proliferation is unaffected. Yet both HMW and LMW pools are depleted within 48 hrs. Both bands of Fe appear to be storage forms of the metal. Proliferative capacity of the alga is evidently more sensitive to Zn deficiency than to Fe depletion, possibly because Euglena can scavenge adventitious Fe from the medium by a siderophore-mediated mechanism.

  5. Protein synthesis during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response in Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, W. )

    1990-05-01

    Growing cultures of photoheterotrophic Euglena gracilis experience an increase in chlorophyll accumulation during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response suggesting an increase in the synthesis of plastid components at the bleaching temperature of 33{degree}C. A primary goal of this work was to establish whether an increase in the synthesis of plastid proteins accompanies the observed increase in chlorophyll accumulation. In vivo pulse-labeling experiments with ({sup 35}S)sodium sulfate were carried out with cells grown at room temperature or at 33{degree}C. The synthesis of a number of plastid polypeptides of nucleocytoplasmic origin, including some presumably novel polypeptides, increased in cultures treated for 15 hours at 33{degree}C. In contrast, while synthesis of thylakoid proteins by the plastid protein synthesis machinery decreased modestly, synthesis of the large subunit of the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was strongly affected at the elevated temperature. Synthesis of novel plastid-encoded polypeptides was not induced at the bleaching temperature. It is concluded that protein synthesis in plastids declines during the initial phase of the temperature response in Euglena despite an overall increase in cellular protein synthesis and an increase in chlorophyll accumulation per cell.

  6. Characterization of a highly negative and labile binding protein induced in Euglena gracilis by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Gingrich, D.J.; Weber, D.N.; Shaw, C.F.; Garvey, J.S.; Petering, D.H.

    1986-03-01

    The physiochemical properties and physiological significance of the cadmium-binding protein (CdBP) of the algae Euglena gracilis have been studied. Following in vivo exposure of cells to 0.4 or 1.3 ..mu..g/mL of Cd/sup 2 +/, all the cytosolic Cd is bound to high molecular weight species. At 4.7 ..mu..g/mL, appreciable CdBP has formed in cells grown under illumination or in the dark. The large pool of very low molecular weight zinc species previously reported is increased when cells are exposed to high cadmium levels. Two distinct species, BP-1 and BP-2 are resolved by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex. Unusually high conductivities are required to displace them, indicating that they are very negatively charged proteins at pH 8.6. The pH for half-titration of bound Cd/sup 2 +/ is between 5 and 6. Neither form of the CdBP cross-reacts with antibodies to rat liver metallothionein (MT) antibodies. The structural, chemical, and functional differences between the Euglena CdBPs and mammalian MTs are discussed. When cells are exposed to high levels of Cu, a CuBP is induced, and the very low molecular weight zinc band is depleted.

  7. Cyanide-resistant respiration in Euglena gracilis does not correlate with mitochondrial cytochrome O content

    SciTech Connect

    Devars, S.; Uribe, A.; Torres-Marquez, M.E.; Gonzalez-Halphen, D. ); Moreno-Sanchez, P. )

    1991-03-15

    Basal respiration Euglena gracilis cells grown in the dark with distinct carbon sources showed different sensitivity to KCN: 1-10% inhibition by 0.1 mM KCM for cells grown with glutamate+malate (g+m) and 40-55% for those grown with peptone+acetate (p+a). The basal respiration was stimulated 1.6 to 2.4 times by TMPD: the values reached by cells grown in g+m resembled those of p+a cells, suggesting a similar maximal cytochrome oxidase activity in both types. Dixon plots for KCM showed two components in basal and TMPD-stimulated respiration with K{sub i} values of 4-10 and 70-80 {mu}M for TMPC-stimulated respiration and 20-50 and 400-600 {mu}M for basal activity. Thus, the distinct sensitivities to KCN seems not to be due to a different content of aa{sub 3} in the cells, not to different K{sub i} for the inhibitor. Diphenyl amine, an inhibitor of alternate respiratory pathways, inhibited 85-95% basal respiration with a single K{sub i} value of 0.15-0.2 mM and 40-60% TMPD-stimulated activity. Determination of cytochrome o content, the postulated alternate oxidase, showed no differences in the cells grown with distinct carbon sources. Then the different sensitivity to cyanide is more likely related to the oxidation of different substrates.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Euglena gracilis, Euglena intermedia and their extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Tang, Xiaoling; Song, Wenshuang; Zhu, Lina; Liu, Xingang; Yan, Xiaomin; Jin, Chengzhi; Ren, Qingguang

    2015-02-01

    Extracellular and intracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Euglena gracilis (EG) strain and Euglena intermedia (EI) strain are reported in this study. The obtained nanoparticles showed an absorption peak approximates 420 nm in the UV-visible spectrum, corresponding to the plasmon resonance of AgNPs. According to the result of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, the intakes of silver ions by EI and EG are roughly equal. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis of the successful in vivo and in vitro synthesised AgNPs indicated the sizes, ranging from 6 to 24 nm and 15 to 60 nm in diameter, respectively, and a spherical-shaped polydispersal of the particles. The successful formation of AgNPs has been confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis connected to the TEM. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements reveal the presence of bioactive functional groups such as amines are found to be the capping and stabilising agents of nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where two kinds of Euglena microalga were used as the potential source for in vivo and in vitro biosynthesis of AgNPs. PMID:25650322

  9. Biochemical and physiological analyses of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase isozymes in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Shun; Maruta, Takanori; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2015-07-01

    At least four peroxiredoxins that are coupled with the thioredoxin (Trx) system have been shown to play a key role in redox metabolism in the unicellular phytoflagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to clarify Trx-mediated redox regulation in this alga, we herein identified three NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) using a homologous search and characterized their enzymatic properties and physiological roles. Each Euglena NTR protein belonged to the small, large, and NTRC types, and were named EgNTR1, EgNTR2, and EgNTRC, respectively. EgNTR2 was phylogenetically different from the known NTRs in eukaryotic algae. EgNTR1 was predicted to be localized in mitochondria, EgNTR2 in the cytosol, and EgNTRC in plastids. The catalytic efficiency of EgNTR2 for NADPH was 30-46-fold higher than those of EgNTR1 and truncated form of EgNTRC, suggested that large type EgNTR2 reduced Trx more efficiently. The silencing of EgNTR2 gene expression resulted in significant growth inhibition and cell hypertrophy in Euglena cells. These results suggest that EgNTRs function in each cellular compartment and are physiologically important, particularly in the cytosol. PMID:26025518

  10. Light-induced Enzyme Formation in a Chlorophyll-less Mutant of Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Russell, G K; Draffan, A G

    1978-11-01

    A mutant strain, Y(9), of Euglena gracilis strain Z that is unable to produce protochlorophyll or chlorophyll has been isolated following treatment of wild type cells with nalidixic acid. Dark-grown cells of the mutant contain proplastids that show only limited ultrastructural development when placed in the light. Treatment of Y(9) cells with ultraviolet light brings about permanent cell bleaching with a target number similar to wild type Euglena, and with a slightly greater sensitivity to ultraviolet. Three enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle, fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase (class I), NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, are detectable in dark-grown Y(9) cells at the low concentrations characteristic of dark-grown wild type cells, and increase substantially when these cells are exposed to light. The activity of ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase increases in the light to a lesser extent. Cytochrome 552, a carrier in the photosynthetic electron transport chain, is not present in light-grown cells of Y(9). The significance of this mutant for an understanding of the role of light in Euglena chloroplast development is discussed. PMID:16660582

  11. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  14. Unexpected flap thickness in laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Giledi, Osama; Daya, Sheraz M

    2003-09-01

    We report a case of an unexpected thick flap during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) that led to abandonment of surgery. This report illustrates the importance of stromal bed measurements after flap creation in LASIK. A thicker-than-expected flap can lead to a thinner-than-anticipated residual cornea and subsequent ectasia or even perforation during laser ablation. It is possible that reports of ectasia in normal thickness corneas reflect thicker-than-anticipated flaps. PMID:14522308

  15. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  17. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.; Nielsen, J. N.; Goodwin, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was carried out to extend and improve an existing method for predicting the longitudinal characteristics of wing flap configurations with externally blown flaps (EBF). Two potential flow models were incorporated into the prediction method: a wing and flap lifting-surface model and a turbofan engine wake model. The wing-flap model uses a vortex-lattice approach to represent the wing and flaps. The jet wake model consists of a series of closely spaced vortex rings normal to a centerline which may have vertical and lateral curvature to conform to the local flow field beneath the wing and flaps. Comparisons of measured and predicted pressure distributions, span load distributions on each lifting surface, and total lift and pitching moment coefficients on swept and unswept EBF configurations are included. A wide range of thrust coefficients and flap deflection angles is considered at angles of attack up to the onset of stall. Results indicate that overall lift and pitching-moment coefficients are predicted reasonably well over the entire range. The predicted detailed load distributions are qualitatively correct and show the peaked loads at the jet impingement points, but the widths and heights of the load peaks are not consistently predicted.

  18. Sural Versus Perforator Flaps for Distal Medial Leg Wounds.

    PubMed

    Schannen, Andrew P; Truchan, Lisa; Goshima, Kaoru; Bentley, Roger; DeSilva, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue coverage of distal medial ankle wounds is a challenging problem in orthopedic surgery because of the limited local tissues and prominent instrumentation. Traditionally, these wounds required free tissue transfer to achieve suitable coverage and subsequent bony union. To better respect the reconstructive ladder and to avoid the inherent difficulty of free flap coverage, rotational flaps have been used to cover these wounds. Both sural fasciocutaneous flaps and rotational fasciocutaneous perforator (propeller) flaps have been described for distal medial soft tissue coverage. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent distal medial leg coverage with the use of either sural flaps or rotational fasciocutaneous perforator flaps. The authors identified 14 patients by Current Procedural Terminology code who met the study criteria. The average age and degree of medical comorbidities were comparable in the 2 groups. The authors reviewed their medical records to evaluate fracture healing, flap size, complications, and return to normal shoe wear. All 7 sural flaps healed without incident, with underlying fracture healing. Of the 7 perforator flaps, 6 healed without incident, with underlying fracture healing. One perforator-based flap was complicated by superficial tip necrosis and went on to heal with local wound care. All patients returned to normal shoe wear. Both sural artery rotational flaps and posterior tibial artery-based rotational flaps are viable options for coverage of the distal medial leg. Coverage can be achieved reliably without microsurgery, anticoagulation, or monitoring in the intensive care unit. PMID:26652325

  19. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLAP GATES AT THE END OF DRAIN PIPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flap gates are commonly used at the end of pipe drains and pump outlets to prevent back flows of water and entry of small animals. Flap gates are relatively inexpensive, with low maintenance costs, but can trap debris in their hinge systems. Many texts refer to studies performed on flap gates at t...

  3. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  4. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  5. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  6. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  7. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  8. Prospective evaluation of outcome measures in free-flap surgery.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John L; Eadie, Patricia A; Orr, David; Al-Rawi, Mogdad; O'Donnell, Margaret; Lawlor, Denis

    2004-08-01

    Free-flap failure is usually caused by venous or arterial thrombosis. In many cases, lack of experience and surgical delay also contribute to flap loss. The authors prospectively analyzed the outcome of 57 free flaps over a 28-month period (January, 1999 to April, 2001). The setting was a university hospital tertiary referral center. Anastomotic technique, ischemia time, choice of anticoagulant, and the grade of surgeon were recorded. The type of flap, medications, and co-morbidities, including preoperative radiotherapy, were also documented. Ten flaps were re-explored (17 percent). There were four cases of complete flap failure (6.7 percent) and five cases of partial failure (8.5 percent). In patients who received perioperative systemic heparin or dextran, there was no evidence of flap failure (p = .08). The mean ischemia time was similar in flaps that failed (95 +/- 29 min) and in those that survived (92 +/- 34 min). Also, the number of anastomoses performed by trainees in flaps that failed (22 percent), was similar to the number in flaps that survived (28 percent). Nine patients received preoperative radiotherapy, and there was complete flap survival in each case. This study reveals that closely supervised anastomoses performed by trainees may have a similar outcome to those performed by more senior surgeons. There was no adverse effect from radiotherapy or increased ischemia time on flap survival. PMID:15356760

  9. Clinical outcomes of suture delay in forehead flap.

    PubMed

    Isik, Daghan; Kiroglu, Faruk; Isik, Yasemin; Goktas, Ugur; Atik, Bekir

    2012-01-01

    The delay phenomenon is a surgical procedure performed to raise a wider skin flap and to improve the survival of skin flaps. Surgery, chemicals, sutures, and lasers can be used for the delay procedure. In this study, delayed forehead flaps created by suturing were used for coverage of nasal skin defects in eleven patients. In 7 patients, the cross-paramedian forehead flap was used to increase the extent of flap lengthening. In the first session, suture delay was performed on both sides of the forehead flap margin. In the second session, the flap was elevated and sutured to its new position, 7 to 10 days after the initial surgery. All flaps were completely viable, and patient satisfaction was optimal in all cases. The positive effect of surgical delay on flap survival has been shown in experimental and clinical studies. However, experimentally, suture delay or chemical delay procedures have been shown to be beneficial in flap survival only. Suture delay seems to be an inexpensive, effective, easily performed, atraumatic, and safe technique, especially among patients with systemic diseases such as diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, smoking patients who may lose the flap, or patients who need very wide and long flaps. PMID:22337378

  10. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  12. Collective Flow Enhancement by Tandem Flapping Wings.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Peters, Jacob M; Combes, Stacey A; Wood, Robert J

    2015-10-30

    We examine the fluid-mechanical interactions that occur between arrays of flapping wings when operating in close proximity at a moderate Reynolds number (Re≈100-1000). Pairs of flapping wings are oscillated sinusoidally at frequency f, amplitude θ_{M}, phase offset ϕ, and wing separation distance D^{*}, and outflow speed v^{*} is measured. At a fixed separation distance, v^{*} is sensitive to both f and ϕ, and we observe both constructive and destructive interference in airspeed. v^{*} is maximized at an optimum phase offset, ϕ_{max}, which varies with wing separation distance, D^{*}. We propose a model of collective flow interactions between flapping wings based on vortex advection, which reproduces our experimental data. PMID:26565499

  13. Collective Flow Enhancement by Tandem Flapping Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Peters, Jacob M.; Combes, Stacey A.; Wood, Robert J.

    2015-10-01

    We examine the fluid-mechanical interactions that occur between arrays of flapping wings when operating in close proximity at a moderate Reynolds number (Re ≈100 - 1000 ). Pairs of flapping wings are oscillated sinusoidally at frequency f , amplitude θM, phase offset ϕ , and wing separation distance D*, and outflow speed v* is measured. At a fixed separation distance, v* is sensitive to both f and ϕ , and we observe both constructive and destructive interference in airspeed. v* is maximized at an optimum phase offset, ϕmax, which varies with wing separation distance, D*. We propose a model of collective flow interactions between flapping wings based on vortex advection, which reproduces our experimental data.

  14. Numerical linearized MHD model of flapping oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovinskiy, D. B.; Ivanov, I. B.; Semenov, V. S.; Erkaev, N. V.; Kiehas, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Kink-like magnetotail flapping oscillations in a Harris-like current sheet with earthward growing normal magnetic field component Bz are studied by means of time-dependent 2D linearized MHD numerical simulations. The dispersion relation and two-dimensional eigenfunctions are obtained. The results are compared with analytical estimates of the double-gradient model, which are found to be reliable for configurations with small Bz up to values ˜ 0.05 of the lobe magnetic field. Coupled with previous results, present simulations confirm that the earthward/tailward growth direction of the Bz component acts as a switch between stable/unstable regimes of the flapping mode, while the mode dispersion curve is the same in both cases. It is confirmed that flapping oscillations may be triggered by a simple Gaussian initial perturbation of the Vz velocity.

  15. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to Part 223—Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to Part 223—Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... for the Double Cover Flap TED ER02JN04.003...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... for the Double Cover Flap TED ER02JN04.003...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... for the Double Cover Flap TED ER02JN04.003...

  20. Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady surface pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and

  1. Flap-edge aeroacoustic measurements and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.

    2003-03-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a small aperture directional array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady-surface-pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that the prediction models capture much of the physics. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. The complexity of the directivity results demonstrate the strong role of edge source geometry and frequency in

  2. Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady-surface-pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define, the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and

  3. Unsteady aerodynamics and flow control for flapping wing flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Steven; Nassef, Hany; Pornsinsirirak, Nick; Tai, Yu-Chong; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2003-11-01

    The creation of micro air vehicles (MAVs) of the same general sizes and weight as natural fliers has spawned renewed interest in flapping wing flight. With a wingspan of approximately 15 cm and a flight speed of a few meters per second, MAVs experience the same low Reynolds number (10 4-10 5) flight conditions as their biological counterparts. In this flow regime, rigid fixed wings drop dramatically in aerodynamic performance while flexible flapping wings gain efficacy and are the preferred propulsion method for small natural fliers. Researchers have long realized that steady-state aerodynamics does not properly capture the physical phenomena or forces present in flapping flight at this scale. Hence, unsteady flow mechanisms must dominate this regime. Furthermore, due to the low flight speeds, any disturbance such as gusts or wind will dramatically change the aerodynamic conditions around the MAV. In response, a suitable feedback control system and actuation technology must be developed so that the wing can maintain its aerodynamic efficiency in this extremely dynamic situation; one where the unsteady separated flow field and wing structure are tightly coupled and interact nonlinearly. For instance, birds and bats control their flexible wings with muscle tissue to successfully deal with rapid changes in the flow environment. Drawing from their example, perhaps MAVs can use lightweight actuators in conjunction with adaptive feedback control to shape the wing and achieve active flow control. This article first reviews the scaling laws and unsteady flow regime constraining both biological and man-made fliers. Then a summary of vortex dominated unsteady aerodynamics follows. Next, aeroelastic coupling and its effect on lift and thrust are discussed. Afterwards, flow control strategies found in nature and devised by man to deal with separated flows are examined. Recent work is also presented in using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuators and angular speed

  4. [Aseptic bone flap osteonecrosis following cranioplasty after decompressive cranietomy].

    PubMed

    Smoll, Nicolas R; Stienen, Martin N; Schaller, Karl; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2013-06-19

    This case report discusses a case of aseptic osteonecrosis in a cranioplasty bone flap after decompressive craniectomy, which is a known, but rare complication after autologous cranioplasty. We suggest that the pathophysiology of cranial bone flap necrosis may have a similar pathophysiology to free flap necrosis/failure. The key suggested problem causing the osteonecrosis is vessel thrombosis within the smaller vessels of the bone flap due to the prothrombotic effects of the factors released during drilling of the bone flap. Suspicious local findings like wound dehiscence or fluid leakage should lead to a head computed tomography in order to discuss a prophylactic artificial second cranioplasty if necessary. PMID:23773942

  5. Long term follow up of neurovascular island flaps.

    PubMed

    Henderson, H P; Reid, D A

    1980-06-01

    The results of a ten year mean follow up of twenty Neurovascular Island Flaps and two Radial Nerve Innervated Cross Finger Flaps are presented. Sensory acuity sufficient for tactile gnosis was achieved in nineteen cases. In only one case had sensory acuity deteriorated since operation. Use of the flap was hampered in one patient by a pre-existing neuroma. Complete sensory reorientation occurred in five patients. Sensory misreference persisted more commonly on dominant hands. It was our impression that Porter's Letter Test revealed the patients making most use of their neurovascular island flaps. The place of neurovascular island flaps in the management of the mutilated hand is discussed. PMID:7409615

  6. The hip adductor muscle group in caviomorph rodents: anatomy and homology.

    PubMed

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2015-06-01

    Anatomical comparative studies including myological data of caviomorph rodents are relatively scarce, leading to a lack of use of muscular features in cladistic and morphofunctional analyses. In rodents, the hip adductor muscles constitute an important group of the hindlimb musculature, having an important function during the beginning of the stance phase. These muscles are subdivided in several distinct ways in the different clades of rodents, making the identification of their homologies hard to establish. In this contribution we provide a detailed description of the anatomical variation of the hip adductor muscle group of different genera of caviomorph rodents and identify the homologies of these muscles in the context of Rodentia. On this basis, we identify the characteristic pattern of the hip adductor muscles in Caviomorpha. Our results indicate that caviomorphs present a singular pattern of the hip adductor musculature that distinguishes them from other groups of rodents. They are characterized by having a single m. adductor brevis that includes solely its genicular part. This muscle, together with the m. gracilis, composes a muscular sheet that is medial to all other muscles of the hip adductor group. Both muscles probably have a synergistic action during locomotion, where the m. adductor brevis reinforces the multiple functions of the m. gracilis in caviomorphs. Mapping of analyzed myological characters in the context of Rodentia indicates that several features are recovered as potential synapomorphies of caviomorphs. Thus, analysis of the myological data described here adds to the current knowledge of caviomorph rodents from anatomical and functional points of view, indicating that this group has features that clearly differentiate them from other rodents. PMID:25911542

  7. Propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Escudero, Ezequiel; Artero, Guillermo; Gercovich, Gustavo; Deza, Ernesto Gil

    2014-01-01

    Background The thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap has been described for breast reconstruction. This flap requires intramuscular dissection of the pedicle. A modification of the conventional TDAP surgical technique for breast reconstruction is described, utilizing instead a propeller TDAP flap. The authors present their clinical experience with the propeller TDAP flap in breast reconstruction alone or in combination with expanders or permanent implants. Methods From January 2009 to February 2013, sixteen patients had breast reconstruction utilizing a propeller TDAP flap. Retrospective analysis of patient characteristics, clinical indications, procedure and outcomes were performed. The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 48 months. Results Sixteen patients had breast reconstruction using a TDAP flap with or without simultaneous insertion of an expander or implant. All flaps survived, while two cases required minimal resection due to distal flap necrosis, healing by second intention. There were not donor-site seromas, while minimal wound dehiscence was detected in two cases. Conclusions The propeller TDAP flap appears to be safe and effective for breast reconstruction, resulting in minimal donor site morbidity. The use of this propeller flap emerges as a true alternative to the traditional TDAP flap. PMID:25207210

  8. The keystone flap: expanding the dermatologic surgeon's armamentarium.

    PubMed

    Hessam, Schapoor; Sand, Michael; Bechara, Falk G

    2015-01-01

    First described in 2003, the keystone flap has become an established plastic and reconstructive surgery technique for the closure of soft tissue defects following the excision of skin tumors. Complex reconstruction procedures may thus be avoided [3]. In dermatosurgery, however, the keystone flap remains largely unknown.Compared to subcutaneous pedicle flaps, the keystone flap technique warrants better vascular supply by additional-ly preserving musculocutaneous and fasciocutaneous perforator vessels [4]. Moreover, the flap is hyperemic compared to the surrounding skin [5]. Adequate perfusion and its specific design result in high safety of the flap. According to both published data and the authors’ experience, the keystone flap technique is associated with a low complication rate [1, 6].In summary, the keystone flap method yields good aesthetic and functional results by preserving shape and cont-our, avoiding differences in skin coloration and preserving sensitivity (Figure 1b). The flap is particularly well suited for deep defects with exposed bones or tendons, especially on the extremities or the trunk. Alternative closing options such as secondary intention healing, primary closure, or local flaps appear less adequate in these cases. In addition, skin grafting without long-term wound conditioning–for example negative pressure wound therapy–or expensive der-mal replacement products are not very promising. Thus, the keystone flap provides the dermatosurgeon with an effective alternative to reconstruction techniques. PMID:25640508

  9. Switch Flap for Upper Eyelid Reconstruction—How Soon Should the Flap Be Divided?

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Tetsu; Yasuta, Masato; Kawano, Hiroshige; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Background: The results of a cohort of patients treated at one institution for upper eyelid reconstruction with the switch flap method after a defect due to excision of malignant tumor were reviewed. Methods: A retrospective data file review of all patients who had undergone total upper eyelid reconstruction with the switch flap method was conducted at the Saga University Hospital between April 2000 and October 2014. The follow-up lasted for varying periods during which the preoperative and postoperative photographs were compared as well. Results: A total of 10 patients with upper eyelid tumors, that is, 7 sebaceous carcinoma, 2 squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 basal cell carcinoma, underwent reconstructive surgery. With the switch flap technique, the defects resulting from tumor excision were completely covered in all cases. The mean of defect widths after tumor excision (A) was 18.8 mm (range, 15–25 mm), the mean of widths of switch flaps (B) was 13.3 mm (range, 8–22 mm), and the mean of B/A ratios was 0.69 (range, 0.5–0.88). When the switch flap was divided at 7 to 14 days, there was no flap loss, trichiasis, or corneal ulcer. Conclusion: Our protocol managed to make flaps with a B/A ratio of 0.5–0.7, and the flaps were divided at 7 to 14 days after surgery, the timing of which was much earlier than in the conventional method, lessening the possibility of complications. PMID:27200257

  10. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the muscles (such as trichinosis or toxoplasmosis ) Muscle disorders such as muscular dystrophy or congenital ... nodosa Polymyalgia rheumatica Polymyositis - adult Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Toxoplasmosis Trichinosis Update Date 9/8/2014 Updated by: ...

  11. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause weakness, pain or even paralysis. Causes of muscle disorders include Injury or overuse, such as sprains or strains, cramps or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some ... muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not ...

  12. Delineation of LASIK Flaps with Prednisolone Acetate Eyedrops

    PubMed Central

    Fahd, Daoud C; Fahed, Sharbel D

    2014-01-01

    We describe the use and safety of prednisolone acetate eyedrops at the end of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to aid proper positioning of the corneal flap. The LASIK flap is created using the preferred technique. Following laser ablation and flap repositioning, one drop of prednisolone acetate is instilled on the eye. This delineates the flap “gutters” and allows perfect flap positioning and centration. We used this technique in 425 eyes undergoing LASIK for correction of spherocylindrical refractive errors. Flap margins were adequately delineated intraoperatively. The only complication related to the use of the steroid suspension was crystal deposition under the flap in one case which resolved completely in 48 hours. PMID:24982743

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4412 airfoil sction with flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockfen, Alex E.; Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2009-09-01

    Wing-in-Ground vehicles and aerodynamically assisted boats take advantage of increased lift and reduced drag of wing sections in the ground proximity. At relatively low speeds or heavy payloads of these craft, a flap at the wing trailing-ground-effect flow id numerically investigated in this study. The computational method consists of a steady-state, incompressible, finite volume method utilizing the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Grid generation and solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are completed flow with a flap, as well as ground-effect motion without a flap. Aerodynamic forces are plain flap. Changes in the flow introduced with the flap addition are also discussed. Overall, the use of a flap on wings with small attack angles is found to be beneficial for small flap deflections up to 5% of the chord, where the contribution of lift augmentation exceeds the drag increase, yielding an augmented lift-to-drag ratio

  14. The double opposing myomucosal cheek flap in hard palate reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pabiszczak, Maciej; Banaszewski, Jacek; Pastusiak, Tomasz; Buczkowska, Agata; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Limited defects in the oral cavity can be treated with local and pedicled cheek flaps. It allows to preserve the functions of the resected organ. Large defects in the midline of the hard palate can be reconstructed with double opposing myomucosal cheek flaps. The aim of this study was to discuss the methodology of the flap harvest and to show our experiences of treatment in a group of 15 patients with oral cavity cancer. In 1 patient the double opposing myomucosal cheek flap was harvested due to the wider local defect. The small size of the flap with ability to use the double opposing cheek flap in more extended defects as well as short duration of the surgery procedure can lead to reduced risk of postoperative complications. Finally, cheek flaps form an effective method of treatment of defects in the oral cavity. PMID:26388355

  15. The comparative study on the flapping motion of Venusian magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Zhaojin; Barabash, Stas; Wieser Stenberg, Gabriella; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wan, Weixing; Wei, Yong; Wang, Xiaodong; Chai, Lihui; Zhong, Jun

    2016-04-01

    With a newly developed technique and magnetic field measurements obtained by the magnetometer on Venus Express, we study the flapping motion of the Venusian magnetotail. We find that the flapping motion generally comprises contributions both from a nonpropagating steady flapping and a propagating kink-like flapping. The flapping motion tilts the current sheet normal significantly in the plane perpendicular to the Venus-Sun line. The kink-like flapping waves traveling along solar wind electric field or its antidirection can be found in either magnetotail hemisphere where solar wind electric field pointing toward/away. The traveling behaviors suggest that the locations of the triggers for kink-like flappings are near the boundaries between magnetotail current sheet and magnetosheath, not near the central region of magnetotail as is for the Earth's magnetotail.

  16. The split radial forearm flap for lower leg defects.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Robert J; Corten, Eveline M L; Schellekens, Pascal P A

    2014-11-01

    The conventional free radial forearm flap is a very reliable, long-pedicled flap with thin, pliable skin. These properties make it an excellent choice for high-risk reconstructions or defects requiring only a thin cover. The split radial forearm flap allows primary closure of the donor site and has a large variability in shape and size. In this report, the cutaneous perforators of the radial artery were investigated in fresh cadavers and we present our clinical experience with the split radial artery flap in 9 patients with lower leg defects. Sufficient perforators exist to safely divide the flap proximally and distally into segments. In all clinical cases, the donor site could be closed primarily. All flaps remained viable and 8 of 9 patients obtained an esthetically pleasing result. The split radial forearm free flap is an elegant option for reconstruction of small- to moderate-sized soft tissue defects in the lower extremity. PMID:23657049

  17. Toxicity Overrides Morphology on Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Grazing Resistance to the Calanoid Copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Luciana M; Ger, Kemal A; Silva, Lúcia H S; Soares, Maria Carolina S; Faassen, Elisabeth J; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-05-01

    Toxicity and morphology may function as defense mechanisms of bloom-forming cyanobacteria against zooplankton grazing. Yet, the relative importance of each of these factors and their plasticity remains poorly known. We tested the effects of chemical and morphological traits of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii on the feeding response of the selective feeder Eudiaptomus gracilis (Calanoida, Copepoda), using a saxitoxin-producing strain (STX+) and a non-saxitoxin (STX-)-producing strain as food. From these two chemotypes, we established cultures of three different morphotypes that differed in filament length (short, medium, and long) by incubating the strains at 17, 25, and 32 °C. We hypothesized that the inhibitory effects of saxitoxins determine the avoidance of C. raciborskii, and that morphology would only become relevant in the absence of saxitoxins. Temperature affected two traits: higher temperature resulted in significantly shorter filaments in both strains and led to much higher toxin contents in the STX+ strain (1.7 μg eq STX L(-1) at 17 °C, 7.9 μg eq STX L(-1) at 25 °C, and 25.1 μg eq STX L(-1) at 32 °C). Copepods strongly reduced the ingestion of the STX+ strain in comparison with STX- cultures, regardless of filament length. Conversely, consumption of shorter filaments was significantly higher in the STX- strain. The great plasticity of morphological and chemical traits of C. raciborskii and their resultant contrasting effects on the feeding behavior of zooplankton might explain the success of this cyanobacterium in a variety of aquatic environments. PMID:26888523

  18. Biomechanical Deficiencies in Women with Semitendinosus-Gracilis ACL Reconstruction During Drop Jumps

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Alexis; Capo-Lugo, Carmen E.; Venegas-Rios, Heidi L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare landing mechanics and neuromuscular recruitment strategies between women with semitendinosus-gracilis anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (SG-ACLr) and non-injured women during double and single-legged drop jumps. Design Cross-sectional biomechanical study Setting Single university-based biomechanics laboratory Participants Fourteen women 1–5 years post SG-ACLr and 16 non-injured women participated in this study. Methods After anthropometric measurements, warm-up, and familiarization procedures, participants performed five trials of a double and single-legged drop jumps. Main Outcome Measurements Dynamic knee valgus was measured as the distance between knee joints during the landing phase of the double-leg drop jumps. Medial knee displacement was the outcome considered during the landing phase of the single-leg drop jumps. For both drop jumps tasks neuromuscular recruitment was evaluated through rectified normalized electromyography (EMG) activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings (amplitude and latency), and quadriceps/hamstrings EMG co-contraction ratio. Results Although the SG- ACLr group demonstrated a tendency towards a greater dynamic knee valgus during both drop jumps, these differences did not reach statistical significance. EMG data revealed different neuromuscular strategies for each group depending on the specific jump. Conclusions These findings suggest that women with SG-ACLr have a tendency towards greater dynamic knee valgus which could predispose to additional knee injuries. Rehabilitation specialists need to be aware of existing kinematic and neuromuscular deficiencies years after SG-ACLr. Taking this into consideration will aid in prescribing appropriate interventions designed to prevent re-injury. PMID:25043260

  19. Avian-like attributes of a virtual brain model of the oviraptorid theropod Conchoraptor gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundrát, Martin

    2007-06-01

    An almost complete adult endoneurocranium of Conchoraptor gracilis Barsbold 1986 (Oviraptoridae; ZPAL MgD-I/95), discovered at the Hermiin Tsav locality (the Upper Cretaceous) in Mongolia, is analyzed. A virtual model of the endoneurocranial cavity was derived from CT scans and represents the most complete maniraptoran endocast to date. It displays reduced olfactory bulbs, large cerebral hemispheres in contact with the expanded cerebellum, an epiphysial projection, optic lobes displaced latero-ventrally, presumptive cerebellar folia, enlarged cerebellar auricles, and a deep medulla oblongata with a prominent ventral flexure. Contrary to Archaeopteryx, the shortened olfactory tract and cerebellum overtopping cerebral hemispheres of Conchoraptor resemble conditions in modern birds. Calculating brain mass relative to body mass indicates that Conchoraptor falls within the range of extant birds, whereas Archaeopteryx occupies a marginal position. Most of the endoneurocranial attributes, however, have a less birdlike appearance in Conchoraptor than do corresponding structures in Archaeopteryx and modern birds in which 1) postero-laterally expanded hemispheral domains broadly overlap the optic lobes, 2) the epiphysis projects to the posterior cerebrum, 3) lateral extension of the optic lobes substantially decreases a brain length-to-width ratio, 4) optic lobe and anterior hindbrain are superposed in lateral view, and 5) cerebellar and midbrain compartments are in distinct superposition. The endoneurocranial characteristics of Conchoraptor, taken together, suggest that the animal had a keen sense of vision, balance, and coordination. The data presented in this study do not allow an unambiguous assessment whether the avian-like endoneurocranial characteristics of the flightless Conchoraptor evolved convergently to those of avian theropods, or indicate a derivation of oviraptorosaurs from volant ancestors.

  20. Analysis of Euglena gracilis Plastid-Targeted Proteins Reveals Different Classes of Transit Sequences▿

    PubMed Central

    Durnford, Dion G.; Gray, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    The plastid of Euglena gracilis was acquired secondarily through an endosymbiotic event with a eukaryotic green alga, and as a result, it is surrounded by a third membrane. This membrane complexity raises the question of how the plastid proteins are targeted to and imported into the organelle. To further explore plastid protein targeting in Euglena, we screened a total of 9,461 expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters (derived from 19,013 individual ESTs) for full-length proteins that are plastid localized to characterize their targeting sequences and to infer potential modes of translocation. Of the 117 proteins identified as being potentially plastid localized whose N-terminal targeting sequences could be inferred, 83 were unique and could be classified into two major groups. Class I proteins have tripartite targeting sequences, comprising (in order) an N-terminal signal sequence, a plastid transit peptide domain, and a predicted stop-transfer sequence. Within this class of proteins are the lumen-targeted proteins (class IB), which have an additional hydrophobic domain similar to a signal sequence and required for further targeting across the thylakoid membrane. Class II proteins lack the putative stop-transfer sequence and possess only a signal sequence at the N terminus, followed by what, in amino acid composition, resembles a plastid transit peptide. Unexpectedly, a few unrelated plastid-targeted proteins exhibit highly similar transit sequences, implying either a recent swapping of these domains or a conserved function. This work represents the most comprehensive description to date of transit peptides in Euglena and hints at the complex routes of plastid targeting that must exist in this organism. PMID:16998072

  1. Structure and Role of the Renette Cell and Caudal Glands in the Nematode Sphaerolaimus gracilis (Monhysterida)

    PubMed Central

    Turpenniemi, T. A.; Hyvärinen, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrastructure of the renette cell and caudal glands was studied in the free-living aquatic nematode Sphaerolaimus gracilis. The renette cell occurred posterior to the esophageal-intestinal junction and opened through an ampulla to a ventral pore behind the nerve ring. The caudal gland system of the tail consisted of two gland cells opening through separate pores and 2 to 3 other gland cells of a different type opening through a common pore. The renette cell and the two caudal gland cells were similar and both contained secretory granules, 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter. The material released attached the nematode to the substrate. The renette ampulla was surrounded by a specialized cell, the ampulla cell, which had characteristics of myoepithelium. A plug or valve structure connected to the ampulla cell may regulate the output of the secretory material. The ampulla cell is able to contract and thus is probably under direct neuronal control. Other cells in the renette ampulla region of body cavity were termed supporting cells. Living, cold-relaxed nematodes were attached to sediment particles in the renette pore region and at the tail tip. Release from sediment particles was mechanical at the renette cell discharge site but appeared to be chemical at the caudal gland. In behavioral experiments, nematodes in a water current had the ability to release a thread from the caudal glands while maintaining contact with a sediment particle attached to the tail end. If the thread was strong enough, it also could be used to change location. Nematodes anchored by the thread from the caudal glands to a sediment particle could float in water currents until they attached themselves to another sediment particle with the help of secretions from the renette cells. PMID:19277149

  2. [Biology and fishery of the lobster Panulirus gracilis in Playa Lagarto, Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Madrigal, Helven Naranjo

    2011-06-01

    Panulirus gracilis is a high valuable lobster species with considerable captures along the tropical Pacific coast. In this study, I present some biological and fishery parameters described after a sample of 843 lobsters, landed in Playa Lagarto from November 2007 to October 2008. From landing records, a total of 74.9% of lobsters were below the minimum legal catch size (80 mm CL). Carapace lengths were in the range of 42.8 and 143.6 mm for males and 115 and 35.8 mm for females. The size structure showed a wide overlapping of population segments, and a trend to increase with depth, where lung diving and "hooka" diving operations take place. Sex ratio was 1.36 M:H. The relationship between weight and LC revealed that females are heavier than males of the same size, and this difference was significant (p < 0.05). The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for males and females respectively (K = 0.45-0.38, LC(infinity) = 166.9-121.7) showed accelerated growth compared to other species. Males observed a higher growth rate than females. Furthermore, natural mortality (M), total mortality (Z) and fishing mortality (F) was higher in males (0.49-2.34-1.92) than in females (0.47-1.82-1.42). Recruitment was continuous for both sexes during the year, with an elevated intensity of 18.5% in July. Under the current fishing regime the population could be at risk of collapse, as indicated by the high exploitation rate (E) 0.80 PMID:21721230

  3. Ursolic acid from Trailliaedoxa gracilis induces apoptosis in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    AGUIRIANO-MOSER, VICTOR; SVEJDA, BERNHARD; LI, ZENG-XIA; STURM, SONJA; STUPPNER, HERMANN; INGOLIC, ELISABETH; HÖGER, HARALD; SIEGL, VERONIKA; MEIER-ALLARD, NATHALIE; SADJAK, ANTON; PFRAGNER, ROSWITHA

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the C-cells of the thyroid and is not sensitive to radiation or chemotherapy. Therefore, surgical removal of the tumor tissue in its entirety is the only curative treatment for MTC. The present study aimed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of extracts of Trailliaedoxa gracilis (TG; WW Smith & Forrest), a plant from the province of Sichuan, China, and of ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpen present in TG, on the MTC-SK MTC cell line. A total of 13 TG fractions and UA were examined in vitro for their effects on cell morphology, cell number, proliferation and rates of apoptosis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction of nuclear factor-κB essential modifier (NEMO) was performed to delineate the role of the apoptotic pathway following treatment with UA. TG and UA were examined in vivo in xenotransplanted MTC-bearing severe combined immunodeficient mice. The TG fractions exhibited antiproliferative effects, with inhibition of mitochondrial activity in the tumor cells at concentrations, which caused no impairment of the normal control cells. The apoptotic rates of the MTC-SK cells treated with the TG fractions and UA were determined, in which no marked tumor inhibition was observed in the treated MTC-mice, and no change in the expression of NEMO was detected in the treated MTC-SK cells. The observation of early-onset activation of caspase 8 suggested that the responsible factor was linked to NEMO, an anti-apoptotic protein. However, no differences in the mRNA transcription levels of NEMO were detected in MTC-SK cells treated with UA, suggesting that this protein was not associated with the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway. PMID:26151624

  4. Local climate and cultivation, but not ploidy, predict functional trait variation in Bouteloua gracilis (Poaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterfield, Bradley J.; Wood, Troy E.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve the diversity of seed 18 resources for important restoration species has become a high priority for land managers in many parts of the world. Relationships between functional trait values and the environment from which seed sources are collected can provide important insights into patterns of local adaptation and guidelines for seed transfer. However, little is known about which functional traits exhibit genetic differentiation across populations of restoration species and thus may contribute to local adaptation. Here, we report the results of a common garden experiment aimed at assessing genetic (including ploidy level) and environmental regulation of several functional traits among populations of Bouteloua gracilis, a dominant C4 grass and the most highly utilized restoration species across much of the Colorado Plateau. We found that leaf size and specific leaf area (SLA) varied significantly among populations, and were strongly correlated with the source population environment from which seeds were collected. However, variation in ploidy level had no significant effect on functional traits. Leaves of plants grown from commercial seed releases were significantly larger and had lower SLA than those from natural populations, a result that is concordant with the overall relation between climate and these two functional traits. We suggest that the patterns of functional trait variation shown here may extend to other grass species in the western USA, and may serve as useful proxies for more extensive genecology research. Furthermore, we argue that care should be taken to develop commercial seed lines with functional trait values that match those of natural populations occupying climates similar to target restoration sites.

  5. The influence of microgravity on Euglena gracilis as studied on Shenzhou 8.

    PubMed

    Nasir, A; Strauch, S M; Becker, I; Sperling, A; Schuster, M; Richter, P R; Weißkopf, M; Ntefidou, M; Daiker, V; An, Y A; Li, X Y; Liu, Y D; Lebert, M

    2014-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) enabled German participation in the joint space campaign on the unmanned Shenzhou 8 spacecraft in November 2011. In this report, the effect of microgravity on Euglena gracilis cells is described. Custom-made dual compartment cell fixation units (containing cells in one chamber and fixative - RNA lysis buffer - in another one) were enclosed in a small container and placed in the Simbox incubator, which is an experiment support system. Cells were fixed by injecting them with fixative at different time intervals. In addition to stationary experiment slots, Simbox provides a 1 g reference centrifuge. Cell fixation units were mounted in microgravity and 1 g reference positions of Simbox. Two Simbox incubators were used, one for space flight and the other as ground reference. Cells were fixed soon after launch and shortly before return of the spaceship. Due to technical problems, only early in-flight samples (about 40 min after launch microgravity and corresponding 1 g reference) were fully mixed with fixative, therefore only data from those samples are presented. Transcription of several genes involved in signal transduction, oxidative stress defence, cell cycle regulation and heat shock responses was investigated with quantitative PCR. The data indicate that Euglena cells suffer stress upon short-term exposure to microgravity; various stress-induced genes were up-regulated. Of 32 tested genes, 18 were up-regulated, one down-regulated and the rest remained unaltered. These findings are in a good agreement with results from other research groups using other organisms. PMID:23926886

  6. High Cryptic Diversity across the Global Range of the Migratory Planktonic Copepods Pleuromamma piseki and P. gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Kristin M. K.; Goetze, Erica; Carlon, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Although holoplankton are ocean drifters and exhibit high dispersal potential, a number of studies on single species are finding highly divergent genetic clades. These cryptic species complexes are important to discover and describe, as identification of common marine species is fundamental to understanding ecosystem dynamics. Here we investigate the global diversity within Pleuromamma piseki and P. gracilis, two dominant members of the migratory zooplankton assemblage in subtropical and tropical waters worldwide. Using DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (mtCOII) from 522 specimens collected across the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, we discover twelve well-resolved genetically distinct clades in this species complex (Bayesian posterior probabilities >0.7; 6.3–17% genetic divergence between clades). The morphologically described species P. piseki and P. gracilis did not form monophyletic groups, rather they were distributed throughout the phylogeny and sometimes co-occurred within well-resolved clades: this result suggests that morphological characters currently used for taxonomic identification of P. gracilis and P. piseki may be inaccurate as indicators of species’ boundaries. Cryptic clades within the species complex ranged from being common to rare, and from cosmopolitan to highly restricted in distribution across the global ocean. These novel lineages appear to be ecologically divergent, with distinct biogeographic distributions across varied pelagic habitats. We hypothesize that these mtDNA lineages are distinct species and suggest that resolving their systematic status is important, given the ecological significance of the genus Pleuromamma in subtropical-tropical waters worldwide. PMID:24167556

  7. Temperature benefits the photosynthetic performance of the diatoms Chaetoceros gracilis and Thalassiosira weissflogii when exposed to UVR.

    PubMed

    Halac, S R; Villafañe, V E; Helbling, E W

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the combined effects of temperature and UVR on the photosynthesis performance of two diatoms -Chaetoceros gracilis and Thalassiosira weissflogii. In particular, we evaluated the role of UVR in inducing photoinhibition and the potential mitigation of this negative effect by an increase in temperature. Cultures were pre-acclimated at two temperatures - 18°C and 23°C - and exposed to different radiation treatments - UVR+PAR (280-700nm); UV-A+PAR (315-700nm) and PAR only (400-700nm) under two temperatures: 18°C (local surface summer water temperature) and 23°C (simulating a potential increase estimated by the year 2100). Exposure to natural solar radiation resulted in UVR-induced photoinhibition that was significantly higher in T. weissflogii than in C. gracilis. Both species benefited from the higher temperature (23°C) resulting in a lower photoinhibition as compared to samples exposed at 18°C. Inter-specific differences were determined in regard to the heat dissipation processes (NPQ) which were higher at high temperatures, and much more evident in C. gracilis than in T. weissflogii. The analyses of inhibition and recovery rates under different irradiances indicate that the balance between negative (inhibition) and positive (repair-dissipation) effects shifted towards a more positive balance with increasing temperature. Our results highlight for a beneficial effect of temperature on photosynthesis performance during exposure to UVR, although important inter-specific differences are found, probably due to differences in cell size as well as in their distribution within the oceanic realm (i.e., coastal versus oceanic species). PMID:20692849

  8. Applicability of Euglena gracilis for biorefineries demonstrated by the production of α-tocopherol and paramylon followed by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Philipp; Risse, Joe M; Cholewa, Dominik; Müller, Jakob M; Beshay, Usama; Friehs, Karl; Flaschel, Erwin

    2015-12-10

    In this study the use of Euglena gracilis biomass for α-tocopherol, paramylon and biogas production in a value-added chain was investigated. Therefore, we analyzed the dry cell weight and product concentrations at different growth phases during heterotrophic, photoheterotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivation in a low-cost minimal medium. Furthermore, the specific biogas yields for differently derived biomass with and without product recovery were investigated. We demonstrate that growth phase and cultivation mode not only have a significant impact on product formation, but also influence the yield of biogas obtained from anaerobic digestion of Euglena gracilis biomass. The maximum dry cell weight concentration ranged from 12.3±0.14gL(-1) for heterotrophically to 3.4±0.02gL(-1) for photoautotrophically grown Euglena gracilis cells. The heterotrophically grown biomass accumulated product concentrations of 5.3±0.12mgL(-1) of α-tocopherol and 9.3±0.1gL(-1) of paramylon or 805±10.9mL of biogasgvs(-1) (per gram volatile solids). The results for photoautotrophically grown cells were 8.6±0.22mgL(-1) of α-tocopherol and 0.78±0.01gL(-1) of paramylon or 648±7.2mL of biogasgvs(-1). For an energy-saving downstream procedure the extracting agent methanol does not have to be removed strictly. Samples with residual methanol showed a significantly increased biogas yield, because the solvent can be used as an additional substrate for methane production by archaebacteria. PMID:25910451

  9. Tubularized Penile-Flap Urethroplasty Using a Fasciocutaneous Random Pedicled Flap for Recurrent Anterior Urethral Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Kwon

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the use of a tubularized random flap for the curative treatment of recurrent anterior urethral stricture. Under the condition of pendulous lithotomy and suprapubic cystostomy, the urethral stricture was removed via a midline ventral penile incision followed by elevation of the flap and insertion of an 18-Fr catheter. Subcutaneous buried interrupted sutures were used to reapproximate the waterproof tubularized neourethra and to coapt with the neourethra and each stump of the urethra, first proximally and then distally. The defect of the penile shaft was covered by advancement of the surrounding scrotal flap. The indwelling catheter was maintained for 21 days. A 9 month postoperative cystoscopy showed no flap necrosis, no mechanical stricture, and no hair growth on the lumen of the neourethra. The patient showed no voiding discomfort 6 months after the operation. The advantages of this procedure are the lack of need for microsurgery, shortening of admission, the use of only spinal anesthesia (no general anesthesia), and a relatively short operative time. The tubularized unilateral penile fasciocutaneous flap should be considered an option for initial flap urethroplasty as a curative technique. PMID:22783537

  10. Total upper and lower eyelid replacement following thermal burn using an ALT flap--a case report.

    PubMed

    Rubino, C; Farace, F; Puddu, A; Canu, V; Posadinu, M A

    2008-01-01

    Upper and lower eyelid unilateral full thickness reconstruction in a patient with no available adjacent tissues because of burns or trauma sequelae is a surgical challenge. A case of severe thermal burn with unilateral complete defect of both upper and lower eyelids is reported, together with the surgical technique of reconstruction. The patient was a 65-year-old man who sustained deep burns of the head and neck with upper airway burns after falling into a fireplace. After tracheostomy and acute resuscitation, he underwent escharectomy and coverage of his head and neck burns with split thickness skin grafts and with full thickness skin grafts to the eyelids. There was incomplete take of the skin grafts to the upper and lower left eyelids. In these areas, infection and loss of the tarsum and subsequent eyelid retraction led to exposure keratitis and blurred vision. After healing and respiratory rehabilitation, he was referred to our microsurgical unit for upper and lower eyelid reconstruction. A free forearm flap was first considered, but the Allen test was negative. Therefore, a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap was chosen to provide skin eyelid coverage. The flap was harvested including fascia and centred on one perforator. The levator muscle stump and conjunctiva from both upper and lower cul-de-sacs were dissected and advanced. Flap vessels were anastomosed to the superficial temporal artery and vein. The conjunctiva and the fascia replaced the new inner upper and lower lamella. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a perforator flap, the ALT flap, in full thickness reconstruction of both upper and lower eyelids and may be a reliable option in such selected and challenging situations. PMID:17954041

  11. The "open book" flap: a heterodigital cross-finger skin flap and adipofascial flap for coverage of a circumferential soft tissue defect of a digit.

    PubMed

    Tadiparthi, S; Akali, A; Felberg, L

    2009-02-01

    A case of circumferential digital skin loss with exposed tendons from the proximal phalanx to the distal interphalangeal joint is presented. This was treated with a two-layer heterodigital cross-finger ("open book") flap from the adjacent digit, utilising a skin-only cross-finger flap to cover the palmar defect and an adipofascial flap to cover the dorsal defect. PMID:19129359

  12. Microsurgery flap in endodontic surgery: case report

    PubMed Central

    CECCHETTI, F.; RICCI, S.; DI GIORGIO, G.; PISACANE, C.; OTTRIA, L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY In periodontal plastic surgery it is increasingly more evident the relavance of the protection of the gingival marginal anatomy through the realization of a conservative flap. Minimizing the recession of the treated tissue. A correct healing always needs to take into account the diameter and type of the suture and the time of removal from the wound. PMID:23285354

  13. Neural Anatomy of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap.

    PubMed

    Luenam, Suriya; Prugsawan, Krit; Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat; Chotanaphuti, Thanainit; Sriya, Piyanee

    2015-06-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is one of the commonly used sensate flaps for intra-oral, hand, and foot reconstruction. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic location of the sensory nerves supplying the ALT flap in relation to the surface landmarks and with the vascular pedicles. The dissections were carried out in 28 embalmed specimens. An axial line from the anterior superior iliac spine to the superolateral border of the patella and two circles with radii of 5 and 10 cm centered on the midpoint of the former line were used for the surface landmarks. At the intersection point of the axial line and the 10-cm circle, the main lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) and its anterior branch were located within 1 and 2.4 cm, respectively. At the intersection point of the axial line and the 5-cm circle, the anterior branch of the LFCN was located within 2.8 cm. The anterior branch of the LFCN can be detected within 3 cm from the central perforator pedicle in all specimens. The posterior branch of the LFCN, superior perforator nerve, and median perforator nerve were found in more variable locations. The findings from our study provide additional information for clinical use in the planning of sensate ALT flap harvest. PMID:26078503

  14. Correlation of Smart Active Flap Rotor Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Straub, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    The ability to predict SMART active trailing edge flap rotor loads is explored in this study. Full-scale wind tunnel data recently acquired in the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel are compared with analytical results from CAMRAD II. For the 5-bladed rotor, two high-speed forward flight cases are considered, namely, a 0 deg flap deflection case and a 5P, 2 deg flap deflection case. Overall, the correlation is reasonable, with the following exceptions: the torsion moment frequency and the chordwise bending moment are under predicted. In general, the effect of the 5P, 2 deg flap motion is captured by the analysis, though there is over prediction in the neighborhood of the 105 deg and 120 deg azimuthal locations. Changes to the flexbeam torsion stiffness are also briefly considered in this study, as this stiffness will be updated in the future. Finally, the indication is that compressibility effects are important, and this suggests that computational fluid dynamics might improve the current correlation.

  15. Computation of Lifting Wing-Flap Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Kwak, Dochan

    1996-01-01

    Research has been carried out on the computation of lifting wing-flap configurations. The long term goal of the research is to develop improved computational tools for the analysis and design of high lift systems. Results show that state-of-the-art computational methods are sufficient to predict time-averaged lift and overall flow field characteristics on simple high-lift configurations. Recently there has been an increased interest in the problem of airframe generated noise and experiments carried out in the 7 x 10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames have identified the flap edge as an important source of noise. A follow-on set of experiments will be conducted toward the end of 1995. The computations being carried out under this project are coordinated with these experiments. In particular, the model geometry being used in the computations is the same as that in the experiments. The geometry consists of a NACA 63-215 Mod B airfoil section which spans the 7 x lO tunnel. The wing is unswept and has an aspect ratio of two. A 30% chord Fowler flap is deployed modifications of the flap edge geometry have been shown to be effective in reducing noise and the existing code is currently being used to compute the effect of a modified geometry on the edge flow.

  16. Peritoneal flap ureteropexy for idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J W

    1987-07-01

    Eight patients had 13 ureters treated by peritoneal flap ureteropexy. There were no significant post-operative complications. Eleven ureters were functioning normally after an average follow-up of 28 months. The operation is suggested as a method of choice where omental wrapping is not possible. PMID:3620842

  17. Free Surface and Flapping Foil Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthakrishnan, Palaniswamy

    2014-11-01

    Flapping foils for station-keeping of a near-surface body in a current is analyzed using a finite-difference method based on boundary-fitted coordinates. The foils are hinge-connected to the aft of the body and subject to pitch oscillation. Results are obtained for a range of Strouhal number, Froude number, unsteady frequency parameter τ, Reynolds number and the depth of foil submergence. Results show that at low Strouhal number (St < 0 . 1) and sub-critical unsteady parameter τ < 0 . 25 , the flapping generates drag instead of thrust. At high Strouhal number and super-critical value of the unsteady parameter (τ > 0 . 25) flapping generates high thrust with low efficiency. Thrust and efficiency are found to decrease with decreasing submergence depth of the foil. At the critical τ = 0 . 25 and shallow submergence of the foil, the standing wave generated above the foil continues to grow until breaking; both the thrust and efficiency of the foil are reduced at the critical τ. The necessary conditions for optimal thrust generation by a flapping foil underneath the free surface are found to be (i) Strouhal number in the range from 0.25 to 0.35, (ii) unsteady parameter τ > 0 . 25 and (iii) the maximum angle of attack less than 15° for the flat-plate foil. Supported by the US Office of Naval Research through the Naval Engineering Education Center (NEEC) Consortium of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  18. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. PMID:27030773

  19. High-energy war wounds: flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stanec, Z; Skrbić, S; Dzepina, I; Hulina, D; Ivrlac, R; Unusić, J; Montani, D; Prpić, I

    1993-08-01

    In this article, we emphasize that knowledge of terminal ballistics is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of war wounds. We present our own experiences in treatment of high-energy war wounds in 75 patients treated in the Institute of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Clinical Hospital Center in Zagreb. Patients were divided into three groups with regard to the time of definite reconstruction, using local or free microvascular flaps. About 12% of patients underwent flap reconstruction in the acute phase, associated with low complication rate and the shortest hospital stay. Group II was comprised by 18% of the patients and, considering the number of complications, presented the most unfavorable time for reconstruction. Flap reconstruction in the chronic phase resulted in a substantial prolongation of the hospital stay in 82% of patients. Therefore, we advocate proper primary treatment of wounds aimed at early flap closure. This type of management results in a significantly shorter hospitalization and leads to more effective rehabilitation and recovery of patients. PMID:8215140

  20. Characterization of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes in Euglena gracilis and its white mutant strain W(gm)ZOflL.

    PubMed

    Krnáčová, Katarína; Rýdlová, Ivana; Vinarčíková, Michaela; Krajčovič, Juraj; Vesteg, Matej; Horváth, Anton

    2015-03-12

    The enzymes involved in Euglena oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) were characterized in this study. We have demonstrated that Euglena gracilis strain Z and its stable bleached non-photosynthetic mutant strain WgmZOflL both possess fully functional OXPHOS apparatus as well as pathways requiring terminal alternative oxidase(s) and alternative mitochondrial NADH-dehydrogenase(s). Light (or dark) and plastid (non)functionality seem to have little effect on oxygen consumption, the activities of the enzymes involved in OXPHOS and the action of respiration inhibitors in Euglena. This study also demonstrates biochemical properties of complex III (cytochrome c reductase) in Euglena. PMID:25660326