Science.gov

Sample records for grado nic ii-nic

  1. NICS report links VOCs to respiratory problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-04-22

    Children who live near the chemical plants of Kanawha Valley, WV, suffer more acute and chronic respiratory aliments than those farther away, says a Harvard University School of Public Health report. In the $1-million, five-year study commissioned by the National Institute for Chemical Studies (NICS:Charleston, WV) and funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, proximity to chemical plants that emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was linked to higher incidence of asthma, acute eye irritation, shortness of breath, and chronic cough. The researchers say they adjusted for most other factors, such as parental smoking and petroleum. {open_quotes}The research hypothesis was whether children in the valley had more symptoms,{close_quotes} says NICS president Paul Hill. {open_quotes}Yes, there is a difference.{close_quotes} The study showed that some ailments were up to 28% more prevalent in children in the valley than in other Kanawha County children.

  2. Ferrocenyl­phospho­nic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bao-Zhang; Xu, Chao; Duan, Tai-Ke; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Qian-Feng

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C5H6O3P)], the phosphate group is bonded to the ferrocene unit with a P—C bond length of 1.749 (3) Å. In the crystal, six ferrocenyl­phospho­nic acid mol­ecules are connected by 12 strong inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a highly distorted octa­hedral cage. The volume of the octa­hedral cage is about 270 Å3. PMID:22090863

  3. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the ‘core/shell’ interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon. PMID:22548846

  4. Stuttgart Interconnection Network Project from PIX to NICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The PIX follow-up project NICS is described. The purpose of PIX was access to X.25, the DATEX-P network of the Federal German Post Office. The development and implementation of higher protocols for levels 4-7 in the ISOSINN was the actual problem here. Results of the PIX project are given. NICS (Stuttgart Interconnection Network Project) is presented. International Protocols are reviewed. PAD service is described, which allows terminal access to DATEX-P network of the Federal German Post Office.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1212 - What are the other requirements pertaining to the NIC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pertaining to the NIC? 63.1212 Section 63.1212 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1212 What are the other requirements pertaining to the NIC? (a) Certification of intent to comply. The Notice of Intent to Comply (NIC) must contain the following certification signed and dated by...

  6. NIC-based Reduction Algorithms for Large-scale Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, F; Moody, A T; Fernandez, J; Frachtenberg, E; Panda, D K

    2004-07-30

    Efficient algorithms for reduction operations across a group of processes are crucial for good performance in many large-scale, parallel scientific applications. While previous algorithms limit processing to the host CPU, we utilize the programmable processors and local memory available on modern cluster network interface cards (NICs) to explore a new dimension in the design of reduction algorithms. In this paper, we present the benefits and challenges, design issues and solutions, analytical models, and experimental evaluations of a family of NIC-based reduction algorithms. Performance and scalability evaluations were conducted on the ASCI Linux Cluster (ALC), a 960-node, 1920-processor machine at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which uses the Quadrics QsNet interconnect. We find NIC-based reductions on modern interconnects to be more efficient than host-based implementations in both scalability and consistency. In particular, at large-scale--1812 processes--NIC-based reductions of small integer and floating-point arrays provided respective speedups of 121% and 39% over the host-based, production-level MPI implementation.

  7. Alfvénic tornadoes in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that three-dimensional (3D) modified-kinetic Alfvén waves (m-KAWs) in a magnetized plasma can propagate in the form of Alfvénic tornadoes characterized by plasma density whirls or magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum. By using the two-fluid model, together with Ampère's law, we derive the wave equation for 3D m-KAWs in a magnetoplasma with me/mi ≪ β ≪ 1, where me (mi) is the electron (ion) mass, β=4πn0kB (Te+Ti)/B02, n0 the unperturbed plasma number density, kB the Boltzmann constant, Te(Te) the electron (ion) temperature, and B0 the strength of the ambient magnetic field. The 3D m-KAW equation admits solutions in the form of a Laguerre-Gauss Alfvénic vortex beam or a twisted kinetic Alfvénic wave with plasma density whirls that support the dynamics of shear Alfvénic magnetic flux ropes in plasmas.

  8. Scalable NIC-based reduction on large-scale clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.; Fernández, J. C.; Petrini, F.; Panda, Dhabaleswar K.

    2003-01-01

    Many parallel algorithms require effiaent support for reduction mllectives. Over the years, researchers have developed optimal reduction algonduns by taking inm account system size, dam size, and complexities of reduction operations. However, all of these algorithm have assumed the faa that the reduction precessing takes place on the host CPU. Modem Network Interface Cards (NICs) sport programmable processors with substantial memory and thus introduce a fresh variable into the equation This raises the following intersting challenge: Can we take advantage of modern NICs to implementJost redudion operations? In this paper, we take on this challenge in the context of large-scale clusters. Through experiments on the 960-node, 1920-processor or ASCI Linux Cluster (ALC) located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we show that NIC-based reductions indeed perform with reduced latency and immed consistency over host-based aleorithms for the wmmon case and that these benefits scale as the system grows. In the largest configuration tested--1812 processors-- our NIC-based algorithm can sum a single element vector in 73 ps with 32-bi integers and in 118 with Mbit floating-point numnbers. These results represent an improvement, respeaively, of 121% and 39% with resvect w the {approx}roductionle vel MPI library

  9. Concerted action of NIC relaxase and auxiliary protein MobC in RA3 plasmid conjugation.

    PubMed

    Godziszewska, Jolanta; Moncalián, Gabriel; Cabezas, Matilde; Bartosik, Aneta A; de la Cruz, Fernando; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2016-08-01

    Conjugative transfer of the broad-host-range RA3 plasmid, the archetype of the IncU group, relies on the relaxase NIC that belongs to the as yet uncharacterized MOBP4 subfamily. NIC contains the signature motifs of HUH relaxases involved in Tyr nucleophilic attack. However, it differs in the residue involved in His activation for cation coordination and was shown here to have altered divalent cation requirements. NIC is encoded in the mobC-nic operon preceded directly by oriT, where mobC encodes an auxiliary transfer protein with a dual function: autorepressor and stimulator of conjugative transfer. Here an interplay between MobC and NIC was demonstrated. MobC is required for efficient NIC cleavage of oriT in supercoiled DNA whereas NIC assists MobC in repression of the mobC-nic operon. A 7-bp arm of IR3 (IR3a) was identified as the binding site for NIC and the crucial nucleotides in IR3a for NIC recognition were defined. Fully active oriTRA3 was delineated to a 47-bp DNA segment encompassing a conserved cleavage site sequence, the NIC binding site IR3a and the MobC binding site OM . This highly efficient RA3 conjugative system with defined requirements for minimal oriT could find ample applications in biotechnology and computational biology where simple conjugative systems are needed. PMID:27101775

  10. Refined critical balance in strong Alfvénic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Chandran, B. D. G.

    2015-04-01

    We present numerical evidence that in strong Alfvénic turbulence, the critical balance principle - equality of the non-linear decorrelation and linear propagation times - is scale invariant, in the sense that the probability distribution of the ratio of these times is independent of scale. This result only holds if the local alignment of the Elsasser fields is taken into account in calculating the non-linear time. At any given scale, the degree of alignment is found to increase with fluctuation amplitude, supporting the idea that the cause of alignment is mutual dynamical shearing of Elsasser fields. The scale-invariance of critical balance (while all other quantities of interest are strongly intermittent, i.e. have scale-dependent distributions) suggests that it is the most robust of the scaling principles used to describe Alfvénic turbulence. The quality afforded by situ fluctuation measurements in the solar wind allows for direct verification of this fundamental principle.

  11. Phenomenon of Alfvénic vortex shedding.

    PubMed

    Gruszecki, M; Nakariakov, V M; Van Doorsselaere, T; Arber, T D

    2010-07-30

    Generation of Alfvénic (magnetohydrodynamic) vortices by the interaction of compressible plasma flows with magnetic-field-aligned blunt obstacles is modeled in terms of magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that periodic shedding of vortices with opposite vorticity is a robust feature of the interaction in a broad range of plasma parameters: for plasma beta from 0.025 to 0.5, and for the flow speeds from 0.1 to 0.99 of the fast magnetoacoustic speed. The Strouhal number is the dimensionless ratio of the blunt body diameter to the product of the period of vortex shedding and the inflow speed. It is found to be consistently in the range 0.15-0.25 in the whole range of parameters. The induced Alfvénic vortices are compressible and contain spiral-armed perturbations of the magnetic field strength and plasma mass density up to 50%-60% of the background values. The generated electric current also has the spiral-armed structuring. PMID:20867928

  12. Alfvénic Solitary and Shock Waves in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Padma Kant; Eliasson, Bengt; Stenflo, Lennart

    We present a review of nonlinear Alfvénic solitary and shock waves in a magnetized electron-ion plasma. The dynamics of these nonlinear dispersive Alfvén waves is governed by the two-fluid equations, coupled with Faraday's and Ampère's laws. First, we demonstrate the existence of large amplitude compressional Alfvénic solitary and shock waves propagating across the external magnetic field in a warm electron-ion magnetoplasma. It is found that these nonlinear structures can exist in well defined speed ranges above the Alfvén speed, and their widths are several times larger than the electron skin depths. Second, we study the formation of nonlinear slow magnetosonic solitary (SMS) waves propagating almost perpendicular to the external magnetic field direction. The propagation speed of the SMS waves is below the Alfvén speed and their width is a few ion skin depth in a collisionless magnetoplasma. The nonlinear dispersive Alfvén waves, as discussed here, can be associated with localized electromagnetic field excitations in magnetized laboratory and space plasmas that are composed of magnetized electrons and ions.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain NIC1, an Efficient Nicotine-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiongyu; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain NIC1, an efficient nicotine-degrading bacterium, was isolated from tobacco leaves. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain NIC1, which contains one circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. The genomic information will provide insights into its molecular mechanism for nicotine degradation. PMID:27417841

  14. 77 FR 33000 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Resources for NIC's Web Site on Data Collection and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Resources for NIC's Web Site on... Corrections (NIC) is seeking applications for the development of resources for NIC's Web site on data..., documents or other information sources (i.e. spreadsheets, Web sites) that provide examples of policy...

  15. Towards an Integrated Model of the NIC Layered Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O S; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Marinak, M M; Meezan, N B; Milovich, J L; Olson, R E; Patel, M V; Robey, H F; Sepke, S M; Spears, B K; Springer, P T; Weber, S V; Wilson, D C

    2011-10-31

    A detailed simulation-based model of the June 2011 National Ignition Campaign (NIC) cryogenic DT experiments is presented. The model is based on integrated hohlraum-capsule simulations that utilize the best available models for the hohlraum wall, ablator, and DT equations of state and opacities. The calculated radiation drive was adjusted by changing the input laser power to match the experimentally measured shock speeds, shock merger times, peak implosion velocity, and bangtime. The crossbeam energy transfer model was tuned to match the measured time-dependent symmetry. Mid-mode mix was included by directly modeling the ablator and ice surface perturbations up to mode 60. Simulated experimental values were extracted from the simulation and compared against the experiment. The model adjustments brought much of the simulated data into closer agreement with the experiment, with the notable exception of the measured yields, which were 15-45% of the calculated yields.

  16. Slănic-Prahova low background calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Celarel, Aurelia; Duliu, O G; Bercea, S; Cenusa, C

    2016-03-01

    The reduced background of 2 nSv h(-1) of the Slănic-Prahova Low Background Radiation Laboratory allowed installing a calibration stand for low-dose-rates dosimetry. The stand is provided with (60)Co, (137)Cs and (241)Am low activity sources. A Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt-calibrated AUTOMESS 6150 AD-6 dose rate meter with a 6150 AD-b/H external probe was used to check to what extent this stand could serve as a low background calibration facility. A detailed analysis of possible uncertainties in measuring dose rates evidenced an extended uncertainty related to the certified calibration as well as instrument readings of about 3 % for a confidence level of 95 %. In these conditions, the experimentally determined dose rates for all three gamma ray sources and for source-to-probe distances varying between 0.3 and 2.0 m confirmed a good correlation between the calculated and measured dose rates. At the same time, dose rates perfectly obey to an inverse squared distances law. PMID:26001826

  17. An Offload NIC for NASA, NLR, and Grid Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awrach, James

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses distributed data management and access dynamically configurable high-speed access to data distributed and shared over wide-area high-speed network environments. An offload engine NIC (network interface card) is proposed that scales at nX10-Gbps increments through 100-Gbps full duplex. The Globus de facto standard was used in projects requiring secure, robust, high-speed bulk data transport. Novel extension mechanisms were derived that will combine these technologies for use by GridFTP, bandwidth management resources, and host CPU (central processing unit) acceleration. The result will be wire-rate encrypted Globus grid data transactions through offload for splintering, encryption, and compression. As the need for greater network bandwidth increases, there is an inherent need for faster CPUs. The best way to accelerate CPUs is through a network acceleration engine. Grid computing data transfers for the Globus tool set did not have wire-rate encryption or compression. Existing technology cannot keep pace with the greater bandwidths of backplane and network connections. Present offload engines with ports to Ethernet are 32 to 40 Gbps f-d at best. The best of ultra-high-speed offload engines use expensive ASICs (application specific integrated circuits) or NPUs (network processing units). The present state of the art also includes bonding and the use of multiple NICs that are also in the planning stages for future portability to ASICs and software to accommodate data rates at 100 Gbps. The remaining industry solutions are for carrier-grade equipment manufacturers, with costly line cards having multiples of 10-Gbps ports, or 100-Gbps ports such as CFP modules that interface to costly ASICs and related circuitry. All of the existing solutions vary in configuration based on requirements of the host, motherboard, or carriergrade equipment. The purpose of the innovation is to eliminate data bottlenecks within cluster, grid, and cloud computing systems

  18. Diguanylate cyclase NicD based signaling mechanism of nutrient-induced dispersion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ankita Basu; Sauer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Dispersion enables the transition from the biofilm to the planktonic growth state in response to various cues. While several P. aeruginosa proteins, including BdlA and the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases DipA, RbdA, and NbdA, have been shown to be required for dispersion to occur, little is known about dispersion cue sensing and the signaling translating these cues into the modulation c-di-GMP levels to enable dispersion. Using glutamate-induced dispersion as a model, we report that dispersion-inducing nutrient cues are sensed via an outside-in signaling mechanism by the diguanylate cyclase NicD belonging to a family of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors. NicD directly interacts with BdlA and the phosphodiesterase DipA, with NicD, BdlA, and DipA being part of the same pathway required for dispersion. Glutamate-sensing by NicD results in NicD dephosphorylation and increased cyclase activity. Active NicD contributes to the non-processive proteolysis and activation of BdlA via phosphorylation and temporarily elevated c-di-GMP levels. BdlA, in turn, activates DipA, resulting in the overall reduction of c-di-GMP levels. Our results provide a basis for understanding the signaling mechanism based on NicD to induce biofilm dispersion that may be applicable to various biofilm-forming species and may have implications for the control of biofilm-related infections. PMID:25243483

  19. Investigating Alfvénic wave propagation in coronal open-field regions.

    PubMed

    Morton, R J; Tomczyk, S; Pinto, R

    2015-01-01

    The physical mechanisms behind accelerating solar and stellar winds are a long-standing astrophysical mystery, although recent breakthroughs have come from models invoking the turbulent dissipation of Alfvén waves. The existence of Alfvén waves far from the Sun has been known since the 1970s, and recently the presence of ubiquitous Alfvénic waves throughout the solar atmosphere has been confirmed. However, the presence of atmospheric Alfvénic waves does not, alone, provide sufficient support for wave-based models; the existence of counter-propagating Alfvénic waves is crucial for the development of turbulence. Here, we demonstrate that counter-propagating Alfvénic waves exist in open coronal magnetic fields and reveal key observational insights into the details of their generation, reflection in the upper atmosphere and outward propagation into the solar wind. The results enhance our knowledge of Alfvénic wave propagation in the solar atmosphere, providing support and constraints for some of the recent Alfvén wave turbulence models. PMID:26213234

  20. Investigating Alfvénic wave propagation in coronal open-field regions

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R. J.; Tomczyk, S.; Pinto, R.

    2015-01-01

    The physical mechanisms behind accelerating solar and stellar winds are a long-standing astrophysical mystery, although recent breakthroughs have come from models invoking the turbulent dissipation of Alfvén waves. The existence of Alfvén waves far from the Sun has been known since the 1970s, and recently the presence of ubiquitous Alfvénic waves throughout the solar atmosphere has been confirmed. However, the presence of atmospheric Alfvénic waves does not, alone, provide sufficient support for wave-based models; the existence of counter-propagating Alfvénic waves is crucial for the development of turbulence. Here, we demonstrate that counter-propagating Alfvénic waves exist in open coronal magnetic fields and reveal key observational insights into the details of their generation, reflection in the upper atmosphere and outward propagation into the solar wind. The results enhance our knowledge of Alfvénic wave propagation in the solar atmosphere, providing support and constraints for some of the recent Alfvén wave turbulence models. PMID:26213234

  1. Using NicAlert Strips to Validate Smoking Status Among Pregnant Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gaalema, Diann E.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Bradstreet, Matthew P.; Heil, Sarah H.; Bernstein, Ira M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Decreasing smoking during pregnancy is an important public health priority. An important step towards decreasing smoking during pregnancy is wider dissemination of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions. One such intervention is contingency management wherein mothers earn vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on biochemically-verified smoking abstinence. Wider dissemination may be possible by using smoking verification methods that require minimal training and equipment. One possibility is to use a cotinine-sensitive dipstick (NicAlert) rather than a bench-top cotinine analyzer, which is expensive and requires relatively extensive technician expertise, or breath carbon monoxide analysis, which is relatively nonspecific. The present study was conducted to begin examining the utility of cotinine-sensitive dipsticks for this purpose. Methods Fifty urine samples from pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation program were analyzed to compare three different methods for verifying smoking status: NicAlert strips, a bench-top enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) analyzer, and gas chromatography (GC), the current gold standard for determining cotinine levels in urine. Results Agreement between GC and NicAlert results were high (96%) and comparable to agreement between GC and EMIT results (94%). Semi-quantitative measurements using NicAlert were low with only 30% of samples in agreement between GC and specific ranges given on the strips. Conclusions NicAlert strips appear to be a valid measure of determining smoking status among pregnant smokers although not of absolute cotinine concentration. With minimal training and equipment required, NicAlert strips provide a potentially practical method for using urine cotinine to verify smoking status in community treatment settings. PMID:21652155

  2. Experimental study of collisionless super-Alfvénic interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikhislamov, I. F. Zakharov, Yu. P.; Posukh, V. G.; Melekhov, A. V.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Terekhin, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    An experiment on the interaction between an expanding super-Alfvénic laser-produced plasma flow and a magnetized background plasma under conditions in which the ion gyroradius is comparable with the characteristic scale length of magnetic field displacement is described. The depletion of the background plasma in a substantial volume and the formation of a large-amplitude compression pulse propagating with a super-Alfvénic velocity are revealed. The efficiency of energy conversion into perturbations of the background plasma was found to be 25%. Combined data from magnetic, electric, and plasma measurements indicate that the interaction occurs via the magnetic laminar mechanism.

  3. Fast-particle-driven Alfvénic modes in a reversed field pinch.

    PubMed

    Koliner, J J; Forest, C B; Sarff, J S; Anderson, J K; Liu, D; Nornberg, M D; Waksman, J; Lin, L; Brower, D L; Ding, W X; Spong, D A

    2012-09-14

    Alfvénic modes are observed due to neutral beam injection for the first time in a reversed field pinch plasma. Modeling of the beam deposition and slowing down shows that the velocity and radial localization are high. This allows instability drive from inverse Landau damping of a bump-on-tail in the parallel distribution function or from free energy in the fast ion density gradient. Mode switching from a lower frequency toroidal mode number n=5 mode that scales with beam injection velocity to a higher frequency n=4 mode with Alfvénic scaling is observed. PMID:23005639

  4. 77 FR 39741 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Curricula Review and Revision: NIC Trainer Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...The National Institute of Corrections' (NIC) Academy Division is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement for the review, revision, and/or development of competency-based, blended modality training curricula with the aim of providing corrections agencies and professionals with the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to train and......

  5. 27 CFR 478.131 - Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check. 478.131 Section 478.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  6. 27 CFR 478.131 - Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check. 478.131 Section 478.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  7. 27 CFR 478.131 - Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check. 478.131 Section 478.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  8. 27 CFR 478.131 - Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check. 478.131 Section 478.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  9. 27 CFR 478.131 - Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check. 478.131 Section 478.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  10. Alfvénic instabilities driven by runaways in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fülöp, T.; Newton, S.

    2014-08-15

    Runaway particles can be produced in plasmas with large electric fields. Here, we address the possibility that such runaway ions and electrons excite Alfvénic instabilities. The magnetic perturbation induced by these modes can enhance the loss of runaways. This may have important implications for the runaway electron beam formation in tokamak disruptions.

  11. Statistical evidence for the existence of Alfvénic turbulence in solar coronal loops

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiajia; McIntosh, Scott W.; Bethge, Christian; De Moortel, Ineke; Threlfall, James

    2014-12-10

    Recent observations have demonstrated that waves capable of carrying large amounts of energy are ubiquitous throughout the solar corona. However, the question of how this wave energy is dissipated (on which timescales and length scales) and released into the plasma remains largely unanswered. Both analytic and numerical models have previously shown that Alfvénic turbulence may play a key role not only in the generation of the fast solar wind, but in the heating of coronal loops. In an effort to bridge the gap between theory and observations, we expand on a recent study by analyzing 37 clearly isolated coronal loops using data from the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter instrument. We observe Alfvénic perturbations with phase speeds which range from 250 to 750 km s{sup –1} and periods from 140 to 270 s for the chosen loops. While excesses of high-frequency wave power are observed near the apex of some loops (tentatively supporting the onset of Alfvénic turbulence), we show that this excess depends on loop length and the wavelength of the observed oscillations. In deriving a proportional relationship between the loop length/wavelength ratio and the enhanced wave power at the loop apex, and from the analysis of the line widths associated with these loops, our findings are supportive of the existence of Alfvénic turbulence in coronal loops.

  12. Theoretical calculation and experiment of microwave electromagnetic property of Ni(C) nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan-Feng, Zhang; Zhi-Feng, Hao; Bi, Zeng; Yan-Nan, Qian; Ying-Xin, Huang; Zhen-Da, Yang

    2016-04-01

    With the combination of the dielectric loss of the carbon layer with the magnetic loss of the ferromagnetic metal core, carbon-coated nickel (Ni(C)) nanoparticles are expected to be the promising microwave absorbers. Microwave electromagnetic parameters and reflection loss in a frequency range of 2 GHz–18 GHz for paraffin-Ni(C) composites are investigated. The values of relative complex permittivity and permeability, the dielectric and magnetic loss tangent of paraffin-Ni(C) composites are measured, respectively, when the weight ratios of Ni(C) nanoparticles are equal to 10 wt%, 40 wt%, 50 wt%, 70 wt%, and 80 wt% in paraffin-Ni(C) composites. The results reveal that Ni(C) nanoparticles exhibit a peak of magnetic loss at about 13 GHz, suggesting that magnetic loss and a natural resonance could be found at that frequency. Based on the measured complex permittivity and permeability, the reflection losses of paraffin-Ni(C) composites with different weight ratios of Ni(C) nanoparticles and coating thickness values are simulated according to the transmission line theory. An excellent microwave absorption is obtained. To be proved by the experimental results, the reflection loss of composite with a coating thickness of 2 mm is measured by the Arch method. The results indicate that the maximum reflection loss reaches ‑26.73 dB at 12.7 GHz, and below ‑10 dB, the bandwidth is about 4 GHz. The fact that the measured absorption position is consistent with the calculated results suggests that a good electromagnetic match and a strong microwave absorption can be established in Ni(C) nanoparticles. The excellent Ni(C) microwave absorber is prepared by choosing an optimum layer number and the weight ratio of Ni(C) nanoparticles in paraffin-Ni(C) composites. Project supported by the Science and Technology Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant Nos. 2014B010106005, 2013B051000077, and 2015A050502047) and the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou City, China (Grant

  13. On the Origin of Highly Alfvénic Slow Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amicis, R.; Bruno, R.

    2015-05-01

    Alfvénic fluctuations are a common feature in the solar wind and are found especially in the trailing edges of fast wind streams. The slow wind usually has a lower degree of Alfvénicity, being more strongly intermixed with structures of non-Alfvénic nature. In the present paper we show the first evidence in the interplanetary space of two different kinds of slow solar wind: one coming from coronal streamers or active regions and characterized by non-Alfvénic structures and the other one being highly Alfvénic and originating from the boundary of coronal holes. The Alfvénic character of fluctuations, either outward or inward, can be studied by means of the normalized cross-helicity, {{σ }C}, which is an indicator of the {\\boldsymbol{v}} -{\\boldsymbol{b}} alignment. The evolution of {{σ }C} toward lower values with increasing radial distance is interpreted both as a decrease of the presence of the outward modes and as a continuous production of inward modes within those regions such as stream shears where some plasma instability is active. On the other hand, the decrease of {{σ }C} is often related also to magnetic field and/or density enhancements which specifically act on the destruction of the {\\boldsymbol{v}} -{\\boldsymbol{b}} alignment. In the present analysis we study the role of compressibility presenting both case studies and a statistical analysis over different phases of solar cycle 23. Our findings indicate that the presence of regions of magnetic field compression generally play a major role in the depletion of {{σ }C} and thus in the destruction of the {\\boldsymbol{v}} -{\\boldsymbol{b}} alignment.

  14. The NICS-XY-scan: identification of local and global ring currents in multi-ring systems.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2014-05-01

    Nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS)-based methods are very popular for the determination of the induced magnetic field under an external magnetic field. These methods are used mostly (but not only) for the determination of the aromaticity and antiaromaticity of molecules and ions, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The ghost atom that serves as the NICS probe senses the induced magnetic field and reports it in the form of an NMR chemical shift. However, the source of the field cannot be determined by NICS. Thus, in a multi-ring system that may contain more than one induced current circuit (and therefore more than one source of the induced magnetic field) the NICS value may represent the sum of many induced magnetic fields. This may lead to wrong assignments of the aromaticity (and antiaromaticity) of the systems under study. In this paper, we present a NICS-based method for the determination of local and global ring currents in conjugated multi-ring systems. The method involves placing the NICS probes along the X axis, and if needed, along the Y axis, at a constant height above the system under study. Following the change in the induced field along these axes allows the identification of global and local induced currents. The best NICS type to use for these scans is NICSπZZ , but it is shown that at a height of 1.7 Å above the molecular plane, NICSZZ provides the same qualitative picture. This method, namely the NICS-XY-scan, gives information equivalent to that obtained through current density analysis methods, and in some cases, provides even more details. PMID:24677667

  15. Forumclínic: the shaping of virtual communities to assist patients with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Grau, Immaculada; Grajales Iii, Francisco J; Gene-Badia, Joan; Siso, Antoni; de Semir, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide new opportunities to complement traditional care while enhancing patient autonomy. With the objective to supplement patient care, a group of health professionals at the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona created Forumclínic, an online networking website in Spanish and Catalan. In 2008, seven web- and DVD-based chronic disease portals (Diabetes, Schizophrenia, Cardiac Ischemia, COPD, Depression, Breast Cancer and cardiovascular risk) were created with the following resources: multimedia patient education material; physician-specialist transcribed research (articles) news; an open question forum (for clinician-user and user-to-user interaction); and patient and specialist interview videos on the progress of disease, common diagnosis and treatment procedures; and information on the best or worst prognoses. Using data from Google Analytics, server logs were used to observe online behaviour patterns and user postings. This data combined with a mixed methods approach were used to evaluate the development of a virtual community (VC). A virtual community was developed when the number of forum visits was greater than those in the disease portal (definition). While nearly half of the visitors were from the Americas, the Schizophrenia, Breast Cancer, Depression and COPD forums met the criteria for and developed a virtual community. However, the Diabetes and Cardiac Ischemia forums did not reach VC status. It is also interesting to note that users in their late thirties and early forties were primarily women. The development of four virtual communities in Forumclínic seems to support the self-care needs of virtual patients. Users also reported appreciating the increased interaction with experts online and commonly collaborated with the forum moderator to guide and support other users with similar conditions in managing their health. Thence, we believe that Forumclínic is a good model to complement traditional patient care

  16. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) "Blue Team/Red Team" Simulated Campaigns (Sim-Cams)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen (Sim-Cam referee, M. D.; J Edwards (Blue Team leader; L J Suter (Red Team leader

    2010-08-01

    The Point design Target of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) has specifications and tolerances that have been set using a multi variable sensitivity study (MVSS). The sub component interactions and sensitivities that feed the MVSS have been calculated using sophisticated target physics radiation hydro-codes. However, it is cannot be guaranteed that the point design configuration has been specified with enough precision for ignition to occur without first correcting for possible off-sets due to physics uncertainties in the data models used in these studies. For this reason the NIC includes a series of tuning experiments, which have been designed and sequenced to systematically remove potential off-sets in specified target and laser parameters as efficiently and effectively as possible. In order to test the tuning techniques and logic the NIC has been executing Simulated Campaigns (Sim-Cam's). In the Sim-Cam's are a Blue Team and a Red Team. The Blue Team conducts the experiments, making shot-to-shot decisions on how to adjust the laser pulse or target parameters, based on "experimental" data provided by the Red Team who simulate the laser, target and diagnostics performance. To capture a plausible off-set between nature and models the Red Team construct a new virtual reality by adjusting the physics data and models, keeping the changes within their best estimate of uncertainties. The Red Team also include much of the shot-to-shot variability due to small laser and target variations that can be expected in NIF experiments, as well as diagnostic noise. The details of all of this are kept hidden from the Blue Team. The Sim-Cam's also serve to test and improve the infrastructure and processes for executing the NIF experiments. The role of the Simulated Campaigns in preparing for the NIC experimental plan will be described, and some of the results discussed.

  17. The transport of low-frequency turbulence in the super-Alfvénic solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.; Hunana, P.; Dosch, A.; Marino, R.; Hu, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the transport of low-frequency turbulence in an expanding magnetized flow is very important in analyzing numerous problems in space physics and astrophysics. Zank et al 2012 developed six general coupled turbulence transport equations, including the Alfvén velocity to describe the transport of low-frequency turbulence for any inhomogeneous flows, including sub-Alfvénic coronal flows, and super-Alfvénic solar wind flows. Here, we solve the 1D steady state six coupled turbulence transport equations of Zank et al 2012, and the transport equation corresponding to the solar wind temperature in the super-Alfvénic solar wind flows from 0.29 to 100 AU without the Alfvén velocity. We calculate turbulent quantities corresponding to Voyager 2 data sets for three cases; i) a positive and negative sign of Br; ii) the azimuthal angle ϕ = tan-1(Bt/Br), and iii) a positive and negative sign of Bt, where Br and Bt are the radial and transverse components of the interplanetary magnetic field, respectively. We compare our theoretical results to the observational results, and find good agreement between them.

  18. Evaluation of the aromaticity of non-planar and bowl-shaped molecules by NICS criterion.

    PubMed

    Reisi-Vanani, Adel; Rezaei, Ali Asghar

    2015-09-01

    Nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) criterion was used to gauge the amount of aromaticity in a lot of publications in two last decades. Non-planar molecules with many polygons in different sheets that make angle together have not been studied by this criterion. Perhaps, one ascribes this deficiency to NICS index, but we think it is concern to depauperation in evaluation methods. Therefore, in this work, we try to evaluate aromaticity of two fullerene substructures bowl-shaped molecules, namely corannulene and sumanene as typical non-planar molecules by using of the NICSzz-scan method. The gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) NMR calculations were done at B3LYP/6-311+G(d) level of theory. Energetic criterion as another tool for evaluation of the aromaticity of compounds was used and discussed. Results shows that pentagon and hexagon rings in corannulene have antiaromatic and aromatic character, respectively and in sumanene, pentagon and outer hexagon rings have antiaromatic and aromatic character, respectively. However, the picture obtained based on the NICS computations did not provide any insight towards the real nature of current density in the corannulene and sumanene. PMID:26188797

  19. The range of Alfvénic turbulence scales in the topside auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovchanskaya, I. V.; Kozelov, B. V.

    2016-01-01

    The minimal scale of the Alfvénic turbulence transverse to the external magnetic field in the topside auroral ionosphere is investigated using electric field observations of the FAST spacecraft (the resolution 512 s-1). The events in which the power law form of the electric fluctuation spectra with a 2.0-2.5 slope (typical of Alfvénic turbulence) remains unchanged down to acoustic gyroradius ρs or ion gyroradius ρi local values are illustrated for the first time. In this case, the character of spectrum variation does not change at the electron inertial length λe, which is much larger than ρs and ρi for FAST altitudes (apogee ~4000 km). We have tried to explain this experimental fact by consideration of the known scenarios of the appearance of a small transverse scale in an Alfvénic perturbation. It has been noted that the effects of front steepening in an inertial Alfvén wave with a finite amplitude, which propagates at an angle smaller than (me/mi)1/2 with respect to the transverse direction, can result in small transverse scales comparable with acoustic gyroradius appearing in a perturbation.

  20. Operational Use of Near Real Time Remote sensing Data at the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Colon, P.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ice Center (NIC) is a U.S. Government agency that brings together the Department of Defense - Navy, Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Department of Homeland Security - U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) to support coastal and marine sea ice operations and research in the Polar Regions. The NIC provides specialized strategic and tactical ice analyses to meet the operational needs of the U.S. government and is the only operational ice service in the world that monitors sea ice in both the Arctic, Antarctic regions as well as in other ice infested waters. NIC utilizes multiple sources of near real time satellite and in-situ observations as well as NWP and ocean-sea ice model output to produce sea ice analyses. Key users of NIC products in the Arctic include the Navy submarine force, National Weather Service, USCG and Canadian Coast Guard icebreakers, Military Sealift Command on re-supply missions to Antarctica and Greenland, and NOAA research vessels operating near sea ice cover in both hemispheres as well. Time series of NIC weekly or bi-weekly ice analysis charts, daily marginal ice zone and ice edge routine products, as well as tactical support annotated imagery are generated by expert analysts with wide access to near real time satellite imagery from VIS/IR to passive and active microwave sensors. The status of these satellite data streams and the expected availability of new capabilities in the near future will be discussed.

  1. Generation of Alfvénic waves and turbulence in reconnection jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Masahiro; Higashimori, Katsuaki

    2015-05-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic linear stability with the localized bulk flow oriented parallel to the neutral sheet is investigated, by including the Hall effect and the guide magnetic field. We observe three different unstable modes: a "streaming tearing" mode at a slow flow speed, a "streaming sausage" mode at a medium flow speed, and a "streaming kink" mode at a fast flow speed. The streaming tearing and sausage modes have a standard tearing mode-like structure with symmetric density fluctuations in the neutral sheet, while the kink mode has an asymmetric fluctuation. The growth rate of the streaming tearing mode decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, while the growth rates of the sausage and kink modes do not depend strongly on the Reynolds number. The sausage and kink modes can be unstable for not only super-Alfvénic flow but also sub-Alfvénic flow when the lobe density is low. The wavelengths of these unstable modes are of the same order of magnitude as the thickness of the plasma sheet. Their maximum growth rates are higher than that of a standard tearing mode, and under a strong guide magnetic field, the growth rates of the sausage and kink modes are enhanced, while under a weak guide magnetic field, they are suppressed. For a thin plasma sheet with the Hall effect, the fluctuations of the streaming modes can exist over the plasma sheet. These unstable modes may be regarded as being one of the processes generating Alfvénic turbulence in the plasma sheet during magnetic reconnection.

  2. Cosmic ray propagation in sub-Alfvénic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohet, R.; Marcowith, A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The propagation of cosmic rays or energetic charged particles in magnetized turbulence is a complex problem which involves non-linear wave-particle interactions and chaotic magnetic field lines transport. This problem has been addressed until recently using either analytical calculations or simulations using prescribed turbulence models. With the advent of super computers it is now possible to investigate energetic charged particle propagation using direct computation of electromagnetic fields. This is in particular the case for high-energy particles propagation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Aims: This work has the main objective to provide a detailed investigation of cosmic ray propagation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulent fields generated by forcing the fluid velocity field at large scales. It provides a derivation of the particle mean free path dependences in terms of the turbulence level described by the Alfvénic Mach number and in terms of the particle rigidity. Methods: We use an upgrade version of the magnetohydrodynamic code RAMSES which includes a forcing module and a kinetic module and solve the Lorentz equation for each particle. The simulations are performed using a 3 dimension periodical box in the test-particle and magnetostatic limits. The forcing module is implemented using an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. An ensemble average over a large number of particle trajectories is applied to reconstruct the particle mean free paths. Results: We derive the cosmic ray mean free paths in terms of the Alfvénic Mach numbers and particle reduced rigidities in different turbulence forcing geometries. The reduced particle rigidity is ρ = rL/L where rL is the particle Larmor radius and L is the simulation box length related to the turbulence coherence or injection scale Linj by L ~ 5 Linj. We have investigated with a special attention compressible and solenoidal forcing geometries. Conclusions: We find that compressible forcing solutions are compatible

  3. Multiscale Nature of the Dissipation Range in Gyrokinetic Simulations of Alfvénic Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Told, D; Jenko, F; TenBarge, J M; Howes, G G; Hammett, G W

    2015-07-10

    Nonlinear energy transfer and dissipation in Alfvén wave turbulence are analyzed in the first gyrokinetic simulation spanning all scales from the tail of the MHD range to the electron gyroradius scale. For typical solar wind parameters at 1 AU, about 30% of the nonlinear energy transfer close to the electron gyroradius scale is mediated by modes in the tail of the MHD cascade. Collisional dissipation occurs across the entire kinetic range k(⊥)ρ(I)≳1. Both mechanisms thus act on multiple coupled scales, which have to be retained for a comprehensive picture of the dissipation range in Alfvénic turbulence. PMID:26207474

  4. Electronic transport properties of ultra-thin Ni and Ni-C nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leining; Wu, Weikang; Zhou, Yi; Ren, Hongru; Dong, Jichen; Li, Hui

    2016-02-21

    The structures and electronic transport properties of ultra-thin Ni and Ni-C nanowires obtained from carbon nanotube (CNT) templates are theoretically investigated. C atoms tend to locate at the central positions of nanowires and are surrounded by Ni atoms. Spin polarization at the Fermi level is not responsible for the spin filtration of these nanowires. Increasing C concentration can improve the resistance of nanowires by abating the number of electronic transmission channels and the coupling of electron orbitals between Ni atoms. Moreover, with the increase of diameter, the conductance of these nanowires increases as well. This study is helpful for guiding the synthesis of nanowires with desired applications. PMID:26818090

  5. Separation of radiation defects in Ni and Ni-C alloys under electron and neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, S. E.; Danilov, V. L.; Goshchitskii, B. N.; Kar'kin, A. E.; Parkhomenko, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    Complex investigations of radiation damage of Ni and Ni- 880 at. ppm C alloy under electron and neutron irradiation in the region of room temperature hardened and deformed state. In pure nickel, with the deformation microstructure, both in electron and in the neutron irradiation is observed separation of radiation-induced defects. When electron irradiation in the alloy Ni-C separation effect is observed, and when neutron irradiation there is no. This is due to the interaction of carbon atoms with radiation defects. The main sinks for radiation-induced defects are the areas with a high concentration of defects in cascades of atomic displacements.

  6. High-level ab initio predictions for the ionization energy, bond dissociation energies, and heats of formation of nickel carbide (NiC) and its cation (NiC+).

    PubMed

    Lau, Kai-Chung; Chang, Yih Chung; Shi, Xiaoyu; Ng, C Y

    2010-09-21

    The ionization energy (IE) of NiC and the 0 K bond dissociation energies (D(0)) and heats of formation at 0 K (ΔH(o)(f0)) and 298 K (ΔH(o)(f298)) for NiC and NiC(+) are predicted by the wavefunction based CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS approach and the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method with Davidson correction (MRCI+Q). The CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS calculations presented here involve the approximation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit at the coupled cluster level up to full quadruple excitations along with the zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE), high-order correlation, core-valence electronic (CV), spin-orbit coupling (SO), and scalar relativistic effect (SR) corrections. The present calculations provide the correct symmetry predictions for the ground states of NiC and NiC(+) to be (1)∑(+) and (2)∑(+), respectively. The CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS IE(NiC)=8.356 eV is found to compare favorably with the experimental IE value of 8.372 05±0.000 06 eV. The predicted IE(NiC) value at the MRCI+Q/cc-pwCV5Z level, including the ZPVE, SO, and SR effects is 8.00 eV, which is 0.37 eV lower than the experimental value. This work together with the previous experimental and theoretical investigations supports the conclusion that the CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS method is capable of providing reliable IE predictions for 3d-transition metal carbides, such as FeC and NiC. Furthermore, the CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS calculations give the prediction of D(0)(Ni-C)-D(0)(Ni(+)-C)=0.688 eV, which is also consistent with the experimental determination of 0.732 21±0.000 06 eV, whereas the MRCI+Q calculations (with relativistic and CV effects) predict a significantly lower value of 0.39 eV for D(0)(Ni-C)-D(0)(Ni(+)-C). The analysis of the correction terms shows that the CV and valence-valence electronic correlations beyond CCSD(T) wavefunction and the relativistic effect make significant contributions to the calculated thermochemical properties of NiC/NiC(+). For the experimental D(0) and ΔH(o)(f0) values of

  7. NIC23.

    PubMed

    Baxter, David; Guppy, Martin J

    2013-06-01

    The 23rd National Immunization Conference for Health Care Workers was held on December 7th, 2012 at the Manchester Conference Centre. There were over 220 delegates for this event sponsored by educational grants from Crucell, Glaxo Smith Kline, Pfizer Vaccines and Sanofi Pasteur. A number of speakers took the opportunity kindly afforded by Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics to write up their conference presentation as a paper for this special supplement. PMID:23857271

  8. MESSENGER observations of Alfvénic and compressional waves during Mercury's substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei-Jie; Slavin, James A.; Fu, Suiyan; Raines, Jim M.; Sundberg, Torbjörn; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Jia, Xianzhe; Shi, Quanqi; Shen, Xiaochen; Poh, Gangkai; Pu, Zuyin; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2015-08-01

    MErcury Surface, Space ENviroment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) magnetic field measurements during the substorm expansion phase in Mercury's magnetotail have been examined for evidence of low-frequency plasma waves, e.g., Pi2-like pulsations. It has been revealed that the By fluctuations accompanying substorm dipolarizations are consistent with pulses of field-aligned currents near the high-latitude edge of the plasma sheet. Detailed analysis of the By fluctuations reveals that they are near circularly polarized electromagnetic waves, most likely Alfvén waves. Soon afterward the plasma sheet thickened and MESSENGER detected a series of compressional waves. These Alfvénic and compressional waves have similar durations (10-20 s), suggesting that they may arise from the same source. Drawing on Pi2 pulsation models developed for Earth, we suggest that the Alfvénic and compressional waves reported here at Mercury may be generated by the quasi-periodic sunward flow bursts in Mercury's plasma sheet. But because they are observed during the period with rapid magnetic field reconfiguration, we cannot fully exclude the possibility of standing Alfvén wave.

  9. Compressional Alfvénic rogue and solitary waves in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Anuraj; Rizvi, H.; Ryu, C. M.

    2013-08-15

    Generation of compressional Alfvénic rogue and solitary waves in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas is investigated. Dispersive effect caused by non-ideal electron inertia currents perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can balance the nonlinear steepening of waves leading to the formation of a soliton. The reductive perturbation method is used to obtain a Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of the solitary wave. The height of a soliton is proportional to the soliton speed “U” and inversely proportional to plasma “β” (ratio of plasma thermal pressure to pressure of the confining magnetic field) and the width of soliton is proportional to the electron inertial length. KdV equation is used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable compressional Alfvénic wavepackets via the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The characteristics of rogue wave influenced by plasma “β” and the electron inertial length are described.

  10. Sunward-propagating Alfvénic Fluctuations Observed in the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Chi; Belcher, John W.; He, Jiansen; Richardson, John D.

    2016-06-01

    The mixture/interaction of anti-sunward-propagating Alfvénic fluctuations (AFs) and sunward-propagating Alfvénic fluctuations (SAFs) is believed to result in the decrease of the Alfvénicity of solar wind fluctuations with increasing heliocentric distance. However, SAFs are rarely observed at 1 au and solar wind AFs are found to be generally outward. Using the measurements from Voyager 2 and Wind, we perform a statistical survey of SAFs in the heliosphere inside 6 au. We first report two SAF events observed by Voyager 2. One is in the anti-sunward magnetic sector with a strong positive correlation between the fluctuations of magnetic field and solar wind velocity. The other one is in the sunward magnetic sector with a strong negative magnetic field—velocity correlation. Statistically, the percentage of SAFs increases gradually with heliocentric distance, from about 2.7% at 1.0 au to about 8.7% at 5.5 au. These results provide new clues for understanding the generation mechanism of SAFs.

  11. Measures of three-dimensional anisotropy and intermittency in strong Alfvénic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Chandran, B. D. G.; Chen, C. H. K.; Horbury, T. S.; Wicks, R. T.; Greenan, C. C.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the local anisotropy of numerically simulated strong Alfvénic turbulence with respect to two local, physically relevant directions: along the local mean magnetic field and along the local direction of one of the fluctuating Elsasser fields. We find significant scaling anisotropy with respect to both these directions: the fluctuations are `ribbon-like' - statistically, they are elongated along both the mean magnetic field and the fluctuating field. The latter form of anisotropy is due to scale-dependent alignment of the fluctuating fields. The intermittent scalings of the nth-order conditional structure functions in the direction perpendicular to both the local mean field and the fluctuations agree well with the theory of Chandran, Schekochihin & Mallet, while the parallel scalings are consistent with those implied by the critical-balance conjecture. We quantify the relationship between the perpendicular scalings and those in the fluctuation and parallel directions, and find that the scaling exponent of the perpendicular anisotropy (i.e. of the aspect ratio of the Alfvénic structures in the plane perpendicular to the mean magnetic field) depends on the amplitude of the fluctuations. This is shown to be equivalent to the anticorrelation of fluctuation amplitude and alignment at each scale. The dependence of the anisotropy on amplitude is shown to be more significant for the anisotropy between the perpendicular and fluctuation-direction scales than it is between the perpendicular and parallel scales.

  12. Reconstruction of a broadband spectrum of Alfvénic fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Viñas, Adolfo F; Moya, Pablo S.; Maneva, Yana G.; Araneda, Jaime A.

    2014-05-10

    Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind exhibit a high degree of velocities and magnetic field correlations consistent with Alfvén waves propagating away and toward the Sun. Two remarkable properties of these fluctuations are the tendencies to have either positive or negative magnetic helicity (–1 ≤ σ {sub m} ≤ +1) associated with either left- or right- topological handedness of the fluctuations and to have a constant magnetic field magnitude. This paper provides, for the first time, a theoretical framework for reconstructing both the magnetic and velocity field fluctuations with a divergence-free magnetic field, with any specified power spectral index and normalized magnetic- and cross-helicity spectrum field fluctuations for any plasma species. The spectrum is constructed in the Fourier domain by imposing two conditions—a divergence-free magnetic field and the preservation of the sense of magnetic helicity in both spaces—as well as using Parseval's theorem for the conservation of energy between configuration and Fourier spaces. Applications to the one-dimensional spatial Alfvénic propagation are presented. The theoretical construction is in agreement with typical time series and power spectra properties observed in the solar wind. The theoretical ideas presented in this spectral reconstruction provide a foundation for more realistic simulations of plasma waves, solar wind turbulence, and the propagation of energetic particles in such fluctuating fields.

  13. Characterizing the Alfvénic slow wind: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amicis, R.; Bruno, R.; Matteini, L.

    2016-03-01

    Alfvénicity is a feature characterizing solar wind fluctuations and is defined by a high correlation between velocity and magnetic field components and in ideal conditions by equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energies. It is a feature characterizing especially the fast wind while slow wind shows usually lower correlation between velocity and magnetic field components. However this is not always the case. Under certain conditions a high degree of Alfvénicity can be found also within slow wind. In the present paper, we show the existence of two kinds of slow solar wind with similar velocities but which display different characteristics. The different degree of Alfvénicity is a feature discrimanating the two types of slow wind. This feature is always linked to a low magnetic field compressibility as shown in the present paper using a case study. It is found that the Alfvénic slow wind is more similar to fast wind rather than to the standard slow wind apart from velocity. This fact can be attributed to a different source region on the solar surface. Actually the standard slow wind comes from coronal streamers or active regions while the Alfvénic slow wind originates from the boundary of coronal holes sharing characteristics typical of fast wind.

  14. Identification and Comparison of Interventions Performed by Korean School Nurses and U.S. School Nurses Using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Nam, Mihwa; Whyte, James

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) interventions performed by Korean school nurses. The Korean data were then compared to U.S. data from other studies in order to identify differences and similarities between Korean and U.S. school nurse practice. Of the 542 available NIC interventions, 180 were…

  15. Alfvénic field-aligned currents, ion upflow and electron precipitation during large geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Spencer; LaBelle, James; Chaston, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We present four years of FAST observations of Alfvénic field-aligned currents (FACs) in the Northern Hemisphere coincident with 40 moderate (Dst < -50 nT) to very large geomagnetic storms. Superposed epoch analysis of Alfvénic activity of storm periods demonstrate a sharp increase in the probability of AlfvÉn wave occurrence just after storm commencement, and analysis based on storm phase shows that the probability of Alfvén wave occurrence increases by more than a factor of 5 on both dayside and nightside. Additionally, recently reported Van Allen Probes measurements in the magnetosphere imply a region (˜60-68 degrees invariant latitude) in the nightside ionosphere where Alfvén waves are statistically likely to be observed during storm main phase; we report statistical observations during main phase showing that this region instead corresponds to both intense electron precipitation (>10 mW m-2) and strong upflowing ion number flux (> 108 cm^{-2 s-1), while observed Alfvénic FAC occurrence rates are diminished relative to Van Allen Probes measurements. FAST observations also indicate that the most intense electron precipitation associated with Alfvénic FACs occurs pre-midnight during storm recovery phase.

  16. Comparison of two speech privacy measurements, articulation index (AI) and speech privacy noise isolation class (NIC'), in open workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Heakyung C.; Loftness, Vivian

    2002-05-01

    Lack of speech privacy has been reported to be the main dissatisfaction among occupants in open workplaces, according to workplace surveys. Two speech privacy measurements, Articulation Index (AI), standardized by the American National Standards Institute in 1969, and Speech Privacy Noise Isolation Class (NIC', Noise Isolation Class Prime), adapted from Noise Isolation Class (NIC) by U. S. General Services Administration (GSA) in 1979, have been claimed as objective tools to measure speech privacy in open offices. To evaluate which of them, normal privacy for AI or satisfied privacy for NIC', is a better tool in terms of speech privacy in a dynamic open office environment, measurements were taken in the field. AIs and NIC's in the different partition heights and workplace configurations have been measured following ASTM E1130 (Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of Speech Privacy in Open Offices Using Articulation Index) and GSA test PBS-C.1 (Method for the Direct Measurement of Speech-Privacy Potential (SPP) Based on Subjective Judgments) and PBS-C.2 (Public Building Service Standard Method of Test Method for the Sufficient Verification of Speech-Privacy Potential (SPP) Based on Objective Measurements Including Methods for the Rating of Functional Interzone Attenuation and NC-Background), respectively.

  17. POTENTIAL EVIDENCE FOR THE ONSET OF ALFVÉNIC TURBULENCE IN TRANS-EQUATORIAL CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    De Moortel, I.; Threlfall, J.; McIntosh, S. W.; Bethge, C.; Liu, J. E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu

    2014-02-20

    This study investigates Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter Doppler-shift observations of a large, off-limb, trans-equatorial loop system observed on 2012 April 10-11. Doppler-shift oscillations with a broad range of frequencies are found to propagate along the loop with a speed of about 500 km s{sup –1}. The power spectrum of perturbations travelling up from both loop footpoints is remarkably symmetric, probably due to the almost perfect north-south alignment of the loop system. Compared to the power spectrum at the footpoints of the loop, the Fourier power at the apex appears to be higher in the high-frequency part of the spectrum than expected from theoretical models. We suggest this excess high-frequency power could be tentative evidence for the onset of a cascade of the low-to-mid frequency waves into (Alfvénic) turbulence.

  18. Super-Alfvénic propagation of substorm reconnection signatures and Poynting flux.

    PubMed

    Shay, M A; Drake, J F; Eastwood, J P; Phan, T D

    2011-08-01

    The propagation of reconnection signatures and their associated energy are examined using kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and Cluster satellite observations. It is found that the quadrupolar out-of-plane magnetic field near the separatrices is associated with a kinetic Alfvén wave. For magnetotail parameters, the parallel propagation of this wave is super-Alfvénic (V(∥) ∼ 1500-5500 km/s) and generates substantial Poynting flux (S ∼ 10(-5)-10(-4) W/m(2)) consistent with Cluster observations of magnetic reconnection. This Poynting flux substantially exceeds that due to frozen-in ion bulk outflows and is sufficient to generate white light aurora in Earth's ionosphere. PMID:21902330

  19. Modeling of NIC Symcap and THD Experiments Using High Resolution Integrated Hohlraum-Capsule Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ogden; Milovich, Jose; Marinak, Marty; Sepke, Scott; Patel, Mehul; Meezan, Nathan; Callahan, Deborah; Town, Richard; Glenzer, Siegfried; Schneider, Marilyn; Langer, Steve; Munro, Dave; Spears, Brian; Springer, Paul; Edwards, John; Wilson, Doug; Kyrala, George; Kline, John

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a capability to do very high spatial resolution 2D integrated hohlraum-capsule simulations using the Hydra code. Surface perturbations for all ablator layer surfaces and the DT ice layer are calculated explicitly up to mode 30 or 100. The effects of the fill tube, grooves in the ice layer, and surface defects on the ablator are included via models extracted from higher resolution calculations. High wave number mix is included through a mix model. Measured backscatter and a model for crossbeam energy transfer are included to enable a best estimate of the drive asymmetry for each shot. We have applied this model to National Ignition Campaign (NIC) experiments from the fall of 2009 and more recent symmetry capsule and cryogenic layered tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) experiments. We compare the measured x-ray and neutron diagnostic signatures to the simulated diagnostic signatures extracted from the model.

  20. Slow shock formation and structure with sub-Alfvénic shear flow in magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.

    2012-06-01

    Slow shock formation and structure associated with magnetic reconnection are investigated in the presence of sub-Alfvénic shear flow using a compressible resistive MHD model. It is found for the first time that one or two pairs of the slow shocks are formed in the inflow region away from the reconnection separatrices within compressible resistive MHD. The distributions of the slow shocks depend largely on the plasma beta and the shear flow velocity that lead to the increase of magnetic reconnection rate. One pair of the slow shocks is formed for β = 0.2 and two pairs of the slow shocks are generated for β = 1.0 with the shear flow velocity in the range 0.6 VA to 0.9 VA. For high plasma beta (β = 5.0), there is no slow shock formed outside the reconnection separatrices. The results can be applied to interpret slow shock observations at the dayside magnetopause.

  1. Charge transfer effects in electrocatalytic Ni-C revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslam, G. E.; Sato, K.; Mizokawa, T.; Chin, X.-Y.; Burstein, G. T.

    2012-06-01

    Binary Ni-C thin-film alloys, which have been shown to be passive against corrosion in hot sulphuric acid solution whilst also being electrocatalytically active, were investigated by XPS to determine the oxidation state of the metal and carbon components. The Ni component produces a Ni 2p spectrum similar to that of metallic nickel (i.e., no oxidation occurs) but with a 0.3 eV shift to higher binding energy (BE) due to electron donation to the carbon matrix. The C 1s peak shows a shift to lower BE by accepting electrons from the Ni nanocrystals. A cluster-model analysis of the observed Ni 2p spectrum is consistent with the electron transfer from the nickel to the carbon.

  2. Charge transfer effects in electrocatalytic Ni-C revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Haslam, G. E.; Chin, X.-Y.; Burstein, G. T.; Sato, K.; Mizokawa, T.

    2012-06-04

    Binary Ni-C thin-film alloys, which have been shown to be passive against corrosion in hot sulphuric acid solution whilst also being electrocatalytically active, were investigated by XPS to determine the oxidation state of the metal and carbon components. The Ni component produces a Ni 2p spectrum similar to that of metallic nickel (i.e., no oxidation occurs) but with a 0.3 eV shift to higher binding energy (BE) due to electron donation to the carbon matrix. The C 1s peak shows a shift to lower BE by accepting electrons from the Ni nanocrystals. A cluster-model analysis of the observed Ni 2p spectrum is consistent with the electron transfer from the nickel to the carbon.

  3. Prediction of Alfvénic turbulence near the magnetospheric sash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, G. M.; Siscoe, G. L.; Weimer, D. R.; Siebert, K. D.; Heinemann, M. A.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Maynard, N. C.; White, W. W.

    2002-04-01

    Results of global MHD simulations are used to examine the susceptibility of magnetosheath plasma to anisotropy-driven instabilities, specifically the mirror mode, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC), and firehose instabilities. Advection of magnetosheath plasma is followed along MHD-specified streamlines assuming double-adiabatic equations of state, while the anisotropic pressure is constrained by the instability threshold criteria and the condition that the trace of the gyrotropic pressure tensor be three times the MHD specification for the (isotropic) pressure. Following this procedure, mirror mode and EMIC turbulence is indicated in the dayside magnetosheath and in a layer adjacent to the dayside magnetopause, generally in accord with theoretical and observational expectations. The new result is the prediction of strong firehose or Alfvénic turbulence in the magnetosheath adjacent to the magnetospheric sash. Alfvén waves will propagate downwind from the sash. Also, as magnetic field strength increases downwind from the sash, mirror mode and EMIC waves are again indicated.

  4. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-09-17

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF construction was certified by the Department of Energy as complete on March 27, 2009. NIF, a 192-beam Nd:glass laser facility, will ultimately produce 1.8-MJ, 500-TW of 351-nm third-harmonic, ultraviolet light. On March 10, 2009, total 192-beam energy of 1.1 MJ was demonstrated; this is approximately 30 times more energy than ever produced in an ICF laser system. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and broader frontier scientific exploration. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began in August 2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC is a national effort to achieve fusion ignition and is coordinated through a detailed execution plan that includes the science, technology, and equipment. Equipment required for ignition experiments includes diagnostics, a cryogenic target manipulator, and user optics. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics (GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational, integrated into the facility, and ready to begin a credible ignition campaign in 2010. With NIF now operational, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustained nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory is much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and will likely

  5. LLNL Contribution to LLE FY09 Annual Report: NIC and HED Results

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Landen, O L; Hsing, W W; Fournier, K B

    2009-10-01

    In FY09, LLNL led 238 target shots on the OMEGA Laser System. Approximately half of these LLNL-led shots supported the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The remainder was dedicated to experiments for the high-energy-density stewardship experiments (HEDSE). Objectives of the LLNL led NIC campaigns at OMEGA included: (1) Laser-plasma interaction studies in physical conditions relevant for the NIF ignition targets; (2) Demonstration of Tr = 100 eV foot symmetry tuning using a reemission sphere; (3) X-ray scattering in support of conductivity measurements of solid density Be plasmas; (4) Experiments to study the physical properties (thermal conductivity) of shocked fusion fuels; (5) High-resolution measurements of velocity nonuniformities created by microscopic perturbations in NIF ablator materials; (6) Development of a novel Compton Radiography diagnostic platform for ICF experiments; and (7) Precision validation of the equation of state for quartz. The LLNL HEDSE campaigns included the following experiments: (1) Quasi-isentropic (ICE) drive used to study material properties such as strength, equation of state, phase, and phase-transition kinetics under high pressure; (2) Development of a high-energy backlighter for radiography in support of material strength experiments using Omega EP and the joint OMEGA-OMEGA-EP configuration; (3) Debris characterization from long-duration, point-apertured, point-projection x-ray backlighters for NIF radiation transport experiments; (4) Demonstration of ultrafast temperature and density measurements with x-ray Thomson scattering from short-pulse laser-heated matter; (5) The development of an experimental platform to study nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) physics using direct-drive implosions; (6) Opacity studies of high-temperature plasmas under LTE conditions; and (7) Characterization of copper (Cu) foams for HEDSE experiments.

  6. A High-Resolution Integrated Model of the NIC Cryogenic Layered Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ogden

    2011-10-01

    We have developed a capability to do very high spatial resolution 2D integrated hohlraum-capsule simulations using the Hydra code. Surface perturbations for all ablator layer surfaces and the DT ice layer are typically calculated explicitly through mode 60, and for some calculations up to mode 100. Separate calculations have shown that mode 60 has the highest growth rate at the ablator-fuel interface. The higher angular resolution also leads to finer zoning in the hohlraum where laser absorption and x-ray production are occurring. The effects of the fill tube, grooves in the ice layer, and surface defects on the ablator are included via models extracted from higher resolution calculations. High wave number mix can be included through a mix model that has been extracted from capsule-only calculations that include up to mode 2000. Measured backscatter and a model for crossbeam energy transfer are included to enable a best estimate of the drive asymmetry for each shot. We have applied this model to National Ignition Campaign (NIC) symmetry capsule and cryogenic layered tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) experiments. We have also included some adjustments to our standard physics models to bring the calculations into better agreement with the experimental measurements from several NIC experimental campaigns. Radiation drive multipliers for the first three shocks were derived to match the experimental shock timing data. The opacity of the Ge-doped plastic was increased, and the opacity of the undoped plastic ablator was decreased in order to match the measured peak shell velocity. We compare the simulated diagnostic signatures extracted from the integrated high-resolution calculations to the measured x-ray and neutron diagnostic signatures from a number of THD experiments in order to assess the fidelity of this model and gain insight into the implosion performance. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Assessment and mapping of flood potential in the Slănic catchment in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Minea, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Flood risk assessment is an important component of risk management. Given this context, this paper aims to identify and map areas with high potential for flash-floods and flooding occurrence, at different spatial scales (from catchment to local scale), in order to estimate the flood/flooding vulnerability. The paper is based on three main methods, which were applied in the Slănic River catchment (427 km2), located in the external curvature region of the Romanian Carpathians: (i) statistical analyses; (ii) determination and mapping of some indices to assess the flash-flood and flooding potential (FFPI and respectively FPI) and (iii) hydraulic modelling. The data used mainly include hydrological statistics (maximum monthly and annual discharges, flood-related data) and spatial data on catchment geographical characteristics (hypsometry, geology, soils, land use) obtained or derived from various sources (maps, aerial images, digital databases, field measurements) which were integrated into the GIS environment. The aforementioned methods helped to (i) highlight specificities of floods in the Slănic catchment (magnitude, frequency, flood waves characteristics); (ii) identify areas with high potential for flash-floods and flooding at the catchment spatial scale; (iii) assess the structural vulnerability in the Cernăteşti village, by simulating flood-prone areas for flood peaks with exceedance probability of 1%, 5% and 10%. The results could lead to a better knowledge and understanding of flood characteristics in the study area, in order to mitigate the flood risk through a more effective management, both at the catchment scale, as well as local scale (in the Cernăteşti village).

  8. Measuring the Alfvénic nature of the interstellar medium: Velocity anisotropy revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Leão, I. C.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Esquivel, A.

    2014-08-01

    The dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) are strongly affected by turbulence, which shows increased anisotropy in the presence of a magnetic field. We expand upon the Esquivel and Lazarian method to estimate the Alfvén Mach number using the structure function anisotropy in velocity centroid data from Position-Position-Velocity maps. We utilize three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of fully developed turbulence, with a large range of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers, to produce synthetic observations of velocity centroids with observational characteristics such as thermal broadening, cloud boundaries, noise, and radiative transfer effects of carbon monoxide. In addition, we investigate how the resulting anisotropy-Alfvén Mach number dependency found in Esquivel and Lazarian might change when taking the second moment of the Position-Position-Velocity cube or when using different expressions to calculate the velocity centroids. We find that the degree of anisotropy is related primarily to the magnetic field strength (i.e., Alfvén Mach number) and the line-of-sight orientation, with a secondary effect on sonic Mach number. If the line of sight is parallel to up to ≈45 deg off of the mean field direction, the velocity centroid anisotropy is not prominent enough to distinguish different Alfvénic regimes. The observed anisotropy is not strongly affected by including radiative transfer, although future studies should include additional tests for opacity effects. These results open up the possibility of studying the magnetic nature of the ISM using statistical methods in addition to existing observational techniques.

  9. The John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC): A survey of its supercomputer facilities and its Europe-wide computational science activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, N.

    2006-03-01

    The John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC) at the Research Centre Jülich, Germany, is one of the leading supercomputing centres in Europe. Founded as a national centre in the mid-eighties it now provides more and more resources to European scientists. This happens within EU-funded projects (I3HP, DEISA) or Europe-wide scientific collaborations. Beyond these activities NIC started an initiative towards the new EU member states in summer 2004. Outstanding research groups are offered to exploit the supercomputers at NIC to accelerate their investigations on leading-edge technology. The article gives an overview of the organisational structure of NIC, its current supercomputer systems, and its user support. Transnational Access (TA) within I3HP is described as well as access by the initiative for new EU member states. The volume of these offers and the procedure of how to apply for supercomputer resources is introduced in detail.

  10. Alfvénic wave packets collision in a kinetic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzi, Oreste; Parashar, Tulasi N.; Servidio, Sergio; Valentini, Francesco; Malara, Francesco; Matthaeus, William H.; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2016-04-01

    The problem of two colliding and counter-propagating Alfvénic wave packets has been investigated in detail since the late Seventies. In particular Moffatt [1] and Parker [2] showed that, in the framework of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), nonlinear interactions can develop only during the overlapping of the two packets. Here we describe a similar problem in the framework of the kinetic physics. The collision of two quasi-Alfvénic packets has been analyzed by means of MHD, Hall-MHD and kinetic simulations performed with two different hybrid codes: a PIC code [3] and a Vlasov-Maxwell code [4]. Due to the huge computational cost, only a 2D-3V phase space is allowed (two dimensions in the physical space, three dimensions in the velocity space). Preliminary results suggest that, as well as in the MHD case, the most relevant nonlinear effects occur during the overlapping of the two packets. For both the PIC and Vlasov cases, strong temperature anisotropies are present during the evolution of the wave packets. Moreover, due to the absence of numerical noise, Vlasov simulations show that the collision of the counter-propagating solitary waves produces a significant beam in the velocity distribution functions [5], which, instead, cannot be appreciated in PIC simulations. We remark that, beyond the interest of studying a well-known MHD problem in the realm of the kinetic physics, our results allows also to compare different numerical codes. [1] H.K. Moffatt, Field generation in electrically conducting fluids (Cambridge University Press, 1978). [2] E.N. Parker, Cosmical magnetic fields: their origin and their activity (Oxford University Press, 1979). [3] T.N. Parashar, M.A. Shay, P.A. Cassak and W.H. Matthaeus, Physics of Plasmas 16, 032310 (2009). [4] F. Valentini, P. Trávníček, F. Califano, P. Hellinger & A. Mangeney, Journal of Computational Physics 225, 753-770 (2007). [5] J. He, C. Tu, E. Marsch, C.H. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Pei, L. Zhang, C.S. Salem and S

  11. Low-density anomalies and sub-Alfvénic solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmanov, A. V.; Goldstein, M. L.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Farrell, W. M.; Lawrence, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    During 10-12 May 1999, the solar wind density dropped to an anomalously low value of ˜0.1 cm-3. The density depletion occurred in the midst of relatively slow wind flow, in between faster flows, and was apparently associated with neither a coronal mass ejection nor a fast corotating stream. While the magnetic field intensity did not show any notable variation across the density depletion, plasma analyzers on the ACE and Wind spacecraft revealed an abnormally strong nonradial flow component with an azimuthal speed that peaked at ˜100 km s-1. [2000b] suggested that the density anomaly was, in fact, a rarefaction at the trailing edge of relatively fast flow that formed as a result of suppression of coronal outflow from a region that earlier provided fast wind flow. The suppression in turn may have resulted from a rapid restructuring of solar magnetic fields during the polar field reversal. Here we show results from a two-dimensional time-dependent MHD simulation applied to the helioequatorial plane. The initially longitude-independent Parker solar wind and Archimedean spiral magnetic field are disturbed by a low-velocity/high-density jump on an inner computational boundary at 20 R⊙. We follow the development and propagation of the rarefaction to Earth orbit and compare pseudo-time series with near-Earth spacecraft measurements. We show that a strong rarefaction can develop behind the fast flow and that simulation results and spacecraft observations are generally in agreement. The simulated radial magnetic field shows a relatively small variation across the density anomaly compared with that of the density. The stream interaction generates strong azimuthal velocities in the slow flow region, as observed. The simulation shows a sub-Alfvénic flow region embedded within the low-density region that does not extend all the way back to the Sun but which has become disconnected as the depletion propagates to Earth orbit. We discuss also the correlation between low

  12. Are nucleus-independent (NICS) and 1H NMR chemical shifts good indicators of aromaticity in π-stacked polyfluorenes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, Sílvia; Poater, Jordi; Bofill, Josep M.; Alemany, Pere; Solà, Miquel

    2006-09-01

    We have analyzed the change of local aromaticity in a series of polyfluorene compounds with the increase of the number of π-stacked layers. The local aromaticity of the aromatic and non-aromatic rings of polyfluorenes remains unchanged when going from one to four layers of π-stacked rings according to HOMA, PDI, and FLU aromaticity descriptors. On the contrary, experimental 1H NMR chemical shifts indicate a reduction of the aromaticity of π-stacked rings with the increase of the number of layers. Calculated NICS also show a change of aromaticity, but opposite to the tendency given by the 1H NMR chemical shifts. We show that this increase (decrease) of local aromaticity in superimposed aromatic rings indicated by NICS ( 1H NMR) is not real but the result of the coupling between the magnetic fields generated by the π-stacked rings.

  13. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule and the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or "the Department'') is issuing this final rule to modify the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule to expressly permit certain HIPAA covered entities to disclose to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) the identities of individuals who are subject to a Federal "mental health prohibitor'' that disqualifies them from shipping, transporting, possessing, or receiving a firearm. The NICS is a national system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to conduct background checks on persons who may be disqualified from receiving firearms based on Federally prohibited categories or State law. Among the persons subject to the Federal mental health prohibitor established under the Gun Control Act of 1968 and implementing regulations issued by the Department of Justice (DOJ) are individuals who have been involuntarily committed to a mental institution; found incompetent to stand trial or not guilty by reason of insanity; or otherwise have been determined by a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority to be a danger to themselves or others or to lack the mental capacity to contract or manage their own affairs, as a result of marked subnormal intelligence or mental illness, incompetency, condition, or disease. Under this final rule, only covered entities with lawful authority to make the adjudications or commitment decisions that make individuals subject to the Federal mental health prohibitor, or that serve as repositories of information for NICS reporting purposes, are permitted to disclose the information needed for these purposes. The disclosure is restricted to limited demographic and certain other information needed for NICS purposes. The rule specifically prohibits the disclosure of diagnostic or clinical information, from medical records or other sources, and any mental health information beyond the indication that the individual

  14. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-03-27

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production. PMID:25666617

  15. A Threonine Stabilizes the NiC and NiR Catalytic Intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L.; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production. PMID:25666617

  16. Neutron interaction tool, PyNIC, for advanced applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Gregory Bruce

    A neutron interaction simulation tool, PyNIC, was developed for the calculation of neutron activation products and prompt gamma ray emission from neutron capture, neutron inelastic scattering, and fission interactions. This tool was developed in Python with a graphical user interface to facilitate its easy applications. The tool was validated for neutron activation analysis of a number of samples irradiated in the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor. These samples included nickel wire and the NIST standard for coal fly ash. The experimentally determined isotopes for coal fly ash were 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba. The samples were irradiated at reactor power levels from 1 kW to 90 kW, and the average percent difference between PyNIC estimated and laboratory measured values was 4%, 24%, 38%, and 22% for 64Ni, 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba, respectively. These differences are mainly attributed to calibration of the high-purity germanium detector and too short of count times. The PyNIC tool is applicable to neutron activation analysis but also can find its applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and in homeland security such as predicting the contents of explosives and special nuclear materials in samples of complex and unknown origins.

  17. Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-07-28

    Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5 km s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200 W m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20 km s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500 s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona. PMID:21796206

  18. Upper-hybrid wave-driven Alfvénic turbulence in magnetized dusty plasmas.

    PubMed

    Misra, A P; Banerjee, S

    2011-03-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of coupled electrostatic upper-hybrid (UH) and Alfvén waves (AWs) is revisited in a magnetized electron-ion plasma with charged dust impurities. A pair of nonlinear equations that describe the interaction of UH wave envelopes (including the relativistic electron mass increase) and the density as well as the compressional magnetic field perturbations associated with the AWs are solved numerically to show that many coherent solitary patterns can be excited and saturated due to modulational instability of unstable UH waves. The evolution of these solitary patterns is also shown to appear in the states of spatiotemporal coherence, temporal as well as spatiotemporal chaos, due to collision and fusion among the patterns in stochastic motion. Furthermore, these spatiotemporal features are demonstrated by the analysis of wavelet power spectra. It is found that a redistribution of wave energy takes place to higher harmonic modes with small wavelengths, which, in turn, results in the onset of Alfvénic turbulence in dusty magnetoplasmas. Such a scenario can occur in the vicinity of Saturn's magnetosphere as many electrostatic solitary structures have been observed there by the Cassini spacecraft. PMID:21517632

  19. Microstructure evolution with varied layer thickness in magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayer films

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jichang; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayers was investigated by varying the Ni and C layer thickness in the region of a few nanometers. For the samples having 2.6-nm-thick C layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.81 nm as the Ni layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 1.3 nm. Especially for the samples with Ni layers less than 2.0 nm, the interface width changes significantly due to the discontinuously distributed Ni crystallites. For the samples having 2.8-nm-thick Ni layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.59 nm when the C layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 0.7 nm. The evolution of interface microstructures with varied Ni and C layers is explained based on a proposed simple growth model of Ni and C layers. PMID:27515586

  20. In situ synthesized one-dimensional porous Ni@C nanorods as catalysts for hydrogen storage properties of MgH2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Cuihua; Liu, Guang; Li, Li; Wang, Ying; Chen, Chengcheng; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-02-01

    We have demonstrated an extremely facile procedure for the preparation of 1D porous Ni@C nanostructures by pyrolysis of Ni-based coordination polymer nanorods. The highly aligned Ni-based polymer nanorods were prepared using nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as a chelating agent by a one-step solvothermal approach. The obtained precursors are demonstrated to have a well-designed 1D nanostructure and a 3D interconnected mesoporous texture. After thermal treatment, 1D porous Ni@C nanorods were obtained, which basically preserved the morphology of the precursors. In addition, the carbon in the porous Ni@C nanorods is in both crystalline and amorphous states. The as-prepared Ni@C sample displays nanorod-like morphology with about 3 μm length and about 200 nm diameter. With a large surface area of 161.4 m2 g-1, this novel material had a good catalytic effect on de/hydrogenation of MgH2. The desorption peak temperature of MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composites can be lowered more than 57 °C than the pure as-milled MgH2. The MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composite could desorb 6.4 wt% H2 within 10 min at 300 °C, in contrast, only 2.3 wt% H2 was desorbed even after 100 min for pure MgH2. In addition, an activation energy of 108 kJ mol-1 for the as-milled MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composites has been obtained, which exhibit an enhanced kinetics.We have demonstrated an extremely facile procedure for the preparation of 1D porous Ni@C nanostructures by pyrolysis of Ni-based coordination polymer nanorods. The highly aligned Ni-based polymer nanorods were prepared using nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as a chelating agent by a one-step solvothermal approach. The obtained precursors are demonstrated to have a well-designed 1D nanostructure and a 3D interconnected mesoporous texture. After thermal treatment, 1D porous Ni@C nanorods were obtained, which basically preserved the morphology of the precursors. In addition, the carbon in the porous Ni@C nanorods is in both crystalline and amorphous states. The as-prepared Ni@C

  1. In situ synthesized one-dimensional porous Ni@C nanorods as catalysts for hydrogen storage properties of MgH2.

    PubMed

    An, Cuihua; Liu, Guang; Li, Li; Wang, Ying; Chen, Chengcheng; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-03-21

    We have demonstrated an extremely facile procedure for the preparation of 1D porous Ni@C nanostructures by pyrolysis of Ni-based coordination polymer nanorods. The highly aligned Ni-based polymer nanorods were prepared using nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as a chelating agent by a one-step solvothermal approach. The obtained precursors are demonstrated to have a well-designed 1D nanostructure and a 3D interconnected mesoporous texture. After thermal treatment, 1D porous Ni@C nanorods were obtained, which basically preserved the morphology of the precursors. In addition, the carbon in the porous Ni@C nanorods is in both crystalline and amorphous states. The as-prepared Ni@C sample displays nanorod-like morphology with about 3 μm length and about 200 nm diameter. With a large surface area of 161.4 m(2) g(-1), this novel material had a good catalytic effect on de/hydrogenation of MgH2. The desorption peak temperature of MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composites can be lowered more than 57 °C than the pure as-milled MgH2. The MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composite could desorb 6.4 wt% H2 within 10 min at 300 °C, in contrast, only 2.3 wt% H2 was desorbed even after 100 min for pure MgH2. In addition, an activation energy of 108 kJ mol(-1) for the as-milled MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composites has been obtained, which exhibit an enhanced kinetics. PMID:24500064

  2. Multiple charge density wave transitions in the antiferromagnets R NiC2 (R =Gd ,Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, S.; Hayashi, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Ohnuma, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakao, H.; Mizumaki, M.; Onodera, H.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray scattering and electrical resistivity measurements were performed on GdNiC2 and TbNiC2. We found a set of satellite peaks characterized by q1=(0.5 ,η ,0 ) below T1, at which the resistivity shows a sharp inflection, suggesting the charge density wave (CDW) formation. The value of η decreases with decreasing temperature below T1, and then a transition to a commensurate phase with q1 C=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0 ) takes place. The diffuse scattering observed above T1 indicates the presence of soft phonon modes associated with CDW instabilities at q1 and q2=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) . The long-range order given by q2 is developed in addition to that given by q1 C in TbNiC2, while the short-range correlation with q2 persists even at 6 K in GdNiC2. The amplitude of the q1 C lattice modulation is anomalously reduced below an antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN in GdNiC2. In contrast, the q2 order vanishes below TN in TbNiC2. We demonstrate that R NiC2 (R = rare earth) compounds exhibit similarities with respect to their CDW phenomena, and discuss the effects of magnetic transitions on CDWs. We offer a possible displacement pattern of the modulated structure characterized by q1 C and q2 in terms of frustration.

  3. On the Dependence of Solar Wind Speed on Local Magnetic Field Orientation in Highly Alfvénic Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, L.; Horbury, T. S.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic field fluctuations from the low frequency part of the solar wind turbulent spectrum have typical amplitudes of the order of the underlying mean field, and then result in large random variations in the instantaneous direction associated with the magnetic field vector on the scale of minutes/few hours. At the same time, since fluctuations are Alfvénic, these also introduce variations in solar wind speed, which reflecting the randomness of the process, are not expected to show a dependence on the direction of the magnetic field. On the contrary, and quite surprisingly, we have found that in highly Alfvénic solar wind streams there exists a remarkably strong correlation between the bulk speed of the plasma and the local direction of the magnetic field. This leads to a systematic increase in the solar wind speed when the magnetic field vector is locally transverse to the velocity, and to a decrease in the speed when the field is more aligned with the radial, regardless of the polarity of the underlying magnetic field. We demonstrate that such an effect is a consequence of Alfvénicity for a unidirectional flux of waves propagating away from the Sun and with approximatively constant magnetic field magnitude. This correlation is systematically present in highly Alfvénic streams observed by Ulysses and Helios from 0.3 AU to 5 AU. The variations in the speed being proportional to the local Alfvén speed results in a modulation of the solar wind profile that is particularly relevant close to the Sun.

  4. Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

  5. Bidirectional energy cascades and the origin of kinetic Alfvénic and whistler turbulence in the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Che, H; Goldstein, M L; Viñas, A F

    2014-02-14

    The observed steep kinetic scale turbulence spectrum in the solar wind raises the question of how that turbulence originates. Observations of keV energetic electrons during solar quiet time suggest them as a possible source of free energy to drive kinetic turbulence. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we explore how the free energy released by an electron two-stream instability drives Weibel-like electromagnetic waves that excite wave-wave interactions. Consequently, both kinetic Alfvénic and whistler turbulence are excited that evolve through inverse and forward magnetic energy cascades. PMID:24580684

  6. METAL INTERACTIONS AT SULFIDE MINERAL SURFACES: PART 3, METAL AFFINITIES IN SINGLE AND MULTIPLE ION ADSORPTION REACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption reactions of both single ions and multiple ion mixtures with sulfide minerals (chalcocite, galena, pyrite, and sphalerite) were investigated in the metal concentration range of 0.0001 to 0.00001 M. Chromium (III), iron (III), barium (II), cadmium (II), copper (II), nic...

  7. Metal organic framework derived magnetically separable 3-dimensional hierarchical Ni@C nanocomposites: Synthesis and adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yixuan; Qiang, Tingting; Ye, Ming; Ma, Qiuyang; Fang, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Design an effective absorbent that has high surface area, and perfect recyclable is imperative for pollution elimination. Herein, we report a facile two-step strategy to fabricate magnetically separable 3-dimensional (3D) hierarchical carbon-coated nickel (Ni@C) nanocomposites by calcinating nickel based metal organic framework (Ni3(OH)2(C8H4O4)2(H2O)4). SEM and TEM images illuminate that the nanocomposites were constructed by 8 nm nickel nanoparticle encapsulated in 3D flake like carbon. The specific surface area of the obtained nanocomposites is up to 120.38 m2 g-1. Room temperature magnetic measurement indicates the nanocomposites show soft magnetism property, which endows the nanocomposites with an ideal fast magnetic separable property. The maximum adsorption capacity of the nanocomposites for rhodamine B is 84.5 mg g-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposites also exhibit a high adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions. The adsorbent can be very easily separated from the solution by using a common magnet without exterior energy. The as-prepared Ni@C nanocomposites can apply in waste water treatment on a large-scale as a new adsorbent with high efficiency and excellent recyclability.

  8. NaNet: a configurable NIC bridging the gap between HPC and real-time HEP GPU computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonardo, A.; Ameli, F.; Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simeone, F.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2015-04-01

    NaNet is a FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) design with GPUDirect and Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) capabilities featuring a configurable and extensible set of network channels. The design currently supports both standard—Gbe (1000BASE-T) and 10GbE (10Base-R)—and custom—34 Gbps APElink and 2.5 Gbps deterministic latency KM3link—channels, but its modularity allows for straightforward inclusion of other link technologies. The GPUDirect feature combined with a transport layer offload module and a data stream processing stage makes NaNet a low-latency NIC suitable for real-time GPU processing. In this paper we describe the NaNet architecture and its performances, exhibiting two of its use cases: the GPU-based low-level trigger for the RICH detector in the NA62 experiment at CERN and the on-/off-shore data transport system for the KM3NeT-IT underwater neutrino telescope.

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of the key catalytic intermediate Ni-C in the O2-tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenase I from Aquifex aeolicus: evidence of a weakly bound hydride.

    PubMed

    Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Infossi, Pascale; Stein, Matthias; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-21

    Ni-C in the O(2)-tolerant hydrogenase I from Aquifex aeolicus binds a hydride weaker than that in O(2)-sensitive hydrogenases. This is in line with the enhanced light-sensitivity of Ni-C, greater lability of the hydride complex and increased catalytic redox potentials relevant to bio-H(2) oxidation. PMID:22143669

  10. [Implementation of the nursing process in a patient with hepatic cirrhosis using the standardized terminologies NANDA, NIC and NOC].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Rosimeire da Silva; França, Fabiana Cláudia de Vasconcelos

    2007-01-01

    This case study aimed at describing the implementation the implementation of the Nursing Process to a patient with hepatic cirrhosis, and report the difficulties found on the implementation of the assistance. The conceptual model of Horfa was used, NANDA--Nursing Diagnosis, Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) were also applied in care composition. The present study was developed in a public hospital of Distrito Federal, in September 2005, at the Emergency Unit. Among the identified nursing diagnosis was included: acute confusion, constipation and knowledge deficit. Among the pointed difficulties, it was detached: the disinterest of the nursing team and of the pacient, knowledge deficit and unpreparedness of the professionals, lack of human and material resources to deliver the care. PMID:17684918

  11. Understanding the NMR properties and conformational behavior of indole vs. azaindole group in protoberberines: NICS and NCS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Shivaji S.; Toušek, Jaromír; Maier, Lukáš; Pipíška, Matej; Sklenář, Vladimír; Marek, Radek

    2012-11-01

    We report here the preparation and the structural investigation into a series of 8-(indol-1-yl)-7,8-dihydroprotoberberine derivatives derived from berberine, palmatine, and coptisine. Structures of these new compounds were characterized mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopy and the conformational behavior was investigated by using methods of density-functional theory (DFT). PBE0/6-311+G** calculated NMR chemical shifts for selected derivatives correlate excellently with the experimental NMR data and support the structural conclusions drawn from the NMR experiments. An interesting role of the nitrogen atom in position N7' of the indole moiety in 8-(7-azaindol-1-yl)-7,8-dihydroprotoberberines as compared to other 8-indolyl derivatives is investigated in detail. The experimentally observed trends in NMR chemical shifts are rationalized by DFT calculations and analysis based on the nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) and natural localized molecular orbitals (NLMOs).

  12. VEx/VIRTIS and TNG/NICS cloud tracked winds at Venus' lower cloud level using nightside observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Pedro; Peralta, Javier; Luz, David; Gonçalves, Rúben

    2016-04-01

    We present results based on observations carried out with the Near Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (NICS) of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), in La Palma, on July 2012. We observed for periods of 2.5 hours starting just before dawn, for three consecutive nights. We acquired a set of images of the night side of Venus with the continuum K filter at 2.28 microns, which allows to monitor motions at the lower cloud level of the atmosphere of Venus, close to 48 km altitude. Our objective has been to measure the horizontal wind field in order to characterize the latitudinal zonal wind profile, to study variability, to help constrain the effect of large scale planetary waves in the maintenance of superrotation, and to map the cloud distribution. We will present first results of cloud tracked winds from ground-based TNG observations and winds retrieved from coordinated space-based VEx/VIRTIS observations. The cloud deck extends in altitude from 45 to 70 km, and can be divided into three main regions, centered at 48, 54 and 60 km. The lowest of these is the lower cloud, where fundamental dynamical exchanges that help maintain superrotation are thought to occur. The lower venusian atmosphere is a strong source of thermal radiation, with the gaseaous CO2 component allowing radiation to escape in windows at 1.74 and 2.28 μm. At these wavelengths radiation originates below 35 km, and unit opacity is reached at the lower cloud level, close to 48 km. Therefore, in these windows it is possible to observe the horizontal cloud structure, with thicker clouds seen silhouetted against the bright thermal background from the low atmosphere. Our objective is to provide direct absolute wind measurements and a map of cloud distribution at the lower cloud level in the Venus troposphere, in order to complement Venus Express (VEX) and other ground-based observations of the cloud layer wind regime. By continuous monitoring of the horizontal cloud structure at 2.28 μm (NICS Kcont filter

  13. A Raman spectroscopic study of nickel(II) oxalate dihydrate, NiC 2O 4·2H 2O and dipotassium bisoxalatonickel(II) hexahydrate, K 2Ni(C 2O 4) 2·6H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickley, R. I.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Rose, S. J.

    1991-03-01

    A comprehensive Raman spectroscopic study of nickel (II) oxalate and potassium oxalate has been made. Vibrations characteristic of the nickel oxalato complex have been identified and assigned. Aqueous solutions of nickel oxalate containing potassium oxalate have been studied and the species dipotassium bisoxalatonickel (II), K 2Ni(C 2O 4) 2, has been identified and characterised for the first time.

  14. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    PubMed

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology. PMID:22739812

  15. Nic1 Inactivation Enables Stable Isotope Labeling with 13C615N4-Arginine in Schizosaccharomyces pombe*

    PubMed Central

    Carpy, Alejandro; Patel, Avinash; Tay, Ye Dee; Hagan, Iain M.; Macek, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids (SILAC) is a commonly used method in quantitative proteomics. Because of compatibility with trypsin digestion, arginine and lysine are the most widely used amino acids for SILAC labeling. We observed that Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) cannot be labeled with a specific form of arginine, 13C615N4-arginine (Arg-10), which limits the exploitation of SILAC technology in this model organism. We hypothesized that in the fission yeast the guanidinium group of 13C615N4-arginine is catabolized by arginase and urease activity to 15N1-labeled ammonia that is used as a precursor for general amino acid biosynthesis. We show that disruption of Ni2+-dependent urease activity, through deletion of the sole Ni2+ transporter Nic1, blocks this recycling in ammonium-supplemented EMMG medium to enable 13C615N4-arginine labeling for SILAC strategies in S. pombe. Finally, we employed Arg-10 in a triple-SILAC experiment to perform quantitative comparison of G1 + S, M, and G2 cell cycle phases in S. pombe. PMID:25368411

  16. Large amplitude inertial compressional Alfvénic shock and solitary waves, and acceleration of ions in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Anuraj; Rizvi, H.; Ryu, C. M.

    2013-05-15

    Large amplitude inertial compressional Alfvénic shock and solitary waves in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas are investigated. Dispersive effect caused by non-ideal electron inertia currents perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can balance the nonlinear steepening of waves leading to the formation of a soliton. A Sagdeev-potential formalism is employed to derive an energy-balance like equation. The range of allowed values of the soliton speed, M (Mach number), plasma β (ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the pressure in the confining magnetic field), and electron inertia, wherein solitary waves may exist, are determined. Depth of the potential increases with increasing the Mach number and plasma β, however decreases with the increasing electron inertia. The height of soliton increases with increasing in Mach number and decreases with plasma β. And with increasing electron inertial length, the width of soliton increases. The electron-ion collisional dissipation results a dissipative inertial compressional Alfvén wave, which can produce a shock like structure and can efficiently accelerate ions to the order of the local Alfvén velocity. The shock height increases with the increasing collision frequency, but shock height decreases with increasing plasma β.

  17. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.; Bell, P. E.; Bradley, D. K.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hsing, W.; Kalantar, H.; Kauffman, R.; Moody, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Shelton, R. T.; Yeamans, C. B.; Batha, S. H.; Grim, G. P.; Herrmann, H. W.; Merrill, F. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Y.; Regan, S. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rindernecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Cooper, G. W.; Ruiz, C.

    2015-01-05

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign NIF had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole US ICF community. A plan for a limited of NIF Diagnostics was documented by the Joint Central Diagnostic Team in the NIF Conceptual Design Report in 1994. These diagnostics and many more were installed diagnostics by two decades later. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by the function of the diagnostics, namely target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova’s in 1999. NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s and the NIF diagnostic suite incorporates some scientific innovation compared to Nova and OMEGA namely one much higher speed x-ray imager. Directions for future NIF diagnostics are discussed.

  18. THE NONLINEAR AND NONLOCAL LINK BETWEEN MACROSCOPIC ALFVÉNIC AND MICROSCOPIC ELECTROSTATIC SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, F.; Vecchio, A.; Donato, S.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.; Briand, C.; Bougeret, J.

    2014-06-10

    The local heating of the solar-wind gas during its expansion represents one of the most intriguing problems in space plasma physics and is at present the subject of a relevant scientific effort. The possible mechanisms that could account for local heat production in the interplanetary medium are most likely related to the turbulent character of the solar-wind plasma. Nowadays, many observational and numerical analyses are devoted to the identification of fluctuation channels along which energy is carried from large to short wavelengths during the development of the turbulent cascade; these fluctuation channels establish the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales. In this Letter, by means of a quantitative comparison between in situ measurements in the solar wind from the STEREO spacecraft and numerical results from kinetic simulations, we identify an electrostatic channel of fluctuations that develops along the turbulent cascade in a direction parallel to the ambient magnetic field. This channel appears to be efficient in transferring the energy from large Alfvénic to short electrostatic acoustic-like scales up to a range of wavelengths where it can finally be turned into heat, even when the electron to proton temperature ratio is of the order of unity.

  19. The "Alfvénic surge" at substorm onset/expansion and the formation of "Inverted Vs": Cluster and IMAGE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Chaston, C. C.; Frey, H. U.; Fillingim, M. O.; Goldstein, M. L.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mozer, F. S.

    2016-05-01

    From multipoint, in situ observations and imaging, we reveal the injection-powered, Alfvénic nature of auroral acceleration during onset and expansion of a substorm. It is shown how Alfvénic variations over time dissipate to form large-scale, inverted-V structures characteristic of quasistatic aurora. This characterization is made possible through the fortuitous occurrence of a substorm onset and expansion phase on field lines traversed by Cluster in the high-altitude acceleration region. Substorm onset was preceded by the occurrence of multiple poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs) and subsequent development/progression of a streamer toward the growth phase arc indicating that this is of the PBI-/streamer-triggered class of substorms. Onset on Cluster is marked by the injection of hot, dense magnetospheric plasma in a region tied to one of the preexisting PBI current systems. This was accompanied by a surge of Alfvénic activity and enhanced inverted-V acceleration, as the PBI current system intensified and striated to dispersive scale Alfvén waves. The growth of Alfvén wave activity was significant (up to a factor of 300 increase in magnetic field power spectral density at frequencies 20 mHz ≲f≲ few hertz) and coincided with moderate growth (factor 3-5) in the background PBI current. This sequence is indicative of a cascade process whereby small-scale/dispersive Alfvén waves are generated from large-scale Alfvén waves or current destabilization. It also demonstrates that the initial PBIs and their subsequent evolution are an intrinsic part of the global auroral substorm response to injection and accompanying wave energy input from the magnetotail. Alfvénic activity persisted poleward of the PBI currents composing a broad Alfvén wave-dominated region extending to the polar cap edge. These waves have transverse scales ranging from a few tens of kilometers to below the ion gyroradius and are associated with large electric fields (up to 200 mV/m) and

  20. Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 μg ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation

  1. Hydromorphic to subaqueous soils transitions in the central Grado lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittori Antisari, Livia; De Nobili, Maria; Ferronato, Chiara; Natale, Marco; Pellegrini, Elisa; Vianello, Gilmo

    2016-05-01

    The Grado lagoon is among the largest in the Mediterranean sea and is characterized by salt marshes, where tides influenced the development of a complex micromorphology coupled to a micromosaic of vegetation covers. This study represents the first contribution to the understanding of the main processes governing formation, development and spatial transitions between hydromorphic and subaqueous soils in an Adriatic lagoon ecosystem. Physicochemical characteristics and development of soils were investigated in three salt marshes differing for their proximity to the open sea, textural composition and age of formation. Soils of back barrier salt marshes had A/C profiles and were mostly characterized by a sandy coarse texture that allows rapid drainage and subsurface oxygen exchanges. Soil sequences from the inner salt marsh to its submerged border slope or to a brackish waterhole do not simply represent a hydrosequence, but also reflect erosion/sorting/accumulation processes. The soils in the central part of the lagoon have finer texture and in displayed transition or cambic horizons. Silty clay loam textures and low positions allowed the development of more severe anoxic conditions and accumulation of sulphides. The tide oscillation strongly contributed to formation of redoximorphic features, intensity of anaerobic conditions but also colonization by different plant communities. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify physicochemical properties which discriminate the different soils according to geo-morphological position and prevailing plants. It confirmed that differentiation of plant communities occurred according to distinct morphological and physicochemical soil properties, but also acted as a primary affecting factor of pedogenesis.

  2. The upstream-propagating Alfvénic fluctuations with power law spectra in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua; He, Jiansen; Marsch, Eckart

    2015-05-01

    Based on theories, the beam instability induced by shock-accelerated ions can generate upstream-propagating Alfvén waves (UPAWs) with a power spectral bump near 0.03 Hz, while the nonlinear wave-wave interaction favors an inverse cascade to create a power law spectrum. Here we present the first observational evidence for the upstream-propagating Alfvénic fluctuations (UPAFs) with power law spectra. We utilize a new criterion to identify the upstream-propagating Alfvénic intervals: the propagation direction is opposite to that of solar wind strahl electron outflow. Besides 35 UPAWs, we find 47 UPAFs with power law spectra, and ˜47% of these UPAFs are associated with energetic ion events (>30 keV). These UPAWs and UPAFs are mostly observed in the slow solar wind. However, their occurrence rate and power behave differently in dependence on the radial distance from the Earth. These results provide new clues on understanding the dynamic equilibrium between the nonlinear inverse cascade and the linear ion beam instability.

  3. Core-localized Alfvénic modes driven by energetic ions in HL-2A NBI plasmas with weak magnetic shears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Yu, L. M.; Ding, X. T.; Xie, H. S.; Shi, Z. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Yu, D. L.; Zhang, Y. P.; Shi, P. W.; Li, Y. G.; Feng, B. B.; Jiang, M.; Zhong, W. L.; Cao, J. Y.; Song, X. M.; Xu, M.; Xu, Y. H.; Yan, L. W.; Liu, Yi; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; HL-2A Team

    2016-03-01

    Recent experimental results that are associated with the core-localized (i.e. normalized radius ρ =r/a<0.5 ) Alfvénic modes in HL-2A neutral beam injection (NBI) plasmas with weak magnetic shears are reported. In the different plasma parameter regions, the energetic ions produced by the NBI drive multiple Alfvénic instabilities, such as the toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE), beta-induced Alfvén eigenmode, reversed shear Alfvén eigenmode (RSAE) and fishbone and energetic particle mode (EPM). Here, we focus on the high-frequency RSAE (HFRSAE) and resonant kinetic ballooning mode (rKBM). A group of downward-sweeping frequency coherent modes (HFRSAEs) with 100  <  f  <  500 kHz and n  =  3-7 are often observed with an increase in the edge safety factor, q a . Their measured frequency is more than that of the TAEs, and {{f}\\text{min}}˜ {{f}\\text{TAE}} . The analysis suggests that these modes localize inside the high-order Alfvén eigenmode (AE) gap of the Alfvénic continuum, and their eigenfrequency and eigenfunction depend on the {{q}\\text{min}} and q-profile. When the core plasma density is more than {{n}e0}>3.0× {{10}19} m-3 and the impurity or supersonic molecular beam enters the bulk plasma, the profiles of the plasma density/pressure peak, and the magnetic shear is weak or negative. In this case, a group of multi-harmonic coherent modes (rKBMs) with 30  <  f  <  150 kHz and n  =  2-9 are observed through multiple diagnostic techniques, and {{f}\\ast pi}/2<{{f}\\text{MHD}}={{f}\\text{lab}}-n{{f}vφ}<{{f}\\ast pi} , where {{f}\\ast pi}={ω\\ast pi}/2π is the diamagnetic drift frequency of the thermal ion. It is found that the HFRSAEs can transit into the rKBMs when the density profile suddenly peaks. Neutron monitoring outside the vacuum chamber demonstrates that the HFRSAE and rKBM both degrade the confinement of the energetic ions. The rKBM instabilities also affect the bulk plasma performance.

  4. Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron

  5. Spectroscopic Measurements of Collision-less Coupling Between Laser-Produced, Super-Alfvénic Debris Plasmas and Magnetized, Ambient Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Anton; Everson, E.; Schaeffer, D.; Constantin, C.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Clark, S.; Niemann, C.

    2013-06-01

    Emission spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to assess collision-less momentum and energy coupling between super-Alfvénic debris plasmas and magnetized, ambient plasmas of astrophysical relevance. In a recent campaign on the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) utilizing the Phoenix laboratory Raptor laser (130 J, 25 ns FWHM), laser-ablated carbon debris plasmas were generated within magnetized, ambient helium plasmas (nelec ≈ 3×1012 cm-3, Telec ≈ 5.5 eV, B0 = 200 G), and prominent spectral lines of carbon and helium ions were studied in high resolution (˜ 0.01 nm). Time-resolved Doppler shift and width measurements of a C V ion spectral line reveal significant deceleration as the ions stream through the background plasma, which may indirectly indicate momentum coupling. Spectral lines of He II ions are observed to intensify by orders of magnitude and broaden, indicating energy transfer from the debris plasma to the background plasma.

  6. Benthic flux measurements of Hg species in a northern Adriatic lagoon environment (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Horvat, Milena; Žižek, Suzana; Fajon, Vesna

    2012-11-01

    As part of the "MIRACLE" project, the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-water interface was studied in the field in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea). Seasonal investigations were conducted at selected experimental sites, where Manila Clams (Tapes philippinarum) were previously seeded. Measurements were performed seasonally during three campaigns, using two benthic chambers, one transparent and one dark, to evaluate the effect of light on Hg cycling. Total dissolved Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM) species were considered. Diurnal benthic fluxes were found to significantly exceed the diffusive fluxes at all stations. The assessment of the annual recycling of Hg species from sediments to the water column showed that up to 99% of MeHg is recycled annually to the water column, while Hg recycling ranges from 30 to 60%. MeHg poses the higher risk for potential bioaccumulation in clams, but it is partially mitigated by Hg reduction, which seems to be an important process leading to evasion losses of Hg from these environments. Estimated benthic fluxes suggest that Hg recycling at the sediment-water interface is more active in the Grado sector. Hence, based on the estimated release of MeHg from sediments, it is suggested that the western sector seems to be more suitable for clam farming and the extension of rearing activities.

  7. Discovery of Dark pH-Dependent H+ Migration in a [NiFe]-Hydrogenase and Its Mechanistic Relevance: Mobilizing the Hydrido Ligand of the Ni-C Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive studies on [NiFe]-hydrogenases, the mechanism by which these enzymes produce and activate H2 so efficiently remains unclear. A well-known EPR-active state produced under H2 and known as Ni-C is assigned as a NiIII–FeII species with a hydrido ligand in the bridging position between the two metals. It has long been known that low-temperature photolysis of Ni-C yields distinctive EPR-active states, collectively termed Ni-L, that are attributed to migration of the bridging-H species as a proton; however, Ni-L has mainly been regarded as an artifact with no mechanistic relevance. It is now demonstrated, based on EPR and infrared spectroscopic studies, that the Ni-C to Ni-L interconversion in Hydrogenase-1 (Hyd-1) from Escherichia coli is a pH-dependent process that proceeds readily in the dark—proton migration from Ni-C being favored as the pH is increased. The persistence of Ni-L in Hyd-1 must relate to unassigned differences in proton affinities of metal and adjacent amino acid sites, although the unusually high reduction potentials of the adjacent Fe–S centers in this O2-tolerant hydrogenase might also be a contributory factor, impeding elementary electron transfer off the [NiFe] site after proton departure. The results provide compelling evidence that Ni-L is a true, albeit elusive, catalytic intermediate of [NiFe]-hydrogenases. PMID:26103582

  8. Haldane-gap excitations in the low-Hc one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet Ni(C5D14N2)2N3(PF6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, A.; Chen, Y.; Broholm, C. L.; Honda, Z.; Katsumata, K.

    2001-03-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering on deuterated single-crystal samples is used to study Haldane-gap excitations in the new S=1 one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet Ni(C5D14N2)2N3(PF6), that was recently recognized as an ideal model system for high-field studies. The Haldane gap energies Δx=0.42(3) meV, Δy=0.52(6) meV, and Δz=1.9(1) meV, for excitations polarized along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes, respectively, are measured. The dispersion relation is studied for momentum transfers both along and perpendicular to the chains' direction. The in-chain exchange constant J=2.8 meV is found to be much larger than interchain coupling, Jy=1.8(4)×10-3 meV and Jx=4(3)×10-4 meV, along the b and a axes, respectively. The results are discussed in the context of future experiments in high magnetic fields.

  9. Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission observations and non-force free modeling of a flux transfer event immersed in a super-Alfvénic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Lavraud, B.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M.; Kacem, I.; Yu, W.; Alm, L.; Burch, J.; Russell, C. T.; Shuster, J.; Dorelli, J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Ergun, R. E.; Fuselier, S.; Gershman, D.; Giles, B. L.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Matsui, H.; Marklund, G. T.; Phan, T. D.; Paulson, K.; Pollock, C.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze plasma, magnetic field, and electric field data for a flux transfer event (FTE) to highlight improvements in our understanding of these transient reconnection signatures resulting from high-resolution data. The ˜20 s long, reverse FTE, which occurred south of the geomagnetic equator near dusk, was immersed in super-Alfvénic flow. The field line twist is illustrated by the behavior of flows parallel/perpendicular to the magnetic field. Four-spacecraft timing and energetic particle pitch angle anisotropies indicate a flux rope (FR) connected to the Northern Hemisphere and moving southeast. The flow forces evidently overcame the magnetic tension. The high-speed flows inside the FR were different from those outside. The external flows were perpendicular to the field as expected for draping of the external field around the FR. Modeling the FR analytically, we adopt a non-force free approach since the current perpendicular to the field is nonzero. It reproduces many features of the observations.

  10. Statistical altitude distribution of Cluster auroral electric fields, indicating mainly quasi-static acceleration below 2.8 RE and Alfvénic above

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Marklund, G.; Alm, L.; Karlsson, T.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Masson, A.

    2014-11-01

    Results are presented from a statistical study of high-altitude electric fields and plasma densities using Cluster satellite data collected during 9.5 years between 2 and 4 RE. The average electric fields are most intense on the nightside and associated with an extensive plasma density cavity, with densities of 1 cm-3 or less. The intense electric fields are concentrated in two regions, separated by an altitude gap at about 2.8 RE. Below this, the average electric field magnitudes reach about 50 mV/m (mapped to the ionosphere) between 22 and 01 magnetic local time (MLT). Above 3 RE, the fields are about twice as high and spread over a broader MLT range. These fields occur in a region where the (ΔE/ΔB)/VA ratio is close to unity, which suggests an Alfvénic origin. The intense low-altitude electric fields are interpreted to be quasi-static, associated with the auroral acceleration region. This is supported by their location in MLT and altitude, and by a (ΔE/ΔB)/VA ratio much below unity. The local electric field minimum between the two regions indicates a partial closure of the electrostatic potentials in the lower region. These results show similarities with model results of reflected Alfvén waves by Lysak and Dum (1983), and with the O-shaped potential model, with associated wave-particle interaction at its top, proposed by Janhunen et al. (2000).

  11. Cloning and enhanced expression of the cytochrome P450nor gene (nicA; CYP55A5) encoding nitric oxide reductase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Masahiko; Matsumura, Kengo; Higashida, Katsuya; Hata, Yoji; Kawato, Akitsugu; Abe, Yasuhisa; Akita, Osamu; Takaya, Naoki; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2004-10-01

    We cloned and characterized the gene and cDNA of Aspergillus oryzae cytochrome P450nor (Anor). The Anor gene (nicA; CYP55A5) has a different gene structure from other P450nor genes in that it has an extra intron. There were not only two kinds of mRNA but also two sets of TATA-box and CCAAT-box, and it appears that this gene has two expression patterns, like CYP55A1 of Fusarium oxysporum. A reporter analysis using the uidA gene indicated that gene expression of CYP55A5 was induced under anaerobic conditions, like CYP55A1. When the CYP55A5 gene was overexpressed in A. oryzae, a large amount of active Anor were accumulated as intracellular protein. Anor employed both NADH and NADPH as electron donors for reducing nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. Anor measured the amount of NO generated from 3-(2-Hydroxy-1-(1-methylethyl)-2-nitrosohydrazino)-1-propanamine (NOC5) with a spectrophotometer. The sensitivity was 10 nmol/ml. PMID:15502348

  12. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Faleri, Claudia; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato

    2013-08-15

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l{sup −1} HgCl{sub 2} and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified

  13. Assessment of nicotine uptake from cigarette smoke: comparison of a colorimetric test strip (NicCheck I™) and gas chromatography/mass selective detector.

    PubMed

    Thomas Karnes, H; James, J R; March, C; Leyden, D E; Koller, K

    2001-01-01

    Colorimetric test strip assays are a convenient and inexpensive means for the determination of cotinine in human urine because they can be performed in a nonlaboratory environment using a trained technician. Four hundred human urine samples were separated into four categories: (1) heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes smoked per day), (2) light smokers (<20 cigarettes smoked per day), (3) non-smokers, and (4) vegetarian non-smokers. Samples were evaluated by a gas chromatography/mass selective detector (GC/MSD) method as a reference and using NicCheck I™ (DynaGen, Inc.). Colour intensity can range from 0 (no colour) to 14 (deep pink). Qualitative values were assigned as negative (0), low (1-6) and high (7-14). Comparison of the test strip and GC/MSD results showed: (1) 43 (10.75%) false negatives using the criterion of a GC/MSD cotinine level above 200 ng ml(-1) and test strip reading of 0, (2) 31 (7.75%) false positives using the criterion of a GC/MSD cotinine level below 1 ng ml(-1) and a test strip reading of 1 or greater, and (3) no correlation between the test strip and GC/MSD results (r = 0.597, p < 0.05). The fact that the colorimetric reaction is sensitive to many nicotine metabolites and/or heterocyclic amine structures whereas the GC/MSD method measures nicotine and cotinine selectively might explain the false positive results. False negative results were likely to be due to a lack of sensitivity of the test strip. PMID:23886310

  14. Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

    2012-11-01

    The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 μg g-1) to west (0.7 μg g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (<16 μm), as a consequence of transport and dispersion from the fluvial source through littoral and tidal currents. However, speciation analyses highlighted the presence of Hg sulphides in the coarse sandy fraction of sediments from the eastern area, as expected given the origin of the sedimentary material. Unlike Hg, the distribution of MeHg (0.47-7.85 ng g-1) does not show a clear trend. MeHg constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably

  15. Historical flux of mercury associated with mining and industrial sources in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covelli, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Emili, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    The "MIRACLE" Project was established in order to assess the feasibility of clam farming and high levels of sediment mercury (Hg) contamination coexisting in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy. This lagoon has been subjected to Hg input from both industrial waste (chlor-alkali plant) and long-term mining activity (Idrija mine, NW Slovenia). One of the subtasks of the "MIRACLE" Project was to determine the historical evolution of Hg accumulation in the lagoon's bottom sediments. Thirteen 1-m deep sediment cores were collected from the subtidal and intertidal zones, plus one in a saltmarsh, all of which were then analyzed for total Hg content and several physicochemical parameters. Sedimentation rate assessments were performed by measuring short-lived radionuclides (excess 210Pb and 137Cs). For most of the analyzed cores, natural background levels of Hg were observed at depths of 50-100 cm. In the eastern area, Hg contamination was found to be at its maximum level at the core top (up to 12 μg g-1) as a consequence of the long-term mining activity. The vertical distribution of Hg was related to the influence of the single-point contamination sources, whereas the grain-size variability or organic matter content seemed not to affect it. In the western area, Hg content at the surface was found not to exceed 7 μg g-1 and contamination was recorded only in the first 20-30 cm. Geochronological measurements showed that the depositional flux of Hg was influenced by anthropogenic inputs after 1800, when mining activity was more intense. After 1950, Hg in the surface sediment, most remarkable in the central-western sector, seemed to also be affected by the discharge of the Aussa River, which delivers Hg from the chlor-alkali plant. In 1996, Hg mining at Idrija ceased, however the core profiles did not show any subsequent decreasing trend in terms of Hg flux, which implies the system retaining some "memory" of contamination. Thus, in the short term, a decrease in Hg inputs

  16. Human impact and the historical transformation of saltmarshes in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontolan, Giorgio; Pillon, Simone; Bezzi, Annelore; Villalta, Renato; Lipizer, Marco; Triches, Antonella; D'Aietti, Alessandro

    2012-11-01

    Historical transformations of the saltmarshes in the six sub-basins of the Marano and Grado Lagoon were analyzed using aerial photographs (1954, 1990, 2006), and the support of historical maps and topographic surveys. Analysis of the 2006 set of aerial photographs enabled the definition of the present extent and distribution of the saltmarshes inside the lagoon (760 ha), with a total reduction in saltmarsh area of 16% (144 ha) compared to 1954. Direct human actions played a significant role in the budget, since total loss due to land reclamation and dredging during this period amounted to 126 ha. After excluding the total loss due to direct human interventions, different erosional and depositional marsh types were recognized and associated with different forcing factors, based on morphological and geographical evidence. Over the 52-year period marshes were lost due to: (a) drowning - the combined effects of eustatism, regional subsidence and autocompaction (102 ha); (b) edge-retreat by wind wave attack (34 ha); (c) erosion by vessel-generated waves (37 ha); and (d) coastal dynamics and inlet migration (5.7 ha). Conversely, marshes gained in area due to: (a) fluvial input (63 ha); (b) tidal input (27 ha); (c) paralagoonal deposition (45 ha); (d) the re-opening of abandoned fish farms (18 ha); and (e) the dumping of dredged material (8 ha). Our analysis demonstrates that local and short-term forcing factors can obliterate or compensate the long-term ones, especially the relative sea-level rise. A test of the integrated sediment budget carried out on one third of the total lagoon, through a bathymetric comparison between datasets from 1964 to 2009, pointed out that conservation or slight expansion of the marshes inside these basins were linked to an overall positive sediment budget of 61,000 m3/y. Nevertheless, significant morphological changes occurred in the submerged basin, which is affected by sustained deposition along the inner margins due to sediment supplies

  17. Cross-mapping the ICNP with NANDA, HHCC, Omaha System and NIC for unified nursing language system development. International Classification for Nursing Practice. International Council of Nurses. North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. Home Health Care Classification. Nursing Interventions Classification.

    PubMed

    Hyun, S; Park, H A

    2002-06-01

    Nursing language plays an important role in describing and defining nursing phenomena and nursing actions. There are numerous vocabularies describing nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes in nursing. However, the lack of a standardized unified nursing language is considered a problem for further development of the discipline of nursing. In an effort to unify the nursing languages, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) has proposed the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) as a unified nursing language system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inclusiveness and expressiveness of the ICNP terms by cross-mapping them with the existing nursing terminologies, specifically the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) taxonomy I, the Omaha System, the Home Health Care Classification (HHCC) and the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Nine hundred and seventy-four terms from these four classifications were cross-mapped with the ICNP terms. This was performed in accordance with the Guidelines for Composing a Nursing Diagnosis and Guidelines for Composing a Nursing Intervention, which were suggested by the ICNP development team. An expert group verified the results. The ICNP Phenomena Classification described 87.5% of the NANDA diagnoses, 89.7% of the HHCC diagnoses and 72.7% of the Omaha System problem classification scheme. The ICNP Action Classification described 79.4% of the NIC interventions, 80.6% of the HHCC interventions and 71.4% of the Omaha System intervention scheme. The results of this study suggest that the ICNP has a sound starting structure for a unified nursing language system and can be used to describe most of the existing terminologies. Recommendations for the addition of terms to the ICNP are provided. PMID:12094837

  18. The PAH level, distribution and composition in surface sediments from a Mediterranean lagoon: the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Falomo, Jari; Predonzani, Sergio; Tamberlich, Francesco; Bettoso, Nicola; Mattassi, Giorgio

    2014-04-15

    The Marano and Grado Lagoon is one of the best conserved transitional environment in the whole Mediterranean area. On the other hand, it suffers from industrial, agricultural and fisheries activities, which could have an important impact on its environmental quality. With the application of the WFD, the sediment chemical status was investigated. In this work, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons included by the US EPA within the priority pollutants were considered. PAHs values ranged from non-detectable to 1056 ng g(-1) showing the highest contamination close to the Aussa-Corno River mouth, which received the industrial inputs. The contamination level was comparable to that observed in low contaminated sites of the Mediterranean region, and lower than the adjacent Gulf of Trieste. The ratios of selected PAHs congeners pointed out the prevalence of pyrolitic sources. Moreover, the application of the ERL/ERM displayed an environment, which should not have a potential biological impact. PMID:24492154

  19. Modeling Study of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Italy) to Support the Regional Water Protection Plan) TO SUPPORT THE REGIONAL WATER PROTECTION PLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scroccaro, Isabella; Mattassi, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) contemplates the classification of water bodies and establishes the quality objectives of water bodies to achieve a good status within 2015. Further, the Italian law which takes in the WFD with Decree n. 152/2006, allows to identify some water bodies as heavily modified (HMWB). The Regional Administration, involved in the setting up of the Water Protection Plan, according with the above mentioned decree and directive, has to establish specific programs to maintain or conform water quality to the requested quality objectives, also for heavily modified water bodies that have to reach the ecological potential. In the north-eastern part of Italy, in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, the Marano and Grado Lagoon is the most complex transitional ecosystem in which four water bodies have been temporarily classified as heavily modified. They are identified as FM1, FM2, FM3 and FM4. In particular, FM2 - "Paludo della Carogna" and FM3 - "Barbana" water bodies seem to be characterized by some confinement since they are delimited by a bridge, called "Ponte Belvedere". The preliminary evaluation of the quality status of FM2 and FM3 water bodies is conditioned by the value of one of the quality criteria: the macrophytes. In fact, macrophytes are represented by very few species in these two water bodies. In a preliminary way the overall judgement of FM2 and FM3 water bodies has been indicated by the experts as scarse. This means that a specific programme of measures has to be proposed to improve the quality status of these water bodies in order to reach the ecological potential. In this context modeling may be used as a scientific and technical tool to support the evaluation on FM2 and FM3 water bodies and the effectiveness of specific measures for the achievement of the quality objectives. Numerical simulations of the Marano and Grado lagoon were performed for hydrodynamic circulation, temperature and salinity behavior with the

  20. The effects of resuspension on the fate of Hg in contaminated sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy): Short-term simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Predonzani, Sergio; Koron, Neža; Carrasco, Luis

    2012-11-01

    Sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Adriatic Sea, Italy) represent one of the world's most major repositories of mercury (Hg). Its presence is a direct consequence of the historical mining activity in nearby Idrjia (Slovenia), as well as significant discharges from a chlor-alkali plant into the Aussa-Corno river system, which connects to the lagoon. Previous studies have shown that sediment acts as secondary source of Hg species to the overlying water column in natural conditions. However, evidence for the effects of resuspension on the dynamics of Hg species is still lacking. The work reported in this paper formed part of the multidisciplinary "MIRACLE" project, aimed at identifying areas at low risk of Hg bioaccumulation in commercial Manila Clams, an important part of the local economy in this region. The effect of resuspension on the cycling of inorganic mercury (IHg), reactive mercury (RHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) between the sediment and water column was investigated in a mesocosm study. Two experiments were conducted in October 2009 and September 2010 based on material collected from sites heavily impacted by Hg and periodically subjected to dredging activities. Designed to mimic the resuspension of particles, both experiments revealed that the release of Hg species from the solid to the dissolved phase became negligible quickly after the event. MeHg values did not change according to total mercury (THg), suggesting that the enhancement of methylation processes may occur. The findings reported in this paper may be useful for the local management of dredging and fishing activities, although mass balance calculations showed that the total flux of Hg species are trivial compared to lagoon-wide processes.

  1. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  2. National Ignition Campaign (NIC) Precision Tuning Series Shock Timing Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, H F; Celliers, P M

    2011-07-19

    A series of precision shock timing experiments have been performed on NIF. These experiments continue to adjust the laser pulse shape and employ the adjusted cone fraction (CF) in the picket (1st 2 ns of the laser pulse) as determined from the re-emit experiment series. The NIF ignition laser pulse is precisely shaped and consists of a series of four impulses, which drive a corresponding series of shock waves of increasing strength to accelerate and compress the capsule ablator and fuel layer. To optimize the implosion, they tune not only the strength (or power) but also, to sub-nanosecond accuracy, the timing of the shock waves. In a well-tuned implosion, the shock waves work together to compress and heat the fuel. For the shock timing experiments, a re-entrant cone is inserted through both the hohlraum wall and the capsule ablator allowing a direct optical view of the propagating shocks in the capsule interior using the VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) diagnostic from outside the hohlraum. To emulate the DT ice of an ignition capsule, the inside of the cone and the capsule are filled with liquid deuterium.

  3. NIC atomic operation unit with caching and bandwidth mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    A network interface controller atomic operation unit and a network interface control method comprising, in an atomic operation unit of a network interface controller, using a write-through cache and employing a rate-limiting functional unit.

  4. [The electronic use of the NANDA-, NOC- and NIC- classifications and implications for nursing practice].

    PubMed

    Bernhart-Just, Alexandra; Hillewerth, Kathrin; Holzer-Pruss, Christina; Paprotny, Monika; Zimmermann Heinrich, Heidi

    2009-12-01

    The data model developed on behalf of the Nursing Service Commission of the Canton of Zurich (Pflegedienstkommission des Kantons Zürich) is based on the NANDA nursing diagnoses, the Nursing Outcome Classification, and the Nursing Intervention Classification (NNN Classifications). It also includes integrated functions for cost-centered accounting, service recording, and the Swiss Nursing Minimum Data Set. The data model uses the NNN classifications to map a possible form of the nursing process in the electronic patient health record, where the nurse can choose nursing diagnoses, outcomes, and interventions relevant to the patient situation. The nurses' choice is guided both by the different classifications and their linkages, and the use of specific text components pre-defined for each classification and accessible through the respective linkages. This article describes the developed data model and illustrates its clinical application in a specific patient's situation. Preparatory work required for the implementation of NNN classifications in practical nursing such as content filtering and the creation of linkages between the NNN classifications are described. Against the background of documentation of the nursing process based on the DAPEP(1) data model, possible changes and requirements are deduced. The article provides a contribution to the discussion of a change in documentation of the nursing process by implementing nursing classifications in electronic patient records. PMID:19943229

  5. Mitigation of Alfvénic activity by 3D magnetic perturbations on NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Bortolon, A.; Ferraro, N. M.; Spong, D. A.; Crocker, N. A.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Kubota, S.; Park, J.-K.; Podestà, M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; the NSTX Team

    2016-08-01

    Observations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that externally applied non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations (MP) can reduce the amplitude of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) and global Alfvén eigenmodes (GAE) in response to pulsed n  =  3 non-resonant fields. From full-orbit following Monte Carlo simulations with the one- and two-fluid resistive MHD plasma response to the magnetic perturbation included, it was found that in response to MP pulses the fast-ion losses increased and the fast-ion drive for the GAEs was reduced. The MP did not affect the fast-ion drive for the TAEs significantly but the Alfvén continuum at the plasma edge was found to be altered due to the toroidal symmetry breaking which leads to coupling of different toroidal harmonics. The TAE gap was reduced at the edge creating enhanced continuum damping of the global TAEs, which is consistent with the observations. The results suggest that optimized non-axisymmetric MP might be exploited to control and mitigate Alfvén instabilities by tailoring the fast-ion distribution function and/or continuum structure.

  6. Alfvénic oscillations of the electron distribution function: Linear theory and experimental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J. W. R. Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A.; Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S.

    2015-12-10

    Wave propagation can be an accurate method for determining material properties. High frequency whistler mode waves (0.7 < ω/|Ω{sub ce}| < 1) in an overdense plasma (ω{sub pe} > |Ω{sub ce}|) are damped primarily by Doppler-shifted electron cyclotron resonance. A kinetic description of whistler mode propagation parallel to the background magnetic field shows that damping is proportional to the parallel electron distribution function. This property enables an experimental determination of the parallel electron distribution function using a measurement of whistler mode wave absorption. The whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic uses this technique on UCLA’s Large Plasma Device (LaPD) to measure the distribution of high energy electrons (5 − 10v{sub te}) with 0.1% precision. The accuracy is limited by systematic effects that need to be considered carefully. Ongoing research uses this diagnostic to investigate the effect of inertial Alfvén waves on the electron distribution function. Results presented here verify experimentally the linear effects of inertial Alfvén waves on the reduced electron distribution function, a necessary step before nonlinear physics can be tested. Ongoing experiments with the whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic are making progress toward the first direct detection of electrons nonlinearly accelerated by inertial Alfvén waves, a process believed to play an important role in auroral generation.

  7. Remarks on the parallel propagation of small-amplitude dispersive Alfvénic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champeaux, S.; Laveder, D.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.

    The envelope formalism for the description of a small-amplitude parallel-propagating Alfvén wave train is tested against direct numerical simulations of the Hall-MHD equations in one space dimension where kinetic effects are neglected. It turns out that the magnetosonic-wave dynamics departs from the adiabatic approximation not only near the resonance between the speed of sound and the Alfvén wave group velocity, but also when the speed of sound lies between the group and phase velocities of the Alfvén wave. The modulational instability then does not anymore affect asymptotically large scales and strong nonlinear effects can develop even in the absence of the decay instability. When the Hall-MHD equations are considered in the long-wavelength limit, the weakly nonlinear dynamics is accurately reproduced by the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation on the expected time scale, provided no decay instabilities are present. The stronger nonlinear regime which develops at later time is captured by including the coupling to the nonlinear dynamics of the magnetosonic waves.

  8. An Anisotropic-Alfvénic-turbulence-based Solar Wind Model with Proton Temperature Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Habbal, S. R.

    2013-04-01

    How the solar wind is accelerated to its supersonic speed is intimately related to how it is heated. Mechanisms based on ion-cyclotron resonance have been successful in explaining a large number of observations, those concerning the significant ion temperature anisotropy above coronal holes in particular. However, they suffer from the inconsistency with turbulence theory which says that the turbulent cascade in a low-beta medium like the solar corona should proceed in the perpendicular rather than the parallel direction, meaning that there is little energy in the ion gyro-frequency range for ions to absorb via ion-cyclotron resonance. Recently a mechanism based on the interaction between the solar wind particles and the anisotropic turbulence has been proposed, where the perpendicular proton energy addition is via the stochastic heating (Chandran et al. 2011). We extend this promising mechanism by properly accounting for the effect of proton temperature anisotropy on the propagation of Alfvén waves, for the radiative losses of electron energy, and for the field line curvature that naturally accompanies solar winds in the corona. While this mechanism was shown in previous studies to apply to the polar fast solar wind, we demonstrate here for the first time that it applies also to the slow wind flowing along field lines bordering streamer helmets.

  9. 10-100 Gbps Offload NIC for WAN, NLR, and Grid Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awrach, James; Maccabe, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    An extremely fast offload engine system has been developed that operates at 60 Gigabits per second (Gbps), and has scalability to 100 Gbps full-duplex (f-d). This system is based on unique coding and architecture derived from splintered UDP (User Datagram Protocol) offload technology, resulting in unique FPGA (field programmable gate array) intellectual property core and firmware. This innovation improves the networking speed of supercomputer clusters by providing an ultra-fast network protocol processing offload from a CPU (central processing unit) by inserting an offload engine into a host backplane and network connections. This runs on protocol firmware.

  10. Materials Data on Ni(C2N3)2 (SG:58) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. A multi-port 10GbE PCIe NIC featuring UDP offload and GPUDirect capabilities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pastorelli, Elena; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2015-12-01

    NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU devices. A dedicated module (Multi-Stream) can optionally process input UDP streams before data is delivered through PCIe DMA to their destination devices, re-organizing data from different streams guaranteeing computational optimization. NaNet-10 is going to be integrated in the NA62 CERN experiment in order to assess the suitability of GPGPU systems as real-time triggers; results and lessons learned while performing this activity will be reported herein.

  12. Gate-tunable large negative tunnel magnetoresistance in Ni-C60-Ni single molecule transistors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kenji; Hamada, Ikutaro; Sakata, Shuichi; Umeno, Akinori; Tsukada, Masaru; Hirakawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-02-13

    We have fabricated single C(60) molecule transistors with ferromagnetic Ni leads (FM-SMTs) by using an electrical break junction method and investigated their magnetotransport. The FM-SMTs exhibited clear gate-dependent hysteretic tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and the TMR values reached as high as -80%. The polarity of the TMR was found to be always negative over the entire bias range studied here. Density functional theory calculations show that hybridization between the Ni substrate states and the C(60) molecular orbitals generates an antiferromagnetic configuration in the local density of states near the Fermi level, which gives a reasonable explanation for the observed negative TMR. PMID:23327475

  13. 40 CFR 63.1212 - What are the other requirements pertaining to the NIC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Hazardous Waste Combustors...

  14. Distinguishing Between Quasi-static and Alfvénic Auroral Acceleration Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysak, R. L.; Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Models for the acceleration of auroral particles fall into two general classes. Quasi-static processes, such as double layers or magnetic mirror supported potential drops, produce a nearly monoenergetic beam of precipitating electrons and upward flowing ion beams. Time-dependent acceleration processes, often associated with kinetic Alfvén waves, can produce a broader range of energies and often have a strongly field-aligned pitch angle distribution. Both processes are associated with strong perpendicular electric fields as well as the parallel electric fields that are largely responsible for the particle acceleration. These electric fields and the related magnetic perturbations can be characterized by the ratio of the electric field to a perpendicular magnetic perturbation, which is related to the Pedersen conductivity in the static case and the Alfvén velocity in the time-dependent case. However, these considerations can be complicated by the interaction between upward and downward propagating waves. The relevant time and space scales of these processes will be assessed and the consequences for observation by orbiting spacecraft and ground-based instrumentation will be determined. These features will be illustrated by numerical simulations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling with emphasis on what a virtual spacecraft passing through the simulation would be expected to observe.

  15. 75 FR 48365 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-NIC Cost Containment Online Resource Center Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... organizational capacity to complete the project tasks? Are the proposed project management and staffing plans realistic and sufficient to complete the project within the 18-month timeframe? Project Management... Resource Center Project AGENCY: National Institute of Corrections, U.S. Department of Justice....

  16. Post-Shot Simulations of NIC Experiments with Comparison to X-ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, David; Jones, Oggie; Suter, Larry; Moore, Alastair; Schneider, Marilyn

    2012-10-01

    National Ignition Campaign experiments at NIF are ongoing and post-shot simulations play an important role in understanding the physical processes occurring in the quest for demonstrating fusion burn. In particular, it is important to understand the x-ray environment inside the hohlraum targets, which is studied using various x-ray diagnostics. The Dante instrument measures the time dependent x-ray emission escaping out of the hohlraum laser entrance holes (LEHs) and the SXI instrument provides a time-integrated image of both soft and hard x-rays. We compare calculated total x-ray emission with Dante data as well as the relative high energy Mband emission that contributes to capsule preheat. We correct our calculated x-ray emission to account for differences between simulation and data on LEH closure using SXI data. We provide results for both ``standard candle'' simulation with no added multipliers and for simulations with time-dependent multipliers that are used to obtain agreement with shock timing and implosion velocity data. The physics justification for the use of multipliers is to account for potential missing energy or incorrect ablation modeling. The relative importance of these two effects can be studied through comparison of post-shot simulations with x-ray measurements.

  17. Alfv?nic Instabilities and Fast Ion Transport in the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zeeland, M; Heidbrink, W; Nazikian, R; Austin, M; Berk, H; Gorelenkov, N; Holcomb, C; Kramer, G; Lohr, J; Luo, Y; Makowski, M; McKee, G; Petty, C; Prater, R; Solomon, W; White, R

    2008-10-14

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including Toroidicity and Ellipticity induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE/EAE, respectively) and Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAE) as well as their spatial coupling. These modes are typically studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete current penetration results in a high central safety factor and strong drive due to multiple higher order resonances. During this same time period Fast-Ion D{sub {alpha}} (FIDA) spectroscopy shows that the central fast ion profile is flattened, the degree of which depends on the Alfven eigenmode amplitude. Interestingly, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the mode location stabilizes RSAE activity and results in significantly improved fast ion confinement relative to discharges with ECH deposition on axis. In these discharges, RSAE activity is suppressed when ECH is deposited near the radius of the shear reversal point and enhanced with deposition near the axis. To simulate the observed neutral beam ion redistribution, NOVA calculations of the 3D eigenmode structures are matched with experimental measurements and used in combination with the ORBIT guiding center following code. For fixed frequency eigenmodes, it is found that ORBIT calculations cannot explain the observed beam ion transport with experimentally measured mode amplitudes. Possible explanations are considered including recent simulation results incorporating eigenmodes with time dependent frequencies.

  18. 78 FR 23872 - HIPAA Privacy Rule and the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... guilty by reason of insanity; or otherwise have been determined, through a formal adjudication process... insanity, or otherwise adjudicated as having a serious mental condition that results in the individuals... own affairs.'' The term includes a finding of insanity in a criminal case, and a finding...

  19. 77 FR 40911 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Technical Assistance Site Management in NIC's Evidence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... system planning activities. These change strategies are critical to meeting their system's harm reduction... of safer communities. It puts forward the belief that risk and harm reduction are fundamental goals... policies, practices, and services designed to achieve specific risk and harm reduction outcomes; and...

  20. Soft x-ray images of the Laser Entrance Hole of NIC Hohlraums (paper, HTPD2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M B; Meezan, N B

    2012-04-30

    Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility convert laser energy into a thermal x-radiation drive, which implodes the capsule, thus compressing the fuel. The x-radiation drive is measured with a low resolution, time-resolved x-ray spectrometer that views the hohlraum's laser entrance hole (LEH) at 37{sup o} to the hohlraum axis. This measurement has no spatial resolution. To convert this to the drive inside the hohlraum, the area and fraction of the measured x-radiation which comes from the region inside the hohlraum must be known. The size of the LEH is measured with the time integrated Static X-ray Imager (SXI) which view the LEH at 18{sup o} to the hohlraum axis. A soft x-ray image has been added to the SXI to measure the fraction of x-radiation inside the LEH's Clear Aperture in order to correct the measured radiation. A multilayer mirror plus filter selects an x-ray band centered at 870 eV, near the x-ray energy peak of a 300 eV blackbody. Results from this channel and corrections to the x-radiation drive are discussed.

  1. Anisotropy of imbalanced Alfvénic turbulence in fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    Wicks, R T; Horbury, T S; Chen, C H K; Schekochihin, A A

    2011-01-28

    We present the first measurement of the scale-dependent power anisotropy of Elsasser variables in imbalanced fast solar wind turbulence. The dominant Elsasser mode is isotropic at lower spacecraft frequencies but becomes increasingly anisotropic at higher frequencies. The subdominant mode is anisotropic throughout. There are two distinct subranges exhibiting different scalings within what is normally considered the inertial range. The low Alfvén ratio and the different scaling of the Elsasser modes suggests an interpretation of the observed discrepancy between the velocity and magnetic field scalings, the total energy is dominated by the latter. These results do not appear to be fully explained by any of the current theories of incompressible imbalanced MHD turbulence. PMID:21405329

  2. Nonlinear energetic particle transport in the presence of multiple Alfvénic waves in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneller, M.; Lauber, Ph; Briguglio, S.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of a multi-mode iter study on toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs), using the nonlinear hybrid Hagis-Ligka model. It is found that main conclusions from earlier studies of Asdex Upgrade discharges can be transferred to the iter scenario: global, nonlinear effects are crucial for the evolution of the multi-mode scenario. This work focuses on the iter 15 MA baseline scenario with a safety factor at the magnetic axis of q 0  =  0.986. The least damped eigenmodes of the system are identified with the gyrokinetic, non-perturbative Ligka solver, concerning the mode structure, frequency and damping. Taking into account all weakly damped modes that can be identified linearly, nonlinear simulations with Hagis reveal strong multi-mode behaviour: while in some parameter ranges, quasilinear estimates turn out to be reasonable approximations for the nonlinearly relaxed energetic particle (EP) profile, under certain conditions low-n TAE branches can be excited. As a consequence, not only grow amplitudes of all modes to (up to orders of magnitude) higher values compared to the single mode cases but also, strong redistribution is triggered in the outer radial area between \\sqrt{{{{\\hatρ}}\\text{pol}}}=0.6 and 0.85, far above quasilinear estimates.

  3. Heating of He++ ions by dissipation of parallel and oblique Alfvénic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneva, Yana; Vinas, Adolfo; Moya, Pablo; Poedts, Stefaan

    2015-04-01

    Turbulent magnetic field fluctuations with different power law spectra have been ubiquitously observed in the solar wind streams at various heliocentric distances starting at 0.3AU, passing Earth's orbit at 1AU and continuing beyond up to 5AU. The dissipation of fluid scale fluctuations in a collisionless plasma can occur via large-scale turbulent cascade, followed by various small-scale wave-particle interactions. The partitioning of energy between minor ions, protons and electrons and the efficiency of their heating depends on the characteristics of the waves, the wave vector direction and the anisotropy of the fluctuations carrying energy at small scales. One way to view the solar wind turbulence at ion scales is as a superposition of large-scale Alfvén waves, ion-cyclotron waves, kinetic Alfvén waves and some portion of acoustic (density) fluctuations, as well as very low-frequency whistlers. These waves are frequently observed in situ in the solar wind, and yet their specific role for the energetization of minor ions remains unclear. In this study we perform 2.5D hybrid simulations to study the importance of parallel and obliquely propagating Alfvén-cyclotron waves for the anisotropic heating of minor ions in the solar wind. We start with initially isotropic plasma with equal temperatures for the protons and He++ ions and impose an initial turbulent spectrum of Alfvén-cyclotron waves to subsequently follow the preferential heating for the minor ions and the onset of temperature anisotropies for both ion species. For the chosen set of plasma parameters, which are typical for finite-β fast solar wind, the parallel waves appear more efficient in heating of the minor ions than the oblique waves. In the course of the nonlinear evolution of the system when an initial parallel wave spectrum is assumed we observe a substaintial anisotropic cascade of the magnetic field power spectrum towards perpendicular wave numbers.

  4. NANDA diagnoses, NIC interventions, and NOC outcomes used in an electronic health record with elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Margaret

    2006-04-01

    This is a report of a secondary analysis of data from a published quasi-experimental feasibility study of the effects of implementing diagnoses from North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, interventions from the Nursing Interventions Classification, and outcomes from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (referred to as NNN) on nurses' power and children's health outcomes. For this study, the NNN terms that were frequently used by nurses in the original study were identified through the nurses' printed reports of health-related visits (N = 766) with 103 New York City children in the 4th and 5th grades in six schools. The findings indicate that a large majority of nurses' efforts were focused on health promotion and management of risk states. Health problems such as pain and ineffective airway clearance were identified and were treated when present. Findings from this study can be combined with findings from previous studies to identify the diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes that are relevant for school settings. Use of the relevant NNN terms will provide data to support evidenced-based school nursing practice, education of school nurses, development of policies, and communication of the value of school nursing practice to stakeholders. PMID:16563032

  5. Induced core formation time in subcritical magnetic clouds by large-scale trans-Alfvénic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Kudoh, Takahiro; Basu, Shantanu E-mail: basu@uwo.ca

    2014-10-20

    We clarify the mechanism of accelerated core formation by large-scale nonlinear flows in subcritical magnetic clouds by finding a semi-analytical formula for the core formation time and describing the physical processes that lead to them. Recent numerical simulations show that nonlinear flows induce rapid ambipolar diffusion that leads to localized supercritical regions that can collapse. Here, we employ non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including ambipolar diffusion for gravitationally stratified sheets threaded by vertical magnetic fields. One of the horizontal dimensions is eliminated, resulting in a simpler two-dimensional simulation that can clarify the basic process of accelerated core formation. A parameter study of simulations shows that the core formation time is inversely proportional to the square of the flow speed when the flow speed is greater than the Alfvén speed. We find a semi-analytical formula that explains this numerical result. The formula also predicts that the core formation time is about three times shorter than that with no turbulence, when the turbulent speed is comparable to the Alfvén speed.

  6. MALDI-TOFMS analysis of coordination and organometallic complexes: a nic(h)e area to work in.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Mark F

    2011-07-01

    A mini-review of the characterisation of metal-containing compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) is presented. Organometallic and coordination compounds have many varied applications, most notably in industrial catalytic processes and also in the electronics and healthcare sectors. In general, the compounds discussed, be they small or large molecules, have a high percentage metal content, rather than simply containing 'a metal atom'. A brief history of the field is given, but the main scope over the last 5 years is covered in some detail. How MALDI-TOFMS compliments electrospray for metal-containing compounds is highlighted. Perspectives on recent advances, such as solvent-free and air/moisture-sensitive sample preparation, and potential future challenges and developments, such as nanomaterials and metallodrug/metallometabolite imaging, are given. PMID:21744419

  7. NANDA Diagnoses, NIC Interventions, and NOC Outcomes Used in an Electronic Health Record with Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunney, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    This is a report of a secondary analysis of data from a published quasi-experimental feasibility study of the effects of implementing diagnoses from North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, interventions from the Nursing Interventions Classification, and outcomes from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (referred to as NNN) on…

  8. Implementation of Improvements in an Electronic Documentation Nursing Process System Structured on NANDA-I, NOC and NIC (NNN) Classification.

    PubMed

    Peres, Heloísa; Cruz, Diná; Tellez, Michelle; de Cássia Gengo E Silva, Rita; Ortiz, Diley; Diogo, Regina; Ortiz, Dóris R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the experience of a teaching hospital with the implementation of improvements to an electronic documentation system of the nursing process (PROCEnf-USP®). The improvements were based on functional performance and technical quality of the system. It was adopted Scrum method for version control PROCEnf-USP® by enabling agility, flexibility and possibility of integration between development and users. The PROCEnf-USP® has been used since 2009 and has professional and academic environments. The current version lets you generate reports and supports decisions about diagnoses, outcomes and interventions. It is provided the use of indicators to monitor results and registration at the point of care. The establishment of important. PMID:27332494

  9. Alfvénic reacceleration of relativistic particles in galaxy clusters in the presence of secondary electrons and positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, G.; Blasi, P.

    2005-11-01

    In a previous paper we presented the first self-consistent calculations of the time-dependent coupled equations for electrons, hadrons and Alfvén waves in the intracluster medium, which describe the stochastic acceleration of the charged particles and the corresponding spectral modification of the waves. Under viable assumptions, this system of mutually interacting components was shown to accurately describe several observational findings related to the radio haloes in clusters of galaxies. In this paper, we add to the self-consistency of the calculations by including the generation and re-energization of secondary electrons and positrons, produced by the inelastic interactions of cosmic rays with the thermal gas in the intracluster medium. The bulk of cosmic rays are expected to be confined within the cluster volume for cosmological times, so that the rate of production of secondary electrons, as well as gamma-rays, may become correspondingly enhanced. If magnetohydrodynamic waves are present, as may be expected in the case of a recent merger event, then the reacceleration of secondary electrons and positrons can significantly affect the phenomenology of the non-thermal processes in clusters. We investigate these effects here for the first time.

  10. Prueba de Ciencia Primer Grado (Science Test for the First Grade). [In Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey.

    This document consists of three parts: (1) a manual for administering the science test to first graders (in Spanish), (2) a copy of the test itself (pictorial), and (3) a list of expected competencies in science for the first three grades (in English). The test consists of 25, four-choice items. For each item, the administrator reads a statement…

  11. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  12. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    analemático, conduzida por um monitor. Uma proporção significativa de estudantes desconhecia inicialmente a maioria dos fenômenos tratados. A intervenção realizada colaborou para uma parte dos alunos assimilar novos conceitos, propiciando o contato com novos fenômenos e, em menor grau, a elaboração de explicações a respeito destes, indicando um potencial educativo dessa ação. Porém, a contribuição para o entendimento de algumas das ideias exploradas foi pequena, apontando para a necessidade de se fazer observações, estudos e discussões complementares. El movimiento aparente del Sol en la esfera celeste y el comportamiento de las sombras de los objetos a lo largo del tiempo son fenómenos observables en la vida cotidiana. Sin embargo, los estudiantes a menudo no tienen una adecuada comprensión de dichos problemas, e incluso pueden mostrar conceptos erróneos acerca de ellos. Por lo tanto, se realizó una investigación a fin de conocer las nociones de los estudiantes acerca de estas cuestiones y evaluar la contribución a su comprensión proporcionada por una actividad realizada con un reloj de Sol interactivo, en un entorno informal de aprendizaje. Se investigaron las ideas de 43 estudiantes del séptimo grado del ciclo primario mediante la aplicación de un test con preguntas abiertas antes y después de una actividad con un reloj de Sol analemático, dirigida por un monitor. Una proporción significativa de los estudiantes inicialmente desconocía la mayoría de los fenómenos tratados. La intervención realizada contribuyó para que los estudiantes asimilasen nuevos conceptos, proporcionando el contacto con nuevos fenómenos y, en menor medida, desarrollasen explicaciones acerca de estos, lo que indica un potencial educativo de esta acción. Sin embargo, la contribución a la comprensión de algunas de las ideas exploradas fue pequeña, lo que apunta a la necesidad de hacer observaciones, estudios y debates adicionales.

  13. Prevenir y Combatir El Acoso en La Escuela: Guia de Recursoso para Educadores de los Grados "K" al Grado "12" (Preventing and Countering School-Based Harassment: A Resource Guide for K-12 Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steineger, Melissa

    This guide focuses on the issue of school-based harassment. It is intended to help educators prevent or curtail all forms of harassment by highlighting school-based harassment issues, by describing remedies and prevention strategies, and by providing additional resources. It details some of the problems school-based harassment engenders, and it…

  14. The role of Alfvénic turbulence in the acceleration of the fast solar wind: "linkage" science with Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolla, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luciano; Zhukov, Andrei; Verdini, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    One of the key points of the Solar Orbiter mission will be the joint observations by remote sensing and in situ instruments: the remote sensing instruments will observe the sources of the solar wind that will later be measured in situ at the spacecraft (or at Solar Probe Plus). This is an opportunity to elucidate the role of MHD waves and turbulence in the acceleration of the fast solar wind. Using spectro-imagers (SPICE) or EUV imagers (EUI), various observables of the plasma can be measured remotely in coronal holes: electron temperature and density, element abundances, Doppler velocities and especially ion temperatures, non-thermal velocity and amplitude of MHD waves in solar features, the latter three being different manifestations of the MHD wave spectrum and its effects. We present some preliminary results on correlations of such remote sensing observables with in-situ measurement at 1 AU, as one may expect on the base of currently available observations (Hinode/EIS, SDO/AIA, and Wind).

  15. Note on one-fluid modeling of low-frequency Alfvénic fluctuations in a solar wind plasma with multi-ion components

    SciTech Connect

    Nariyuki, Y.; Umeda, T.; Suzuki, T. K.; Hada, T.

    2015-12-15

    A simple point of view that non-zero Alfvén ratio (residual energy) appears as a consequence of one-fluid modeling of uni-directional Alfvén waves in a solar wind plasma is presented. Since relative speeds among ions are incorporated into the one-fluid model as a pressure anisotropy, the Alfvén ratio can be finite due to the decrease in the phase velocity. It is shown that a proton beam component typically found in the solar wind plasma can contribute to generating non-zero Alfvén ratio observed in the solar wind plasma. Local equilibrium velocity distribution functions of each ion component are also discussed by using maximum entropy principle.

  16. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm(-3), which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L(-1) and 549 W L(-1), based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices. PMID:27241801

  17. Hybrid simulation of shock formation for super-Alfvénic expansion of laser ablated debris through an ambient, magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. E.; Winske, D.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Constantin, C. G.; Niemann, C.

    2013-08-01

    Two-dimensional hybrid simulations of perpendicular collisionless shocks are modeled after potential laboratory conditions that are attainable in the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California, Los Angeles Basic Plasma Science Facility. The kJ class 1053 nm Nd:Glass Raptor laser will be used to ablate carbon targets in the LAPD with on-target energies of 100-500 J. The ablated debris ions will expand into ambient, partially ionized hydrogen or helium. A parameter study is performed via hybrid simulation to determine possible conditions that could lead to shock formation in future LAPD experiments. Simulation results are presented along with a comparison to an analytical coupling parameter.

  18. Ionospheric Production Variation in Super-Alfvénic Regime: From Lunar-type Sputtering to Titan-type Ionospheric Interaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernisse, Y.; Motschmann, U. M.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar wind plasma interactions with planetary obstacles having fully developed ionospheres such as Titan, and weakly sputtered particles such as Earth's moon are topics of active research. We aim at extending our understanding of such types of interaction by looking at intermediate states between weakly sputtering planetary obstacle and ionosphere-rich obstacles. We present results from our hybrid model AIKEF of planetary obstacles, using a Chapman profile for the ionosphere, and characterize them using currents flowing around the interaction region. Among our results, we evaluate the ionospheric conductivity at each obstacle related to its ionospheric production, giving an estimation of the ion production that triggers a bow shock. We explore two cases of ionospheric species, hydrogen and oxygen, separately. Results show that an oxygen generated ionosphere requires less production to trigger a bow shock than a hydrogen-generated ionosphere, as well as differences in the pick-up process and the induced asymmetry of the interaction region. The final results are summarized into three-dimensional schematics representing qualitative changes when tweaking the production.

  19. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices.A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02215d

  20. Genetic and ElectroNic medIcal records to predict oUtcomeS in Heart Failure patients (GENIUS-HF) - design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies adopting electronic medical records and genomic information are becoming widespread. Through this new modality in research, it is possible to study how genetic variants influence susceptibility towards chronic conditions and can improve patient care. Our aim is to develop a biobank with 2,000 heart failure patients treated in a tertiary cardiology hospital containing electronic medical records data and biologic samples for performing genome-wide association studies for validation and development of medical decision routines aimed at helping the clinical management of patients. Methods/Design Patients between 18 and 80 years old with heart failure diagnosis of different etiologies and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 50% in the past 2 years will be eligible for enrollment on the cohort. After consent, patients will be submitted to clinical baseline, echocardiography, cardiograph impedance and biochemical evaluation. Study data will be collected and managed using Research Electronic Data Capture tools. The follow up will take place every 6 months to assess cardiovascular outcomes (all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization for worsening heart failure and current medication use). Initial analytical strategy will focus on the establishment of the accuracy of electronic medical records extraction protocols for main predictor factors of morbidity and mortality in heart failure. Discussion Building a biobank with biologic samples and clinical data of 2,000 heart failure patients we will perform genome-wide association studies. By this way, we pretend to study how genetic variants influence susceptibility towards chronic conditions. Besides, it will be created a working group focused on the development and implementation of algorithms for validation and application of medical routines using the electronic medical records of the Heart Institute (InCor - HCFMUSP). Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NTC02043431. PMID:24592820

  1. Hybrid simulation of shock formation for super-Alfvénic expansion of laser ablated debris through an ambient, magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S. E.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Constantin, C. G.; Niemann, C.; Winske, D.

    2013-08-15

    Two-dimensional hybrid simulations of perpendicular collisionless shocks are modeled after potential laboratory conditions that are attainable in the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California, Los Angeles Basic Plasma Science Facility. The kJ class 1053 nm Nd:Glass Raptor laser will be used to ablate carbon targets in the LAPD with on-target energies of 100-500 J. The ablated debris ions will expand into ambient, partially ionized hydrogen or helium. A parameter study is performed via hybrid simulation to determine possible conditions that could lead to shock formation in future LAPD experiments. Simulation results are presented along with a comparison to an analytical coupling parameter.

  2. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5b: Medida Lineal, Perimetro y Area (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5b: Linear Measure, Perimeter and Area).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include measurement, perimeter, and area. (MK)

  3. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Niveles 1-3. Teacher's Guide I (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 1-3. Teacher's Guide I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This guide covers the first part of a bilingual, sequential mathematics course. The course integrates culturally relevant situations and illustrations with mathematics to reinforce the student's self-concept and encourage cultural pride. This program may be used as a self-contained continuum, as a supplement to another course of study, for…

  4. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4b: Division de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4b: Division of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include reciprocals, complex fractions, and division of fractions. (MK)

  5. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Niveles 4-6. Teacher's Guide II (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Levels 4-6. Teacher's Guide II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This guide covers the second part of a bilingual, sequential mathematics course. The course integrates culturally relevant situations and illustrations with mathematics to reinforce the student's self-concept and encourage cultural pride. This program may be used as a self-contained continuum, as a supplement to another course of study, for…

  6. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4a: Multiplicacion de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4a: Multiplication of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include equivalent fractions, mixed numbers, and multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  7. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5a: Geometria - Conjuntos de Puntos (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5a: Geometry - Sets of Points).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in the booklet include points, lines, planes, space, angles, and intersection and union of sets. (MK)

  8. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6a: Suma de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6a: Addition of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  9. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6b: Resta de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6b: Subtraction of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include subtraction of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  10. Distribución espacial de órbitas con diferentes grados de caoticidad en modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Mosquera, M.

    En trabajos anteriores (Carpintero et al., Cel. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 85, 247, 2003), mostramos que las órbitas caóticas son muy importantes en los satélites galácticos. Sin embargo, los únicos modelos autoconsistentes de los que se disponía para ellos eran los de Heggie-Ramamani, cuya función de distribución depende sólo de la energía por lo que no mostraban diferencias entre las distribuciones de sus órbitas regulares y caóticas. Ahora, mediante una aproximación cuadrupolar, hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos con distribuciones de velocidades anisotrópicas (lo que indica que sus funciones de distribución no dependen sólo de la energía) y hemos logrado revelar las diferencias entre las estructuras espaciales de las órbitas de distinta caoticidad.

  11. Estudio muestra reducción de mortalidad en hombres con cáncer de próstata de grado intermedio

    Cancer.gov

    Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patroci

  12. Las normas de desempeno matematico desde el preescolar hasta el segundo grado (Mathematics Standards for Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 2). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Kathy

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recently published "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics." For the first time, these new standards include pre-kindergarten standards, while outlining the mathematics that children should learn as they progress through school. The standards present a broad view of what mathematics is and…

  13. Grados de comprobación de estudios de terapias integrales (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información acerca de cómo sopesar la fuerza de los datos probatorios obtenidos de los estudios de investigación sobre terapias integrales, alternativas y complementarias en seres humanos con cáncer.

  14. Sensitivity of Eimeria field isolates in the United States: responses of nicarbazin-containing anticoccidials.

    PubMed

    Bafundo, K W; Cervantes, H M; Mathis, G F

    2008-09-01

    A series of studies were conducted to assess the drug sensitivity of 26 coccidial field isolates to the anticoccidial effects of nicarbazin (NIC) and narasin + NIC (NAR + NIC). Isolates were collected from typical broiler farms in the United States from 2003 to 2006, propagated once in the absence of anticoccidial medication, and then used to inoculate broilers that were fed nonmedicated rations or those containing NIC 125 ppm or NAR + NIC 80 ppm. Results of these sensitivity trials indicated that 81% of these coccidial isolates were sensitive to the effects of NIC, but only 22% of these coccidia were controlled by NAR + NIC. Studies conducted to evaluate performance responses to these drugs demonstrated that birds fed NIC gained more weight and utilized feed more efficiently than those receiving NAR + NIC. The results of 2 floor pen tests, conducted to confirm the results of the above sensitivity trials, demonstrated that NIC provided a greater level of protection from coccidiosis than NAR + NIC. Lower lesion scores and improved performance were recorded for birds receiving NIC compared with NAR + NIC. Results of these studies revealed that changes in the susceptibility of Eimeria spp. to the activity of NAR + NIC are evident. These changes appear to be associated with the reduction in ionophore sensitivity that has been documented in most areas of the world. PMID:18753443

  15. Use of the semi-equilibrium dialysis method in studying the thermodynamics of solubilization of org nic compounds in surfactant micelles. system n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride-phenol-water

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G,A.; Christian, S.D.; Scamehorn, J.F.; Tucker, E.E.

    1986-06-01

    The semi-equilibrium dialysis method has been used to infer solubilization equilibrium constants or, alternatively, activity coefficients of solutes solubilized into micelles of aqueous surfactant solutions. Methods are described for inferring the concentrationa of monomers of the organic solute and of the surfactant on both sides of the dialysis membrane, under conditions where the organic solute is in equilibrium with both the high-concentration (retentate) and low-concentration (permeate) solutions. By using a form of the Gibbs-Duhem equation, activity coefficients of both phenol (the solubilizate) and n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride (the surfactant) are obtained for aqueous solutions at 25 /sup 0/C throughout a wide range of relative compositions of surfactant and solubilizate within the micelle. The apparent solubilization constant, K = (solubilized phenol)/((monomeric phenol) (micellar surfactant)), is found to decrease significantly as the mole fraction of phenol in the micelle increases.

  16. Magnetic Properties of [Ni(C_4H_12N_2)_2(μ-N_3)]_n(ClO_4)_n: A Quasi-One-Dimensional Antiferromagnetic S = 1 Ladder-Like Material.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. H.; Talham, D. R.; Granroth, G. E.; Meisel, M. W.

    1997-03-01

    [Ni(1,2-diamino-2-methylpropane)_2(μ-N_3)]_n(ClO_4)n forms a helicoidal nickel(II)-azido skeleton due to the cis position of the azido bridging ligands( J. Ribas et al.), Inorg. Chem. 34 (1995) 4986.. The resulting S = 1 ladder-like structure is reminiscent of the one possessed by the S = 1/2 material Cu_2(C_5H_12N_2)_2Cl_4.( B. Chiari et al., Inorg. Chem.) 29 (1990) 1172.^,( P.R. Hammer and D.H. Reich, J. Appl. Phys.) 79 (1996) 5392. The magnetic properties of powder, polycrystalline, and oriented single crystal samples have been measured down to 2 K in fields up to 5 T, where no evidence for long-range order is observed. Various possible theoretical fits of the data will be presented, and magnetic and thermodynamic measurements at millikelvin temperatures are in progress.

  17. 77 FR 1512 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Strategic Essentials for the Advancement of Women...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Corrections (NIC) will be no later than July 1, 2012. The applicant will be expected to deliver the training between October, 2012 and June, 2013. The training program will be announced on NIC's Web site in...

  18. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

  19. 77 FR 43118 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Development of a Series of Publications for the Evidence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ...The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Community Services Division is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement with NIC for up to 18 months beginning in October 2012. Work under this cooperative agreement is part of a larger NIC initiative, Evidence-Based Decision Making (EBDM) in Local Criminal Justice Systems. Work under this......

  20. 76 FR 50265 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Management of Technical Assistance for Selected Sites in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Community Services Division is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement with NIC for up to twelve months beginning in September 2011. Work under this cooperative agreement is part of larger NIC project, ``Evidence-Based Decision Making (EBDM) in Local Criminal Justice Systems.'' Work under......

  1. 76 FR 35013 - Notice of Inventory Completion; U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... a Notice of Inventory Completion (NIC) previously published in the Federal Register (74 FR 24874... present. Paragraph Number 7 in the NIC is Corrected by Substituting the Following Paragraph Officials of... other site listed in the previous NIC. Therefore, the total number of individuals in the previous...

  2. La Desercion Escolar en los Niveles de Sexto y Noveno Grado: Una Comparacion Entre Zonas Rurales y Urbanas. Boletin 219 (The Educational Desertion in the 6th and 9th Grades: A Comparison Between Rural and Urban Zones. Bulletin 219).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria I. Hernandez; And Others

    In 1962 and again in 1965, a group of sixth and ninth grade students in selected schools in four Puerto Rican communities were interviewed to investigate the factors influencing students' decision to withdraw from school before completing twelfth grade and to identify some characteristics of dropouts. Of 616 students interviewed in 1962, 20.9% of…

  3. Mi Segundo Libro de Maquinas Simples: Las Palancas. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Second Book of Simple Machines: Levers. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the second book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. By suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate the scientific principles, this book explains the workings of three types of levers. Resistance…

  4. Mi Tercer Libro de Maquinas Simples: La Rueda y la Polea. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Third Book of Simple Machines: The Wheel and the Pulley. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the third book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume explains principles governing wheels and pulleys by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate the scientific principles. Friction…

  5. Mi Primer Libro de Maquinas Simples: Trabajo y Fuerza. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My First Book of Simple Machines: Work and Force. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the first book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume defines force and work by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate scientific principles. Answers to the questions are provided;…

  6. Mi Cuarto Libro de Maquinas Simples: Otras Modificaciones de la Rueda. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Fourth Book of Simple Machines: Other Modifications of the Wheel. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the fourth book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume explains further refinements of the wheel which is introduced in volume three. The fourth volume explains principles behind gears and the relationship between velocity and force by…

  7. Using Songs to Encourage Sixth Graders to Develop English Speaking Skills (Uso de canciones para motivar a los estudiantes de grado sexto a desarrollar habilidades orales en inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte Romero, Mónica Duarte; Tinjacá Bernal, Luz Mery; Carrero Olivares, Marilú

    2012-01-01

    This article contains the procedures and findings of an investigation carried out by a team of teachers with the purpose of motivating students to speak English. We observed students' lack confidence to talk and that they had little motivation toward learning English. Thus, we used songs as a main resource in conjunction with different kind…

  8. Mi Quinto Libro de Maquinas Simples: El Plano Inclinado. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Fifth Book of Simple Machines: The Inclined Plane. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the fifth book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume explains the principles and some of the uses of inclined planes, as they appear in simple machines, by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book…

  9. Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 1), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 1, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Leslie; And Others

    This is Part 1 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 1 includes the commentary for chapters 1 through 5. Topics covered include congruence, numbers and number bases, subtraction of numbers, division of numbers, and elementary geometry. References to the student text are cited. (RH)

  10. Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 2), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 2, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Leslie; And Others

    This is Part 2 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 2 includes the commentary for chapters 6 through 10. Topics covered include addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, geometrical figures, lines and lineal measurement, and fractions. (RH)

  11. Supplement for Curriculum Guide for Mathematics: Spanish-Speaking Students, Grades 2-3 = Supplemento de la guia didactica de matematicas para los estudiantes de habla hispana, segundo y tercer grados. Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    A contrastive analysis approach is used in this supplementary math curriculum guide for Spanish-speaking second and third grade students in Chicago public schools. Lessons are presented for those objectives for which the instructional strategies used in the United States differ from those used in Spanish-speaking countries. (Objectives for which…

  12. Supplement for Curriculum Guide for Mathematics: Spanish-Speaking Students, Grades 7-8 = Supplemento de la guia didactica de matematicas para los estudiantes de habla hispana, septimo y octavo grados. Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    This supplementary math curriculum guide for use with Spanish-speaking students in Chicago public schools' seventh and eighth grade classes employs a contrastive analysis approach. Lessons are presented for objectives for which the instructional strategies used in the United States differ from those in Spanish-speaking countries. (Objectives for…

  13. Supplement for Curriculum Guide for Mathematics: Spanish-Speaking Students, Grades 4-6 = Supplemento de la guia didactica de matematicas para los estudiantes de habla hispana, cuatro-sexto grados. Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    This supplementary math curriculum guide for use with Spanish-speaking, fouth through sixth grade students in Chicago public schools employs a contrastive analysis approach. Lessons are presented for objectives for which the instructional strategies used in the United States differ from those used in Spanish-speaking countries. (Objectives for…

  14. The Role That Socioaffective Practices Play in Third Graders' Autonomous Learning (El papel de las prácticas socioafectivas en el aprendizaje autónomo de estudiantes de tercer grado)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdomo Toro, Jhonatan; Rico González, Ángela Milena; Huepa Salcedo, Nury Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe and analyze how autonomous learning emerges in third graders' socioaffective practices as reconstructed in written narratives. Results were obtained by analyzing and reflecting on classroom observation, interviews and written narratives done by the students which let us appreciate different behaviors and reactions…

  15. Influence of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Tween 80 on Carbamazepine–Nicotinamide Cocrystal Solubility and Dissolution Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingzhong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine–nicotinamide (CBZ–NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated that SLS and Tween 80 had little influence upon the solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal but they had totally opposite effects on the IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal during dissolution. SLS significantly increased the IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal while Tween 80 decreased its IDR. PMID:24300560

  16. Influence of sodium lauryl sulfate and tween 80 on carbamazepine-nicotinamide cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingzhong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine-nicotinamide (CBZ-NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated that SLS and Tween 80 had little influence upon the solubility of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal but they had totally opposite effects on the IDR of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal during dissolution. SLS significantly increased the IDR of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal while Tween 80 decreased its IDR. PMID:24300560

  17. Ranolazine enhances nicardipine-induced relaxation of alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction on isolated rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Malavaki, Christina; Hatziefthimiou, Apostolia; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Karatzaferi, Christina; Aidonidis, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    Ranolazine (RAN) and nicardipine (NIC) have been studied for their vasorelaxing effects but the combination of these agents against adrenergic vasoconstriction has not been tested. The present study aimed at investigating the vasorelaxing effect by the combination of the two agents on alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction on isolated rabbit aorta. Aortic rings were mounted for isometric tension recording in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution. Concentration-response curves of RAN (10(-9) to 10(-4) M), NIC (10(-1) to 10(-5) M), and RAN + NIC (3 x 10(-6) M) were obtained in a cumulative manner using phenylephrine (PE, 2 x 10(-6) M) as constrictor agent. The effective concentration (EC)50 values for RAN and NIC were 6.5 x 10(-6) M and 1.4 x 10(-5) M, respectively. The treatment of PE-precontracted aortic rings with either RAN or NIC up to 65 min revealed that both agents displayed a biphasic pattern of initial rising and late sustained phases of relaxation. At 35 min of incubation, RAN and NIC induced relaxation by 23 +/- 3% and 14 +/- 4%, respectively (N = 7, P=NS, RAN vs. NIC); their combination resulted in a 34 +/- 4% relaxation (N=7; P < 0.01, RAN + NIC vs. NIC). At 65 min the effect of NIC prevailed and tended to be closer to the values of the combination treatment (P < 0.01, RAN + NIC vs. RAN). The results indicate that RAN at therapeutic concentrations exerts a significant additive vasorelaxing effect when combined with NIC in rabbit aorta. PMID:26148375

  18. Using the Nursing Interventions Classification as a Potential Measure of Nurse Workload

    PubMed Central

    de Cordova, Pamela B.; Lucero, Robert J.; Hyun, Sookyung; Quinlan, Patricia; Price, Kwanza; Stone, Patricia W.

    2010-01-01

    Standardized terminologies, such as the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) taxonomy, may be used in multiple ways to represent nursing constructs. This study is the first known to explore the NIC as a framework for the development of a nursing workload measure. While the NIC may not represent the complexity of nurses’ work, the classification system may represent uniformly the work of nurses in health information systems to yield reliable data for a nursing workload measure. PMID:19638932

  19. Comparison of the whiplash injury criteria.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C; Sha, Daohang

    2010-01-01

    Whiplash injury criteria are based upon the hypothesis that neck injuries are caused by excessive loads, displacements, or head/T1 relative acceleration and velocity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the whiplash injury criteria (IV-NIC, NIC, Nkm, Nij, and NDC) during simulated rear impacts of a new Human Model of the Neck (HUMON) with and without an active head restraint (AHR). HUMON consisted of a neck specimen mounted to the torso of BioRID II and carrying an anthropometric head stabilized with muscle force replication. HUMON was seated and secured in a Kia Sedona seat with AHR on a sled. Rear impacts (7.1 and 11.1g) were simulated with the AHR in five different positions followed by an impact with no HR. Statistical differences (P < 0.05) were determined in the peak NIC and NDC due to the AHR, as compared to no HR, and in the peak IV-NIC relative to physiologic limits. Linear regression analyses identified correlation between IV-NIC and NIC, Nkm, Nij, and NDC (R(2) > or = 0.35 and P < 0.001). The AHR caused significant decreases in peak NIC and NDC as compared to no HR. The IV-NIC identified significantly increased motion above the physiologic limit at the middle and lower cervical spine with and without the AHR. Correlation was observed between IV-NIC and NIC, Nkm, Nij, and NDC. Extrapolation using the present correlations and the IV-NIC injury thresholds suggests neck injuries may occur at peak NIC of 14.4m(2)/s(2), Nkm of 0.33, or Nij of 0.09. Nonphysiologic spinal rotation at one or more spinal levels may occur even if head/T1 motions are small. PMID:19887145

  20. Nursing to achieve organizational performance: Consider the role of nursing intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    The success and performance of healthcare organizations relies on the strategic management of knowledge. Nursing Intellectual Capital (NIC) has emerged as a concept involving nursing knowledge resources that create value in healthcare organizations. This article aims to discuss the importance of considering knowledge resources in the context of healthcare performance, with specific reference to NIC. Reflections are then provided on how leaders can look to advance NIC for improved performance. PMID:27060807

  1. The Sensory Impact of Nicotine on Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Neurons of the Nicotine Reward - Addiction Neurocircuitry

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jed E; Dehkordi, Ozra; Manaye, Kebreten F; Millis, Richard M; Cianaki, Salman Ameri; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of smoking is a key component of nicotine addiction known to result, in part, from stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at peripheral sensory nerve endings. Such stimulation of nAChRs is followed by activation of neurons at multiple sites in the mesocorticolimbic reward pathways. However, the neurochemical profiles of CNS cells that mediate the peripheral sensory impact of nicotine remain unknown. In the present study in mice, we first used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify CNS cells stimulated by nicotine (NIC, 40 μg/kg, IP) and by a peripherally-acting analog of nicotine, nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM, 30 μg/kg, IP). Sequential double-labelling was then performed to determine whether noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons of the nicotine reward-addiction circuitry were primary targets of NIC and NIC-PM. Double-labelling of NIC and/or NIC-PM activated c-Fos immunoreactive cells with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed no apparent c-Fos expression by the dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). With the exception of sparse numbers of TH immunoreactive D11 cells, dopamine-containing neurons in other areas of the reward-addiction circuitry, namely periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe, were also devoid of c-Fos immunoreactivity. Noradrenergic neurons of locus coeruleus (LC), known to innervate VTA, were activated by both NIC and NIC-PM. These results demonstrate that noradrenergic neurons of LC are among the first structures that are stimulated by single acute IP injection of NIC and NIC-PM. Dopaminergic neurons of VTA and other CNS sites, did not respond to acute IP administration of NIC or NIC-PM by induction of c-Fos. PMID:27347434

  2. National Ice Center Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Meg

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the work done by Dr. Kim Partington were to manage NASA's polar research program, including its strategic direction, research funding and interagency and international collaborations. The objectives of the UCAR Visiting Scientist Program at the National Ice Center (NIC) are to: (1) Manage a visiting scientist program for the NIC Science Center in support of the mission of the NIC; (2) Provide a pool of researchers who will share expertise with the NIC and the science community; (3) Facilitate communications between the research and operational communities for the purpose of identifying work ready for validation and transition to an operational environment; and (4) Act as a focus for interagency cooperation. The NIC mission is to provide worldwide operational sea ice analyses and forecasts for the armed forces of the US and allied nations, the Departments of Commerce and Transportation, and other US Government and international agencies, and the civil sector. The NIC produces these analyses and forecasts of Arctic, Antarctic, Great Lakes, and Chesapeake Bay ice conditions to support customers with global, regional, and tactical scale interests. The NIC regularly deploys Naval Ice Center NAVICECEN Ice Reconnaissance personnel to the Arctic and Antarctica in order to perform aerial ice observation and analysis in support of NIC customers. NIC ice data are a key part of the US contribution to international global climate and ocean observing systems.

  3. Effects of ceftriaxone on ethanol, nicotine or sucrose intake by alcohol-preferring (P) rats and its association with GLT-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Toalston, Jamie E; Rao, P S S; Bell, Richard L

    2016-06-21

    Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol (EtOH). We have shown that administration of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, reduced EtOH intake and increased glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression in mesocorticolimbic regions of male and female alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In the present study, we tested whether CEF administration would reduce nicotine (NIC) and/or EtOH intake by adult female P rats. P rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (a) 5% sucrose (SUC) or 10% SUC [SUC], (b) 5% SUC+0.07mg/ml NIC and 10% SUC+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-SUC], 15% EtOH and 30% EtOH [EtOH] and (d) 15% EtOH+0.07mg/ml NIC and 30% EtOH+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-EtOH]. After achieving stable intakes (4weeks), the rats were administered 7 consecutive, daily i.p. injections of either saline or 200mg/kg CEF. The effects of CEF on intake were significant but differed across the reinforcers; such that ml/kg/day SUC was reduced by ∼30%, mg/kg/day NIC was reduced by ∼70% in the NIC-SUC group and ∼40% in the EtOH-NIC group, whereas g/kg/day EtOH was reduced by ∼40% in both the EtOH and EtOH-NIC group. The effects of CEF on GLT-1 expression were also studied. We found that CEF significantly increased GLT-1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of the NIC and NIC-EtOH rats as compared to NIC and NIC-EtOH saline-treated rats. These findings provide further support for GLT-1-associated mechanisms in EtOH and/or NIC abuse. The present results along with previous reports of CEF's efficacy in reducing cocaine self-administration in rats suggest that modulation of GLT-1 expression and/or activity is an important pharmacological target for treating polysubstance abuse and dependence. PMID:27060486

  4. A Calibration of NICMOS Camera 2 for Low Count Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, D.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Barbary, K.; Dawson, K. S.; Deustua, S.; Faccioli, L.; Fadeyev, V.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Gladders, M. D.; de Jong, R. S.; Koekemoer, A.; Krechmer, E.; Lidman, C.; Meyers, J.; Nordin, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Schlegel, D. J.; Spadafora, A.; Suzuki, N.

    2015-05-01

    NICMOS 2 observations are crucial for constraining distances to most of the existing sample of z\\gt 1 SNe Ia. Unlike conventional calibration programs, these observations involve long exposure times and low count rates. Reciprocity failure is known to exist in HgCdTe devices and a correction for this effect has already been implemented for high and medium count rates. However, observations at faint count rates rely on extrapolations. Here instead, we provide a new zero-point calibration directly applicable to faint sources. This is obtained via inter-calibration of NIC2 F110W/F160W with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in the low count-rate regime using z∼ 1 elliptical galaxies as tertiary calibrators. These objects have relatively simple near-IR spectral energy distributions, uniform colors, and their extended nature gives a superior signal-to-noise ratio at the same count rate than would stars. The use of extended objects also allows greater tolerances on point-spread function profiles. We find space telescope magnitude zero points (after the installation of the NICMOS cooling system, NCS) of 25.296\\+/- 0.022 for F110W and 25.803\\+/- 0.023 for F160W, both in agreement with the calibration extrapolated from count rates ≳1000 times larger (25.262 and 25.799). Before the installation of the NCS, we find 24.843\\+/- 0.025 for F110W and 25.498\\+/- 0.021 for F160W, also in agreement with the high-count-rate calibration (24.815 and 25.470). We also check the standard bandpasses of WFC3 and NICMOS 2 using a range of stars and galaxies at different colors and find mild tension for WFC3, limiting the accuracy of the zero points. To avoid human bias, our cross-calibration was “blinded” in that the fitted zero-point differences were hidden until the analysis was finalized. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555, under programs

  5. Novel multifunctional pharmacology of lobinaline, the major alkaloid from Lobelia cardinalis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dustin P; Rogers, Dennis T; Pomerleau, Francois; Siripurapu, Kirin B; Kulshrestha, Manish; Gerhardt, Greg A; Littleton, John M

    2016-06-01

    In screening a library of plant extracts from ~1000 species native to the Southeastern United States, Lobelia cardinalis was identified as containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nicAchR) binding activity which was relatively non-selective for the α4β2- and α7-nicAchR subtypes. This nicAchR binding profile is atypical for plant-derived nicAchR ligands, the majority of which are highly selective for α4β2-nicAchRs. Its potential therapeutic relevance is noteworthy since agonism of α4β2- and α7-nicAchRs is associated with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Bioassay-guided fractionation of L. cardinalis extracts led to the identification of lobinaline, a complex binitrogenous alkaloid, as the main source of the unique nicAchR binding profile. Purified lobinaline was a potent free radical scavenger, displayed similar binding affinity at α4β2- and α7-nicAchRs, exhibited agonist activity at nicAchRs in SH-SY5Y cells, and inhibited [(3)H]-dopamine (DA) uptake in rat striatal synaptosomes. Lobinaline significantly increased fractional [(3)H] release from superfused rat striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]-DA, an effect that was inhibited by the non-selective nicAchR antagonist mecamylamine. In vivo electrochemical studies in urethane-anesthetized rats demonstrated that lobinaline locally applied in the striatum significantly prolonged clearance of exogenous DA by the dopamine transporter (DAT). In contrast, lobeline, the most thoroughly investigated Lobelia alkaloid, is an α4β2-nicAchR antagonist, a poor free radical scavenger, and is a less potent DAT inhibitor. These previously unreported multifunctional effects of lobinaline make it of interest as a lead to develop therapeutics for neuropathological disorders that involve free radical generation, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission. These include neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, and drug abuse. PMID:27105955

  6. Antiatherosclerotic Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide in Apolipoprotein E/Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice: A Comparison with Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Maslak, Edyta; Gasior-Glogowska, Marlena; Baranska, Malgorzata; Sitek, Barbara; Kostogrys, Renata; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kij, Agnieszka; Walczak, Maria; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), the major endogenous metabolite of nicotinic acid (NicA), may partially contribute to the vasoprotective properties of NicA. Here we compared the antiatherosclerotic effects of MNA and NicA in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)/low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice. ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice were treated with MNA or NicA (100 mg/kg). Plaque size, macrophages, and cholesterol content in the brachiocephalic artery, endothelial function in the aorta, systemic inflammation, platelet activation, as well as the concentration of MNA and its metabolites in plasma and urine were measured. MNA and NicA reduced atherosclerotic plaque area, plaque inflammation, and cholesterol content in the brachiocephalic artery. The antiatherosclerotic actions of MNA and NicA were associated with improved endothelial function, as evidenced by a higher concentration of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 α and nitrite/nitrate in the aortic ring effluent, inhibition of platelets (blunted thromboxane B2 generation), and inhibition of systemic inflammation (lower plasma concentration of serum amyloid P, haptoglobin). NicA treatment resulted in an approximately 2-fold higher concentration of MNA and its metabolites in urine and a 4-fold higher nicotinamide/MNA ratio in plasma, compared with MNA treatment. In summary; MNA displays pronounced antiatherosclerotic action in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, an effect associated with an improvement in prostacyclin- and nitric oxide-dependent endothelial function, inhibition of platelet activation, inhibition of inflammatory burden in plaques, and diminished systemic inflammation. Despite substantially higher MNA availability after NicA treatment, compared with an equivalent dose of MNA, the antiatherosclerotic effect of NicA was not stronger. We suggest that detrimental effects of NicA or its metabolites other than MNA may limit beneficial effects of NicA-derived MNA. PMID:26631491

  7. An unusual repressor controls the expression of a crucial nicotine-degrading gene cluster in Pseudomonas putida S16.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Tang, Hongzhi; Yu, Hao; Yao, Yuxiang; Xu, Ping

    2014-03-01

    Transcriptional factors that contain helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding domains are widespread in bacteria for regulating gene expression on demand, and function as homodimers that bind a palindromic DNA segment. Here, we show that an HTH-containing transcriptional regulator, NicR2, in Pseudomonas putida S16 plays a critical role in controlling the expression of a crucial gene cluster (nic2) in nicotine degradation, and NicR2 binds DNA in a manner different from most other DNA-binding proteins that use HTHs for recognition. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNase I footprinting indicate that NicR2 directly interacts with a 28 bp inverted repeat (IR) in the nic2 promoter region. Using EMSA with synthetic DNA fragments, we found that both NicR2 dimer and tetramer can bind to the half-site of the IR. This is confirmed independently by biolayer interferometry and cross-linking experiments. Our results indicate that two NicR2 dimers bind to the IR cooperatively through protein-protein interactions, with each dimer binding the half-site of the IR. Thus, NicR2 appears to be an unusual regulator, which uses HTH for recognition and displays the binding characteristics of some regulators that use β-sheets. The transcriptional regulation of nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas highlights a new level of complexity in prokaryotic transcriptional regulation. PMID:24471758

  8. 78 FR 41088 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Support Services for Community Services Division Networks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Services Division Networks AGENCY: National Institute of Corrections, U.S., Department of Justice. ACTION... support services to NIC Community Services Division sponsored networks. The networks are designed for NIC... members. Each of the networks typically meets twice per fiscal year, for a total of up to ten...

  9. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the system. 25.9 Section 25.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of records in the system. (a) The NICS will retain NICS Index records that indicate that receipt of a...

  10. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the system. 25.9 Section 25.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of records in the system. (a) The NICS will retain NICS Index records that indicate that receipt of a...

  11. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the system. 25.9 Section 25.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of records in the system. (a) The NICS will retain NICS Index records that indicate that receipt of a...

  12. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the system. 25.9 Section 25.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of records in the system. (a) The NICS will retain NICS Index records that indicate that receipt of a...

  13. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the system. 25.9 Section 25.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of records in the system. (a) The NICS will retain NICS Index records that indicate that receipt of a...

  14. 76 FR 45618 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Two Hearings of the National Institute of Corrections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Two Hearings of the National... agreement will involve organizing two hearings of ] the NIC Advisory Board. The hearings will assist the... will organize and coordinate all logistical details for two hearings of the NIC Advisory Board....

  15. 78 FR 48721 - Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... National Institute of Corrections Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Advisory Board. At least one portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of the Committee: NIC Advisory Board. General Function of...

  16. North Idaho College Long-Range Plan and Statement of Institutional Mission and Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargol, Owen F.

    Based upon a planning project initiated at North Idaho College (NIC) in 1981 and approved by the Board of Trustees in 1982, this long-range plan states the mission of NIC and specifies goals and objectives to be attained in the next 3 years. First, introductory sections consider the qualities of a good long-range plan, address the responsibilities…

  17. Planning Study for North Idaho College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Raymond J.

    This three-part, long-range planning study was undertaken to assist North Idaho College (NIC) to more effectively meet the educational needs and interests of youth and adults residing in the five county Panhandle Area of Northern Idaho. Part I discusses NIC and its community; presents the results of a study of the educational plans and attitudes…

  18. 77 FR 74876 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection, Comments Requested; Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ...) Enrollment/National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) E-Check Enrollment Form, Federal Firearms... notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Section...

  19. Report on Junior College Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Janet

    This report summarizes enrollment, costs, and funding information for North Idaho College (NIC) and the College of Southern Idaho (CSI) for 1972 and 1977, explores new options for the future, and presents academic and vocational division funding information and capital construction data. Academic student enrollment at NIC increased 35% between…

  20. Problematic Curriculum Development: Normative Inquiry in Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.

    1988-01-01

    Normative inquiry in curriculum (NIC) is concerned with a substantive, integrative approach to values so that the curriculum possesses integrity, consistency, and congruity. This article explores definitions and characteristics of NIC, analyzes the role of curricular influences and realities, provides suggestions for getting started, and answers…

  1. 75 FR 52552 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Curriculum Development: Implementing and Sustaining an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    .... The curriculum must adhere to NIC's Instructional Theory into Practice (ITIP) model, which applicants... should be developed using NIC's Instructional Theory into Practice (ITIP) model. The curriculum should... corrections supervisors and managers with the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to model,...

  2. Assessment of a Model for the Evaluation of Professional Non-Instruction Staff in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavaty, Erica A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help improve the evaluation system for school counselors and school psychologists, or non-instructional, certified staff (NICS). A mixed methodology approach was used to describe the existing evaluation system used to evaluate NICS; to develop a new system of evaluation based on recent research; and to determine…

  3. 78 FR 2438 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection, Comments Requested: The National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Background Check System (NICS) Point-of-Contact (POC) State Final Determination Electronic Submission ACTION... National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Point-of-Contact (POC) State Final Determination... will be asked or required to respond, as well as a brief abstract: Primary: Full Point-of-Contact...

  4. The investigation of the solvent effect on coordination of nicotinato ligand with cobalt(II) complex containing tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayin, Koray; Karakaş, Duran

    2014-11-01

    The electronic structure of [Co(ntb)(nic)]+ complex ion are optimized by using density functional theory (DFT) method with mix basis set. Where (ntb) represents tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine ligand and (nic) is the anion of nicotinic acids. Six different fields, vacuum, chloroform, butanonitrile, methanol, water and formamide solvents are used in these calculations. The calculated structural parameters indicate that (nic) ligand coordinates to cobalt(II) containing (ntb) ligand with one oxygen atom in butanonitrile, methanol, water and formamide solvents but coordinates with two oxygen atoms in vacuum. These results are supported with IR, UV and 1H NMR spectra. According to the calculated results, the geometry of [Co(ntb)(nic)]+ complex ion is distorted octahedral in vacuum while the geometry is distorted square pyramidal in the all other solvents. Distorted octahedral [Co(ntb)(nic)]+ complex ion have not been synthesized as experimentally and it is predicted with computational chemistry methods.

  5. Cognitive and Behavioral Impairments Evoked by Low-Level Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Components: Comparison with Nicotine Alone.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brandon J; Cauley, Marty; Burke, Dennis A; Kiany, Abtin; Slotkin, Theodore A; Levin, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    Active maternal smoking has adverse effects on neurobehavioral development of the offspring, with nicotine (Nic) providing much of the underlying causative mechanism. To determine whether the lower exposures caused by second-hand smoke are deleterious, we administered tobacco smoke extract (TSE) to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through the second postnatal week, corresponding to all 3 trimesters of fetal brain development. Dosing was adjusted to produce maternal plasma Nic concentrations encountered with second-hand smoke, an order of magnitude below those seen in active smokers. We then compared TSE effects to those of an equivalent dose of Nic alone, and to a 10-fold higher Nic dose. Gestational exposure to TSE and Nic significantly disrupted cognitive and behavioral function in behavioral tests given during adolescence and adulthood (postnatal weeks 4-40), producing hyperactivity, working memory deficits, and impairments in emotional processing, even at the low exposure levels corresponding to second-hand smoke. Although TSE effects were highly correlated with those of Nic, the effects of TSE were much larger than could be attributed to just the Nic in the mixture. Indeed, TSE effects more closely resembled those of the 10-fold higher Nic levels, but still exceeded their magnitude. In combination with our earlier findings, this study thus completes the chain of causation to prove that second-hand smoke exposure causes neurodevelopmental deficits, originating in disruption of neurodifferentiation, leading to miswiring of neuronal circuits, and as shown here, culminating in behavioral dysfunction. As low level exposure to Nic alone produced neurobehavioral teratology, 'harm reduction' Nic products do not abolish the potential for neurodevelopmental damage. PMID:26919958

  6. Nicotinamide late protective effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver necrosis.

    PubMed

    de Ferreyra, E C; Bernacchi, A S; San Martín, M F; Castro, G D; Castro, J A

    1994-06-01

    Nicotinamide (NIC) is known to increase the synthesis of pyridine nucleotides and also to inhibit the hydrolysis of them to ADP-ribose, which in turn is involved in Ca2+ release from mitochondria via the ADP ribosylation of crucial mitochondrial proteins. In this work, we test the potential ability of NIC to be a late protective agent against CCl4-induced liver necrosis. We observed that 1 g/kg po NIC, 30 min before or 6 or 10 hr after CCl4 (1 ml/kg), given ip as a 20% (v/v) solution in olive oil, was able to significantly prevent the necrogenic effect of the hepatotoxin at 24 hr as evidenced by determination of isocitric dehydrogenase activity in plasma or by histological observation. NIC administration 6 hr after CCl4 prevented fatty liver induced by hepatotoxin at 24 hr. NIC did not modify CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation process at 1 hr after CCl4 and decreased the covalent binding of 14CCl4 to lipids. NIC decreased the levels of 14CCl4 reaching the liver when given 30 min before hepatotoxin but not when given 6 hr after it. NIC lowered body temperature of rats at 1, 3, and 6 hr and augmented it at 24 hr after CCl4. NIC concentrations in liver as determined by GC/MS/SIM analysis were 21 micrograms/g liver 1 hr after administration and 53 micrograms/g at 3 hr. Late preventive effects of NIC against CCl4 induced liver necrosis when given at 6 or 10 hr after CCl4 are compatible with the hypothesis that NIC restores mitochondrial ability for Ca2+ uptake. This hypothesis remains to be proved and is being further challenged in our laboratory. PMID:7957779

  7. Determination of niclosamide residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillet tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, T.M.; Dawson, V.K.; Cho, Yirang; Spanjers, N.J.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Bayluscide [the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide (NIC)] is a registered piscicide used in combination with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to control sea lamprey populations in streams tributary to the Great Lakes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of NIC residues in muscle fillet tissues of fish exposed to NIC and TFM during sea lamprey control treatments. NIC was extracted from fortified channel catfish and rainbow trout fillet tissue with a series of acetone extractions and cleaned up on C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. NIC concentrations were determined by HPLC with detection at 360 and 335 nm for rainbow trout and catfish, respectively. Recovery of NIC from rainbow trout (n = 7) fortified at 0.04 mu g/g was 77 +/- 6.5% and from channel catfish (n = 7) fortified at 0.02 mu g/g was 113 +/- 11%. NIC detection limit was 0.0107 mu g/g for rainbow trout and 0.0063 mu g/g for catfish. Percent recovery of incurred radioactive residues by this method from catfish exposed to [C-14]NIC was 89.3 +/- 4.1%. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for rainbow trout (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 78 +/- 5.1 and 68 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for channel catfish (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 88 +/- 13 and 76 +/- 21%, respectively.

  8. Differential regulation of nicotinic receptor-mediated neurotransmitter release following chronic (-)-nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Iris; Anderson, David J; Surowy, Carol S; Puttfarcken, Pamela S

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter release from slices of rat striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus following chronic (-)-nicotine (Nic) administration (tartrate salt, 2 mg/kg twice daily for 10 days). Binding studies were also conducted to measure changes in receptor density. Relative to saline-treated animals, the number of nAChRs measured by [(3)H]-cytisine (CYT) binding was significantly increased in all brain regions examined by 15% to 25% following chronic Nic administration. Using a relatively high throughput method to measure neurotransmitter release, we found that Nic, CYT, and (+/-)-epibatidine (EB) evoked similar concentration-dependent striatal [(3)H]-dopamine (DA) and hippocampal [(3)H]-norepinephrine (NE) release from both saline (rank order of potency for [(3)H]-DA: EB>CYT>Nic; pEC(50) values, EB (9 +/- 0.1), CYT (8 +/- 0.13), Nic (7.3 +/- 0.19); rank order potency for [(3)H]-NE: EB>Nic=CYT; pEC(50) values, EB (8 +/- 0.18), Nic (5.5 +/- 0.09), CYT (5.12 +/- 0.1)) -and Nic-treated animals (pEC(50) values [(3)H]-DA, EB (9.5 +/- 0.15), Nic (8 +/- 0.16, CYT (6.6 +/- 0.52); [(3)H]-NE, EB (8.4 +/- 0.23), Nic (5.19 +/- 0.1), CYT (5.18 +/- 0.29)). Although no change in potency was detected between the two treatment groups, the agonist efficacies in both tissues were significantly reduced by approximately 17-54% following chronic Nic administration. In contrast to striatum, treatment with Nic did not affect the maximal [(3)H]-DA response (efficacy) in the frontal cortex. However, as observed in the striatum, no change in agonist potency was observed in the frontal cortex following chronic Nic administration (pEC(50) values, saline; EB (9.2 +/- 0.2), >CYT (6.95 +/- 0.75) = Nic (6.9 +/- 0.16); Nic-treated, EB (9 +/- 0.42)>CYT (6.88 +/- 0.27) = Nic (7.1 +/- 0.17)). Chronic Nic treatment did not significantly affect KCl-evoked [(3)H]-NE release from hippocampus or [(3)H]-DA release from frontal cortex or striatum. Since

  9. Effects of nicotine administration in a mouse model of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, α-tropomyosin D175N

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Robert D.; Chowdhury, Shamim A. K.; Alves, Marco S. L.; Dias, Fernando A. L.; Ribeiro, Cibele T. D.; Fogaca, Rosalvo T. H.; Wieczorek, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of nicotine (NIC) on normal hearts are fairly well established, yet its effects on hearts displaying familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have not been tested. We studied both the acute and chronic effects of NIC on a transgenic (TG) mouse model of FHC caused by a mutation in α-tropomyosin (Tm; i.e., α-Tm D175N TG, or Tm175). For acute effects, intravenously injected NIC increased heart rate, left ventricular (LV) pressure, and the maximal rate of LV pressure increase (+dP/dt) in non-TG (NTG) and Tm175 mice; however, Tm175 showed a significantly smaller increase in the maximal rate of LV pressure decrease (−dP/dt) compared with NTGs. Western blots revealed phosphorylation of phospholamban Ser16 and Thr17 residue increased in NTG mice following NIC injection but not in Tm175 mice. In contrast, phosphorylation of troponin I at serine residues 23 and 24 increased equally in both NTG and Tm175. Thus the attenuated increase in relaxation in Tm175 mice following acute NIC appears to result primarily from attenuated phospholamban phosphorylation. Chronic NIC administration (equivalent to smoking 2 packs of cigarettes/day for 4 mo) also increased +dP/dt in NTG and Tm175 mice compared with chronic saline. However, chronic NIC had little effect on heart rate, LV pressure, −dP/dt, LV wall and chamber dimensions, or collagen content for either group of mice. PMID:21743000

  10. Prenatal Nicotine and Maternal Deprivation Stress De-Regulate the Development of CA1, CA3, and Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Hippocampus of Infant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse experiences by the developing fetus and in early childhood are associated with profound effects on learning, emotional behavior, and cognition as a whole. In this study we investigated the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (NIC), postnatal maternal deprivation (MD) or the combination of the two (NIC+MD) to determine if hippocampal neuron development is modulated by exposure to drugs of abuse and/or stress. Growth of rat offspring exposed to MD alone or NIC+MD was repressed until after weaning. In CA1 but not CA3 of postnatal day 14 (P14) pups, MD increased pyramidal neurons, however, in dentate gyrus (DG), decreased granule neurons. NIC had no effect on neuron number in CA1, CA3 or DG. Unexpectedly, NIC plus MD combined caused a synergistic increase in the number of CA1 or CA3 neurons. Neuron density in CA regions was unaffected by treatment, but in the DG, granule neurons had a looser packing density after NIC, MD or NIC+MD exposure. When septotemporal axes were analyzed, the synergism of stress and drug exposure in CA1 and CA3 was associated with rostral, whereas MD effects were predominantly associated with caudal neurons. TUNEL labeling suggests no active apoptosis at P14, and doublecortin positive neurons and mossy fibers were diminished in NIC+MD relative to controls. The laterality of the effect of nicotine and/or maternal deprivation in right versus left hippocampus was also analyzed and found to be insiginificant. We report for the first time that early life stressors such as postnatal MD and prenatal NIC exposure, when combined, may exhibit synergistic consequences for CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neuron development, and a potential antagonistic influence on developing DG neurons. These results suggest that early stressors may modulate neurogenesis, apoptosis, or maturation of glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus in a region-specific manner during critical periods of neurodevelopment. PMID:23785432

  11. Orchiectomy modifies the antidepressant-like response of nicotine in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Limón-Morales, O; Arteaga-Silva, M; Hernández-González, M; Guadarrama-Cruz, G; Alarcón-Aguilar, F; Vázquez-Palacios, G

    2010-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that nicotine (NIC) exhibits antidepressant-like effects. In addition, it has been suggested that sexual hormones participate in the antidepressant actions of antidepressives. The present study was designed to analyze the effect of orchiectomy and the supplementation of testosterone propionate (TP) or 17β-estradiol (E(2)) on the antidepressant properties of NIC using the forced swimming test (FST), as well as to determine possible changes in the FST during different time periods after orchiectomy. In order to evaluate the influences of orchiectomy on the effects of NIC, the study first evaluated the effects of different time periods on orchiectomized rats (15, 21, 30, 45 and 60 days) that were subjected to the FST. Then, different doses of NIC (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg/kg, sc) were administered for 14 days to both intact and orchiectomized rats (after 21 day) which were then also subjected to the FST. Finally, the influence of the TP or E(2) supplementation on the antidepressant-like effect of NIC on orchiectomized rats (after 21 days) was also analyzed. Results reveal that orchiectomy significantly increased immobility behavior and decreased swimming and climbing up to 60 days after castration. In contrast, NIC decreased immobility behavior and increased swimming in intact rats; whereas orchiectomy suppressed this antidepressant effect of NIC. Only with E(2) supplementation was it possible to restore the sensitivity of the castrated rats to NIC. These results suggest that E(2) was able to facilitate the antidepressant response of NIC in orchiectomized rats. PMID:20709090

  12. Dimensionality of ICA in resting-state fMRI investigated by feature optimized classification of independent components with SVM

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanlu; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Different machine learning algorithms have recently been used for assisting automated classification of independent component analysis (ICA) results from resting-state fMRI data. The success of this approach relies on identification of artifact components and meaningful functional networks. A limiting factor of ICA is the uncertainty of the number of independent components (NIC). We aim to develop a framework based on support vector machines (SVM) and optimized feature-selection for automated classification of independent components (ICs) and use the framework to investigate the effects of input NIC on the ICA results. Seven different resting-state fMRI datasets were studied. 18 features were devised by mimicking the empirical criteria for manual evaluation. The five most significant (p < 0.01) features were identified by general linear modeling and used to generate a classification model for the framework. This feature-optimized classification of ICs with SVM (FOCIS) framework was used to classify both group and single subject ICA results. The classification results obtained using FOCIS and previously published FSL-FIX were compared against manually evaluated results. On average the false negative rate in identifying artifact contaminated ICs for FOCIS and FSL-FIX were 98.27 and 92.34%, respectively. The number of artifact and functional network components increased almost linearly with the input NIC. Through tracking, we demonstrate that incrementing NIC affects most ICs when NIC < 33, whereas only a few limited ICs are affected by direct splitting when NIC is incremented beyond NIC > 40. For a given IC, its changes with increasing NIC are individually specific irrespective whether the component is a potential resting-state functional network or an artifact component. Using FOCIS, we investigated experimentally the ICA dimensionality of resting-state fMRI datasets and found that the input NIC can critically affect the ICA results of resting-state fMRI data. PMID

  13. Impact of prenatal nicotine on the structure of midbrain dopamine regions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Omelchenko, Natalia; Roy, Priya; Balcita-Pedicino, Judith Joyce; Poloyac, Samuel; Sesack, Susan R

    2016-05-01

    In utero exposure of rats to nicotine (NIC) provides a useful animal model for studying the impact of smoking during pregnancy on human offspring. Certain sequelae of prenatal NIC exposure suggest an impact on the development of the midbrain dopamine (DA) system, which receives a robust cholinergic innervation from the mesopontine tegmentum. We therefore investigated whether prenatal NIC induced structural changes in cells and synapses within the midbrain that persisted into adulthood. Osmotic minipumps delivering either sodium bitartrate (vehicle; VEH) or NIC bitartrate at 2 mg/kg/day were implanted into nine timed-pregnant dams at E4. At birth, rat pups were culled to litters of six males each, and the litters were cross-fostered. Plasma levels of NIC and cotinine from killed pups provided evidence of NIC exposure in utero. Pups separated from dams at weaning showed a trend toward reduced locomotor activity at this time point but not when tested again in adulthood. Adult rats were killed for anatomical studies. Estimates of brain size and volume did not vary with NIC treatment. Midbrain sections stained for Nissl or by immunoperoxidase for tyrosine hydroxylase and analyzed using unbiased stereology revealed no changes in volume or cell number in the substantia nigra compacta or ventral tegmental area as a result of NIC exposure. Within the ventral tegmental area, electron microscopic physical disector analysis showed no significant differences in the number of axon terminals or the number of asymmetric (putative excitatory) or symmetric (putative inhibitory) synapses. Although too infrequent to estimate by unbiased stereology, no obvious difference in the proportion of cholinergic axons was noted in NIC- versus VEH-treated animals. These data suggest that activation of nicotinic receptors during prenatal development induces no significant modifications in the structure of cells in the ventral midbrain when assessed in adulthood. PMID:25716298

  14. Can the current density map topology be extracted from the nucleus independent chemical shifts?

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Sofie; Acke, Guillaume; Havenith, Remco W A; Bultinck, Patrick

    2016-04-28

    Aromatic compounds are characterised by the presence of a ring current when in a magnetic field. As a consequence, current density maps are used to assess (the degree of) aromaticity of a compound. However, often a more discrete set of so-called Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) values is used that is derived from the current density. It is shown here that there is no simple one-to-one relationship that allows reconstructing current density maps from only NICS-values. NICS values should therefore not be used as aromaticity indices without analysis of the ab initio computed current density map. PMID:26762574

  15. Combination of hydrotropic nicotinamide with nanoparticles for enhancing tacrolimus percutaneous delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wenhui; Qin, Mengyao; Zhang, Guoguang; Long, Yueming; Ruan, Wenyi; Pan, Jingtong; Wu, Zushuai; Wan, Tao; Wu, Chuanbin; Xu, Yuehong

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506), an effective immunosuppressant for treating inflammatory skin diseases, hardly penetrates into and through the skin owing to its high hydrophobicity and molecular weight. The aim of this study was to develop a hybrid system based on nicotinamide (NIC) and nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating FK506, such as FK506–NPs–NIC, for facilitating percutaneous delivery, which exploited virtues of both NIC and NPs to obtain the synergetic effect. Solubility and percutaneous permeation studies were carried out. The results showed that NIC could increase the solubility and permeability of FK506 and that 20% (w/v) NIC presented higher FK506 permeability and was thus chosen as the hydrotropic solution to solubilize FK506 and prepare FK506–NPs–NIC. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was chemically conjugated with cholesterol (Chol) to obtain amphiphilic conjugate of HA–Chol, which self-assembled NPs in 20% NIC solution containing FK506. The particle size, zeta potential, and morphology of NPs were characterized. The encapsulation efficiency and in vitro percutaneous permeation of NPs were evaluated in the presence and absence of NIC. The results demonstrated that hydrotropic solubilizing FK506 was readily encapsulated into NPs with a higher encapsulation efficiency of 79.2%±4.2%, and the combination of NPs with NIC exhibited a significantly synergistic effect on FK506 deposition within the skin (2.39±0.53 μg/cm2) and penetration through the skin (13.38±2.26 μg/cm2). The effect of the combination of NPs with NIC on drug permeation was further visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope through in vivo permeation studies, and the results confirmed that NPs–NIC synergistically enhanced the permeation of the drug into the skin. The cellular uptake performed in HaCaT cells presented a promoting effect of NPs on cellular uptake. These overall results demonstrated that HA–Chol–NPs–NIC can synergistically improve the percutaneous delivery of FK506, and it is

  16. Combination of hydrotropic nicotinamide with nanoparticles for enhancing tacrolimus percutaneous delivery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenhui; Qin, Mengyao; Zhang, Guoguang; Long, Yueming; Ruan, Wenyi; Pan, Jingtong; Wu, Zushuai; Wan, Tao; Wu, Chuanbin; Xu, Yuehong

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506), an effective immunosuppressant for treating inflammatory skin diseases, hardly penetrates into and through the skin owing to its high hydrophobicity and molecular weight. The aim of this study was to develop a hybrid system based on nicotinamide (NIC) and nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating FK506, such as FK506-NPs-NIC, for facilitating percutaneous delivery, which exploited virtues of both NIC and NPs to obtain the synergetic effect. Solubility and percutaneous permeation studies were carried out. The results showed that NIC could increase the solubility and permeability of FK506 and that 20% (w/v) NIC presented higher FK506 permeability and was thus chosen as the hydrotropic solution to solubilize FK506 and prepare FK506-NPs-NIC. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was chemically conjugated with cholesterol (Chol) to obtain amphiphilic conjugate of HA-Chol, which self-assembled NPs in 20% NIC solution containing FK506. The particle size, zeta potential, and morphology of NPs were characterized. The encapsulation efficiency and in vitro percutaneous permeation of NPs were evaluated in the presence and absence of NIC. The results demonstrated that hydrotropic solubilizing FK506 was readily encapsulated into NPs with a higher encapsulation efficiency of 79.2%±4.2%, and the combination of NPs with NIC exhibited a significantly synergistic effect on FK506 deposition within the skin (2.39±0.53 μg/cm(2)) and penetration through the skin (13.38±2.26 μg/cm(2)). The effect of the combination of NPs with NIC on drug permeation was further visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope through in vivo permeation studies, and the results confirmed that NPs-NIC synergistically enhanced the permeation of the drug into the skin. The cellular uptake performed in HaCaT cells presented a promoting effect of NPs on cellular uptake. These overall results demonstrated that HA-Chol-NPs-NIC can synergistically improve the percutaneous delivery of FK506, and it is a novel

  17. Nursing diagnoses, interventions, and patient outcomes for hospitalized older adults with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Head, Barbara J; Scherb, Cindy A; Reed, David; Conley, Deborah Marks; Weinberg, Barbara; Kozel, Marie; Gillette, Susan; Clarke, Mary; Moorhead, Sue

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted by academic and community hospital partners with clinical information systems that included the standardized nursing language classifications of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International (NANDA-I), Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC (NNN) terms documented for older adults with pneumonia who were discharged from three hospitals during a 1-year period. NNN terms were ranked according to frequency for each hospital, and then the rankings were compared with previous studies. Similarity was greater across hospitals in rankings of NANDA-I and NOC terms than in rankings of NIC terms. NANDA-I and NIC terms are influenced by reimbursement and regulatory factors as well as patient condition. The 10 most frequent NNN terms for each hospital accounted only for a small to moderate percentage of the terms selected. PMID:21544937

  18. 78 FR 41086 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Children of Incarcerated Parents: Arrest Through Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Children of Incarcerated... Justice. ACTION: Solicitation for a cooperative agreement. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals to enter into a...

  19. 75 FR 41892 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Guidebook for Building High Performance Correctional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Guidebook for Building High.... ACTION: Solicitation for Cooperative Agreement. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement for...

  20. Building a Reliable Onboard Network with Ethernet: A GSFC Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquart, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the architecture of an Ethernet-based communication network for spacecraft. The presentation also contains information on data link reliability, PDU formats, and NIC/OS Measurements.

  1. 41 CFR 102-173.70 - Where do I register my dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.70 Where do I register my dot-gov domain name? Registration is an online process at the General Services Administration's Web site at http://www.nic.gov. At...

  2. 41 CFR 102-173.95 - Are there any restrictions on the use of the dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.95 Are there any restrictions on the use of the dot... and are posted at the registration Web site at http://www.nic.gov and may be modified over...

  3. 41 CFR 102-173.45 - Is there a registration charge for domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.45 Is there a registration charge for domain names? The General... operations. For current registration charges, please visit the GSA Web site at http://www.nic.gov. GSA...

  4. 75 FR 17417 - Joint Meeting of the Arthritis Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Management Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register of March 8, 2010 (75 FR..., naproxcinod 375 milligram capsule, sponsored by NicOx S.A. Naproxcinod is a non-steroidal...

  5. Network Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    1992-01-01

    Explains how users can find and access information resources available on the Internet. Highlights include network information centers (NICs); lists, both formal and informal; computer networking protocols, including international standards; electronic mail; remote log-in; and file transfer. (LRW)

  6. ISS Update: Robonaut 2 Handshake and Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly interviews Nic Radford, Robonaut Deputy Project Manager, talks about Robonaut's first hand shake in space, as well as what the future hold for the robot aboa...

  7. 41 CFR 102-173.95 - Are there any restrictions on the use of the dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and are posted at the registration Web site at http://www.nic.gov and may be modified over time. Organizations that operate web sites that are not in compliance with the conditions of use may have their...

  8. 41 CFR 102-173.95 - Are there any restrictions on the use of the dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and are posted at the registration Web site at http://www.nic.gov and may be modified over time. Organizations that operate web sites that are not in compliance with the conditions of use may have their...

  9. 75 FR 39692 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... be obtained from the National Information Center website at www.ffiec.gov/nic/ . Unless otherwise..., Bradley, Arkansas. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, July 7, 2010. Robert deV....

  10. 76 FR 8380 - Advisory Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ..., March 7, 2011. 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Tuesday, March 8, 2011. PLACE: National Institute of Corrections...: Briefing on NIC Reports; Agency Reports; Quarterly Report by Office of Justice Programs. CONTACT PERSON...

  11. 75 FR 32780 - Notice of Proposals to Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or to Acquire Companies that...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ....ffiec.gov/nic/ . Unless otherwise noted, comments regarding the applications must be received at the....28 (b)(7)(i), and in riskless principal transactions, pursuant to section 225.28(b)(7)(ii),...

  12. 75 FR 33307 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... be obtained from the National Information Center website at www.ffiec.gov/nic/ . Unless otherwise... Regulation Y. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, June 7, 2010. Robert deV. Frierson,...

  13. Propagation of electro-kinetic waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor with nano-sized ion colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Ajay; Sharma, Giriraj; Jat, K. L.; Rishi, M. P.

    2015-07-31

    Based on hydrodynamic model of multi-component plasma, an analytical study on propagation of longitudinal electro-kinetic (LEK) waves in wurtzite and zincblende structures of GaN is carried out. Nano-sized ion colloids (NICs) are embedded in the sample by the technique of ion-implantation. The implanted NICs are considered massive by an order as compared to the host lattice points and do not participate in Based LEK perturbations. Though, the NICs are continuously bombarded by the electrons as well as the holes yet, the former acquires a net negative charge owing to relatively higher mobility of electrons and consequently results into depletion of electron density in the medium. It i s found that the presence of charged NICs significantly modifies the dispersion and amplification characteristics of LEK waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor plasma and their role becomes increasingly effective as the fraction of charge on them increases.

  14. Graphene-based tunable non-foster circuit for VHF applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jing; Nagarkoti, Deepak Singh; Rajab, Khalid Z.; Hao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a negative impedance converter (NIC) based on graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) for VHF applications. The NIC is designed following Linvill's open circuit stable (OCS) topology. The DC modelling parameters of GFET are extracted from a device measured by Meric et al. [IEEE Electron Devices Meeting, 23.2.1 (2010)] Estimated parasitics are also taken into account. Simulation results from Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS) show good NIC performance up to 200 MHz and the value of negative capacitance is directly proportional to the capacitive load. In addition, it has been shown that by varying the supply voltage the value of negative capacitance can also be tuned. The NIC stability has been tested up to 2 GHz (10 times the maximum operation frequency) using Nyquist stability criterion to ensure there are no oscillation issues.

  15. 78 FR 77493 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Open Letter to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... collection is to ensure that only State permits that meet the statutory requirements contained in the Gun Control Act qualify as alternatives to a National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS)...

  16. Effect of agmatine on experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nader, M A; Gamiel, N M; El-Kashef, H; Zaghloul, M S

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of agmatine sulfate (AG, CAS2482-00-0) in nicotine (NIC)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rabbits. NIC was administered to produce VED in rabbits with or without AG for 6 weeks. Serum lipid profile, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase generation, serum nitrite/nitrate, serum vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and aortic nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) levels were analyzed.Treatment with AG markedly improves lipid profile and prevented NIC-induced VED and oxidative stress. The mechanism of AG in improving NIC-induced VED may be due to the significant reduction in serum VCAM-1 levels and aortic NF-κB. Thus, it may be concluded that AG reduces the oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, VCAM-1 levels, and aortic NF-κB expression, thereby consequently improving the integrity of vascular endothelium. PMID:26424770

  17. 78 FR 4297 - Improving Availability of Relevant Executive Branch Records to the National Instant Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, January 16, 2013 [FR Doc. 2013-01274 Filed 1-18-13; 8:45 am... accuracy and efficiency of the NICS, increasing public safety by keeping guns out of the hands of...

  18. 77 FR 63340 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection, Comments Requested: Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection, Comments... information, please contact Sherry L. Kuneff, Management and Program Analyst, Federal Bureau of Investigation... Responsibilities Under the NICS Form ACTION: 60 Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Federal......

  19. 77 FR 62534 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection, Comments Requested: Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection, Comments... information, please contact Sherry L. Kuneff, Management and Program Analyst, Federal Bureau of Investigation... Responsibilities Under the NICS Form ACTION: 60 Day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Federal......

  20. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 1st Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 1er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  1. Promoting Tenth Graders' Reading Comprehension of Academic Texts in the English Class (Promoción de la comprensión de lectura de textos académicos de estudiantes de grado décimo en la clase de inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroga Carrillo, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project conducted in a public school in Bogotá, Colombia, with tenth grade students. We decided to develop it because of the students' needs as well as the em phasis of the PEI (Proyecto Educativo Institucional = School Institutional Project), which is based on the requisite of improving reading…

  2. Improving Eleventh Graders' Reading Comprehension through Text Coding and Double Entry Organizer Reading Strategies (Mejoramiento de la comprensión lectora de estudiantes de grado once mediante las estrategias de lectura de codificación de texto y organizador de doble entrada)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahecha, Rocío; Urrego, Stella; Lozano, Erika

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report on an innovation project developed with a group of eleventh graders at a public school in Bogotá. Its aim was to encourage students to improve reading comprehension of texts in English. It was conducted taking into account students' needs, interests and level of English. To do it, we implemented two reading…

  3. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

    This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction provides…

  4. Consejos para los Padres Sobre la Lectura: Informacion e Ideas para Ayudar a los Ninos Desde la Infancia Hasta Octavo Grado a Tener Exito en la Lectura (Tips for Parents about Reading: Information and Ideas for Helping Children through Grade Eight Succeed with Reading).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deborah; Lewis, Jan Patricia

    Noting that all parents want the best school experience for their children, this booklet, in Spanish, gives parents some ideas about what to expect at different ages and stages of reading development, suggestions for what parents can do at home, and a list of favorite books parents can find in most libraries for parents and children to read.…

  5. Exploring Knowledge of English Speaking Strategies in 8th and 12th Graders (Exploración del conocimiento de las estrategias de expresión oral en inglés en estudiantes de los grados octavo y doceavo)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a research study that analyses eighth and twelfth graders' knowledge of speaking strategies to communicate in English. The Oral Communication Strategy Inventory, developed by Nakatani in 2006, was applied to 108 students belonging to the public, semi-public and private educational sectors in Chile. The findings show that…

  6. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 11th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 11 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  7. Una guia para los padres sobre lo mas importante: el logro academico plan de educacion de Maryland desde preescolar hasta el 12 grado, 2002-2003. (A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Spanish-language guide for parents outlines the goals and characteristics of…

  8. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 2nd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 2do Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  9. Nonnucleoside inhibitors of norovirus RNA polymerase: scaffolds for rational drug design.

    PubMed

    Eltahla, Auda A; Lim, Kun Lee; Eden, John-Sebastian; Kelly, Andrew G; Mackenzie, Jason M; White, Peter A

    2014-06-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, causing over 200,000 deaths a year. NoV is nonenveloped, with a single-stranded RNA genome, and is primarily transmitted person to person. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is critical for the production of genomic and subgenomic RNA and is therefore a prime target for antiviral therapies. Using high-throughput screening, nearly 20,000 "lead-like" compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against the NoV genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) RdRp. The four most potent hits demonstrated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) between 5.0 μM and 9.8 μM against the target RdRp. Compounds NIC02 and NIC04 revealed a mixed mode of inhibition, while NIC10 and NIC12 were uncompetitive RdRp inhibitors. When examined using enzymes from related viruses, NIC02 demonstrated broad inhibitory activity while NIC04 was the most specific GII.4 RdRp inhibitor. The antiviral activity was examined using available NoV cell culture models; the GI.1 replicon and the infectious GV.1 murine norovirus (MNV). NIC02 and NIC04 inhibited the replication of the GI.1 replicon, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30.1 μM and 71.1 μM, respectively, while NIC10 and NIC12 had no observable effect on the NoV GI.1 replicon. In the MNV model, NIC02 reduced plaque numbers, size, and viral RNA levels in a dose-dependent manner (EC50s between 2.3 μM and 4.8 μM). The remaining three compounds also reduced MNV replication, although with higher EC50s, ranging from 32 μM to 38 μM. In summary, we have identified novel nonnucleoside inhibitor scaffolds that will provide a starting framework for the development and future optimization of targeted antivirals against NoV. PMID:24637690

  10. Nonnucleoside Inhibitors of Norovirus RNA Polymerase: Scaffolds for Rational Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Eltahla, Auda A.; Lim, Kun Lee; Eden, John-Sebastian; Kelly, Andrew G.; Mackenzie, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, causing over 200,000 deaths a year. NoV is nonenveloped, with a single-stranded RNA genome, and is primarily transmitted person to person. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is critical for the production of genomic and subgenomic RNA and is therefore a prime target for antiviral therapies. Using high-throughput screening, nearly 20,000 “lead-like” compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against the NoV genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) RdRp. The four most potent hits demonstrated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) between 5.0 μM and 9.8 μM against the target RdRp. Compounds NIC02 and NIC04 revealed a mixed mode of inhibition, while NIC10 and NIC12 were uncompetitive RdRp inhibitors. When examined using enzymes from related viruses, NIC02 demonstrated broad inhibitory activity while NIC04 was the most specific GII.4 RdRp inhibitor. The antiviral activity was examined using available NoV cell culture models; the GI.1 replicon and the infectious GV.1 murine norovirus (MNV). NIC02 and NIC04 inhibited the replication of the GI.1 replicon, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30.1 μM and 71.1 μM, respectively, while NIC10 and NIC12 had no observable effect on the NoV GI.1 replicon. In the MNV model, NIC02 reduced plaque numbers, size, and viral RNA levels in a dose-dependent manner (EC50s between 2.3 μM and 4.8 μM). The remaining three compounds also reduced MNV replication, although with higher EC50s, ranging from 32 μM to 38 μM. In summary, we have identified novel nonnucleoside inhibitor scaffolds that will provide a starting framework for the development and future optimization of targeted antivirals against NoV. PMID:24637690

  11. Standardized nomenclatures: keys to continuity of care, nursing accountability and nursing effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Keenan, G; Aquilino, M L

    1998-01-01

    Standardized nursing nomenclatures must be included in clinical documentation systems to generate data that more accurately represent nursing practice than outcomes-related measures currently used to support important policy decisions. NANDA, NIC, and NOC--comprehensive nomenclatures for the needed variables of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes--are described. Added benefits of using NANDA, NIC, and NOC in everyday practice are outlined, including facilitation of the continuity of care of patients in integrated health systems. PMID:9582821

  12. Nicotine molecularly imprinted polymer: synergy of coordination and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Tan-Phat; B K C, Chandra; Sosnowska, Marta; Sobczak, Janusz W; Nesterov, Vladimir N; D'Souza, Francis; Kutner, Wlodzimierz

    2015-02-15

    Two new bis(2,2'-bithienyl)methane derivatives, one with the zinc phthalocyanine substituent (ZnPc-S16) and the other with the 2-hydroxyethyl substituent (EtOH-S4), were synthesized to serve as functional monomers for biomimetic recognition of nicotine (Nic) by molecular imprinting. Formation of a pre-polymerization complex of the Nic template with ZnPc-S16 and EtOH-S4 was confirmed by both the high negative Gibbs free energy gain, ΔG = -115.95 kJ/mol, calculated using the density functional theory at the B3LYP/3-21G* level, and the high stability constant, Ks = 4.67 × 10(5) M(-1), determined by UV-vis titration in chloroform. A solution of this complex was used to deposit a Nic-templated molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP-Nic) film on an Au electrode of a quartz crystal resonator of EQCM by potentiodynamic electropolymerization. The imprinting factor was as high as ~9.9. Complexation of the Nic molecules by the MIP cavities was monitored with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as manifested by a negative shift of the binding energy of the Zn 2p3/2 electron of ZnPc-S16 after Nic templating. For sensing applications, simultaneous chronoamperometry (CA) and piezoelectric microgravimetry (PM) measurements were performed under flow-injection analysis conditions. The limit of detection of the CA and PM chemosensing was as low as 40 and 12 µM, respectively. Among them, the CA chemosensing was more selective to the cotinine and myosmine interferences due to the 1.10 V vs. Ag/AgCl discriminating potential of nicotine electro-oxidation applied. Differences in selectivity to the analyte and interferences were interpreted by modeling complexation of Nic and, separately, each of the interferences with a "frozen" MIP-Nic molecular cavity. PMID:25441415

  13. Native Myocardial T1 as a Biomarker of Cardiac Structure in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ravi V; Kato, Shingo; Roujol, Sebastien; Murthy, Venkatesh; Bellm, Steven; Kashem, Abyaad; Basha, Tamer; Jang, Jihye; Eisman, Aaron S; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2016-01-15

    Diffuse myocardial fibrosis is involved in the pathology of nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NIC). Recently, the application of native (noncontrast) myocardial T1 measurement has been proposed as a method for characterizing diffuse interstitial fibrosis. To determine the association of native T1 with myocardial structure and function, we prospectively studied 39 patients with NIC (defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 50% without cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) evidence of previous infarction) and 27 subjects with normal LVEF without known overt cardiovascular disease. T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were determined over 16 segments across the base, mid, and apical left ventricular (LV). NIC participants (57 ± 15 years) were predominantly men (74%), with a mean LVEF 34 ± 10%. Subjects with NIC had a greater native T1 (1,131 ± 51 vs 1,069 ± 29 ms; p <0.0001), a greater ECV (0.28 ± 0.04 vs 0.25 ± 0.02, p = 0.002), and a longer myocardial T2 (52 ± 8 vs 47 ± 5 ms; p = 0.02). After multivariate adjustment, a lower global native T1 time in NIC was associated with a greater LVEF (β = -0.59, p = 0.0003), greater right ventricular ejection fraction (β = -0.47, p = 0.006), and smaller left atrial volume index (β = 0.51, p = 0.001). The regional distribution of native myocardial T1 was similar in patients with and without NIC. In NIC, native myocardial T1 is elevated in all myocardial segments, suggesting a global (not regional) abnormality of myocardial tissue composition. In conclusion, native T1 may represent a rapid, noncontrast alternative to ECV for delineating myocardial tissue remodeling in NIC. PMID:26684511

  14. Proton Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing of the Myrinet Crossbar Switch and Network Interface Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Carts, Martin A.; Stattel, Ronald; Irwin, Timothy L.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Remote Exploration and Experimentation Project (REE), work was performed to do a proton SEE (Single Event Effect) evaluation of the Myricom network protocol system (Myrinet). This testing included the evaluation of the Myrinet crossbar switch and the Network Interface Card (NIC). To this end, two crossbar switch devices and five components in the NIC were exposed to the proton beam at the University of California at Davis Crocker Nuclear Laboratory (CNL).

  15. N-acetylcysteine attenuates nicotine-induced kindling in female periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Adriana Mary Nunes Costa; Gomes, Patrícia Xavier L; de Oliveira, Gersilene V; de Araújo, Fernanda Yvelize R; Tomaz, Viviane S; Chaves Filho, Adriano José Maia; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa F; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; de Lucena, David Freitas; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-06-01

    Kindling is a form of behavioral sensitization that is related to the progression of several neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder. We recently demonstrated that female periadolescent rats are more vulnerable to nicotine (NIC)-induced kindling than their male counterparts. Furthermore, we evidenced that decreases in brain antioxidative defenses may contribute to this gender difference. Here we aimed to determine the preventive effects of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against NIC-kindling in female periadolescent rats. To do this female Wistar rats at postnatal day 30 received repeated injections of NIC 2mg/kg, i.p. every weekday for up to 19 days. NAC90, 180 or 270 mg/kg, i.p. was administered 30 min before NIC. The levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lipid peroxidation (LP) and nitrite were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST). The development of kindling occurred at a median time of 16.5 days with 87.5% of NIC animals presenting stage 5 seizures in the last day of drug administration. NAC270 prevented the occurrence of kindling. NIC-kindled animals presented decreased levels of GSH and increased LP in the PFC, HC and ST, while SOD activity was decreased in the ST. NAC180 or 270 prevented the alterations in GSH induced by NIC, but only NAC270 prevented the alterations in LP. Nitrite levels increased in the ST of NAC270 pretreated NIC-kindled animals. Taken together we demonstrated that NAC presents anti-kindling effects in female animals partially through the restoration of oxidative alterations. PMID:26812248

  16. Intermolecular shielding from molecular magnetic susceptibility. A new view of intermolecular ring current effects.

    PubMed

    Facelli, Julio C

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents calculations of the NICS (nuclear independent chemical shieldings) in a rectangular grid surrounding the molecules of benzene, naphthalene and coronene. Using the relationship between calculated NICS and the induced magnetic field, the calculated NICS are used to predict intermolecular effects due to molecular magnetic susceptibility or ring current effects. As expected from approximate ring current models, these intermolecular shielding effects are concentrated along the direction perpendicular to the molecular plane and they approach asymptotically to a dipolar functional dependence, i.e. (1-3 cos(2)theta)/r(3)). The deviations from the dipolar functional form require that the calculations of these intermolecular effects be done using a suitable interpolation scheme of the NICS calculated on the grid. The analysis of the NICS tensor components shows that these intermolecular shielding effects should be primarily expected on shielding components of the neighboring molecules nuclei, which are perpendicular to the molecular plane of the aromatic compound generating the induced field. The analysis of the calculated NICS along the series benzene, naphthalene and coronene shows that these intermolecular effects increase monotonically with the number of aromatic rings. PMID:16477673

  17. Near infra red spectroscopy as a multivariate process analytical tool for predicting pharmaceutical co-crystal concentration.

    PubMed

    Wood, Clive; Alwati, Abdolati; Halsey, Sheelagh; Gough, Tim; Brown, Elaine; Kelly, Adrian; Paradkar, Anant

    2016-09-10

    The use of near infra red spectroscopy to predict the concentration of two pharmaceutical co-crystals; 1:1 ibuprofen-nicotinamide (IBU-NIC) and 1:1 carbamazepine-nicotinamide (CBZ-NIC) has been evaluated. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed for both co-crystal pairs using sets of standard samples to create calibration and validation data sets with which to build and validate the models. Parameters such as the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient were used to assess the accuracy and linearity of the models. Accurate PLS regression models were created for both co-crystal pairs which can be used to predict the co-crystal concentration in a powder mixture of the co-crystal and the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The IBU-NIC model had smaller errors than the CBZ-NIC model, possibly due to the complex CBZ-NIC spectra which could reflect the different arrangement of hydrogen bonding associated with the co-crystal compared to the IBU-NIC co-crystal. These results suggest that NIR spectroscopy can be used as a PAT tool during a variety of pharmaceutical co-crystal manufacturing methods and the presented data will facilitate future offline and in-line NIR studies involving pharmaceutical co-crystals. PMID:27429366

  18. Core/shell-structured nickel/nitrogen-doped onion-like carbon nanocapsules with improved electromagnetic wave absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Niandu; Liu, Xianguo; Or, Siu Wing

    2016-05-01

    Core/shell-structured nickel/nitrogen-doped onion-like carbon (Ni/(C, N)) nanocapsules are synthesized by a modified arc-discharge method using N2 gas as the source of N atoms. Core/shell-structured Ni/C nanocapsules are also prepared for comparison. The Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules with diameters of 10-80 nm exhibit a clear core/shell structure. The doping of N atoms introduces more lattice defects into the (C, N) shells and creates more disorderly C in the (C, N) shells. This leads to a slight shift in the dielectric resonance peak to the lower frequency side and an increase in the dielectric loss tangent for the Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules in comparison with the Ni/C nanocapsules. The magnetic permeability of both types of nanocapsules remains almost unaltered since the N atoms exist only in the (C, N) shells. The reflection loss (RL) of the Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules not only reaches a high value of -35 dB at 13.6 GHz, but also is generally improved in the low-frequency S and C microwave bands covering 2-8 GHz as a result of the N-doping-induced additional dipolar polarization and dielectric loss from the (C, N) shells.

  19. Cloning of Azorhizobium caulinodans nicotinate catabolism genes and characterization of their importance in N2 fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Buckmiller, L M; Lapointe, J P; Ludwig, R A

    1991-01-01

    Twenty Azorhizobium caulinodans vector insertion (Vi) mutants unable to catabolize nicotinate (Nic- phenotype) were identified and directly cloned as pVi plasmids. These pVi plasmids were used as DNA hybridization probes to isolate homologous wild-type sequences. From subsequent physical mapping experiments, the nic::Vi mutants defined four distinct loci. Two, possibly three, of these loci are physically linked. A. caulinodans nic loci II and III encode the structural genes for nicotinate catabolism; nic loci I and IV encode nicotinate-driven respiratory chain components. Recombinant lambda bacteriophages corresponding to three of these loci were subcloned in pRK293; resulting plasmids were used for complementation tests with resolved nic::IS50 derivatives of the nic::Vi mutants. When wild-type A. caulinodans was cultured in defined liquid medium under 3% O2, nicotinate catabolism stimulated N2 fixation 10-fold. In these exponentially growing cultures, the entire (300 microM) nicotinate supplement was exhausted within 10 h. While nic::Vi mutants retained the ability to fix some N2, they did so at rates only 10% of that of the wild type: nitrogenase activity by nic::Vi mutants was not stimulated by 300 microM added nicotinate. Higher-level (5 mM) nicotinate supplementation inhibited N2 fixation. Because 5 mM nicotinate repressed nitrogenase induction in all nic::Vi mutants as well, this repression was independent of nicotinate catabolism. During catabolism, nicotinate is first oxidized to 6-OH-nicotinate by a membrane-bound nicotinate hydroxylase which drives a respiratory chain to O2. In A. caulinodans wild-type cultures, added 300 microM 6-OH-nicotinate stimulated N2 fixation twofold better than did added 300 microM nicotinate. Likewise, nic::Vi mutant 61302, defective in nicotinate hydroxylase, fixed N2 at wild-type levels when supplemented with 300 microM 6-OH-nicotinate. Therefore, nicotinate catabolism stimulates N2 fixation not by nicotinate hydroxylase

  20. Mobilization of Chimeric oriT Plasmids by F and R100-1: Role of Relaxosome Formation in Defining Plasmid Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Richard A.; Frost, Laura S.

    2000-01-01

    Cleavage at the F plasmid nic site within the origin of transfer (oriT) requires the F-encoded proteins TraY and TraI and the host-encoded protein integration host factor in vitro. We confirm that F TraY, but not F TraM, is required for cleavage at nic in vivo. Chimeric plasmids were constructed which contained either the entire F or R100-1 oriT regions or various combinations of nic, TraY, and TraM binding sites, in addition to the traM gene. The efficiency of cleavage at nic and the frequency of mobilization were assayed in the presence of F or R100-1 plasmids. The ability of these chimeric plasmids to complement an F traM mutant or affect F transfer via negative dominance was also measured using transfer efficiency assays. In cases where cleavage at nic was detected, R100-1 TraI was not sensitive to the two-base difference in sequence immediately downstream of nic, while F TraI was specific for the F sequence. Plasmid transfer was detected only when TraM was able to bind to its cognate sites within oriT. High-affinity binding of TraY in cis to oriT allowed detection of cleavage at nic but was not required for efficient mobilization. Taken together, our results suggest that stable relaxosomes, consisting of TraI, -M, and -Y bound to oriT are preferentially targeted to the transfer apparatus (transferosome). PMID:10869081

  1. A ten fold reduction of nicotine yield in tobacco smoke does not spare the central cholinergic system in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Correa-Santos, Monique; Dutra-Tavares, Ana C; Paes-Branco, Danielle; Nunes-Freitas, Andre; Manhães, Alex C; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    The tobacco industry has gradually decreased nicotine content in cigarette smoke but the impact of this reduction on health is still controversial. Since the central cholinergic system is the primary site of action of nicotine, here, we investigated the effects of exposure of adolescent mice to tobacco smoke containing either high or low levels of nicotine on the central cholinergic system and the effects associated with cessation of exposure. From postnatal day (PN) 30 to 45, male and female Swiss mice were exposed to tobacco smoke (whole body exposure, 8h/day, 7 days/week) generated from 2R1F (HighNic group: 1.74mg nicotine/cigarette) or 4A1 (LowNic group: 0.14mg nicotine/cigarette) research cigarettes, whereas control mice were exposed to ambient air. Cholinergic biomarkers were assessed in the cerebral cortex and midbrain by the end of exposure (PN45), at short- (PN50) and long-term (PN75) deprivation. In the cortex, nicotinic cholinergic receptor upregulation was observed with either type of cigarette. In the midbrain, upregulation was detected only in HighNic mice and remained significant in females at short-term deprivation. The high-affinity choline transporter was reduced in the cortex: of HighNic mice by the end of exposure; of both HighNic and LowNic females at short-term deprivation; of LowNic mice at long-term deprivation. These decrements were separable from effects on choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, suggesting cholinergic synaptic impairment. Here, we demonstrated central cholinergic alterations in an animal model of tobacco smoke exposure during adolescence. This system was sensitive even to tobacco smoke with very low nicotine content. PMID:27287270

  2. Resolution of chiral, tetrahedral M4L6 metal-ligand hosts.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anna V; Fiedler, Dorothea; Ziegler, Marco; Terpin, Andreas; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2007-12-12

    The supramolecular metal-ligand assemblies of M416 stoichiometry are chiral (M = GaIII, AlIII, InIII, FeIII, TiIV, or GeIV, H41 = N,N'-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-1,5-diaminonaphthalene). The resolution process of delta delta delta delta- and lambda lambda lambda lambda-[M(4)1(6)]12- by the chiral cation S-nicotinium (S-nic+) is described for the Ga(III), Al(III), and Fe(III) assemblies, and the resolution is shown to be proton dependent. From a methanol solution of M(acac)3, H(4)1, S-nicI, and KOH, the delta delta delta delta-KH3(S-nic)7[(S-nic) subset M(4)1(6)] complexes precipitate, and the lambda lambda lambda lambda-K6(S-nic)5[(S-nic) subset M(4)1(6)] complexes subsequently can be isolated from the supernatant. Ion exchange enables the isolation of the (NEt4(+))(12), (NMe4(+))(12), and K+(12) salts of the resolved structures, which have been characterized by CD and NMR spectroscopies. Resolution can also be accomplished with 1 equiv of NEt4+ blocking the cavity interior, demonstrating that external binding sites are responsible for the difference in S-nic+ enantiomer interactions. Circular dichroism data demonstrate that the (NMe4(+))(12) and (NEt4(+))(12) salts of the resolved [Ga(4)1(6)]12- and [Al(4)1(6)]12- structures retain their chirality over extended periods of time (>20 d) at room temperature; heating the (NEt4(+))(12)[Ga(4)1(6)] assembly to 75 degrees C also had no effect on its CD spectrum. Finally, experiments with the resolved K(12)[Ga(4)1(6)] assemblies point to the role of a guest in stabilizing the resolved framework. PMID:18020339

  3. Wavelet analysis of near-inertial currents at the East Flower Garden Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, W. J.; Wijesekera, H. W.; Jarosz, E.; Lugo-Fernández, A.; Hallock, Z. R.

    2014-10-01

    Near-inertial currents (NICs) often dominate the mean circulation at the East Flower Garden Bank (EFGB), part of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary. The EFGB, one of several submerged coral reefs, is located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, about 190 km southeast of Galveston, Texas. The bank is about 6 km wide in the east-west direction and rises to within about 20 m from the surface. NICs near the EFGB are described using current data from 5 acoustic Doppler current profilers that were moored at the edges of the bank and on top of the bank for about a year. A wavelet analysis was used in order to better describe the nonstationarity of the NICs. NICs were strongest during spring and summer due to their near resonant response with sea breeze and the shallowness of the mixed layer, and exhibited a first-baroclinic-mode vertical structure. NICS were generally larger near the surface and extended to the bottom on the west side of the EFGB but only to within about 20 m of the bottom on the eastern side of the bank. NIC ellipses were nearly circular and rotated clockwise above the top of the EFGB but became flatter and aligned with the bathymetry with increasing depth; occasionally, on the eastern side of the bank, the NIC vectors rotated counterclockwise due to probable effects of lee vortices arising from the mean flow interacting with the bank. Most energy input by the wind at the surface was likely transferred downward through divergence of the meridional flow against the coastal boundary. The inertial currents were at times more energetic than the mean flow, and often accounted for more than 50% of the total current energy.

  4. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    PubMed

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine. PMID:26187691

  5. Zonation of the Newry Igneous Complex, Northern Ireland, based on geochemical and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P. E.; Cooper, M. R.; Stevenson, C. T.; Hastie, A. R.; Hoggett, M.; Inman, J.; Meighan, I. G.; Hurley, C.; Reavy, R. J.; Ellam, R. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Late Caledonian Newry Igneous Complex (NIC), Northern Ireland, comprises three largely granodioritic plutons, together with an intermediate-ultramafic body at its northeastern end. New whole-rock geochemical data, petrological classifications, and published data, including recent Tellus aeromagnetic and radiometric results, have been used to establish 15 distinct zones across the four bodies of the NIC. These become broadly younger to the southwest of the complex and toward the centres of individual plutons. In places, zones are defined by both current compositional data (geochemistry and petrology) and Tellus results. This is particularly clear at the eastern edge of the NIC, where a thorium-elevated airborne radiometric signature occurs alongside distinct concentrations of various elements from geochemistry. However, in the northeastern-most pluton of the NIC, a prominent ring-shaped aeromagnetic anomaly occurs independent of any observed surface compositional variation, and thus the zones in this area are defined by aeromagnetic data only. The origins of this and other aeromagnetic anomalies are as yet undetermined, although in places, these closely correspond to facies at the surface. The derived zonation for the NIC supports incremental emplacement of the complex as separate, distinct magma pulses. Each pulse is thought to have originated from the same fractionally crystallising source that periodically underwent mixing with more basic magma.

  6. Near-Infrared Camera Calibration for Optical Surgical Navigation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ken; Yang, Rongqian; Lin, Qinyong; Liu, Sujuan; Chen, Huazhou; Ou, Shanxing; Huang, Wenhua; Zhou, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared optical tracking devices, which are important components of surgical navigation systems, need to be calibrated for effective tracking. The calibration results has a direct influence on the tracking accuracy of an entire system. Therefore, the study of calibration techniques is of theoretical significance and practical value. In the present work, a systematic calibration method based on movable plates is established, which analyzes existing calibration theories and implements methods using calibration reference objects. First, the distortion model of near-infrared cameras (NICs) is analyzed in the implementation of this method. Second, the calibration images from different positions and orientations are used to establish the required linear equations. The initial values of the NIC parameters are calculated with the direct linear transformation method. Finally, the accurate internal and external parameters of the NICs are obtained by conducting nonlinear optimization. Analysis results show that the relative errors of the left and right NICs in the tracking system are 0.244 and 0.282 % for the focal lengths and 0.735 and 1.111 % for the principal points, respectively. The image residuals of the left and right image sets are both less than 0.01 pixel. The standard error of the calibration result is lower than 1, and the measurement error of the tracking system is less than 0.3 mm. The experimental data show that the proposed method of calibrating NICs is effective and can generate favorable calibration results. PMID:26728393

  7. Radiolysis of crystalline nickel oxalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basahel, S. N.; Diefallah, El-H. M.; El-Fass, M. M.; Al-Sabban, E. A.

    Radiolysis of crystalline K 2Ni(C 2O 4) 2);6H 2O, K 2Ni(C 2O 4) 2 and Ni(C 2O 4));2H 2O has been investigated. The results showed that in K 2Ni(C 2O 4) 2);6H 2O, the initial G(Ni 3+) has a value of 3.75 and drops to about 1.27 when the dose approaches 1.2 × 10 22 eV g -1. The decrease in G(Ni 3+) with increasing radiation dose is accompanied with an increase in G(Ni 2+). In the irradiated anhydrated complex, the results however show an increase in G(Ni 3+) and a decrease in G(Ni 2+) with increasing radiation dose. The radiolysis of Ni(C 2O 4)·2H 2O showed an increase in G(Ni 3+) with increasing radiation dose. A mechanism has been suggested to explain the observed results.

  8. Celecoxib:Nicotinamide Dissociation: Using Excipients to Capture the Cocrystal's Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Remenar,J.; Peterson, M.; Stephens, P.; Zhang, Z.; Zimenkov, Y.; Hickey, M.

    2007-01-01

    The cocrystal of celecoxib and nicotinamide (Cel:Nic) was crystallized from chloroform in a 1:1 ratio, and the structure has been solved from powder X-ray diffraction data. The dissolution and solubility of Cel:Nic are medium dependent and can be attributed to differences in conversion of Cel:Nic to celecoxib polymorphs I and III (Cel-I and Cel-III). The presence of low concentrations of surfactants facilitates the rapid conversion of neat Cel:Nic to large aggregates of Cel-III that dissolve more slowly than commercial Cel-III into 1% SDS solution. In contrast, combinations of Cel:Nic with both 1-10% solid SDS and PVP wet rapidly and convert to a mixture of amorphous celecoxib and a micron-sized crystalline celecoxib form IV (Cel-IV), which has recently been shown to be up to 4-fold more bioavailable than marketed Cel-III. More than 90% of the suspended material dissolves within 2 min at 37 C when transferred to 1% SDS solution. This example highlights the importance of exploring the form conversion of cocrystals in aqueous media prior to pharmacokinetic studies, and illustrates the potential of simple formulations to overcome the limitations caused by rapid dissociation of cocrystals and recrystallization of poorly soluble forms in aqueous media.

  9. Celecoxib: Nicotinamide Dissociateion: Using Excipients to Capture the Cocrystal's Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Remenar,J.; Peterson, M.; Stephens, P.; Zhang, Z.; Zimenkov, Y.; Hickey, M.

    2007-01-01

    The cocrystal of celecoxib and nicotinamide (Cel:Nic) was crystallized from chloroform in a 1:1 ratio, and the structure has been solved from powder X-ray diffraction data. The dissolution and solubility of Cel:Nic are medium dependent and can be attributed to differences in conversion of Cel:Nic to celecoxib polymorphs I and III (Cel-I and Cel-III). The presence of low concentrations of surfactants facilitates the rapid conversion of neat Cel:Nic to large aggregates of Cel-III that dissolve more slowly than commercial Cel-III into 1% SDS solution. In contrast, combinations of Cel:Nic with both 1-10% solid SDS and PVP wet rapidly and convert to a mixture of amorphous celecoxib and a micron-sized crystalline celecoxib form IV (Cel-IV), which has recently been shown to be up to 4-fold more bioavailable than marketed Cel-III. More than 90% of the suspended material dissolves within 2 min at 37 C when transferred to 1% SDS solution. This example highlights the importance of exploring the form conversion of cocrystals in aqueous media prior to pharmacokinetic studies, and illustrates the potential of simple formulations to overcome the limitations caused by rapid dissociation of cocrystals and recrystallization of poorly soluble forms in aqueous media.

  10. Comparison of electrophysiological effects of calcium channel blockers on cardiac repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyang-Ae; Hyun, Sung-Ae; Park, Sung-Gurl

    2016-01-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been widely used to treat of several cardiovascular diseases. An excessive shortening of action potential duration (APD) due to the reduction of Ca2+ channel current (ICa) might increase the risk of arrhythmia. In this study we investigated the electrophysiological effects of nicardipine (NIC), isradipine (ISR), and amlodipine (AML) on the cardiac APD in rabbit Purkinje fibers, voltage-gated K+ channel currents (IKr, IKs) and voltage-gated Na+ channel current (INa). The concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ channel currents (ICa) was examined in rat cardiomyocytes; these CCBs have similar potency on ICa channel blocking with IC50 (the half-maximum inhibiting concentration) values of 0.142, 0.229, and 0.227 nM on NIC, ISR, and AML, respectively. However, ISR shortened both APD50 and APD90 already at 1 µM whereas NIC and AML shortened APD50 but not APD90 up to 30 µM. According to ion channel studies, NIC and AML concentration-dependently inhibited IKr and IKs while ISR had only partial inhibitory effects (<50% at 30 µM). Inhibition of INa was similarly observed in the three CCBs. Since the IKr and IKs mainly contribute to cardiac repolarization, their inhibition by NIC and AML could compensate for the AP shortening effects due to the block of ICa. PMID:26807031

  11. Nutrient removal and phosphorus recovery performances of a novel anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying/induced crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Lu, Xiwu; Yu, Ran; Zhu, Wentao

    2012-10-01

    An anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying (A(2)N) two sludge process coupled with induced crystallization (IC) called A(2)N-IC process was developed for wastewater nutrient removal and phosphorus recovery. The performances of A(2)N-IC process in comparison with A(2)N process at different COD to phosphorus (COD/P) feeding ratios were investigated. The results indicated that A(2)N-IC achieved not only high and stable nutrient removal but also phosphorus recovery. Calcium phosphorus crystals were formed in the crystallization reactor in A(2)N-IC. Moreover, the incorporation of chemical induced crystallization improved biological phosphorus removal. In A(2)N-IC process, phosphorus removal efficiency was consistently maintained at 99.2%, whereas in A(2)N it decreased from 93.0% to 65.7% with the decrease of feeding COD/P ratio. The COD and ammonia removal efficiencies were regardless of feeding COD/P ratio in the two processes. PMID:22858484

  12. Inhibition of carbon formation during steam reforming of methane using thiol-coated nickel catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudghiri-Hassani, H.; Rakass, S.; Abatzoglou, N.; Rowntree, P.

    n-Butanethiol-impregnated, micrometric, pristine Ni powder (Ni-C 4S) was tested as a catalyst for use in the steam reforming of methane, using X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and mass spectrometry (MS). The catalytic activities of both the pristine Ni and the Ni-C 4S powders were measured at 700 °C, under conditions that favoured (molar CH 4:H 2O ratio of 2:1), and did not favour (molar CH 4:H 2O ratio of 1:2) formation of surface carbon. The results show that: (a) Ni-C 4S demonstrates both high catalytic activity and stability during the 21 h duration test; (b) under conditions favouring the deposition of surface carbon, the Ni-C 4S retained both its efficiency and structural integrity, while the catalytic activity of the Ni was reduced by ∼70% and the catalyst pellets lost their integrity; (c) the amount of deposited carbon in the case of the Ni-C 4S catalyst was significantly lower than that observed for the Ni catalyst, in spite of the longer testing duration. It was concluded that the thiols pre-treatment of Ni surfaces, to be subsequently used in the production of catalysts supported SOFC anodes, can considerably increase their "active life span" this being a critical attribute in respect of their eventual commercialization.

  13. Simultaneous determination of nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine N-oxide in human plasma, semen, and sperm by LC-Orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Abu-Awwad, Ahmad; Arafat, Tawfiq; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine (Nic) distribution in human fluids and tissues has a deleterious effect on human health. In addition to its poisoning profile, Nic may contribute to the particular impact of smoking on human reproduction. Although present in seminal fluid, still nobody knows whether nicotine is available in sperm or not. Herein, we developed and validated a new bioanalytical method, for simultaneous determination of Nic, cotinine (Cot), and nicotine N'-oxide (Nox) in human plasma, semen, and sperm by LC-ESI-orbitrap-MS. Blood and semen samples were collected from 12 healthy smoking volunteers in this study. Sperm bodies were then separated quantitatively from 1 mL of semen samples by centrifugation. The developed method was fully validated for plasma following European and American guidelines for bioanalytical method validation, and partial validation was applied to semen analysis. Plasma, semen, and sperm samples were treated by trichloroacetic acid solution for protein direct precipitation in single extraction step. The established calibration range for Nic and Nox in plasma and semen was linear between 5 and 250 ng/mL, and for Cot between 10 and 500 ng/mL. Nic and Cot were detected in human sperm at concentrations as high as in plasma. In addition, Nox was present in semen and sperm but not in plasma. Graphical abstract Nicotine correlation between plasma and semen a; Nicotine correlation between semen and sperm c; Cotinine correlation between plasma and semen b; Cotinine correlation between semen and sperm d. PMID:27422648

  14. Toward integrating a common nursing data set in home care to facilitate monitoring outcomes across settings.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Gail; Stocker, Julia; Barkauskas, Violet; Treder, Marcy; Heath, Crystal

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to identify a realistic subset of North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA), Nursing Outcome Classification (NOC), and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) terms specific to the home care (HC) setting. A subset of 89 NOC outcomes were identified for study in HC through a baseline survey. Three research assistants then observed the care of 258 patients to whom the 89 NOC outcomes applied and recorded the associated NANDA and NIC terms. Follow-up surveys and focus groups were conducted with the nurses and research assistants. There were 81 different NANDA and 226 NIC labels used to describe study patients' care. Only 36 of the 89 NOC labels studied were deemed clinically useful for HC. We found that expert opinion about terminology usage before actual experience under practice conditions is unreliable. PMID:15274523

  15. Creating and validating an instrument to identify the workload at an oncology and hematology outpatient service

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lelia Gonçalves Rocha; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone

    2014-01-01

    Objective Construct and to validate an instrument for measuring the time spent by nursing staff in the interventions/activities in Outpatient Oncology and Hematology, interventions based on Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), for key areas of Pediatric Oncology and Oncology Nursing. Methods Cross-sectional study divided into two steps: (1) construction of an instrument to measure the interventions/Nursing activities and (2) validation of this instrument. Results We selected 32 essential interventions from NIC for Pediatric Oncology and Oncology Nursing areas. The judges agreed with removing 13 and including 6 interventions in the instrument, beyond personal activity. Conclusion The choice of essential interventions from NIC is justified by the gain time on research. PMID:25295454

  16. The generation of myricetin-nicotinamide nanococrystals by top down and bottom up technologies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyu; Hong, Chao; Li, Guowen; Ma, Ping; Xie, Yan

    2016-09-30

    Myricetin-nicotinamide (MYR-NIC) nanococrystal preparation methods were developed and optimized using both top down and bottom up approaches. The grinding (top down) method successfully achieved nanococrystals, but there were some micrometer range particles and aggregation. The key consideration of the grinding technology was to control the milling time to determine a balance between the particle size and distribution. In contrast, a modified bottom up approach based on a solution method in conjunction with sonochemistry resulted in a uniform MYR-NIC nanococrystal that was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and differential scanning calorimeter, and the particle dissolution rate and amount were significantly greater than that of MYR-NIC cocrystal. Notably, this was a simple method without the addition of any non-solvent. We anticipate our findings will provide some guidance for future nanococrystal preparation as well as its application in both chemical and pharmaceutical area. PMID:27535365

  17. Architecture of the fungal nuclear pore inner ring complex.

    PubMed

    Stuwe, Tobias; Bley, Christopher J; Thierbach, Karsten; Petrovic, Stefan; Schilbach, Sandra; Mayo, Daniel J; Perriches, Thibaud; Rundlet, Emily J; Jeon, Young E; Collins, Leslie N; Huber, Ferdinand M; Lin, Daniel H; Paduch, Marcin; Koide, Akiko; Lu, Vincent; Fischer, Jessica; Hurt, Ed; Koide, Shohei; Kossiakoff, Anthony A; Hoelz, André

    2015-10-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) constitutes the sole gateway for bidirectional nucleocytoplasmic transport. We present the reconstitution and interdisciplinary analyses of the ~425-kilodalton inner ring complex (IRC), which forms the central transport channel and diffusion barrier of the NPC, revealing its interaction network and equimolar stoichiometry. The Nsp1•Nup49•Nup57 channel nucleoporin heterotrimer (CNT) attaches to the IRC solely through the adaptor nucleoporin Nic96. The CNT•Nic96 structure reveals that Nic96 functions as an assembly sensor that recognizes the three-dimensional architecture of the CNT, thereby mediating the incorporation of a defined CNT state into the NPC. We propose that the IRC adopts a relatively rigid scaffold that recruits the CNT to primarily form the diffusion barrier of the NPC, rather than enabling channel dilation. PMID:26316600

  18. Pulsed Plasma Synthesis of Iron and Nickel Nanoparticles Coated by Carbon for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaeva, Zhypargul; Omurzak, Emil; Iwamoto, Chihiro; Ihara, Hirotaka; Subban Ganapathy, Hullathy; Sulaimankulova, Saadat; Koinuma, Michio; Mashimo, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Fe and Ni magnetic nanoparticles coated by carbon were synthesized between the Fe-Fe and Ni-Ni metal electrodes, submerged in ethanol using pulsed plasma in a liquid method. Iron coated carbon (Fe@C) nanoparticles have an average size of 32 nm, and Ni@C nanoparticles are 40 nm. Obtained samples exhibit a well-defined crystalline structure of the inner Fe and Ni cores, encapsulated in the graphitic carbon coatings. Cytotoxicity studies performed on the MCF-7 (breast cancer) cell line showed small toxicity about 88-74% at 50 µg/mL of Fe@C and Ni@C nanoparticles, which can be significant criteria for use them in medical cancer treatment. In addition, appropriate sizes, good magnetic properties and well-organized graphitic carbon coatings are highlight merits of Fe@C and Ni@C nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed plasma.

  19. Neutron Imaging Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; DeNolfo, Georgia; Floyd, Sam; Krizmanic, John; Link, Jason; Son, Seunghee; Guardala, Noel; Skopec, Marlene; Stark, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We describe the Neutron Imaging Camera (NIC) being developed for DTRA applications by NASA/GSFC and NSWC/Carderock. The NIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics applications. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approximately 0.4 mm resolution. 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of fast neutrons, E(sub N) > 0.5 MeV. arc reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the proton and triton fragments resulting from 3He(n,p)3H interactions in the 3-DTI volume. We present angular and energy resolution performance of the NIC derived from accelerator tests.

  20. Architecture of the nuclear pore inner ring complex

    PubMed Central

    Stuwe, Tobias; Bley, Christopher J.; Thierbach, Karsten; Petrovic, Stefan; Schilbach, Sandra; Mayo, Daniel J.; Perriches, Thibaud; Rundlet, Emily J.; Jeon, Young E.; Collins, Leslie N.; Huber, Ferdinand M.; Lin, Daniel H.; Paduch, Marcin; Koide, Akiko; Lu, Vincent; Fischer, Jessica; Hurt, Ed; Koide, Shohei; Kossiakoff, Anthony A.; Hoelz, André

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) constitutes the sole gateway for bidirectional nucleocytoplasmic transport. We present the reconstitution and interdisciplinary analyses of the ~425-kDa inner ring complex (IRC), which forms the central transport channel and diffusion barrier of the NPC, revealing its interaction network and equimolar stoichiometry. The Nsp1•Nup49•Nup57 channel nucleoporin hetero-trimer (CNT) attaches to the IRC solely through the adaptor nucleoporin Nic96. The CNT•Nic96 structure reveals that Nic96 functions as an assembly sensor that recognizes the three dimensional architecture of the CNT, thereby mediating the incorporation of a defined CNT state into the NPC. We propose that the IRC adopts a relatively rigid scaffold that recruits the CNT to primarily form the diffusion barrier of the NPC, rather than enabling channel dilation. PMID:26316600

  1. Theoretical study of nascent solvation in Ni+ (benzene)m, m = 3 and 4, clusters.

    PubMed

    Castro, Miguel; Flores, Raul; Duncan, Michael A

    2013-11-27

    The ligand versus solvent behavior of Ni(+)(C6H6)3,4 complexes was studied using density functional theory all-electron calculations. Dispersion corrections were included with the BPW91-D2 method using the 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. The ground state (GS) for Ni(+)(C6H6)3 has three benzene rings 3d-π bonded to the metal. A two-layer isomer with two moieties coordinated η(3)-η(2) with Ni(+), and the other one adsorbed by van der Waals interactions to the Ni(+)(C6H6)2 subcluster, i.e., a 2 + 1 structure, is within about 8.4 kJ/mol of the GS. Structures with 3 + 1 and 2 + 2 ligand coordination were found for Ni(+)(C6H6)4. The binding energies (D0) of 28.9 and 26.0 kJ/mol for the external moieties of Ni(+)(C6H6)3,4 are much smaller than that for Ni(+)(C6H6)2, 193.0 kJ/mol, obtained also with BPW91-D2. This last D0 overestimates somehow the experimental value, of 146.7 ± 11.6 kJ/mol, for Ni(+)(C6H6)2. The abrupt fall for D0(Ni(+)(C6H6)3,4) shows that such molecules are bound externally as solvent species. These results agree with the D0(Ni(+)(C6H6)3) < 37.1 kJ/mol limit found experimentally for this kind of two-layer clusters. The ionization energies also decrease for m = 2, 3, and 4 (580.8, 573.1, and 558.6 kJ/mol). For Ni(+)(C6H6)3,4, each solvent moiety bridges the benzenes of Ni(+)(C6H6)2; their position and that of one internal ring mimics the tilted T-shape geometry of the benzene dimer (Bz2). The distances from the center of the external to the center of the internal rings for m = 3 (4.686 Å) and m = 4 (4.523 Å) are shorter than that for Bz2 (4.850 Å). This and charge transfer effects promote the (C(δ-)-H(δ+))(int) dipole-π(ext) interactions in Ni(+)(C6H6)3,4; π-π interactions also occur. The predicted IR spectra, having multiplet structure in the C-H region, provide insight into the experimental spectra of these ions. PMID:24218987

  2. The pro-oxidant gene p66shc increases nicotine exposure-induced lipotoxic oxidative stress in renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Arany, Istvan; Hall, Samuel; Reed, Dustin K; Dixit, Mehul

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine (NIC) exposure augments free fatty acid (FFA) deposition and oxidative stress, with a concomitant increase in the expression of the pro-oxidant p66shc. In addition, a decrease in the antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been observed in the kidneys of mice fed a high‑fat diet. The present study aimed to determine whether the pro‑oxidant p66shc mediates NIC‑dependent increases in renal oxidative stress by augmenting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressing the FFA‑induced antioxidant response in cultured NRK52E renal proximal tubule cells. Briefly, NRK52E renal proximal tubule cells were treated with 200 µM NIC, 100 µM oleic acid (OA), or a combination of NIC and OA. The expression levels of p66shc and MnSOD were modulated according to genetic methods. ROS production and cell injury, in the form of lactate dehydrogenase release, were subsequently detected. Promoter activity of p66shc and MnSOD, as well as forkhead box (FOXO)‑dependent transcription, was investigated using reporter luciferase assays. The results demonstrated that NIC exacerbated OA‑mediated intracellular ROS production and cell injury through the transcriptional activation of p66shc. NIC also suppressed OA‑mediated induction of the antioxidant MnSOD promoter activity through p66shc‑dependent inactivation of FOXO activity. Overexpression of p66shc and knockdown of MnSOD had the same effect as treatment with NIC on OA‑mediated lipotoxicity. These data may be used to generate a therapeutic means to ameliorate renal lipotoxicity in obese smokers. PMID:27486058

  3. Neuroanatomical circuitry mediating the sensory impact of nicotine in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Ozra; Rose, Jed E; Asadi, Sadegh; Manaye, Kebreten F; Millis, Richard M; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2015-02-01

    Direct actions of nicotine in the CNS appear to be essential for its reinforcing properties. However, activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on afferent sensory nerve fibers is an important component of addiction to, and withdrawal from, cigarette smoking. The aim of the present study was to identify the neuroanatomical substrates activated by the peripheral actions of nicotine and to determine whether these sites overlap brain structures stimulated by direct actions of nicotine. Mouse brains were examined by immunohistochemistry for c-Fos protein after intraperitoneal injection of either nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (NIC; 30 and 40 μg/kg) or nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM; 20 and 30 μg/kg). NIC-PM induced c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) at multiple brain sites. In the brainstem, c-Fos IR was detected in the locus coeruleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and pedunculotegmental nucleus. In the midbrain, c-Fos IR was observed in areas overlapping the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which includes the paranigral nucleus, parainterfascicular nucleus, parabrachial pigmental area, and rostral VTA. Other structures of the nicotine brain-reward circuitry activated by NIC-PM included the hypothalamus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, lateral habenular nucleus, hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens nucleus, piriform cortex, angular insular cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, lateral septal nucleus, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory tubercle, and medial and lateral orbital cortex. NIC, acting through central and peripheral nAChRs, produced c-Fos IR in areas that overlapped NIC-PM-induced c-Fos-expressing sites. These neuroanatomical data are the first to demonstrate that the CNS structures that are the direct targets of nicotine are also anatomical substrates for the peripheral sensory impact of nicotine. PMID:25223294

  4. Work complexity assessment, nursing interventions classification, and nursing outcomes classification: making connections.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Cindy A; Weydt, Alice P

    2009-01-01

    When nurses understand what interventions are needed to achieve desired patient outcomes, they can more easily define their practice. Work Complexity Assessment (WCA) is a process that helps nurses to identify interventions performed on a routine basis for their specific patient population. This article describes the WCA process and links it to the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). WCA, NIC, and NOC are all tools that help nurses understand the work they do and the outcomes they achieve, and that thereby acknowledge and validate nursing's contribution to patient care. PMID:19343845

  5. A theory of heating of quiet solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.

    2015-03-15

    A theory is proposed to discuss the creation of hot solar corona. We pay special attention to the transition region and the low corona, and consider that the sun is quiet. The proposed scenario suggests that the protons are heated by intrinsic Alfvénic turbulence, while the ambient electrons are heated by the hot protons via collisions. The theory contains two prime components: the generation of the Alfvénic fluctuations by the heavy minor ions in the transition region and second, the explanation of the temperature profile in the low solar atmosphere. The proposed heating process operates continuously in time and globally in space.

  6. The application of low-bit-rate encoding techniques to digital satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowbotham, T. R.; Niwa, K.

    This paper describes the INTELSAT-funded development on low-bit-rate voice encoding techniques. Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM), Nearly Instantaneous Companding (NIC) and Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation (CVSD). Subjective and objective evaluation results, with and without transmission errors are presented, primarily for 32 kbit/s per voice channel. A part of the paper is devoted to the interfacing of ADPCM, NIC and CVSD with terrestrial ISDM and satellite networks, the frame structure and how signalling can be accommodated, and the compatibility with other voice-associated digital processors such as DSI and Echo Cancellers.

  7. A theory of heating of quiet solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.

    2015-03-01

    A theory is proposed to discuss the creation of hot solar corona. We pay special attention to the transition region and the low corona, and consider that the sun is quiet. The proposed scenario suggests that the protons are heated by intrinsic Alfvénic turbulence, while the ambient electrons are heated by the hot protons via collisions. The theory contains two prime components: the generation of the Alfvénic fluctuations by the heavy minor ions in the transition region and second, the explanation of the temperature profile in the low solar atmosphere. The proposed heating process operates continuously in time and globally in space.

  8. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work. PMID:26035305

  9. Lessons from Two Years of Building Fusion Ignition Targets with the Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R C; Alger, E T; Atherton, L J; Bhandarkar, S D; Castro, C; Dzenitis, E G; Hamza, A V; Klingmann, J L; Nikroo, A; Parham, T G; Reynolds, J L; Seugling, R M; Swisher, M F; Taylor, J S; Witte, M C

    2010-02-19

    The Precision Robotic Assembly Machine was developed to manufacture the small and intricate laser-driven fusion ignition targets that are being used in the world's largest and most energetic laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) goal of using the NIF to produce a self-sustaining nuclear fusion burn with energy gain - for the first time ever in a laboratory setting - requires targets that are demanding in materials fabrication, machining, and assembly. We provide an overview of the design and function of the machine, with emphasis on the aspects that revolutionized how NIC targets are manufactured.

  10. Neutron Imaging Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley; deNolfo, G. A.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron Imaging Camera (NIC) is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics applications. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approximately 0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of fast neutrons, En > 0.5 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the proton and triton fragments resulting from (sup 3)He(n,p) (sup 3)H interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The performance of the NIC from laboratory and accelerator tests is presented.

  11. Critical analysis of the local aromaticity concept in polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bultinck, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    A large number of local aromaticity indices for the benzenoid rings in polyaromatic hydrocarbons is computed. The results are interpreted, supporting Clar's hypothesis, and mutual correlations are investigated. It is shown that there are good correlations between all indices that strictly allow comparing benzenoid character. Poor correlations are found with NICS. A rationale is offered, yielding the conclusion that NICS and ring current maps follow a fundamentally different path to local aromaticity. In this sense the lack of correlation is not due to a real multidimensional character of aromaticity but rather to confusion and vagueness of the aromaticity concept. PMID:17328438

  12. Beach profile modification and sediment transport by ice: an overlooked process on Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, P.W.; Kempema, E.W.; Reimnitz, E.; McCormick, M.; Weber, W.S.; Hayden, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    Coastal lake ice includes a belt of mobile crash and slush ice and a stable nearshore-ice complex (NIC). Sediment concentrations indicate that the NIC and the belt of brash and slush contains 180 to 280 t (113 to 175m3) of sand per kilometer of coast. This static sediment load is roughly equivalent to the average amount of sand eroded from the bluffs and to the amount accumulating in the deep lake basin each year. Sediment is being rafted alongshore in the mobile brash and slush at rates of 10 to 30 cm/sec. -from Authors

  13. Functionalization of Cellulose Nanocrystals with PEG-Metal-Chelating Diblock Copolymers via Controlled Conjugation in Aqueous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Melinda

    The surface of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was successfully functionalized with metal chelating diblock copolymers via HyNic-4FB conjugation. Two types of PEG-metal-chelating block polymers with hydrazinonicotinate acetone hydrazine (HyNic) end groups were synthesized: mPEG-PGlu(DTPA) 18-HyNic and mPEG-PGlu(DTPA)25-HyNic. These two polymers both had a methoxy PEG (M ˜ 2000 Da) block that differed in the mean degree of polymerization of the metal-chelating block. They were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography (GPC). 4-Formylbenzamide (4FB) groups were introduced onto the surface of CNCs and quantified through their reaction with 2-hydrazinopyridine. The polymers were grafted onto the surface of CNCs via bis-aryl hydrazone bond formation, and the kinetics of this reaction was explored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The CNCs were also labeled with rhodamine and Alexa FluorRTM 488 dyes. Students in our collaborator's group in Pharmacy are examining applications of these materials as radiotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment.

  14. 77 FR 17095 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Development of a Core Correctional Practices Curriculum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Development of a Core...: Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement for a...

  15. 78 FR 40190 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Sexual Safety in Women's Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Sexual Safety in Women's... Cooperative Agreement. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement for an 18-month period to begin...

  16. 77 FR 41801 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Transition From Jail to the Community (TJC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Transition From Jail to the... for a Cooperative Agreement. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals interested in entering into a 30-month...

  17. 78 FR 35316 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Employment Retention Inventory Validation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Employment Retention Inventory... cooperative agreement. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals to enter into a cooperative agreement for a 24-month period to begin...

  18. 76 FR 44369 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Training and Related Assistance for Indian Country Jails

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Training and Related Assistance...: Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Jails Division... on the Web site until the closing date of this cooperative agreement solicitation....

  19. Notch1 regulated autophagy controls survival and suppressor activity of activated murine T-regulatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Marcel, Nimi; Sarin, Apurva

    2016-01-01

    Cell survival is one of several processes regulated by the Notch pathway in mammalian cells. Here we report functional outcomes of non-nuclear Notch signaling to activate autophagy, a conserved cellular response to nutrient stress, regulating survival in murine natural T-regulatory cells (Tregs), an immune subset controlling tolerance and inflammation. Induction of autophagy required ligand-dependent, Notch intracellular domain (NIC) activity, which controlled mitochondrial organization and survival of activated Tregs. Consistently, NIC immune-precipitated Beclin and Atg14, constituents of the autophagy initiation complex. Further, ectopic expression of an effector of autophagy (Atg3) or recombinant NIC tagged to a nuclear export signal (NIC-NES), restored autophagy and suppressor function in Notch1-/- Tregs. Furthermore, Notch1 deficiency in the Treg lineage resulted in immune hyperactivity, implicating Notch activity in Treg homeostasis. Notch1 integration with autophagy, revealed in these experiments, holds implications for Notch regulated cell-fate decisions governing differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14023.001 PMID:27267497

  20. Annotated Bibliography on Offender Job Training and Placement. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Constance, Ed.

    This second edition of an annotated bibliography on offender job training and placement lists nearly 400 items from the collection of the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center in Longmont, Colorado, including 85 items added since the first edition in 1997. Items new to this edition are marked with an asterisk. Citations have…

  1. 77 FR 46120 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 58625-58626, October 7, 2008), which itself corrected an earlier NIC published in the Federal Register (72 FR 41524-41525, July 30, 2007). After publication of the notices cited above... (74 FR 40218-40219, August 11, 2009). Consequently, the Delaware Tribe of Indians, Oklahoma is...

  2. 76 FR 58031 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... (NIC) describing 4 individuals and 42 associated funerary objects removed from the Cedar Cave site was published in the Federal Register [72 FR 52391-52392, September 13, 2007]. The Burke Museum and Central... Items In 1953-1954, human remains were removed from the Cedar Cave Site (45-KT-20), in Kittitas...

  3. Differentiated Normalization and Drug Transitions among Rural Youth in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence surveys in Ireland indicate an increased trend of youth drug use with rural areas reporting comparable drug availability and prevalence of use in urban settings (Currie, C., Nic Gabhainn, S., Godeau, E., Roberts, C., Smith, R., & Currie, D. (Eds.). (2008). "Inequalities in young people's health: HBSC international report from the…

  4. 75 FR 45667 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Strategies for Women Executives in Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is soliciting proposals from organizations, groups, or individuals to enter into an 18-month cooperative agreement to update its 36-hour Executive Leadership for Women in Corrections program, newly titled Strategic Development of the Executive Woman. The award recipient will update the current training and ensure it supports the learning process,......

  5. The Referential Communication Skills of Children with Imaginary Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Anna C.; Kidd, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the referential communication skills of children with imaginary companions (ICs). Twenty-two children with ICs aged between 4 and 6 years were compared to 22 children without ICs (NICs). The children were matched for age, gender, birth order, number of siblings, and parental education. All children completed the Test…

  6. Keeping an Uphill Edge: Managing Cleaning Behaviors at a Ski Shop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Jessica; Livesey, Josh; McHaffie, Elizabeth; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Several behaviors in a ski shop were identified as being deficient using Austin's Performance Diagnostic Checklist (2000) and Daniels and Daniels' PIC/NIC Analysis (2004). During a 4-week baseline, 7 cleaning behaviors were monitored and 5 were subsequently targeted in an intervention package using an ABC design. The intervention included: a task…

  7. Three-dimensional nonlinear ideal MHD equilibria with field-aligned incompressible and compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, S. M.; Ibrahim, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.

  8. 75 FR 4395 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Cabool, Missouri. 2. First National Bancorp, Inc., Green Forest, Arkansas; to acquire an additional 0.78... be obtained from the National Information Center website at www.ffiec.gov/nic/ . Unless otherwise... Harleysville National Corporation, Harleysville, Pennsylvania, up to 19.9 percent of the outstanding shares...

  9. 28 CFR 25.10 - Correction of erroneous system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... challenge to the accuracy of the record, in writing, to the FBI, NICS Operations Center, Criminal Justice... information. 25.10 Section 25.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.10 Correction of...

  10. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer,...

  11. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer,...

  12. 28 CFR 25.10 - Correction of erroneous system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... challenge to the accuracy of the record, in writing, to the FBI, NICS Operations Center, Criminal Justice... information. 25.10 Section 25.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.10 Correction of...

  13. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer,...

  14. 28 CFR 25.10 - Correction of erroneous system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... challenge to the accuracy of the record, in writing, to the FBI, NICS Operations Center, Criminal Justice... information. 25.10 Section 25.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.10 Correction of...

  15. 76 FR 14119 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... States or his/ her designee, for use by the Department of Justice in the National Instant Criminal... system of records to the Department of Justice (DoJ), either on VA's initiative or in response to DoJ's... National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) mandated by the Brady Handgun Violence...

  16. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer,...

  17. 28 CFR 25.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.1 Purpose and authority. The purpose of this subpart is to... Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to be contacted by any licensed importer,...

  18. 28 CFR 25.10 - Correction of erroneous system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... challenge to the accuracy of the record, in writing, to the FBI, NICS Operations Center, Criminal Justice... information. 25.10 Section 25.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.10 Correction of...

  19. 28 CFR 25.10 - Correction of erroneous system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... challenge to the accuracy of the record, in writing, to the FBI, NICS Operations Center, Criminal Justice... information. 25.10 Section 25.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.10 Correction of...

  20. Combusted but not smokeless tobacco products cause DNA damage in oral cavity cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Prasad, G L; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate genomic DNA damage in human oral cavity cells after exposure to different tobacco product preparations (TPPs). The oral carcinoma cell line 101A, gingival epithelial cells HGEC, and gingival fibroblasts HGF were exposed to TPM (total particulate matter from 3R4F cigarettes), ST/CAS (2S3 smokeless tobacco extract in complete artificial saliva), and NIC (nicotine). Treatments were for 24 h using TPM at its EC-50 doses, ST/CAS and NIC at doses with equi-nicotine units, and high doses for ST/CAS and NIC. Comet assays showed that TPM, but not ST/CAS or NIC, caused substantial DNA breaks in cells; only the high ST/CAS dose caused weak DNA damage. These results were confirmed by immunofluorescence for γ-H2AX protein. These data revealed that the combusted TPP caused substantial DNA damage in all cell types, whereas the two non-combusted TPPs exerted no or only minimal DNA damage. They support epidemiologic evidence on the relative risk associated with consumption of non-combusted versus combusted tobacco products, and help to understand potential genotoxic effects of such products on oral cavity cells. PMID:24780532

  1. User Procedures Standardization for Network Access. NBS Technical Note 799.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, A. J.

    User access procedures to information systems have become of crucial importance with the advent of computer networks, which have opened new types of resources to a broad spectrum of users. This report surveys user access protocols of six representative systems: BASIC, GE MK II, INFONET, MEDLINE, NIC/ARPANET and SPIRES. Functional access…

  2. A Needs Assessment of Aquaculture Extension Agents, Specialists, and Program Administrators in Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Michael H.; Gibson, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here identified continuing education and training needs of aquaculture Extension agents, specialists, and program administrators in 10 competency areas relating to the need for continuing education or training. Fourteen resources on the AquaNIC Web site were also evaluated, as was the efficacy of the AQUA-EXT listserv. Data were…

  3. 75 FR 11561 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Training for Executive Excellence: Leadership Style and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...The National Institute of Corrections' (NIC), Academy Division is seeking applications for the development of a competency based, blended modality training curriculum that will provide correctional executives with the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to become more self-aware, ethical and value based, a strategic thinker, more organizationally influential, collaborative, team......

  4. 75 FR 1814 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Curriculum Development: Training for Correctional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ...The National Institute of Corrections' (NIC) Transition and Offender Workforce Development (T/OWD) and Academy Divisions are seeking applications for the development of a competency based, blended modality training curriculum that will provide Correctional Industries Directors with the knowledge, skills and abilities needed to set organizational priorities, identify strategic objectives,......

  5. 75 FR 11562 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Training for Executive Excellence: The Role of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...The National Institute of Corrections' (NIC), Academy Division is seeking applications for the development of a competency based, blended modality training curriculum that will provide correctional executives with the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to become more self-aware, ethical and value based, a strategic thinker, more organizationally influential, collaborative, team......

  6. Sensitivity to P450-metabolized herbicides in sweet corn: genetic basis and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews research that our group has conducted the last six years to resolve the issue of sweet corn sensitivity to postemergence herbicides. As a result, commercial sweet corn breeders are currently selecting against the allele(s) that condition herbicide sensitivity by screening with nic...

  7. 76 FR 58035 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... (NICs) published in the Federal Register for the Central Arizona Project (39 FR 8996- 9002, February 27, 2002; 67 FR 45539-45540, July 9, 2002; and 67 FR 78247-78248, December 23, 2002). The materials... anthropological, archeological, biological, geographical, historical, kinship, linguistics, and oral...

  8. 78 FR 19304 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Completion (NICs) published in the Federal Register (69 FR 19232-19233, April 12, 2004, corrected by 74 FR... described in a Notice of Intent to Repatriate (NIR) published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15798, March 16... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado...

  9. 77 FR 23498 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... of Inventory Completion (NICs) published in the Federal Register (69 FR 19920, April 14, 2004, and 74 FR 48779-48780, September 24, 2009). The human remains and associated funerary objects were... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado...

  10. σ-Aromaticity in hexa-group 16 atom-substituted benzene dications: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Miho; Saito, Masaichi; Fujita, Masahiro; Morokuma, Keiji

    2014-03-21

    C6I6(2+) has been reported to have a σ-aromatic character since removal of two σ anti-bonding electrons localized on iodines results in fulfilling Hückel (4n+2) rules for I6(2+) as well as C6 parts. To search for molecules possessing similar character, hexa-group 16 atom-substituted benzene dications C6(ChH)6(2+) (Ch = S, Se, Te) and their derivatives are examined for aromatic character by using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS). For these dications, in which iodines in C6I6(2+) are replaced by group 16 atoms, negative NICS values larger in magnitude than for benzene are found when a σ anti-bonding orbital localized on group 16 atoms is unoccupied. To clarify the origin of large negative NICS values, they are decomposed into individual molecular orbitals. It has been shown that both π bonding orbitals on C6 and σ bonding orbitals on Se6 or Te6 contribute to the negative NICS values, indicating that the aromaticity of these dications have a substantial σ character as well as π characters. Aromaticity of group 14 and 15 atom-substituted benzene dications is also discussed. PMID:24564420

  11. A Difluorobenzoxadiazole Building Block for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Yunke; Hunt, Adrian; Zhang, Jianquan; Yao, Huatong; Li, Zhengke; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Fei; Ade, Harald; Yan, He

    2016-03-01

    A difluorobenzoxadiazole building block is synthesized and utilized to construct a conjugated polymer leading to high-performance thick-film polymer solar cells with a V(OC) of 0.88 V and a power conversion efficiency of 9.4%. This new building block can be used in many possible polymer structures for various organic electro-nic applications. PMID:26689976

  12. 75 FR 20863 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Development of Two Documents-Inmate Behavior Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... content will reflect and expand on the information in NIC's ``Inmate Behavior Management: The Key to a...--Inmate Behavior Management: A Guide to Meeting Inmates' Basic Needs and--Inmate Behavior Management: A... management of inmate behavior in jails: (1) Assessing the risks and needs of each inmate at various...

  13. 75 FR 33307 - Notice of Proposals to Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or to Acquire Companies that...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ....ffiec.gov/nic/ . Unless otherwise noted, comments regarding the applications must be received at the... Inc., both of New York, New York, in securities brokerage activities, pursuant to section 225.28(b)(7)(i) of Regulation Y. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, June 7, 2010. Robert...

  14. 75 FR 53695 - Notice of Proposals to Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or to Acquire Companies that...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ....ffiec.gov/nic/ . Unless otherwise noted, comments regarding the applications must be received at the... services, pursuant to sections 225.28(b)(6)(i), 225.28(b)(6)(v), and 225.28(b)(7)(i) of Regulation...

  15. 75 FR 18501 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... be obtained from the National Information Center website at www.ffiec.gov/nic/ . Unless otherwise... the offices of the Board of Governors not later than May 7, 2010. A. Federal Reserve Bank of New York..., April 7, 2010. Jennifer J. Johnson, Secretary of the Board. BILLING CODE 6210-01-S...

  16. Evaluation of Education of Inner City Handicapped Children, Case Studies in Five Cities. Volume I, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported was an evaluation of the education of inner city (IC) handicapped children in five cities. Focused on were an assessment of present education programs, a comparison of services provided IC children with services provided non-inner city (NIC) children, a determination of needs unique to handicapped children in inner city areas, formulation…

  17. The Efficacy of Learning Communities at Two Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkler, James E.

    This study examined learning communities at two community colleges, North Idaho College (NIC) and Spokane Falls Community College (SFCC) (Washington). Recent emphasis on learning outcomes and transforming the curriculum to be more learning centered has often come into direct conflict with operating under tight budget constraints. Learning…

  18. Teaching with the Newspaper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The newspaper is a source of up-to-date and compelling information that teachers can use to teach current events. In this article, the author discusses why it makes sense for social studies educators to use newspapers in their classrooms. He also presents information about the Newspaper in Education (NIC) program and explains how interested…

  19. Third Year Continuation of a Research and Design Criteria for the Implementation and Establishment of a Neighborhood Information Center in Five Public Libraries: Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, and Queens Borough. Final Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    The 1972-1975 Neighborhood Information Center (NIC) Project was undertaken in Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, and Queens Borough to demonstrate the feasibility of using existing library branches as neighborhood information centers. This summary evaluation utilized data from site visits, interviews with staff and clients, a questionnaire…

  20. Student Completion Rates during Three Different Pacing Conditions. REDEAL Research Report #12. Project REDEAL. Research and Evaluation of Distance Education for the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gail

    Three institutions effected agreements enabling students in all of the institutions to enroll in the same course, a six-credit introductory psychology course. The three institutions--Athabasca University (AU), The Open Learning Institute (OLI), and North Island College (NIC)--were distance education institutions with open admissions policies which…

  1. Higher Education and Development: The Experience of Four Newly Industrializing Countries in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jasbir Sarjit

    1991-01-01

    Reviews developments in higher education in four Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) in east Asia. Contends that improvements have resulted from policies that strengthen and develop scientific and technological capacity. Stresses the link between effective higher education and economic well-being. (CFR)

  2. Evaluative Study of the Neighborhood Information Center Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Hardy R.; Summers, F. William

    The 1972-1974 Neighborhood Information Center (NIC) Project was undertaken in Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, and Queens Borough to demonstrate that urban public libraries could be a vital force in daily living by providing free information and referrals to low income communities, and by adapting in non-traditional ways to meet neighborhood…

  3. An Experiment in Library Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, John C.

    The Carnegie Branch of the Houston Public Library (HPL) has attempted to establish credibility in a low income, Spanish speaking neighborhood by making the library visible to individuals on the street, contacting community leaders, and working with dropouts. The Branch, selected to implement a Neighborhood Information Center (NIC), established a…

  4. 76 FR 29268 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-New Jail Planning Initiative: Review and Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... the Instructional Theory into Practice model of training for adult learners. This will require... Theory Into Practice model for adult learners. Lesson plans will be in a format that NIC provides. The... conform to the Instructional Theory into Practice model of training for adult learners. This will...

  5. 77 FR 38655 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Training Curriculum Development for Probation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ...-based instructional delivery strategies, and be based on NIC's Instructional Theory Into Practice (ITIP) model. DATES: Applications must be received by 4:00 p.m. EDT on Friday, July 20, 2012. ADDRESSES: Mailed...-a-curriculum (DACUM) process. The curriculum is then designed using the ITIP model. The second...

  6. 78 FR 43921 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Core Competencies for Corrections Learning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... cooperative agreement will involve the development of a core competency model and a corresponding complement of competency assessment instruments. The model will identify the core competencies both of learners in a corrections agency and corrections learning and performance staff. NIC will use the model...

  7. (1,2,3,4-Tetra­hydro­isoquinoline-2-carbo­dithio­ato-κ2 S,S′)(thio­cyanato-κN)(tri­phenyl­phosphane)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Valarmathi, P.; Thirumaran, S.; Selvanayagam, S.

    2011-01-01

    The NiII atom in the mononuclear title compound, [Ni(C10H10NS2)(NCS)(C18H15P)], exists within a S2PN donor set that defines a distorted square-planar geometry. A significant asymmetry in the Ni—S bond lengths support the less effective trans effect of SCN− over PPh3. PMID:22199643

  8. 74 FR 63792 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-The Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-12-04

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--The Prison Rape Elimination Act... 12-month period to begin in February 2010. Section 5 of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA... responsible for the prevention, investigation, and punishment of instances of prison rape.'' NIC's...

  9. The Amazing Internet Challenge: How Leading Projects Use Library Skills To Organize the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Amy Tracy; Calcari, Susan; Koplow, Travis

    This book describes how the following 12 virtual libraries use library skills to organize Internet resources: Agriculture Network Information Center (AgNIC); Argus Clearinghouse; Blue Web'n; BUBL Information Service; Edinburgh Engineering Virtual Library (EEVL); INFOMINE; Internet Public Library (IPL); Librarians' Index to the Internet (LII);…

  10. Identification of an Island-induced Alfvén Eigenmode in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. K.; Cook, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.; Boguski, J.; Feng, R.; McCollam, K. M.; Sears, S. H.; Spong, D. A.; Hirshman, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    Recent theoretical work analytically computes the effect of a magnetic island on the shear Alfvén continuum and may explain unresolved Alfvénic activity observed in neutral beam-heated MST plasmas. Consideration of the previously-ignored core-localized n=5 island leads to theoretical Alfvén continua that provide a gap in which the observed n=4 Alfvénic bursts reside. Numerical simulations using the STELLGAP/AE3D codes, as well as a new code called SIESTAlfvén have identified the bursts as the first observation of an Island-induced Alfvén Eigenmode (IAE). The IAE arises from a helical coupling of mode numbers, similar to the helicity-induced Alfvén eigenmode, but occurs in the core of an island. The observed frequency of bursting n=4 Alfvénic modes fall within the island-induced gap over a wide range of MST operating parameters. Characteristics such as mode frequency, width and damping rate are measured as a function of experimentally-varied magnetic island width. Coincident bursts with toroidal mode number n=1 may exhibit frequency scaling of an Alfvénic eigenmode; the possibility of an island induced extremum mode is explored as an explanation. Work supported by US DoE under grants DE-FG02-99ER54546, DE-SC0006103 and DE-FC02-05ER54814.

  11. Automation and Networking of Public Libraries in India Using the E-Granthalaya Software from the National Informatics Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matoria, Ram Kumar; Upadhyay, P. K.; Moni, Madaswamy

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of the library management system, e-Granthalaya, for public libraries in India. This is an initiative of the Indian government's National Informatics Centre (NIC). The paper outlines the challenges and the potential of a full-scale deployment of this software at a national level. Design/methodology/approach:…

  12. Novel heterometallic metal–azido complex synthesized by “one-step” reaction: synthetic strategy and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Yong-Kun; Li, Xiu-Ping; Zhao, Cui; Wang, Hai-Chao; Xue, Min; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Liu, Fu-Chen

    2013-06-15

    A novel heterometallic complex, [Ni{sub 2}Mn(N{sub 3}){sub 2}(nic){sub 4}·(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (1) (nic=nicotinate), was obtained by assembling MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O, Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, NaN{sub 3} and nicotinic acid with a “one step” synthetic strategy—hydrothermal reaction. The 3D structure of the complex can be described as end-on (EO) azido and syn,syn carboxylates mixed bridged by alternate Ni–Mn–Ni trimers linked by the nicotinate. Dominant ferromagnetic interactions were observed between the Ni{sup II} and Mn{sup II} ions in the trimer. - Graphical abstract: A novel heterometallic 3D complex [Ni{sub 2}Mn(N{sub 3}){sub 2}(nic){sub 4}·(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (1) (nic=nicotinate) was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. This complex exhibits interesting structural and magnetic properties. - Highlights: • It is difficult to construct simple coordination complexes with azide as “ligands” to obtain heterometallic metal–azido compounds. • A “one-step” method—hydrothermal reaction— was introduced to avoid the disadvantages of azide mentioned above. • The magnetic property is different with the isostructural homometal–azido complex due to the changed metal center.

  13. The National In-Service Courses for Science Teachers and Their Effect on Educational Reform in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Alejandra; Flores, Fernando; Gallegos, Leticia

    2005-01-01

    The educational system in Mexico has undergone important changes in recent decades. One of the most important took place in 1993, when the compulsory character of secondary school (ages 12-15) was established. National In-service Courses (NICs) were established as a way to bring curricular changes proposed in the reform near to the teachers. The…

  14. 75 FR 3466 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... be conducted throughout the United States. Additional information on all bank holding companies may be obtained from the National Information Center website at www.ffiec.gov/nic/ . Unless otherwise... by acquiring 100 percent of the voting shares of Santa Ana Business Bank, Santa Ana, California....

  15. STIMULUS: End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkesh-Ha, Payman

    2014-09-12

    The main goal of this research grant is to develop a system-level solution leveraging novel technologies that enable network communications at 100 Gb/s or beyond. University of New Mexico in collaboration with Acadia Optronics LLC has been working on this project to develop the 100 Gb/s Network Interface Controller (NIC) under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant.

  16. cis-Bis(N-benzoyl-N′,N′-dibenzyl­thio­ureato-κ2 O,S)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Hiram; Corrêa, Rodrigo S.; Duque, Julio; Plutín, Ana M.; O’Reilly, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ni(C22H19N2OS)2], the NiII atom is coordinated by the S and O atoms of two N-benzoyl-N′,N′-dibenzyl­thio­ureate ligands in a slightly distorted square-planar geometry. The two O atoms are cis, as are the two S atoms. PMID:21202775

  17. 75 FR 1384 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... be conducted throughout the United States. Additional information on all bank holding companies may be obtained from the National Information Center website at www.ffiec.gov/nic/ . Unless otherwise..., Missouri 64198-0001: 1. First National Management Group, LLC, Greenwood Village, Colorado; to become a...

  18. 75 FR 26961 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... be conducted throughout the United States. Additional information on all bank holding companies may be obtained from the National Information Center website at www.ffiec.gov/nic/ . Unless otherwise..., California 94105-1579: 1. Carpenter Fund Manager GP, LLC, Carpenter Fund Management, LLC, Carpenter...

  19. FY 1979 Unit Cost Analysis for the Public Community Colleges of Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    A unit cost analysis for fiscal year (FY) 1979 was conducted by the Illinois Community College Board using mid-term enrollment data and uniform accounting information from each of the state's 51 community colleges. Unit costs for instructional areas were determined at three incremental levels: (1) net instructional cost (NIC), which includes…

  20. Centrilobular zonal necrosis as a hallmark of a distinctive subtype of autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Sugita, Tomonori; Seki, Nobuyoshi; Chuganji, Yoshimichi; Furumoto, Youhei; Sakata, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Centrilobular zonal necrosis (CZN) is a known histological variant of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). However, the significance of CZN is yet to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether CZN is a hallmark of a distinctive subtype of AIH. Methods Histological changes in the centrilobular zones of liver biopsies from 113 AIH patients were assessed by a single pathologist and classified into three categories: typical zonal necrosis defined as CZN (15 patients); other necroinflammatory change (NIC; 24 patients); and absence of necrosis (non-NIC; 74 patients). The clinicopathological features and immunogenetic background of CZN patients were then assessed. Results The clinicopathological features of AIH with CZN were distinct from other types of AIH, including a higher frequency of acute onset, lower frequency of antinuclear antibodies, lower antinuclear antibody titers, lower serum immunoglobulin G levels, lower grade interface hepatitis, less prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and lower AIH score. Increased and decreased frequencies of HLA-DR9 and HLA-DR4, respectively, were identified as immunogenetic features of AIH with CZN. Conversely, the clinicopathological characteristics of AIH with NIC were similar to those of non-NIC AIH, including the majority of the AIH patients. The therapeutic outcomes of AIH with CZN were excellent when precise diagnoses were made without delay. Conclusion The clinicopathological features and immunogenetic background of AIH with CZN differed from AIH without CZN. CZN may be a hallmark of a distinct subtype of AIH. PMID:26657454

  1. 77 FR 66636 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection, Comments Requested: Approval of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...) Point of Contact (POC) State Final Determination Electronic Submission ACTION: 60-day notice. The... information, please contact Sherry L. Kuneff, Management and Program Analyst, Federal Bureau of Investigation... Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Point- of-Contact (POC) State Final Determination...

  2. 76 FR 27354 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection, Comments Requested: Approval of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...) Point of Contact (POC) State Final Determination Electronic Submission ACTION: 30-Day notice of... Background Check System (NICS) Point of Contact (POC) State Final Determination Electronic Submission. (3... required to respond, as well as a brief abstract: Primary: Full Point of Contact (POC) States, Partial...

  3. 76 FR 11513 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...; The National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Point of Contact (POC) State Final... instructions or additional information, please contact Sherry L. Kuneff, Management and Program Analyst... the title of the collection. If you have questions concerning the collection, please contact Sherry...

  4. WebWatch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbeitt, Sarah

    1997-01-01

    Numerous Web-based phone and address directories provide advantages over the white and yellow pages. Although many share a common database, each has features that set it apart: maps, suggested driving directions, and phone dialing. This article examines eight (Bigfoot, BigBook, BigYellow, Switchboard, Infospace, Contractjobs, InterNIC)…

  5. NO-naproxen (AstraZeneca).

    PubMed

    Monck, Nat

    2003-06-01

    NO-naproxen, consisting of the NSAID naproxen linked to a nitric oxide (NO) moiety, is under development by AstraZeneca plc, under license from NicOx SA, for the potential treatment of acute/chronic pain. PMID:12811683

  6. "An Absolute Prerequisite": The Importance of User Privacy and Trust in Maintaining Academic Freedom at the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutlieff, Lisa; Chelin, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the importance of user-library trust in ensuring vital freedom of inquiry in academic libraries, exploring its strength through comparison with attitudes towards the National Identity Card Scheme (NICS) within the various libraries of a large UK university. An online survey of students and interviews with librarians…

  7. 76 FR 58037 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ...) previously published in the Federal Register (34 FR 10906-10909, February 20, 2001). The Colorado Historical... described in another NIC published in the Federal Register (76 FR 35010-35012, June 15, 2011). The transfer... Reservation, South Dakota; Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico (formerly the Pueblo of San Juan); Pawnee Nation...

  8. Testing methods for sensor test and evaluation using the DNA nuclear infrared clutter simulator. Technical report, 17 August 1993-16 December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, D.G.; Moore, D.K.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this interim report is to document methods that have been developed for the test and evaluation of interceptor and surveillance sensor systems using the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) Nuclear Infrared Clutter Simulator (NICS) system. The methods presented here have been developed on DNA contract DNA 001-93-C-0145, Applications of the Nuclear Infrared Clutter Simulator (ANICS) program. The methods have evolved as the result of experience gained over the course of multiple NICS sensor focal plane array (FPA) test campaigns and the subsequent data analysis necessary to evaluate FPA and modeled sensor performance. Methods documented here are applicable to sensor testing with either the original NICS static display optical configuration or the new dynamic display optical configuration. The original bench is referred to as the NICS Static Display Bench, while the newest optical bench is referred to as the Dynamic Display Bench. The latter configuration utilizes DNA Nuclear Optical Dynamic Display System (NODDS) technology, which provides the sensor under test with dynamic infrared optical scenarios.

  9. Watershed Implications of Sediment and Nutrient Pollution in the Guánica Bay Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF), a collaboration of federal, commonwealth, and non-government agencies, recently initiated a program to limit sediment runoff to the coral reefs outside Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico. Municipal and agricultural growth in the Guánic...

  10. The Story behind "Quest for the Tree Kangaroo"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrell A.; Ward, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of English awarded the coveted nonfiction prize to "Quest for the Tree Kangaroo: An Expedition to the Cloud Forest of New Guinea." Written by Sy Montgomery, with photographs by Nic Bishop, the book was further honored as a Robert F. Sibert Informational Book Medal Honor recipient by the Association for Library…

  11. Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements, Regardless of Their Zinc Content, Increase Growth and Reduce the Prevalence of Stunting and Wasting in Young Burkinabe Children: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sonja Y.; Abbeddou, Souheila; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Somé, Jérôme W.; Vosti, Stephen A.; Ouédraogo, Zinéwendé P.; Guissou, Rosemonde M.; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) are promising home fortification products, but the optimal zinc level needed to improve growth and reduce morbidity is uncertain. We aimed to assess the impact of providing SQ-LNS with varied amounts of zinc, along with illness treatment, on zinc-related outcomes compared with standard care. In a placebo-controlled, cluster-randomized trial, 34 communities were stratified to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). 2435 eligible IC children were randomly assigned to one of four groups:1) SQ-LNS without zinc, placebo tablet; 2) SQ-LNS containing 5mg zinc, placebo tablet; 3) SQ-LNS containing 10mg zinc, placebo tablet; or 4) SQ-LNS without zinc and 5mg zinc tablet from 9–18 months of age. During weekly morbidity surveillance, oral rehydration salts were provided for reported diarrhea and antimalarial therapy for confirmed malaria. Children in NIC (n = 785) did not receive SQ-LNS, tablets, illness surveillance or treatment. At 9 and 18 months, length, weight and hemoglobin were measured in all children. Reported adherence was 97±6% for SQ-LNS and tablets. Mean baseline hemoglobin was 89±15g/L. At 18 months, change in hemoglobin was greater in IC than NIC (+8 vs -1g/L, p<0.0001), but 79.1% of IC were still anemic (vs. 91.1% in NIC). Final plasma zinc concentration did not differ by group. During the 9-month observation period, the incidence of diarrhea was 1.10±1.03 and of malaria 0.54±0.50 episodes per 100 child-days, and did not differ by group. Length at 18 months was significantly greater in IC compared to NIC (77.7±3.0 vs. 76.9±3.4cm; p<0.001) and stunting prevalence was significantly lower in IC (29.3%) than NIC (39.3%; p<0.0001), but did not differ by intervention group within IC. Wasting prevalence was also significantly lower in IC (8.7%) than in NIC (13.5%; p = 0.0003). Providing SQ-LNS daily with or without zinc, along with malaria and diarrhea treatment, significantly increased

  12. A novel mammalian expression system derived from components coordinating nicotine degradation in arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1.

    PubMed

    Malphettes, Laetitia; Weber, Cornelia C; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Schoenmakers, Ronald G; Aubel, Dominique; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design and detailed characterization of 6-hydroxy-nicotine (6HNic)-adjustable transgene expression (NICE) systems engineered for lentiviral transduction and in vivo modulation of angiogenic responses. Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1 encodes a unique catabolic machinery on its plasmid pAO1, which enables this Gram-positive soil bacterium to use the tobacco alkaloid nicotine as the exclusive carbon source. The 6HNic-responsive repressor-operator (HdnoR-O(NIC)) interaction, controlling 6HNic oxidase production in A.nicotinovorans pAO1, was engineered for generic 6HNic-adjustable transgene expression in mammalian cells. HdnoR fused to different transactivation domains retained its O(NIC)-binding capacity in mammalian cells and reversibly adjusted transgene transcription from chimeric O(NIC)-containing promoters (P(NIC); O(NIC) fused to a minimal eukaryotic promoter [P(min)]) in a 6HNic-responsive manner. The combination of transactivators containing various transactivation domains with promoters differing in the number of operator modules as well as in their relative inter-O(NIC) and/or O(NIC)-P(min) spacing revealed steric constraints influencing overall NICE regulation performance in mammalian cells. Mice implanted with microencapsulated cells engineered for NICE-controlled expression of the human glycoprotein secreted placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) showed high SEAP serum levels in the absence of regulating 6HNic. 6HNic was unable to modulate SEAP expression, suggesting that this nicotine derivative exhibits control-incompatible pharmacokinetics in mice. However, chicken embryos transduced with HIV-1-derived self-inactivating lentiviral particles transgenic for NICE-adjustable expression of the human vascular endothelial growth factor 121 (VEGF121) showed graded 6HNic response following administration of different 6HNic concentrations. Owing to the clinically inert and highly water-soluble compound 6HNic, NICE-adjustable transgene control

  13. The Resolution of Chiral, Tetrahedral M4L6 Metal-LigandHosts

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Anna V.; Fiedler, Dorothea; Ziegler, Marco; Terpin,Andreas; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-08-28

    The supramolecular metal-ligand assemblies of M{sub 4}1{sub 6} stoichiometry are chiral (M = Ga{sup III}, Al{sup III}, In{sup III}, Fe{sup III}, Ti{sup IV}, or Ge{sup IV}, H{sub 4}1 = N,N'-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-1,5-diaminonaphthalene). The resolution process of {Delta}{Delta}{Delta}{Delta}- and {Lambda}{Lambda}{Lambda}{Lambda}-[M{sub 4}1{sub 6}]{sup 12-} by the chiral cation s-nicotinium (S-nic{sup +}) is described for the Ga{sup III}, Al{sup III}, and Fe{sup III} assemblies, and the resolution is shown to be proton dependent. From a methanol solution of M(acac){sub 3}, H{sub 4}1, S-nicI, and KOH, the {Delta}{Delta}{Delta}{Delta}-KH{sub 3}(S-nic){sub 7}[(S-nic) {contained_in}M{sub 4}1{sub 6}] complexes precipitate, and the {Lambda}{Lambda}{Lambda}{Lambda}-K{sub 6}(S-nic){sub 5}[(S-nic) {contained_in} M{sub 4}1{sub 6}] complexes subsequently can be isolated from the supernatant. Ion exchange enables the isolation of the (NEt{sub 4}{sup +}){sub 12}, (NMe{sub 4}{sup +}){sub 12} and K{sub 12}{sup +} salts of the resolved structures, which have been characterized by CD and NMR spectroscopies. Resolution can also be accomplished with one equivalent of NEt{sub 4}{sup +} blocking the cavity interior, demonstrating that external binding sites are responsible for the difference in S-nic{sup +} enantiomer interactions. Circular dichroism data demonstrate that the (NMe{sub 4}{sup +}){sub 12} and (NEt{sub 4}{sup +}){sub 12} salts of the resolved [Ga{sub 4}1{sub 6}]{sup 12-} and [Al{sub 4}1{sub 6}]{sup 12-} structures retain their chirality over extended periods of time (>20 d) at room temperature; heating the (NEt{sub 4}{sup +}){sub 12}[Ga{sub 4}1{sub 6}] assembly to 75 C also had no effect on its CD spectrum. Finally, experiments with the resolved K{sub 12}[Ga{sub 4}1{sub 6}] assemblies point to the role of a guest in stabilizing the resolved framework.

  14. Sex differences in attenuation of nicotine reinstatement after individual and combined treatments of progesterone and varenicline.

    PubMed

    Swalve, Natashia; Smethells, John R; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2016-07-15

    Tobacco use is the largest cause of preventable mortality in the western world. Even after treatment, relapse rates for tobacco are high, and more effective pharmacological treatments are needed. Progesterone (PRO), a female hormone used in contraceptives, reduces stimulant use but its effects on tobacco addiction are unknown. Varenicline (VAR) is a commonly used medication that reduces tobacco use. The present study examined sex differences in the individual vs. combined effects of PRO and VAR on reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in a rat model of relapse. Adult female and male Wistar rats self-administered nicotine (NIC, 0.03mg/kg/infusion) for 14days followed by 21days of extinction when no cues or drug were present. Rats were then divided into 4 treatment groups: control (VEH+SAL), PRO alone (PRO+SAL), VAR alone (VEH+VAR) and the combination (PRO+VAR). Reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior induced by priming injections of NIC or caffeine (CAF), presentation of cues (CUES), and the combination of drugs and cues (e.g. NIC+CUES, CAF+CUES) were tested after extinction. Male and female rats did not differ in self-administration of nicotine or extinction responding, and both showed elevated levels of responding to the CAF+CUES condition. However, males, but not females, reinstated active lever-pressing to the NIC+CUES condition, and that was attenuated by both VAR and VAR+PRO treatment. Thus, males were more sensitive to NIC+CUE-induced reinstatement than females, and VAR alone and VAR combined with PRO effectively reduced nicotine relapse. PMID:27091301

  15. Interaction between step-up versus step-down lighting from four to sixteen weeks on growth and development in turkey hens from two commercial strains.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Renner, P A; Anthony, N B

    1992-03-01

    British United Turkeys (BUT) and Nicholas (NIC) hens were exposed to a step-up (10 to 16 h/day) or a step-down (16 to 10 h/day) light program from 4 to 16 wk of age. Lights were increased or decreased by .5h/wk. From 1 to 20 wk, weekly BW data were used to calculate growth curve parameters according to the Gompertz equation. Compared with BUT hens, the slope of the growth curve was greater, but the BW and age at the point of inflection (POI) was decreased in NIC hens. The step-down light program significantly increased the slope of the growth curve, but decreased the BW and age at POI compared with the step-up program. A sample of hens from each strain and program was processed at 16 wk. The relative weight of the Pectoralis minor (P. minor) was increased in BUT hens compared with NIC hens. The absolute and relative weights of the Pectoralis major and the absolute weight of the P. minor were increased in hens from the step-down program compared with the step-up program. The step-up program significantly increased the relative weight of the abdominal fat pad compared with the step-down program, and NIC hens had more abdominal fat than BUT hens. Total carcass lipid was significantly increased by the step-up program, compared with the step-down program, and NIC hens had significantly more carcass lipid than BUT hens. PMID:1561207

  16. Evolving a polymerase for hydrophobic base analogues.

    PubMed

    Loakes, David; Gallego, José; Pinheiro, Vitor B; Kool, Eric T; Holliger, Philipp

    2009-10-21

    Hydrophobic base analogues (HBAs) have shown great promise for the expansion of the chemical and coding potential of nucleic acids but are generally poor polymerase substrates. While extensive synthetic efforts have yielded examples of HBAs with favorable substrate properties, their discovery has remained challenging. Here we describe a complementary strategy for improving HBA substrate properties by directed evolution of a dedicated polymerase using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) with the archetypal HBA 5-nitroindole (d5NI) and its derivative 5-nitroindole-3-carboxamide (d5NIC) as selection substrates. Starting from a repertoire of chimeric polymerases generated by molecular breeding of DNA polymerase genes from the genus Thermus, we isolated a polymerase (5D4) with a generically enhanced ability to utilize HBAs. The selected polymerase. 5D4 was able to form and extend d5NI and d5NIC (d5NI(C)) self-pairs as well as d5NI(C) heteropairs with all four bases with efficiencies approaching, or exceeding, those of the cognate Watson-Crick pairs, despite significant distortions caused by the intercalation of the d5NI(C) heterocycles into the opposing strand base stack, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Unlike Taq polymerase, 5D4 was also able to extend HBA pairs such as Pyrene: varphi (abasic site), d5NI: varphi, and isocarbostyril (ICS): 7-azaindole (7AI), allowed bypass of a chemically diverse spectrum of HBAs, and enabled PCR amplification with primers comprising multiple d5NI(C)-substitutions, while maintaining high levels of catalytic activity and fidelity. The selected polymerase 5D4 promises to expand the range of nucleobase analogues amenable to replication and should find numerous applications, including the synthesis and replication of nucleic acid polymers with expanded chemical and functional diversity. PMID:19778048

  17. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure: Pregnancy outcome and gestational changes in plasma nicotine concentration, hematocrit, and carboxyhemoglobin in a newly standardized rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, Svetlana; Hussein, Jabeen; Ariano, Robert E.; Sitar, Daniel S.; Hasan, Shabih U. . E-mail: hasans@ucalgary.ca

    2006-07-15

    Epidemiological studies support an association between perinatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and a number of severe pre- and postnatal complications. However, the mechanisms through which CS enhances such risks largely remain unknown. One of the reasons for our inability to discover such mechanisms has been the unavailability of a clinically relevant and physiologically concordant animal model. A number of studies have previously used nicotine (Nic) as surrogate for CS. We sought to (1) establish the amount of CS exposure to achieve plasma Nic concentrations observed among moderate to heavy smokers (20-60 ng/ml) (2) investigate the temporal changes in plasma Nic concentrations, carboxyhemoglobin, and hematocrit with advancing pregnancy, and (3) elucidate the effects of CS exposure on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various doses of CS or room air (Sham) from days 6 to 21 of gestation. Exposure to 6000 ml/day of CS led to very high plasma Nic concentrations and increased maternal and fetal mortality (P < 0.001). The plasma Nic concentrations remained higher than those observed in moderate smokers until the CS dose was reduced to 1000 ml/day and showed dose-dependent temporal changes with advancing gestational age. Significant increases in carboxyhemoglobin and hematocrit were observed in the CS group as compared with the Sham group (P < 0.001). In addition, prenatally CS exposed fetuses had lower birth weight as compared with the Sham group (P = 0.04). Our current study establishes a newly standardized and physiologically relevant model to investigate the mechanisms of CS-mediated adverse effects during the critical period of fetal development.

  18. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of iron and nickel nanoparticles encapsulated into carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurin, V. A.; Yermakov, A. Ye.; Uimin, M. A.; Mysik, A. A.; Shchegoleva, N. N.; Gaviko, V. S.; Maikov, V. V.

    2014-02-01

    Nanocomposites based on iron and nickel particles encapsulated into carbon (Fe@C and Ni@C), with an average size of the metal core in the range from 5 to 20 nm and a carbon shell thickness of approximately 2 nm, have been prepared by the gas-phase synthesis method in a mixture of argon and butane. It has been found using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy that iron nanocomposites prepared in butane, apart from the carbon shell, contain the following phases: iron carbide (cementite), α-Fe, and γ-Fe. The phase composition of the Fe@C nanocomposite correlates with the magnetization of approximately 100 emu/g at room temperature. The replacement of butane by methane as a carbon source leads to another state of nanoparticles: no carbon coating is formed, and upon subsequent contact with air, the Fe3O4 oxide shell is formed on the surface of nanoparticles. Nickel-based nanocomposites prepared in butane, apart from pure nickel in the metal core, contain the supersaturated metastable solid solution Ni(C) and carbon coating. The Ni(C) solid solution can decompose both during the synthesis and upon the subsequent annealing. The completeness and degree of decomposition depend on the synthesis regime and the size of nickel nanoparticles: the smaller is the size of nanoparticles, the higher is the degree of decomposition into pure nickel and carbon. The magnetization of the Ni@C nanocomposites is determined by several contributions, for example, the contribution of the magnetic solid solution Ni(C) and the contribution of the nonmagnetic carbon coating; moreover, some contribution to the magnetization can be caused by the superparamagnetic behavior of nanoparticles.

  19. Preparation of Ni@C-Cd(0.8)Zn(0.2)S nanocomposites with highly efficient and stable photocatalytic hydrogen production activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyan; Zhuang, Chuansheng; Li, Kan; Peng, Tianyou

    2015-04-28

    A series of carbon-coated Ni (Ni@C)-Cd0.8Zn0.2S nanocomposites were fabricated via a facile hydrothermal process using pre-prepared Ni@C as a starting material. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy. It was found that the introduction of Ni@C nanoparticles can improve both the visible light-induced photocatalytic H2 production activity and stability of the Cd0.8Zn0.2S solid solution, and the Ni nanoparticles encapsulated by several graphite-like carbon layers show high chemical and thermal stability. Among those products with various Ni@C contents, the 5 wt% Ni@C-Cd0.8Zn0.2S nanocomposite exhibits the maximum photoactivity (969.5 μmol h(-1)) for H2 production, which is ∼3.10 times higher than that (312.6 μmol h(-1)) of pristine Cd0.8Zn0.2S. This significant enhancement in the photoactivity by loading Ni@C nanoparticles can be attributed to the metallic Ni in the Ni@C acting as a co-catalyst, while the graphite-like carbon shells acting as the Cd0.8Zn0.2S nanoparticles' support and electron acceptor, which causes an effective photogenerated carrier separation in space and an improvement in the photoactivity and stability for H2 production. The present findings demonstrate a cost reduction strategy by using a non-noble metal co-catalyst for efficient and stable light-to-hydrogen energy conversion. PMID:25824696

  20. Care Coordination/Home Telehealth: the systematic implementation of health informatics, home telehealth, and disease management to support the care of veteran patients with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Darkins, Adam; Ryan, Patricia; Kobb, Rita; Foster, Linda; Edmonson, Ellen; Wakefield, Bonnie; Lancaster, Anne E

    2008-12-01

    Between July 2003 and December 2007, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) introduced a national home telehealth program, Care Coordination/Home Telehealth (CCHT). Its purpose was to coordinate the care of veteran patients with chronic conditions and avoid their unnecessary admission to long-term institutional care. Demographic changes in the veteran population necessitate VHA increase its noninstitutional care (NIC) services 100% above its 2007 level to provide care for 110,000 NIC patients by 2011. By 2011, CCHT will meet 50% of VHA's anticipated NIC provision. CCHT involves the systematic implementation of health informatics, home telehealth, and disease management technologies. It helps patients live independently at home. Between 2003 and 2007, the census figure (point prevalence) for VHA CCHT patients increased from 2,000 to 31,570 (1,500% growth). CCHT is now a routine NIC service provided by VHA to support veteran patients with chronic conditions as they age. CCHT patients are predominantly male (95%) and aged 65 years or older. Strict criteria determine patient eligibility for enrollment into the program and VHA internally assesses how well its CCHT programs meet standardized clinical, technology, and managerial requirements. VHA has trained 5,000 staff to provide CCHT. Routine analysis of data obtained for quality and performance purposes from a cohort of 17,025 CCHT patients shows the benefits of a 25% reduction in numbers of bed days of care, 19% reduction in numbers of hospital admissions, and mean satisfaction score rating of 86% after enrolment into the program. The cost of CCHT is $1,600 per patient per annum, substantially less than other NIC programs and nursing home care. VHA's experience is that an enterprise-wide home telehealth implementation is an appropriate and cost-effective way of managing chronic care patients in both urban and rural settings. PMID:19119835

  1. Neuroanatomical Circuitry Mediating the Sensory Impact of Nicotine in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Dehkordi, Ozra; Rose, Jed E.; Asadi, Sadegh; Manaye, Kebreten F.; Millis, Richard M.; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Direct actions of nicotine in the CNS appear to be essential for its reinforcing properties. However, activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on afferent sensory nerve fibers are important components of addiction to, and withdrawal from, cigarette smoking. The present study was to identify the neuroanatomical substrates activated by the peripheral actions of nicotine and to determine whether these sites overlap brain structures stimulated by direct actions of nicotine. Mouse brains were examined by immunohistochemistry for c-Fos protein after intraperitoneal injection of either nicotine (NIC, 30 and 40 µg/kg) and/or nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM, 20 and 30 µg/kg). NIC-PM induced c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) at multiple brain sites. In the brainstem, c-Fos IR was detected in locus coeruleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and pedunculotegmental nucleus. In the midbrain, c-Fos IR was observed in areas overlapping the ventral tegmental area (VTA) which includes paranigral nucleus, parainterfascicular nucleus, parabrachial pigmental area and rostral VTA. Other structures of the nicotine brain-reward circuitry activated by NIC-PM included hypothalamus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, lateral habenular nucleus, hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens nucleus, piriform cortex, angular insular cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, lateral septal nucleus, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory tubercle, medial and lateral orbital cortex. Nicotine, acting through central and peripheral nAChRs, produced c-Fos IR in areas that overlapped NIC-PM induced c-Fos expressing sites. These neuroanatomical data are the first to demonstrate that the CNS structures which are the direct targets of nicotine are also anatomical substrates for the peripheral sensory impact of nicotine. PMID:25223294

  2. Reinstatement of Methamphetamine Conditioned Place Preference in Nicotine-Sensitized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jennifer N.; Neugebauer, Nichole M.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The current experiments examined the effects of repeated nicotine prior to acquisition, extinction, and reinstatement of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Methamphetamine-induced (METH; 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg, s.c.) CPP was established using separate groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with an unbiased conditioning procedure. Following extinction of METH CPP, drug-primed reinstatement (0, 0.25, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg, s.c.) of METH CPP was assessed in order to determine whether METH-induced reinstatement depends on the METH dose used to induce CPP. In a second experiment, separate groups of rats received nicotine (NIC; 0 or 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) for 7 days prior to undergoing METH (0 or 0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) conditioning, extinction, and drug-primed reinstatement. Results indicate that METH-primed reinstatement varied as a function of dose such that priming with the conditioning dose did not reinstate CPP, but reinstatement was observed following priming doses of METH that were either lower or higher than the conditioning dose. Prior NIC exposure had no effect on METH CPP, extinction, or reinstatement. Interestingly, at a METH dose (0.5 mg/kg) that did not induce reinstatement alone, acute NIC (0.2 mg/kg) in combination with METH induced reinstatement, suggesting that NIC produced a leftward shift in the dose-response effect of METH to reinstate CPP. These studies indicate that prior NIC exposure may not be necessary for enhancement of the rewarding effects of METH, in contrast to previous self-administration reports. PMID:22884606

  3. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIF's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY2010 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  4. Robust Data Driven Model Order Estimation for Independent Component Analysis of fMRI Data with Low Contrast to Noise

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Waqas; Avison, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been successfully utilized for analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) data for task related as well as resting state studies. Although it holds the promise of becoming an unbiased data-driven analysis technique, a few choices have to be made prior to performing ICA, selection of a method for determining the number of independent components (nIC) being one of them. Choice of nIC has been shown to influence the ICA maps, and various approaches (mostly relying on information theoretic criteria) have been proposed and implemented in commonly used ICA analysis packages, such as MELODIC and GIFT. However, there has been no consensus on the optimal method for nIC selection, and many studies utilize arbitrarily chosen values for nIC. Accurate and reliable determination of true nIC is especially important in the setting where the signals of interest contribute only a small fraction of the total variance, i.e. very low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and/or very focal response. In this study, we evaluate the performance of different model order selection criteria and demonstrate that the model order selected based upon bootstrap stability of principal components yields more reliable and accurate estimates of model order. We then demonstrate the utility of this fully data-driven approach to detect weak and focal stimulus-driven responses in real data. Finally, we compare the performance of different multi-run ICA approaches using pseudo-real data. PMID:24788636

  5. Iodine status of young Burkinabe children receiving small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements and iodised salt: a cluster-randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of providing small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on the I status of young Burkinabe children. In total, thirty-four communities were assigned to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). IC children were randomly assigned to receive 20 g lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)/d containing 90 µg I with 0 or 10 mg Zn from 9 to 18 months of age, and NIC children received no SQ-LNS. All the children were exposed to iodised salt through the national salt iodization programme. Spot urinary iodine (UI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in dried blood spots as well as plasma thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations were assessed at 9 and 18 months of age among 123 IC and fifty-six NIC children. At baseline and at 18 months, UI, TSH and T4 did not differ between cohorts. Tg concentration was higher in the NIC v. IC at baseline, but this difference did not persist at 18 months of age. In both cohorts combined, the geometric mean of UI was 339·2 (95% CI 298·6, 385·2) µg/l, TSH 0·8 (95% CI 0·7, 0·8) mU/l, T4 118 (95 % CI 114, 122) nmol/l and Tg 26·0 (95% CI 24·3, 27·7) µg/l at 18 months of age. None of the children had elevated TSH at 18 months of age. Marginally more children in NIC (8·9%) had low T4 (15 ppm). A reduction of SQ-LNS I content could be considered in settings with similarly successful salt iodisation programmes. PMID:26411504

  6. Introduction of the Uppsala Traumatic Brain Injury register for regular surveillance of patient characteristics and neurointensive care management including secondary insult quantification and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Nyholm, Lena; Howells, Tim; Enblad, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background To improve neurointensive care (NIC) and outcome for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients it is crucial to define and monitor indexes of the quality of patient care. With this purpose we established the web-based Uppsala TBI register in 2008. In this study we will describe and analyze the data collected during the first three years of this project. Methods Data from the medical charts were organized in three columns containing: 1) Admission data; 2) Data from the NIC period including neurosurgery, type of monitoring, treatment, complications, neurological condition at discharge, and the amount of secondary insults; 3) Outcome six months after injury. Indexes of the quality of care implemented include: 1) Index of improvement; 2) Index of change; 3) The percentages of ‘Talk and die' and ‘Talk and deteriorate' patients. Results Altogether 314 patients were included 2008–2010: 66 women and 248 men aged 0–86 years. Automatic reports showed that the proportion of patients improving during NIC varied between 80% and 60%. The percentage of deteriorated patients was less than 10%. The percentage of Talk and die/Talk and deteriorate cases was <1%. The mean Glasgow Coma Score (Motor) improved from 5.04 to 5.68 during the NIC unit stay. The occurrences of secondary insults were less than 5% of good monitoring time for intracranial pressure (ICP) >25 mmHg, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) <50 mmHg, and systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg. Favorable outcome was achieved by 64% of adults. Conclusion The Uppsala TBI register enables the routine monitoring of NIC quality indexes. PMID:23837596

  7. Entropía de la información: una herramienta útil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P.

    En este trabajo se presenta una muy breve introducción al concepto de Entropía de la Información y se muestran distintas aplicaciones de una misma técnica para estudiar problemas tan variados como la determinación de periodicidad en una serie de tiempo arbitraria o de estimar el grado de caoticidad de una trayectoria en un sistema dinámico de N grados de libertad.

  8. Regional versus Local Sources of aerosols over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleanthous, Savvas; Nicolaou, Panagiota; Theodosi, Christina; Zarmpas, Pavlos; Christofides, Ioannis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    Long term monitoring of PM concentrations in Cyprus reported the occurrence of a significant number of PM exceedances above the limits set by EU legislation and point out the need for abatement strategies. To address these critical issues, mass and chemical composition of daily PM10 aerosol samples were collected at a suburban (Limassol; LIM RES), a natural background site (EMEP site, Ayia Marina) and an urban center (Nicosia, NIC TRA) from January 2010 to December 2010. By considering the chemical composition measured at EMEP as representative of the regional background, the contribution of local sources at both NIC TRA and LIM RES sites can be also estimated. In total, "local" ions account for 1.7 and 2.4 μg m-3, i.e 33 and 48% of the total ionic mass recorded in NIC TRA and LIM RES. Sea salt attained levels of 2.3 ± 1.2 μg m-3, 1.9 ± 1.3 μg m-3 and 3.5 ± 2.3 μg m-3, contributing up to 10, 7 and 11% of the PM10 mass measured at EMEP, NIC TRA and LIM RES, respectively. The local concentrations of OC and EC were equal to 3.3±1.1 μg m-3 and 3.2±1.3 μg m-3 for NIC TRA and 1.70±0.03 μg m-3 and 1.39±0.42 μg m-3 for LIM RES relative to the values measured at the EMEP site. The high EC concentrations in NIC TRA underline the major role of traffic-related emissions. As expected for the natural background site, OC/EC ratio equals 4.84, a strong indicator of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Whereas in the urban and suburban sites, the OC/EC ratio is lower ranging from 1.46 to 1.84, denoting significant influence from fossil fuel primary emissions in the studied areas. Considering that dust at EMEP is due to "regional" dust, the dust measured at both traffic related sites is the sum of "regional" and "local dust", the second most probably originating from soil dust and car/road abrasion. The "local dust" at NIC TRA and LIM RES accounted for 28% and 21% of the total PM10 mass, whilst regional dust at EMEP of 45%. The temporal variation of "local dust

  9. Replacement of inorganic zinc with lower levels of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate) on performance, hematological and serum biochemical constituents, antioxidants status, and immune responses in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagalakshmi, D.; Sridhar, K.; Parashuramulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate, Zn-nic) supplementation (6, 9, and 12 ppm) compared to inorganic zinc (12 ppm) on growth performance, hematology, serum biochemical constituents oxidative stress, and immunity in weaned female Sprague–Dawley rats. Material and Methods: A 48 weaned rats (285.20±1.95 g) were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates in each and reared in polypropylene cages for 10 weeks. Basal diet (BD) was formulated with purified ingredients without zinc (Zn). Four dietary treatments were prepared by adding 12 ppm Zn from ZnCO3 (control) and 6, 9, and 12 ppm Zn from Zn-nic to the BD. On 42nd day, blood was collected by retro-orbital puncture for analyzing hematological constituents, glucose, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, and globulin and antioxidant enzyme activities. At 43rd day, rats were antigenically challenged with sheep red blood cell (RBC) to assess humoral immune response and on 70th day cell-mediated immune response. Results: Weekly body weight gains, daily feed intake, blood hematological constituents (white blood cell, RBC, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, lymphocyte, monocyte, and granulocyte concentration) and serum glucose, total protein levels were comparable among the rats feed Zn from ZnCO3 and Zn-nic (6, 9, and 12 ppm). Serum cholesterol reduced with organic Zn supplementation at either concentration (6-12 ppm). Serum globulin concentration reduced (p<0.05) with 6 ppm Zn-nic supplementation compared to other dietary treatments. Lipid peroxidation lowered (p<0.05) reduced with 12 ppm organic Zn; thiobarbituric acid reacting substances and protein carbonyls concentrations in liver reduced (p<0.05) with 9 and 12 ppm levels of organic Zn supplementation compared to 12 ppm Zn supplementation from inorganic source. RBC catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes activities were highest (p<0

  10. Effect of Mono- and Poly-CH/P Exchange(s) on the Aromaticity of the Tropylium Ion.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ankita; Gupta, Raakhi

    2016-01-01

    In view of the fact that the phosphorus atom in its low co-ordination state (coordination numbers 1 and 2) has been termed as the carbon copy, there have been attempts to investigate, theoretically as well as experimentally, the effect of the exchange(s) of CH- moiety with phosphorus atom(s) (CH/P) on the structural and other aspects of the classical carbocyclic and heterocyclic systems. Tropylium ion is a well-known non-benzenoid aromatic system and has been studied extensively for its aromatic character. We have now investigated the effect of mono- and poly-CH/P exchange(s) on the aromaticity of the tropylium ion. For this purpose, the parameters based on the geometry and magnetic properties, namely bond equalization, aromatic stabilization energies (ASE), Nucleus-Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) values, (NICS(0), NICS(1), NICS(1)zz), proton nucleus magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) chemical shifts, magnetic susceptibility exaltation and magnetic anisotropic values of mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-phosphatropylium ions have been determined at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) (B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) level. Geometry optimization reveals bond length equalization. ASEs range from -46.3 kcal/mol to -6.2 kcal/mol in mono- and diphospha-analogues which are planar. However, the ions having three and four phosphorus atoms lose planarity and their ASE values approach the values typical for non-aromatic structures. Of the three NICS values, the NICS(1)zz is consistently negative showing aromatic character of all the systems studied. It is also supported by the magnetic susceptibility exaltations and magnetic anisotropic values. Furthermore, ¹H-NMR chemical shifts also fall in the aromatic region. The conclusion that mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-phosphatropylium ions are aromatic in nature has been further corroborated by determining the energy gap between the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) (HOMO - LUMO gap), which falls in the

  11. Influence of wastewater composition on nutrient removal behaviors in the new anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying/induced crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Lu, Xiwu; Yu, Ran; Gu, Qian; Zhou, Yi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the new anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying/induced crystallization (A2N-IC) system was compared with anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying (A2N) process to investigate nutrient removal performance under different influent COD and ammonia concentrations. Ammonia and COD removal rates were very stable in both processes, which were maintained at 84.9% and 86.6% when the influent ammonia varied from 30 mg L(-1) to 45 mg L(-1) and COD ranged from 250 mg L(-1) to 300 mg L(-1). The effluent phosphorus always maintained below 0.2 mg L(-1) in A2N-IC, whereas in A2N the effluent phosphorus concentration was 0.4-1.7 mg L(-1), demonstrating that A2N-IC is suitable to apply in a broader influent COD and ammonia concentration range. Under higher influent COD (300 mg L(-1)) or lower ammonia conditions (30 mg L(-1)), the main function of chemical induced crystallization was to coordinate better nutrient ratio for anoxic phosphorus uptake, whereas under high phosphorus concentration, it was to reduce phosphorus loading for biological system. Under the similar influent wastewater compositions, phosphorus release amounts were always lower in A2N-IC. To clarify the decrease procedure of phosphorus release in the A2N-IC, the equilibrium between chemical phosphorus removal and biological phosphorus removal in A2N-IC was analyzed by mass balance equations. During the long-term experiment, some undesirable phenomena were observed: the declining nitrification in post-aerobic tank and calcium phosphorus precipitation in the anaerobic tank. The reasons were analyzed; furthermore, the corresponding improvements were proposed. Nitrification effect could be enhanced in the post-aerobic tank, therefore ammonia removal rate could be increased; and biologically induced phosphorus precipitation could be inhibited by controlling pH at the anaerobic stage, so the phosphorus release and recovery could be improved. PMID:24596502

  12. Remote direct memory access over datagrams

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Ryan Eric; Rashti, Mohammad Javad; Balaji, Pavan; Afsahi, Ahmad

    2014-12-02

    A communication stack for providing remote direct memory access (RDMA) over a datagram network is disclosed. The communication stack has a user level interface configured to accept datagram related input and communicate with an RDMA enabled network interface card (NIC) via an NIC driver. The communication stack also has an RDMA protocol layer configured to supply one or more data transfer primitives for the datagram related input of the user level. The communication stack further has a direct data placement (DDP) layer configured to transfer the datagram related input from a user storage to a transport layer based on the one or more data transfer primitives by way of a lower layer protocol (LLP) over the datagram network.

  13. Proceedings of the 7th Semiannual Meeting of the Nozzle Initiative Industry Advisory Committee on Standardization of Carbon-Phenolic Test Methods and Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William B. (Compiler); Pinoli, Pat C. (Compiler); Upton, Cindy G. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The application of carbon fibers and fabrics (CF) for producing rocket nozzles is discussed. These materials which are essential for fabricating the carbon composites used in aerospace systems gasify when exposed to high temperatures and the mechanical properties of the composites degrade. The oxidation kinetics under isothermal (IC) and non-isothermal (NIC) conditions are examined and a comparison is made between the characteristics of IC and NIC oxidation. Several CF, chars, and carbon blacks were examined, including a microporous char, a graphitized rayon fabric, and several carbonized rayon fabrics. A summary is given of the advantages and drawbacks of isothermal and non-isothermal oxidation of carbons. The proceedings are assembled in the form of a roundtable discussion.

  14. Establishing competency in the use of North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, Nursing Outcomes Classification, and Nursing Interventions Classification terminology.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Gail; Falan, Sharie; Heath, Crystal; Treder, Marcy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a 16-hour intervention designed to build clinician competency in the use of North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA), Nursing Outcome Classification (NOC), and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) (hereinafter: N3) among nurses with limited N3 knowledge. Each of 19 pairs of nurses independently selected N3 terms and rated the outcomes applicable to an actual patient for a specified time. A pair-through discussion then created a single consensus patient profile of the applicable terms. Before discussion, pairs agreed on 46% of the NANDA diagnoses, 30% of the NOC outcomes, and 20% of the NIC interventions selected. Eighty-nine percent of NOC label pair ratings were within 1 point. Building competency in N3 requires consistent use in written and oral communication with peers across time. Inter-rater reliabilities (IRRs) for NOC label ratings support previous findings. PMID:15274525

  15. The use of standardized language in individualized healthcare plans.

    PubMed

    Denehy, J; Poulton, S

    1999-02-01

    The specialty of school nursing can benefit from the use of standardized language to communicate what school nurses do and to articulate their value during times of budget cuts and reduction of services. The use of a standardized language in IHPs is helpful in communicating with other health professionals and the educational team. The use of NANDA, NIC, and NOC assists school nurses in using a common language to describe what they do to meet student outcome goals. Linkages among NANDA, NIC, and NOC facilitate careful selection of appropriate interventions and outcomes. The diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes are coded and written in a manner that can be entered into computerized information systems--information needed for potential reimbursement. It also is essential that this information is entered into data bases that will tangibly demonstrate the contribution of school nurses to the health of the children they serve. PMID:10347448

  16. Lustre at Petascale: Experiences in Troubleshooting and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Ezell, Matthew A; Mohr, Rick; Wynkoop, John; Braby, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Some veterans in the HPC industry semi-facetiously define supercomputers as devices that convert compute-bound problems into I/O-bound problems. Effective utilization of large high performance computing resources often requires access to large amounts of fast storage. The National Institute for Computational Sciences (NICS) operates Kraken, a 1.17 PetaFLOPS Cray XT5 for the National Science Foundation (NSF). Kraken s primary file system has migrated from Lustre 1.6 to 1.8 and is currently being moved to servers external to the machine. Additional bandwidth will be made available by mounting the NICS-wide Lustre file system. Newer versions of Lustre, beyond what Cray provides, are under evaluation for stability and performance. Over the past several years of operation, Kraken s Lustre file system has evolved to be extremely stable in an effort to better serve Kraken s users.

  17. An Intercomparison of Predicted Sea Ice Concentration from Global Ocean Forecast System & Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosemond, K.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research is to provide an evaluation of improvements in marginal ice zone (MIZ) and pack ice estimations from the Global Ocean Forecast System (GOFS) model compared to the current operational model, the Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS). This will be determined by an intercomparison between the subjectively estimated operational ice concentration data from the National Ice Center (NIC) MIZ analysis and the ice concentration estimates from GOFS and ACNFS. This will help ascertain which nowcast from the models compares best to the NIC operational data stream needed for vessel support. It will also provide a quantitative assessment of GOFS and ACNFS performance and be used in the Operational Evaluation (OPEVAL) report from the NIC to NRL. The intercomparison results are based on statistical evaluations through a series of map overlays from both models ACNFS, GOFS with the NIC's MIZ data. All data was transformed to a common grid and difference maps were generated to determine which model had the greatest difference compared to the MIZ ice concentrations. This was provided daily for both the freeze-up and meltout seasons. Results indicated the GOFS model surpassed the ACNFS model, however both models were comparable. These results will help US Navy and NWS Anchorage ice forecasters understand model biases and know which model guidance is likely to provide the best estimate of future ice conditions.The objective of this research is to provide an evaluation of improvements in marginal ice zone (MIZ) and pack ice estimations from the Global Ocean Forecast System (GOFS) model compared to the current operational model, the Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS). This will be determined by an intercomparison between the subjectively estimated operational ice concentration data from the National Ice Center (NIC) MIZ analysis and the ice concentration estimates from GOFS and ACNFS. This will help ascertain which nowcast from the models

  18. The crystal structure and magnetic properties of 3-pyridinecarboxylate-bridged Re(II)M(II) complexes (M = Cu, Ni, Co and Mn).

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Mario; Cuevas, Alicia; González-Platas, Javier; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Kremer, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The novel Re(II) complex NBu4[Re(NO)Br4(Hnic)] (1) and the heterodinuclear compounds [Re(NO)Br4(μ-nic)Ni(dmphen)2]·½CH3CN (2), [Re(NO)Br4(μ-nic)Co(dmphen)2]·½MeOH (3), [Re(NO)Br4(μ-nic)Mn(dmphen)(H2O)2]·dmphen (4), [Re(NO)Br4(μ-nic)Cu(bipy)2] (5) [Re(NO)Br4(μ-nic)Cu(dmphen)2] (5') (NBu4(+) = tetra-n-butylammonium cation, Hnic = 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, dmphen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) have been prepared and the structures of 1-5 determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of 1 consists of [Re(NO)Br4(Hnic)](-) anions and NBu4(+) cations. Each Re(II) is six-coordinate with four bromide ligands, a linear nitrosyl group and a nitrogen atom from the Hnic molecule, in a distorted octahedral surrounding. The structures of 2-5 are made up of discrete heterodinuclear Re(II)M(II) units where the fully deprotonated [Re(NO)Br4(nic)](2-) entity acts as a didentate ligand through the carboxylate group towards the [Ni(dmphen)2](2+) (2), [Co(dmphen)2](2+) (3), [Mn(dmphen)(H2O)2](2+) (4) and [Cu(bipy)2](2+) (5) fragments, the Re-M separation across the nic bridge being 7.8736(8) (2), 7.9632(10) (3), 7.7600(6) (4) and 8.2148(7) Å (5). The environment of the Re(II) ion in 2-5 is the same as 1 that in and all M(II) are six-coordinate in highly distorted octahedral surroundings, the main source of the distortion being due to the reduced bite of the chelating carboxylate. The magnetic properties of 1-5' were investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K. 1 behaves as a quasi-magnetically isolated spin doublet with very weak antiferromagnetic interactions through space Br···Br contacts. Its magnetic susceptibility data were successfully modeled through a deep analysis of the influence of the ligand field, spin-orbit coupling, tetragonal distortion and covalence effects as variable parameters. Compounds 2-5' exhibit weak antiferromagnetic interactions. The intramolecular exchange pathway in this family being

  19. THE VIOLATION OF THE TAYLOR HYPOTHESIS IN MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, K. G.; Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    Motivated by the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions, qualitative and quantitative predictions are made for the effects of the violation of the Taylor hypothesis on the magnetic energy frequency spectrum measured in the near-Sun environment. The synthetic spacecraft data method is used to predict observational signatures of the violation for critically balanced Alfvénic turbulence or parallel fast/whistler turbulence. The violation of the Taylor hypothesis can occur in the slow flow regime, leading to a shift of the entire spectrum to higher frequencies, or in the dispersive regime, in which the dissipation range spectrum flattens at high frequencies. It is found that Alfvénic turbulence will not significantly violate the Taylor hypothesis, but whistler turbulence will. The flattening of the frequency spectrum is therefore a key observational signature for fast/whistler turbulence.

  20. LLE 2008 annual report, October 2007 - September 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-31

    The research program at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) focuses on inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research supporting the goal of achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This program includes the full use of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Within the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), LLE is the lead laboratory for the validation of the performance of cryogenic target implosions, essential to all forms of ICF ignition. LLE has taken responsibility for a number of critical elements within the Integrated Experimental Teams (IET’s) supporting the demonstration of indirect-drive ignition on the NIF and is the lead laboratory for the validation of the polardrive approach to ignition on the NIF. LLE is also developing, testing, and building a number of diagnostics to be deployed on the NIF for the NIC.

  1. Electrochemical deposition of highly-conducting metal dithiolene films.

    PubMed

    Allwright, Emily; Silber, Georg; Crain, Jason; Matsushita, Michio M; Awaga, Kunio; Robertson, Neil

    2016-05-31

    Electrochemical deposition has been used to prepare a thin film of neutral 4',4-(3-alkyl)-thiophene-5',5-hydogen-nickel and copper dithiolenes (Ni-C2, Cu-C2). The application of molecular electrodeposition provides a means to solution process molecular semiconductors of poor solubility, which results from the strong intermolecular interaction required for charge transport. Both Ni-C2 and Cu-C2 form continuous thin films that show intense NIR absorptions, extending to 1800 nm and 2000 nm respectively giving evidence for the strong intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Both films are highly conducting and temperature dependence of resistance gave an activation energy of 0.42 eV and 0.072 eV respectively, with the near-metallic behaviour of Cu-C2 attributed to the additional presence of an unpaired electron. PMID:27184422

  2. LLE 2010 Annual Report October 2009 - September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The fiscal year ending September 2010 (FY10) concluded the third year of the third five-year renewal of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC52-08NA28302 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This annual report summarizes progress in inertial fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) during the past fiscal year including work on the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). It also reports on LLE's progress on laboratory basic science research; laser, optical materials, and advanced technology development; operation of OMEGA and OMEGA EP for the NIC and high-energy density (HED) campaigns, the National Laser Users Facility (NLUF), and for other external users; and programs focusing on the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students during the year.

  3. Neutral Particle Analyzer Vertically Scanning Measurements of MHD-induced Energetic Ion Redistribution or Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley, R. Andre, R.E. Bell, D.S. Darrow, C.W. Domier, E.D. Fredrickson, N.N. Gorelenkov, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, K.C. Lee, F.M. Levinton, D. Liu, N.C. Luhmann, Jr., J.E. Menard, H. Park, D. Stutman, A.L. Roquemore, K. Tritz, H. Yuh and the NSTX Team

    2007-11-15

    Observations of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) induced redistribution or loss of energetic ions measured using the vertically scanning capability of the Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented along with TRANSP and ORBIT code analysis of the results. Although redistribution or loss of energetic ions due to bursting fishbone-like and low-frequency (f ~ 10 kHz) kinktype MHD activity has been reported previously, the primary goal of this work is to study redistribution or loss due to continuous Alfvénic (f ~ 20 – 150 kHz) modes, a topic that heretofore has not been investigated in detail for NSTX plasmas. Initial indications are that the former drive energetic ion loss whereas the continuous Alfvénic modes only cause redistribution and the energetic ions remain confined.

  4. National Instant Criminal Background Check Improvement Act: implications for persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2008-01-01

    The National Instant Criminal Background Check Improvement Act has serious implications for persons with mental illness with regard to the ability to purchase firearms. Federally prohibited persons include those who have been adjudicated as mentally defective, or have been committed to a mental institution, or are unlawful users of or are addicted to a controlled substance. The legislation was intended to expand the reporting practices of states by providing significant financial incentives and disincentives for releasing all relevant records, including those contained within mental health databases, to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). As of April 2007, only 22 states were voluntarily submitting records from mental health databases to the NICS. The legislation was introduced following the Virginia Tech tragedy, when public opinion favored tightening control over access to firearms of persons with mental illness. PMID:18354133

  5. Radio Synchrotron Fluctuation Statistics as a Probe of Magnetized Interstellar Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron, C. A.; Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Gaensler, B. M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate how observations of synchrotron intensity fluctuations can be used to probe the sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers of interstellar turbulence, based on mock observations performed on simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We find that the structure function slope and a diagnostic of anisotropy that we call the integrated quadrupole ratio modulus both depend on the Alfvénic Mach number. However, these statistics also depend on the orientation of the mean magnetic field in the synchrotron emitting region relative to our line of sight, and this creates a degeneracy that cannot be broken by observations of synchrotron intensity alone. We conclude that the polarization of synchrotron emission could be analyzed to break this degeneracy, and suggest that this will be possible with the Square Kilometre Array.

  6. NICMOS FOM Operation Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith

    2001-07-01

    This test verifies the FOM's mechanical operation. A 7 x 1 grid of points will be made by moving the FOM in steps of 6.5 from -20 to +19 arcsec relative to the 0 position {-36 to +3 relative to the default NIC3 FOM position of +16 arcsec}. We also have an additional FOM position at the default NIC3 position. These exposures all use the F166N filter. At the end of this sequence we will take F222M exposures at three additional FOM positions, the default position {+16 arcsec relative to the center point of the FOM mechanical range} and +/- 2 arcsec. This is to test for vignetting. Prerequisites for this test are cool down to nominal operating temperature {cold and stable, near the expected final temperature set point, but not necessarily the final temperature set point} and the filter wheel minifunctional and the filter wheel tests {proposals 8944 and 8972}.

  7. Observations and Modeling of Debris and Shrapnel Impacts on Optics and Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, D; Bailey, D; Chamgers, F; Darnell, I; Nicola, P D; Dixit, S; Fisher, A; Gururangan, G; Kalantar, D; Koniges, A; Liu, W; Marinak, M; Masters, N; Mlaker, V; Prasad, R; Sepke, S; Whitman, P

    2011-11-04

    A wide range of targets with laser energies spanning two orders of magnitude have been shot at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) targets are cryogenic with Si supports and cooling rings attached to an Al thermo-mechanical package (TMP) with a thin (30 micron) Au hohlraum inside. Particular attention is placed on the low-energy shots where the TMP is not completely vaporized. In addition to NIC targets, a range of other targets has also been fielded on NIF. For all targets, simulations play a critical role in determining if the risks associated with debris and shrapnel are acceptable. In a number of cases, experiments were redesigned, based on simulations, to reduce risks or to obtain data. The majority of these simulations were done using the ALE-AMR code, which provides efficient late-time (100-1000X the pulse duration) 3D calculations of complex NIF targets.

  8. Network acceleration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  9. Prenatal stress induces vulnerability to nicotine addiction and alters D2 receptors' expression in the nucleus accumbens in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Said, N; Lakehayli, S; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2015-09-24

    Prenatal stress (PS) can induce several long-lasting behavioral and molecular abnormalities in rats. It can also be considered as a risk factor for many psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia, depression or PTSD and predispose to addiction. In this study, we investigated the effect of prenatal stress on the reinforcing properties of nicotine in the CPP paradigm. Then, we examined the mRNA expression of the D2 dopaminergic receptors using the quantitative real-time PCR technique in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). We found that prenatally stressed rats exhibited a greater place preference for the nicotine-paired compartment than the control rats. Moreover, we observed an overexpression of the DRD2 gene in adult offspring stressed in utero and a downregulation in the PS NIC group (PS rats treated with nicotine) compared with their control counterparts (C NIC). These data suggest that maternal stress can permanently alter the offspring's addictive behavior and D2 receptors' expression. PMID:26192093

  10. Identification of island-induced Alfvén eigenmodes in a reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.; Anderson, J. K.; McCollam, K. J.; Boguski, J.; Feng, R.; Koliner, J. J.; Spong, D. A.; Hirshman, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    The modification of the shear Alfvén spectrum due to a core resonant magnetic island is used to explain the Alfvénic activity observed on the Madison symmetric torus (MST) reversed-field pinch during neutral beam injection. Theoretical studies show that the Alfvén continua in the core of the island provide a gap in which the observed Alfvénic bursts reside. Numerical simulations using a new code called SIESTAlfvén have identified the bursts as the first observation of an island-induced Alfvén eigenmode (IAE) in an RFP. The IAE arises from a helical coupling of harmonics due to the magnetic island.

  11. Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents

    SciTech Connect

    Malovichko, P.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.

    2014-01-10

    Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.

  12. Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1) outbreak.

    PubMed

    Setiawaty, Vivi; Pangesti, Krisna Na; Sampurno, Ondri D

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC) at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) occurred, the NIC and US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 were the only diagnostic laboratories equipped for etiology confirmation. The large geographical area of the Republic of Indonesia poses a real challenge to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis nationally. This was the main reason to establish a laboratory network for H5N1 diagnosis in Indonesia. Currently, 44 laboratories have been included in the network capable of performing polymerase chain reaction testing for influenza A. Diagnostic equipment and standard procedures of biosafety and biosecurity of handling specimens have been adopted largely from World Health Organization recommendations. PMID:22936856

  13. Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1) outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Setiawaty, Vivi; Pangesti, Krisna NA; Sampurno, Ondri D

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC) at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) occurred, the NIC and US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 were the only diagnostic laboratories equipped for etiology confirmation. The large geographical area of the Republic of Indonesia poses a real challenge to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis nationally. This was the main reason to establish a laboratory network for H5N1 diagnosis in Indonesia. Currently, 44 laboratories have been included in the network capable of performing polymerase chain reaction testing for influenza A. Diagnostic equipment and standard procedures of biosafety and biosecurity of handling specimens have been adopted largely from World Health Organization recommendations. PMID:22936856

  14. Physical interpretation of the angle-dependent magnetic helicity spectrum in the solar wind: The nature of turbulent fluctuations near the proton gyroradius scale

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Kristopher G.; Howes, Gregory G.; TenBarge, Jason M.; Podesta, John J.

    2014-04-20

    Motivated by recent observations of distinct parallel and perpendicular signatures in magnetic helicity measurements segregated by wave period and angle between the local magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, this paper undertakes a comparison of three intervals of Ulysses data with synthetic time series generated from a physically motivated turbulence model. From these comparisons, it is hypothesized that the observed signatures result from a perpendicular cascade of Alfvénic fluctuations and a local, non-turbulent population of ion-cyclotron or whistler waves generated by temperature anisotropy instabilities. By constraining the model's free parameters through comparison to in situ data, it is found that, on average, ∼95% of the power near dissipative scales is contained in a perpendicular Alfvénic cascade and that the parallel fluctuations are propagating nearly unidirectionally. The effects of aliasing on magnetic helicity measurements are considered and shown to be significant near the Nyquist frequency.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of graphene growth at initial stage on Ni(100) facet for low flux C energy by CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Ibnu; Rosikhin, Ahmad; Fikri, Aulia; Noor, Fatimah A.; Winata, Toto

    2016-02-01

    In this study, atomic simulation for graphene growth on Ni (100) at initial stage via chemical vapor deposition method has been developed. The C-C atoms interaction was performed by Terasoff potential mean while Ni-Ni interaction was specified by EAM (Embedded Atom Modified). On the other hand, we used very simple interatomic potential to describe Ni-C interaction during deposition process. From this simulation, it shows that the formation of graphene is not occurs through a combined deposition mechanism on Ni substrate but via C segregation. It means, Ni-C amorphous is source for graphene growth when cooling down of Ni substrate. This result is appropriate with experiments, tight binding and quantum mechanics simulation.

  16. Nickel-carbon nanocomposites prepared using castor oil as precursor: A novel catalyst for ethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreño, Neftalí L. V.; Garcia, Irene T. S.; Raubach, Cristiane W.; Krolow, Mateus; Santos, Cláudia C. G.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    A novel and simple method to prepare nickel-based catalysts for ethanol steam reforming is proposed. The present method was developed using castor oil as a precursor. The results clarify that the nickel-carbon (Ni/C) catalyst has a high activity for ethanol steam reforming. It was observed that the catalytic behavior could be modified according to the experimental conditions employed. Moreover, it is interesting to note that the increase in the catalytic activity of the Ni/C nanocomposite over time, at 500 and 600 °C of reaction temperature, may be associated with the formation of filamentous carbon. The preliminary results indicate that the novel methodology used, led to the obtainment of materials with important properties that can be extended to applications in different catalytic process.

  17. Naproxcinod: AZD 3582, HCT 3012, naproxen nitroxybutylester, nitronaproxen, NO-naproxen.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Naproxcinod is a derivative of naproxen with similar anti-inflammatory activity, but less gastrointestinal toxicity. It is the first of a new class of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs known as cyclo-oxygenase-(COX)-inhibiting nitric oxide donators (CINODs) under development with NicOx in several countries. Naproxcinod is in phase III clinical development in the US for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The improved gastrointestinal tolerability of naproxcinod appears to be due to its release of nitric oxide (NO) and the consequent maintenance of tissue perfusion and integrity. Naproxcinod is available for licensing.AstraZeneca had been a worldwide licensee for naproxcinod and other CINODs. However, the results of phase II clinical trials of naproxcinod did not fulfill AstraZeneca's strategic commercial criteria for further investment and NicOx reacquired rights following AstraZeneca's decision to discontinue its involvement in 2003. NicOx was surprised by AstraZeneca's decision, and remained fully convinced of the potential of naproxcinod. NicOx is seeking new partners for development of compounds of the CINOD class. The second phase III trial (302 study) for naproxcinod in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee was initiated in April 2007. The trial will enrol approximately 1020 patients from 120 clinical sites in the US. The study is designed to confirm naproxcinod's efficacy and provide additional blood pressure data. Efficacy results are expected in mid-2008. The third phase III trial (303 study) is scheduled to start in the first half of 2007 and will assess the efficacy and safety in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. Following pooled analysis of all three phase III trials, NicOx hopes to file an NDA in the US during the first quarter of 2009.NicOx is in ongoing discussions with regulatory authorities worldwide regarding the safety of naproxcinod and its COX-inhibiting properties. The company submitted documentation to the US FDA in August

  18. Enhanced microwave absorbing performance of CoNi alloy nanoparticles anchored on a spherical carbon monolith.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hu, Changwen; Cao, Minhua

    2013-05-28

    CoNi alloy nanoparticles anchored on a spherical carbon monolith (CoNi-C) were prepared by a solvothermal route and subsequent heat treatment without any templates. Their permittivity and permeability behaviors were studied in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The CoNi-C composites showed the best microwave absorbing performances compared to those of Co-C and Ni-C. The maximum reflection loss of the CoNi-C nanocomposites can reach -50.2 dB at 7.7 GHz with samples of 4 mm in thickness, better than that of the Ni-C composites, while the Co-C composites showed almost no absorption at all. The absorption mechanism of the three absorbents was also discussed. PMID:23595353

  19. Implications of nursing taxonomies for middle-range theory development.

    PubMed

    Blegen, M A; Tripp-Reimer, T

    1997-03-01

    Given the broad acceptance for the need to develop middle-range theory to support nursing practice, nursing scientists must consider how to proceed with dispatch to develop these theories. This article suggests using the concepts in the newly developing taxonomies of nursing knowledge as the building blocks for these theories. Taxonomies of nursing diagnoses (NANDA), nursing interventions (NIC), and nursing outcomes (NOC) can speed the construction of the theories needed for nursing practice. PMID:9055029

  20. Radiation hydrodynamics modeling of the highest compression inertial confinement fusion ignition experiment from the National Ignition Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Weber, C. R.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.

    2015-02-01

    The recently completed National Ignition Campaign (NIC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) showed significant discrepancies between post-shot simulations of implosion performance and experimentally measured performance, particularly in thermonuclear yield. This discrepancy between simulation and observation persisted despite concerted efforts to include all of the known sources of performance degradation within a reasonable two-dimensional (2-D), and even three-dimensional (3-D), simulation model, e.g., using measured surface imperfections and radiation drives adjusted to reproduce observed implosion trajectories [Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056318 (2013)]. Since the completion of the NIC, several effects have been identified that could explain these discrepancies and that were omitted in previous simulations. In particular, there is now clear evidence for larger than anticipated long-wavelength radiation drive asymmetries and a larger than expected perturbation seeded by the capsule support tent. This paper describes an updated suite of one-dimensional (1-D), 2-D, and 3-D simulations that include the current best understanding of these effects identified since the NIC, as applied to a specific NIC shot. The relative importance of each effect on the experimental observables is compared. In combination, these effects reduce the simulated-to-measured yield ratio from 125:1 in 1-D to 1.5:1 in 3-D, as compared to 15:1 in the best 2-D simulations published previously. While the agreement with the experimental data remains imperfect, the comparison to the data is significantly improved and suggests that the largest sources for the previous discrepancies between simulation and experiment are now being included.

  1. Structure-function analysis of the GmRIC1 signal peptide and CLE domain required for nodulation control in soybean.

    PubMed

    Reid, Dugald E; Li, Dongxue; Ferguson, Brett J; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-04-01

    Legumes control the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in response to external and internal stimuli, such as nitrate, and via systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON). Overexpression of the CLV3/ESR-related (CLE) pre-propeptide-encoding genes GmNIC1 (nitrate-induced and acting locally) and GmRIC1 (Bradyrhizobium-induced and acting systemically) suppresses soybean nodulation dependent on the activity of the nodulation autoregulation receptor kinase (GmNARK). This nodule inhibition response was used to assess the relative importance of key structural components within and around the CLE domain sequences of these genes. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, mutants were produced at each amino acid within the CLE domain (RLAPEGPDPHHN) of GmRIC1. This approach identified the Arg1, Ala3, Pro4, Gly6, Pro7, Asp8, His11, and Asn12 residues as critical to GmRIC1 nodulation suppression activity (NSA). In contrast, none of the mutations in conserved residues outside of the CLE domain showed compromised NSA. Chimeric genes derived from combinations of GmRIC1 and GmNIC1 domains were used to determine the role of each pre-propeptide domain in NSA differences that exist between the two peptides. It was found that the transit peptide and CLE peptide regions of GmRIC1 significantly enhanced activity of GmNIC1. In contrast, the comparable GmNIC1 domains reduced the NSA of GmRIC1. Identification of these critical residues and domains provides a better understanding of how these hormone-like peptides function in plant development and regulation. PMID:23386683

  2. What is Lethe hyrania (Kollar, 1844) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)?

    PubMed

    Lang, Song-Yun; Lamas, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Known for a long time as "Lethe insana [sic] (Kollar, 1844)" (e.g. Fruhstorfer, 1911; D'Abrera, 1985), Lethe hyrania (Kollar, 1844) is a common, sexually-dimorphic, satyrine butterfly, found in the Sino-Himalayan region. Kollar (1844) described simultaneously both Satyrus isana and S. hyrania, as separate but closely related species, from northwestern India. Kollar (1844) spelt the name of the former in two different ways, as isana in the text (pp. 448, 449, 585), and as jsana in the legend for plate 16. Westwood (1851) maintained isana and hyrania as separate species but transferred them to the genus Debis Doubleday, whereas both Butler (1868) and Kirby (1871) assigned them to the genus Lethe Hübner, synonymizing isana under L. rohria (Fabricius). Moore (1882) was the first author to regard isana and hyrania as conspecific, the former representing the female sex and the latter the male, though he misspelt isana as "isania". Acting as First Reviser, Article 24.2 of ICZN (1999), Moore (1882) gave precedence to hyrania, thus the valid name for the species is Lethe hyrania. Later, Marshall & Nicéville (1883), Nicéville (1886), Doherty (1886), Elwes (1888), and Moore (1892) followed Moore's (1882) opinion, though afterwards Mackinnon & Nicéville (1897) argued that isana had priority over hyrania, based on "page precedence", ignoring Moore's (1882) previous action. Bingham (1905) was the first author to introduce the incorrect subsequent spelling "insana" and, apparently following Mackinnon & Nicéville (1897), also gave precedence to "insana" over hyrania. Most subsequent authors followed Bingham's (1905) error, and used Lethe "insana" for this species (for instance, Fruhstorfer, 1911; Evans, 1923, 1927; Gaede, 1931; Talbot, [1949]; Lesse, 1957; D'Abrera, 1985, 1990; Bozano, 1999). Except for Bozano (1999), who listed both hyrania and "insana" as valid species, without further comment, the name hyrania has been forgotten for over a hundred years. PMID:27395935

  3. Radiation hydrodynamics modeling of the highest compression inertial confinement fusion ignition experiment from the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Weber, C. R.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.

    2015-02-15

    The recently completed National Ignition Campaign (NIC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) showed significant discrepancies between post-shot simulations of implosion performance and experimentally measured performance, particularly in thermonuclear yield. This discrepancy between simulation and observation persisted despite concerted efforts to include all of the known sources of performance degradation within a reasonable two-dimensional (2-D), and even three-dimensional (3-D), simulation model, e.g., using measured surface imperfections and radiation drives adjusted to reproduce observed implosion trajectories [Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056318 (2013)]. Since the completion of the NIC, several effects have been identified that could explain these discrepancies and that were omitted in previous simulations. In particular, there is now clear evidence for larger than anticipated long-wavelength radiation drive asymmetries and a larger than expected perturbation seeded by the capsule support tent. This paper describes an updated suite of one-dimensional (1-D), 2-D, and 3-D simulations that include the current best understanding of these effects identified since the NIC, as applied to a specific NIC shot. The relative importance of each effect on the experimental observables is compared. In combination, these effects reduce the simulated-to-measured yield ratio from 125:1 in 1-D to 1.5:1 in 3-D, as compared to 15:1 in the best 2-D simulations published previously. While the agreement with the experimental data remains imperfect, the comparison to the data is significantly improved and suggests that the largest sources for the previous discrepancies between simulation and experiment are now being included.

  4. Comparative efficacy of anticoccidials under the conditions of commercial broiler production and in battery trials.

    PubMed

    Daugschies, A; Gässlein, U; Rommel, M

    1998-04-15

    Coccidia were isolated from a commercial broiler farm with a history of suspected drug resistance. The sensitivity profiles of the Eimeria spp. isolates against the anticoccidial drugs nicarbazin (NIC), narasin (NAR), halofuginone (HAL), salinomycin (SAL), meticlorpindol plus methylbenzoquate (MET), and monensin (MON) at the recommended dose levels were followed in three battery trials (B1, B2, B3) corresponding to a field study over three periods of commercial broiler keeping (F1, F2, F3). Shuttle programs were performed in F1 (NIC/MON) and in F2 (MET/MON) while only SAL was used in F3. Eimeria acervulina and E. tenella were isolated from indicator birds in F1 while only E. acervulina could be found during F2 and F3. In trial B1 the isolate from F1 was identified as resistant against HAL and partly resistant against NIC and MON, the two drugs that were used in F1. Following the replacement of NIC in the starter feed by MET the respective isolate from F2 showed no resistance against ionophores (trial B2) while partial resistance against HAL was still present. Since SAL was the most efficient drug in B1 and B2 only this drug was applied in F3. Apart from a resistance against HAL no resistance against any of the other tested anticoccidials was found in the isolate from F3. SAL controlled coccidiosis efficiently in the field and best productivity was recorded in F3. This study shows that battery trials have a good predictive value in respect to the efficacy of anticoccidials under the conditions of commercial broiler production. PMID:9615950

  5. Coccidiosis control by administering toltrazuril in the drinking water for a 2-day period.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G F; Froyman, R; Kennedy, T

    2004-05-01

    A 56-day floor pen study was conducted to determine the appropriate time to administer toltrazuril (Baycox) (TOL) for control of coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Litter was seeded with field strains of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella. On Days 0, 21, 35 and 56, all birds and feed were weighed. Starting on Day 14, weekly lesion scores and oocyst counts were performed. The treatments were 125 ppm nicarb (NIC) in the starter to 66 ppm salinomycin (SAL) in the grower with no TOL (NIC/SAL/no TOL), 66 ppm salinomycin in both the starter and the grower but no TOL (SAL/SAL/no TOL), or no in-feed medication with the following TOL treatment: TOL Days 2-3, TOL Days 6-7, TOL Days 10-11, TOL Days 14-15, TOL Days 18-19, and as control NM/NM/no TOL (NM). The withdrawal feed was nonmedicated. TOL was administered in the drinking water at the rate of 7 mg/kg body weight. Oocysts per gram litter and lesion scores showed a significant infection in the NM birds, which peaked about Day 21. The NIC/SAL gave excellent early protection but only moderate protection during the SAL phase. The final performance for the SAL/SAL was significantly less compared to all TOL and NIC/SAL birds. All TOL treatments but Days 2-3 provided good coccidiosis control with accompanying performance. The absence of clinical coccidiosis relapse during the last third of the growout along with moderate oocyst counts and low lesions was indicative of unimpaired coccidiosis immunity. It can be inferred from the overall results that the use of TOL as the sole anticoccidial for two consecutive days in the drinking water between Days 10 and 14 would be the best time for good coccidiosis control allowing full performance. PMID:15110398

  6. Bis{2-[imino­(phen­yl)meth­yl]-5-meth­oxy­phenolato-κ2 N,O 1}nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yu; Li, Zhong-Qiu; Peng, Xue Yan

    2012-01-01

    The title complex, [Ni(C14H12NO2)2], lies about an inversion center. The NiII atom is coordinated in a slightly distorted square-planar geometry by two O atoms and two N atoms from two 2-[imino­(phen­yl)meth­yl]-5-meth­oxy­phenolate ligands. The dihedral angle between the symmetry-unique phenyl and benzene rings is 73.2 (1)°. PMID:23284361

  7. 6-hydroxy-nicotine-inducible multilevel transgene control in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Malphettes, Laetitia; Schoenmakers, Ronald G; Fussenegger, Martin

    2006-11-01

    The precise control of transgene expression is essential for biopharmaceutical manufacturing, gene therapy and tissue engineering. We have designed a novel conditional transcription technology, which enables reversible induction, repression and adjustment of desired transgene expression using the clinically inert 6-hydroxy-nicotine (6HNic). The 6-hydroxy-nicotine oxidase (6HNO) repressor (HdnoR), which manages nicotine metabolism in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1 by binding to a specific operator of the 6-hydroxy-nicotine oxidase (O(NIC)), was fused to the Krueppel-associated box protein of the human kox-1 gene (KRAB) to create a synthetic 6HNic-dependent transsilencer (NS) that controls chimeric mammalian promoters, which are assembled by cloning tandem O(NIC) operators 3' of a constitutive promoter. In the absence of 6HNic, NS binds to O(NIC) and silences the constitutive promoter, which otherwise drives high-level transgene expression when the NS-O(NIC) interaction stops in the presence of 6HNic. Generic NICE(ON) technology was compatible with a variety of constitutive viral and mammalian housekeeping promoters, each of which enabled specific induced, repressed, adjusted and reversible transgene expression profiles in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1), baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) as well as in human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) cells. NICE(ON) also proved successful in controlling multicistronic expression units for coordinated transcription of up to three transgenes and in the fine-tuning of transcription-translation networks, in which RNA polymerase II- and III-dependent promoters, engineered for 6HNic responsiveness, drove expression of siRNAs that triggered specific transgene knockdown. NICE(ON) represents a robust and versatile technology for the precise tuning of transgene expression in mammalian cells. PMID:16962351

  8. Developmental plasticity in adrenal function and leptin production primed by nicotine exposure during lactation: gender differences in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Trevenzoli, I H; Manhães, A C; Santos-Silva, A P; Younes-Rapozo, V; Claudio-Neto, S; Santana, A C; Nascimento-Saba, C C A; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2011-09-01

    Neonate male rats whose mothers were nicotine-treated during lactation have higher adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and adrenal dysfunction. At adulthood, they still present higher adiposity and hyperleptinemia, but there was no report about their adrenal function. Also, there was no report of this developmental plasticity on females. Here, we evaluated the adrenal function and leptin content in adipocytes and muscle of male and female adult offspring whose mothers were nicotine-treated during lactation. On the 2nd postnatal day (PN2), dams were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC-6 mg/kg/day) or saline for 14 days (12 litters/group and 2 rats/litter). Male and female offspring were killed on PN180. Significant data were p<0.05. Male NIC offspring presented higher adrenal catecholamine content (+ 89%) and TH expression (+ 38%), lower "in vitro" catecholamine release (- 19%), and higher adrenergic β3 receptor (ADRB3, + 59%) content in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Serum corticosterone was higher (+ 77%) in male NIC group, coherent with the increase of both CRH and ACTH immunostaining in hypothalamus and pituitary, respectively. Leptin content was higher in VAT (+ 23%), which may justify the observed hyperleptinemia. Female NIC offspring presented lower ADRB3 content in VAT (- 39%) and lower leptin content in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (- 46%), but higher leptin content in soleus muscle (+ 22%), although leptinemia was normal. We evidenced a sex dimorphism in the model of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation. The adrenal function in adult offspring was primed only in male offspring while the female offspring displayed relevant alterations in leptin content on muscle and adipocytes. PMID:21932173

  9. Modulatory effects of static magnetic fields on blood pressure in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Okano, H; Ohkubo, C

    2001-09-01

    Acute effects of locally applied static magnetic fields (SMF) on pharmacologically altered blood pressure (BP) in a central artery of the ear lobe of a conscious rabbit were evaluated. Hypotensive and vasodilator actions were induced by a Ca(2+) channel blocker, nicardipine (NIC). Hypertensive and vasoconstrictive actions were induced by a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The hemodynamic changes in the artery exposed to SMF were measured continuously and analyzed by penetrating microphotoelectric plethysmography (MPPG). Concurrently, BP changes in a central artery contralateral to that of the exposed ear lobe were monitored. SMF intensity was 1 mT and the duration of exposure was 30 min. A total of 180 experimental trials were carried out in 34 healthy adult male rabbits weighing 2.6-3.8 kg. Six experimental procedures were chosen at random: (1) sham exposure without pharmacological treatment; (2) SMF exposure alone; (3) decreased BP induced by a single intravenous (iv) bolus injection of NIC (100 microM/kg) without SMF exposure; (4) decreased BP induced by injection of NIC with SMF exposure; (5) increased BP induced by a constant iv infusion of L-NAME (10 mM/kg/h) without SMF exposure; (6) increased BP induced by infusion of L-NAME with SMF exposure. The results demonstrated that SMF significantly reduced the vasodilatation with enhanced vasomotion and antagonized the reduction of BP via NIC-blocked Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, SMF significantly attenuated the vasoconstriction and suppressed the elevation of BP via NOS inhibition in vascular endothelial cells and/or central nervous system neurons. These results suggest that these modulatory effects of SMF on BP might, in part, involve a feedback control system for alteration in NOS activity in conjunction with modulation of Ca(2+) dynamics. PMID:11536282

  10. Tetra­kis[3-(2-pyridylamino)pyridine-κN]nickel(II) diperchlorate ethanol disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Min

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ni(C10H9N3)4](ClO4)2·2C2H5OH, the metal centre exhibits a four-coordinated environment with four pyridine N atoms of the four different dipyridylamine ligands. A twofold rotation axis passes through the Ni atom. N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds are present in the crystal structure. PMID:21201999

  11. trans-Chlorido(phenanthren-9-yl)bis­(triphenyl­phosphane)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiangyang; Obregon, Karla A.

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, [Ni(C14H9)Cl(C18H15P)2], was synthesized from the reaction between 9-chloro­phenanthrene, NiCl2·6H2O and triphenyl­phosphane in ethanol. The bond angles around the NiII atom indicate that it exists in a slightly distorted square-planar geometry. PMID:22058872

  12. Magnetospheric structure and atmospheric Joule heating of habitable planets orbiting M-dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Garraffo, C.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Glocer, A.; Ridley, A. J.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2014-07-20

    We study the magnetospheric structure and the ionospheric Joule Heating of planets orbiting M-dwarf stars in the habitable zone using a set of magnetohydrodynamic models. The stellar wind solution is used to drive a model for the planetary magnetosphere, which is coupled with a model for the planetary ionosphere. Our simulations reveal that the space environment around close-in habitable planets is extreme, and the stellar wind plasma conditions change from sub- to super-Alfvénic along the planetary orbit. As a result, the magnetospheric structure changes dramatically with a bow shock forming in the super-Alfvénic sectors, while no bow shock forms in the sub-Alfvénic sectors. The planets reside most of the time in the sub-Alfvénic sectors with poor atmospheric protection. A significant amount of Joule Heating is provided at the top of the atmosphere as a result of the intense stellar wind. For the steady-state solution, the heating is about 0.1%-3% of the total incoming stellar irradiation, and it is enhanced by 50% for the time-dependent case. The significant Joule Heating obtained here should be considered in models for the atmospheres of habitable planets in terms of the thickness of the atmosphere, the top-side temperature and density, the boundary conditions for the atmospheric pressure, and particle radiation and transport. Here we assume constant ionospheric Pedersen conductance similar to that of the Earth. The conductance could be greater due to the intense EUV radiation leading to smaller heating rates. We plan to quantify the ionospheric conductance in future study.

  13. Can Spectral CT Imaging Improve the Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Solitary Pulmonary Nodules?

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xiaolan; Yu, Mingji; Xu, Chengdong; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Jianrong; Wu, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To quantitatively assess the value of dual-energy CT (DECT) in differentiating malignancy and benignity of solitary pulmonary nodules. Materials and Methods Sixty-three patients with solitary pulmonary nodules detected by CT plain scan underwent contrast enhanced CT scans in arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP) with spectral imaging mode for tumor type differentiation. The Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) viewer was used for image display and data analysis. Region of interest was placed on the relatively homogeneous area of the nodule to measure iodine concentration (IC) on iodine-based material decomposition images and CT numbers on monochromatic image sets to generate spectral HU curve. Normalized IC (NIC), slope of the spectral HU curve (λHU) and net CT number enhancement on 70keV images were calculated. The two-sample t-test was used to compare quantitative parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to calculate sensitivity and specificity. Results There were 63 nodules, with 37 malignant nodules (59%) and 26 benign nodules (41%). NIC, λHU and net CT number enhancement on 70keV images for malignant nodules were all greater than those of benign nodules. NIC and λHU had intermediate to high performances to differentiate malignant nodules from benign ones with the areas under curve of 0.89 and 0.86 respectively in AP, 0.96 and 0.89 respectively in VP. Using 0.30 as a threshold value for NIC in VP, one could obtain sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 85.7% for differentiating malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules. These values were statistically higher than the corresponding values of 74.2% and 53.8% obtained with the conventional CT number enhancement. Conclusions DECT imaging with GSI mode provides more promising value in quantitative way for distinguishing malignant nodules from benign ones than CT enhancement numbers. PMID:26840459

  14. cis-Bis[N-(2-furoyl)-N′,N′-diphenyl­thio­ureato-κ2 O,S]nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Hiram; Corrêa, Rodrigo S.; Plutín, Ana María; Calderón, Osmar; Duque, Julio

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ni(C18H13N2O2S)2], the NiII atom is coordinated by the S and O atoms of two N-furoyl-N′,N′-diphenyl­thio­ureate ligands in a slightly distorted square-planar coordination geometry. The two O and two S atoms are cis to each other. PMID:21581831

  15. Blockade by dendrotoxin homologues of voltage-dependent K+ currents in cultured sensory neurones from neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A; Stow, J; Sorensen, R; Dolly, J O; Owen, D

    1994-01-01

    1. Homologues of dendrotoxin (Dtx) were isolated from the crude venom of Green and Black Mamba snakes and examined for K+ channel blocking activity in neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion cells (DRGs) by whole-cell patch clamp recording. 2. Outward potassium current activated by depolarization was composed of two major components: a slowly inactivating current (SIC, tau decay approximately 50 ms, 200 ms and 2s), and a non-inactivating current (NIC, tau decay > 2 min). Tail current analysis revealed two time constants of deactivation of total outward current, 3-12 ms and 50-150 ms (at -80 mV) which corresponded to SIC and NIC, respectively. 3. All the homologues (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-Dtx and toxins I and K) blocked outward current activated by depolarization in a dose-dependent manner. The most potent in blocking total outward current was delta-Dtx (EC50 of 0.5 +/- 0.2 nM), although there were no statistically significant differences in potency between any of the homologues. 4. Qualitative differences in the nature of the block were noted between homologues. In particular, the block by delta-Dtx was time-dependent, whereas that by alpha-Dtx was not. 5. alpha-Dtx was a much better blocker of SIC (EC50 = 1.0 +/- 0.4 nM) than was delta-Dtx (EC50 = 17.6 +/- 5.8 nM). Furthermore, delta-Dtx was selective for NIC (EC50 +/- 0.24 +/- 0.03 nM) over SIC and reduced the slow component of tail currents (NIC), preferentially.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7858892

  16. Lattice QCD simulations on big cats, sea monsters and clock towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joó, Bálint; USQCD Collaboration; Hadron Spectrum Collaboration

    2009-07-01

    We present details of lattice QCD computations we are performing on the Cray XT series of computers, from BigBen - an XT3 hosted at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC) - through Jaguar (XT4) and Kraken (XT5) - which are hosted at the National Center for Computational Science (NCCS) and the National Institute of Computational Science (NICS), respectively, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). We discuss algorithmic tuning to make the computation more efficient and present some recent results.

  17. σ-Aromatic cyclic M3(+) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) clusters and their complexation with dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene, pyridine, isoxazole, furan, noble gases and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sudip; Saha, Ranajit; Mandal, Subhajit; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2016-04-28

    The σ-aromaticity of M3(+) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) is analyzed and compared with that of Li3(+) and a prototype σ-aromatic system, H3(+). Ligands (L) like dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene, pyridine, isoxazole and furan are employed to stabilize these monocationic M3(+) clusters. They all bind M3(+) with favorable interaction energy. Dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene forms the strongest bond with M3(+) followed by pyridine, isoxazole and furan. Electrostatic contribution is considerably more than that of orbital contribution in these M-L bonds. The orbital interaction arises from both L → M σ donation and L ← M back donation. M3(+) clusters also bind noble gas atoms and carbon monoxide effectively. In general, among the studied systems Au3(+) binds a given L most strongly followed by Cu3(+) and Ag3(+). Computation of the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) and its different extensions like the NICS-rate and NICS in-plane component vs. NICS out-of-plane component shows that the σ-aromaticity in L bound M3(+) increases compared to that of bare clusters. The aromaticity in pyridine, isoxazole and furan bound Au3(+) complexes is quite comparable with that in the recently synthesized Zn3(C5(CH3)5)3(+). The energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital also increases upon binding with L. The blue-shift and red-shift in the C-O stretching frequency of M3(CO)3(+) and M3(OC)3(+), respectively, are analyzed through reverse polarization of the σ- and π-orbitals of CO as well as the relative amount of OC → M σ donation and M → CO π back donation. The electron density analysis is also performed to gain further insight into the nature of interaction. PMID:26624276

  18. Super Capacitor Development At NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines super capacitor development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The concept, proof of concept testing and the test set-ups are described. An overview of super capacitor classification is shown and several types of capacitors are detailed: Ni-C chemical double layer (CDL), Ru-Oxide pseudo-cap, and a Ru-Oxide 2 F 30 V capacitor.

  19. Exposure to nicotine increases dopamine receptor content in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rat dams and offspring during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Younes-Rapozo, V; Lotufo, B M; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-09-01

    Nicotine exposure causes the release of dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We have previously shown that maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes hyperleptinemia in dams and pups, and leptin is known to decrease dopamine release from the VTA. Here we evaluated whether maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes changes in dopamine and leptin signaling pathways at the end of exposure and after 5days of withdrawal in the: VTA, NAc, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and dorsal striatum (DS). On postnatal day (PN) 2, lactating Wistar rats were implanted with minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC; 6mg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline (C) for 14days. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field on PN14 or PN20, and euthanized on PN15 or PN21. Entries into the open arms and head dips in the EPM were reduced in NIC pups at P20. At weaning (PN21), NIC dams had: lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), higher OBRb and SOCS3 contents in VTA; lower TH, higher D1R, D2R and DAT contents in NAc; higher TH content in DS; and higher D2R and SOCS3 contents in ARC. On PN15, NIC offspring had higher D1R, D2R and lower DAT contents in NAc, while on PN21, they had lower DAT in DS, and lower pSTAT3 content in ARC. We evidenced that postnatal nicotine exposure induces relevant changes in the brain reward system of dams and pups, possibly associated with changes in leptinemia and increased offspring anxiety-like behavior. PMID:26219213

  20. The immediate post-operative period following lung transplantation: mapping of nursing interventions

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Rayssa Thompson; Linch, Graciele Fernanda da Costa; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to investigate the principle nursing interventions/actions, prescribed in the immediate post-operative period for patients who receive lung transplantation, recorded in the medical records, and to map these using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) taxonomy. METHOD: retrospective documental research using 183 medical records of patients who received lung transplantation (2007/2012). The data of the patients' profile were grouped in accordance with the variables investigated, and submitted to descriptive analysis. The nursing interventions prescribed were analyzed using the method of cross-mapping with the related interventions in the NIC. Medical records which did not contain nursing prescriptions were excluded. RESULTS: the majority of the patients were male, with medical diagnoses of pulmonary fibrosis, and underwent lung transplantation from a deceased donor. A total of 26 most frequently-cited interventions/actions were found. The majority (91.6%) were in the complex and basic physiological domains of the NIC. It was not possible to map two actions prescribed by the nurses. CONCLUSIONS: it was identified that the main prescriptions contained general care for the postoperative period of major surgery, rather than prescriptions individualized to the patient in the postoperative period following lung transplantation. Care measures related to pain were underestimated in the prescriptions. The mapping with the taxonomy can contribute to the elaboration of the care plan and to the use of computerized systems in this complex mode of therapy. PMID:25493673

  1. Use of the nursing intervention classification for identifying the workload of a nursing team in a surgical center1

    PubMed Central

    Possari, João Francisco; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Herdman, Tracy Heather

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the distribution of nursing professionals' workloads, according to the Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC), during the transoperative period at a surgical center specializing in oncology. Methods: this was an observational and descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 11 nurses, 25 nursing technicians who performed a variety of roles within the operating room, 16 nursing technicians who worked with the surgical instrumentation and two nursing technicians from patient reception who worked in the surgical center during the transoperative period. An instrument was developed to collect data and the interventions were validated according to NIC taxonomy. Results: a total of 266 activities were identified and mapped into 49 nursing interventions, seven domains and 20 classes of the NIC. The most representative domains were Physiological-Complex (61.68%) and Health System (22.12%), while the most frequent interventions were Surgical Care (30.62%) and Documentation (11.47%), respectively. The productivity of the nursing team reached 95.34%. Conclusions: use of the Nursing Intervention Classification contributes towards the discussion regarding adequate, professional nursing staffing levels, because it shows the distribution of the work load. PMID:26487126

  2. Towards the design of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors based on 4',5 di-substituted biphenyl acetic acid molecules: a QSAR study with a new DFT based descriptor - nucleus independent chemical shift.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Ananda; Mostafa, Golam

    2009-10-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a well-known enzyme, which converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins H(2) (PGH(2)), which are the effective mediators of inflammation. 4', 5 di-substituted 3-biphenyl acetic acids (BPA) and several alpha-methyl derivatives (MBPA) of it are widely used as powerful nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. We have chosen these activity data because the relation between the substituents and activity is not obvious and is hard to explain and also to show the superiority of DFT method. From the DFT results, various quantum chemical based descriptors were computed but the QSAR results showed that the descriptors based on frontier electron density and a new DFT based quantum chemical descriptor, nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) are likely to be responsible for the in vitro inhibiting activity of BPA and MPBA. It has been proposed that NICS accounts for pi...pi interaction and indeed leads to a better result. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first use of NICS as a descriptor to get a better relationship to facilitate the design of COX inhibitors with potentially higher biological activity. PMID:19266221

  3. Bilateral Comparison Between NPL and INMETRO Using a High-Temperature Fixed Point of Unknown Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machin, G.; Teixeira, R.; Lu, X.; Lowe, D.

    2015-03-01

    There is an on-going requirement to perform scale comparisons above the silver point with reduced uncertainties. Previous comparisons have been performed with high stability lamps or radiation thermometers, neither of which were able to achieve the required uncertainty. Ideally a set of driftless unknown temperature fixed points would be used to compare scales, but up to now such artifacts did not exist. This study develops blind high-temperature comparison artifacts based on doped versions of the high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) Ni-C (nominal temperature ). At INMETRO three HTFP blackbodies were constructed, one of pure Ni-C and two doped with different levels of Cu. To ascertain the effect of doping on the transition temperature, the cells were compared to the reference pure Ni-C cell. The doped cells were then transported to NPL and their temperatures measured. NPL was not informed of the INMETRO result ensuring that the measurements remained blind. The cells were then returned to INMETRO and re-measured to establish their stability. The temperatures measured at INMETRO and NPL were then compared and showed very good equivalence of the scale at the fixed-point temperatures. The results of the comparison of the NPL and INMETRO temperature scale, at nominally , are reported, along with evidence of the stability of the artifacts determined from repeat measurements. These promising results indicate that it may be possible to make HTFPs with altered temperatures which are stable enough to serve as comparison artifacts.

  4. Production, characterization, and cross-reactivity studies of monoclonal antibodies against the coccidiostat nicarbazin.

    PubMed

    Beier, R C; Ripley, L H; Young, C R; Kaiser, C M

    2001-10-01

    A cELISA was developed for the coccidiostat nicarbazin. On the basis of previous computer-assisted molecular modeling studies, p-nitrosuccinanilic acid (PNA-S) was selected as a hapten to produce antibodies to 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the active component of the coccidiostat nicarbazin. Synthesis is described for the hapten [p-nitro-cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxanilic acid (PNA-C)] used in a BSA conjugate as a plate coating antigen. Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were isolated that compete with nicarbazin, having IgM(kappa) isotype. Because of the lack of water solubility of nicarbazin, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) (3%, v/v) and acetonitrile (ACN) (10%, v/v) were added to the assay buffer to achieve solubility of nicarbazin and related compounds. The Nic 6 Mabs had an IC(35) value for nicarbazin of 0.92 nmol/mL, with a limit of detection of 0.33 nmol/mL. Nic 6 exhibited high cross-reactivity for PNA-S and PNA-C, and 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, and 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl) urea. However, Nic 6 had little or no cross-reactivity with 15 other related compounds. PMID:11599986

  5. Nano-TiO₂ modified carbon paste sensor for electrochemical nicotine detection using anionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Shehata, M; Azab, S M; Fekry, A M; Ameer, M A

    2016-05-15

    A newly competitive electrochemical sensor for nicotine (NIC) detection was successfully achieved. Nano-TiO2 with a carbon paste electrode (CPE) were used for the sensor construction, where Nano-TiO2 was considered as one of the richest and highly variable class of materials. The sensor showed electrocatalytic activity in both aqueous and micellar media toward the oxidation of NIC at Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution (4×10(-2)M) of pH range (2.0-8.0) containing (1.0mM) sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) techniques were also used. The linear range of detection for NIC using the new Nano-TiO2 Modified Carbon Paste sensor (NTMCP) was detected using diffrential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique and it was found between 2×10(-6)M and 5.4×10(-4)M with a detection limit of 1.34×10(-8)M. The obtained results clarified the simplicity, high sensitivity and selectivity of the new NTMCPE for nicotine determination in real cigarettes and urine samples. PMID:26761614

  6. Ontogeny of Neuro-Insular Complexes and Islets Innervation in the Human Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Proshchina, Alexandra E.; Krivova, Yulia S.; Barabanov, Valeriy M.; Saveliev, Sergey V.

    2014-01-01

    The ontogeny of the neuro-insular complexes (NIC) and the islets innervation in human pancreas has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to describe the developmental dynamics and distribution of the nervous system structures in the endocrine part of human pancreas. We used double-staining with antibodies specific to pan-neural markers [neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 protein] and to hormones of pancreatic endocrine cells. NSE and S100-positive nerves and ganglia were identified in the human fetal pancreas from gestation week (gw) 10 onward. Later the density of S100 and NSE-positive fibers increased. In adults, this network was sparse. The islets innervation started to form from gw 14. NSE-containing endocrine cells were identified from gw 12 onward. Additionally, S100-positive cells were detected both in the periphery and within some of the islets starting at gw 14. The analysis of islets innervation has shown that the fetal pancreas contained NIC and the number of these complexes was reduced in adults. The highest density of NIC is detected during middle and late fetal periods, when the mosaic islets, typical for adults, form. The close integration between the developing pancreatic islets and the nervous system structures may play an important role not only in the hormone secretion, but also in the islets morphogenesis. PMID:24795697

  7. Traces of radioactive 131I in rainwater and milk samples in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mărgineanu, Romul; Mitrică, Bogdan; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of 131I (T1/2 = 8.04 days) activities have been performed in the IFIN HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering) underground laboratory situated in Unirea salt mine, Slănic-Prahova, Romania. The rainwater samples were collected starting on 27 March from Braşov and Slănic-Prahova. Also sheep and goat milk samples were collected in the Slănic, Braşov and Iaşi areas and measurements were subsequently made on them. The measurements on the samples were made at the IFIN HH's underground laboratory in an ultra-low radiation background, using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a GeHP (hyperpure) detector having a full width at half-maximum of 1.80 keV at 1332.48 keV for the second 60Co gamma ray and a relative efficiency of 22.8%. The results show a specific activity of 131I from < 0.063 to 0.75 Bq l - 1 for rain. In the milk samples the specific activity varied from < 0.12 to 5.2 Bq l - 1.

  8. A new aromatic probe - The ring stretching vibration Raman spectroscopy frequency.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Bo; Liu, Zi-Zhong; Liu, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Feng-Ying; Yin, Jun-Qing

    2016-07-01

    A new aromatic criterion is presented to determine the aromatic degree of the high symmetric molecules. Group theory is used to explain the correlation between the aromatic degree and the value of Ring Stretching Vibration Raman Spectroscopic Frequency (RSVRSF). The calculations of the geometrical optimization, nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) and values of the Raman Spectroscopy for the aromatic molecules-LnHn (L=C, Si, Ge, n=3, 5-8) were performed using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) Method, as well as the correlations between the values of their RSVRSF and NICS values by Statistic Package for Social Science (SPSS17.0). There are high positive correlations between the theoretical calculated the NICS values and the value of the RSVRSF (A1g/A1') of the LnHn (L=C, Si, Ge, n=3, 5-8). The bigger the aromatic degree, the bigger the RSVRSF is. The value of the RSVRSF is a new probe of aromaticity. Expectedly, it is predicted that the experimental determination of the aromatic degree can be achieved by the determination of the ring stretching vibration (A1g/A1') Raman spectrum frequencies for the aromatic target molecules. PMID:27085169

  9. Role of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in local immunosuppression in HPV-associated cervical neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Bahena-Román, Margarita; Madrid-González, Claudia; Burguete-García, Ana I; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a worldwide disease that constitutes a significant public health problem, especially in developing countries, not only due to its high incidence but also because the most affected population comprises women who belong to marginalized socio-economic classes. Clinical and molecular research has identified immunological impairment in squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions and cervical cancer patients. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has several mechanisms for avoiding the immune system: it down-regulates the expression of interferon and upregulates interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to produce a local immunosuppressive environment, which, along with altered tumor surface antigens, forms an immunosuppressive network that inhibits the antitumor immune response. In this review we analyzed the available data on several deregulated cellular immune functions in patients with NIC I, NIC II and NIC III and cervical cancer. The effects of immunosuppressive cytokines on innate immune response, T-cell activation and cellular factors that promote tumor cell proliferation in cervical cancer patients are summarized. We discuss the functional consequences of HPV E2, E6, and E7 protein interactions with IL-10 and TGF-β1 promoters in the induction of these cytokines and postulate its effect on the cellular immune response in squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions and cervical cancer patients. This review provides a comprehensive picture of the immunological functions of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in response to HPV in humans. PMID:25302175

  10. A new aromatic probe - The ring stretching vibration Raman spectroscopy frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yan-bo; Liu, Zi-zhong; Liu, Hong-xia; Zhang, Feng-ying; Yin, Jun-qing

    2016-07-01

    A new aromatic criterion is presented to determine the aromatic degree of the high symmetric molecules. Group theory is used to explain the correlation between the aromatic degree and the value of Ring Stretching Vibration Raman Spectroscopic Frequency (RSVRSF). The calculations of the geometrical optimization, nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) and values of the Raman Spectroscopy for the aromatic molecules-LnHn (L = C, Si, Ge, n = 3, 5-8) were performed using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) Method, as well as the correlations between the values of their RSVRSF and NICS values by Statistic Package for Social Science (SPSS17.0). There are high positive correlations between the theoretical calculated the NICS values and the value of the RSVRSF (A1g/A1‧) of the LnHn (L = C, Si, Ge, n = 3, 5-8). The bigger the aromatic degree, the bigger the RSVRSF is. The value of the RSVRSF is a new probe of aromaticity. Expectedly, it is predicted that the experimental determination of the aromatic degree can be achieved by the determination of the ring stretching vibration (A1g/A1‧) Raman spectrum frequencies for the aromatic target molecules.

  11. On the Parallel and Perpendicular Propagating Motions Visible inPolar Plumes: An Incubator For (Fast) Solar Wind Acceleration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiajia; McIntosh, Scott W.; De Moortel, Ineke; Wang, Yuming

    2015-06-01

    We combine observations of the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory to study the characteristic properties of (propagating) Alfvénic motions and quasi-periodic intensity disturbances in polar plumes. This unique combination of instruments highlights the physical richness of the processes taking place at the base of the (fast) solar wind. The (parallel) intensity perturbations with intensity enhancements around 1% have an apparent speed of 120 km s-1 (in both the 171 and 193 Å passbands) and a periodicity of 15 minutes, while the (perpendicular) Alfvénic wave motions have a velocity amplitude of 0.5 km s-1, a phase speed of 830 km s-1, and a shorter period of 5 minutes on the same structures. These observations illustrate a scenario where the excited Alfvénic motions are propagating along an inhomogeneously loaded magnetic field structure such that the combination could be a potential progenitor of the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence required to accelerate the fast solar wind.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence of four novel metal organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yi-Shan; Yan, Bing; Chen, Zhen-Xia

    2006-12-01

    Using the principle of crystal engineering, four novel metal-organic coordination polymers, {[Cd 1(nic)2(H 2O)]2[Cd 2(nic)2(H 2O)2]} n (1), [Cd 2(fma)2(phen)2] n (2), [Cd(fma)(bipy)(H 2O)] n (3) and [Zn(mal)(bipy)·3H 2O] n (4) (nic=nicotinate, fma=fumarate, mal=malate, phen=phenanthroline, bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of M(CH 3COO)2·2H 2O ( M=Zn, Cd) with nicotinic acid, fumaric acid and cooperative L ( L=phen, bipy), respectively. X-ray analysis reveals that complex 1 possesses an unprecedented two-dimensional topology structure constructed from three-ply-like layers, complex 2 is an infinite 2D undulating network, complex 3 is a 1D zigzag chain and complex 4 belongs to a 1D chain. The results indicate a transformation of fumarate into malate during the course of hydrothermal treatment of complex 4. The photophysical properties have been investigated with luminescent excitation and emission spectra.

  13. Progress in detailed modelling of low foot and high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    Several dozen high convergence inertial confinement fusion ignition experiments have now been completed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These include both “low foot” experiments from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) and more recent “high foot” experiments. At the time of the NIC, there were large discrepancies between simulated implosion performance and experimental data. In particular, simulations over predicted neutron yields by up to an order of magnitude, and some experiments showed clear evidence of mixing of ablator material deep into the hot spot that could not be explained at the time. While the agreement between data and simulation improved for high foot implosion experiments, discrepancies nevertheless remain. This paper describes the state of detailed modelling of both low foot and high foot implosions using 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D radiation hydrodynamics simulations with HYDRA. The simulations include a range of effects, in particular, the impact of the plastic membrane used to support the capsule in the hohlraum, as well as low-mode radiation asymmetries tuned to match radiography measurements. The same simulation methodology is applied to low foot NIC implosion experiments and high foot implosions, and shows a qualitatively similar level of agreement for both types of implosions. While comparison with the experimental data remains imperfect, a reasonable level of agreement is emerging and shows a growing understanding of the high-convergence implosions being performed on NIF.

  14. A review of the surveillance systems of influenza in selected countries in the tropical region

    PubMed Central

    Sanicas, Melvin; Forleo, Eduardo; Pozzi, Gianni; Diop, Doudou

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory tract disease that affect all age groups. Many developing countries do not have an influenza surveillance system or adequate laboratory capacity for virus detection. The objective of this study was to describe the influenza surveillance systems in the different countries in the tropics and to identify outstanding research needs. A questionnaire was designed and sent to 52 NICs and MoHs in the different countries in tropical Asia and Africa to gather information on the surveillance systems, sentinel sites, specimen and data collection, and laboratory testing. Replies were received from 32 NICs and MoHs (61.5% response) – 17 were located in tropical Asia and 15 in Africa. There are 20 WHO recognized NICs in tropical Asia and 14 in tropical Africa, all with virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing capacity. Of the Asian countries, only Hong Kong and Singapore reported that the patient population from the sites represents the broader community. In tropical Africa, only Senegal has sentinel sites distributed all over the country contributing to the geographic representativeness of the surveillance system. The rest of the countries in Africa have just established their influenza surveillance system in the past decade and are working toward geographic expansion of the ILI and SARI sites. Limited laboratory capacity or infrastructure to perform influenza surveillance makes difficult to justify the importance of influenza vaccine or other influenza control measures as a strategy for improving population health in the tropical region. PMID:25745529

  15. Quantum-chemical analyses of aromaticity, UV spectra, and NMR chemical shifts in plumbacyclopentadienylidenes stabilized by Lewis bases.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Toshiaki; Abe, Minori; Saito, Masaichi; Hada, Masahiko

    2014-04-30

    We carried out a series of zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA)-density functional theory (DFT) and ZORA-time-dependent (TD)-DFT calculations for molecular geometries, NMR chemical shifts, nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS), and electronic transition energies of plumbacyclopentadienylidenes stabilized by several Lewis bases, (Ph)2 ((t) BuMe2 Si)2 C4 PbL1 L2 (L1, L2 = tetrahydrofuran, Pyridine, N-heterocyclic carbene), and their model molecules. We mainly discussed the Lewis-base effect on the aromaticity of these complexes. The NICS was used to examine the aromaticity. The NICS values showed that the aromaticity of these complexes increases when the donation from the Lewis bases to Pb becomes large. This trend seems to be reasonable when the 4n-Huckel rule is applied to the fractional π-electron number. The calculated (13)C- and (207)Pb-NMR chemical shifts and the calculated UV transition energies reasonably reproduced the experimental trends. We found a specific relationship between the (13)C-NMR chemical shifts and the transition energies. As we expected, the relativistic effect was essential to reproduce a trend not only in the (207)Pb-NMR chemical shifts and J[Pb-C] but also in the (13)C-NMR chemical shifts of carbons adjacent to the lead atom. PMID:24643814

  16. The Phase Coherence of Interstellar Density Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of MHD turbulence often investigate the Fourier power spectrum to provide information on the nature of the turbulence cascade. However, the Fourier power spectrum only contains the Fourier amplitudes and rejects all information regarding the Fourier phases. Here, we investigate the utility of two statistical diagnostics for recovering information on Fourier phases in ISM column density maps: the averaged amplitudes of the bispectrum and the phase coherence index (PCI), a new phase technique for the ISM. We create three-dimensional density and two-dimensional column density maps using a set of simulations of isothermal ideal MHD turbulence with a wide range of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers. We find that the bispectrum averaged along different angles with respect to either the k 1 or k 2 axis is primarily sensitive to the sonic Mach number while averaging the bispectral amplitudes over different annuli is sensitive to both the sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers. The PCI of density suggests that the most correlated phases occur in supersonic sub-Alfvénic turbulence and near the shock scale. This suggests that nonlinear interactions with correlated phases are strongest in shock-dominated regions, in agreement with findings from the solar wind. Our results suggest that the phase information contained in the bispectrum and PCI can be used to find the turbulence parameters in column density maps.

  17. Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation of Oxygenates using Earth-Abundant Transition-Metal Nanoparticles under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Kyler J; Burger, Thomas; Langenegger, Lukas; Chavez, Steven; Hunt, Sean T; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Brushett, Fikile R

    2016-08-01

    Electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is a sustainable pathway for the synthesis of value-added organic compounds, provided affordable catalysts with high activity, selectivity and durability are developed. Here, we synthesize Cu/C, Ni/C, and CuNi/C nanoparticles and compare their performance to Pt/C, Ru/C, PtRu/C for the ECH of hydroxyacetone, a bio-derived feedstock surrogate containing a carbonyl and a hydroxyl functional group. The non-precious metal electrocatalysts show promising conversion-time behavior, product selectivities, and Faradaic efficiencies. Ni/C forms propylene glycol with a selectivity of 89 % (at 80 % conversion), while Cu/C catalyzes ECH (52 % selectivity) and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO, 48 % selectivity, accounting for evaporation). CuNi/C shows increased turnover frequencies but reduced ECH selectivity (80 % at 80 % conversion) as compared to the Ni/C catalyst. Importantly, stability studies show that the non-precious metal catalysts do not leach at operating conditions. PMID:27337680

  18. Smart stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods for determination of binary mixtures without prior separation.

    PubMed

    El-Bardicy, Mohammad G; Lotfy, Hayam M; El-Sayed, Mohammad A; El-Tarras, Mohammad F

    2008-01-01

    Ratio subtraction and isosbestic point methods are 2 innovating spectrophotometric methods used to determine vincamine in the presence of its acid degradation product and a mixture of cinnarizine (CN) and nicergoline (NIC). Linear correlations were obtained in the concentration range from 8-40 microg/mL for vincamine (I), 6-22 microg/mL for CN (II), and 6-36 microg/mL for NIC (III), with mean accuracies 99.72 +/- 0.917% for I, 99.91 +/- 0.703% for II, and 99.58 +/- 0.847 and 99.83 +/- 1.039% for III. The ratio subtraction method was utilized for the analysis of laboratory-prepared mixtures containing different ratios of vincamine and its degradation product, and it was valid in the presence of up to 80% degradation product. CN and NIC in synthetic mixtures were analyzed by the 2 proposed methods with the total content of the mixture determined at their respective isosbestic points of 270.2 and 235.8 nm, and the content of CN was determined by the ratio subtraction method. The proposed method was validated and found to be suitable as a stability-indicating assay method for vincamine in pharmaceutical formulations. The standard addition technique was applied to validate the results and to ensure the specificity of the proposed methods. PMID:18476341

  19. [New prospects of nicotine dependence treatment--vaccines].

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz; Koszowski, Bartosz; Czogała, Jan; Zymełka, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is considered to be one of the main threats to health in many societies around the world. Despite carrying out numerous large-scale campaigns promoting a healthy life-style and stimulant avoidance, nicotine dependence still concerns a huge group of people. What is more, almost half of the population is exposed to passive contact with tobacco smoke. At present, there is a whole range of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical means of fighting nicotine dependence. The dramatic development of medical sciences in recent years, especially of the fields connected with biotechnology, resulted in working out of a new method of nicotinism treatment--antinicotinic vaccines. The starting point for working out of such drugs was the mechanism of nicotine action on central nervous system. The idea behind the vaccine is to prevent nicotine from passing through the blood-brain barrier. Nicotine molecules, due to their size and lipophilic character, can easily enter the brain. The mechanism of the antinicotinic vaccine's action consists in producing specific antibodies, which combined with nicotine in the bloodstream are to create immune complexes big enough not to enter the brain. Currently, clinical trails of three vaccines are being carried out: TA-NIC (Xenova Group, UK), NicVAX (NABI Biopharmaceuticals, USA), CYT002-NicQb (Cytos Biotechnology, Switzerland). The results indicate that this form of treatment is interesting when it comes to its effectiveness and in the future may become a routine method of nicotine dependence treatment. PMID:17288232

  20. Preparation of molecularly imprinted resin based on chitosan for chiral recognition of S-mandelic acid.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; El-Mekabaty, A

    2013-04-01

    An enantioselective S-mandelic acid (S-MA) imprinted chitosan (SMIC) was prepared by cross-linking of chitosan using formaldehyde cross-linker, in the presence of S-MA as an imprint template molecule and 0.5% acetic acid solution as a solvent. Non-imprinted cross-linked chitosan (NIC) as control was also prepared by the same procedure in absence of template molecules. The surface morphology of both SMIC and NIC were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SMIC particles were applied to determine the optimum operational condition for S-MA separation from dilute aqueous solution. In adsorption step, optimum pH and retention time were 3.5 and 60 min, while corresponding values in extraction step were 1 and 40 min, respectively. Also, the adsorption isotherms indicated that the maximum adsorption capacities of S- and R-MA on SMIC were 100 ± 0.5 and 64 ± 0.8 mg/g, respectively, while in the case of NIC, both R- and S-MA present the same maximum adsorption. PMID:23357795

  1. Preparation of molecularly imprinted cross-linked chitosan/glutaraldehyde resin for enantioselective separation of L-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; El-Sokkary, A M A

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, separation of L-glutamic acid from dilute aqueous solution by solid-phase extraction based on molecular imprinting technique using cross-linked chitosan/glutaraldehyde resin was investigated. L-Glutamic acid imprinted cross-linked chitosan (LGIC) was prepared by cross-linking of chitosan by glutaraldehyde cross-linker, in the presence of L-glutamic acid. Non-imprinted cross-linked chitosan (NIC) as control was also prepared by the same procedure in the absence of template molecules. The morphological structures of both LGIC and NIC were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). LGIC particles were applied to determine the optimum operational condition for l-glutamic acid separation from dilute aqueous solution. In adsorption step, optimum pH and retention time were 5.5 and 100 min, while corresponding values in extraction step were 2.5 and 60 min, respectively. The adsorption isotherms indicated that the maximum adsorption capacities of L- and D-glutamic acid on LGIC were 42+/-0.8 and 26+/-1.2mg/g, respectively, while in case of NIC, both L- and D-glutamic acid present the same maximum adsorption capacity 7+/-0.6 mg/g, which confirm that the molecular imprinting technique creates an enantioselectivity of LGIC toward L-glutamic acid. In addition, chiral resolution of l-, d-glutamic acid racemic mixture was carried out using column of LGIC. PMID:20441776

  2. Impaired Lung Mitochondrial Respiration Following Perinatal Nicotine Exposure in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Daniel T; Liu, Jie; Sakurai, Reiko; Rossiter, Harry B; Rehan, Virender K

    2016-04-01

    Perinatal smoke/nicotine exposure predisposes to chronic lung disease and morbidity. Mitochondrial abnormalities may contribute as the PPARγ pathway is involved in structural and functional airway deficits after perinatal nicotine exposure. We hypothesized perinatal nicotine exposure results in lung mitochondrial dysfunction that can be rescued by rosiglitazone (RGZ; PPARγ receptor agonist). Sprague-Dawley dams received placebo (CON), nicotine (NIC, 1 mg kg(-1)), or NIC + RGZ (3 mg kg(-1)) daily from embryonic day 6 to postnatal day 21. Parenchymal lung (~10 mg) was taken from adult male offspring for mitochondrial assessment in situ. ADP-stimulated O2 consumption was less in NIC and NIC + RGZ compared to CON (F[2,14] = 17.8; 4.5 ± 0.8 and 4.1 ± 1.4 vs. 8.8 ± 2.5 pmol s mg(-1); p < 0.05). The respiratory control ratio for ADP, an index of mitochondrial coupling, was reduced in NIC and remediated in NIC + RGZ (F[2,14] = 3.8; p < 0.05). Reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and abnormal coupling were evident after perinatal nicotine exposure. RGZ improved mitochondrial function through tighter coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26899624

  3. The effects of nicotine dose expectancy and motivationally relevant distracters on vigilance.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffery M; Cui, Yong; Versace, Francesco; Waters, Andrew J; Gilbert, David G; Gritz, Ellen R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2014-09-01

    The imminence of drug use (i.e., drug availability) has been found to be related to intensity of drug craving, but its effects on attentional bias to drug cues are unclear. This study investigated the effects of nicotine availability on attentional bias to smoking, affective, and neutral cues in a sample of adult smokers during a vigilance task. At the beginning of each of 4 laboratory sessions, overnight nicotine-deprived smokers (n = 51) were instructed that they would smoke a cigarette containing either nicotine (Told-NIC) or no nicotine (Told-DENIC) after completing the rapid visual information processing task with central emotional distracters (RVIP-CED). The RVIP-CED presented digits at a rapid pace, with participants instructed to respond with button presses to every third consecutive even or odd digit. Some digits were preceded by smoking, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral distracter slides. During Told-NIC conditions, participants produced significantly longer reaction time (RT) latency than during Told-DENIC conditions. RT sensitivity (d'), a measure of the ability to discriminate true positives from false positives, was significantly lower during the Told-NIC than during the Told-DENIC conditions to targets following cigarette distracters. These results suggest that nicotine-deprived smokers expecting to imminently smoke a cigarette experience greater distraction, particularly to smoking-related stimuli, than when expecting to smoke a denicotinized cigarette. PMID:24841184

  4. Structural features of a series of S-alkylated and non-S-alkylated aminothiolate nickel(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    The structural aspects of a family of S-alkylated complexes, generated by reacting iodoacetamide or iodoethanol with two mononuclear Ni(II) diaminodithiolate complexes are discussed. The S-alkylation reactions were investigated with particular attention paid to the size of the chelate ring that straps the N,N'-methylamine donors. In one complex the N-methyl groups are cis to each other and in the other they are trans. Both complexes undergo S-alkylation with two equivalents of either reagent, that coordinates through the pendant oxygen to the Ni(II), forming dications with an N2S2O2 ligand donor set. Crystal structures of [NiC12H26N4O2S2]I2 · MeOH, [NiC12H28N2O2S2]I2, and [NiC13H30N2O2S2]I2 · 1/2 MeOH, are determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. The N-methyl groups in each of the alkylated derivatives are trans to each other, suggesting that the cis configuration is highly unfavored for such complexes in octahedral conformation. Crystal packing data shows that each of the alkylated complexes interacts closely with the iodide counterions, and with solvent if present; some of these interactions include H-bonds. Only the iodoacetamide derivative shows any significant interaction with a neighboring molecule.

  5. Molecular dynamics study of the stability of a carbon nanotube atop a catalytic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhovtsev, Alexey V.; Schramm, Stefan; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2014-09-01

    The stability of a single-walled carbon nanotube placed on top of a catalytic nickel nanoparticle is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. As a case study, we consider the (12,0) nanotube consisting of 720 carbon atoms and the icosahedral Ni309 cluster. An explicit set of constant-temperature simulations is performed in order to cover a broad temperature range from 400 to 1200 K, at which a successful growth of carbon nanotubes has been achieved experimentally by means of chemical vapor deposition. The stability of the system depending on parameters of the involved interatomic interactions is analyzed. It is demonstrated that different scenarios of the nanotube dynamics atop the nanoparticle are possible depending on the parameters of the Ni-C potential. When the interaction is weak the nanotube is stable and resembles its highly symmetric structure, while an increase of the interaction energy leads to the abrupt collapse of the nanotube in the initial stage of simulation. In order to validate the parameters of the Ni-C interaction utilized in the simulations, DFT calculations of the potential energy surface for carbon-nickel compounds are performed. The calculated dissociation energy of the Ni-C bond is in good agreement with the values, which correspond to the case of a stable and not deformed nanotube simulated within the MD approach.

  6. Role of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in local immunosuppression in HPV-associated cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Bahena-Román, Margarita; Madrid-González, Claudia; Burguete-García, Ana I; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2014-10-10

    Cervical cancer is a worldwide disease that constitutes a significant public health problem, especially in developing countries, not only due to its high incidence but also because the most affected population comprises women who belong to marginalized socio-economic classes. Clinical and molecular research has identified immunological impairment in squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions and cervical cancer patients. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has several mechanisms for avoiding the immune system: it down-regulates the expression of interferon and upregulates interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to produce a local immunosuppressive environment, which, along with altered tumor surface antigens, forms an immunosuppressive network that inhibits the antitumor immune response. In this review we analyzed the available data on several deregulated cellular immune functions in patients with NIC I, NIC II and NIC III and cervical cancer. The effects of immunosuppressive cytokines on innate immune response, T-cell activation and cellular factors that promote tumor cell proliferation in cervical cancer patients are summarized. We discuss the functional consequences of HPV E2, E6, and E7 protein interactions with IL-10 and TGF-β1 promoters in the induction of these cytokines and postulate its effect on the cellular immune response in squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions and cervical cancer patients. This review provides a comprehensive picture of the immunological functions of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in response to HPV in humans. PMID:25302175

  7. Suprathermal Tails in the Solar Wind and at Interplanetary Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharek, H.; Popecki, M.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Klecker, B.

    2014-12-01

    Ion mass spectrometers on several spacecraft have identified suprathermal tails on the velocity distributions of solar wind and pickup ions as a common feature. These tail distributions typically show a power law with a rollover at higher energies. The power law behavior of these suprathermal tails has been studied during so-called quiet times of the solar wind (no significant wave activity) as well as during active periods of the solar cycle. Several studies reported different results for this power law index, ranging from -9 to -1. In this study we used data from the PLASTIC and IMPACT instruments on STEREO spacecraft A in 2008 during a pronounced solar minimum. We investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of these tails at interplanetary structures such as shocks, stream interfaces, magnetic clouds, Alfvénic turbulence, and quiet times. We focus on He+ data to investigate ion acceleration, the formation of suprathermal tails and their association with Alfvénic turbulence. The results of this study show that in shocks and stream interfaces, the spectral index varies dramatically in space and time. Both pre-existing energetic ion populations as well as elevated Alfvénic turbulence impact the spectral slope. Quiet times, which may represent thermalized plasma, tend to show spectral slopes which are closer to -5.

  8. Comparative genome analysis reveals the molecular basis of nicotine degradation and survival capacities of Arthrobacter

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuxiang; Tang, Hongzhi; Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Arthrobacter is one of the most prevalent genera of nicotine-degrading bacteria; however, studies of nicotine degradation in Arthrobacter species remain at the plasmid level (plasmid pAO1). Here, we report the bioinformatic analysis of a nicotine-degrading Arthrobacter aurescens M2012083, and show that the moeB and mogA genes that are essential for nicotine degradation in Arthrobacter are absent from plasmid pAO1. Homologues of all the nicotine degradation-related genes of plasmid pAO1 were found to be located on a 68,622-bp DNA segment (nic segment-1) in the M2012083 genome, showing 98.1% nucleotide acid sequence identity to the 69,252-bp nic segment of plasmid pAO1. However, the rest sequence of plasmid pAO1 other than the nic segment shows no significant similarity to the genome sequence of strain M2012083. Taken together, our data suggest that the nicotine degradation-related genes of strain M2012083 are located on the chromosome or a plasmid other than pAO1. Based on the genomic sequence comparison of strain M2012083 and six other Arthrobacter strains, we have identified 17 σ70 transcription factors reported to be involved in stress responses and 109 genes involved in environmental adaptability of strain M2012083. These results reveal the molecular basis of nicotine degradation and survival capacities of Arthrobacter species. PMID:25721465

  9. Collisionless Dissipative Nonlinear Alfvén Waves: Nonlinear Steepening, Particle Trapping, and Compressible Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, M. V.

    1998-11-01

    The magnetic field fluctuations frequently observed in the Solar Wind and Interstellar Medium are likely to be nonlinear Alfvén waves, in which the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvénic magnetic energy to ion-acoustic quasi-modes has modified the phase velocity vA and caused wave-front steepening. In the warm, collisionless Solar Wind plasma the resonant particle-wave interactions result in relatively rapid (compared to the particle bounce time) formation of quasi-stationary Alfvénic Rotational Discontinuities, (M.V. Medvedev, P.H. Diamond, V.I. Shevchenko, and V.L. Galinsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 4934 (1997) and references therein. which have been the subject of intense satellite observations and theoretical investigations, and whose emergence and dynamics has not been previously understood. These discontinuities are shown to be quasi-stationary wave-form remnants of nonlinearly evolved coherent Alfvén waves. In long-time asymptotics, however, the particle distribution function (PDF) is affected by wave magnetic fields. Indeed, the resonant particles are trapped in the quasi-stationary Alfvénic discontinuities by mirroring forces giving rise to the nonlinear Landau damping and, ultimately, to a formation of a plateau on the PDF, so that the linear collisionless damping vanishes. Using Virial theorem for trapped particles, it is analytically demonstrated (M.V. Medvedev, P.H. Diamond, M.N. Rosenbluth, and V.I. Shevchenko, Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (1998).) that their effect on the nonlinear dynamics of such discontinuities is highly non-trivial and forces a significant departure of the theory from the conventional paradigm. Considering the strongly compressible MHD (Alfvénic) Solar Wind turbulence as an ensemble of randomly interacting Alfvénic discontinuities and nonlinear waves, it is also shown (M.V. Medvedev and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Rev. E 56), R2371 (1997). that there exist two different phases of turbulence which are due to the collisionless (Landau

  10. Alfvén wave characteristics of equatorial plasma irregularities in the ionosphere derived from CHAMP observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühr, Hermann; Park, Jaeheung; Xiong, Chao; Xiong, Chao; Rauberg, Jan

    2014-08-01

    We report magnetic field observations of the components transverse to the main field in the frequency range 1-25 Hz from times of equatorial plasma irregularity crossings. These field variations are interpreted as Alfvénic signatures accompanying intermediate-scale (150 m - 4 km) plasma density depletions. Data utilized are the high-resolution CHAMP magnetic field measurements sampled at 50 Hz along the north-south satellite track. The recorded signals do not reflect the temporal variation but the spatial distribution of Alfvénic signatures. This is the first comprehensive study of Alfvénic signatures related to equatorial plasma bubbles that covers the whole solar cycle from 2000 to 2010. A detailed picture of the wave characteristics can be drawn due to the large number (almost 9000) of events considered. Some important findings are: Alfvénic features are a common feature of intermediate-scale plasma structures. The zonal and meridional magnetic components are generally well correlated suggesting skewed current sheets. The sheets have an orientation that is on average deflect by about 32° away from magnetic east towards upward or downward depending on the hemisphere. We have estimated the Poynting flux flowing into the E region. Typical values are distributed over the range 10-8 - 10-6 W/m2. Large Poynting fluxes are related to steep spectra of the Alfvénic signal, which imply passages through regularly varying electron density structures. No dependence of the Poynting flux level on solar activity has been found. But below a certain solar flux value (F10.7 < 100 sfu) practically no events are detected. There is a clear tendency that large Poynting flux events occur preferably at early hours after sunset (e.g. 20:00 local time). Towards later times the occurrence peak shifts successively towards lower energy levels. Finally we compare our observations with the recently published results of the high-resolution 3-D model simulations by Dao et al. (2013).

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence of four novel metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Song Yishan; Yan Bing . E-mail: byan@tongji.edu.cn; Chen Zhenxia

    2006-12-15

    Using the principle of crystal engineering, four novel metal-organic coordination polymers, {l_brace}[Cd{sub 1}(nic)2(H{sub 2}O)]2[Cd{sub 2}(nic)2(H{sub 2}O)2]{r_brace} {sub n} (1), [Cd{sub 2}(fma)2(phen)2] {sub n} (2), [Cd(fma)(bipy)(H{sub 2}O)] {sub n} (3) and [Zn(mal)(bipy).3H{sub 2}O] {sub n} (4) (nic=nicotinate, fma=fumarate, mal=malate, phen=phenanthroline, bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of M(CH{sub 3}COO)2.2H{sub 2}O (M=Zn, Cd) with nicotinic acid, fumaric acid and cooperative L (L=phen, bipy), respectively. X-ray analysis reveals that complex 1 possesses an unprecedented two-dimensional topology structure constructed from three-ply-like layers, complex 2 is an infinite 2D undulating network, complex 3 is a 1D zigzag chain and complex 4 belongs to a 1D chain. The results indicate a transformation of fumarate into malate during the course of hydrothermal treatment of complex 4. The photophysical properties have been investigated with luminescent excitation and emission spectra. -- Graphical abstract: Using the principle of crystal engineering, four novel metal-organic coordination polymers, {l_brace}[Cd{sup 1}(nic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}[Cd{sup 2}(nic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{r_brace} {sub n} , [Cd{sub 2}(fma){sub 2}(phen){sub 2}] {sub n} , [Cd(fma)(bipy)(H{sub 2}O)] {sub n} and [Zn(mal)(bipy).3H{sub 2}O] {sub n} have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. X-ray analysis reveals that complex 1 possesses an unprecedented two-dimensional topology structure constructed from three-ply-like layers, complex 2 is an infinite 2D undulating network, complexes 3 and 4 belong to a 1D chain. The results indicate a transformation of fumarate into malate during the course of hydrothermal treatment of complex 4.

  12. Añadir quimioterapia después de la radioterapia mejora la supervivencia de adultos con un tipo de tu

    Cancer.gov

    Adultos con gliomas de grado bajo, una forma de tumor cerebral, que recibieron tratamiento con quimioterapia después de la radioterapia vivieron más tiempo que pacientes que recibieron solo radioterapia, según los resultados de seguimiento a largo plazo d

  13. Estudio de NIH indica que la actividad física en tiempo libre alarga la vida tanto como 4,5 años

    Cancer.gov

    La actividad física en tiempo libre está asociada con una expectativa de vida más larga, aun en un grado de actividad relativamente bajo e independientemente del peso corporal, de acuerdo con un estudio llevado a cabo por un equipo de investigadores del I

  14. CLAVE: Revista Especializada de ASOVELE (Asociacion Venezolana para la Ensenanza de la Lengua), 1997-1998 (CLAVE: Specialized Magazine of ASOVELE [Venezuelan Association for Language Teaching], 1997-1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon, Adolfo, Ed.; Serron, Sergio, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    These two issues of the journal "CLAVE" contain these articles in Spanish with one article in English: "La ensenanza de la lingua materna" (Pablo Arnaez); "Saben resumir los alumnos universitarios de nuevo ingreso?" (Marisol Garcia); "El desempeno en la escritura de cartas argumentativas y cuentos en alumnos de octavo grado" (Yolanda Perez, Maria…

  15. Relative performance of common biochemical indicators in detecting cigarette smoking

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Gina F.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Singleton, Edward G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Heishman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Many cities have banned indoor smoking in public places. Thus, an updated recommendation for a breath carbon monoxide (CO) cut-off is needed that optimally determines smoking status. We evaluated and compared the performance of breath CO and semiquantitative cotinine immunoassay test strips (urine and saliva NicAlert®) alone and in combination. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Urban drug addiction research and treatment facility. Participants Ninety non-treatment-seeking smokers and 82 non-smokers. Measurements Participants completed smoking histories and provided breath CO, urine and saliva specimens. Urine and saliva specimens were assayed for cotinine by NicAlert® and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Findings An optimal breath CO cut-off was established using self-report and LCMSMS analysis of cotinine, an objective indicator, as reference measures. Performance of smoking indicators and combinations were compared to the reference measures. Breath CO ≥5 parts per million (p.p.m.) optimally discriminated smokers from non-smokers. Saliva NicAlert® performance was less effective than the other indicators. Conclusions In surveys of smokers and non-smokers in areas with strong smoke-free laws, the breath carbon monoxide cut-off that discriminates most effectively appears to be ≥5 p.p.m. rather than the ≥10 p.p.m. cut-off often used. These findings may not generalize to clinical trials, regions with different carbon monoxide pollution levels or areas with less stringent smoke-free laws. PMID:21438939

  16. High Resolution Crystal Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Nicotinamidase with Trapped Intermediates Provide Insights into Catalytic Mechanism and Inhibition by Aldehydes∥,‡

    PubMed Central

    French, Jarrod B.; Cen, Yana; Sauve, Anthony A.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinamidases are salvage enzymes that convert nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are essential for the recycling of nicotinamide into NAD+ in most prokaryotes, most single cell and multicellular eukaryotes, but not in mammals. The significance of these enzymes for nicotinamide salvage and for NAD+ homeostasis has increased interest in nicotinamidases as possible antibiotic targets. Nicotinamidases are also regulators of intracellular nicotinamide concentrations, thereby regulating signaling of downstream NAD+ consuming enzymes, such as the NAD+-dependent deacetylases (sirtuins). Here, we report several high resolution crystal structures of the nicotinamidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpNic) in unliganded and ligand-bound forms. The structure of the C136S mutant in complex with nicotinamide provides details about substrate binding while a trapped nicotinoyl-thioester complexed with SpNic reveals the structure of the proposed thioester reaction intermediate. Examination of the active site of SpNic reveals several important features including a metal ion that coordinates the substrate and the catalytically relevant water molecule, and an oxyanion hole which both orients the substrate and offsets the negative charge that builds up during catalysis. Structures of this enzyme with bound nicotinaldehyde inhibitors elucidate the mechanism of inhibition and provide further details about the catalytic mechanism. In addition, we provide a biochemical analysis of the identity and role of the metal ion that orients the ligand in the active site and activates the water molecule responsible for hydrolysis of the substrate. These data provide structural evidence for several proposed reaction intermediates and allow for a more complete understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme. PMID:20853856

  17. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    PubMed

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  18. High-Resolution Crystal Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Nicotinamidase with Trapped Intermediates Provide Insights into the Catalytic Mechanism and Inhibition by Aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    French, Jarrod B.; Cen, Yana; Sauve, Anthony A.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-11-11

    Nicotinamidases are salvage enzymes that convert nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are essential for the recycling of nicotinamide into NAD{sup +} in most prokaryotes and most single-cell and multicellular eukaryotes, but not in mammals. The significance of these enzymes for nicotinamide salvage and for NAD{sup +} homeostasis has stimulated interest in nicotinamidases as possible antibiotic targets. Nicotinamidases are also regulators of intracellular nicotinamide concentrations, thereby regulating signaling of downstream NAD{sup +}-consuming enzymes, such as the NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylases (sirtuins). Here, we report several high-resolution crystal structures of the nicotinamidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpNic) in unliganded and ligand-bound forms. The structure of the C136S mutant in complex with nicotinamide provides details about substrate binding, while a trapped nicotinoyl thioester in a complex with SpNic reveals the structure of the proposed thioester reaction intermediate. Examination of the active site of SpNic reveals several important features, including a metal ion that coordinates the substrate and the catalytically relevant water molecule and an oxyanion hole that both orients the substrate and offsets the negative charge that builds up during catalysis. Structures of this enzyme with bound nicotinaldehyde inhibitors elucidate the mechanism of inhibition and provide further details about the catalytic mechanism. In addition, we provide a biochemical analysis of the identity and role of the metal ion that orients the ligand in the active site and activates the water molecule responsible for hydrolysis of the substrate. These data provide structural evidence of several proposed reaction intermediates and allow for a more complete understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.

  19. The use of check valve performance data to support new concepts (probabilistic risk assessment, condition monitoring) for check valve program

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, K.A.; Gower, D.

    1996-12-01

    The concept of developing an integrated check valve database based on the Nuclear Power Reliability Data System (NPRDS) data was presented at the last Symposium. The Nuclear Industry Check Valve Group (NIC), working in cooperation with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has completed an operational database of check valve performance from 1984 to the present. NIC has committed to the nuclear industry to periodically update the data and maintain this information accessible. As the new concepts of probabilistic risk analysis and condition monitoring are integrated into the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code, a critical element will be performance data. From check valve performance data, feasible failure modes and rates can be established. When a failure rate or frequency of failures can be established based on a significant enough population (sampling), a more solid foundation for focusing resources and determining appropriate frequencies and testing can be determined. The presentation will give the updated status of the NIC Check Valve Performance Database covering (1) methodology used to combine the original ORNL data; (2) process/controls established for continuing update and refinement of the data; (3) discussion of how this data is being utilized by (a) OM-22 for condition monitoring, and (b) risk-based inservice testing work of Westinghouse Owners` Group; and (4) results/trends of data evaluations. At the 1994 Symposium, ORNL provided an update as of 1991 to their original work of 1984 -1990 which they had performed to characterize check valve degradations and failures in the nuclear industry. These characterizations will be updated to 1995 and additional reviews provided to give insight into the current condition and trends of check valve performance.

  20. Stress-induced expression of NICOTINE2-locus genes and their homologs encoding Ethylene Response Factor transcription factors in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Tsubasa; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Plants have evolved diverse defense metabolites as adaptations to biotic and abiotic stresses. The defense alkaloid nicotine is produced in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and its biosynthesis is elicited by jasmonates in the roots. At least seven jasmonate-responsive genes that encode transcription factors of the Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) family are clustered at the nicotine-regulatory locus NICOTINE2 (NIC2) in the tobacco genome. A subset of the NIC2-locus ERFs and their homologs, including ERF189 and ERF199, have been shown to be most effective in controlling nicotine biosynthetic pathway genes. Herein reported is that the ERF genes of this group, other than ERF189 and ERF199, were strongly induced by NaCl in tobacco hairy roots, although salt stress had no effect on expression of nicotine biosynthesis genes. Abscisic acid and osmotic stress also increased expression of a subset of these NaCl-inducible ERF genes. Promoter expression analysis in transgenic tobacco hairy roots confirmed that while methyl jasmonate (MJ) activated the promoters of ERF29, ERF210 and ERF199, salt stress up-regulated the promoters of only ERF29 and ERF210, but not ERF199. The protein biosynthesis inhibitor cycloheximide induced expression of the ERFs, and simultaneous addition of MJ and cycloheximide showed synergistic effects. These results indicate that, after several gene duplication events, the NIC2-locus ERFs and possibly their homologs appear to have diverged in their responses to jasmonates and various environmental inputs, including salt stress, and may have evolved to regulate distinct metabolic processes and cellular responses. PMID:24947337