Science.gov

Sample records for grade crossing protection systems

  1. Tragedy on grade crossing: driver failure or systemic fragility?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Manoela Gomes Reis; de Gouveia Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Mioto, Odilamar Lopes; Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Perin, Fernanda Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, an accident occurred in Americana-SP, Brazil, involving two trains and one bus on a Grade Crossing, when 10 people died and 17 were injured including workers. This paper aims to analyze the accident using the Model of Analysis and Prevention of Work Accidents (MAPA). The method provides observation of work, interviews and analysis of documents to understand precedents of the event in the following stages: to understand the usual work from the involved people, the changes occurred in the system, the operation of barriers, managerial and organizational aspects. By the end, measures are suggested to avoid new occurrences. The accident took place at night in a site with insufficient lighting. The working conditions of bus drivers, train operators and watchmen are inadequate. There were only symbolic barriers (visual and acoustic signals) triggered manually by watchman upon train operator radio communication. The fragility of the barrier system associated to poor lighting and short time to trigger the signaling seem to play a critical role in the event. Contrary to the official report which resulted in guilt of the bus driver, the conclusion of the paper emphasizes the fragility of the safety system and the need of level crossing reproject. PMID:22317197

  2. Development of a Salmonella cross-protective vaccine for food animal production systems.

    PubMed

    Heithoff, Douglas M; House, John K; Thomson, Peter C; Mahan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is associated with increased Salmonella exposure, transmission, animal disease, and contamination of food and water supplies. Modified live Salmonella enterica vaccines that lack a functional DNA adenine methylase (Dam) confer cross-protection to a diversity of salmonellae in experimental models of murine, avian, ovine, and bovine models of salmonellosis. However, the commercial success of any vaccine is dependent upon the therapeutic index, the ratio of safety/efficacy. Herein, secondary virulence-attenuating mutations targeted to genes involved in intracellular and/or systemic survival were introduced into Salmonella dam vaccines to screen for vaccine candidates that were safe in the animal and the environment, while maintaining the capacity to confer cross-protective immunity to pathogenic salmonellae serotypes. Salmonella dam mgtC, dam sifA, and dam spvB vaccine strains exhibited significantly improved vaccine safety as evidenced by the failure to give rise to virulent revertants during the infective process, contrary to the parental Salmonella dam vaccine. Further, these vaccines exhibited a low grade persistence in host tissues that was associated with reduced vaccine shedding, reduced environmental persistence, and induction of cross-protective immunity to pathogenic serotypes derived from infected livestock. These data indicate that Salmonella dam double mutant vaccines are suitable for commercial applications against salmonellosis in livestock production systems. Reducing pre-harvest salmonellae load through vaccination will promote the health and productivity of livestock and reduce contamination of livestock-derived food products, while enhancing overall food safety. PMID:25448106

  3. 77 FR 35163 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... or pathway grade crossing.'' 76 FR 11992, 12009 (March 4, 2011). The CPUC recommended that all public... (NPRM) published March 4, 2011 (76 FR 11992). To a certain extent, this rule also builds on pre-existing... Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway- Rail and Pathway Grade...

  4. Gleason grading system

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  5. Visual monitoring of railroad grade crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Yaser A.; Zhai, Yun; Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak A.

    2004-09-01

    There are approximately 261,000 rail crossings in the United States according to the studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). From 1993 to 1998, there were over 25,000 highway-rail crossing incidents involving motor vehicles - averaging 4,167 incidents a year. In this paper, we present a real-time computer vision system for the monitoring of the movement of pedestrians, bikers, animals and vehicles at railroad intersections. The video is processed for the detection of uncharacteristic events, triggering an immediate warning system. In order to recognize the events, the system first performs robust object detection and tracking. Next, a classification algorithm is used to determine whether the detected object is a pedestrian, biker, group or a vehicle, allowing inferences on whether the behavior of the object is characteristic or not. Due to the ubiquity of low cost, low power, and high quality video cameras, increased computing power and memory capacity, the proposed approach provides a cost effective and scalable solution to this important problem. Furthermore, the system has the potential to significantly decrease the number of accidents and therefore the resulting deaths and injuries that occur at railroad crossings. We have field tested our system at two sites, a rail-highway grade crossing, and a trestle located in Central Florida, and we present results on six hours of collected data.

  6. 49 CFR 212.231 - Highway-rail grade crossing inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234); (3) Knowledge of operating practices and... the Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234), including the remedial action... determining compliance with Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234), to make reports...

  7. 49 CFR 212.231 - Highway-rail grade crossing inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234); (3) Knowledge of operating practices and... the Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234), including the remedial action... determining compliance with Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234), to make reports...

  8. 49 CFR 212.231 - Highway-rail grade crossing inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234); (3) Knowledge of operating practices and... the Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234), including the remedial action... determining compliance with Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234), to make reports...

  9. 49 CFR 212.231 - Highway-rail grade crossing inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234); (3) Knowledge of operating practices and... the Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234), including the remedial action... determining compliance with Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234), to make reports...

  10. 49 CFR 236.53 - Track circuit feed at grade crossing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track circuit feed at grade crossing. 236.53... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.53 Track circuit feed at grade crossing. At grade crossing with... current track circuit shall feed away from the crossing....

  11. Student Grade History System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    This document describes the computerized procedures developed and utilized by Montgomery College (Maryland) to maintain records related to student academic progress. The new system was fully operable by fall 1972. Systems development included: (1) the conversion of past student records to a permanent grade history file; (2) the development of a…

  12. 49 CFR 212.231 - Highway-rail grade crossing inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) A comprehensive knowledge of highway-rail grade crossing nomenclature, inspection techniques... Rules (49 CFR part 234), to make reports of those inspections, and to recommend institution of... Grade Crossing Signal System Safety Rules (49 CFR part 234); (3) Knowledge of operating practices...

  13. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure. 234.7 Section 234.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY...

  14. Cross-Grade Comparison of Students' Understanding of Energy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this cross-grade study were (1) to determine the level of understanding of energy concepts of students at different academic grades and the differences in understanding between these grades and (2) to analyse the conceptual development of these students. Two hundred and forty-three students at 3 different levels (high school,…

  15. 78 FR 16414 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...) or ENS programs. On March 4, 2011, FRA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) (76 FR 11992... conditions at crossings. See 76 FR 11992. A public hearing on the proposal was held on September 29, ] 2011. 76 FR 55622(Sept. 8, 2011). On June 12, 2012, following consideration of written comments received...

  16. An Exercise in Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Hazard Ranking System: A Simulation. Grades 8-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    The educational objective of this exercise is for students to use a risk assessment tool to evaluate a hazardous release site and for students in grades 8-12 to increase their experience with geology, aquifers, soils, land use, pollution, data analysis, and map concepts. Students use background information on hazardous materials, the Environmental…

  17. The Meaning of College Grades in Three Grading Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiszler, Charles F.

    1983-01-01

    To determine if college students (n=345) attribute different meanings to specific grades (depending on the nature of the grading system used), three grading systems were compared: competitive, mastery, and growth. In addition, students were asked to rate the meaning of a specific grade ("A,""B," or "C") in the context of one of the three grading…

  18. Proton pump inhibitors protect mice from acute systemic inflammation and induce long-term cross-tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Balza, E; Piccioli, P; Carta, S; Lavieri, R; Gattorno, M; Semino, C; Castellani, P; Rubartelli, A

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of sepsis is increasing, representing a tremendous burden for health-care systems. Death in acute sepsis is attributed to hyperinflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We report here that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which block gastric acid secretion, selectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated human monocytes in vitro, in the absence of toxic effects. Remarkably, the oversecretion of IL-1β that represents a hallmark of monocytes from patients affected by cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome is also blocked. Based on these propaedeutic experiments, we tested the effects of high doses of PPIs in vivo in the mouse model of endotoxic shock. Our data show that a single administration of PPI protected mice from death (60% survival versus 5% of untreated mice) and decreased TNF-α and IL-1β systemic production. PPIs were efficacious even when administered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. PPI-treated mice that survived developed a long-term cross-tolerance, becoming resistant to LPS- and zymosan-induced sepsis. In vitro, their macrophages displayed impaired TNF-α and IL-1β to different TLR ligands. PPIs also prevented sodium thioglycollate-induced peritoneal inflammation, indicating their efficacy also in a non-infectious setting independent of TLR stimulation. Lack of toxicity and therapeutic effectiveness make PPIs promising new drugs against sepsis and other severe inflammatory conditions. PMID:27441656

  19. Proton pump inhibitors protect mice from acute systemic inflammation and induce long-term cross-tolerance.

    PubMed

    Balza, E; Piccioli, P; Carta, S; Lavieri, R; Gattorno, M; Semino, C; Castellani, P; Rubartelli, A

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of sepsis is increasing, representing a tremendous burden for health-care systems. Death in acute sepsis is attributed to hyperinflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We report here that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which block gastric acid secretion, selectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated human monocytes in vitro, in the absence of toxic effects. Remarkably, the oversecretion of IL-1β that represents a hallmark of monocytes from patients affected by cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome is also blocked. Based on these propaedeutic experiments, we tested the effects of high doses of PPIs in vivo in the mouse model of endotoxic shock. Our data show that a single administration of PPI protected mice from death (60% survival versus 5% of untreated mice) and decreased TNF-α and IL-1β systemic production. PPIs were efficacious even when administered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. PPI-treated mice that survived developed a long-term cross-tolerance, becoming resistant to LPS- and zymosan-induced sepsis. In vitro, their macrophages displayed impaired TNF-α and IL-1β to different TLR ligands. PPIs also prevented sodium thioglycollate-induced peritoneal inflammation, indicating their efficacy also in a non-infectious setting independent of TLR stimulation. Lack of toxicity and therapeutic effectiveness make PPIs promising new drugs against sepsis and other severe inflammatory conditions. PMID:27441656

  20. 76 FR 11992 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... collisions are among the most challenging areas in FRA's efforts to reduce deaths and injuries along the... urban area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation.'' 49 CFR 234.3(b... CFR part 209, and it is explicitly defined there as ``the network of standard gage track over...

  1. An Operational System of Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawain, T. H.; Lindsey, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the trial of an operational grading system at the Naval Postgraduate School. Indicates that the new plan is characterized by giving the marginal student a grace period of one quarter before the final judgment of his performance. (CC)

  2. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... highway-rail grade crossing collisions, on average, during the calendar years 2006, 2007, and 2008. (c... crossings, including highway-rail grade crossing closures or grade separations; (ii) Focus on crossings that... State on the development of an FRA approved State highway-rail grade crossing action plan....

  3. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... highway-rail grade crossing collisions, on average, during the calendar years 2006, 2007, and 2008. (c... crossings, including highway-rail grade crossing closures or grade separations; (ii) Focus on crossings that... State on the development of an FRA approved State highway-rail grade crossing action plan....

  4. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... highway-rail grade crossing collisions, on average, during the calendar years 2006, 2007, and 2008. (c... crossings, including highway-rail grade crossing closures or grade separations; (ii) Focus on crossings that... State on the development of an FRA approved State highway-rail grade crossing action plan....

  5. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings. PMID:26922288

  6. Cross-functional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant benefits that cross functional systems can provide. Those benefits are examined and a flexible methodology is discussed that companies can use to identify and develop cross functional systems that will help improve organizational performance. In addition, some of the managerial issues are addressed that cross functional systems may raise and specific examples are used to explore networking's contributions to cross functional systems.

  7. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Alliance (CVSA) requested that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5120... of comment period. SUMMARY: On March 1, 2011, the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)...

  8. 49 CFR 392.10 - Railroad grade crossings; stopping required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (Sec. 12, 80 Stat. 931; 49 U.S.C. 1651 note; 49 U.S.C. 304, 1655; 49 CFR 1.48(b) and 301.60) ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad grade crossings; stopping required. 392... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.10 Railroad...

  9. 49 CFR 392.10 - Railroad grade crossings; stopping required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (Sec. 12, 80 Stat. 931; 49 U.S.C. 1651 note; 49 U.S.C. 304, 1655; 49 CFR 1.48(b) and 301.60) ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad grade crossings; stopping required. 392... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.10 Railroad...

  10. An Alternative to the Traditional Grading System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvez, Ferdinand V.

    The purpose of this practicum was to change the grading policy in the San Juan Unified School District (California) through a two-state process. The first stage was to change the traditional ABCDF grading system to a three-scale grading system in one high school, one intermediate school, and six elementary schools serving the same attendance area.…

  11. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... have had the most highway-rail grade crossing collisions, on average, during the calendar years 2006... applies to the ten States that have had the most highway-rail grade crossing collisions, on average... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action...

  12. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... have had the most highway-rail grade crossing collisions, on average, during the calendar years 2006... applies to the ten States that have had the most highway-rail grade crossing collisions, on average... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action...

  13. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  14. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  15. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  16. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  17. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  18. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  19. 49 CFR 392.11 - Railroad grade crossings; slowing down required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad grade crossings; slowing down required... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.11 Railroad grade..., upon approaching a railroad grade crossing, be driven at a rate of speed which will permit...

  20. 49 CFR 392.11 - Railroad grade crossings; slowing down required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad grade crossings; slowing down required... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.11 Railroad grade..., upon approaching a railroad grade crossing, be driven at a rate of speed which will permit...

  1. 49 CFR 392.11 - Railroad grade crossings; slowing down required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad grade crossings; slowing down required... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.11 Railroad grade..., upon approaching a railroad grade crossing, be driven at a rate of speed which will permit...

  2. 49 CFR 392.11 - Railroad grade crossings; slowing down required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad grade crossings; slowing down required... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.11 Railroad grade..., upon approaching a railroad grade crossing, be driven at a rate of speed which will permit...

  3. 49 CFR 392.11 - Railroad grade crossings; slowing down required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad grade crossings; slowing down required... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.11 Railroad grade..., upon approaching a railroad grade crossing, be driven at a rate of speed which will permit...

  4. Multiwall thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Multiwall insulating sandwich panels are provided for thermal protection of hypervelocity vehicles and other enclosures. In one embodiment, the multiwall panels are formed of alternate layers of dimpled and flat metal (titanium alloy) foil sheets and beaded scarfed edge seals to provide enclosure thermal protection up to 1000 F. An additional embodiment employs an intermediate fibrous insulation for the sandwich panel to provide thermal protection up to 2000 F. A third embodiment employs a silicide coated columbium waffle as the outer panel skin and fibrous layered intermediate protection for thermal environment protection up to 2500 F. The use of multiple panels on an enclosure facilitate repair and refurbishment of the thermal protection system due to the simple support provided by the tab and clip attachment for the panels.

  5. A Grading System for Composition Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    One minor but irritating problem that most composition teachers face--especially those who handle masses of papers at the high school level--involves coming up with a method of grading that is demonstrably objective but not so rigid that it allows no room for judgment. The author proposes a hybrid grading system: combining numbers and letters. The…

  6. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  7. Cross-protection among strains of barley yellow dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Wen, F; Lister, R M; Fattouh, F A

    1991-04-01

    ELISA, cDNA dot blot hybridization and transmission by vector aphids were used to investigate the occurrence and degree of cross-protection produced in oat plants by virus isolates representing five strains or serotypes of barley yellow dwarf virus, namely PAV, MAV, SGV, RPV and RMV. Generally, the degree of cross-protection was positively correlated with the serological relatedness between the isolates. A high degree of cross-protection occurred between NY-MAV and MAV-PS1, two isolates of the MAV serotype; cross-protection was moderate between MAV-PS1 and either P-PAV (a Purdue isolate of the PAV serotype) or NY-SGV; cross-protection between P-PAV and NY-SGV was low. Cross-protection did not occur in other paired inoculations and did not persist in some plants, the challenge virus eventually becoming detectable. The persistence of cross-protection depended on the interval between inoculations with protecting and challenge viruses; longer inoculation intervals enhanced the persistence of cross-protection. Results obtained by ELISA and dot blot hybridization were usually consistent, indicating that cross-protection affected both viral capsid and RNA synthesis. PMID:2016594

  8. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 107 TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10−4. The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  9. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7) TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4). The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  10. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  11. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system.

    PubMed

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M

    1993-01-01

    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made. PMID:8122564

  12. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MUTCD. (2) Each approach to every pedestrian grade crossing within a New Partial Quiet Zone shall be... applicable. Such sign shall conform to the standards contained in the MUTCD. (3) Each approach to every... standards contained in the MUTCD. (4) Each approach to every pedestrian grade crossing within a...

  13. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MUTCD. (2) Each approach to every pedestrian grade crossing within a New Partial Quiet Zone shall be... applicable. Such sign shall conform to the standards contained in the MUTCD. (3) Each approach to every... standards contained in the MUTCD. (4) Each approach to every pedestrian grade crossing within a...

  14. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MUTCD. (2) Each approach to every pedestrian grade crossing within a New Partial Quiet Zone shall be... applicable. Such sign shall conform to the standards contained in the MUTCD. (3) Each approach to every... standards contained in the MUTCD. (4) Each approach to every pedestrian grade crossing within a...

  15. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MUTCD. (2) Each approach to every pedestrian grade crossing within a New Partial Quiet Zone shall be... applicable. Such sign shall conform to the standards contained in the MUTCD. (3) Each approach to every... standards contained in the MUTCD. (4) Each approach to every pedestrian grade crossing within a...

  16. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MUTCD. (2) Each approach to every pedestrian grade crossing within a New Partial Quiet Zone shall be... applicable. Such sign shall conform to the standards contained in the MUTCD. (3) Each approach to every... standards contained in the MUTCD. (4) Each approach to every pedestrian grade crossing within a...

  17. 49 CFR 384.223 - Railroad-highway grade crossing violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. 384.223 Section 384.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... § 384.223 Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. The State must have and enforce laws...

  18. 49 CFR 384.223 - Railroad-highway grade crossing violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. 384.223 Section 384.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... § 384.223 Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. The State must have and enforce laws...

  19. 49 CFR 384.223 - Railroad-highway grade crossing violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. 384.223 Section 384.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... § 384.223 Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. The State must have and enforce laws...

  20. 49 CFR 384.223 - Railroad-highway grade crossing violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. 384.223 Section 384.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... § 384.223 Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. The State must have and enforce laws...

  1. 49 CFR 384.223 - Railroad-highway grade crossing violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. 384.223 Section 384.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... § 384.223 Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. The State must have and enforce laws...

  2. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11 (accident/ incident report). (b) Each telephone report must... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure... PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure. (a) Each...

  3. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  4. Advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    New technologies are identified and recommended for developing a regenerative portable life support system that provides protection for extravehicular human activities during long duration missions on orbiting space stations, potential lunar bases, and possible Mars landings. Parametric subsystems analyses consider: thermal control, carbon dioxide control, oxygen supply, power supply, contaminant control, humidity control, prime movers, and automatic temperature control.

  5. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Stratis V. Sotirchos

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this research project was the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Since alumina has excellent resistance to corrosion but coefficient than silicon carbide, the key idea of this project has been to develop graded coatings with composition varying smoothly along their thickness between an inner (base) layer of mullite in contact with the silicon carbide component and an outer layer of pure alumina, which would function as the actual protective coating of the component. (Mullite presents very good adhesion towards silicon carbide and has thermal expansion coefficient very close to that of the latter.)

  6. Protective garment ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  7. Hydrogel microspheres for stabilization of an antioxidant enzyme: effect of emulsion cross-linking of a dual polysaccharide system on the protection of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Deh-Wei; Yu, Shu-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shin; Hsieh, Hao-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme abundant in natural resources. However, the enzyme is usually inactivated by gastric acid and digestive enzymes after oral ingestion. In this study, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate hydrogel microspheres have been prepared by an emulsion cross-linking technique to retain the activity of catalase in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. Cross-linking reduced the swelling capability and increased the resistance toward hyaluronidase digestion of prepared HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres. Catalase entrapped in the hydrogel microspheres exhibited superior stability over a wide pH range (pH 2.0 and 6.0-8.0) as compared to the native enzyme. The entrapped catalase was also protected against degradation by digestive enzymes. Following the treatments, the catalase-loaded microspheres, in contrast to native catalase, could effectively decrease the intracellular H2O2 level and protect HT-29 colonic epithelial cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to preserve cell viability. These results suggested that the HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres can be used for entrapment, protection and intestinal delivery of catalase for H2O2 scavenging. PMID:24055882

  8. The Ethical Limitations of Online Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulda, Joseph S.

    2006-01-01

    If we take as a given that faculty are their own moral agents, and not mere agents of the educational institutions at which they work, online grading systems, which are increasingly popular and mandatory, compromise their ability to act ethically. This is because such systems reduce the nuances of a complex and challenging reality to the…

  9. Traffic control devices, visibility, and railroad grade crossings. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers contained in this volume are primarily from the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board and the Symposium for Improving Visibility for the Night Traveler, which was held in May 1994 in Washington, D.C. They concern traffic signs and signals, highway visibility, and rail-highway grade crossing safety and research, addressing some of the problems and issues facing urban engineers as they grapple with the ever more complex traffic system. Readers with a specific interest in traffic control devices will find papers related to effective uses of variable message signs, comprehension of various types of traffic control devices and their effects on driver behavior, pedestrian crosswalk time requirements, and empirical analysis of two-way stop-controlled intersections. Readers with an interest in delineation and illumination will find papers on minimum retroreflectivity requirements, pavement marking visibility and detectability, curve delineation, traffic sign reading distances at night, and apparent nighttime color of pavement marking products. Closing out this Record are papers addressing the application of GIS to rail-highway crossing safety and the accuracy of U.S. Department of Transportation rail-highway grade crossing accident prediction models.

  10. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  11. Ablative thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, J.; Fisher, R.; Wojciechowski, C.; Dean, W.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures used to establish the TPS (thermal protection system) design of the SRB (solid rocket booster) element of the Space Shuttle vehicle are discussed. A final evaluation of the adequacy of this design will be made from data obtained from the first five Shuttle flights. Temperature sensors installed at selected locations on the SRB structure covered by the TPS give information as a function of time throughout the flight. Anomalies are to be investigated and computer design thermal models adjusted if required. In addition, the actual TPS ablator material loss is to be measured after each flight and compared with analytically determined losses. The analytical methods of predicting ablator performance are surveyed.

  12. A DIVA vaccine for cross-protection against Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Bearson, Bradley L; Bearson, Shawn M D; Kich, Jalusa D

    2016-03-01

    Swine are often asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella spp., a leading cause of human bacterial foodborne disease. Vaccination against Salmonella is effective for protecting animal health and enhancing food safety. However, with >2500 Salmonella serovars, current vaccines for swine offer limited cross-protection against heterologous serovars. Also, existing vaccines can interfere with surveillance programs that monitor the Salmonella status of swine herds. To overcome Salmonella vaccine limitations, we rationally designed and constructed an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine (BBS 866) by deleting multiple small regulatory RNA (sRNA) genes (omrA, omrB, rybB, micA, and invR) in combination with an rfaH mutation. We vaccinated swine intranasally at 3-weeks of age with PBS (mock-vaccinated), BBS 866 or BBS 202 (S. Typhimurium rfaH, Bearson et al., Front Vet Sci 2014;1:9.) and challenged at 7-weeks of age with virulent S. Choleraesuis, a swine pathogen. Vaccination with BBS 866 enhanced protection against S. Choleraesuis by significantly limiting the duration of fever, weight loss, the levels of circulating INFγ, and the total number of swine with S. Choleraesuis septicemia. Vaccination with either BBS 866 or BBS 202 significantly reduced S. Choleraesuis colonization of both systemic (spleen and liver) and gastrointestinal (Peyer's Patch, Ileocecal lymph nodes, and cecum) tissues. Similar to our earlier report for BBS 202, the BBS 866 vaccine strain can be used in swine without compromising the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Therefore, the attenuated S. Typhimurium BBS 866 strain, containing mutations in rfaH and multiple sRNAs, addresses the limitations of current Salmonella vaccines by providing cross-protection against Salmonella serovars in swine without interfering with established monitoring programs for Salmonella surveillance. PMID:26836212

  13. Graduate Student Attitudes toward Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Michalis; Kirshner, Ben

    2005-01-01

    This study examined graduate student attitudes towards letter and pass/fail grading systems in the Law School and the School of Education in a selective university in the United States. Fifty-four students completed a questionnaire on goal orientations (ability comparison vs. mastery), amount of effort and stress in each of the two grading…

  14. Bystander Responses to School Bullying: A Cross-Sectional Investigation of Grade and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trach, Jessica; Hymel, Shelley; Waterhouse, Terry; Neale, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Addressing the impact of peer bystanders on school bullying, this cross-sectional study examined whether student responses to bullying that they witnessed varied as a function of sex and grade. In a school-based survey regarding social experiences at school, Grade 4 to 11 students (N = 9397, 51% male) who reported witnessing bullying (68%) rated…

  15. The TLWP cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper details the subsea corrosion protection system of the tension leg well platform (TLWP), which comprises coatings and cathodic protection (CP). Postinstallation surveys reveal potentials of at least 150 mV more protective than the minimum potential required for protection. The TLWP protection system weighs 434,000 lbm less than the conventional CP design, with 286,000 lbm less on the floating portion of the TLWP.

  16. A Study of the Effect of the Implementation of the Plus/Minus Grading System on Graduate Student Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Bobby G.; Nelson, Jacquelyn S.; Nelson, C. Van

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed grades for over 8,000 master's students to determine whether or not there were differences in grading patterns between the A, B, C, D, and F grading system and the new plus/minus grading system. Also studied faculty attitudes on the new grading system. Findings included that grade point averages declined slightly, especially in some…

  17. A DIVA vaccine for cross-protection against Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine are often asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella spp., a leading cause of human bacterial foodborne disease. Vaccination against Salmonella is effective for protection of animal health and enhancement of food safety. However, current vaccines for swine may only offer limited cross-protection agai...

  18. Adaptive protection algorithm and system

    DOEpatents

    Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA

    2009-04-28

    An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

  19. Personal Radiation Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark; Vinci, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the personal radiation protection system (PRPS), which has been invented for use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. The PRPS comprises walls that can be erected inside spacecraft, where and when needed, to reduce the amount of radiation to which personnel are exposed. The basic structural modules of the PRPS are pairs of 1-in. (2.54-cm)-thick plates of high-density polyethylene equipped with fasteners. The plates of each module are assembled with a lap joint. The modules are denoted bricks because they are designed to be stacked with overlaps, in a manner reminiscent of bricks, to build 2-in. (5.08-cm)-thick walls of various lengths and widths. The bricks are of two varieties: one for flat wall areas and one for corners. The corner bricks are specialized adaptations of the flat-area bricks that make it possible to join walls perpendicular to each other. Bricks are attached to spacecraft structures and to each other by use of straps that can be tightened to increase the strengths and stiffnesses of joints.

  20. Hermes thermal protection system overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumette, Daniel; Cretenet, Jean-Claude

    The HERMES thermal protection system for the reentry is a new challenge for the designer. Compared to the system operational to day which is the U.S. Orbiter, the smaller size and higher cross range of HERMES are inducing higher working temperatures and a longer duration for the hot phase of the reentry. Hence the overall weight of the TPS system is comparatively more critical than on the Orbiter. On the other hand since the conception of the Orbiter a lot of new materials, namely ceramic composites, have been developped, and may lead to more efficient concepts of TPS. In the initial studies on HERMES TPS systems a lot of possibilites were considered, including External passive TPS, Hot structures, Active TPS. This selection has been now shortlisted to three basic concepts, with a number of variant or back ups still under consideration: • Ceramic composites hot structures for the nose, leading edges, fins and control surfaces • External insulation : composite ceramic shingles covering a lightweight thermal insulation (or rigid surface insulation (tiles) as a back up solution) for the hot undersurfaces and part of the upper surface. • Flexible surface insulation for the lower temperature upper surfaces. The paper presents details on the concepts being studied, the optimisation methods and the concept selection criteria.

  1. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: HPHT Synthesis of Micron Grade Boron-Doped Diamond Single Crystal in Fe-Ni-C-B Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He-Min; Zang, Chuan-Yi; Li, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Hong-An; Li, Shang-Sheng; Zhou, Sheng-Guo; Guo, Wei; Jia, Xiao-Peng

    2008-07-01

    Micron grade boron-doped diamond crystals with octahedral morphology are successfully synthesized in a Fe—Ni—C—B system under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). The effects of the additive boron on synthesis conditions, nucleation and growth, crystal morphology of diamond are studied. The synthesized micron grade diamond crystals were characterized by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The research results show that the V-shaped section of synthetic diamond moves downwards to the utmost extent due to 0.3a wt% (a is a constant.) boron added in the synthesis system. The crystal colour is black, and the average crystal size is about 25 μm. The crystal faces of synthetic diamond are mainly {111} face. The synthesis of this kind of diamond is few reported, and it will have important and widely applications.

  2. The CA model for traffic-flow at the grade roundabout crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui-Xiong; Bai, Ke-Zhao; Liu, Mu-Ren

    2006-07-01

    The cellular automaton model is suggested to describe the traffic-flow at the grade roundabout crossing. After the simulation with computer, the fundamental properties of this model have been revealed. Analysing this kind of road structure, this paper transforms the grade roundabout crossing with inner-roundabout-lane and outer-roundabout-lane into a configuration with many bottlenecks. Because of the self-organization, the traffic flow remains unblocked under a certain vehicle density. Some results of the simulation are close to the actual design parameter.

  3. Cross-protection between experimental anti-leptospirosis bacterins.

    PubMed

    Dib, Cristina Corsi; Gonçales, Amane Paldês; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Miraglia, Fabiana; Abreu, Patricia Antonia Estima; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the existence of cross-protection between two anti-leptospirosis monovalent experimental bacterins produced with two strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona: Fromm strain of serovar Kennewicky, isolated from pigs in the United States, and strain GR6 of serovar Pomona isolated from pigs in Brazil. Both were added of aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. Experimental bacterins were tested with the hamster potency test in order to assess protection provided against the disease and against the establishment of kidney infection. Controls were polyvalent commercial vaccine produced with Leptospira strains isolated outside Brazil, which included a representative of Pomona serovar, or Sorensen solution added of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. The challenge was performed with cross-strains of serogroup Pomona tested in accordance with international standards established for the potency test. After 21 days of the challenge, survivors were killed to evaluate the condition of Leptospira renal carrier. Experimental bacterins protected hamsters against homologous and heterologous strains, demonstrating the existence of cross-protection. The commercial vaccine protected the hamsters challenged with both strains, but there was a high proportion of animals diagnosed as renal carriers when the challenge was performed with strain GR6, isolated from pigs in Brazil. PMID:25477946

  4. Cross-protection between experimental anti-leptospirosis bacterins

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Cristina Corsi; Gonçales, Amane Paldês; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Miraglia, Fabiana; Abreu, Patricia Antonia Estima; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the existence of cross-protection between two anti-leptospirosis monovalent experimental bacterins produced with two strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona: Fromm strain of serovar Kennewicky, isolated from pigs in the United States, and strain GR6 of serovar Pomona isolated from pigs in Brazil. Both were added of aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. Experimental bacterins were tested with the hamster potency test in order to assess protection provided against the disease and against the establishment of kidney infection. Controls were polyvalent commercial vaccine produced with Leptospira strains isolated outside Brazil, which included a representative of Pomona serovar, or Sorensen solution added of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. The challenge was performed with cross-strains of serogroup Pomona tested in accordance with international standards established for the potency test. After 21 days of the challenge, survivors were killed to evaluate the condition of Leptospira renal carrier. Experimental bacterins protected hamsters against homologous and heterologous strains, demonstrating the existence of cross-protection. The commercial vaccine protected the hamsters challenged with both strains, but there was a high proportion of animals diagnosed as renal carriers when the challenge was performed with strain GR6, isolated from pigs in Brazil. PMID:25477946

  5. Quantitative Pfirrmann Disc Degeneration Grading System to Overcome the Limitation of Pfirrmann Disc Degeneration Grade

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade is one of morphologic disc degeneration grading system and it was reliable on routine T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade, and check the alternative technique of disc degeneration grading system. Methods Fifteen volunteers (4 medical doctors related to spinal disease, 2 medical doctors not related to spinal disease, 6 nurses in spinal hospital, and 3 para-medicines) were included in this study. Three different digitalized MR images were provided all volunteers, and they checked Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade of each disc levels after careful listening to explanation. Indeed, all volunteers checked the signal intensity of disc degeneration at the points of nucleus pulposus (NP), disc membrane, ligaments, fat, and air to modify the quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade. Results Total 225 grade results of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade and 405 signal intensity results of quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade were analyzed. Average interobserver agreement was "moderate (mean±standard deviation, 0.575±0.251)" from poor to excellent. Completely agreed levels of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade were only 4 levels (26.67%), and the disagreement levels were observed in 11 levels; two different grades in 8 levels (53.33%) and three different grades in 3 levels (20%). Quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration showed relatively cluster distribution with the interobserver deviations of 0.41-1.56 at the ratio of NP and disc membrane, and it showed relatively good cluster and distribution indicating that the proposed grading system has good discrimination ability. Conclusion Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade showed the limitation of different interobserver results, but this limitation could be overcome by using quantitative techniques of MR signal intensity. Further evaluation is needed to access its advantage

  6. Cross-protective immunity to influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Suzanne L; Price, Graeme E

    2010-11-01

    Antigenic changes in influenza virus occur gradually, owing to mutations (antigenic drift), and abruptly, owing to reassortment among subtypes (antigenic shift). Availability of strain-matched vaccines often lags behind these changes, resulting in a shortfall in public health. In animal models, cross-protection by vaccines based on conserved antigens does not completely prevent infection, but greatly reduces morbidity, mortality, virus replication and, thus, viral shedding and spread. Such immunity is especially effective and long-lasting with mucosal administration. Cross-protective immunity in humans is controversial, but is suggested by some epidemiological findings. 'Universal' vaccines protective against all influenza A viruses might substantially reduce severity of infection and limit spread of disease during outbreaks. These vaccines could be used 'off the shelf' early in an outbreak or pandemic, before strain-matched vaccines are available. PMID:21087110

  7. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A. ); Park, Y.T. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1994-12-01

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system has been developed for troubleshooting cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with a database that stores inventory and field measurement information and flags problem areas. The system is described, and examples of troubleshooting using the system are presented.

  8. Grading Issues in a Desegregating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret; Zafirau, James

    Grades awarded to secondary school students in the Cleveland (Ohio) public schools were analyzed to determine relationships between grades and selected school climate variables in a desegregated urban school district. Failures or F grades and schoolwide non-promotion rates were both related to rates of class attendance and school suspensions. Over…

  9. 75 FR 2466 - State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...) published on November 13, 2009 (74 FR 58589), FRA proposed a rule to require the ten States with the most... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://www... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 234 RIN 2130-AC20 State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing...

  10. Europe: Language Arts around the World, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of European cultures. The units in the book reach diverse needs by…

  11. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (activation failure report) and 49 CFR 225.11 (accident/ incident report). (b) Each telephone report must..., motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at a highway-rail grade crossing involving an activation...; (6) Number of persons killed or injured, if any; (7) Maximum authorized train speed; and (8)...

  12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Cross Grade Level Collaboration to Improve Collegial Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Fidelia

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have connected student achievement to teacher collaboration; however, there is a paucity of studies conducted on how teachers use identified advantages and disadvantages of cross grade level collaboration to improve collegial interactions to achieve better student performance, professional development, teacher effectiveness, and job…

  13. People Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume V. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on "people around us" that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  14. Our Environment. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on the environment that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  15. Intriguing Animals. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume IV. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on intriguing animals that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  16. Crossed SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit for high frequency ultrasound transceivers and transducers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ultrasonic transducer is one of the core components of ultrasound systems, and the transducer’s sensitivity is significantly related the loss of electronic components such as the transmitter, receiver, and protection circuit. In an ultrasonic device, protection circuits are commonly used to isolate the electrical noise between an ultrasound transmitter and transducer and to minimize unwanted discharged pulses in order to protect the ultrasound receiver. However, the performance of the protection circuit and transceiver obviously degrade as the operating frequency or voltage increases. We therefore developed a crossed SMPS (Switching Mode Power Supply) MOSFET-based protection circuit in order to maximize the sensitivity of high frequency transducers in ultrasound systems. The high frequency pulse signals need to trigger the transducer, and high frequency pulse signals must be received by the transducer. We therefore selected the SMPS MOSFET, which is the main component of the protection circuit, to minimize the loss in high frequency operation. The crossed configuration of the protection circuit can drive balanced bipolar high voltage signals from the pulser and transfer the balanced low voltage echo signals from the transducer. Methods The equivalent circuit models of the SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit are shown in order to select the proper device components. The schematic diagram and operation mechanism of the protection circuit is provided to show how the protection circuit is constructed. The P-Spice circuit simulation was also performed in order to estimate the performance of the crossed MOSFET-based protection circuit. Results We compared the performance of our crossed SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit with a commercial diode-based protection circuit. At 60 MHz, our expander and limiter circuits have lower insertion loss than the commercial diode-based circuits. The pulse-echo test is typical method to evaluate the sensitivity of

  17. [The WHO/ISUP grading system for renal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Moch, H

    2016-07-01

    Histological tumor grading is an accepted prognostic parameter of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In 2012, the International Society of Urologic Pathologists (ISUP) proposed a novel grading system for RCC, mainly based on the evaluation of nucleoli: grade 1 tumors have nucleoli that are inconspicuous and basophilic at ×400 magnification; grade 2 tumors have nucleoli that are clearly visible at ×400 magnification and eosinophilic; grade 3 tumors have clearly visible nucleoli at ×100 magnification; and grade 4 tumors have extreme pleomorphism or rhabdoid and/or sarcomatoid morphology. This grading system was validated for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. At the same time, the ISUP proposed not grading chromophobe renal cell carcinomas according to this system. At a consensus conference in Zurich the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the ISUP grading system; thus, the WHO/ISUP grading system is now going to be implemented internationally. The ISUP/WHO grading system has not been validated as a prognostic parameter for other tumor subtypes, but can be used for descriptive purposes. PMID:27271258

  18. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  19. Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, H.V.; Agostini, R.C.; Barker, L.; Cherkassky, R.; Constant, T.; Matheson, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System, DSPI, is under development at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for requirements in the areas of personnel protection, beam containment and equipment protection interlocks. The DSPI system, distributed over the application site, consists of segments with microprocessor-based controller and I/O modules, local area networks for communication, and a global supervisor computer. Segments are implemented with commercially available controller and I/O modules arranged in local interlock clusters, and associated software. Segments provide local interlock data acquisition, processing and control. Local area networks provide the communication backbone between segments and a global supervisor processor. The supervisor processor monitors the overall system, reports detail status and provides human interfaces. Details of an R and D test system, which will implement the requirements for personnel protection of 4 typical linear accelerator sectors, will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  20. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  1. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  2. Transportable Collective Protection System (TCPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tekesky, R.

    1990-08-15

    Human System Division (HSD/YAGD), Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6503 requested assistance from the Air Force Packaging Evaluation Activity (AFPEA) to conduct vibration, shock and environmental testing on three Rowley containers with contents. The contents consist of a Transportable Collective Protective System (TCPS). The TCPS, manufactured by IIC/Dover Inc., is a chemical warfare tent. Personnel can enter the tent, remove protective clothing and perform duties in an uncontaminated environment. The purpose of this project was to determine if the Rowley containers would be able to contain and protect the TCPS during world-wide shipment, storage, and handling.

  3. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 222 - Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings G Appendix G to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. G Appendix G to Part 222—Excess Risk Estimates for...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.20 - Highway grade crossings (accounts XX-17-22 and XX-18-22).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Highway grade crossings (accounts XX-17-22 and XX... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.20 Highway grade crossings (accounts XX-17-22 and XX-18-22). Separate running and switching common expenses according to distribution of the...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 222 - Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings G Appendix G to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. G Appendix G to Part 222—Excess Risk Estimates for...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 222 - Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings G Appendix G to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. G Appendix G to Part 222—Excess Risk Estimates for...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 222 - Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings G Appendix G to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. G Appendix G to Part 222—Excess Risk Estimates for...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 222 - Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings G Appendix G to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. G Appendix G to Part 222—Excess Risk Estimates for...

  9. Comparative evaluation of six cytological grading systems in breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kaushik; Raychaudhuri, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Bitan Kuamr; Das, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cytological grading is a useful tool for selection of therapy and prognosis in breast carcinoma. Despite having many cytological grading systems, there is still no agreement among pathologists to accept one of them as a gold standard. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate six such three-tier cytological grading systems to determine which system corresponds best to histological grading done by Nottingham modification of Scarff Bloom Richardson (SBR)'s method. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind study, preoperative cytological grades obtained by six systems on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears were compared by testing concordance, association and correlation with histological grade derived postoperatively by the SBR's method in 57 patients of breast carcinoma. Bivariate correlation studies and multiple linear regressions were done to assess the significance of the different cytological parameters to predict final cytological grades. Results: Robinson's system demonstrated the best correlation (ρ = 0.799; P = 0.000 and τ = 0.765; P = 0.000), maximum percent agreement (77.19%) and a substantial kappa value of agreement (κ = 0.62) with the SBR's grading system. All the six cytological grading systems correlated with histological grading strongly and positively. In multiple regression analysis, all of the cytological parameters of Robinson's system except cell size and nucleoli had significance in predicting the final cytological grade. Conclusions: Robinson's grading system is simple, more objective and reproducible, and demonstrated the best concordance with histological grading. So, Robinson's system should be used routinely for breast carcinoma aspirates. PMID:23833396

  10. Oscillatory dynamics in a bacterial cross-protection mutualism.

    PubMed

    Yurtsev, Eugene Anatoly; Conwill, Arolyn; Gore, Jeff

    2016-05-31

    Cooperation between microbes can enable microbial communities to survive in harsh environments. Enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, a common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, is a cooperative behavior that can allow resistant cells to protect sensitive cells from antibiotics. Understanding how bacterial populations survive antibiotic exposure is important both clinically and ecologically, yet the implications of cooperative antibiotic deactivation on the population and evolutionary dynamics remain poorly understood, particularly in the presence of more than one antibiotic. Here, we show that two Escherichia coli strains can form an effective cross-protection mutualism, protecting each other in the presence of two antibiotics (ampicillin and chloramphenicol) so that the coculture can survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either strain alone. Moreover, we find that daily dilutions of the coculture lead to large oscillations in the relative abundance of the two strains, with the ratio of abundances varying by nearly four orders of magnitude over the course of the 3-day period of the oscillation. At modest antibiotic concentrations, the mutualistic behavior enables long-term survival of the oscillating populations; however, at higher antibiotic concentrations, the oscillations destabilize the population, eventually leading to collapse. The two strains form a successful cross-protection mutualism without a period of coevolution, suggesting that similar mutualisms may arise during antibiotic treatment and in natural environments such as the soil. PMID:27194723

  11. Oscillatory dynamics in a bacterial cross-protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Yurtsev, Eugene Anatoly; Conwill, Arolyn; Gore, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between microbes can enable microbial communities to survive in harsh environments. Enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, a common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, is a cooperative behavior that can allow resistant cells to protect sensitive cells from antibiotics. Understanding how bacterial populations survive antibiotic exposure is important both clinically and ecologically, yet the implications of cooperative antibiotic deactivation on the population and evolutionary dynamics remain poorly understood, particularly in the presence of more than one antibiotic. Here, we show that two Escherichia coli strains can form an effective cross-protection mutualism, protecting each other in the presence of two antibiotics (ampicillin and chloramphenicol) so that the coculture can survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either strain alone. Moreover, we find that daily dilutions of the coculture lead to large oscillations in the relative abundance of the two strains, with the ratio of abundances varying by nearly four orders of magnitude over the course of the 3-day period of the oscillation. At modest antibiotic concentrations, the mutualistic behavior enables long-term survival of the oscillating populations; however, at higher antibiotic concentrations, the oscillations destabilize the population, eventually leading to collapse. The two strains form a successful cross-protection mutualism without a period of coevolution, suggesting that similar mutualisms may arise during antibiotic treatment and in natural environments such as the soil. PMID:27194723

  12. Fan blade protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermans, Thomas C. (Inventor); Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Hauser, Ambrose A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    In one type of aircraft propulsion system, propeller blades are mounted on a ring which surrounds a turbine. An annular space exists between the turbine and the ring. If a propeller blade should break free, the unbalanced centrifugal load tends to deform the ring. The invention reduces the deformation, as by locating spacers between the turbine and the ring.

  13. Orbiter Thermal Protection System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenshields, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) is traced from concept definition, through technical development, to final design and qualification for manned flight. A sufficiently detailed description of the TPS design is presented to support an indepth discussion of the key issues encountered in conceptual design, materials development, and structural integration. Emphasis is placed on the unique combination of requirements which resulted in the use not only of revolutionary design concepts and materials, but also of unique design criteria, newly developed analysis, testing and manufacturing methods, and finally of an unconventional approach to system certification for operational flight. The conclusion is drawn that a significant advance in all areas of thermal protection system development has been achieved which results in a highly efficient, flexible, and cost-effective thermal protection system for the Orbiter of the Space Shuttle System.

  14. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A.; Park, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system called CP Diagnostic has been developed for troubleshooting sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with the CP Diagnostic database system, which stores inventory and field measurement information for CP systems and flags problem areas. When a malfunction is detected, the expert system queries the user and the companion inventory and field measurement databases to determine its symptoms. The system will be described and examples of troubleshooting using the system will be presented.

  15. Modification of LMS (Learning Mastery System) Grade 1 Training System for Use with LMS for Harper & Row Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Cheryl; Hylton, John A.

    A description of revisions made to the Learning Mastery System (LMS) grade-one training system in order to accommodate user training for the Harper & Row grade-two reading program is presented in this document. A summary of the procedures, instrumentation, and results of the evaluation of the training system is also included. The LMS is a set of…

  16. Lightweight Thermal-Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Lawson, A. G.; Whiteman, T. C.; Brien, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Hexagonal honeycomb panels secured by Y-shaped plates form lightweight, easily-maintained thermal-protection system. Honeycomb outer panel and fastener materials are selected to match local heating rates. Typical materials include composites, titanium, superalloys, and refractory metals. Advantages include complete symmetry of components--there are no left- or right-hand parts and no asymmetry in thermal expansion.

  17. Evaluation of the Level of Food Safety Protection Provided by the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Its Associated Cooperative Grade "A" Milk Safety Program.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinqing; Klontz, Karl C; DiNovi, Michael J; Edwards, Alison J; Hennes, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) Grade "A" Milk Safety Program through its implementation and enforcement of the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The number of reported illnesses associated with Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was obtained from state and federal agencies and published articles. The consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was estimated from food consumption survey data for individuals. The level of food safety protection was measured quantitatively using the metric of annual illness attack rate. During a 15-year period (1999 through 2013), the estimated annual illness attack rate was 0.41 reported illnesses per 1 billion exposures (estimated using person-day intake data) or 0.52 reported illnesses per 1 billion lb (454 million kg) of Grade "A" milk and milk products consumed. Food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products by the NCIMS through its implementation and enforcement of the PMO is important given the common consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States. PMID:26219354

  18. Advanced power system protection and incipient fault detection and protection of spaceborne power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don

    1989-01-01

    This research concentrated on the application of advanced signal processing, expert system, and digital technologies for the detection and control of low grade, incipient faults on spaceborne power systems. The researchers have considerable experience in the application of advanced digital technologies and the protection of terrestrial power systems. This experience was used in the current contracts to develop new approaches for protecting the electrical distribution system in spaceborne applications. The project was divided into three distinct areas: (1) investigate the applicability of fault detection algorithms developed for terrestrial power systems to the detection of faults in spaceborne systems; (2) investigate the digital hardware and architectures required to monitor and control spaceborne power systems with full capability to implement new detection and diagnostic algorithms; and (3) develop a real-time expert operating system for implementing diagnostic and protection algorithms. Significant progress has been made in each of the above areas. Several terrestrial fault detection algorithms were modified to better adapt to spaceborne power system environments. Several digital architectures were developed and evaluated in light of the fault detection algorithms.

  19. Thermal protection systems for aerobrakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    In summary, advantages of the ablative thermal protection system (TPS) for aerobrakes are: (1) proven reliable TPS systems; (2) well characterized (thermally) with good, existing thermal analysis capability; (3) good candidate materials are available; (4) not sensitive to defects and more difficult to damage then RSI or C-C; (5) design program which demonstrated simple (direct bond) application of large panels; (6) thermal excursions not catastrophic; and (7) no SIP required.

  20. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The main objective of this research project is the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Mullite will be employed as the inner (base) layer and the composition of the film will be continuously changed to a layer of pure alumina, which will function as the actual protective coating of the component. Chemical vapor deposition reactions of silica, alumina, and aluminosilicates (mullite) through hydrolysis of aluminum and silicon chlorides in the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} will be employed to deposit compositionally graded films of mullite and alumina. Our studies will include the kinetic investigation of the silica, alumina, and aluminosilicate deposition processes, characterization of the composition, microstructure, surface morphology, and mechanical behavior of the prepared films, and modeling of the various deposition processes. During this six-month reporting period, we continued the work on the development and construction of the thermogravimetric chemical vapor deposition system that we intend to employ for studying the deposition of alumina, silica, and aluminosilicates (such as mullite) from mixtures of metal chlorides in H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Specifically, we worked on the development of the tubular flow reactor that will be used for producing aluminum chloride for delivery to the chemical vapor deposition system and of the vapor and gas supply system. Various problems arising from condensation of aluminum chlorides in some sections of the supply line were resolved, and we expect to perform experiments using mixtures containing AlCl{sub 3} in the next reporting period. Preliminary experiments on the

  1. Formation of inversely graded, downstream-dipping, low-angle cross-stratification by antidunes

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, T.R.

    1987-05-01

    Antidunes migrating upstream during aggradation produce a distinctive internal structure that results from the upstream climb of the bed form. This structure differs markedly from the upstream-dipping foresets usually ascribed to antidunes. Most studies on antidune internal structures focus on equilibrium conditions where there is no net deposition and preservation potential of structures is limited. Experiments where aggradation was induced in small coastal streams show that upstream-climbing antidunes produce low-angle, downstream-dipping, cross-stratification 1-10 mm thick. The stratification results from grain size and density segregation between the antidune trough and crest. Studies show that small, dense grains form a lag in the antidune trough while coarser, less-dense grains accumulate at the crest. The grain segregation causes inverse grading within the stratification as the antidune body and crest pass over the finer grained lag in the trough. Upstream-dipping foresets are not commonly formed by this process as there is no avalanching of grains over the bed form. Temporal variations in flow velocity may produce upstream-dipping foresets bounded by the downstream-dipping cross-stratification, but these features are subtle. The studies above suggest that antidune cross-stratification may be more common in fluvial deposits than previously thought. Deposits along the Toutle River in southern Washington show numerous examples of inversely graded, downstream-dipping, low-angle (up to 15) cross-stratification 1-5 cm thick, quite similar to antidune cross-stratification produced experimentally. Local upstream-dipping cross-stratification bounded by the downstream-dipping strata strengthens the interpretation.

  2. Cross-protection in nonhuman primates against Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed Central

    Weissenbacher, M C; Coto, C E; Calello, M A; Rondinone, S N; Damonte, E B; Frigerio, M J

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility of the marmoset Callithrix jacchus to Tacaribe virus infection was investigated to perform cross-protection studies between Junin and Tacaribe viruses. Five marmosets inoculated with Tacaribe virus failed to show any signs of disease, any alterations in erythrocyte, leukocyte, reticulocyte, and platelet counts or any changes in hematocrit or hemoglobin values. No Tacaribe virus could be recovered from blood at any time postinfection. Anti-Tacaribe neutralizing antibodies appeared 3 weeks postinfection. The five Tacaribe-infected marmosets and four noninfected controls were challenged with the pathogenic strain of Junin virus on day 60 post-Tacaribe infection. The former group showed no signs of disease, no viremia, and no challenge virus replication, whereas the control group exhibited the typical symptoms of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, high viremia, and viral titers in organs. Soon after challenge, the Tacaribe-protected marmosets synthesized neutralizing antibodies against Junin virus. These results indicate that the marmoset C. jacchus can be considered an experimental model for protection studies with arenaviruses and that the Tacaribe virus could be considered as a potential vaccine against Junin virus. PMID:6276301

  3. Social Studies, Grade 3. Teaching Systems II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    The overall social studies recommended program is described in SO 000 675; the nature of this guide, and the emphasis and organization of the units are described in SO 000 679. The three units in this part of the third grade course are: Tropical Rainforest, Mountain Communities, and Grassland Communities involving the typical climatic conditions,…

  4. Alignment of Two Grading Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohner, Margaret; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    For the past number of years, a Canadian university has been offering its business degree program in universities located in Tianjin and Shanghai, China. This paper examines the alignment of the two grading systems and its implications on the grade distribution of graduates from the programs. An attempt is made to find an exchange rate of the two…

  5. Large thermal protection system panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  6. Protective efficacy of a bacterially produced modular capsomere presenting M2e from influenza: extending the potential of broadly cross-protecting epitopes.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Nani; Hughes, Fiona K; Fairmaid, Emily J; Lua, Linda H L; Brown, Lorena E; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2014-06-17

    Influenza A viruses drift and shift, emerging as antigenically distinct strains that lead to epidemics and pandemics of varying severity. Even epitopes associated with broad cross-protection against different strains, such as the ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e), mutate unpredictably. Vaccine protective efficacy is only ensured when the emerging virus lies within the vaccine's cross-protective domain, which is poorly defined in most situations. When virus emerges outside this domain it is essential to rapidly re-engineer the vaccine and hence re-center the cross-protective domain on the new virus. This approach of vaccine re-engineering in response to virus change is the cornerstone of the current influenza control system, based on annual prediction and/or pandemic reaction. This system could become more responsive, and perhaps preventative, if its speed could be improved. Here, we demonstrate vaccine efficacy of a rapidly manufacturable modular capsomere presenting the broadly cross-protecting M2e epitope from influenza. M2e inserted into a viral capsomere at the DNA level was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein (Wibowo et al., 2013). Immunization of mice with this modular capsomere adjuvanted with conventional aluminum hydroxide induced high (more than 10(5) endpoint titer) levels of M2e-specific antibodies that reduced disease severity and viral load in the lungs of challenged mice. The combination of rapid manufacturability of modular capsomere presented in this study, and the established cross-protective efficacy of M2e, allow rapid matching of vaccine to the circulating virus and hence rapid re-centering of the vaccine's cross-protective domain onto the virus. This approach synergizes the discussed benefits of broadly cross-protecting epitopes with rapid scale-up vaccine manufacture using microbial cell factories. PMID:24795225

  7. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    DOEpatents

    van Erp, J.B.

    1973-10-01

    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  8. ON-LINE PREDICTION OF YIELD GRADE, LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE AREA, PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, ADJUSTED PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, AND MARBLING SCORE USING THE MARC BEEF CARCASS IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the MARC Beef Carcass Image Analysis System to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commerci...

  9. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of this research project is the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Mullite will be employed as the inner (base) layer and the composition of the film will be continuously changed to a layer of pure alumina, which will function as the actual protective coating of the component. Chemical vapor deposition reactions of silica, alumina, and aluminosilicates (mullite) through hydrolysis of aluminum and silicon chlorides in the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} will be employed to deposit compositionally graded films of mullite and alumina. Our studies will include the kinetic investigation of the silica, alumina, and aluminosilicate deposition processes, characterization of the composition, microstructure, surface morphology, and mechanical behavior of the prepared films, and modeling of the various deposition processes. During this reporting period, the construction and development of the chemical vapor deposition system was completed, and experiments were conducted on the deposition of alumina, silica, and aluminosilicates (such as mullite) from mixtures of AlCl{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3} in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. Work was mainly done on the investigation of the effects of the reaction temperature on the deposition kinetics. It was found that the temperature had a positive effect on the single oxides deposition rates and the codeposition rate. The apparent activation energy values extracted from the deposition rate vs. temperature curves in the high temperature region were similar for the three deposition processes, having a value around 20 kcal/mol. The codeposition rates were higher, by a

  10. Grading Systems, Features of Assessment and Students' Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Fejes, Andreas; Abrandt-Dahlgren, Madeleine; Trowald, Nils

    2009-01-01

    The Bologna process aims at harmonising the higher education systems in the Europe. One of the most important tools proposed for such a purpose is the European Credit Transfer System. A significant element of this system is a common seven-step grading scale. It has previously been shown that assessment characteristics impact on students'…

  11. Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

  12. The immune protective effect of the Mediterranean diet against chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids, poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and poor in omega-3 fatty acids may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This dietary pattern is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat, processed meat products and seeds. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean pattern as protective against several diseases associated with chronic low-grade inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cognition disorders. The adoption of this dietary pattern could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular biomarkers involved in the atherosclerotic process. Thus, the aim of this review was to consider the current evidence about the effectiveness of the MedDiet in these chronic inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may not only act on classical risk factors but also on inflammatory biomarkers such as adhesion molecules, cytokines or molecules related to the stability of atheromatic plaque. PMID:25244229

  13. The Immune Protective Effect of the Mediterranean Diet against Chronic Low-grade Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids, poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and poor in omega-3 fatty acids may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This dietary pattern is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat, processed meat products and seeds. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean pattern as protective against several diseases associated with chronic low-grade inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cognition disorders. The adoption of this dietary pattern could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular biomarkers involved in the atherosclerotic process. Thus, the aim of this review was to consider the current evidence about the effectiveness of the MedDiet in these chronic inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may not only act on classical risk factors but also on inflammatory biomarkers such as adhesion molecules, cytokines or molecules related to the stability of atheromatic plaque. PMID:25244229

  14. FUNCTIONALY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    PROF. STRATIS V. SOTIRCHOS

    1998-10-01

    The main objective of this research project is the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Mullite will be employed as the inner (base) layer and the composition of the film will be continuously changed to a layer of pure alumina, which will function as the actual protective coating of the component. Chemical vapor deposition reactions of silica, alumina, and aluminosilicates (mullite) through hydrolysis of aluminum and silicon chlorides in the presence of CO2 and H2 will be employed to deposit compositionally graded films of mullite and alumina. Our studies will include the kinetic investigation of the silica, alumina, and aluminosilicate deposition processes, characterization of the composition, microstructure, surface morphology, and mechanical behavior of the prepared films, and modeling of the various deposition processes. During this six-month reporting period, the experimental work on the investigation of the deposition of alumina, silica, and aluminosilicates from mixtures of methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), aluminum trichloride, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen was continued. Experiments were also conducted on the deposition processes of the simple oxides, alumina and silica, from mixtures containing only one chloride (AlCl3 and MTS, respectively). Deposition rate data were obtained in a relatively broad range of operating conditions: temperatures in the range 800-1000 o C, 100 Torr pressure, 0.006-0.015 AlCl3 feed mole fraction, 0.011- 0.027 CH3SiCl3 feed mole fraction, and 0.004-0.07 CO2 feed mole fraction, and various positions along the axis of the deposition reactor. Since the effect of temperature had been

  15. Automating occupational protection records systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Martin, J.B.

    1991-10-01

    Occupational protection records have traditionally been generated by field and laboratory personnel, assembled into files in the safety office, and eventually stored in a warehouse or other facility. Until recently, these records have been primarily paper copies, often handwritten. Sometimes, the paper is microfilmed for storage. However, electronic records are beginning to replace these traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for making the transition to automated record keeping and retrieval using modern computer equipment. This paper describes the types of records most readily converted to electronic record keeping and a methodology for implementing an automated record system. The process of conversion is based on a requirements analysis to assess program needs and a high level of user involvement during the development. The importance of indexing the hard copy records for easy retrieval is also discussed. The concept of linkage between related records and its importance relative to reporting, research, and litigation will be addressed. 2 figs.

  16. Thermal protection system ablation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  17. Topological phases protected by reflection symmetry and cross-cap states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Gil Young; Hsieh, Chang-Tse; Morimoto, Takahiro; Ryu, Shinsei

    2015-05-01

    Twisting symmetries provides an efficient method to diagnose symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases. In this paper, edge theories of (2+1)-dimensional topological phases protected by reflection as well as other symmetries are studied by twisting reflection symmetry, which effectively puts the edge theories on an unoriented space-time, such as the Klein bottle. A key technical step taken in this paper is the use of the so-called cross-cap states, which encode entirely the unoriented nature of space-time, and can be obtained by rearranging the space-time geometry and exchanging the role of space and time coordinates. When the system is in a nontrivial SPT phase, we find that the corresponding cross-cap state is noninvariant under the action of the symmetries of the SPT phase, but acquires an anomalous phase. This anomalous phase, with a proper definition of a reference state, on which symmetry acts trivially, reproduces the known classification of (2+1)-dimensional bosonic and fermionic SPT phases protected by reflection symmetry, including in particular the Z8 classification of topological crystalline superconductors protected by reflection and time-reversal symmetries.

  18. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). Separate common expenses on the basis of total train hours (including...

  19. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). Separate common expenses on the basis of total train hours (including...

  20. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). Separate common expenses on the basis of total train hours (including...

  1. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). Separate common expenses on the basis of total train hours (including...

  2. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). Separate common expenses on the basis of total train hours (including...

  3. HPV16/18 L1 VLP Vaccine Induces Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies that May Mediate Cross-Protection

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Dauner, Joseph G.; Pan, Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP-based vaccines are protective against HPV vaccine-related types; however, the correlates of protection have not been defined. We observed that vaccination with Cervarix™ induced cross-neutralizing antibodies for HPV types for which evidence of vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated (HPV31/45) but not for other types (HPV52/58). In addition, HPV31/45 cross-neutralizing titers showed a significant increase with number of doses (HPV31, p<0.001; HPV45, p<0.001) and correlated with HPV16/18 neutralizing titers, respectively. These findings raise the possibility that cross-neutralizing antibodies are effectors of cross-protection observed for the HPV16/18 vaccine. PMID:21241731

  4. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  5. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal

  6. Markov property and strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Hajime

    2006-03-15

    The quantum Markov property is equivalent to the strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems. The additivity of von Neumann entropy for bipartite graded systems implies the statistical independence of states. However, the structure of Markov states for graded systems is different from that for tensor-product systems which have trivial grading. For three-composed graded systems we have U(1)-gauge invariant Markov states whose restriction to the marginal pair of subsystems is nonseparable.

  7. LHC magnet quench protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coull, L.; Hagedorn, D.; Remondino, V.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

    1994-07-01

    The quench protection system for the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The system is based on the so called 'cold diode' concept. In a group of series connected magnets if one magnet quenches then the magnetic energy of all the magnets will be dissipated in the quenched magnet so destroying it. This is avoided by by-passing the quenched magnet and then rapidly de-exciting the unquenched magnets. For the LHC machine it is foreseen to use silicon diodes situated inside the cryostat as by-pass elements - so called 'cold diodes'. The diodes are exposed to some 50 kGray of radiation during a 10 year operation life-time. The high energy density of the LHC magnets (500 kJ/m) coupled with the relatively slow propagation speed of a 'natural' quench (10 to 20 m/s) can lead to excessive heating of the zone where the quench started and to high internal voltages. It is therefore necessary to detect quickly the incipient quench and fire strip heaters which spread the quench out more quickly over a large volume of the magnet. After a quench the magnet chain must be de-excited rapidly to avoid spreading the quench to other magnets and over-heating the by-pass diode. This is done by switching high-power energy-dump resistors in series with the magnets. The LHC main ring magnet will be divided into 16 electrically separated units which has important advantages.

  8. Groups graded by root systems and property (T)

    PubMed Central

    Ershov, Mikhail; Jaikin-Zapirain, Andrei; Kassabov, Martin; Zhang, Zezhou

    2014-01-01

    We establish property (T) for a large class of groups graded by root systems, including elementary Chevalley groups and Steinberg groups of rank at least 2 over finitely generated commutative rings with 1. We also construct a group with property (T) which surjects onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank at least two. PMID:25425669

  9. Curriculum Development for Enhancing Grade Nine Students' Systems Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernthaisong, Preeyanan; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the development of a curriculum for enhancing grade 9 students' cognitive skills using a curriculum based on Systems Thinking Process. There were 3 phases: 1) studying of the problem; 2) development of tentative curriculum; and 3) implementation of the curriculum in a pilot study. The samples were 32…

  10. Cultural Influences on Number Preferences: Christmas and Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieger, Stefan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    People consistently prefer numbers associated with themselves (e.g., birth dates) over other numbers. We argue that such number preferences are also shaped by cultural influences, such as customs regarding the day on which Christmas is celebrated and customs regarding ranking of numerals used in national school's grading system. Across 6 different…

  11. Cellular automata (CA) simulation of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on urban low-grade uncontrolled roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on uncontrolled low-grade roads or branch roads without separating barriers in cities where pedestrians may cross randomly from any location on both sides of the road. The rules governing pedestrian street crossings are analyzed, and a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings is proposed. The influence of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on the volume and travel time of the vehicle flow and the average wait time for pedestrians to cross is investigated through simulations. The main results of the simulation are as follows: (1) The vehicle flow volume decreases because of interruption from pedestrian crossings, but a small number of pedestrian crossings do not cause a significant delay to vehicles. (2) If there are many pedestrian crossings, slow vehicles will have little chance to accelerate, causing travel time to increase and the vehicle flow volume to decrease. (3) The average wait time for pedestrians to cross generally decreases with a decrease in vehicle flow volume and also decreases with an increase in the number of pedestrian crossings. (4) Temporal and spatial characteristics of vehicle flows and pedestrian flows and some interesting phenomena such as "crossing belt" and "vehicle belt" are found through the simulations.

  12. Protection of Active Distribution Systems with DGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akila, Abdelrahman Ahmed; Helal, Ahmed; Eldesouki, Hussein

    2015-10-01

    Distribution systems are traditionally designed as radial passive systems fed from a single source. Protection coordination of such systems has been easily established assuming the system radiality. Insertion of distributed generators (DGs) into distribution systems makes the distribution system to be more active which causes redistribution of fault currents magnitudes and directions. This causes negative impacts on the original protection system coordination, since the distribution system losses its radiality and passiveness. Recently protection coordination in the presence of distributed generation has been paid a great attention. Researchers proposed various solutions to solve the protection coordination problem caused by adding DG into the distribution network. In this paper, the proposed solutions for the protection coordination problem considering the DG insertion will be illustrated, classified, and criticized.

  13. Graded composite diamond coatings with top-layer nanocrystallinity and interfacial integrity: Cross-sectional Raman mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumpala, Ravikumar; Ramamoorthy, B.; Rao, M. S. Ramachandra

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional structural characteristics of the CVD diamond coatings deposited on the tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates were analysed using Raman imaging technique. The grain size of the nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings was observed to deviate from the nanocrystallinity with increasing thickness and exhibited the surface characteristics of microcrystalline diamond (MCD). However, thick diamond coatings with surface nanocrystallinity is the key requirement for load-bearing tribological applications. Tribological tests have clearly indicated the significance and need for the top-layer nanocrystallinity. Graded composite diamond coatings with an architecture of NCD/transition-layer/MCD/WC-Co are potentail candiadates to realize thick diamond coatings with top-layer nanocrystallinity. Residual stresses along the cross-section of the graded composite diamond coatings were analysed using Raman imaging technique, which confirmed the improved interfacial integrity of the graded composite diamond coatings

  14. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  15. Who Transfers More...and What? Cross-linguistic Influence in Relation to School Grade and Language Dominance in EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naves, Teresa; Miralpeix, Immaculada; Celaya, M. Luz

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linguistic influence (CLI) is receiving increasing attention in multilingual learners (Cenoz "et al.", 2001). Research with bilingual learners has analysed CLI in relation to language dominance (see, for instance, Hulk & Muller, 2000; Yip & Stephen, 2000) and to language dominance and grade in school settings (Cenoz, 2003; Lasagabaster,…

  16. Physical Education and School Contextual Factors Relating to Students' Achievement and Cross-Grade Differences in Aerobic Fitness and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Boiarskaia, Elena A.; Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    Using two major data sets from the Texas Youth Fitness Study, ordinary least squares regression, and hierarchical linear modeling, we examined the impact of key correlates in school physical education programs and policies on students' fitness status and cross-grade differences. While a number of factors, such as teachers' training/updates, recess…

  17. Ecology and the Environment. Language Arts around the World, Volume V. Cross-Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of ecology and the environment. The units in the book reach diverse…

  18. Central and South America: Language Arts around the World, Volume II. Cross Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of Central and South American cultures. The units in the book reach…

  19. Asia and Australia: Language Arts around the World, Volume III. Cross Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of Asian and Australian cultures. The units in the book reach diverse…

  20. Portraits of Practice: A Cross-Case Analysis of Two First-Grade Teachers and Their Grouping Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloch, Beth; Worthy, Jo; Hampton, Angela; Jordan, Michelle; Hungerford-Kresser, Holly; Semingson, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    This interpretive study provides a cross-case analysis of the literacy instruction of two first-grade teachers, with a particular focus on their grouping practices. One key finding was the way in which these teachers drew upon a district-advocated approach for instruction--an approach to guided reading articulated by Fountas and Pinnell (1996) in…

  1. Physiological evaluation of men wearing three different toxicological protective systems

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L.; Cadarette, B.S.; Sawka, M.N.; Pandolf, K.B.

    1989-08-01

    This study examined the physiological responses of seven volunteers exercising in the heat while wearing three different toxicological protective systems. The Toxicological Agent Protective (TAP) suit has been available for use for more than 30 years while the other two protective systems are developmental efforts. The Self-Contained Toxicological Environmental Protection Outfit (STEPO) includes either a backpack-rebreather (with CO{sub 2} scrubber) and ice-cooling vest (STEPO-R), or a tether system which supplies breathing/cooling air inside the suit (STEPO-T). After the volunteers were heat acclimated, the three toxicological protection systems were evaluated utilizing a counter-balanced experimental design initially in a hot and then in a cool environment while subjects walked at 1.12 m/s, 0% grade for an attempted two hours. There was no statistical advantage of any one system in terms of exercise time in the cool environment. While evaporated sweating rate was greater for the STEPO-T in the cool environment compared to both STEPO-R and TAP. Development efforts to improve the STEPO system designs continue, and physiological evaluation of new developmental models is underway.

  2. Reading Different Orthographic Structures in the Shallow-Pointed Hebrew Script: A Cross-Grade Study in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shany, Michal; Bar-On, Amalia; Katzir, Tami

    2012-01-01

    Hebrew-speaking children learn to read using a transparent, pointed writing system, but by grade three, they gradually begin using the non-pointed version of Hebrew script. The current study examined the development of reading, in the pointed script, of a nationally representative sample of children in grades two, four, and six. Rate and accuracy…

  3. Thermal protection system and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbe, Duane J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A thermal protection system and a method of manufacturing are disclosed. The thermal protection system may be configured to protect a movable joint, for example, a flexible bearing of a rocket motor nozzle. The thermal protection system includes a series of annular shims separated by a plurality of discrete spacers. Each shim of the series of annular shims may have a larger diameter than the previous shim, and the shims may nest. The shims may comprise a thermally stable material, and the discrete spacers may comprise an elastomer. Optionally, an annular bearing protector may separate the annular shims from the flexible bearing.

  4. Grade Level and Science Achievement: US Performance in Cross-National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how international differences in age-grade distributions and grade effects contribute to science scores among 27 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. As shown in the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment, countries vary substantially in the grade distribution of 15-year-olds. The costs…

  5. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    In November, 2014, 65 prostate cancer pathology experts, along with 17 clinicians including urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists from 19 different countries gathered in a consensus conference to update the grading of prostate cancer, last revised in 2005. The major conclusions were: (1) Cribriform glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (2) Glomeruloid glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (3) Grading of mucinous carcinoma of the prostate should be based on its underlying growth pattern rather than grading them all as pattern 4; and (4) Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate without invasive carcinoma should not be assigned a Gleason grade and a comment as to its invariable association with aggressive prostate cancer should be made. Regarding morphologies of Gleason patterns, there was clear consensus on: (1) Gleason pattern 4 includes cribriform, fused, and poorly formed glands; (2) The term hypernephromatoid cancer should not be used; (3) For a diagnosis of Gleason pattern 4, it needs to be seen at 10x lens magnification; (4) Occasional/seemingly poorly formed or fused glands between well-formed glands is insufficient for a diagnosis of pattern 4; (5) In cases with borderline morphology between Gleason pattern 3 and pattern 4 and crush artifacts, the lower grade should be favored; (6) Branched glands are allowed in Gleason pattern 3; (7) Small solid cylinders represent Gleason pattern 5; (8) Solid medium to large nests with rosette-like spaces should be considered to represent Gleason pattern 5; and (9) Presence of unequivocal comedonecrosis, even if focal is indicative of Gleason pattern 5. It was recognized by both pathologists and clinicians that despite the above changes, there were deficiencies with the Gleason system. The Gleason grading system ranges from 2 to 10, yet 6 is the lowest score currently assigned. When patients are told that they have a Gleason score 6 out

  6. Bayesian methodology incorporating expert judgment for ranking countermeasure effectiveness under uncertainty: example applied to at grade railroad crossings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Washington, Simon; Oh, Jutaek

    2006-03-01

    methodology is able to discern anticipated safety benefit differences across candidate countermeasures. For the 18 at grade railroad crossings considered in this analysis, it was found that the top three performing countermeasures for reducing crashes are in-vehicle warning systems, obstacle detection systems, and constant warning time systems. PMID:16288710

  7. Mechanisms of Cross-protection by Influenza Virus M2-based Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Yu-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Current influenza virus vaccines are based on strain-specific surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) antigens and effective only when the predicted vaccine strains and circulating viruses are well-matched. The current strategy of influenza vaccination does not prevent the pandemic outbreaks and protection efficacy is reduced or ineffective if mutant strains emerge. It is of high priority to develop effective vaccines and vaccination strategies conferring a broad range of cross protection. The extracellular domain of M2 (M2e) is highly conserved among human influenza A viruses and has been utilized to develop new vaccines inducing cross protection against different subtypes of influenza A virus. However, immune mechanisms of cross protection by M2e-based vaccines still remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we review immune correlates and mechanisms conferring cross protection by M2e-based vaccines. Molecular and cellular immune components that are known to be involved in M2 immune-mediated protection include antibodies, B cells, T cells, alveolar macrophages, Fc receptors, complements, and natural killer cells. Better understanding of protective mechanisms by immune responses induced by M2e vaccination will help facilitate development of broadly cross protective vaccines against influenza A virus. PMID:26557805

  8. Functionally Graded Alumina/Mullite Coatings for Protection of Silicon Carbide Ceramic Components from Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Sotirchos, S.V.

    1997-04-01

    During the six months of this reporting period, we accomplished the following: Preparatory work was done on the development of the feed supply system (for mixtures of AlCl{sub 3}, SiCl{sub 4}, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) and effluent treatment section for the CVD system we plan to employ for coating preparation. A comprehensive literature survey of past work done on the chemical vapor deposition of silica, alumina and aluminosilicates (mullite) was carried out, and work was initiated on the study of thermochemical equilibrium in the Al/Si/Cl/C/O/H system so as to identify the boundaries of the region of the space of operating parameters and conditions where preparation of functionally graded mullite/ alumina coatings through CVD from metal chloride, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} is feasible. Since the alumina/mullite films that are proposed to be developed can also be applied to carbon matrix composites provided that a layer that bridges the gap that exists between the thermal expansion coefficient of carbon and that of mullite is employed, experiments were conducted on the preparation of compositionally graded carbon/silicon carbide coatings. Deposition from mixtures of ethylene and methyltrichlorosilane or tetrachlorosilane (silicon tetrachloride) in hydrogen was used for the preparation of SiC/C coatings, and our experiments focused on the study of the occurrence of multiple steady states in the deposition process and the effects of the type of chlorosilane on the deposition rate and the deposit composition and their variation along the length of the reactor. The results showed that when operation is carried out outside the multiplicity region, codeposition of SiC and C from ethylene and chlorosilanes is a feasible route for preparation of SiC/C graded coatings.

  9. Protected zone ventilation and reduced personal exposure to airborne cross-infection.

    PubMed

    Cao, G; Nielsen, P V; Jensen, R L; Heiselberg, P; Liu, L; Heikkinen, J

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the performance of protected zone ventilation (PZV) and hybrid protected zone ventilation (HPZV) to reduce the direct exposure to exhaled air from others' breathing. Experimental measurements are carried out to test the performance of PZV in a full-scale office room with two breathing thermal manikins. The measurements were performed under three configurations, including two standing manikins at different distances: 0.35, 0.5, and 1.1 m. When the supply air velocity is increased to 4 m/s in the downward plane jet, the dimensionless concentration is 40% lower than for fully mixed ventilation, which can be considered as a measure of protection from the zoning condition. The measurement results showed that in both the PZV and the HPZV system it is possible to decrease the transmission of tracer gas from one manikin to the opposite manikin; therefore, it probably would reduce the risk of air borne cross-infection between two people at the same relative positions. The results suggest that PZV and HPZV may be used to reduce the exposure of people in a protected zone from indoor pollutants emitted in a source zone. PMID:24995998

  10. Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices. PMID:20702891

  11. Outer skin protection of columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A coated columbium alloy material system 0.04 centimeter thick was developed which provides for increased reliability to the load bearing character of the system in the event of physical damage to and loss of the exterior protective coating. The increased reliability to the load bearing columbium alloy (FS-85) was achieved by interposing an oxidation resistant columbium alloy (B-1) between the FS-85 alloy and a fused slurry silicide coating. The B-1 alloy was applied as a cladding to the FS-85 and the composite was fused slurry silicide coated. Results of material evaluation testing included cyclic oxidation testing of specimens with intentional coating defects, tensile testing of several material combinations exposed to reentry profile conditions, and emittance testing after cycling of up to 100 simulated reentries. The clad material, which was shown to provide greater reliability than unclad materials, holds significant promise for use in the thermal protection system of hypersonic reentry vehicles.

  12. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  13. Current Technology for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    Interest in thermal protection systems for high-speed vehicles is increasing because of the stringent requirements of such new projects as the Space Exploration Initiative, the National Aero-Space Plane, and the High-Speed Civil Transport, as well as the needs for improved capabilities in existing thermal protection systems in the Space Shuttle and in turbojet engines. This selection of 13 papers from NASA and industry summarizes the history and operational experience of thermal protection systems utilized in the national space program to date, and also covers recent development efforts in thermal insulation, refractory materials and coatings, actively cooled structures, and two-phase thermal control systems.

  14. Explanation-Construction in Fourth-Grade Classrooms in Germany and the USA: A cross-national comparative video study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Cory; Lange, Kim; Möller, Kornelia; Biggers, Mandy; Laux, Mira; Zangori, Laura

    2014-09-01

    To help explain the differences in students' performance on internationally administered science assessments, cross-national, video-based observational studies have been advocated, but none have yet been conducted at the elementary level for science. The USA and Germany are two countries with large formal education systems whose students underperform those from peers on internationally administered standardized science assessments. However, evidence from the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Exam assessment suggests fourth-grade students (9-10 year-olds) in the USA perform higher than those in Germany, despite more instructional time devoted to elementary science in Germany. The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze fourth-grade classroom science in both countries to learn more about how teachers and students engage in scientific inquiry, particularly explanation-construction. Videorecordings of US and German science instruction (n 1 = 42, n 2 = 42) were sampled from existing datasets and analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Despite German science lessons being, on average, twice as long as those in the USA, study findings highlight many similarities between elementary science in terms of scientific practices and features of scientific inquiry. However, they also illustrate crucial differences around the scientific practice of explanation-construction. While students in German classrooms were afforded more substantial opportunities to formulate evidence-based explanations, US classrooms were more strongly characterized by opportunities for students to actively compare and evaluate evidence-based explanations. These factors may begin to help account for observed differences in student achievement and merit further study grounded in international collaboration.

  15. Thermostable cross-protective subunit vaccine against Brucella species.

    PubMed

    Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Barabé, Nicole D; Grigat, Michelle L; Lee, William E; Poirier, Robert T; Jager, Scott J; Berger, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 10(5) CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation. PMID:25320267

  16. Thermostable Cross-Protective Subunit Vaccine against Brucella Species

    PubMed Central

    Barabé, Nicole D.; Grigat, Michelle L.; Lee, William E.; Poirier, Robert T.; Jager, Scott J.; Berger, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 105 CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation. PMID:25320267

  17. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOEpatents

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  18. The Role of Reading Disability Risk and Environmental Protective Factors in Students' Reading Fluency in Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading disability (RD) risk and environmental protective factors in reading fluency in grade 4. The sample consisted of 538 Finnish-speaking students. Kindergarten measures included the students' risk for RD based on poor achievement in phonological awareness and letter knowledge as well as information on the…

  19. Positive and Negative Incentives in the Classroom: An Analysis of Grading Systems and Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docan, Tony N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how particular grading systems motivate students. Since competency-based grading and point systems are most prevalent (Hendrickson and Gable, 1999), the current study is modeled around these systems. The grading systems used for this study were divided into two categories and defined as those students who earned their grades…

  20. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Ebola Vaccines With Improved Cross-Protective Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Callison, Julie; Groseth, Allison; Williams, Kinola J.; Geisbert, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    For Ebola virus (EBOV), 4 different species are known: Zaire, Sudan, Côte d’Ivoire, and Reston ebolavirus. The newly discovered Bundibugyo ebolavirus has been proposed as a 5th species. So far, no cross-neutralization among EBOV species has been described, aggravating progress toward cross-species protective vaccines. With the use of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)–based vaccines, guinea pigs could be protected against Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) infection only when immunized with a vector expressing the homologous, but not a heterologous, EBOV glycoprotein (GP). However, infection of guinea pigs with nonadapted wild-type strains of the different species resulted in full protection of all animals against subsequent challenge with guinea pig–adapted ZEBOV, showing that cross-species protection is possible. New vectors were generated that contain EBOV viral protein 40 (VP40) or EBOV nucleoprotein (NP) as a second antigen expressed by the same rVSV vector that encodes the heterologous GP. After applying a 2-dose immunization approach, we observed an improved cross-protection rate, with 5 of 6 guinea pigs surviving the lethal ZEBOV challenge if vaccinated with rVSV-expressing SEBOV-GP and -VP40. Our data demonstrate that cross-protection between the EBOV species can be achieved, although EBOV-GP alone cannot induce the required immune response. PMID:21987743

  1. Cross-protection induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccines against different genotypes of Dengue viruses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jieqiong; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Ziyang; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; An, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention. PMID:26818736

  2. Food-grade bacteria expressing elafin protect against inflammation and restore colon homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Motta, Jean-Paul; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Deraison, Céline; Martin, Laurence; Rolland, Corinne; Rousset, Perrine; Boue, Jérôme; Dietrich, Gilles; Chapman, Kevin; Kharrat, Pascale; Vinel, Jean-Pierre; Alric, Laurent; Mas, Emmanuel; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Langella, Philippe; Vergnolle, Nathalie

    2012-10-31

    Elafin, a natural protease inhibitor expressed in healthy intestinal mucosa, has pleiotropic anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. We found that mucosal expression of Elafin is diminished in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This defect is associated with increased elastolytic activity (elastase-like proteolysis) in colon tissue. We engineered two food-grade strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to express and deliver Elafin to the site of inflammation in the colon to assess the potential therapeutic benefits of the Elafin-expressing LAB. In mouse models of acute and chronic colitis, oral administration of Elafin-expressing LAB decreased elastolytic activity and inflammation and restored intestinal homeostasis. Furthermore, when cultures of human intestinal epithelial cells were treated with LAB secreting Elafin, the inflamed epithelium was protected from increased intestinal permeability and from the release of cytokines and chemokines, both of which are characteristic of intestinal dysfunction associated with IBD. Together, these results suggest that oral delivery of LAB secreting Elafin may be useful for treating IBD in humans. PMID:23115353

  3. REDUCED-POLLUTION CORROSION-PROTECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coating systems, designed to protect metallic components against corrosive attack using environmentally compatible materials and processes, were evaluated as potential alternatives for their higher polluting counterparts. Viable replacements were established for cyanide cadmium, ...

  4. Requirements for CEC POP machine protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Pinayev, I.

    2015-02-18

    The requirements of CEC POP machine protection system are meant to prevent damage to a vacuum chamber by a missteered electron beam. In this example, beam energy = 22 MeV, Maximal bunch charge = 5 nC, Maximal repetition rate = 78 kHz, Normalized emittance = 5 mm mrad, Minimal β-function = 1 m. From this information the requirements of the protection system can be calculated by factoring the information into equations to find beam densities and temperature excursions.

  5. Synergy between different electromagnetic-protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudenot, J. C.

    1990-04-01

    A new approach to electromagnetic-protection (EP) design is presented. The EP problem for large structures has been shown to be strongly dependent on the various types of electromagnetic constraints (NEMP, lightning, EMC, TEMPEST). Even though the types of protection systems that can be applied are limited, the characteristics of these systems show a potential for synergism in the treatment of the EP. It is shown that, in order to take advantange of this potential synergism and to achieve the best cost-effective design, an early analysis of the protection scenario is required.

  6. Cross-scale feedbacks and scale mismatches as influences on cultural services and the resilience of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Kristine; De Vos, Alta; Cumming, Graeme S; Moore, Christine; Biggs, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a central strategy for achieving global conservation goals, but their continued existence depends heavily on maintaining sufficient social and political support to outweigh economic interests or other motives for land conversion. Thus, the resilience of protected areas can be considered a function of their perceived benefits to society. Nature-based tourism (NBT), a cultural ecosystem service, provides a key source of income to protected areas, facilitating a sustainable solution to conservation. The ability of tourism to generate income depends, however, on both the scales at which this cultural service is provided and the scales at which tourists respond to services on offer. This observation raises a set of location-, context-, and scale-related questions that need to be confronted before we can understand and value cultural service provision appropriately. We combine elements of resilience analysis with a systems ecology framework and apply this to NBT in protected areas to investigate cross-scale interactions and scale mismatches. We postulate that cross-scale effects can either have a positive effect on protected area resilience or lead to scale mismatches, depending on their interactions with cross-scale feedbacks. To demonstrate this, we compare spatial scales and nested levels of institutions to develop a typology of scale mismatches for common scenarios in NBT. In our new typology, the severity of a scale mismatch is expressed as the ratio of spatial scale to institutional level, producing 25 possible outcomes with differing consequences for system resilience. We predict that greater differences between interacting scales and levels, and greater magnitudes of cross-scale interactions, will lead to greater magnitudes of scale mismatch. Achieving a better understanding of feedbacks and mismatches, and finding ways of aligning spatial and institutional scales, will be critical for strengthening the resilience of protected areas that

  7. Grade Stability in a Criterion-Referenced Grading System: The Swedish Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikstrom, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates empirically the mechanisms behind the increasing grade point averages in Swedish upper secondary schools. Four hypotheses are presented as plausible explanations; improved student achievements, student selection effects, strategic behaviour in course choices, and lowering of grading standards. The analysis is based on…

  8. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

  9. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B.

    1986-01-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

  10. Mild to moderate postnatal hydronephrosis--grading systems and management.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, Matthew D; Herndon, C D Anthony

    2013-11-01

    No universal guidelines exist for the management of patients with mild to moderate antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH). Unsurprisingly, practice patterns vary considerably with respect to recommendations for postnatal evaluation and follow-up imaging schedule. Although some clinical tools are available to specifically grade ANH and postnatal hydronephrosis, these are commonly used interchangeably with varying degrees of success. A universal classification system and nomenclature are needed to best identify patients at risk of renal deterioration, UTI and need for surgical intervention. We present our own approach to postnatal risk stratification and management, including recommendations regarding serial ultrasonography schedule, prophylactic antibiotics, voiding cystourethrogram and renal scintigraphy. PMID:23958828

  11. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative

    PubMed Central

    Hauke, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1. PMID:24991253

  12. R&D ERL: Machine Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Altinbas, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The Machine Protection System (MPS) is a device-safety system that is designed to prevent damage to hardware by generating interlocks, based upon the state of input signals generated by selected sub-system. It exists to protect key machinery such as the 50 kW and 1 MW RF Systems. When a fault state occurs, the MPS is capable of responding with an interlock signal within several microseconds. The Machine Protection System inputs are designed to be fail-safe. In addition, all fault conditions are latched and time-stamped. The ERL MPS is based on a National Instruments hardware platform, and is programmed by utilizing National Instruments development environment for a visual programming language.

  13. Ethical foundations of the radiological protection system.

    PubMed

    Cho, K W

    2016-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established Task Group 94 under Committee 4 to develop a report on the ethical foundations of the system of radiological protection. The aim of this report is to consolidate the basis of ICRP recommendations, to improve understanding of the system, and to provide a basis for communication on radiation risk and its perception. Through a series of workshops organised by the Commission in cooperation with the International Radiation Protection Association and its associate societies involving radiological protection professionals and specialists of ethics around the world, Task Group 94 has identified the key ethical and social values underpinning the system of radiological protection. The purpose of eliciting the ethical principles and values of the radiological protection system is not only to clarify the rationale for recommendations made by the Commission, but also to assist in discussions related to its practical implementation. A clear understanding of the ethical principles will help resolve dilemmas caused by potential conflicts in actions that might be considered, or decisions that must be made. PMID:26980798

  14. The Grading Systems of Award-Winning High School Journalism Teachers in Production-Oriented Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Mary Kahl

    Twenty-seven school journalism teachers who have been honored as "outstanding" by the Newspaper Fund in the last 3 years responded to a survey about how they grade students in production oriented classes. The teachers reported using a variety of grading systems, including subjective decision making, a combination grading system, self-evaluation,…

  15. Möbius syndrome: classification and grading system.

    PubMed

    Abramson, D L; Cohen, M M; Mulliken, J B

    1998-09-01

    Möbius syndrome is characterized by facial abnormalities, but the limbs, chest wall, spine, and soft tissues also can be involved. There is no system for categorizing the various anomalies, grading phenotypic severity, designing treatment protocols, or assessing therapeutic results. This is a retrospective analysis of 27 patients with Möbius syndrome seen in our craniofacial unit from 1980 to 1994. We categorized and graded the cranial nerve deficits and diverse musculoskeletal abnormalities of the face, upper and lower limbs, and trunk. The first letter for each of five potentially involved structures, i.e., cranial nerve, lower limb, upper limb, face, and thorax, formed the acronym CLUFT. The structural and/or functional deficits for each component were graded on a scale of 0 to 3. Complete facial nerve paralysis was documented in 11 patients and paresis in 16. Facial nerve paralysis was bilaterally symmetric in 17 of 26 patients. Sixth nerve paralysis was present in 23 of 27 patients; other cranial nerves were affected in 8 of 27 patients. Lower limbs were involved in 10 of 27 patients and upper limbs in 7 of 27 patients. Facial structures were affected in 17 of 27 patients (e.g., microtia, micrognathia, and microphthalmia), and chest wall deformities were found in 8 of 27 patients (e.g., scoliosis, hypoplasia of the breast, pectoral muscles, and scapula). We noted that microtia primarily involved second pharyngeal arch-derived structures. The CLUFT system permits categorization and comparison of Möbius patients for phenotypic and management outcome studies. Documentation of the widespread structural anomalies suggests that pathogenesis involves vascular disruption; a detailed prenatal history is indicated. PMID:9734409

  16. Advanced Protection & Service Restoration for FREEDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Urvir

    A smart electric power distribution system (FREEDM system) that incorporates DERs (Distributed Energy Resources), SSTs (Solid State Transformers - that can limit the fault current to two times of the rated current) & RSC (Reliable & Secure Communication) capabilities has been studied in this work in order to develop its appropriate protection & service restoration techniques. First, a solution is proposed that can make conventional protective devices be able to provide effective protection for FREEDM systems. Results show that although this scheme can provide required protection but it can be quite slow. Using the FREEDM system's communication capabilities, a communication assisted Overcurrent (O/C) protection scheme is proposed & results show that by using communication (blocking signals) very fast operating times are achieved thereby, mitigating the problem of conventional O/C scheme. Using the FREEDM System's DGI (Distributed Grid Intelligence) capability, an automated FLISR (Fault Location, Isolation & Service Restoration) scheme is proposed that is based on the concept of 'software agents' & uses lesser data (than conventional centralized approaches). Test results illustrated that this scheme is able to provide a global optimal system reconfiguration for service restoration.

  17. Current technology for thermal protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Scotti, S.J.

    1992-10-01

    Interest in thermal protection systems for high-speed vehicles is increasing because of the stringent requirements of such new projects as the Space Exploration Initiative, the National Aero-Space Plane, and the High-Speed Civil Transport, as well as the needs for improved capabilities in existing thermal protection systems in the Space Shuttle and in turbojet engines. This selection of 13 papers from NASA and industry summarizes the history and operational experience of thermal protection systems utilized in the national space program to date, and also covers recent development efforts in thermal insulation, refractory materials and coatings, actively cooled structures, and two-phase thermal control systems. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers of this report.

  18. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1996-12-17

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ``identical`` values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs.

  19. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically "identical" values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic.

  20. Future Interoperability of Camp Protection Systems (FICAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, Sylvie; Gündisch, Rainer; Marchand, Alain; Stahl, Karl-Hermann

    2013-05-01

    The FICAPS Project has been established as a Project of the European Defence Agency based on an initiative of Germany and France. Goal of this Project was to derive Guidelines, which by a proper implementation in future developments improve Camp Protection Systems (CPS) by enabling and improving interoperability between Camp Protection Systems and its Equipments of different Nations involved in multinational missions. These Guidelines shall allow for: • Real-time information exchange between equipments and systems of different suppliers and nations (even via SatCom), • Quick and easy replacement of equipments (even of different Nations) at run-time in the field by means of plug and play capability, thus lowering the operational and logistic costs and making the system highly available, • Enhancement of system capabilities (open and modular systems) by adding new equipment with new capabilities (just plug-in, automatic adjustment of the HMI Human Machine Interface) without costly and time consuming validation and test on system level (validation and test can be done on Equipment level), Four scenarios have been identified to summarize the interoperability requirements from an operational viewpoint. To prove the definitions given in the Guideline Document, a French and a German Demonstration System, based on existing national assets, were realized. Demonstrations, showing the capabilities given by the defined interoperability requirements with respect to the operational scenarios, were performed. Demonstrations included remote control of a CPS by another CPS, remote sensor control (Electro-Optic/InfraRed EO/IR) and remote effector control. This capability can be applied to extend the protection area or to protect distant infrastructural assets Demonstrations have been performed. The required interoperability functionality was shown successfully. Even if the focus of the FICAPS project was on camp protection, the solution found is also appropriate for other

  1. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  2. Thermal protection system flight repair kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) flight repair kit required for use on a flight of the Space Transportation System is defined. A means of making TPS repairs in orbit by the crew via extravehicular activity is discussed. A cure in place ablator, a precured ablator (large area application), and packaging design (containers for mixing and dispensing) for the TPS are investigated.

  3. Cross-Protection against Challenge with Puumala Virus after Immunization with Nucleocapsid Proteins from Different Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Nicacio, Cristina; Gonzalez Della Valle, Marcelo; Padula, Paula; Björling, Ewa; Plyusnin, Alexander; Lundkvist, Åke

    2002-01-01

    Hantaviruses are rodent-borne agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans. The nucleocapsid protein (N) is relatively conserved among hantaviruses and highly immunogenic in both laboratory animals and humans, and it has been shown to induce efficient protective immunity in animal models. To investigate the ability of recombinant N (rN) from different hantaviruses to elicit cross-protection, we immunized bank voles with rN from Puumala (PUUV), Topografov (TOPV), Andes (ANDV), and Dobrava (DOBV) viruses and subsequently challenged them with PUUV. All animals immunized with PUUV and TOPV rN were completely protected. In the group immunized with DOBV rN, 7 of 10 animals were protected, while only 3 of 8 animals were protected in the group immunized with ANDV rN, which is more closely related to PUUV rN than DOBV rN. Humoral and cellular immune responses after rN immunization were also investigated. The highest cross-reactive humoral responses against PUUV antigen were detected in sera from ANDV rN-immunized animals, followed by those from TOPV rN-immunized animals, and only very low antibody cross-reactivity was observed in sera from DOBV rN-immunized animals. In proliferation assays, T lymphocytes from animals immunized with all heterologous rNs were as efficiently recalled in vitro by PUUV rN as were T lymphocytes from animals immunized with homologous protein. In summary, this study has shown that hantavirus N can elicit cross-protective immune responses against PUUV, and the results suggest a more important role for the cellular arm of the immune response than for the humoral arm in cross-protection elicited by rN. PMID:12050380

  4. Cross Cutting Structural Design for Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B.

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of our new National Space Policy and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) is keyed to the development of more effective space access and transportation systems. Optimizing in-space systems through innovative cross cutting structural designs that reduce mass, combine functional requirements and improve performance can significantly advance spacecraft designs to meet the ever growing demands of our new National Space Policy. Dependence on limited structural designs is no longer an option. We must create robust materials, forms, function and evolvable systems. We must advance national policy objectives in the design, development, test and operation of multi-billion dollar new generation crew capsules by enabling them to evolve in meeting the requirements of long duration missions to the moon and mars. This paper discusses several current issues and major design drivers for consideration in structural design of advanced spacecraft systems. Approaches to addressing these multifunctional requirements is presented as well as a discussion on utilizing Functional Analysis System Technique (FAST) in developing cross cutting structural designs for future spacecraft. It will be shown how easy it is to deploy such techniques in any conceptual architecture definition or ongoing preliminary design. As experts in merging mission, safety and life support requirements of the frail human existence into robust vehicle and habitat design, we will conquer the final frontier, harness new resources and develop life giving technologies for mankind through more innovative designs. The rocket equation tells us that a reduction in mass optimizes our propulsive results. Primary and secondary structural elements provide for the containment of gases, fluids and solids; translate and sustain loads/impacts; conduct/radiate thermal energy; shield from the harmful effects of radiation; provide for grounding/bonding of electrical power systems; compartmentalize operational

  5. The mechanical influences of the graded distribution in the cross-sectional shape, the stiffness and Poisson׳s ratio of palm branches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wangyu; Wang, Ningling; Jiang, Xiaoyong; Peng, Yujian

    2016-07-01

    The branching system plays an important role in maintaining the survival of palm trees. Due to the nature of monocots, no additional vascular bundles can be added in the palm tree tissue as it ages. Therefore, the changing of the cross-sectional area in the palm branch creates a graded distribution in the mechanical properties of the tissue. In the present work, this graded distribution in the tissue mechanical properties from sheath to petiole were studied with a multi-scale modeling approach. Then, the entire palm branch was reconstructed and analyzed using finite element methods. The variation of the elastic modulus can lower the level of mechanical stress in the sheath and also allow the branch to have smaller values of pressure on the other branches. Under impact loading, the enhanced frictional dissipation at the surfaces of adjacent branches benefits from the large Poisson׳s ratio of the sheath tissue. These findings can help to link the wind resistance ability of palm trees to their graded materials distribution in the branching system. PMID:26807774

  6. A Cell Type Independent Binary Grading System Does Not Significantly Improve Endometrial Biopsy Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nastic, Denis; Kahlin, Frida; Dahlstrand, Hanna; Carlson, Joseph W

    2016-05-01

    The revised International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grading system is widely accepted as the standard in evaluating endometrial carcinoma on biopsy. Determination of tumor cell type [using the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria] and grade (using FIGO) guides surgical approach. Several studies have highlighted discrepancies between biopsy and hysterectomy diagnosis. Recently, a binary grading system was proposed, yielding a low-risk and high-risk assessment but in a cell type independent (CTI) way. No study has assessed its utility in biopsy grading, a situation where this system may be particularly useful. Archived endometrial biopsies from 70 cases of endometrial carcinoma were graded by 3 independent observers using the WHO/FIGO and the CTI grading systems. The overall accuracy, interobserver agreement, and ease of use were assessed. This study found comparable substantial accuracy between the WHO/FIGO and CTI grading systems (κ=0.71 vs. κ=0.69), with the same setbacks in overgrading of 20.9% versus 25.6% of low-risk tumors. The CTI grading system was not superior to the WHO/FIGO grading system in accuracy of subtyping and grading and interobserver reproducibility. Although determination of cell type is difficult, it does not appear that the proposed CTI system confers any significant advantages over existing grading. PMID:26863477

  7. Autonomous system for cross-country navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stentz, Anthony; Brumitt, Barry L.; Coulter, R. C.; Kelly, Alonzo

    1993-05-01

    Autonomous cross-country navigation is essential for outdoor robots moving about in unstructured environments. Most existing systems use range sensors to determine the shape of the terrain, plan a trajectory that avoids obstacles, and then drive the trajectory. Performance has been limited by the range and accuracy of sensors, insufficient vehicle-terrain interaction models, and the availability of high-speed computers. As these elements improve, higher- speed navigation on rougher terrain becomes possible. We have developed a software system for autonomous navigation that provides for greater capability. The perception system supports a large braking distance by fusing multiple range images to build a map of the terrain in front of the vehicle. The system identifies range shadows and interpolates undersamples regions to account for rough terrain effects. The motion planner reduces computational complexity by investigating a minimum number of trajectories. Speeds along the trajectory are set to provide for dynamic stability. The entire system was tested in simulation, and a subset of the capability was demonstrated on a real vehicle. Results to date include a continuous 5.1 kilometer run across moderate terrain with obstacles. This paper begins with the applications, prior work, limitations, and current paradigms for autonomous cross-country navigation, and then describes our contribution to the area.

  8. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... effect before the movement to a position in a different pay system) must be determined as if the official... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay... REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay...

  9. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... effect before the movement to a position in a different pay system) must be determined as if the official... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay... REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay...

  10. A Qualitative Case Study on the Effects of Online Grading Systems on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, C. Mark, II

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored perceptions of teachers and educational administrators regarding differences between online grading systems and traditional written grade books. The purpose was to gain knowledge of online grade books in relation to parental involvement in the educational process and student academic performance, when compared…

  11. Correlates of Achievement: Prediction and Cross-Validation for Intermediate Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jon C.; Powers, Jerry M.

    A study was conducted to: (1) determine the simple and multiple correlation coefficients between selected educational/personal variables and academic achievement at intermediate grade levels as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills; (2) determine the multiple linear regression equations for predicting individual student achievement as…

  12. The Animals Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units: Cross-Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    This book is part of a series of books presenting ready-to-use instructional units on themes typically taught in the primary grades. The topics focus on science, math, social studies or literature, but use language arts skills consistently in each unit. Each book in the series also uses as many frames of mind or intelligences as possible. Within a…

  13. Cross-Language Transfer of Spelling Strategies in English and Afrikaans Grade 3 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Sousa, Diana; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This study examined strategies for spelling accuracy in Grade 3 children. Thirty bilingual, Afrikaans-English speaking children and 30 monolingual, English-speaking children were assessed on their ability to spell English words and non-words. The bilingual children were also assessed on their Afrikaans word and non-word spelling abilities. In…

  14. Thermal Protection System with Staggered Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); Robinson, Michael J. (Inventor); Andrews, Thomas L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The thermal protection system disclosed herein is suitable for use with a spacecraft such as a reentry module or vehicle, where the spacecraft has a convex surface to be protected. An embodiment of the thermal protection system includes a plurality of heat resistant panels, each having an outer surface configured for exposure to atmosphere, an inner surface opposite the outer surface and configured for attachment to the convex surface of the spacecraft, and a joint edge defined between the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint edges of adjacent ones of the heat resistant panels are configured to mate with each other to form staggered joints that run between the peak of the convex surface and the base section of the convex surface.

  15. Evolution of thiol protective systems in prokaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, R. C.; Newton, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Biological thiols are essential elements in most aspects of cell function but undergo rapid oxidation to disulfides in the presence of oxygen. The evolution of systems to protect against such oxygen toxicity was essential to the emergence of aerobic life. The protection system used by eukaryotes is based upon glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent enzymes but many bacteria lack GSH and apparently use other mechanisms. The objective of this research is to elaborate the thiol protective mechanisms employed by prokaryotes of widely divergent evolutionary origin and to understand why GSH became the central thiol employed in essentially all higher organisms. Thiol-selective fluorescent labeling and HPLC analysis has been used to determine key monothiol components.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Citrus Tristeza Virus Isolates from Mild Strain Cross Protection Experiments in Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) collected from the Topara Nursery, Lima, Peru were established as in planta cultures in Madam Vinous sweet orange in the Exotic Citrus Pathogen Quarantine Greenhouse, Beltsville, MD. Two of the isolates were collected from non-cross protected plants; Pe...

  17. 18 CFR 35.44 - Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facility, as defined by 18 CFR 292.101, made under market-based rate authority granted by the Commission... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protections against affiliate cross-subsidization. 35.44 Section 35.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  18. Stability of sublethal acid stress adaptaion and induced cross protection against lauric arginate in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stability of acid stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes and its induced cross protection effect against GRAS (generally recognized as safe) antimicrobial compounds has never been investigated before. In the present study, the acid stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was initially induced...

  19. Prevention and the Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The nation's child protection system (CPS) has historically focused on preventing maltreatment in high-risk families, whose children have already been maltreated. But, as Jane Waldfogel explains, it has also begun developing prevention procedures for children at lower risk--those who are referred to CPS but whose cases do not meet the criteria for…

  20. Iterative protecting group-free cross-coupling leading to chiral multiply arylated structures

    PubMed Central

    Crudden, Cathleen M.; Ziebenhaus, Christopher; Rygus, Jason P. G.; Ghozati, Kazem; Unsworth, Phillip J.; Nambo, Masakazu; Voth, Samantha; Hutchinson, Marieke; Laberge, Veronique S.; Maekawa, Yuuki; Imao, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    The Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling is one of the most often utilized reactions in the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds and conjugated materials. In its most common form, the reaction joins two sp2-functionalized carbon atoms to make a biaryl or diene/polyene unit. These substructures are widely found in natural products and small molecules and thus the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling has been proposed as the key reaction for the automated assembly of such molecules, using protecting group chemistry to affect iterative coupling. We present herein, a significant advance in this approach, in which multiply functionalized cross-coupling partners can be employed in iterative coupling without the use of protecting groups. To accomplish this, the orthogonal reactivity of different boron substituents towards the boron-to-palladium transmetalation reaction is exploited. The approach is illustrated in the preparation of chiral enantioenriched compounds, which are known to be privileged structures in active pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:27040494

  1. Iterative protecting group-free cross-coupling leading to chiral multiply arylated structures.

    PubMed

    Crudden, Cathleen M; Ziebenhaus, Christopher; Rygus, Jason P G; Ghozati, Kazem; Unsworth, Phillip J; Nambo, Masakazu; Voth, Samantha; Hutchinson, Marieke; Laberge, Veronique S; Maekawa, Yuuki; Imao, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling is one of the most often utilized reactions in the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds and conjugated materials. In its most common form, the reaction joins two sp(2)-functionalized carbon atoms to make a biaryl or diene/polyene unit. These substructures are widely found in natural products and small molecules and thus the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling has been proposed as the key reaction for the automated assembly of such molecules, using protecting group chemistry to affect iterative coupling. We present herein, a significant advance in this approach, in which multiply functionalized cross-coupling partners can be employed in iterative coupling without the use of protecting groups. To accomplish this, the orthogonal reactivity of different boron substituents towards the boron-to-palladium transmetalation reaction is exploited. The approach is illustrated in the preparation of chiral enantioenriched compounds, which are known to be privileged structures in active pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:27040494

  2. Oral Fluids as a Live-Animal Sample Source for Evaluating Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protection following Intranasal Influenza A Virus Vaccination in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Holly R.; Vincent, Amy L.; Brockmeier, Susan L.; Gauger, Phillip C.; Pena, Lindomar; Santos, Jefferson; Braucher, Douglas R.; Perez, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    In North American swine, there are numerous antigenically distinct H1 influenza A virus (IAV) variants currently circulating, making vaccine development difficult due to the inability to formulate a vaccine that provides broad cross-protection. Experimentally, live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines demonstrate increased cross-protection compared to inactivated vaccines. However, there is no standardized assay to predict cross-protection following LAIV vaccination. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody in serum is the gold standard correlate of protection following IAV vaccination. LAIV vaccination does not induce a robust serum HI antibody titer; however, a local mucosal antibody response is elicited. Thus, a live-animal sample source that could be used to evaluate LAIV immunogenicity and cross-protection is needed. Here, we evaluated the use of oral fluids (OF) and nasal wash (NW) collected after IAV inoculation as a live-animal sample source in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to predict cross-protection in comparison to traditional serology. Both live-virus exposure and LAIV vaccination provided heterologous protection, though protection was greatest against more closely phylogenetically related viruses. IAV-specific IgA was detected in NW and OF samples and was cross-reactive to representative IAV from each H1 cluster. Endpoint titers of cross-reactive IgA in OF from pigs exposed to live virus was associated with heterologous protection. While LAIV vaccination provided significant protection, LAIV immunogenicity was reduced compared to live-virus exposure. These data suggest that OF from pigs inoculated with wild-type IAV, with surface genes that match the LAIV seed strain, could be used in an ELISA to assess cross-protection and the antigenic relatedness of circulating and emerging IAV in swine. PMID:26291090

  3. Effects of Transition from Pass/No Credit to Traditional Letter Grade System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddick, David E.; Kelly, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of student performance resulting from the transition from a pass/no credit to the traditional letter grade system indicated that the former system was not superior to the latter system. Academic performance was better in the graded system; academic standards were raised, particularly at the masters' level. (Author/GK)

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  5. 23 CFR 646.218 - Simplified procedure for accelerating grade crossing improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Projects § 646.218 Simplified procedure for... preliminary engineering costs may include those incurred in selecting crossings to be improved,...

  6. Pre-stressed thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, T. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hexagonal protective and high temperature resistant system for the Space Shuttle Orbiter consists of a multiplicity of pockets formed by hexagonally oriented spacer bars secured on the vehicle substructure. A packing of low density insulating batt material 18 in each pocket, and a thin protective panel of laterally resilient advanced carbon-carbon material surmounting the peripherals bars and packing. Each panel has three stepped or offset lips on contiguous edges. At the center of each pocket is a fully insulated stanchion secured to and connecting the substructure and panel for flexing the panel toward the substructure and thereby prestressing the panel and forcing the panel edges firmly against the spacer bars.

  7. Reusable thermal protection system development: A prospective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Howard

    1992-01-01

    The state of the art in passive reusable thermal protection system materials is described. Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, which was the first reusable vehicle, is discussed. The thermal protection materials and given concepts and some of the shuttle development and manufacturing problems are described. Evolution of a family of grid and flexible ceramic external insulation materials from the initial shuttle concept in the early 1970's to the present time is described. The important properties and their evolution are documented. Application of these materials to vehicles currently being developed and plans for research to meet the space programs future needs are summarized.

  8. Protection against human and porcine enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli in rats immunized with a cross-linked toxoid vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Klipstein, F A; Engert, R F; Clements, J D; Houghten, R A

    1983-01-01

    To compare their relative immunogenicities, we used synthetically produced Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin coupled to a protein carrier and the B subunit of porcine heat-labile toxin separately in graded dosages to immunize rats. Equivalent antigen unit dosages of each toxin raised approximately the same level of mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) antitoxin response and degree of protection against a challenge with respective heat-stable- or heat-labile-toxin-producing viable bacteria. Conjugation conditions were identified, therefore, which yielded a vaccine of these toxins, cross-linked by the carbodiimide reaction, that consisted of equal antigenic proportions of each toxin component as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressed in antigen units. The dose-related response to immunization with this vaccine was the same as the response to its components given separately. The toxicity of the heat-stable toxin component was reduced greater than 600-fold. Immunization with optimal antigen unit dosages of the vaccine gave greater than or equal to sixfold increases in mucosal IgA antitoxin titers and provided significant (P less than 0.001) protection against challenge with heterologous serotypes of viable strains, of either human or porcine origin, that produce heat-stable or heat-labile toxin or both. PMID:6343245

  9. Cross-protective immune responses between genotypically distinct lineages of infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Won; Markham, Philip F; Coppo, Mauricio J C; Legione, Alistair R; Shil, Niraj K; Quinteros, José A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Browning, Glenn F; Hartley, Carol A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2014-03-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies have identified different genotypic lineages of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), and these lineages can recombine in the field. The emergence of virulent recombinant field strains of ILTV by natural recombination between commercial vaccines belonging to different genotypic lineages has been reported recently. Despite the use of attenuated ILTV vaccines, these recombinant viruses were able to spread and cause disease in commercial poultry flocks, raising the question of whether the different lineages of ILTV can induce cross-protective immune responses. This study examined the capacity of the Australian-origin A20 ILTV vaccine to protect against challenge with the class 8 ILTV recombinant virus, the genome of which is predominantly derived from a heterologous genotypic lineage. Following challenge, birds vaccinated via eyedrop were protected from clinical signs of disease and pathological changes in the tracheal mucosa, although they were not completely protected from viral infection or replication. In contrast, the challenge virus induced severe clinical signs and tracheal pathology in unvaccinated birds. This is the first study to examine the ability of a vaccine from the Australian lineage to protect against challenge with a virus from a heterologous lineage. These results suggest that the two distinct genotypic lineages of ILTV can both induce cross-protection, indicating that current commercial vaccines are still likely to assist in control of ILTV in the poultry industry, in spite of the emergence of novel recombinants derived from different genotypic lineages. PMID:24758128

  10. Cross-protective immune responses elicited by a Korean variant of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jang, Jun-Hyuk; Lim, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Soo-Won; Youn, Ha-Na; Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2013-09-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections cause great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. IBVs continuously evolve by developing mutations in antigenic sites; therefore, an IBV vaccine that provides broad cross-protection can be a highly relevant and practical method in IBV control strategies. Although some IBV vaccine strains are known to provide protection against multiple IBV serotypes, in general commercially available IBV vaccine strains provide protection against antigenically related viruses but not distinct heterologous viruses. In the present study we characterized the Korean variant IBV K40/09 strain with regard to its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against seven currently circulating IBV serotypes. Three-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were intraocularly immunized with the IBV K40/09 strain at 10(3.5) 50% egg infective dose (EID50). Three weeks after immunization all the birds were challenged with seven different strains at 10(4.5) EID50. Chickens immunized with the IBV K40/09 strain showed significantly high levels of protection against all challenge viruses at the trachea and kidney levels. Our results suggest that IBV K40/09 could be useful to ensure IBV vaccine effectiveness owing to its cross-protective ability. Therefore, the IBV K40/09 strain merits consideration as a vaccine candidate to prevent infection as well as the spread of new IBV strains and many IBV variants that have been reported worldwide. PMID:24283135

  11. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  12. Thermal protection systems for hypersonic transport vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, G.; Hinger, J.; Huchler, M.

    1990-07-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) for hypersonic transport vehicles are described and evaluated. During the flight through the atmosphere moderate to high aerodynamic heating rates with corresponding high surface temperatures are generated. Therefore, a reliable light-weight but effective TPS is required, that limits the heat transfer into the central fuselage with the liquid hydrogen tank and that prevents the penetration of the temperature peak during stage separation to the load carrying structure. The heat transfer modes in the insulation are solid conduction, gas convection and radiation. Thermal protection systems based on different phenomena to reduce the heat transfer, like vacuum shingles, inert gas filled shingles, microporous insulations and multiwall structures, are described. It is demonstrated that microporous and multiwall insulations are efficient, light weight and reliable TPSs for future hypersonic transportation systems.

  13. Graded Hilbert C*-modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunxiang

    2014-02-15

    The notion of Hilbert C*-modules graded by a semilattice was first introduced in the study of many-body systems. We show the relationship between these Hilbert C*-modules and their homogeneous subspaces. We study the stability of graded Hilbert C*-modules under tensor products and crossed products.

  14. Revisions of the Learning Mastery Systems for the Harper and Row Grades One and Two and the Macmillan Bank Street Grade One Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeder, Jacqueline; And Others

    The revisions on the Learning Mastery Systems (LMSs) for the Harper & Row grade-one and grade-two and the Macmillan Bank Street grade-one reading programs are outlined in this document. A rationale for the revisions is presented. An LMS is a set of materials and procedures prepared by the southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) as an objectives-based…

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of the Impact of Online Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mize, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the communication aspect of using an online grading program. This study explored teachers' perceptions of the implications of allowing the grading process to become transparent to parents. The purpose of this study was to assist teachers in searching for ways to create a positive parent-teacher relationship. A…

  16. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  17. Arthritis protective regulatory potential of self–heat shock protein cross-reactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    van Eden, Willem; Wendling, Uwe; Paul, Liesbeth; Prakken, Berent; van Kooten, Peter; van der Zee, Ruurd

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with heat shock proteins has protective effects in models of induced arthritis. Analysis has shown a reduced synovial inflammation in such protected animals. Adoptive transfer and immunization with selected T cell epitopes (synthetic peptides) have indicated the protection to be mediated by T cells directed to conserved hsp epitopes. This was shown first for mycobacterial hsp60 and later for mycobacterial hsp70. Fine specificity analysis showed that such T cells were cross-reactive with the homologous self hsp. Therefore protection by microbial hsp reactive T cells can be by cross-recognition of self hsp overexpressed in the inflamed tissue. Preimmunization with hsp leads to a relative expansion of such self hsp cross-responsive T cells. The regulatory nature of such T cells may originate from mucosal tolerance maintained by commensal flora derived hsp or from partial activation through recognition of self hsp as a partial agonist (Altered Peptide Ligand) or in the absence of proper costimulation. Recently, we reported the selective upregulation of B7.2 on microbial hsp60 specific T cells in response to self hsp60. Through a preferred interaction with CTLA-4 on proinflammatory T cells this may constitute an effector mechanism of regulation. Also, regulatory T cells produced IL10. PMID:11189451

  18. Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. D.; Giller, C. A.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27 +/- 7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Qc is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were

  19. Investigation of seedling yellows cross protection by mild components of the Dekopon strain of Citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) can be controlled by pre-infection by mild strains of CTV which is called cross protection. However, the mode of action of cross protection is unknown and its durability unpredictable. RNA silencing is a regulatory mechanism to maintain genome integri...

  20. Pressure Systems Energy Release Protection (Gas Pressurized Systems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A survey of studies into hazards associated with closed or pressurized system rupture and preliminary guidelines for the performance design of primary, secondary, and protective receptors of these hazards are provided. The hazards discussed in the survey are: blast, fragments, ground motion, heat radiation, biological, and chemical. Performance guidelines for receptors are limited to pressurized systems that contain inert gas. The performance guidelines for protection against the remaining unaddressed degenerative hazards are to be covered in another study.

  1. Design of metallic foams as insulation in thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huadong

    Metallic foams are novel materials that can be used as thermal insulation in many applications. The low volume fraction of solid, the small cell size and the low conductivity of enclosed gases limit the heat flow in foams. Varying the density, geometry and or material composition from point to point within the foam, one can produce functionally graded foams that may insulate more efficiently. The goal of this research is to investigate the use of functionally graded metal foam in thermal protection systems (TPS) for reusable launch vehicles. First, the effective thermal conductivity of the foam is derived based on a simple cubic unit cell model. Then two problems under steady state of heat transfer have been considered. The first one is the optimization of functionally graded foam insulation for minimum heat transmitted to the structure and the second is minimizing the mass of the functionally graded foam insulation for a given aerodynamic heating. In both cases optimality conditions are derived in closed-form, and numerical methods are used to solve the resulting differential equations to determine the optimal grading of the foam. In order to simplify the analysis the insulation was approximated by finite layers of uniform foams when studying the transient heat transfer case. The maximum structure temperature was minimized by varying the solidity profile for a given total thickness and mass. The principles that govern the design of TPS for transient conditions were identified. To take advantage of the load bearing ability of metallic foams, an integrated sandwich TPS/structure with metallic foam core is proposed. Such an integrated TPS will insulate the vehicle interior from aerodynamic heating as well as carry the primary vehicle loads. Thermal-structural analysis of integrated sandwich TPS panel subjected to transient heat conduction is developed to evaluate their performances. The integrated TPS design is compared with a conventional fibrous Safill TPS design

  2. Cathodic protection requirements for deepwater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, C.M.; Hanson, H.R.; Kane, R.D.; Farquhar, G.B.

    1999-07-01

    Field and laboratory experience related to requirements for cathodic protection (CP) in deep water are reviewed with emphasis on identification of the major variables that need to be specified for successful deepwater CP designs for offshore structures. The subject is addressed based on the historical development of cathodic protection design methodologies for offshore structures focusing on sacrificial anode systems and trends that have resulted in specific changes in design requirements. Three main subjects are discussed: (1) application of existing industry standards such as NACE RP0176; (2) environmental factors--dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water velocity and fouling; and (3) calcareous deposits--difference between shallow and deep waters. Current practice of design criteria and systems for deepwater applications is assessed, including initial polarization, use of coatings and anode materials. The results from laboratory tests are compared with available documented service experiences and field tests results.

  3. Cross-species protection: Schistosoma mansoni Sm-p80 vaccine confers protection against Schistosoma haematobium in hamsters and baboons.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Souvik; Zhang, Weidong; Ahmad, Gul; Torben, Workineh; Alam, Mayeen U; Le, Loc; Damian, Raymond T; Wolf, Roman F; White, Gary L; Carey, David W; Carter, Darrick; Reed, Steven G; Siddiqui, Afzal A

    2014-03-01

    The ability of the Schistosoma mansoni antigen, Sm-p80, to provide cross-species protection against Schistosoma haematobium challenge was evaluated in hamster and baboon models. Pronounced reduction in worm burden (48%) and in tissue egg load (64%) was observed in hamsters vaccinated with recombinant Sm-p80 admixed with glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-stable emulsion (GLA-SE). Similarly, in baboons, the Sm-p80/GLA-SE vaccine produced a 25% reduction in S. haematobium adult worms and decreased the egg load in the urinary bladder by 64%. A 40% and 53% reduction in fecal and urine egg output, respectively, was observed in vaccinated baboons. A balanced pro-inflammatory (Th17 and Th1) and Th2 type of response was generated after vaccination and appears indicative of augmented prophylactic efficacy. These data on cross-species protection coupled with the prophylactic, therapeutic and antifecundity efficacy against the homologous parasite, S. mansoni, reinforces Sm-p80 as a promising vaccine candidate. It is currently being prepared for GMP-compliant manufacture and for further pre-clinical development leading to human clinical trials. These results solidify the expectation that the Sm-p80 vaccine will provide relief for both the intestinal and the urinary schistosomiasis and thus will be greatly beneficial in reducing the overall burden of schistosomiasis. PMID:24397898

  4. Sports Business Unit Meets Cross-Curricular Learning Goals: Grades 9-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A new online learning tool called the eCommSports Kit links a seven-step sports marketing curriculum with a school team to give students real-life experience in developing and executing a plan to boost game attendance. The kit, available through http://www.ecommsports.com, takes teens on a cross-curricular journey through conducting business…

  5. A Model (Formula) for Deriving A Hazard Index of Rail-Highway Grade Crossings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, James Minton

    The purpose of this research was to compile data for use as related information in the education of drivers, and to derive a formula for computing a hazard index for rail-highway intersections. Data for the study were compiled from: (1) all crossings on which field data were collected, (2) reports of 642 accidents, and (3) data collected from…

  6. 75 FR 36551 - State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ..., including the applicable engineering criteria. As an initial matter, the State action plans are planning... engineering evaluations of the safety issues in the identified States be required. As an initial matter, the... crossings. As an initial matter, this final rule does not prohibit the identified States from...

  7. The Cross-Age Mentoring Program: A Developmental Intervention for Promoting Students' Connectedness across Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    In cross-age peer mentoring programs, high school students mentor younger students. Prior research demonstrates the positive effects for mentees as well as for mentors. This context-based, strengths-promoting intervention is designed to help school counselors foster high school students' leadership and collaboration skills while simultaneously…

  8. Windows to the World: Themes for Cross-Cultural Understanding. Grade 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Phyllis; Royse, Brooke Sarno; Kepler, John

    The purpose of this book is to help equip students with some of the concepts, attitudes and skills for successful cross-cultural understanding. The emphasis is on the exploration of cultural perspectives, both of themselves and others. The book is divided into chapters devoted to particular themes and uses the kaleidoscope of various world…

  9. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P.; Petter, Jeffrey K.

    2008-05-27

    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  10. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.