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Sample records for grade realizado pelo

  1. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  2. Grading More Accurately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rom, Mark Carl

    2011-01-01

    Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…

  3. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  4. Plus and Minus Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farland, Ronnald; Cepeda, Rita

    The current official policy of the California community colleges on grading prohibits the use of plus and minus symbols to modify a standard letter grade. Plus and minus grades may influence a student's grade point average (GPA) either through statistical effects or psychological effects on teachers and students. At its fall 1985 session, and…

  5. Grading. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    What do grades mean? Is there a commonly understood and acceptable definition for what a grade stands? The current grading system is approximately 100 years old. In the 1700s, students were given feedback but not grades. In 1780, Yale University began using a 4.0 system that is similar to the current system. In the 1830s, Harvard University…

  6. Gleason grading system

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  7. Bias in Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    2008-01-01

    Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

  8. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system. PMID:27393141

  9. Grade-A Perfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Despite the wealth of information available, there is no consensus on best practices for grading. In this article, the author identifies four key philosophical questions that should guide the development of a teacher's grading system and provides tips that can help principals guide teachers in developing a grading system. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an individual's degree…

  11. Redesigning Grading--Districtwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In the first years of his career as a high school math teacher, Matt Townsley was bothered by the fact that his grades penalized students for not learning content quickly. A student could master every standard, but low quiz grades and homework assignments they didn't complete because they didn't understand would lower their final grade,…

  12. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  13. Are Math Grades Cyclical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gerald J.; Dial, Micah

    1998-01-01

    The cyclical nature of mathematics grades was studied for a cohort of elementary school students from a large metropolitan school district in Texas over six years (average cohort size of 8495). The study used an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. Results indicate that grades do exhibit a significant cyclical pattern. (SLD)

  14. [Grading of neuroendocrine tumors].

    PubMed

    Saeger, W; Schnabel, P A; Komminoth, P

    2016-07-01

    The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) differentiates between typical carcinoids (low grade NET), atypical carcinoids (intermediate grade NET) and small cell and large cell carcinomas (high grade NET) according to the prognosis. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas are graded in an identical way. Together with the TNM system this enables a preoperative estimation of the prognosis in biopsies and fine needle aspirates. Well-differentiated tumors are graded into G1 tumors by the number of mitoses, <2 per 10 high-power fields (HPF) and the Ki-67 (index <3 %) and G2 tumors (2-20 mitoses/10 HPF, Ki-67 3-20 %). Discrepancies between the number of mitoses and the Ki-67 index are not uncommon and in these cases the higher value of the two should be applied. The more differentiated tumors of the G3 type have to be differentiated from undifferentiated carcinomas of the small cell type and large cell type with a much poorer prognosis. Prognosis relevant grading of thyroid cancers is achieved by special subtyping so that the G1-G3 system is not applicable. The rare cancers of the parathyroid gland and of the pituitary gland are not graded. Adrenal tumors also have no grading system. The prognosis is dependent on the Ki-67 index and with some reservations on the established scoring systems. PMID:27379621

  15. Grading Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  16. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  17. Making Grading Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotto, Edward; Smith, Bruce

    Two teachers have developed a procedure for grading student compositions that seems fairer to both them and their students. The students are given a choice of which papers they wish to submit for grading, and when they do submit work, the papers are identified by a number only (chosen by the student and indexed in a class card file). Each teacher…

  18. Beef grading by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  19. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  20. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  1. Controlling Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  2. Grades out, Badges in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

  3. The Grades Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleenor, Andy; Lamb, Sarah; Anton, Jennifer; Stinson, Todd; Donen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    It can be quite alarming (and eye-opening) to see exactly how many of the grades students receive are based on their behaviors rather than their learning. Students should be assessed on what they know and can use rather than on their behavior. The reality, unfortunately, is that the opposite is often the case. Grades for students who work hard are…

  4. Are Grades Undermining Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1988-01-01

    A study of fifth and sixth grade public school students in Israel suggests that grades and other norm-referenced methods are less effective than task-involving evaluation methods in enhancing student performance, interest, and motivation. This article consists of two commentaries on the findings, with suggestions for implementing task-involving…

  5. Determining Faculty Grading Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerjian, Marlene D.

    A study was undertaken at the College of the Canyons, in California, to assess the variation of grades given by mathematics instructors teaching intermediate algebra. A sample was drawn from all instructors who taught Math 070 repeatedly from fall 1990 to fall 1994, resulting in the examination of the grades of at least 200 students from classes…

  6. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  7. Paperless Grades and Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, James C.; Jones, Dennis; Turner, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    Provides overview of process of switching from paper-based grade reporting to computer-based grading. Authors found that paperless grading decreased number of errors, made student access more immediate, and reduced costs incurred by purchasing and storing grade-scanning sheets. Authors also argue that direct entry grading encourages faculty to…

  8. Functionally graded boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

  9. [Grading of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Bohle, R M; Schnabel, P A

    2016-07-01

    In comparison with other tumor entities there is no common generally accepted grading system for lung cancer with clearly defined criteria and clinical relevance. In the recent fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2015 of tumors of the lungs, pleura, thymus and heart, there is no generally applicable grading for pulmonary adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas or rarer forms of carcinoma. Since the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of adenocarcinomas published in 2011, 5 different subtypes with significantly different prognosis are proposed. This results in an architectural (histologic) grading, which is usually applied to resection specimens. For squamous cell carcinoma the number of different histological subtypes in the new WHO classification was reduced compared to earlier versions but without a common grading system. In recent publications nesting and budding were proposed as the main (histologic) criteria for a grading of squamous cell carcinomas. The grading of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the lungs in comparison with NET in other organs is presented in a separate article in this issue. Certain rare tumor types are high grade per definition: small cell, large cell and pleomorphic carcinomas, carcinosarcomas and pulmonary blastomas. In the future it is to be expected that these developments will be further refined, e. g. by adding further subtypes for adenocarcinomas and cytologic and/or nuclear criteria for adenocarcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27356985

  10. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  11. Assigning Grades More Fairly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshier, Stephen R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a simplified method for converting raw scores to standard scores and transforming them to "T-scores" for easy comparison of performance. Obtaining letter grades from T-scores is discussed. A reading list is included. (GH)

  12. How Consistent Are Course Grades? An Examination of Differential Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberg, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Differential grading occurs when students in courses with the same content and curriculum receive inconsistent grades across teachers, schools, or districts. It may be due to many factors, including differences in teacher grading standards, district grading policies, student behavior, teacher stereotypes, teacher quality, and curriculum adherence.…

  13. The Meaning of College Grades in Three Grading Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiszler, Charles F.

    1983-01-01

    To determine if college students (n=345) attribute different meanings to specific grades (depending on the nature of the grading system used), three grading systems were compared: competitive, mastery, and growth. In addition, students were asked to rate the meaning of a specific grade ("A,""B," or "C") in the context of one of the three grading…

  14. 7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.105 Grades and...

  15. 7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.105 Grades and...

  16. Teachers' Experiences of Unfair Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Fredrik; Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    Grading is often perceived as one of a teacher's most difficult tasks. Despite most teachers endeavoring to grade their students as objectively as possible, many students feel that they are subject to unfair grading. The aim of this study is to describe what it is about a teacher's grading that contributes to the perception of unfairness. This…

  17. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (2) Comprehensive Health Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4) Reading…

  18. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 1. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (2) Comprehensive Health Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  19. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  1. Music Handbook for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Doris; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Primary grades (1, 2, and 3). SUBJECT MATTER: Music. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide contains a detailed outline of the basic music concepts for elementary grades with suggestions for activities which may develop understanding of the concepts. The pages of activities are color coded by grade level. There are three…

  2. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  3. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  4. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  5. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);(3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  6. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  7. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  8. Grading Students in Inclusive Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.; Duhaney, Laurel M. Garrick

    2002-01-01

    This article offers guidelines for determining equitable, accountable, and effective grading practices and policies for all students that balance the need for a common set of standards and the individual needs of the students. Purposes of grading, grading systems, and effective instructional practices that support grading processes are discussed.…

  9. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  10. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  11. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  12. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  13. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  14. The RNA surveillance complex Pelo-Hbs1 is required for transposon silencing in the Drosophila germline

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu; Zhao, Rui; Fang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Huanwei; Xuan, Yang; Ma, Yanting; Chen, Hongyan; Cai, Tao; Qi, Yijun; Xi, Rongwen

    2015-01-01

    Silencing of transposable elements (TEs) in the metazoan germline is critical for genome integrity and is primarily dependent on Piwi proteins and associated RNAs, which exert their function through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we report that the evolutionarily conserved Pelo (Dom34)-Hbs1 mRNA surveillance complex is required for transposon silencing in the Drosophila germline. In pelo mutant gonads, mRNAs and proteins of some selective TEs are up-regulated. Pelo is not required for piRNA biogenesis, and our studies suggest that Pelo may function at the translational level to silence TEs: This function requires interaction with Hbs1, and overexpression of RpS30a partially reverts TE-silencing defects in pelo mutants. Interestingly, TE silencing and spermatogenesis defects in pelo mutants can also effectively be rescued by expressing the mammalian ortholog of Pelo. We propose that the Pelo-Hbs1 surveillance complex provides another level of defense against the expression of TEs in the germline of Drosophila and possibly all metazoa. PMID:26124316

  15. Elementary Science: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

  16. ARITHMETIC, GRADE FIVE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARBER, CLAIRE N.

    FIFTH GRADE WORK SHOULD CONTINUE THE SEQUENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL UNDERSTANDINGS AND COMPUTATIONAL SKILLS. THE PROBLEMS APPROACH SHOULD BE USED SO CHILDREN MAY DISCOVER MATHEMATICAL TRUTHS AND ARRIVE AT GENERALIZATIONS. THE NUMBER SYSTEM UNIT SHOULD EMPHASIZE THE ABILITY TO READ AND WRITE NUMERALS TO SIX PLACES AND THE ABILITY TO READ…

  17. American Megalopolises, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Judy

    This is a third-grade teaching unit on large cities (megalopolises) in the United States. The components of the unit are: (1) a content outline, (2) unit goals, (3) unit objectives, (4) activities, (5) unit evaluation, and (6) bibliography. The content of the unit focuses on defining a megalopolis, noting what can be found in it, its special…

  18. Purpose-Driven Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  19. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  20. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presented are six activities suitable for middle grades. They include programs for voting, creating Logo patterns, and for selecting a writing topic. Other activities focus on use of the colon and FOR/NEXT loop in BASIC and evaluating programs. (JN)

  1. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

  2. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents computer-oriented teaching suggestions suitable for early grades. They include creating houses and stained glass ornaments using Logo, recording class activities with a database management program, making mazes with graphics programs, making drawings with a KoalaPad, and using a program to introduce computers to non-English speaking…

  3. Health, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the fifth and last of the Vietnamese series of elementary health textbooks. This one was designed for fifth grade students in Vietnam. The thirty-five lessons are presented in the form of short stories with illustrations and a short summary. The four chapters cover the ordinary symptoms of illness, elementary notions of microbes and…

  4. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the early grades. They include creating musical tones using Atari PILOT, a simulation of traffic lights, teacher-friendly password protection, drawing the alphabet using Logo, and using the Commodore 64's special character graphics. (JN)

  5. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  6. Second-Grade "Professors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zhonghe; An, Shuhua; King, Joyce; Ramirez, Melissa; Evans, Stacee

    2009-01-01

    Finding ways to help primary-grade students overcome difficulties in solving mathematical word problems can be a daunting task for teachers in a regular classroom setting. Student challenges may include: (1) difficulty with vocabulary; (2) lack of confidence when solving problems; (3) confusion on the proper operation to use when solving a…

  7. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  8. Modern Problems. Grade 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmington Public Schools, DE.

    The general purpose of the twelfth grade course is to help the student assume his role as a decision-maker in a democratic society. The nature and complexity of contemporary problems are examined using this guide to enable the student: 1) to analyze alternative solutions to these problems; 2) to develop attitudes and values appropriate to a…

  9. Career Awareness: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

  10. Hungarian Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalyfy, Ilona; Koski, Augustus A.

    This graded reader is intended to supplement a beginning course in Hungarian after the student has "developed control of about 700 lexical items and can manipulate with fluency much of the basic structure of Hungarian." (It may also be used in an intermediate course.) The 56 reading selections are varied in content and sequenced to develop reading…

  11. Finnish Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Aili Rytkonen; Koski, Augustus A.

    This audiolingual text is designed to serve as supplementary material for a beginning course in Finnish, to be introduced "when the student has mastered much of the basic structure of Finnish and about 700 lexical items." The authors suggest that it may also be used as an intermediate course. The text comprises 57 graded reading selections…

  12. American Independence. Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  13. Grades as Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior coursework,…

  14. Health, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the third in a series of health primers for elementary education in Vietnam. It is written for Vietnamese children at the third grade level. The fifty-three lessons are integrated into one story. Each lesson is illustrated and briefly summarized. The eight chapters are: (1) Hygiene, at home, in school and in public places; (2) Food and…

  15. Computer grading of examinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    A method, using IBM cards and computer processing, automates examination grading and recording and permits use of computational problems. The student generates his own answers, and the instructor has much greater freedom in writing questions than is possible with multiple choice examinations.

  16. Graphing for Any Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nibbelink, William

    1982-01-01

    An instructional sequence for teaching graphing that has been extensively field tested in kindergarten through grade six is detailed. The material begins with point graphs, employs a movable y-axis to begin with minimal clutter, and has graphs constructed before reading graphs is required. (MP)

  17. Graded SPSS Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary J.

    The attached materials have been developed for use on the CSU CYBER Computer's Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSONL). The assignments are graded in difficulty and gradually introduce new commands and require the practice of previously learned commands. The handouts begin with basic instructions for logging on; then XEDIT is taught…

  18. Student Grade History System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    This document describes the computerized procedures developed and utilized by Montgomery College (Maryland) to maintain records related to student academic progress. The new system was fully operable by fall 1972. Systems development included: (1) the conversion of past student records to a permanent grade history file; (2) the development of a…

  19. Elementary Science: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 2 science curriculum guide contains three activity units: (1) insects; (2) measuring; and (3) sink or float. Each unit contains a rationale, teacher background material, lesson plans, and lists of resources including books, audiovisual materials, resource persons, and science activity modules. The lesson plans list the science processes…

  20. Student Almanac. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This almanac is designed for use in the fifth grade course on regional studies which focuses on several case studies rather than on detailed study of each region. (The course is described in ED 062 226). For that reason the factual information is selected and includes figures relevant to the case studies in the regional areas of the Midwest, North…

  1. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  2. Career Awareness: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade six, performance…

  3. The Sticking Place: Another Look at Grades and Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blynt, Ruth Ann

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that putting a number or letter grade on student writing is fundamentally wrong. Argues that trashing the traditional grading system is the best thing that could be done to ensure better reading and writing among students. (SR)

  4. Write More, Grade Less: Five Practices for Effectively Grading Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the dilemmas that teachers frequently face is grading student papers. As a teacher, the author regularly reads research regarding instructional practices, grading, and assessment, but struggled to translate theory into practice in her own classroom. The intent of this article is to share one method of instructing and grading writing that…

  5. The Grades Transfer from One Grading Scale to Other Algorithmization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieponiene, Jurgita; Kulvietiene, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the consideration of grading scales used for education outcomes in different countries, describes likeness and differences of applied grading scales. Application of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) grading scale is investigated according of the analysis of scientific literature as well as cases of…

  6. Graded Readers: How the Publishers Make the Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claridge, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Publishing graded readers is big business, but there is evidence that the texts themselves are not being read in sufficient quantity to improve language proficiency. This article reports on a study of graded readers, focusing on interviews with some major publishers of graded readers, to investigate their production rationales. The findings…

  7. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  8. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  9. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  10. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  11. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  12. Taking the Grading Conversation Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

  13. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  14. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  15. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  16. A New Framework for Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kris H.; Emerson, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Grading is one of the least liked, least understood and least considered aspects of teaching. After years of work, we have developed a grading system that is quite different from traditional and reformed approaches to grading and which meaningfully incorporates and integrates the collection of evidence, the evaluation of evidence, and the…

  17. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.106 Grade...

  18. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.106 Grade...

  19. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.106 Grade...

  20. Grading the teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Clifford E.

    2000-04-01

    Several fads ago there was a movement to grade teachers in terms of their competency — competency-based testing. Everyone knows that there are good teachers and there are bad teachers. The trouble is, it's hard to define the categories. It's like the Supreme Court justice who couldn't define pornography, but knew it when he saw it. In New York State, prospective teachers must take tests in both pedagogy and subject material. That seems reasonable. There ought to be some minimum standards, so I thought that I would try my hand at setting up such requirements.

  1. Mechanics of Graded Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; Boyce, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Shark skin is known for its anti-fouling and self-cleaning properties. In attempts to mimic this pattern for getting similar properties, different surface patterns such as Sharklet and wrinkles have been previously introduced. Wrinkled patterns have gained importance in applications such as microfluidics, wetting and adhesion. Through buckling of a thin film of stiff material on a substrate of softer material, and maintaining symmetric geometries, ordered wrinkled patterns can be created. However, it can be shown that using the same principle, by changing the geometry of the surface, the dimensions of the wrinkles can be altered. This alteration turns ordered wrinkles into graded wrinkles which have more resemblance to shark skin than the ordered wrinkles, maintaining the same wave length while each wave having different amplitude. Here using finite element models, experiments and analytical solutions, the relations between different geometries and the resulting patterns were investigated.

  2. Grade 10 to Grade 12 Mathematics Resources: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This annotated bibliography identifies English language resources endorsed by all Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) jurisdictions implementing The Common Curriculum Framework for K-12 Mathematics Grade 10 to Grade 12. Resources in this annotated bibliography were selected through a collaborative review process based on their high level of fidelity…

  3. Prediction of Grade of Dropout from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and test achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of third graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts. In each sample, age in the third grade, course marks, and standardized achievement scores were found to be significantly related to the grade in which…

  4. Mathematics, Grade 2, Grade 3, Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This publication is designed to extend and strengthen the computational skills and mathematical understandings of children in Grades 2 and 3. It presents an overall scope and detailed sequence for implementation by teachers and supervisors, based on the modern program introduced in pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade classes. The scope…

  5. Mathematics, Grade 4, Grade 5, Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Presented is the scope and sequence of mathematics for Grades 4 and 5. It is based on the program which is introduced in prekindergarten through Grade 3 and is designed to extend and strengthen the computational skills and mathematical understanding of children. The units described are organized around four main themes--sets, number, and…

  6. Annotated Bibliography, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Dept. of Education, Boston. Bureau of Nutrition Education and School Food Services.

    This annotated bibliography on nutrition is for the use of teachers at the elementary grade level. It contains a list of books suitable for reading about nutrition and foods for pupils from kindergarten through the sixth grade. Films and audiovisual presentations for classroom use are also listed. The names and addresses from which these materials…

  7. Upgrading Metallurgical-Grade Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, L. M.; Moore, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    Closed-loop process produces semiconductor-grade silicon. Metallurgical-grade silicon converted to ultrapure silicon by reacting with hydrogen and silicon tetrahalide to form trihalosilane, purifying this intermediate and again decomposing to high purity silicon in third stage. Heterogeneously and homogeneously nucleated polycrystalline silicon used in semiconductor device applications and in silicon photovoltaic solar cell fabrication.

  8. RTP AREA ROAD GRADE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grade data collection with GPS equipment is important because the load model component of the MEASURE model uses grade to predict the vehicle load. To date, data collection has been conducted for high priority roads and this task will include other roads not included in the firs...

  9. Coastal Studies for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a set of field trips for participants of the Coastal Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)

  10. Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

  11. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a list…

  12. Predictors of General Chemistry Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsogomonyan, Ardas; Loftus, Drew

    1979-01-01

    Chemistry pretest scores, high school chemistry grades and, to a greater extent, math SAT scores were useful predictors of college general chemistry grades. Regression analysis of all these predictors combined was used to construct an expectancy table which is being used to identify and advise underprepared students. (BB)

  13. Competitive Grading Sabotages Good Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumboltz, John D.; Yeh, Christine J.

    1996-01-01

    Competitive grading stresses judging over learning. Assigning competitive grades adversely affects teachers by turning them into students' opponents, justifying inadequate teaching methods, trivializing course content, encouraging evaluation methods that misdirect and inhibit student learning, and rewarding teachers for punishing students. High…

  14. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  15. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a list…

  16. Learning-Centered Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Conni

    2012-01-01

    The research on grading practice over two decades is clear: grading practices are firmly held beliefs that are near and dear to the teaching professional. At a time when government, business and industry, and the general public are calling for an accountability of student knowledge and abilities, classroom assessment practices could be…

  17. Grading Practices: The Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

  18. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, A. S.; Zambon, M.

    2009-02-02

    The main result extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result.

  19. Grading Exceptional and Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    How can you ensure that you are grading your exceptional students fairly? Teachers receive very little guidance for grading students with disabilities, English learners, and those receiving services through a response-to-intervention (RTI) process. This practitioner-friendly book provides teachers and administrators with an effective framework for…

  20. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a list…

  1. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  2. First Grade Pre-Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Pre-Screening is designed to be used at the start of the first grade school year so that teachers can obtain information about their incoming students. This information is intended to give teachers insight about what math and reading skills a student may or may not have at the beginning of the year. The information can aid teachers…

  3. Alternatives to Grading Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchudi, Stephen, Ed.

    The result of an investigation into the grading writing by the National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Alternatives to Grading Student Writing, this collection of essays offers the writing teacher several innovative and interesting options. Following an introduction by the editor (chair of the Committee), in which he delineates the…

  4. Retention in Grade: Lethal Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Charles

    Despite a growing trend toward retention in grade of low-achieving students and apparent public support for the practice, many educators and psychologists disagree with the perception that flunking is an appropriate response to poor academic performance. Research reported in the past two decades indicates that grade-level retention produces little…

  5. Reading Abilities and College Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of reading in a course (content, evaluation, etc.) needs to be considered. This research involved 120 college students and compared the Revised Nelson-Denny reading scores (vocabulary, comprehension, rate) and a course grade. Questionnaire responses were also received. Vocabulary predicted about 35 percent of the grade variance.…

  6. Starting the Conversation about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

  7. Science Grade 7, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The Grade 7 Science course of study was prepared in two parallel forms. A short form designed for students who had achieved a high measure of success in previous science courses; the long form for those who have not been able to maintain the pace. Both forms contain similar content. The Grade 7 guide is the first in a three-year sequence for…

  8. Science: Grade 7. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  9. Science: Grade 9. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  10. Science: Grade 6. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  11. Science: Grade 5. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  12. Science: Grade 8. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  13. Graded Hilbert C*-modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunxiang

    2014-02-15

    The notion of Hilbert C*-modules graded by a semilattice was first introduced in the study of many-body systems. We show the relationship between these Hilbert C*-modules and their homogeneous subspaces. We study the stability of graded Hilbert C*-modules under tensor products and crossed products.

  14. Student Expectations of Grade Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, R. Eric

    1999-01-01

    College students completed evaluation-of-teaching surveys in five different courses to develop an evaluation instrument that would provide results concerning faculty performance. Two questions examined students' expectations regarding grades. Results indicated a significant degree of expected grade inflation. Large proportions of students doing…

  15. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  16. Clinical Grading in Psychiatric Clerkships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Gregory W.; Carlson, David L.; Fore Arcand, Lisa; Levine, Ruth E.; Cohen, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The clinical grade assessment is the most frequently used and heavily weighted component in the overall assessment of U.S. psychiatry clerkship students, yet the topic is understudied. The authors aimed to learn more about the nature, perceived virtues, and deficiencies of the clinical grade evaluation. Methods: A 26-item questionnaire…

  17. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  18. Science: Grade 2. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  19. [Regression grading in gastrointestinal tumors].

    PubMed

    Tischoff, I; Tannapfel, A

    2012-02-01

    Preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy is a well-established and essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. Neoadjuvant treatment leads to regressive changes in tumors. To evaluate the histological tumor response different scoring systems describing regressive changes are used and known as tumor regression grading. Tumor regression grading is usually based on the presence of residual vital tumor cells in proportion to the total tumor size. Currently, no nationally or internationally accepted grading systems exist. In general, common guidelines should be used in the pathohistological diagnostics of tumors after neoadjuvant therapy. In particularly, the standard tumor grading will be replaced by tumor regression grading. Furthermore, tumors after neoadjuvant treatment are marked with the prefix "y" in the TNM classification. PMID:22293790

  20. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have.... Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more than eight cherries per sample...

  1. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades...) Combinations other than these are not permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the...

  2. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades...) Combinations other than these are not permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the...

  3. [GRADE: Methodology for formulating and grading recommendations in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Rigau, David; Rotaeche, Rafael; Selva, Anna; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide recommendations on the benefits and harms of different healthcare interventions. Proper CPG development and implementation can potentially reduce variability in clinical practice while improving its quality and safety. The GRADE system is used to assess the quality of evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations in the context of the development of CPGs, systematic reviews or health technology assessments. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the GRADE system through relevant examples in the context of primary care. PMID:24684818

  4. Staffroom Interchange: Avoiding Whadjaget with No-Grade, Graded Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Eric R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a technique for increasing students' concern for the merits of their papers and for their teachers' suggestions by withholding the grade each paper receives and offering the opportunity to rewrite. (DD)

  5. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  6. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  7. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  8. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  9. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  10. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  11. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  12. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  13. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  14. An Operational System of Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawain, T. H.; Lindsey, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the trial of an operational grading system at the Naval Postgraduate School. Indicates that the new plan is characterized by giving the marginal student a grace period of one quarter before the final judgment of his performance. (CC)

  15. Severity grading in radial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Vilkki, S K

    2014-11-01

    A functional scoring method to grade the usefulness and quality of the upper limbs in congenital radial dysplasia is presented. It is based on the author's examinations of 44 arms with congenital deficiency of the radius. The hand (H), wrist (W) and proximal parts (P) of the extremity are each scored from 0 to 10 points for severity. The scoring is expressed similarly to the TNM (tumour, nodes, metastasis) tumour classification, for example as H5W4P2. The maximum severity index is 30 points. A severity grade of mild is between 1 and 8 points, moderate between 9 and 16 points and severe 17 points and over. In the author's series, the grades were mild in eight, moderate in 21 and severe in 15 cases. The functional severity grading should allow better comparison of radially deficient limbs and the results of treatment between groups of patients. PMID:24401744

  16. Grading Adaptations for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Melissa; Munk, Dennis D.; Bursuck, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Issues surround grading for all students, especially those with disabilities, who are at increased risk for grades that are low, inaccurate, and lacking in meaning. Teachers often recognize grading issues and will exercise judgment in making informal adaptations to the regular grading system. When chosen collaboratively and implemented…

  17. Teaching More by Grading Less (or Differently)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinske, Jeffrey; Tanner, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a brief history of grading in higher education in the United States. Authors, Schinske and Tanner then follow up with considerations of the potential purposes of grading and insights from research literature that has explored the influence of grading on teaching and learning. Schinske and Tanner then ask: Does grading provide…

  18. Common Errors in Calculating Final Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    The author has discovered that errors in grades often occur when scores are combined for final marks. These errors are not related to the grading individual assignments. Rather, they occur when teachers at all grade levels bring individual test and assignment scores together for the students' final grades. Unfortunately, professors of mathematics…

  19. Shall We Get Rid of Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Robert L.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of criticism leveled against student grading is presented, and a rebuttal is offered. Twenty-two criticisms of grades are divided into four categories; that grades are meaningless, unimportant, unnecessary, and harmful. In response to the criticism, it is pointed out that grading tends to motivate student achievement, provides rewards…

  20. Students' Self-Grading, Professor's Grading and Negotiated Final Grading at Three University Programmes: Analysis of Reliability and Grade Difference Ranges and Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Pastor, Victor M.; Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel; Santos Pastor, Maria L.; Aranda, Antonio Fraile

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken at three teacher education programmes and was designed to determine the following within each programme: (1) the reliability correlations among students' self-grade (SSG), the grade granted by the professor (PG) and the negotiated final grade (NFG); (2) the range and frequency of grade differences between SSG and PG; and…

  1. The 1973 Boston Conference on Grading Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Values Associates, Amherst, MA.

    This conference was held to help educators (1) obtain a clearer understanding of the major controversy over current grading practices, (2) share ideas on grading, (3) obtain information on grading alternatives, and (4) learn how to bring about changes in grading procedures. Topics discussed include the relationship of the evaluation of student…

  2. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  3. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have at least the following attributes: (1) At least a reasonably... system outlined in this subpart. Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more...

  4. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  5. Comparative Aggregate Patterns of Grade Retention Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Don R.

    A search for patterns in grade retention rates across grades 1-12 to construct simulation research models is described in this paper. Aggregate data from Shepard and Smith (1989) on grade retention rates from 12 American states for the year 1979-80 and from 11 states for 1985-86 were examined for across-grade patterns, supplemented by Dade County…

  6. Does Competition among Schools Encourage Grade Inflation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether high schools in competitive environments use grade inflation to attract and retain families, perhaps in addition to more constructive responses. Two measures of grade inflation are used: the cutoffs used by each school to assign a letter grade to a percent score and high school grade point average after controlling for…

  7. Grading: Why You Should Trust Your Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2016-01-01

    Many educators consider grades calculated from statistical algorithms more accurate, objective, and reliable than grades they calculate themselves. But in this research, the authors first asked teachers to use their professional judgment to choose a summary grade for hypothetical students. When the researchers compared the teachers' grade with the…

  8. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting... the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley... shall not contain any special grades as defined in § 810.206. Two-rowed Malting barley varieties...

  9. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  10. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  11. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight...

  12. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight...

  13. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  14. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  15. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  16. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  17. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  18. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children…

  19. Family LIfe Education Curriculum: Grade 7 through Grade 9 Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland County Schools, Fayetteville, NC.

    This document presents a curriculum unit in family life education for students in grades 7 through 9 that encompasses learning about human sexuality, interpersonal relationships, and roles within the family. The unit is designed to attain the following goals: (1) to help students gain a detailed knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and uniqueness…

  20. Arizona Mathematics Standard Articulated by Grade Level, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Every student should understand and use all concepts and skills from the previous grade levels. The standard is designed so that new learning builds on preceding skills. Communications, Problem-solving, Reasoning & Proof, Connections, and Representation are the process standards that are embedded throughout the teaching and learning of all…

  1. Arizona Mathematics Standard Articulated by Grade Level, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Every student should understand and use all concepts and skills from the previous grade levels. The standard is designed so that new learning builds on preceding skills. Communications, Problem-solving, Reasoning & Proof, Connections, and Representation are the process standards that are embedded throughout the teaching and learning of all…

  2. Changes. Social Studies Interim Grade Guide for Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Curriculum Development Branch.

    The social studies curriculum is presented for grade 2 in Manitoba, Canada. The focus of this guide is change. Some objectives are to explore: (1) some of the ways children change physically, intellectually, emotionally, and socially; (2) some of the changes caused by technology that are occurring in family structure, particularly in the roles of…

  3. [Grading of gynecological tumors : Current aspects].

    PubMed

    Horn, L-C; Mayr, D; Brambs, C E; Einenkel, J; Sändig, I; Schierle, K

    2016-07-01

    Histopathological assessment of the tumor grade and cell type is central to the management and prognosis of various gynecological malignancies. Conventional grading systems for squamous carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the vulva, vagina and cervix are poorly defined. For endometrioid tumors of the female genital tract as well as for mucinous endometrial, ovarian and seromucinous ovarian carcinomas, the 3‑tiered FIGO grading system is recommended. For uterine neuroendocrine tumors the grading system of the gastrointestinal counterparts has been adopted. Uterine leiomyosarcomas are not graded. Endometrial stromal sarcomas are divided into low and high grades, based on cellular morphology, immunohistochemical and molecular findings. A chemotherapy response score was established for chemotherapeutically treated high-grade serous pelvic cancer. For non-epithelial ovarian malignancies, only Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors and immature teratomas are graded. At this time molecular profiling has no impact on the grading of tumors of the female genital tract. PMID:27379622

  4. Algebra: Grades 8-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    A complete set of behavioral objectives for first-year algebra taught in any of grades 8 through 12 is presented. Three to six sample test items and answers are provided for each objective. Objectives were determined by surveying the most used secondary school algebra textbooks. Fourteen major categories are included: (1) whole numbers--operations…

  5. Let's Eliminate the Eighth Grade!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, William R.

    2008-01-01

    With tongue tentatively hovering in the direction of the distal side of the tooth line and the lining of the inner cheek, the author suggests terminating the elementary school years with the seventh grade and requiring completion of nine to twelve months of paid work experience before the resumption of high school. Maintaining that a practical…

  6. Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

    This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 10. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

  7. Teaching Music, Grades 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum guide has been prepared for use by both the music specialist and the classroom teacher in New York City. It outlines areas of musical subject matter appropriate for students in grades five and six. The materials are presented in six sections. "Rhythmic Experiences" introduces students to a variety of meters and rhythms through…

  8. Modeling First Grade Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer, Heidi Anne E.; Williams, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested a hypothesized model examining reading proficiency across first grade. It addressed how alphabetics at the beginning of the year were mediated by applied and automated skills at the middle of the year to explain actualized reading at the end of the year. The alphabetic skills of 102 first graders were measured in October and the…

  9. Outdoor Education--Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jean, Comp.; And Others

    Learning activities; lesson plans, and various resource materials are contained in this guide for the fifth grade outdoor education program in the Dixon Public Schools, Dixon, Illinois. Well over 100 activities are suggested, and many of these are described in detail. Although some information is specific to the Dixon program, which has access to…

  10. Social Studies Curriculum: Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Arthur

    This document outlines the content of the grade 6 social studies curriculum of the Lebanon School District, Lebanon, New Hampshire. The program is essentially a chronological review of western civilization, which includes pre-historic man, early civilization, classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, Medieval period, and the Age of Expansion.…

  11. Seals. Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Explanations of a marine mammal rescue program and information on seals and sea lions are presented in this curriculum package for intermediate grade teachers. Activities are highlighted which focus on the natural history of harbor seals. This unit contains: (1) pre-trip activities (including fact sheets and worksheets on the different types of…

  12. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen Van Quan; And Others

    This illustrated primer, designed for second grade students in Vietnam, consists of stories depicting rural family life in Vietnam. The book is divided into the following six chapters: (1) Practicing Good Habits (health, play, helpfulness); (2) Duties at Home (grandparents, father and mother, servants, the extended family; (3) Duties in School…

  13. Patriotic Observances. Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    Materials and suggestions to help teachers in grades K-6 highlight special dates that hold significance for Canadian children are provided. The purpose is to arouse an awareness in children of their Canadian identity. The "patriotic observances" should take place at the beginning of every school day. Materials concerning Canadian natural wonders,…

  14. Metric Activities, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Bob, Comp.

    This pamphlet presents worksheets for use in fifteen activities or groups of activities designed for teaching the metric system to children in grades K through 6. The approach taken in several of the activities is one of conversion between metric and English units. The majority of the activities concern length, area, volume, and capacity. A…

  15. Grade Four, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This fourth grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

  16. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  17. City Planning Unit: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, William Edward

    Described is a project designed to make government lessons and economics more appealing to sixth-grade students by having them set up and run a model city. General preparation procedures and set-up of the project, specific lesson plans, additional activities, and project evaluation are examined. An actual 3-dimensional model city was set up on…

  18. The Reliability of College Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Adam S.; Walmsley, Philip T.; Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Koch, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the reliability of college grades relative to how prominently they are used in educational research, and the results to date tend to be based on small sample studies or are decades old. This study uses two large databases (N > 800,000) from over 200 educational institutions spanning 13 years and finds that both first-year…

  19. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  20. The Hoosier Connection: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ira; And Others

    This eighth grade teacher's guide with student activities is designed to create greater awareness of Indiana, its geography, history, government, and future and is designed to be used as a supplement to the study of the U.S. Constitution and the Indiana Constitution. In the first section, entitled "Geography of Indiana," the lessons cover the…

  1. Writing Assessment Handbook, Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook, intended for English language arts teachers, principals, curriculum and testing specialists, superintendents, and all educators interested in preparing students for the grade 8 California Assessment Program (CAP) writing assessment, provides the practitioner with information about the content of the test, the rationale underlying…

  2. School Grading and Institutional Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardanoni, Valentino; Modica, Salvatore; Pennisi, Aline

    2011-01-01

    We study how the relationship between students' cognitive ability and their school grades depends on institutional contexts. In a simple abstract model, we show that unless competence standards are set at above-school level or the variation of competence across schools is low, students' competence valuation will be heterogeneous, with weaker…

  3. Elementary School Dance. Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Bill

    Outlines are presented for 30 creative dance lessons for second grade children. Each lesson description includes: (1) a statement of the lesson objective; (2) an overview of how the lesson illuminates a general concept of dancing; (3) musical equipment needed; (4) introductory activities; (5) tasks for skill development; (6) suggestions for the…

  4. Elementary School Dance. Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Bill

    Outlines are presented for 30 creative dance lessons for sixth grade children. Each lesson description includes: (1) a statement of the lesson objective; (2) an overview of how the lesson illuminates a general concept of dancing; (3) musical equipment needed; (4) introductory activities; (5) tasks for skill development; (6) suggestions for the…

  5. Elementary School Dance. Grade Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Bill

    Outlines are presented for 30 creative dance lessons for third grade children. Each lesson description includes: (1) a statement of the lesson objective; (2) an overview of how the lesson illuminates a general concept of dancing; (3) musical equipment needed; (4) introductory activities; (5) tasks for skill development; (6) suggestions for the…

  6. Elementary School Dance. Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Bill

    Outlines are presented for 30 creative dance lessons for first grade children. Each lesson description includes: (1) a statement of the lesson objective; (2) an overview of how the lesson illuminates a general concept of dancing; (3) musical equipment needed; (4) introductory activities; (5) tasks for skill development; (6) suggestions for the…

  7. Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

  8. Motivating Primary-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Dolezal, Sara E.; Raphael, Lisa M.; Mohan, Lindsey; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Bogner, Kristen

    Noting that few would dispute the essential role of motivation in promoting academic engagement and achievement, this book serves as a guide to motivating students in grades K-3. The book presents research-based strategies and techniques that are then illustrated in three extended case studies of highly successful motivators, demonstrating how…

  9. Determinants of Grades in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Pauline

    Interest in the relationship between student characteristics and interests and economics grades led to the administration of a questionnaire to 565 students enrolled in principles of economics classes. The students who completed the questionnaire were among 1,000 students in 27 sections of macro and micro principles courses at Southeast Missouri…

  10. Reading in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper urges primary grade teachers to be certain that pupils are off to a good start in reading. A fundamental goal of beginning reading instruction should be to move each child toward the understanding that readers reconstruct texts by using multiple strategies to interpret the language encoded in print and, at the same time, to make it…

  11. Middle Grades Reform. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have pointed to the lagging scores of eighth graders on international, national, and state assessments as evidence that students are not prepared to meet high academic standards and that middle grades reform is needed. In response to these concerns, educators have introduced reforms designed to provide middle-level…

  12. Mathematics, Grade 5 Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This curriculum bulletin is one of a planned series of bulletins designed to meet the needs of teachers and supervisors who are working to improve the achievement level of mathematics. The material has been planned to help teachers meet the diverse mathematical needs of the children in fifth-grade classes. In addition to the emphasis that is…

  13. Mathematics, Grade 5, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum bulletin is designed to help teachers meet the diverse needs in mathematics of the children in fifth grade classes. In addition to the emphasis that is placed on arithmetic computational skills, the bulletin shows how to include other areas considered important, such as concepts, skills, and ideas from algebra and geometry. The 80…

  14. The Ninth-Grade Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habeeb, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Across the country, high schools have found that their ninth-grade students have the highest rates of truancy, discipline referrals, failures, and retentions. A school's worst data points are usually found among freshmen. For this reason, proactive schools seek strategies for transitioning freshmen into high school. An effective freshman…

  15. Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

    This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 4. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

  16. Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

    This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 7. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

  17. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  18. Woodworking: Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    The woodworking collection is composed of 55 objectives and related evaluation items for use in grades 7 through 12. Each sample contains the objective, test items, and criteria for judging the adequacy of the response. Woodworking categories being measured include sharpening, adjusting, using and caring for tools; reading a working drawing; stock…

  19. Science Equity in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlhaas, Kay; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Chu, Kwang-Lee

    2010-01-01

    The earliest national accountability tests occur at the fourth-grade level and the outcomes are aggregated. This national study exposes the depth of science education inequities a full year earlier by disaggregating third graders' demographic data with the science performance. A full 3-way ANOVA model was applied to test the 3 main effects…

  20. Grade Three, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This third grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, that were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

  1. Third Grade Social Studies Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park Forest Public Schools District 163, IL.

    As in other units in this series, this teaching guide is structured on the basis of one major generalization, supporting generalizations, and suggestions of learning activities and materials leading to an understanding of these ideas. For Grade 3, the major generalization is, "Skin color is only one of many obvious physical differences among…

  2. Achievement Testing Program Provincial Report. June 1993 Administration. Grade Level 3 Language Learning, Grade 6 Social Studies, Grade 9 Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    The annual report on achievement testing in Alberta (Canada) includes test results for third-grade students in language learning (for the regular English program), sixth-grade students in social studies, and ninth-grade students in science. Results are regarded in terms of curriculum standards, assessment standards, and achievement standards.…

  3. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  4. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  5. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  6. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  7. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  8. Tunable graded rod laser assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    AuYeung, John C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A tunable laser assembly including a pair of radially graded indexed optical segments aligned to focus the laser to form an external resonant cavity with an optical axis, the respective optical segments are retativity moveable along the optical axis and provide a variable et aion gap sufficient to permit variable tuning of the laser wavelength without altering the effective length of the resonant cavity. The gap also include a saturable absorbing material providing a passive mode-locking of the laser.

  9. High-Grading Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Sellar, Glenn; Nunez, Jorge; Mosie, Andrea; Schwarz, Carol; Parker, Terry; Winterhalter, Daniel; Farmer, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to high-grade their samples to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth and to leave others on the Moon. We are supporting studies to define the necessary and sufficient measurements and techniques for high-grading samples at a lunar outpost. A glovebox, dedicated to testing instruments and techniques for high-grading samples, is in operation at the JSC Lunar Experiment Laboratory. A reference suite of lunar rocks and soils, spanning the full compositional range found in the Apollo collection, is available for testing in this laboratory. Thin sections of these samples are available for direct comparison. The Lunar Sample Compendium, on-line at http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, summarizes previous analyses of these samples. The laboratory, sample suite, and Compendium are available to the lunar research and exploration community. In the first test of possible instruments for lunar sample high-grading, we imaged 18 lunar rocks and four soils from the reference suite using the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) developed by Arizona State University and JPL (see Farmer et. al. abstract). The MMI is a fixed-focus digital imaging system with a resolution of 62.5 microns/pixel, a field size of 40 x 32 mm, and a depth-of-field of approximately 5 mm. Samples are illuminated sequentially by 21 light emitting diodes in discrete wavelengths spanning the visible to shortwave infrared. Measurements of reflectance standards and background allow calibration to absolute reflectance. ENVI-based software is used to produce spectra for specific minerals as well as multi-spectral images of rock textures.

  10. Grade Organization Patterns. ERS Reporter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    Information regarding grade organization patterns in 449 of the 515 school districts enrolling 12,000 or more pupils is reported in this national survey, which repeated a similar survey made in 1963. Results show that the predominant plan is that which follows the 6-3-3 pattern. Of interest are the four percent rise in the 4-4-4 or 5-3-4 middle…

  11. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 8, GRADE EIGHT SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE FOURTEENTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE EIGHTH GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. A CHART INDICATES CONCEPT BRIEF SUMMARY OF SUBJECT MATTER CONTENT FOR GRADE 8, AND A CHART OF THE GRADE CONTENT FOR…

  12. Student Perspectives of Grading in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe

    2015-01-01

    Recent state and federal legislations on educational accountability push evaluation and grading to the frontline. This study examined students' perspectives of grading in physical education. The participants included students (N = 39) from two middle schools. Data were collected through observation, student profile grading sheets and interviews.…

  13. Fair & Accurate Grading for Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many changes in education over the past century, grading and reporting practices have essentially remained the same. In part, this is because few teacher preparation programs offer any guidance on sound grading practices. As a result, most current grading practices are grounded in tradition, rather than research on best practice. In an…

  14. Factor Analysis of Law School Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, Robert F.

    Grades of 116 law school students were obtained from transcripts, along with LSAT, Writing Ability and Background scores. The grades were factored, and an analysis of the goodness of fit of one- through four-factor systems indicated that the system of grades was essentially one factor in nature. A plot of factor loadings for the various courses…

  15. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  16. Stability and Change in High School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of students' grades in high school courses during the academic year. Records of over 8,000 high school students from five large southeastern high schools were analyzed to determine the relationship between the first achievement grade students were assigned during an academic term and their final course grades.…

  17. Community College Grading Policies. Agenda Item 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Allan

    Background information and a discussion of major issues accompany recommended state minimum standards for grading as presented by an ad hoc Grading Policy Study Group to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges. The report first notes the diversity of grading policies among the colleges and then outlines the Group's…

  18. Guidelines for Grade Advancement of Precocious Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John F.; Proctor, Theron B.; Black, Kathryn N.

    2002-01-01

    This reprint of an article on using grade advancement as a method for meeting the needs of some intellectually or academically gifted students is preceded by a commentary that concludes that popular sentiment and negative folklore supporting grade advancement are unfounded. Grade advancement guidelines are provided. (Contains references.) (CR)

  19. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  20. Graded Course of Study, Science (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euclid City Schools, OH.

    This course of study specifies the science skills and concepts that are to be taught in the various grades of the Euclid (Ohio) City Schools. Included are instructional objectives for the life, physical, and earth sciences for grades K to 6, suggested field trips and planetarium schedules (by elementary grade levels), and scope and sequence charts…

  1. Grade Inflation in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carol

    Grade inflation has commanded increasing attention in the academic world in recent years, with administrators, faculty, and academic analysts unable to agree on whether grade inflation actually exists or is a myth to be debunked. This Digest reviews research in support of and against the existence of grade inflation. A statistical analysis report…

  2. Science for Grades 6-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 6-9. SUBJECT MATTER: General science, life science, earth science, and physical science. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into separate sections for each grade. Each section is further subdivided into units. The major portion of each unit is laid out in four columns; column headings are concepts,…

  3. Elementary Mathematics, Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Elementary math. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Introductory material focuses on the philosophy and objectives of instructional material. The guide is divided into six units covering grades 1-6. Each unit presents the general goals, materials needed, minimum program, skills to be developed,…

  4. Grading Issues in a Desegregating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret; Zafirau, James

    Grades awarded to secondary school students in the Cleveland (Ohio) public schools were analyzed to determine relationships between grades and selected school climate variables in a desegregated urban school district. Failures or F grades and schoolwide non-promotion rates were both related to rates of class attendance and school suspensions. Over…

  5. Improving Motivation in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Curtis A.

    This report describes a program for improving motivation of eighth grade students. Attendance, grades, discipline referrals, and student surveys were used in measuring changes in student attitudes. Problems were documented from data showing grades, attendance, and discipline referrals from the second semester of the 1994-95 school year. A student…

  6. An Alternative to the Traditional Grading System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvez, Ferdinand V.

    The purpose of this practicum was to change the grading policy in the San Juan Unified School District (California) through a two-state process. The first stage was to change the traditional ABCDF grading system to a three-scale grading system in one high school, one intermediate school, and six elementary schools serving the same attendance area.…

  7. Investigating Grade Inflation and Non-Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Kelly E.

    2009-01-01

    [Slides] presented at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in 2009. This study investigated the presence of a general rise in high school grades without a corresponding rise in SAT scores, as well as different grading criteria between schools, as shown by differential relationships between AP course grades and exam scores. These…

  8. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  9. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  10. Is Grade Inflation Related to Faculty Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezim, Boualem; Pariseau, Susan E.; Quinn, Frances

    2005-01-01

    The authors performed a statistical analysis to investigate whether grade inflation existed in the business school at a small private college in the northeast region of the United States. The results showed that grade inflation existed and exhibited a linear trend over a 20-year period. The authors found that grade inflation was related to faculty…