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Sample records for grafted polyurethane foam

  1. Preparation, degradation, and calcification of biodegradable polyurethane foams for bone graft substitutes.

    PubMed

    Gorna, Katarzyna; Gogolewski, Sylwester

    2003-12-01

    Autogenous cancellous bone graft is used to heal critical-size segmental long bone defects and defects in the maxillofacial skeleton. Harvesting of bone graft is traumatic, causes morbidity of the donor site, and often results in complications. Thus, there is a need for new biologically functional bone graft substitutes that, instead of autogenous bone graft, could be used to facilitate bone regeneration in critical-size defects. Porous biodegradable elastomeric polyurethane scaffolds combined with the patient's own bone marrow could potentially be such bone substitutes. The elastomeric bone substitute prevents shear forces at the interface between bone and rigid, e.g., ceramic bone substitutes and establishes an intimate contact with the native bone ends, thus facilitating the proliferation of osteogenic cells and bone regeneration. Crosslinked 3D biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds (foams) with controlled hydrophilicity for bone graft substitutes were synthesized from biocompatible reactants. The scaffolds had hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic content ratios of 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70. The reactants used were hexamethylene diisocyanate, poly(ethylene oxide) diol (MW = 600) (hydrophilic component), and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) diol (M(w) = 2000), amine-based polyol (M(w) = 515) or sucrose-based polyol (M(w) = 445) (hydrophobic component), water as the chain extender and foaming agent, and stannous octoate, dibutyltin dilaurate, ferric acetylacetonate, and zinc octoate as catalysts. Citric acid was used as a calcium complexing agent, calcium carbonate, glycerol phosphate calcium salt, and hydroxyapatite were used as inorganic fillers, and lecithin or solutions of vitamin D(3) were used as surfactants. The scaffolds had an open-pore structure with pores whose size and geometry depended on the material's chemical composition. The compressive strengths of the scaffolds were in the range of 4-340 kPa and the compressive moduli in the range of 9-1960 kPa, the values of

  2. Polyurethane-Foam Maskant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodemeijer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Brown wax previously used to mask hardware replaced with polyurethane foam in electroplating and electroforming operations. Foam easier to apply and remove than wax and does not contaminate electrolytes.

  3. Preconcentration and separation of iron, zinc, cadmium and mercury, from waste water using Nile blue a grafted polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    El-shahat, M F; Moawed, E A; Zaid, M A A

    2003-04-10

    The present work describes a novel method for the incorporation of Nile blue A into polyurethane foam matrix. This foam material was found to be very suitable for the extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The characterization of Nile blue A grafted foam and the effect of halide concentration, pH, shaking time, extraction isotherm and capacity have been investigated. This foam material was found to be suitable for the separation and preconcentration of iron (III), zinc (II), cadmium (II) and mercury (II) from waste water. The extraction was accomplished in (15-20) minutes. Iron was separated from acid medium (2-4 M HCl), zinc from (3-5 M HCl), cadmium from (4-6 M HCl) as thiocyanate complexes and mercury was separated from (1-2 M HCl) as chloride. PMID:18968973

  4. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOEpatents

    Neet, Thomas E.; Spieker, David A.

    1985-03-19

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  5. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOEpatents

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  6. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 .ANG.. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  7. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOEpatents

    Frost, C.B.

    1984-05-18

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 A. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  8. Washing Off Polyurethane Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Fogel, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Jet of hot water removes material quickly and safely. Simple, environmentally sound technique found to remove polyurethane foam insulation from metal parts. Developed for (but not limited to) use during rebuilding of fuel system of Space Shuttle main engine, during which insulation must be removed for penetrant inspection of metal parts.

  9. Open-celled polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. W.

    1970-01-01

    Open-celled polyurethane foam has a density of 8.3 pounds per cubic foot and a compressive strength of 295 to 325 psi. It is useful as a porous spacer in layered insulation and as an insulation material in vacuum tight systems.

  10. Chemical enrichment and separation of uranyl ions in aqueous media using novel polyurethane foam chemically grafted with different basic dyestuff sorbents.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, M F; Moawed, E A; Farag, A B

    2007-01-15

    The new type of the grafted polyurethane foam sorbents were prepared by coupling polyether polyol, toluene diisocyanate and basic dyestuff (Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Brilliant green). The Me.B-PUF, Rh.B-PUF and Br.G-PUF were characterized using UV/vis, IR and TGA. The adsorption properties and chromatographic behaviour of these new adsorbents for preconcentration and separation of uranium(VI) ions at low concentrations from aqueous thiocyanate media were investigated by a batch process. The maximum sorption of U(VI) was in the pH ranges 1-4. The kinetics of sorption of the U(VI) by the Grafted-PUF were found to be fast with half life of sorption (t(1/2)) in 2.43min. The average sorption capacity of different sorbents 0.124meqg(-1) for uranyl ions, enrichment factors approximately 40 and the recovery 98-100% were achieved (R.S.D. approximately 0.73%). The basic dyestuff Grafted-PUF could be used many times without decreasing their capacities significantly. The value of the Gibbs free energy (DeltaG) for the sorbents is -7.3kJmol(-1), which reflects the spontaneous nature of sorption process. The sorption mechanism of the metal ion onto Grafted-PUF was also discussed. PMID:19071294

  11. Role of Silicone Surfactant in Flexible Polyurethane Foam.

    PubMed

    Zhang; Macosko; Davis; Nikolov; Wasan

    1999-07-15

    Grafted copolymers which consist of a polydimethylsiloxane backbone and polyethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide pendant groups are used as surfactants to stabilize the foam cells in the flexible polyurethane foaming process. The mechanical properties of the cured polyurethane foam such as air permeability and foam cell size are affected significantly by the structure of the silicone surfactant used in the formulation. It is shown that silicone surfactant has an important impact on both the bubble generation and the cell window stabilization stage. A series of silicone surfactants with different structures was tested. Surfactants with higher silicone content will provide lower surface tension and thus help increase the number of air bubbles introduced during mixing. These air bubbles serve as the starting point for foam cell growth. As a result, the cured polyurethane foam made with higher silicone content surfactant has a smaller bubble size. It is also shown that silicone surfactant can reduce the cell window drainage rate due to the surface tension gradient along the cell window. The Gibbs film elasticity, the dynamic film elasticity, and the film drainage rate were measured for the first time versus surfactant composition. Surfactants with longer siloxane backbones are shown to give higher film elasticity. Using the vertical film drainage and foam column tests, it is shown that surfactants with higher film elasticity will yield slower drainage rate and better foam cell stability. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10419661

  12. Thermal Expansion of Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.

    2006-01-01

    Closed cell foams are often used for thermal insulation. In the case of the Space Shuttle, the External Tank uses several thermal protection systems to maintain the temperature of the cryogenic fuels. A few of these systems are polyurethane, closed cell foams. In an attempt to better understand the foam behavior on the tank, we are in the process of developing and improving thermal-mechanical models for the foams. These models will start at the microstructural level and progress to the overall structural behavior of the foams on the tank. One of the key properties for model characterization and verification is thermal expansion. Since the foam is not a material, but a structure, the modeling of the expansion is complex. It is also exacerbated by the anisoptropy of the material. During the spraying and foaming process, the cells become elongated in the rise direction and this imparts different properties in the rise direction than in the transverse directions. Our approach is to treat the foam as a two part structure consisting of the polymeric cell structure and the gas inside the cells. The polymeric skeleton has a thermal expansion of its own which is derived from the basic polymer chemistry. However, a major contributor to the thermal expansion is the volume change associated with the gas inside of the closed cells. As this gas expands it exerts pressure on the cell walls and changes the shape and size of the cells. The amount that this occurs depends on the elastic and viscoplastic properties of the polymer skeleton. The more compliant the polymeric skeleton, the more influence the gas pressure has on the expansion. An additional influence on the expansion process is that the polymeric skeleton begins to breakdown at elevated temperatures and releases additional gas species into the cell interiors, adding to the gas pressure. The fact that this is such a complex process makes thermal expansion ideal for testing the models. This report focuses on the thermal

  13. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei-Yang

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  14. A constitutive theory for rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.; Krieg, R.D.; Schreyer, H.L.

    1992-12-31

    Rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam consists of interconnected polyurethane plates which form cells. When this foam is compressed, it exhibits an initial elastic regime which is followed by a plateau regime in which the load required to compress the foam remains nearly constant. In the plateau regime, cell walls are damaged and large permanent volume changes are generated. As additional load is applied, cell walls are compressed against neighboring cell walls, and the stiffness of the foam increases and approaches a value equal to that of solid polyurethane. When the foam is loaded in tension, the cell walls are damaged and the foam fractures. A constitutive theory for rigid polyurethane foam has been developed. This theory is based on a decomposition of the foam into two parts: a skeleton and a nonlinear elastic continuum in parallel. The skeleton accounts for the foam behavior in the elastic and plateau regimes and is described using a coupled plasticity with continuum damage theory. The nonlinear elastic continuum accounts for the lock-up of the foam due to internal gas pressure and cell wall interactions. This new constitutive theory has been implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes. Numerical simulations performed using the new constitutive theory are presented.

  15. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, Bassam; Daniels, Edward; Libera, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam.

  16. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.; Daniels, E.; Libera, J.A.

    1999-03-16

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam. 4 figs.

  17. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  18. Measuring Rind Thickness on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C.; Miller, J.; Brown, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nondestructive test determines rind thickness of polyurethane foam. Surface harness of foam measured by Shore durometer method: hardness on Shore D scale correlates well with rind thickness. Shore D hardness of 20, for example, indicates rind thickness of 0.04 inch (1 millimeter). New hardness test makes it easy to determine rind thickness of sample nondestructively and to adjust fabrication variables accordingly.

  19. Modeling of skeletal members using polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, J.M.F.; Weaver, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    At the request of the University of New Mexico's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, members of the Plastic Section in the Process Development Division at SNLA undertook the special project of the Chaco Lady. The project consisted of polyurethane foam casting of a disinterred female skull considered to be approximately 1000 years old. Rubber latex molds, supplied by the UNM Anthropology Department, were used to produce the polymeric skull requested. The authors developed for the project a modified foaming process which will be used in future polyurethane castings of archaeological artifacts and contemporary skeletal members at the University.

  20. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  1. Modeling Decomposition of Unconfined Rigid Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect

    CHU,TZE YAO; ERICKSON,KENNETH L.; HOBBS,MICHAEL L.

    1999-11-01

    The decomposition of unconfined rigid polyurethane foam has been modeled by a kinetic bond-breaking scheme describing degradation of a primary polymer and formation of a thermally stable secondary polymer. The bond-breaking scheme is resolved using percolation theory to describe evolving polymer fragments. The polymer fragments vaporize according to individual vapor pressures. Kinetic parameters for the model were obtained from Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The chemical structure of the foam was determined from the preparation techniques and ingredients used to synthesize the foam. Scale-up effects were investigated by simulating the response of an incident heat flux of 25 W/cm{sup 2} on a partially confined 8.8-cm diameter by 15-cm long right circular cylinder of foam which contained an encapsulated component. Predictions of center, midradial, and component temperatures, as well as regression of the foam surface, were in agreement with measurements using thermocouples and X-ray imaging.

  2. "Grinding" cavities in polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, J. R.; Davey, R. E.; Dixon, W. F.; Robb, P. H.; Zebus, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    Grinding tool installed on conventional milling machine cuts precise cavities in foam blocks. Method is well suited for prototype or midsize production runs and can be adapted to computer control for mass production. Method saves time and materials compared to bonding or hot wire techniques.

  3. Reactive, anomalous compression in shocked polyurethane foams

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Dana M. Gustavsen, Richard L.; Coe, Joshua D. Kiyanda, Charles B.; Patterson, Brian M.

    2014-05-07

    We present the results of plate impact experiments performed on 30%–75% porous, polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate polyurethane foams. The combination of new data with those previously obtained on full-density material was used to calibrate complete equations-of-state under both inert and chemically reactive frameworks. Description of unreacted polyurethane was based on a combination of Hayes and P-α models, whereas its decomposition products were predicted via free energy minimization under the assumption of chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. Correspondence of experiment and theory suggests that polyurethane at all densities decomposes when shocked above some threshold pressure, and that this threshold falls dramatically as a function of initial porosity. The shock locus of foams at 50% or less of theoretical maximum density was found “anomalous” in the sense that final volumes increased with pressure. We attribute this anomaly to chemical decomposition of the initial matrix to a mixture of small-molecule fluids and bulk carbon (graphite or diamond, depending on the initial density)

  4. Reactive, anomalous compression in shocked polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Coe, Joshua D.; Kiyanda, Charles B.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Patterson, Brian M.

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of plate impact experiments performed on 30%-75% porous, polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate polyurethane foams. The combination of new data with those previously obtained on full-density material was used to calibrate complete equations-of-state under both inert and chemically reactive frameworks. Description of unreacted polyurethane was based on a combination of Hayes and P-α models, whereas its decomposition products were predicted via free energy minimization under the assumption of chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. Correspondence of experiment and theory suggests that polyurethane at all densities decomposes when shocked above some threshold pressure, and that this threshold falls dramatically as a function of initial porosity. The shock locus of foams at 50% or less of theoretical maximum density was found "anomalous" in the sense that final volumes increased with pressure. We attribute this anomaly to chemical decomposition of the initial matrix to a mixture of small-molecule fluids and bulk carbon (graphite or diamond, depending on the initial density).

  5. Nano-Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B.; Frances, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Closed cell polyurethane and, particularly, polyisocyanurate foams are a large family of flexible and rigid products the result of a reactive two part process wherein a urethane based polyol is combined with a foaming or "blowing" agent to create a cellular solid at room temperature. The ratio of reactive components, the constituency of the base materials, temperature, humidity, molding, pouring, spraying and many other processing techniques vary greatly. However, there is no known process for incorporating reinforcing fibers small enough to be integrally dispersed within the cell walls resulting in superior final products. The key differentiating aspect from the current state of art resides in the many processing technologies to be fully developed from the novel concept of milled nano pulp aramid fibers and their enabling entanglement capability fully enclosed within the cell walls of these closed cell urethane foams. The authors present the results of research and development of reinforced foam processing, equipment development, strength characteristics and the evolution of its many applications.

  6. Auxetic polyurethane foam: Manufacturing and processing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahan, Md Deloyer

    Materials with negative Poisson's ratio are referred to as auxetic materials. They are different from conventional materials in their deformation behavior when responding to external stresses. The cross-section of the materials widens in the lateral direction when being stretched in the longitudinal direction and becomes narrower when being compressed longitudinally. While a number of natural auxetic materials exist, most auxetic materials are synthetic. They show interesting properties and have potential in several important applications. Auxetic materials exhibit better mechanical properties than conventional materials such as enhanced indentation resistance, shear resistance, toughness, damping and energy absorption capacity, sound absorption, variable permeability and capability of producing complex curvature. These properties are beneficial in a wide range of applications including personal protective equipments, sound absorbers, packaging, smart filtration, drug delivery, tissue scaffolding, seat cushioning, etc. A wide range of auxetic materials has been synthesized. They include different polymers, metals, composites and ceramics. Among these, auxetic polyurethane (PU) foam is one of the most widely studied types of auxetic materials. Auxetic PU foams are usually fabricated by altering the microstructure of conventional foams and the unusual mechanical properties originate from the deformation characteristics of the microstructures. Three most important processing parameters in fabricating auxetic PU foam that dictate auxetic behavior are processing temperature, heating time and volumetric compression ratio. This study addresses several important issues in the manufacturing and characterization of auxetic PU foam. First, an improved automatic measuring technique has been developed to determine Poisson's ratio of auxetic PU foam. The technique involves development of a Matlab based image processing program. The second part of the study includes an

  7. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Scherzinger, William M.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Lo, Chi S.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  8. Uncertainty Analysis of Decomposing Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Michael L.; Romero, Vicente J.

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity/uncertainty analyses are necessary to determine where to allocate resources for improved predictions in support of our nation's nuclear safety mission. Yet, sensitivity/uncertainty analyses are not commonly performed on complex combustion models because the calculations are time consuming, CPU intensive, nontrivial exercises that can lead to deceptive results. To illustrate these ideas, a variety of sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were used to determine the uncertainty associated with thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam exposed to high radiative flux boundary conditions. The polyurethane used in this study is a rigid closed-cell foam used as an encapsulant. Related polyurethane binders such as Estane are used in many energetic materials of interest to the JANNAF community. The complex, finite element foam decomposition model used in this study has 25 input parameters that include chemistry, polymer structure, and thermophysical properties. The response variable was selected as the steady-state decomposition front velocity calculated as the derivative of the decomposition front location versus time. An analytical mean value sensitivity/uncertainty (MV) analysis was used to determine the standard deviation by taking numerical derivatives of the response variable with respect to each of the 25 input parameters. Since the response variable is also a derivative, the standard deviation was essentially determined from a second derivative that was extremely sensitive to numerical noise. To minimize the numerical noise, 50-micrometer element dimensions and approximately 1-msec time steps were required to obtain stable uncertainty results. As an alternative method to determine the uncertainty and sensitivity in the decomposition front velocity, surrogate response surfaces were generated for use with a constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. Two surrogate response surfaces were investigated: 1) a linear surrogate response surface (LIN) and 2

  9. Chemical Grouting Lost-Circulation Zones with Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A.J.; Westmoreland, J.J.

    1999-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing polyurethane foam as a chemical grout for lost circulation zones. In past work polyurethane foam was tried with limited success in laboratory tests and GDO sponsored field tests. Goals were that the foam expanded significantly and harden to a chillable firmness quickly. Since that earlier work there have been improvements in polyurethane chemistry and the causes of the failures of previous tests have been identified. Recent success in applying pure solution grouts (proper classification of polyurethane--Naudts) in boreholes encourages reevaluating its use to control lost circulation. These successes include conformance control in the oil patch (e.g. Ng) and darn remediation projects (Bruce et al.). In civil engineering, polyurethane is becoming the material of choice for sealing boreholes with large voids and high inflows, conditions associated with the worst lost circulation problems. Demonstration of a delivery mechanism is yet to be done in a geothermal borehole.

  10. Rigid open-cell polyurethane foam for cryogenic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Lindquist, C. R.; Niendorf, L. R.; Nies, G. E.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Lightweight polyurethane foam assembled in panels is effective spacer material for construction of self-evacuating multilayer insulation panels for cryogenic liquid tanks. Spacer material separates radiation shields with barrier that minimizes conductive and convective heat transfer between shields.

  11. Toxicity studies of a polyurethane rigid foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Relative toxicity tests were performed on a polyurethane foam containing a trimethylopropane-based polyol and an organophosphate flame retardant. The routine screening procedure involved the exposure of four Swiss albino male mice in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber to the products generated by pyrolyzing a 1.00 g sample at a heating rate of 40 deg C/min from 200 to 800 C in the absence of air flow. In addition to the routine screening, experiments were performed with a very rapid rise to 800 C, with nominal 16 and 48 ml/sec air flow and with varying sample rates. No unusual toxicity was observed with either gradual or rapid pyrolysis to 800 C. Convulsions and seizures similar to those previously reported were observed when the materials were essentially flash pyrolyzed at 800 C in the presence of air flow, and the toxicity appeared unusual because of low sample weights required to produce death.

  12. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or... polyurethane foam process, with the following exception. Diisocyanates may be used to flush the mixhead...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or... polyurethane foam process, with the following exception. Diisocyanates may be used to flush the mixhead...

  14. Aging of polyurethane foam insulation in simulated refrigerator walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Weaver, F.J.

    1997-10-01

    Laboratory data are presented on the thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation in composite test panels that simulate refrigerator walls. The test panels consisted of a steel skin, an ABS plastic liner, and a polyurethane foam core. Foam cores were produced with three different blowing agents (CFC-11, HCFC-141b, and a HCFC-142/22 blend). Periodic thermal measurements have been made on these panels over a three and one half year period in an effort to detect aging processes. Data obtained on foam encased in the panels were compared with measurements on thin foam slices that were removed from similar panels. The data show that the encapsulation of the foam in the solid boundary materials greatly reduces the aging rate. The plan is presented for a follow-on project that is being conducted on the aging of foams blown with HCFC-141b, HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane.

  15. The Modification of Polyurethane Foams Using New Boroorganic Polyols (II) Polyurethane Foams from Boron-Modified Hydroxypropyl Urea Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The work focuses on research related to determination of application possibility of new, ecofriendly boroorganic polyols in rigid polyurethane foams production. Polyols were obtained from hydroxypropyl urea derivatives esterified with boric acid and propylene carbonate. The influence of esterification type on properties of polyols and next on polyurethane foams properties was determined. Nitrogen and boron impacts on the foams' properties were discussed, for instance, on their physical, mechanical, and electric properties. Boron presence causes improvement of dimensional stability and thermal stability of polyurethane foams. They can be applied even at temperature 150°C. Unfortunately, introducing boron in polyurethanes foams affects deterioration of their water absorption, which increases as compared to the foams that do not contain boron. However, presence of both boron and nitrogen determines the decrease of the foams combustibility. Main impact on the decrease combustibility of the obtained foams has nitrogen presence, but in case of proper boron and nitrogen ratio their synergic activity on the combustibility decrease can be easily seen. PMID:24587721

  16. The modification of polyurethane foams using new boroorganic polyols (II) polyurethane foams from boron-modified hydroxypropyl urea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zarzyka, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The work focuses on research related to determination of application possibility of new, ecofriendly boroorganic polyols in rigid polyurethane foams production. Polyols were obtained from hydroxypropyl urea derivatives esterified with boric acid and propylene carbonate. The influence of esterification type on properties of polyols and next on polyurethane foams properties was determined. Nitrogen and boron impacts on the foams' properties were discussed, for instance, on their physical, mechanical, and electric properties. Boron presence causes improvement of dimensional stability and thermal stability of polyurethane foams. They can be applied even at temperature 150 °C. Unfortunately, introducing boron in polyurethanes foams affects deterioration of their water absorption, which increases as compared to the foams that do not contain boron. However, presence of both boron and nitrogen determines the decrease of the foams combustibility. Main impact on the decrease combustibility of the obtained foams has nitrogen presence, but in case of proper boron and nitrogen ratio their synergic activity on the combustibility decrease can be easily seen. PMID:24587721

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF CFC AND HCFC SUBSTITUTES FOR BLOWING POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a cooperative effort to identiry chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbon substitutes for blowing polyurethane foam insulation products. The substantial ongoing effort is identifying third-generation blowing agets for polyurethane foams to repla...

  18. Fiber glass prevents cracking of polyurethane foam insulation on cryogenic vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forge, D. A.

    1968-01-01

    Fiber glass material, placed between polyurethane foam insulation and the outer surfaces of cryogenic vessels, retains its resilience at cryogenic temperatures and provides an expansion layer between the metal surfaces and the polyurethane foam, preventing cracking of the latter.

  19. Synthesis and in vitro biocompatibility of injectable polyurethane foam scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Guelcher, Scott A; Patel, Vishal; Gallagher, Katie M; Connolly, Susan; Didier, Jonathan E; Doctor, John S; Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2006-05-01

    The development of therapeutics for orthopedic clinical indications exploiting minimally invasive surgical techniques has substantial benefits, especially for treatment of fragility fractures in the distal radius of osteoporotics and vertebral compression fractures. We have designed six formulations of injectable polyurethane foams to address these clinical indications. The polyurethanes were prepared by mixing two liquid components and injecting the reactive liquid mixture into a mold where it hardens in situ. Porous polyurethane foams were synthesized from lysine methyl ester diisocyanate, a poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-glycolide) triol, a tertiary amine catalyst, anionic and non-ionic stabilizers, and a fatty acid pore opener. The rise time of the foams varied from 8-20 min. The porosity was approximately 95% and the pores varied in size from 100-1000 microm. The polyurethane foams supported attachment of viable (>95%) MG-63 cells under dynamic seeding conditions. We anticipate compelling opportunities will be available as a consequence of the favorable biological and physical properties of the injectable polyurethane foams. PMID:16771638

  20. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—diisocyanate emissions. Each new and existing slabstock affected source shall...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—diisocyanate emissions. Each new and existing slabstock affected source shall...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of...

  8. Characterization of synthesized polyurethane/montmorillonite nanocomposites foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Farahnaz; Sachse, Sophia; Michalowski, S.; Kavosh, Masoud; Pielichowski, Krzysztof; Njuguna, James

    2014-08-01

    Nanophased hybrid composites based on polyurethane/montmorillonite (PU/MMT) have been fabricated. The nanocomposite which was formed by the addition of a polyol premix with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate to obtain nanophased polyurethane foams which were then used for fabrication of nanocomposite panels has been shown to have raised strength, stiffness and thermal insulation properties. The nanophased polyurethane foam was characterized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM and SEM analysis indicated that nanophased particles are dispersed homogeneously in the polyurethane matrix on the nanometer scale indicating that PU/MMT is an intercalated nanocomposite with a 2-3 nm nanolayer thickness.

  9. Roof-crush strength improvement using rigid polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, K.; Mani, A.

    1998-08-01

    Recent bending tests show the effectiveness of rigid, polyurethane foam in improving the strength of automotive body structures. By using foam, it is possible to reduce pillar sections, and to reduce thicknesses or eliminate reinforcements inside the pillars, and thereby offset the mass increase due to the foam filling. Further tests showed that utilizing the foam filling in a B-pillar to reduce section size can save ~20 mm that could be utilized to add energy absorbing structures in order to meet the new interior head impact requirements specified by the federal motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSS) 201 Head Impact Protection upgrade.

  10. Mechanical Properties of a Metal Powder-Loaded Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Neuschwanger; L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods

    1999-04-01

    Quasi-static compression tests have been performed on polyurethane foam specimens. The modulus of the foam exhibited a power-law dependence with respect to density of the form: E* {proportional_to} {rho}*{sup n}, where n = 1.7. The modulus data is well described by a simple geometric model (attributed to the work of Gibson and Ashby) for closed-cell foam in which the stiffness of the foam is governed by the flexure of the cell struts and cell walls. The compressive strength of the foam is also found to follow a power-law behavior with respect to foam density. In this instance, Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence. The modulus of the polyurethane foam was modified by addition of a gas atomized, spherical aluminum powder. Additions of 30 and 50 weight percent of the powder significantly increased the foam modulus. However, there were only slight increases in modulus with 5 and 10 weight percent additions of the metal powder. Strength was also slightly increased at high loading fractions of powder. This increase in modulus and strength could be predicted by combining the above geometric model with a well-known model describing the effect on modulus of a rigid dispersoid in a compliant matrix.

  11. Fiber-modified polyurethane foam for ballistic protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Parker, J. A.; Rosser, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Closed-cell, semirigid, fiber-loaded, self-extinguishing polyurethane foam material fills voids around fuel cells in aircraft. Material prevents leakage of fuel and spreading of fire in case of ballistic incendiary impact. It also protects fuel cell in case of exterior fire.

  12. Mössbauer study of gold sorption on polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, W. H.; Cashion, J. D.; Brown, L. J.

    1992-04-01

    Gold sorbed onto different types of flexible polyurethane foams from cyanide solution at pH 11 is shown to remain as the Au(CN)2 - ion. At least two different bonding mechanisms occur, with different recoilles fractions, and possible configurations are suggested.

  13. Macro and micro-scale modeling of polyurethane foaming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Piesche, M.

    2014-05-01

    Mold filling processes of refrigerators, car dashboards or steering wheels are some of the many application areas of polyurethane foams. The design of these processes still mainly relies on empirical approaches. Therefore, we first developed a modeling approach describing mold filling processes in complex geometries. Hence, it is possible to study macroscopic foam flow and to identify voids. The final properties of polyurethane foams may vary significantly depending on the location within a product. Additionally, the local foam structure influences foam properties like thermal conductivity or impact strength significantly. It is neither possible nor would it be efficient to model complex geometries completely on bubble scale. For this reason, we developed a modeling approach describing the bubble growth and the evolution of the foam structure for a limited number of bubbles in a representative volume. Finally, we coupled our two simulation approaches by introducing tracer particles into our mold filling simulations. Through this coupling, a basis for studying the evolution of the local foam structure in complex geometries is provided.

  14. Tests of two new polyurethane foam wheelchair tires.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1989-01-01

    The performance characteristics of four 24-inch wheelchair tires are considered; one pneumatic and three airless. Specifically, two new airless polyurethane foam tires (circular and tapered cross-section) were compared to both a molded polyisoprene tire and a rubber pneumatic tire. Rolling resistance, coefficient of static friction, spring rate, tire roll-off, impact absorption, wear resistance, and resistance to compression set were the characteristics considered for the basis of comparison. Although the pneumatic tire is preferred by many wheelchair users, the two new polyurethane foam tires were found to offer a performance similar to the high-pressure pneumatic tire. In addition, the foam tires are less expensive and lighter in weight than the other tires tested. PMID:2918486

  15. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1294 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  17. Full-field characterization of mechanical behavior of polyurethane foams.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei-Yang; Neilsen, Michael K.; Hinnerichs, Terry Dean; Scheffel, Simon; Jin, Huiqing

    2006-02-01

    The foam material of interest in this investigation is a rigid closed-cell polyurethane foam PMDI with a nominal density of 20 pcf (320 kg/m{sup 3}). Three separate types of compression experiments were conducted on foam specimens. The heterogeneous deformation of foam specimens and strain concentration at the foam-steel interface were obtained using the 3-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) technique. These experiments demonstrated that the 3D-DIC technique is able to obtain accurate and full-field large deformation of foam specimens, including strain concentrations. The experiments also showed the effects of loading configurations on deformation and strain concentration in foam specimens. These DIC results provided experimental data to validate the previously developed viscoplastic foam model (VFM). In the first experiment, cubic foam specimens were compressed uniaxially up to 60%. The full-field surface displacement and strain distributions obtained using the 3D-DIC technique provided detailed information about the inhomogeneous deformation over the area of interest during compression. In the second experiment, compression tests were conducted for cubic foam specimens with a steel cylinder inclusion, which imitate the deformation of foam components in a package under crush conditions. The strain concentration at the interface between the steel cylinder and the foam specimen was studied in detail. In the third experiment, the foam specimens were loaded by a steel cylinder passing through the center of the specimens rather than from its end surface, which created a loading condition of the foam components similar to a package that has been dropped. To study the effects of confinement, the strain concentration and displacement distribution over the defined sections were compared for cases with and without a confinement fixture.

  18. Bio-based polyurethane foams from renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanzione, M.; Russo, V.; Sorrentino, A.; Tesser, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Oliviero, M.; Di Serio, M.; Iannace, S.; Verdolotti, L.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, bio-derived natural materials, such as vegetable oils, polysaccharides and biomass represent a rich source of hydroxyl precursors for the synthesis of polyols which can be potentially used to synthesize "greener" polyurethane foams. Herein a bio-based precursor (obtained from succinic acid) was used as a partial replacement of conventional polyol to synthesize PU foams. A mixture of conventional and bio-based polyol in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Experimental results highlighted the suitability of this bio-precursor to be used in the production of flexible PU foams. Furthermore the chemo-physical characterization of the resulting foams show an interesting improvement in thermal stability and elastic modulus with respect to the PU foams produced with conventional polyol.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line...

  1. Laboratory evaluation of polyurethane foam for geothermal lost-circulation plugging

    SciTech Connect

    Tschoepe, E. III

    1982-04-01

    To evaluate polyurethane foam formulations for use in plugging hot (such as geothermal) formations when lost circulation is encountered during drilling, laboratory tests of three foams were performed. Foams were mixed at high temperature (up to 300/sup 0/F) and high pressure (up to 900 psig); the mechanical and fluid loss properties of the foams were subsequently determined. The results show that polyurethane foams can be mixed at downhole conditions and yield acceptable plugging properties.

  2. Cellulose based hybrid hydroxylated adducts for polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pisapia, Laura; Verdolotti, Letizia; Di Mauro, Eduardo; Di Maio, Ernesto; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid flexible polyurethane foams (HPU) were synthesized by using a hybrid hydroxilated adduct (HHA) based on renewable resources. In particular the HHA was obtained by dispersing cellulose wastes in colloidal silica at room temperature, pressure and humidity. The colloidal silica was selected for its ability of modifying the cellulose structure, by inducing a certain "destructurization" of the crystalline phase, in order to allow cellulose to react with di-isocyanate for the final synthesis of the polyurethane foam. In fact, cellulose-polysilicate complexes are engaged in the reaction with the isocyanate groups. This study provides evidence of the effects of the colloidal silica on the cellulose structure, namely, a reduction of the microfiber cellulose diameter and the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polysilicate functional groups and the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose, as assessed by IR spectroscopy and solid state NMR. The HHA was added to a conventional polyol in different percentages (between 5 and 20%) to synthesize HPU in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The mixture was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Thermal analysis, optical microscopy and mechanical tests were performed on the foams. The results highlighted an improvement of thermal stability and a decrease of the cell size with respect neat polyurethane foam. Mechanical tests showed an improvement of the elastic modulus and of the damping properties with increasing HHA amount.

  3. Recovery of flexible polyurethane foam from shredder residue.

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E. J.; Jody, b. J.

    1999-06-29

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a patented, continuous process for the recovery of flexible polyurethane foam (PUF) from auto shredder residue (ASR). To test the process, Argonne researchers conceived of, designed, and built a continuous foam washing and drying system that was pilot-tested at a shredder facility for six months. Economic analysis of the process, using manufacturers' quotes and operating data from Argonne's pilot plant, indicates a payback of less than two years for a plant producing about 1,000 ton/yr of foam. Samples of clean foam were shipped to three major foam reprocessors; all three indicated that the quality of the PUF recovered by the Argonne process met their requirements. Tests of the recovered foam by an independent testing laboratory showed that the recycled foam met the specifications for several automotive applications, including carpet padding, headliner, and sound-suppression support materials. Recovery of foam reduces the mass and the volume of material going to the landfill by about 5% and 30%, respectively. Annually, recovery will save about 1.2 x 10{sup 12} Btu of energy, cut the amount of solid waste being landfilled by about 150,000 tons, and eliminate the emission of about 250 tons of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the air.

  4. Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of a polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Goods, S.H.; Neuschwanger, C.L.; Henderson, C.; Skala, D.M.

    1997-03-01

    Tension, compression and impact properties of a polyurethane encapsulant foam have been measured as a function of foam density. Significant differences in the behavior of the foam were observed depending on the mode of testing. Over the range of densities examined, both the modulus and the elastic collapse stress of the foam exhibited power-law dependencies with respect to density. The power-law relationship for the modulus was the same for both tension and compression testing and is explained in terms of the elastic compliance of the cellular structure of the foam using a simple geometric model. Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence of the collapse stress. Neither tension nor compression testing yielded realistic measurements of energy absorption (toughness). In the former case, the energy absorption characteristics of the foam were severely limited due to the inherent lack of tensile ductility. In the latter case, the absence of a failure mechanism led to arbitrary measures of energy absorption that were not indicative of true material properties. Only impact testing revealed an intrinsic limitation in the toughness characteristics of the material with respect to foam density. The results suggest that dynamic testing should be used when assessing the shock mitigating qualities of a foam.

  5. Fire and ecotoxicological aspects of polyurethane rigid foam.

    PubMed

    Wittbecker, F W; Giersig, M

    2001-01-01

    The main characteristics of fire effluents from polyurethane (PUR) foams are comparable to those from natural materials like wood, cork, or wool. This similarity has been demonstrated by comparative data from analytical and toxicological studies. It is therefore presumed that effluents of these materials present similar hazards to human beings and the environment. In almost all fires, dioxins can be found in the smoke and residues. In fires involving PURs, relevant quantities of halogenated dioxins or furans are not to be expected; this has been confirmed by investigations under controlled laboratory conditions. The insulation properties of rigid PUR foam contribute significantly to environmental protection and the conservation of resources. A number of methods for reusing and recycling PUR rigid foam waste have been developed and realized in practise. The possibilities range from reusing the material itself, generating liquid raw materials, and thermal recycling, even for (H)CFC-containing PUR rigid foams, by cocombustion in suitable plants. PMID:11370381

  6. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  7. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  8. Preparation of linear hydroxy substituted polyphosphazenes. [flame retardant polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The synthesis of partially hydroxy-substituted phosphazene prepolymers amenable to processing into cellular, flexible polyurethane foams was investigated. Factors determined include (1) the environment of the hydroxyl group; (2) the ease of the hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene polymerization; (3) the nature of the nonreactive substituents; and (4) the mode of introduction of the hydroxyl entity. The specific approaches taken, the rationale of the selections made, and the results are discussed.

  9. Water as foaming agent for open cell polyurethane structures.

    PubMed

    Haugen, H; Ried, V; Brunner, M; Will, J; Wintermantel, E

    2004-04-01

    The problem of moisture in polymer processing is known to any polymer engineer, as air bubbles may be formed. Hence granulates are generally dried prior to manufacturing. This study tried to develop a novel processing methods for scaffolds with controlled moisture content in thermoplastic polyurethane. The common foaming agents for polyurethane are organic solvents, whose residues remaining in the scaffold may be harmful to adherent cells, protein growth factors or nearby tissues. Water was used as a foaming agent and NaCl was used as porogens to achieve an open-cell structure. The polyether-polyurethane samples were processed in a heated press, and achieved a porosity of 64%. The pore size ranged between 50 and 500 microm. Human fibroblasts adhered and proliferate in the scaffold. A non-toxic production process was developed to manufacture a porous structure with a thermoplastic polyether-polyurethane. The process enables a mass-production of samples with adjustable pore size and porosity. In contrast to an existing method (solvent casting), the processing of the samples was not limited by its thickness. The process parameters, which attribute mostly to the pore building, were filling volume, temperature, NaCl-concentration and water-uptake rate. PMID:15332597

  10. Structure-property relationships of flexible polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, Ashish

    This study examined several features of flexible polyurethane foams from a structure-property perspective. A major part of this dissertation addresses the issue of connectivity of the urea phase and its influence on mechanical and viscoelastic properties of flexible polyurethane foams and their plaque counterparts. Lithium salts (LiCl and LiBr) were used as additives to systematically alter the phase separation behavior, and hence the connectivity of the urea phase at different scale lengths. Macro connectivity, or the association of the large scale urea rich aggregates typically observed in flexible polyurethane foams was assessed using SAXS, TEM, and AFM. These techniques showed that including a lithium salt in the foam formulation suppressed the formation of the urea aggregates and thus led to a loss in the macro level connectivity of the urea phase. WAXS and FTIR were used to demonstrate that addition of LiCl or LiBr systematically disrupted the local ordering of the hard segments within the microdomains, i.e., it led to a reduction of micro level connectivity or the regularity in segmental packing of the urea phase. Based on these observations, the interaction of the lithium salt was thought to predominantly occur with the urea hard segments, and this hypothesis was confirmed using quantum mechanical calculations. Another feature of this research investigated model trisegmented polyurethanes based on monofunctional polyols, or "monos", with water-extended toluene diisocyanate (TDI) based hard segments. The formulations of the monol materials were maintained similar to those of flexible polyurethane foams with the exceptions that the conventional polyol was substituted by an oligomeric monofunctional polyether of ca. 1000 g/mol molecular weight. Plaques formed from these model systems were shown to be solid materials even at their relatively low molecular weights of 3000 g/mol and less, AFM phase images, for the first time, revealed the ability of the hard

  11. Effect of foam age on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyurethane flexible foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Murphy, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from some samples of polyurethane flexible foams appears to have decreased with age, while other samples seem to exhibit no significant change with age in this respect. The changes observed were greater than could be accounted for by variations in the material, or test variations or artifacts.

  12. Immobilized catalase on CoFoam hydrophilic polyurethane composite.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Como, Karin

    2006-02-01

    Catalase from bovine liver was covalently immobilized on hydrophilic polyurethane composite (CoFoam). The activity of the enzyme was assayed in the decomposition of H2O2 at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C. The effects of water-to-prepolymer ratio, the addition of a crosslinking agent, and the utilization of a spacer on enzyme activity were examined. The results of immobilization of the enzyme in a large-scale unit are reported. The advantage of the CoFoam composite lies in the low drop in pressure in a packed-bed reactor at fairly large flow rates. For example, at flow rates of 10-12 L/min, the drop in pressure is typically 3 kPa. Enzymes immobilized on CoFoam represent a novel use as catalysts in packed-bed reactors owing to the low drop in pressure. PMID:16484719

  13. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA storage vessels. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of a new or...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA storage vessels. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA equipment leaks. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA emissions from the production line. (a) Each owner...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of a new or...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—source-wide emission limitation. Each owner or operator of a new or existing...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—source-wide emission limitation. Each owner or operator of a new or existing...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA emissions from the production line. (a) Each owner...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam... procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section, unless a recovery device is used. Slabstock...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1299 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam... procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section, unless a recovery device is used. Slabstock...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1298 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. Each owner or operator of...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production—HAP ABA equipment leaks. Each owner or operator of a new or existing slabstock...

  7. Glycolysis recycling of rigid waste polyurethane foam from refrigerators.

    PubMed

    Zhu, P; Cao, Z B; Chen, Y; Zhang, X J; Qian, G R; Chu, Y L; Zhou, M

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth of rigid waste polyurethane (WPUR) foam from refrigerators attracts the attention all over the world. In this study, glycolysis was chosen to treat WPUR from scrapped refrigerators collected in Shanghai, China. Glycolysis reagents and catalysts were selected. The results indicated that the glycolysis efficiency of ethylene glycol (EG) was higher than that of diethylene glycol, and the catalytic efficiency of alkali metal salts (NaOH) was more excellent than that of triethanolamine and organic salts of alkali metal (NaAc). When EG was 100%WPUR as a glycolysis reagent and NaOH was 1%WPUR as a catalyst at a constant temperature of 197.85°C for 2 h, the glycolysis product had the highest glycolysis conversion rate. In order to maximize the recycling of WPUR, regenerative Polyurethane was performed by adding 10% distilled mixed polyol, which conformed to the QB/T 26689-2011 requirements. PMID:25176301

  8. Synergization of silicone with developed crosslinking to soy-based polyurethane foam matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvistia Firdaus, Flora

    2014-06-01

    Flexible polyurethane foam obtained from reaction of soybased polyol with TDI:MDI (80:20), and surfactant. The goal of this research is to determine the synergization effect of silicone with low molecular alcohols; methanol and ethylene glycol (EG) in soy-polyurethane formula on holding moisture of foams to density, foam solutions capacity, and cellular morphology. The optimized of polyol was achieved by ratio of epoxide/methanol 1:6 (mol/mol), and epoxide/EG 1:3 (mol/mol). It was found silicone surfactant can minimize solution absorbency in polyurethane foam matrix.

  9. TG-FTIR characterization of flame retardant polyurethane foams materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Tang, Y.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and trichloroethyl phosphtate (TCEP) have been used to enhance the flame retardancy of polyurethane foams materials (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the excellent flame retardancy can be achieved due to the presence of the flame retardant system containing DMMP and TCEP. TG-FTIR reveals that the addition of DMMP/TCEP can not only improve the thermal stability of PUF samples but can also affect the gaseous phase at high temperature.

  10. Effect of silica nanoparticles on polyurethane foaming process and foam properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, A. B.; Navarro Bañón, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    Flexible polyurethane foams (FPUF) are commonly used as cushioning material in upholstered products made on several industrial sectors: furniture, automotive seating, bedding, etc. Polyurethane is a high molecular weight polymer based on the reaction between a hydroxyl group (polyol) and isocyanate. The density, flowability, compressive, tensile or shearing strength, the thermal and dimensional stability, combustibility, and other properties can be adjusted by the addition of several additives. Nanomaterials offer a wide range of possibilities to obtain nanocomposites with specific properties. The combination of FPUF with silica nanoparticles could develop nanocomposite materials with unique properties: improved mechanical and thermal properties, gas permeability, and fire retardancy. However, as silica particles are at least partially surface-terminated with Si-OH groups, it was suspected that the silica could interfere in the reaction of poyurethane formation.The objective of this study was to investigate the enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of FPUF by the incorporation of different types of silica and determining the influence thereof during the foaming process. Flexible polyurethane foams with different loading mass fraction of silica nanoparticles (0-1% wt) and different types of silica (non treated and modified silica) were synthesized. PU/SiO2 nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, TGA, and measurements of apparent density, resilience and determination of compression set. Addition of silica nanoparticles influences negatively in the density and compression set of the foams. However, resilience and thermal stability of the foams are improved. Silica nanoparticles do not affect to the chemical structure of the foams although they interfere in the blowing reaction.

  11. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Influence of carbon nanotubes on mechanical properties and structure of rigid polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciecierska, E.; Jurczyk-Kowalska, M.; Bazarnik, P.; Kulesza, M.; Lewandowska, M.; Kowalski, M.; Krauze, S.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the influence of carbon nanotubes addition on foam structure and mechanical properties of rigid polyurethane foam/nanotube composites was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to reveal the foam porous structure and distribution of carbon nanotubes. To determine the mechanical properties, three point bending tests were carried out.

  13. APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

    2007-05-15

    Polyurethane foam has been widely used as an impact absorbing and thermal insulating material for large radioactive materials packages, since the 1980's. With the adoption of the regulatory crush test requirement, for smaller packages, polyurethane foam has been adopted as a replacement for cane fiberboard, because of its ability to withstand the crush test. Polyurethane foam is an engineered material whose composition is much more closely controlled than that of cane fiberboard. In addition, the properties of the foam can be controlled by controlling the density of the foam. The conditions under which the foam is formed, whether confined or unconfined have an affect on foam properties. The study reported here reviewed the application of polyurethane foam in RAM packagings and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

  14. Sorption of Ponceau 4R anionic dye from aqueous solutions on aluminum oxide and polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, T. I.; Ramazanova, G. R.; Apyari, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    The sorption of Ponceau 4R (E-124) anionic dye on polyurethane foam based on ethers and γ-Al2O3 from aqueous solutions is studied. It is established that sorption is highest in the range of 0.5 M HCl, pH 2 on polyurethane foam and 0.2 M HCl, pH 6.5 on γ-Al2O3. Under optimum conditions, the degrees of recovery on polyurethane foam and γ-Al2O3 are 20-30 and 70-85%, respectively. A possible scheme of interactions between the dye and the surfaces of sorbents is proposed.

  15. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams.

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150 o C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  16. SPUF - a simple polyurethane foam mass loss and response model.

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.; Lemmon, Gordon H.

    2003-07-01

    A Simple PolyUrethane Foam (SPUF) mass loss and response model has been developed to predict the behavior of unconfined, rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam-filled systems exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. The model, developed for the B61 and W80-0/1 fireset foam, is based on a simple two-step mass loss mechanism using distributed reaction rates. The initial reaction step assumes that the foam degrades into a primary gas and a reactive solid. The reactive solid subsequently degrades into a secondary gas. The SPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE [1] and CALORE [2], which support chemical kinetics and dynamic enclosure radiation using 'element death.' A discretization bias correction model was parameterized using elements with characteristic lengths ranging from 1-mm to 1-cm. Bias corrected solutions using the SPUF response model with large elements gave essentially the same results as grid independent solutions using 100-{micro}m elements. The SPUF discretization bias correction model can be used with 2D regular quadrilateral elements, 2D paved quadrilateral elements, 2D triangular elements, 3D regular hexahedral elements, 3D paved hexahedral elements, and 3D tetrahedron elements. Various effects to efficiently recalculate view factors were studied -- the element aspect ratio, the element death criterion, and a 'zombie' criterion. Most of the solutions using irregular, large elements were in agreement with the 100-{micro}m grid-independent solutions. The discretization bias correction model did not perform as well when the element aspect ratio exceeded 5:1 and the heated surface was on the shorter side of the element. For validation, SPUF predictions using various sizes and types of elements were compared to component-scale experiments of foam cylinders that were heated with lamps. The SPUF predictions of the decomposition front locations were compared to the front locations determined from real-time X

  17. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1295 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1296 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane...

  1. Self inflicted death following inhalation and ingestion of Builders Polyurethane expandable foam.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D R; Musa, M

    2010-11-01

    Builders Polyurethane (PU) expandable foam is a product used to fill voids and provide insulation in the building industry. It is easily available from DIY and hardware stores. Other uses include pest control. It can produce fumes, while curing, which can be toxic to humans, or induce asthma and there are reports of polyurethane foam being combustible unless a fire retardant is incorporated. Death due to can explosion when heated has occurred. A literature review revealed one definite case of attempted suicide, one possible attempt by ingestion of Builders PU expandable foam and one accidental non fatal injection of such foam into the lower urinary tract. There is one report of accidental non fatal inhalation of foam. To our knowledge this is the first case of fatal inhalation and ingestion of Builders Polyurethane expandable foam. PMID:21056881

  2. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

  3. Thermal conductivity of weathered polyurethane foam roofing. Final report Jan 71-Nov 81

    SciTech Connect

    Zarate, D.A.; Alumbaugh, R.L.

    1982-09-01

    An investigation of the decay in the thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam (PUF) with time is presented. The polyurethane foams studied included samples removed from sprayed PUF roofing systems on structures at Guam, Marianas Islands; Subic Bay, Republic of the Phillipines; Denver, Colorado; Clifton, New Jersey; and Port Hueneme, California. Thermal conductivity results closely agree with those predicted for a foam aged at 25 C in a controlled atmosphere. Results also indicate that the foam can provide good insulation characteristics in spite of poor application.

  4. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some polyurethane and polychloroprene foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Slattengren, C. L.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Results of toxicity screening tests on some polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams are presented. The test method involves the exposure of four Swiss albino male mice in a 4.2-liter hemispherical chamber to the pyrolysis effluents from 1 g of sample exposed to temperatures rising from 200 to 800 C at a rate of 40 C/min. Mortality and times to incapacitation and to death are recorded. Comparisons indicate that flexible polyurethane foams without fire retardant are more toxic than the corresponding foams containing fire retardant, and polychloroprene foams are least toxic.

  5. Development of test systems for characterizing emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures to diisocyanates, amines, flame retardants (FRs), blowing agents, aldehydes and other organic compounds that may be emitted from SPFI is not well understood. EPA is de...

  6. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW REPORT: CFC-11 EMISSIONS FROM FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM MANUFACTURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an engineering evaluation of technical options to reduce chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from flexible slabstock and molded polyurethane foam manufacturing plants. Among the technical options studied were recovery and recycle of CFC-11, alternative ...

  7. Prompt radiation-induced conductivity in polyurethane foam and glass microballoons

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2014-06-01

    We performed measurements and analyses of the prompt radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of polyurethane foam and glass microballoon foam at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. The RIC coefficient was non-linear with dose rate for polyurethane foam; however, typical values at 1E11 rad(si)/s dose rate was measured as 0.8E-11 mho/m/rad/s for 5 lb./cu ft. foam and 0.3E-11 mho/m/rad/s for 10 lb./cu ft. density polyurethane foam. For encapsulated glass microballoons (GMB) the RIC coefficient was approximately 1E-15 mho/m/rad/s and was not a strong function of dose rate.

  8. Detection of halogenated flame retardants in polyurethane foam by particle induced X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, Adam M.; Falk, Kyle A.; Hoover, Luke; Earlywine, Elly B.; Seymour, Michael D.; DeYoung, Paul A.; Blum, Arlene; Stapleton, Heather M.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2015-09-01

    A novel application of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been developed to detect the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardant chemicals in polyurethane foams. Traditional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) methods for the detection and identification of halogenated flame retardants in foams require extensive sample preparation and data acquisition time. The elemental analysis of the halogens in polyurethane foam performed by PIXE offers the opportunity to identify the presence of halogenated flame retardants in a fraction of the time and sample preparation cost. Through comparative GC-MS and PIXE analysis of 215 foam samples, excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained. These results suggest that PIXE could be an ideal rapid screening method for the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in polyurethane foams.

  9. Biodegradable, thermoplastic polyurethane grafts for small diameter vascular replacements.

    PubMed

    Bergmeister, Helga; Seyidova, Nargiz; Schreiber, Catharina; Strobl, Magdalena; Grasl, Christian; Walter, Ingrid; Messner, Barbara; Baudis, Stefan; Fröhlich, Sophie; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Griesser, Markus; di Franco, Matt; Krssak, Martin; Liska, Robert; Schima, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable vascular grafts with sufficient in vivo performance would be more advantageous than permanent non-degradable prostheses. These constructs would be continuously replaced by host tissue, leading to an endogenous functional implant which would adapt to the need of the patient and exhibit only limited risk of microbiological graft contamination. Adequate biomechanical strength and a wall structure which promotes rapid host remodeling are prerequisites for biodegradable approaches. Current approaches often reveal limited tensile strength and therefore require thicker or reinforced graft walls. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of thin host-vessel-matched grafts (n=34) formed from hard-block biodegradable thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) conduits (n=34) served as control grafts. Grafts were analyzed by various techniques after retrieval at different time points (1 week; 1, 6, 12 months). TPU grafts showed significantly increased endothelial cell proliferation in vitro (P<0.001). Population by host cells increased significantly in the TPU conduits within 1 month of implantation (P=0.01). After long-term implantation, TPU implants showed 100% patency (ePTFE: 93%) with no signs of aneurysmal dilatation. Substantial remodeling of the degradable grafts was observed but varied between subjects. Intimal hyperplasia was limited to ePTFE conduits (29%). Thin-walled TPU grafts offer a new and desirable form of biodegradable vascular implant. Degradable grafts showed equivalent long-term performance characteristics compared to the clinically used, non-degradable material with improvements in intimal hyperplasia and ingrowth of host cells. PMID:25218664

  10. POLYURETHANE FOAM AS TRAPPING AGENT FOR AIRBORNE PESTICIDES: ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for determining levels of organochlorine, organophosphorus, and N-methyl carbamate insecticides in air was developed using 4.4 cm-diameter plugs of polyurethane foam as traps and a modified Sherma-Shafik multiresidue procedure for analysis of foam extracts. With this met...

  11. Improving the mechanical performance of wood fiber reinforced bio-based polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li-Chi

    Because of the environmental impact of fossil fuel consumption, soybean-based polyurethane (PU) foam has been developed as an alternative to be used as the core in structural insulated panels (SIPs). Wood fibers can be added to enhance the resistance of foam against bending and buckling in compression. The goal of this work is to study the effect of three modifications: fiber surface treatment, catalyst choice, and mixing method on the compression performance of wood fiber-reinforced PU foam. Foams were made with a free-rising process. The compression performance of the foams was measured and the foams were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (CT). The foam reinforced with alkali-treated fibers had improved compression performance. The foams made with various catalysts shared similar performance. The foam made using a mechanical stirrer contained well-dispersed fibers but the reinforcing capability of the fibers was reduced.

  12. Active Debris Removal System Based on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzitelli, Federico; Valdatta, Marcelo; Bellini, Niccolo; Candini Gian, Paolo; Rastelli, Davide; Romei, Fedrico; Locarini, Alfredo; Spadanuda, Antonio; Bagassi, Sara

    2013-08-01

    Space debris is an increasing problem. The exponential increase of satellite launches in the last 50 years has determined the problem of space debris especially in LEO. The remains of past missions are dangerous for both operative satellites and human activity in space. But not only: it has been shown that uncontrolled impacts between space objects can lead to a potentially dangerous situation for civil people on Earth. It is possible to reach a situation of instability where the big amount of debris could cause a cascade of collisions, the so called Kessler syndrome, resulting in the infeasibility of new space missions for many generations. Currently new technologies for the mitigation of space debris are under study: for what concerning the removal of debris the use of laser to give a little impulse to the object and push it in a graveyard orbit or to be destroyed in the atmosphere. Another solution is the use of a satellite to rendezvous with the space junk and then use a net to capture it and destroy it in the reentry phase. In a parallel way the research is addressed to the study of deorbiting solutions to prevent the formation of new space junk. The project presented in this paper faces the problem of how to deorbit an existing debris, applying the studies about the use of polyurethane foam developed by Space Robotic Group of University of Bologna. The research is started with the Redemption experiment part of last ESA Rexus program. The foam is composed by two liquid components that, once properly mixed, trig an expansive reaction leading to an increase of volume whose entity depends on the chemical composition of the two starting components. It is possible to perform two kind of mission: 1) Not controlled removal: the two components are designed to react producing a low density, high expanded, spongy foam that incorporates the debris. The A/m ratio of the debris is increased and in this way also the ballistic parameter. As a consequence, the effect of

  13. APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR GENERAL PURPOSE RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

    2009-02-18

    Polyurethane foam has been employed in impact limiters for large radioactive materials packagings since the early 1980's. Its consistent crush response, controllable structural properties and excellent thermal insulating characteristics have made it attractive as replacement for the widely used cane fiberboard for smaller, drum size packagings. Accordingly, polyurethane foam was chosen for the overpack material for the 9977 and 9978 packagings. The study reported here was undertaken to provide data to support the analyses performed as part of the development of the 9977 and 9978, and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

  14. CPUF - a chemical-structure-based polyurethane foam decomposition and foam response model.

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Thomas H. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Thompson, Kyle Richard; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Dowding, Kevin J.; Clayton, Daniel (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Chu, Tze Yao; Hobbs, Michael L.; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-07-01

    A Chemical-structure-based PolyUrethane Foam (CPUF) decomposition model has been developed to predict the fire-induced response of rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foam-filled systems. The model, developed for the B-61 and W-80 fireset foam, is based on a cascade of bondbreaking reactions that produce CO2. Percolation theory is used to dynamically quantify polymer fragment populations of the thermally degrading foam. The partition between condensed-phase polymer fragments and gas-phase polymer fragments (i.e. vapor-liquid split) was determined using a vapor-liquid equilibrium model. The CPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE and CALORE, which support chemical kinetics and enclosure radiation. Elements were removed from the computational domain when the calculated solid mass fractions within the individual finite element decrease below a set criterion. Element removal, referred to as ?element death,? creates a radiation enclosure (assumed to be non-participating) as well as a decomposition front, which separates the condensed-phase encapsulant from the gas-filled enclosure. All of the chemistry parameters as well as thermophysical properties for the CPUF model were obtained from small-scale laboratory experiments. The CPUF model was evaluated by comparing predictions to measurements. The validation experiments included several thermogravimetric experiments at pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 30 bars. Larger, component-scale experiments were also used to validate the foam response model. The effects of heat flux, bulk density, orientation, embedded components, confinement and pressure were measured and compared to model predictions. Uncertainties in the model results were evaluated using a mean value approach. The measured mass loss in the TGA experiments and the measured location of the decomposition front were within the 95% prediction limit determined using the CPUF model for all of the

  15. Covalent binding of a nerve agent hydrolyzing enzyme within polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, K E; Russell, A J

    1996-08-20

    A phosphotriesterase preparation, extracted from Escherichia coli DH5alpha cells, was immobilized within a polyurethane foam matrix during polymer synthesis. The enzyme-foam interaction was shown to be covalent and analysis of the hydrolysis of paraoxon in aqueous solution demonstrated that more than 50% of the initial enzyme specific activity was retained after immobilization in the foam. Factors affecting the rate of paraoxon degradation include foam hydrophobicity, the degree of mixing applied to initiate polymerization, and foam pretreatment prior to use in substrate hydrolysis. The storage stability of the foam is significant, with phosphotriesterase-foam activity profiles exhibiting a three month half-life. Foams are currently being developed for biocatalytic air filtering, in which gaseous substrates will be simultaneously adsorbed and degraded by the immobilized enzyme system. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18629797

  16. Polyurethane Foam-Based Ultramicroporous Carbons for CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chao; Song, Jian; Qin, Zhangfeng; Wang, Jianguo; Fan, Weibin

    2016-07-27

    A series of sustainable porous carbon materials were prepared from waste polyurethane foam and investigated for capture of CO2. The effects of preparation conditions, such as precarbonization, KOH to carbon precursor weight ratio, and activation temperature, on the porous structure and CO2 adsorption properties were studied for the purpose of controlling pore sizes and nitrogen content and developing high-performance materials for capture of CO2. The sample prepared at optimum conditions shows CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.67 and 4.33 mmol·g(-1) at 0 and 25 °C under 1 bar, respectively, which are comparable to those of the best reported porous carbons prepared from waste materials. The HCl treatment experiment reveals that about 80% of CO2 adsorption capacity arises from physical adsorption, while the other 20% is due to the chemical adsorption originated from the interaction of basic N groups and CO2 molecules. The relationship between CO2 uptake and pore size at different temperatures indicates that the micropores with pore size smaller than 0.86 and 0.70 nm play a dominant role in the CO2 adsorption at 0 and 25 °C, respectively. It was found that the obtained carbon materials exhibited high recyclability and high selectivity to adsorption of CO2 from the CO2 and N2 mixture. PMID:27376177

  17. Use of polyurethane foam deformation sensor to record respiratory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredov, V. I.; Baranov, V. S.

    1980-05-01

    The sensor developed has some substantial advantages over other known types. It is highly sensitive over a wide range of strain loads. The level of the output signal is linearly related to the force exerted on it, and it is sufficient for direct recording without using amplifiers of electric signals. The sensor is based on elastic, spongy material, polyurethane foam (porolon) with current-conducting material on the pore surface, current-conducting carbon black or electrode paste. The elastic properties of the sensor are built in the actual base of the strain-sensitive element, which simplifies the construction substantially and increases the reliability of the unit. In order to test the possibility of using this sensor to examine respiratory function, human pneumograms were recorded with the subject in a calm state along with the respiratory activity of experimental animals (dogs). Samples of the respiratory curve are shown. The simplicity of design of the sensor makes it possible to use it in various physiological experiments.

  18. Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers for monitoring phenanthrene in stormwater.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yueqin; Zhang, Tian C; Zeng, Jing; Stansbury, John; Moussavi, Massoum; Richter-Egger, Dana L; Klein, Mitchell R

    2016-04-01

    Pollution from highway stormwater runoff has been an increasing area of concern. Many structural Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been implemented for stormwater treatment and management. One challenge for these BMPs is to sample stormwater and monitor BMP performance. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers (PSs) for sampling phenanthrene (PHE) in highway stormwater runoff and BMPs. Tests were conducted using batch reactors, glass-tube columns, and laboratory-scale BMPs (bioretention cells). Results indicate that sorption for PHE by PUF is mainly linearly relative to time, and the high sorption capacity allows the PUF passive sampler to monitor stormwater events for months or years. The PUF passive samplers could be embedded in BMPs for monitoring influent and effluent PHE concentrations. Models developed to link the results of batch and column tests proved to be useful for determining removal or sorption parameters and performance of the PUF-PSs. The predicted removal efficiencies of BMPs were close to the real values obtained from the control columns with errors ranging between -8.46 and 1.52%. This research showed that it is possible to use PUF passive samplers for sampling stormwater and monitoring the performance of stormwater BMPs, which warrants the field-scale feasibility studies in the future. PMID:26942631

  19. Comparisons of Anterior Plate Screw Pullout Strength Between Polyurethane Foams and Thoracolumbar Cadaveric Vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Palepu, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic polyurethane foams are frequently used in biomechanical testing of spinal medical devices. However, it is unclear what types of foam are most representative of human vertebral trabecular bone behavior, particularly for testing the bone-implant interface. Therefore, a study was conducted to compare polyurethane foam microstructure and screw pullout properties to human vertebrae. Cadaveric thoracolumbar vertebrae underwent microcomputed tomography to assess trabecular bone microstructure. Spine plate screws were implanted into the vertebral body and pullout testing was performed. The same procedure was followed for eight different densities (grades 5-30) of commercially available closed cell (CCF) and open cell foams (OCF). The results indicated that foam microstructural parameters such as volume fraction, strut thickness, strut spacing, and material density rarely matched that of trabecular bone. However, certain foams provided mechanical properties that were comparable to the cadavers tested. Pullout force and work to pullout for screws implanted into CCF grade 5 were similar to osteoporotic female cadavers. In addition, screw pullout forces and work to pullout in CCF grade 8, grade 10, and OCF grade 30 were similar to osteopenic male cadavers. All other OCF and CCF foams possessed pullout properties that were either significantly lower or higher than the cadavers tested. This study elucidated the types and densities of polyurethane foams that can represent screw pullout strength in human vertebral bone. Synthetic bone surrogates used for biomechanical testing should be selected based on bone quantity and quality of patients who may undergo device implantation. PMID:27536905

  20. The effect of moisture absorption on the physical properties of polyurethane shape memory polymer foams

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ya-Jen; Hearon, Keith; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams for use in blood contacting environments, we have investigated the effects of moisture exposure on the physical properties of polyurethane foams. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effects of moisture absorption at varying humidity levels (non-immersion and immersion) on the physical properties of polyurethane SMP foams. The SMP foams were exposed to differing humidity levels for varying lengths of time, and they exhibited a maximum water uptake of 8.0% (by mass) after exposure to 100% relative humidity for 96 h. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated that water absorption significantly decreased the Tg of the foam, with a maximum water uptake shifting the Tg from 67 °C to 5 °C. Samples that were immersed in water for 96 h and immediately subjected to tensile testing exhibited 100% increases in failure strains and 500% decreases in failure stresses; however, in all cases of time and humidity exposure, the plasticization effect was reversible upon placing moisture-saturated samples in 40% humidity environments for 24 h. PMID:21949469

  1. The effect of moisture absorption on the physical properties of polyurethane shape memory polymer foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ya-Jen; Hearon, Keith; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams for use in blood-contacting environments, we have investigated the effects of moisture exposure on the physical properties of polyurethane foams. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effects of moisture absorption at varying humidity levels (non-immersion and immersion) on the physical properties of polyurethane SMP foams. The SMP foams were exposed to differing humidity levels for varying lengths of time, and they exhibited a maximum water uptake of 8.0% (by mass) after exposure to 100% relative humidity for 96 h. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated that water absorption significantly decreased the Tg of the foam, with a maximum water uptake shifting the Tg from 67 to 5 °C. Samples that were immersed in water for 96 h and immediately subjected to tensile testing exhibited 100% increases in failure strains and 500% decreases in failure stresses; however, in all cases of time and humidity exposure, the plasticization effect was reversible upon placing moisture-saturated samples in 40% humidity environments for 24 h.

  2. Atmospheric Pressure Liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains (DDG and Making Polyurethane Foams from Liquefied DDG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Le, Zhiping; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang; Ruan, Roger

    In this study, dried distillers grains (DDG) was liquefied in acidic conditions at atmospheric pressure, and polyurethane foams were subsequently prepared from the liquefied DDG. Liquefaction was examined over a range of conditions including liquefaction time of 1-3 h, temperature of 150-170 °C, sulfuric acid (as catalyst) concentration of 1.0-3.0 wt%, and liquefaction solvent (ethylene carbonate) to DDG ratio of 3:1-5:1. The bio-polyols in the liquefied DDG were rich in hydroxyl groups, which can react with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) to form cross-linked polyurethane networks. The biodegradability of the prepared polyurethane foams was also evaluated. This study strives to broaden the application of DDG as a feedstock for bio-polyurethane preparation.

  3. Measurement of the responses of polyurethane and CONFOR(TM) foams and the development of a system identification technique to estimate polyurethane foam parameters from experimental impulse responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Vaidyanadan

    Flexible polyurethane foam is the main cushioning element used in car seats. Optimization of an occupied seat's static and dynamic behavior requires models of foam that are accurate over a wide range of excitation and pre-compression conditions. Experiments were conducted to measure the response of foam over a wide range of excitation which include slowly varying uniaxial compression tests on a 3 inch cube foam sample, base excitation and impulse excitation test on a foam-mass system. The foam used was the same in all of the experiments, thus obtaining all the responses on the same foam sample which helps eliminate the sample to sample variation. Similar efforts were taken to conduct impulse and base excitation tests on CONFOR(TM) foam to help in future modeling efforts of CONFOR(TM) foam. All the experimental protocols and data pre-processing protocols along with results are presented. Previous researcher developed a linear model for a single-degree of freedom foam-mass system subjected to an impulsive excitation. Free response data from impulse tests on a foam-mass system with different masses was used to identify model parameters at various pre-compression levels (settling points). The free response of the system was modeled as a Prony series (sum of exponentials) whose parameters can be related to the parameters in the foam-mass system model. Models identified from tests at one settling point performed poorly when used to predict the response at other settling points. In this research, a method is described to estimate the parameters of a global model of the foam behavior from data gathered in a series of impulse tests at different settling points. The global model structure includes a nonlinear elastic term and a hereditary viscoelastic term. The model can be used to predict the settling point for each mass used and, by expanding the model about that settling point, local linear models of the response to impulsive excitation can be derived. From this analysis

  4. Parameters estimation of sandwich beam model with rigid polyurethane foam core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Nilson; Barbieri, Renato; Winikes, Luiz Carlos

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the physical parameters of sandwich beams made with the association of hot-rolled steel, Polyurethane rigid foam and High Impact Polystyrene, used for the assembly of household refrigerators and food freezers are estimated using measured and numeric frequency response functions (FRFs). The mathematical models are obtained using the finite element method (FEM) and the Timoshenko beam theory. The physical parameters are estimated using the amplitude correlation coefficient and genetic algorithm (GA). The experimental data are obtained using the impact hammer and four accelerometers displaced along the sample (cantilevered beam). The parameters estimated are Young's modulus and the loss factor of the Polyurethane rigid foam and the High Impact Polystyrene.

  5. Separation of cobalt from synthetic intermediate and decontamination radioactive wastes using polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lal, K.B.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Ahmed, J.

    1997-12-01

    Studies have been carried out on the removal of radioactive cobalt ({sup 60}Co) from synthetic intermediate level waste (ILW) and decontamination waste using neat polyurethane (PU) foam as well as n-tributyl phosphate-polyurethane (TBP-PU) foam. The radioactive cobalt has been extracted on the PU foam as cobalt thiocyanate from the ILW. Maximum removal of cobalt has been observed when the concentration of thiocyanate in the solution is about 0.4 M. Cobalt can be separated from decontamination waste containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and iron(II). The extent of extraction of cobalt is slow and the separation of iron and cobalt is better with the neat PU foam compared to the TBP-PU foam. The presence of iron in the decontamination waste facilitates the extraction of cobalt thiocyanate on the PU foam. Column studies have been carried out in order to extend these studies to the plant scale. The capacities of the PU foams for cobalt have been determined. The effect of density and the surface area of PU foam have been investigated. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectral studies have been conducted to find out the interaction between PU foam and cobalt thiocyanate species.

  6. Biomimetic surface modification of polyurethane with phospholipids grafted carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dongsheng; Liu, Liuxu; Li, Zhen; Fu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    To improve blood compatibility of polyurethane (PU), phospholipids grafted carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared through zwitterion-mediated cycloaddition reaction and amide condensation, and then were added to the PU as fillers via solution mixing to form biomimetic surface. The properties of phospholipids grafted CNTs (CNT-PC) were investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR). The results indicated that the phospholipids were grafted onto CNTs in high efficiency, and the hydrophilicity and dispersibility of the modified CNTs were improved effectively. The structures and properties of composites containing CNT-PC were investigated by optical microscope, XPS, and water contact angles. The results indicated that phospholipids were enriched on the surface with addition of 0.1 wt % of CNT-PC, which significantly reduced protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. The method of carrying phospholipids on the nanofiller to modify polymers has provided a promising way of constructing biomimetic phospholipid membrane on the surface to improve blood compatibility. PMID:25630300

  7. Mechanical properties of a structural polyurethane foam and the effect of particulate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Goods, S.H.; Neuschwanger, C.L.; Whinnery, L.L.

    1998-04-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of a closed-cell, polyurethane encapsulant foam have been measured as a function of foam density. Tests were performed on both unfilled and filler reinforced specimens. Over the range of densities examined, the modulus of the unloaded foam could be described by a power-law relationship with respect to density. This power-law relationship could be explained in terms of the elastic compliance of the cellular structure of the foam using a simple geometric model found in the literature. The collapse stress of the foam was also found to exhibit a power-law relationship with respect to density. Additions of an aluminum powder filler increased the modulus relative to the unfilled foam.

  8. Flame retardancy and thermal stability of polyurethane foam composites containing carbon additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Geesoo; Han, San Wook; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Ki-Dong; Han, Joo-Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is an important class of polymers that have wide application in a number of different industrial sectors. The goal of this work was the synthesis of flame-retarded PU foam with expandable graphite (EG) or commercial graphene. The flame retardancy and thermal stability of the foams has been studied through cone calorimeter analysis, the limited oxygen index and thermal conductivity. The presence of expandable graphite brings an improvement in fire behavior. In particular, the limited oxygen index increases in a linear way and the highest limited oxygen index values are obtained for EG-PU foams. The results from the cone calorimeter are in agreement with those of oxygen index; EG filled foams show a considerable decrease of maximum-heat release rate (M-HRR) with respect to unfilled foams. The results of thermal conductivity show that an increase in expandable graphite amount in PU foams lead to an increased conductivity.

  9. Hemocompatibility of Chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) Grafted Polyurethane Tubing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Su; Tomczyk, Nancy; Kandel, Judith; Composto, Russell J.; Eckmann, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The activation and adhesion of platelets or whole blood exposed to chitosan (CH) grafted surfaces is used to evaluate the hemocompatibility of biomaterials. The biomaterial surfaces are polyurethane (PU) tubes grafted with an inner poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and an outer CH or quaternary ammonium modified CH (CH-Q) brush. The CH, CH-Q and PAA grafted layers were characterized by ellipsometry and fluorescence microscopy. Material wear tests demonstrate that CH (CH-Q) is stably grafted onto PU tubes upon exposure to saline solution for 7 days. Using quartz-crystal microbalances with dissipation (QCM-D), in-situ adsorption of blood plasma proteins on CH and CH-Q compared to a silicon oxide control was measured. The QCM-D results showed that the physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on CH-Q and CH surfaces is softer and more viscous than the protein layer on the SiO2 surface. The CH-Q layer thus has the weakest interaction with plasma proteins. Whole blood and platelet adhesion was reduced by ~92% on CH-Q, which showed the weakest interaction with plasma protein but more viscous adsorbed plasma protein layer, compared to SiO2. Last, to examine the biologic response of platelets and neutrophils to biomaterial surfaces, CH (CH-Q)/PAA, PAA and PU tubes were tested using a Chandler Loop apparatus as an ex vivo model and flow cytometry. The blood adhesion and biologic response results showed that CH and CH-Q reduced adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils and improved hemocompatibility relative to other surfaces (PU and PAA). Our studies demonstrated that the properties of physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on biomaterial surfaces correlates with blood coagulation on biomaterial surfaces. PMID:24349719

  10. Hemocompatibility of Chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) Grafted Polyurethane Tubing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Su; Tomczyk, Nancy; Kandel, Judith; Composto, Russell J; Eckmann, David M

    2013-12-14

    The activation and adhesion of platelets or whole blood exposed to chitosan (CH) grafted surfaces is used to evaluate the hemocompatibility of biomaterials. The biomaterial surfaces are polyurethane (PU) tubes grafted with an inner poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and an outer CH or quaternary ammonium modified CH (CH-Q) brush. The CH, CH-Q and PAA grafted layers were characterized by ellipsometry and fluorescence microscopy. Material wear tests demonstrate that CH (CH-Q) is stably grafted onto PU tubes upon exposure to saline solution for 7 days. Using quartz-crystal microbalances with dissipation (QCM-D), in-situ adsorption of blood plasma proteins on CH and CH-Q compared to a silicon oxide control was measured. The QCM-D results showed that the physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on CH-Q and CH surfaces is softer and more viscous than the protein layer on the SiO2 surface. The CH-Q layer thus has the weakest interaction with plasma proteins. Whole blood and platelet adhesion was reduced by ~92% on CH-Q, which showed the weakest interaction with plasma protein but more viscous adsorbed plasma protein layer, compared to SiO2. Last, to examine the biologic response of platelets and neutrophils to biomaterial surfaces, CH (CH-Q)/PAA, PAA and PU tubes were tested using a Chandler Loop apparatus as an ex vivo model and flow cytometry. The blood adhesion and biologic response results showed that CH and CH-Q reduced adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils and improved hemocompatibility relative to other surfaces (PU and PAA). Our studies demonstrated that the properties of physically adsorbed plasma protein layer on biomaterial surfaces correlates with blood coagulation on biomaterial surfaces. PMID:24349719

  11. Preparation of conductive polypyrrole/polyurethane foams and their application as chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbing

    Electrically conductive polypyrrole/polyurethane (PPy/PU) composite foams were prepared by first impregnating the PU foams with iodine, and then exposing the iodine-loaded PU foams to pyrrole vapor, which resulted in the in situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer by iodine oxidant. Iodine sorption by polyurethane (PU) and melamine-formaldehyde (MF) foams was studied using both iodine sublimation and iodine solutions with hexanes and toluene. In the sublimation process, the diffusion kinetics was investigated and the interaction between iodine and PU foams was characterized by DSC, TGA, Raman spectroscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. In the solution process, the equilibrium absorption followed the distribution law and the distribution coefficients varied depending on the solvent used. MF foam achieved no iodine absorption in both processes which can be attributed to the lack of charge-transfer interactions. The kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of the in situ polymerization of pyrrole by iodine in a PU foam was investigated and discussed. The dopant for the PPy was primarily I3-, which formed a charge-transfer complex (PPy-I2) with the amine groups of the PPy. The conductivity of the composite foams was measured and several factors affecting the conductivity were analyzed. The chemical structure, morphology, mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composite foams, and the relationships between these factors were characterized. The PPy/PU composite foams were investigated as sensors for various volatile chemicals, including some chemical warfare simulants. High sensitivity has been demonstrated for organic amine compounds, as well as two mustard agent simulants. The quasireversibility and time scale of the resistance response was qualitatively explained based on the mass uptake characteristic of amine by the composite foam. Humidity also demonstrated its influence on the resistance of the foam sensor in a completely reversible

  12. Patency rate and complications of polytetrafluoroethylene grafts compared with polyurethane grafts for hemodialysis access

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The survival of hemodialysis patients requiring dialysis depends on the long-term functioning and patency of the vascular access. Prosthetic vascular grafts are inevitably used for patients whose vessels are unsuitable for an autogenous arteriovenous (AV) fistula. The purpose of this study was to compare the patency rate and associated complications using different types of grafts. Methods This prospective study was conducted on patients who did not have an appropriate vein for arteriovenous fistula from January 2004 through July 2006. They were divided into two groups, sex, age, and basic data matched. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyurethane (PVAG) were the two types of grafts used in this study. The functionality of the graft was assessed immediately 1 day and 2 weeks after operation. The clinical follow-up was performed each 3 months until 24 months. Results One-year patency rate was reported to be 64% and 52% in the PTFE and PVAG groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in 1-year (64% versus 52%) and 2-year (49% versus 41%) patency rate of the PTFE and PVAG grafts used as vascular access. There was also no difference between the numbers of complications reported in the two groups. Conclusion It could be concluded that either PTFE or PVAG grafts can be used with the same expected outcomes. PMID:20218943

  13. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1294 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-diisocyanate emissions. 63.1294 Section 63.1294 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  16. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

  17. Solvent stimulated actuation of polyurethane-based shape memory polymer foams using dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, A. J.; Weems, A. C.; Hasan, S. M.; Nash, L. D.; Monroe, M. B. B.; Maitland, D. J.

    2016-07-01

    Solvent exposure has been investigated to trigger actuation of shape memory polymers (SMPs) as an alternative to direct heating. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH) to stimulate polyurethane-based SMP foam actuation and the required solvent concentrations in water for rapid actuation of hydrophobic SMP foams. SMP foams exhibited decreased T g when submerged in DMSO and EtOH when compared to water submersion. Kinetic DMA experiments showed minimal or no relaxation for all SMP foams in water within 30 min, while SMP foams submerged in EtOH exhibited rapid relaxation within 1 min of submersion. SMP foams expanded rapidly in high concentrations of DMSO and EtOH solutions, where complete recovery over 30 min was observed in DMSO concentrations greater than 90% and in EtOH concentrations greater than 20%. This study demonstrates that both DMSO and EtOH are effective at triggering volume recovery of polyurethane-based SMP foams, including in aqueous environments, and provides promise for use of this actuation technique in various applications.

  18. Investigation on the mechanical properties of palm-based flexible polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On, Ahmad Zuhdi Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2015-09-01

    A series of modification polyurethane (PU) system was prepared by introducing palm kernel based polyol (PKO-p) to progressively replaced commercial polyether polyol from petrochemical based material. This paper describes the effect of PKO-p on the physical-mechanical properties of polyurethane foams. Stress-strain analysis in tensile mode was conducted with physicochemical analysis by performing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The morphological studies were observed by the optical microscope. The foam showed an increment on the modulus up to 458.3kPa as more incorporation of PKO-p introduced to the system. In contrast, tensile strength of PU foam depicted the highest up to 162 kPa at 60:40. The elongation at break showed decrement as the composition of the renewable polyol increased to a ratio 60/40 of PKO-p to petrochemical based polyol.

  19. In vivo tissue response following implantation of shape memory polyurethane foam in a porcine aneurysm model

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Clubb, Fred J.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Miller, Matthew W.; Fossum, Theresa W.; Hartman, Jonathan; Tuzun, Egemen; Singhal, Pooja; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms treated by traditional endovascular methods using platinum coils have a tendency to be unstable, either due to chronic inflammation, compaction of coils, or growth of the aneurysm. We propose to use alternate filling methods for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using polyurethane based shape memory polymer (SMP) foams. SMP polyurethane foams were surgically implanted in a porcine aneurysm model to determine biocompatibility, localized thrombogenicity, and their ability to serve as a stable filler material within an aneurysm. The degree of healing was evaluated via gross observation, histopathology and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) imaging after zero, thirty and ninety days. Clotting was initiated within the SMP foam at time zero (less than one hour exposure to blood prior to euthanization), partial healing was observed at thirty days, and almost complete healing had occurred at ninety days in vivo, with minimal inflammatory response. PMID:23650278

  20. Electromagnetic properties of polyurethane template-based carbon foams in Ka-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychanok, D.; Plyushch, A.; Piasotski, K.; Paddubskaya, A.; Voronovich, S.; Kuzhir, P.; Baturkin, S.; Klochkov, A.; Korovin, E.; Letellier, M.; Schaefer, S.; Szczurek, A.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.

    2015-09-01

    The electromagnetic (EM) properties of polyurethane template-based reticulated carbon foams were investigated in the 26-37 GHz microwave frequency range (Ka-band). It was experimentally proved that carbon foams of a thickness of 2 mm and a density of 22-55 mg cm-3 are almost not transparent to microwave radiation, and this is especially true for the densest ones. Depending on bulk density, the EM response of carbon foams in the microwave region can be mainly accounted for by either reflection or absorption. EM shielding efficiency of more dilute samples is due to absorption mechanisms, whereas denser foams provide up to 80% reflection of EM signals. EM properties of carbon foams in the Ka-band can be accurately predicted by a very simple model based on Fresnel formulae developed in this communication.

  1. Properties of polyurethane foam/coconut coir fiber as a core material and as a sandwich composites component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, M. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.; Idris, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of sandwich composite panels using glass fiber composite skin and polyurethane foam reinforced coconut coir fiber core. The main objectives are to characterize the physical and mechanical properties and to elucidate the effect of coconut coir fibers in polyurethane foam cores and sandwich composite panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane foams in which later were applied as the core in sandwich composites ranged from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The physical and mechanical properties found to be significant at 5 wt% coconut coir fiber in polyurethane foam cores as well as in sandwich composites. It was found that composites properties serve better in sandwich composites construction.

  2. Degradation of dimethylphthalate by cells of Bacillus sp. immobilized in calcium alginate and polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Niazi, J H; Karegoudar, T B

    2001-01-01

    A Bacillus sp. which is capable of degrading dimethylphthalate (DMP) was immobilized in calcium alginate and polyurethane foam for efficient and long term degradation of DMP. Freely suspended cells (10(12) cfu ml-1) degraded a maximum of 20 mM DMP. Whereas, alginate-(10(12)cfu g-1 beads) and polyurethane foam-entrapped (0.34 x 10(6-9) cfu g-1 foam cubes) cells degraded a maximum of 40 mM DMP within 12-15 days of incubation. Polyurethane foam-entrapped cells degraded 30 mM of DMP at 4 days and alginate-entrapped cells degraded within 10 to 12 days of incubation irrespective of the cell population. When the initial concentration of DMP increased to 50 mM, the DMP degrading ability of the immobilized cells was not increased even after 20 days. Repeated batch cultures by alginate-entrapped cells with initial 35 mM DMP loading could be reused for a maximum of 20 cycles. However, the degradation rate was gradually decreased when the beads were reused for more than 15 cycles. On the other hand, the foam-entrapped cells, with the same initial DMP loading there was no decrease in DMP degrading ability and could be reused for more than 20 cycles. The packed bed reactor with alginate-entrapped cells (1 x 10(10-12) cfu g-1 bead) could be continuously operated for 7-8 days with an initial 25 mM DMP at a flow rate of 50 ml h-1. Whereas, the polyurethane foam-entrapped cells (1 x 10(6-9) cfu g-1 foam cubes) could be operated continuously for more than 90 days with the same initial DMP loading at a flow rate of 100 ml h-1. Thus the enhanced degradation of DMP could be achieved by immobilizing the cells of Bacillus sp. in calcium alginate and polyurethane foam as compared to that of freely suspended cells. PMID:11501311

  3. Polyurethane foams electrophoretically coated with carbon nanotubes for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zawadzak, Ewelina; Bil, Monika; Ryszkowska, Joanna; Nazhat, Showan N; Cho, Johann; Bretcanu, Oana; Roether, Judith A; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2009-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were deposited on the surfaces of polyurethane (PUR) foams by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The parameters of EPD were optimized in order to obtain homogeneous CNT coatings on PUR foams and adequate infiltration of the three-dimensional (3D) porous network. The microstructure of the composites was investigated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), revealing that optimal quality of the coatings was achieved by an EPD voltage of 20 V. The thermal properties of the CNT-coated specimens, determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), were correlated to the foam microstructure. In vitro tests in concentrated simulated body fluid (1.5 SBF) were performed to study the influence of the presence of CNTs on the bioactivity of PUR-based scaffolds, assessed by the formation of calcium phosphate (CaP) compounds, e.g. hydroxyapatite (HA), on the foam surfaces. It was observed that CNTs accelerate the precipitation of CaP, which is thought to be due to the presence of more nucleation centres for crystal nucleation and growth, as compared with uncoated foams. Polyurethane foams with CNT coating have the potential to be used as bioactive scaffolds in bone tissue engineering due to their high interconnected porosity, bioactivity and nanostructured surface topography. PMID:19020345

  4. Chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto polyurethane surface for improving blood compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunli; Wang, Miao; Cai, Xianmei; Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Li; Zhu, Haomiao; Shen, Jian; Yuan, Jiang

    2011-11-01

    To improve hydrophilicity and blood compatibility properties of polyurethane (PU) film, we chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto the surface of polyurethane film using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The effects of grafting temperature, grafting time, monomer and initiator concentrations on the grafting yields were studied. The maximum grafting yield value was obtained 0.0275 g/cm2 for HEMA. Characterization of the films was carried out by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle measurements. ATR-FTIR data showed that HEMA was successfully grafted onto the PU films surface. Water contact angle measurement demonstrated the grafted films possessed a relatively hydrophilic surface. The blood compatibility of the grafted films was preliminarily evaluated by a platelet-rich plasma adhesion test and hemolysis test. The results of platelet adhesion experiment showed that polyurethane grafted polymerization with monomer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate had good blood compatibility featured by the low platelet adhesion. Hemolysis rate of the PU-g-PHEMA films was dramatically decreased than the ungrafted PU films. This kind of new biomaterials grafted with HEMA monomers might have a potential usage for biomedical applications.

  5. Catalyst-dependent drug loading of LDI-glycerol polyurethane foams leads to differing controlled release profiles.

    PubMed

    Sivak, Wesley N; Pollack, Ian F; Petoud, Stéphane; Zamboni, William C; Zhang, Jianying; Beckman, Eric J

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop biodegradable and biocompatible polyurethane foams based on lysine diisocyanate (LDI) and glycerol to be used as drug-delivery systems for the controlled release of 7-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (DB-67). The impact of urethane catalysts on cellular proliferation was assessed in an attempt to enhance the biocompatibility of our polyurethane materials. DB-67, a potent camptothecin analog, was then incorporated into LDI-glycerol polyurethane foams with two different amine urethane catalysts: 1,4-diazobicyclo[2.2.2]-octane (DABCO) and 4,4'-(oxydi-2,1-ethane-diyl)bismorpholine (DMDEE). The material morphologies of the polyurethane foams were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy, and DB-67 distribution was assessed by way of fluorescence microscopy. Both foam morphology and drug distribution were found to correlate to the amine catalyst used. Hydrolytic release rates of DB-67 from the polyurethane foams were catalyst dependent and also demonstrated greater drug loads being released at higher temperatures. The foams were capable of delivering therapeutic concentrations of DB-67 in vitro over an 11week test period. Cellular proliferation assays demonstrate that empty LDI-glycerol foams did not significantly alter the growth of malignant human glioma cell lines (P<0.05). DB-67 loaded LDI-glycerol polyurethane foams were found to inhibit cellular proliferation by at least 75% in all the malignant glioma cell lines tested (P<1.0x10(-8)). These results clearly demonstrate the long-term, catalyst-dependent release of DB-67 from LDI-glycerol polyurethane foams, indicating their potential for use in implantable drug-delivery devices. PMID:18440884

  6. Effect of crumb-rubber particle size on mechanical response of polyurethane foam composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjay, Omer Sheik

    The compression properties of foam are governed by by three factors: i) cell edge bending ii) compression of cell fluid iii) membrane stresses in the cell faces. The effect of reinforcement, granular form of scrap tire rubber on contribution of each of these effects along with the physical properties of polyurethane foam is investigated. It is seen that the addition of crumb-rubber hinders the formation of cell membranes during the foaming process. Four different sizes of particles were chosen to closely study the effect of particle size on the physical properties of the foam composite. There is a definite pattern seen in each of the physical property of the composite with change in the particle size. Addition of crumb-rubber decreases the compressive strength but in turn increases the elastic modulus of the composite. The rubber particles act as the sites for stress concentration and hence the inclusion of rubber particles induces the capability to transfer the axial load laterally along the surface of the foam. Also, the filler material induces porosity into the foam, which is seen in the SEM images, and hence the addition of rubber particles induces brittleness, which makes the foam composites extensively applicable for structural application in sandwich components. The lightweight composite therefore is a potential substitute to the heavier metal foams and honeycombs as a protective layer.

  7. Two approaches for introduction of wheat straw lignin into rigid polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshanitsa, A.; Paberza, A.; Vevere, L.; Cabulis, U.; Telysheva, G.

    2014-05-01

    In present work the BIOLIGNIN{trade mark, serif} obtained in the result of wheat straw organosolv processing in CIMV pilot plant (France) was investigated as a component of rigid polyurethanes (PUR) foam systems. Different separate approaches of lignin introduction into PUR foam system were studied: as filler without chemical preprocessing and as liquid lignopolyol obtained by lignin oxypropylation in alkali conditions. The incorporation of increasing amount of lignin as filler into reference PUR foam systems on the basis of mixture of commercial polyethers Lupranol 3300 and Lupranol 3422 steadily decreased the compression characteristics of foams, their dimensional stability and hydrophobicity. The complete substitution of Lupranol 3300 by lignopolyol increases its cell structure uniformity and dimensional stability and does not reduce the physical-mechanical properties of foam. In both cases the incorporation of lignin into PUR foam leads to the decreasing of maximum values of thermodegradation rates. The lignin filler can be introduced into lignopolyol based PUR foam in higher quantity than in the reference Lupranol based PUR without reduction of compression characteristics of material. In this work the optimal lignin content in the end product - PUR foam as both polyol and filler is 16%.

  8. Laboratory and field evaluation of polyurethane foam for lost circulation control

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.; Loeppke, G.E.; Rand, P.B.; Wright, E.K. )

    1989-01-01

    A two-part polyurethane foam has been tested in the laboratory and in the field to assess its utility in controlling lost circulation encountered when drilling geothermal wells. A field test was conducted in The Geysers in January, 1988, to evaluate the chemical formulation and downhole tool used to deploy the chemicals. Although the tool apparently functioned properly in the field test, the chemicals failed to expand sufficiently downhole, instead forming a dense polymer that may be ineffective in sealing loss zones. Subsequent laboratory tests conducted under simulated downhole conditions indicate that the foam chemical undergo sever mixing with water in the wellbore, which disturbs the kinetics of the chemical reaction more than was previously contemplated. The results indicate that without significant changes in the foam chemical formulation or delivery technique, the foam system will be ineffective in lost circulation control except under very favorable conditions. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam :

    SciTech Connect

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grillet, Anne; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Russick, Edward Mark; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hileman, Michael Bryan; Urquhart, Alexander; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Smith, David Michael

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  10. Temperature and speed of testing influence on the densification and recovery of polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Dragoş Alexandru; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai

    2013-02-01

    Polyurethane foams with densities of 35, 93, and 200 kg/m3 were tested in compression at three levels of temperatures as: -60 °C, 23 °C, and 80 °C. The influence of speed of testing from 2 mm/min up to 6 m/s (0.0014 to 545 s-1) on the response of the foams is analyzed. Testing is done separately on the rise direction and on the in-plane direction of the foams, and differences in their behavior are commented. With interpolation functions which approximate the plateau and densification region, the specific strain energy is calculated together with the energy efficiency and onset strain of densification. A Nagy-type phenomenological strain-rate-dependent model is proposed to generate engineering stress-strain curves and is validated through comparison with experimental stress-strain curves obtained at different speeds of testing. Starting from a reference experimental curve, two material parameters which are density and temperature dependent are established. Foam recovery for each density of the polyurethane foams is analyzed as a function of direction of testing, temperature, and speed of testing.

  11. Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermines (Sea) Program Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    WOODFIN,RONALD L.; FAUCETT,DAVID L.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.; LATHAM,AMY E.; SCHMIDT,C.O.

    1999-10-01

    This Phase II report documents the results of one subtask initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of Rigid Polyurethane Foams for neutralization of mines and barriers in amphibious assault was the objective of the tasking. This phase of the program concentrated on formation of RPF in water, explosive mine simulations, and development of foam and fabric pontoons. Field experimentation was done primarily at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM between February 1996 and September 1998.

  12. Compressive properties of commercially available polyurethane foams as mechanical models for osteoporotic human cancellous bone

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Purvi SD; Shepherd, Duncan ET; Hukins, David WL

    2008-01-01

    Background Polyurethane (PU) foam is widely used as a model for cancellous bone. The higher density foams are used as standard biomechanical test materials, but none of the low density PU foams are universally accepted as models for osteoporotic (OP) bone. The aim of this study was to determine whether low density PU foam might be suitable for mimicking human OP cancellous bone. Methods Quasi-static compression tests were performed on PU foam cylinders of different lengths (3.9 and 7.7 mm) and of different densities (0.09, 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3), to determine the Young's modulus, yield strength and energy absorbed to yield. Results Young's modulus values were 0.08–0.93 MPa for the 0.09 g.cm-3 foam and from 15.1–151.4 MPa for the 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3 foam. Yield strength values were 0.01–0.07 MPa for the 0.09 g.cm-3 foam and from 0.9–4.5 MPa for the 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3 foam. The energy absorbed to yield was found to be negligible for all foam cylinders. Conclusion Based on these results, it is concluded that 0.16 g.cm-3 PU foam may prove to be suitable as an OP cancellous bone model when fracture stress, but not energy dissipation, is of concern. PMID:18844988

  13. Diplogelasinospora grovesii IMI 171018 immobilized in polyurethane foam. An efficient biocatalyst for stereoselective reduction of ketones.

    PubMed

    Quezada, M A; Carballeira, J D; Sinisterra, J V

    2012-05-01

    Diplogelasinospora grovesii has been reported as a very active biocatalyst in the reduction of ketones. Along the text, the properties of this filamentous fungus as an immobilized catalyst are described. For this purpose, several immobilization supports as agar and polyurethane foam were tested. Experimental assays were also performed to test different co-substrates for the regeneration of the required enzyme cofactor. The fungus immobilized in polyurethane foam lead to the most stable and active catalyst. This derivative, using i-PrOH as co-substrate, could be reused at least 18 times without appreciable activity loss (>90% activity remains). Kinetic runs experiments shown that the reduction of cyclohexanone, selected as model substrate, followed a pseudo-first kinetic order and that the rate controlling step was the mass transfer through the cell wall. The deactivation kinetic constants were also determined. The reduction of different chiral ketones showed that the ketone reductase activity followed the Prelog's rule. PMID:22424921

  14. Polyurethane waste recycling; glycolysis and hydroglycolysis of water-blown foams

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlock, J.; Braslaw, J.; Zinbo, M.

    1984-07-01

    In this paper, glycolysis of toluenediisocyanate based water-blown polyurethane foam has been examined by high performance liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography to determine the product distribution. Glycolysis with diethylene glycol (DEG) yields toluenediamine (TDA), TDA mono- and di- DEG carbamates, a series of urea-linked mono- and di- DEG carbamate TDA oligomers, and polyether triol (polyol). The complexity of the product mixture suggests problems in applying simple glycolysis to the recovery of mixed and/or contaminated polyurethane wastes. A simpler product mixture results when water and a base catalyst are added to the glycolysis reaction (hydroglycolysis). Hydroglycolysis yields TDA and polyol as principal products. Data for the rate of the hydroglycolysis reaction are presented in the temperature range of 150 to 190/sup 0/C. These results suggest that hydroglycolysis could be used to recover polyols from mixed and/or contaminated water-blown polyurethane wastes.

  15. Laser Cleaning of Polyurethane Foam: An Investigation using Three Variants of Commercial PU Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesen, U. Staal; Westergaard, M.

    In this study, tests were undertaken to ascertain whether the laser could achieve a better level of cleaning on polyurethane foam than vacuum cleaning. Optimum laser parameters were found using statistics on data from color measurements. The laser proved to be very effective regarding the removal of dust, but also caused damage on some PU-variants. The laser cleaning has been carried out at National Workshops for Arts and Crafts, Copenhagen, Denmark.

  16. The ideal split-thickness skin graft donor site dressing: rediscovery of polyurethane film.

    PubMed

    Dornseifer, Ulf; Fichter, Andreas M; Herter, Frank; Sturtz, Gustavo; Ninkovic, Milomir

    2009-08-01

    The almost single disadvantage of polyurethane film dressings, an uncontrolled leakage, is probably as often described as its numerous advantages for split-thickness skin graft donor sites. We solved this problem by perforating the polyurethane film, which permits a controlled leakage into a secondary absorbent dressing. The study included 30 adult patients. Skin graft donor sites at the proximal thigh were dressed with the modified film dressing. Our results indicate that this dressing concept is associated with a reliable, rapid rate of epithelization. Both, controlled leakage and minimal pain caused particular comfort for patients and ward staff. Furthermore, this dressing was also suited for differently shaped and large donor sites. We conclude that the modification results in a more practicable, comfortable, and cost-effective film dressing, which requalifies the polyurethane film as an ideal dressing material for split-thickness skin graft donor sites. PMID:19571740

  17. Green engineering: Green composite material, biodiesel from waste coffee grounds, and polyurethane bio-foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Fu

    In this thesis we developed several ways of producing green materials and energy resources. First, we developed a method to fabricate natural fibers composites, with the purpose to develop green textile/woven composites that could potentially serve as an alternative to materials derived from non-renewable sources. Flax and hemp fabrics were chosen because of their lightweight and exceptional mechanical properties. To make these textile/woven composites withstand moist environments, a commercially available marine resin was utilized as a matrix. The tensile, three-point bending, and edgewise compression strengths of these green textile/woven composites were measured using ASTM protocols. Secondly, we developed a chemical procedure to obtain oil from waste coffee grounds; we did leaching and liquid extractions to get liquid oil from the solid coffee. This coffee oil was used to produce bio-diesel that could be used as a substitute for petroleum-based diesel. Finally, polyurethane Bio-foam formation utilized glycerol that is the by-product from the biodiesel synthesis. A chemical synthesis procedure from the literature was used as the reference system: a triol and isocynate are mixed to produce polyurethane foam. Moreover, we use a similar triol, a by-product from bio-diesel synthesis, to reproduce polyurethane foam.

  18. Electroless preparation and characterization of magnetic Ni P plating on polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenbin; Luo, Shikai; Zhang, Bingjie; Huang, Zhong; Tang, Xiaohong

    2008-09-01

    Magnetic Ni-P plating was coated on surface of polyurethane (PU) foam by electroless plating technique. Morphology, composition, structure, thermal decomposing behavior and magnetic property of PU foam before and after plating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy diffraction spectrum (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectrometer (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogrametric analysis (TG) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The results showed that the Ni-P plating was composed by particles whose diameters were in the range of 1-2 μm. Because of the Ni-P plating coated on surface of PU foam, peak intensity of the plated PU foam in IR and XRD were lower than those before plating. TG curves of PU foam before and after plating were composed of two decomposing stages. Because part of Ni in Ni-P plating was oxidized, TG curve of the plated PU foam was uptilt during 650-1000 °C. The plated PU foams are magnetic and can be used in some special application.

  19. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOEpatents

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1990-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and laminar flow conditions at an average detention time of six hours. Both the polyurethane foams and the foam regenerate solution are re-used. The treatment is a cost-effective process for waste-waters which are not treatable, or are not cost-effectively treatable, by conventional process series.

  20. Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornick, Marc

    Phenolic foam is a unique cellular material that can be utilized in either a fully open cell structure or a completely closed cell structure in a diversity of applications such as open cellular material for floral foam, soil propagation media and/or orthopedic use, and closed cell phenolic foam primarily for thermal insulation. Thus, phenolic foam is much more versatile than other competitive organic foams such as polystyrene and polyurethane with the latter materials being more heavily involved in thermal insulation. Foam processing can consider batch, semi-continuous, or continuous conditions, and the features and weaknesses of the appropriate processes are discussed along with continuous mix heads involving high and low pressure conditions.

  1. Polyurethane foam with multi walled carbon nanotubes/magnesium hybrid filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Sinar Arzuria; Zainuddin, Firuz; Zaidi, Nur Hidayah Ahmad; Akil, Hazizan Md.; Ahmad, Sahrim

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/magnesium (Mg) hybrid filler in polyurethane (PU) foams with different weight percentages (0.5 wt.% to 3.0 wt.%). The PU/MWCNTs/Mg foam composites were formed by reaction of based palm oil polyol (POP) with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) with ratio 1:1.1 by weight. The foam properties were evaluated in density, morphology and compressive strength. The addition of 2.5 wt.% hybrid filler showed the higher density in 59.72 kg/m3 and thus contribute to the highest compressive strength at 1.76 MPa. The morphology show cell in closed structure and addition hybrid filler showed uneven structure.

  2. The effect of magnetic particles on pore size distribution in soft polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schümann, M.; Günther, S.; Odenbach, S.

    2014-07-01

    The combination of elastomeric matrices with magnetic particles to obtain magnetically controllable hybrid materials is an actual field of intense research. An important aspect in this context is the stiffness of the matrix, which determines the effectiveness of the magnetically driven changes in the material properties. In this paper an approach has been undertaken to use soft polyurethane foams as matrix material. By means of x-ray computed microtomography and digital image processing the pore size distribution has been determined to get information on how this distribution is affected by the introduction of magnetic microparticles. To do so, 20 000 to 40 000 pores per foam sample were evaluated. As a result, it could be proven that the pore sizes of the analysed foams clearly obey the Weibull distribution. Increasing the carbonyl iron particle concentrations leads to a decrement of the shape parameter of the distribution. Based on known particle stabilization mechanisms, an approach to explain the experimental results is proposed.

  3. Elimination of toxicity from polyurethane foam plugs used for plant culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Schwartzkopf, S. H.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Langhans, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyurethane foam plugs commonly are used as collars or supports to grow plants in solution culture. Despite their utility, these foam plugs can be quite toxic to plants, particularly to small seedlings. We have observed tissue injury in tests using plugs to support lettuce, red beet, and potato plants in solution culture. Typically, the injury is initiated on the hypocotyl or stem tissue in direct contact with the foam, and appears within 30 hr as a brownish discoloration on the tissue surface. This discoloration can be followed by complete collapse of affected tissue and eventual death of the seedling. When injury does not progress beyond surface browning, the seedling survives but growth is slowed. In this paper, we report on different treatments that can be used to remove the toxicity of these plugs so they can be used in plant research.

  4. Elimination of toxicity from polyurethane foam plugs used for plant culture.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Schwartzkopf, S H; Tibbitts, T W; Langhans, R W

    1985-06-01

    Polyurethane foam plugs commonly are used as collars or supports to grow plants in solution culture. Despite their utility, these foam plugs can be quite toxic to plants, particularly to small seedlings. We have observed tissue injury in tests using plugs to support lettuce, red beet, and potato plants in solution culture. Typically, the injury is initiated on the hypocotyl or stem tissue in direct contact with the foam, and appears within 30 hr as a brownish discoloration on the tissue surface. This discoloration can be followed by complete collapse of affected tissue and eventual death of the seedling. When injury does not progress beyond surface browning, the seedling survives but growth is slowed. In this paper, we report on different treatments that can be used to remove the toxicity of these plugs so they can be used in plant research. PMID:11539821

  5. Validation of Heat Transfer Thermal Decomposition and Container Pressurization of Polyurethane Foam.

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Sarah Nicole; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E.; Suo-Anttila, Jill M.; Erickson, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01

    Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of polymers can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of PMDI-based polyurethane foam is presented to assess the validity of the computational model. Both experimental measurement uncertainty and model prediction uncertainty are examined and compared. Both the mean value method and Latin hypercube sampling approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. In addition to comparing computational and experimental results, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation result is also investigated. These results show that further development in the physics model of the foam and appropriate associated material testing are necessary to improve model accuracy.

  6. Biotransformation of Dehydroabietic, Abietic, and Isopimaric Acids by Mortierella isabellina Immobilized in Polyurethane Foam

    PubMed Central

    Kutney, James P.; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Hewitt, Gary M.; Singh, Mahatam

    1988-01-01

    Polyurethane foam supports immobilization of Mortierella isabellina ATCC 38063, a zygomycete that hydroxylates and thereby detoxifies resin acids found in certain pulp mill effluents. The fungus becomes entrapped as it threads growing mycelia through the open foam matrix. The tenacity of binding and the amount of biomass bound depend on initial spore numbers and nutrient concentration. Optimal dehydroabietic acid transformation occurs with early-stationary-phase foam-bound mycelia suspended in buffer at pH 6.5 to 8.5 with aeration >0.1 liter liter−1 min−1 and near a temperature maximum of 33°C. Neither a greater number of similarly loaded foam cubes nor a greater surface area for similar amounts of biomass increased transformation rates. Compared to free mycelial cultures, foam presence retards growth and decreases the rate of precursor transformation but does not alter the nature of the metabolites formed from dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid, or isopimaric acid. Diffusional barriers or binding of substrates in an inaccessible manner may cause the observed inhibitions. Overall, foam immobilization stabilizes enzymic activity and is a facile laboratory process with scaleup potential. PMID:16347596

  7. Fractional derivative and hereditary combined model for memory effects on flexible polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfarhani, Makram; Jarraya, Abdessalem; Abid, Said; Haddar, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    In a quasi-static regime with cyclic loading, the force-displacement curve of flexible polyurethane exhibits complicated behavior: nonlinearity, visco-elasticity, hysteresis, residual force, etc. Beside nonlinearity and visco-elasticity, this material displays high dependence on the displacement rate and past loading history. Its dependence on compression rate helps to appropriately identify the force-displacement curve. Based on the new curve identification, the overall foam response is assumed to be a composite of a nonlinear elastic component and a visco-elastic component. The elastic component is expressed as a polynomial function in displacement, while the visco-elastic one is formulated according to the hereditary approach to represent the foam visco-elastic damping force during the loading phase and according to the fractional derivative approach during unloading to represent the visco-elastic residual force in the material. The focus of this study was to develop mathematical formulations and identification parameters to faithfully characterize the visco-elastic behavior of flexible polyurethane foam under multi-cycle compressive tests. A parameter calibration methodology based on the separation of the measurement data of each component force was established. This optimization process helps to avoid the parameter values admixture problem during the phase of numeric calculations of the same component force. The validity of the model results is checked according to the simulation accuracy, the physical significance of results and their agreement with the obtained force-displacement curve identification.

  8. Molybdenum determination in iron matrices by ICP-AES after separation and preconcentration using polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S L; dos Santos, H C; de Jesus, D S

    2001-01-01

    A procedure is proposed for the separation and determination of molybdenum in iron matrices by a batch process. It is based on the solid-phase extraction of the molybdenum(V) ion as thiocyanate complex on polyurethane (PU) foam. The extraction parameters were optimized. Using 0.20 mol L-1 hydrochloric acid, a thiocyanate concentration of 0.10 mol L-1, 100 mg of polyurethane foam and shaking time of 10 min, molybdenum (5-400 micrograms) can be separated and preconcentrated from large amounts of iron (10 mg). Desorption was carried out instantaneously by conc. nitric acid or acetone. Distribution coefficients, sorption capacity of the PU foam and coefficients of variation were also evaluated. The effect of some ions on the separation procedure was assessed. Iron(III) should be reduced to iron(II). The proposed procedure was used to determine molybdenum in standard iron matrices such as steel and pure iron. The achieved results did not show significant differences with certified values. PMID:11225364

  9. Examination of Cell Shape in Wall Thickness Direction for Foamed Polyurethane Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Tsutomu; Matsuoka, Shin-Ichi; Araki, Kuninari; Iseki, Takashi

    The foaming flow process of polyurethane resin is difficult because temperature, density and thermal conductivity are changed greatly by heat generation resulting from the mixing reaction of polyol and polyisocyanate resin. It is thought that thermal conductivity and strength are influenced by cell shape after the foaming process. In this study, we evaluate three-dimensional cell shapes by quantitatively observation of the ratio of the diameter of the parallel and the perpendicular section to flow direction, the ratio of the major axis and the minor axis, and direction of the major axis of cells for closed cell shapes in foamed polyurethane resin. It is thought that cell shapes are mainly deformed by shear stress and pressure of adjacent cells. It becomes obvious by cell shape evaluation that cells in the skin layer are compressed in the thickness direction by pressure of adjacent cells, cells between the skin layer and the core layer are stretched perpendicular to the flow direction by shear stress, and cells in the core layer are similar to the sphere shape.

  10. Fractional derivative and hereditary combined model for memory effects on flexible polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfarhani, Makram; Jarraya, Abdessalem; Abid, Said; Haddar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In a quasi-static regime with cyclic loading, the force-displacement curve of flexible polyurethane exhibits complicated behavior: nonlinearity, visco-elasticity, hysteresis, residual force, etc. Beside nonlinearity and visco-elasticity, this material displays high dependence on the displacement rate and past loading history. Its dependence on compression rate helps to appropriately identify the force-displacement curve. Based on the new curve identification, the overall foam response is assumed to be a composite of a nonlinear elastic component and a visco-elastic component. The elastic component is expressed as a polynomial function in displacement, while the visco-elastic one is formulated according to the hereditary approach to represent the foam visco-elastic damping force during the loading phase and according to the fractional derivative approach during unloading to represent the visco-elastic residual force in the material. The focus of this study was to develop mathematical formulations and identification parameters to faithfully characterize the visco-elastic behavior of flexible polyurethane foam under multi-cycle compressive tests. A parameter calibration methodology based on the separation of the measurement data of each component force was established. This optimization process helps to avoid the parameter values admixture problem during the phase of numeric calculations of the same component force. The validity of the model results is checked according to the simulation accuracy, the physical significance of results and their agreement with the obtained force-displacement curve identification.

  11. A Spectroscopic Investigation on the Structural Evolution of Soy Based Polyurethane Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthanparambil, Deepa; Kimball, Casey; Hsu, Shaw L.

    2009-03-01

    Our current research deals with an economical and renewable soy based polyol for use in polyurethane foams. Infrared spectroscopic studies have revealed that the amount of polyurea segments formed and the kinetics of their formation in soy based polyurethane foam systems are considerably different from traditional systems employing ethylene oxide -- propylene oxide based polyols. The most crucial aspect of this research deals with the miscibility of water in the reactive mixtures involving extremely hydrophobic soy-based polyols. High Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) with D2O as the probing agent was employed to determine the miscibility behavior at the molecular level. This technique was able to establish the structure and location of dispersed water, which can be extremely different based on the polyols used, thus affecting the morphology of the foam. The length and amount of polyureas directly impact the kinetics of the phase separation process to form the hard-segment rich domains and associated physical properties. The aggregation of these polyurea hard domains were characterized by the hydrogen bonds formed. This structural transformation as a function of reaction is also reflected in the segmental relaxation kinetics characterized by spin-spin diffusion, measured using a low field NMR instrument.

  12. Experimental characterization of fire-induced response of rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Gill, W.; Moore, J.W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Reported is the result of an experimental investigation of fire-induced response of a 96 kg/m{sup 3} closed cell rigid polyurethane foam. The specimen is 0.37 m in diameter, and 152 mm thick, placed in a cylindrical test vessel. The fire condition is simulated by heating the bottom of the test vessel to 1283 K using a radiant heat source. Real-time x-ray shows that the degradation process involves the progression of a charring front into the virgin material. The charred region has a regular and graded structure consisting of a packed bubble outer layer and successive layers of thin shells. The layer-to-layer permeability appears to be poor. There are indications that gas vents laterally. The shell-like structure might be the result of lateral venting. Although the foam degradation process is quite complicated, the in-depth temperature responses in the uncharted foam appear to be consistent with steady state ablation. The measured temperature responses are well represented by the exponential distribution for steady state ablation. An estimate of the thermal diffusivity of the foam is obtained from the ablation model. The experiment is part of a more comprehensive program to develop material response models of foams and encapsulants.

  13. Identification of Flame Retardants in Polyurethane Foam Collected from Baby Products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the phase-out of PentaBDE in 2004, alternative flame retardants are being used in polyurethane foam to meet flammability standards. However, insufficient information is available on the identity of the flame retardants currently in use. Baby products containing polyurethane foam must meet California state furniture flammability standards, which likely affects the use of flame retardants in baby products throughout the U.S. However, it is unclear which products contain flame retardants and at what concentrations. In this study we surveyed baby products containing polyurethane foam to investigate how often flame retardants were used in these products. Information on when the products were purchased and whether they contained a label indicating that the product meets requirements for a California flammability standard were recorded. When possible, we identified the flame retardants being used and their concentrations in the foam. Foam samples collected from 101 commonly used baby products were analyzed. Eighty samples contained an identifiable flame retardant additive, and all but one of these was either chlorinated or brominated. The most common flame retardant detected was tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; detection frequency 36%), followed by components typically found in the Firemaster550 commercial mixture (detection frequency 17%). Five samples contained PBDE congeners commonly associated with PentaBDE, suggesting products with PentaBDE are still in-use. Two chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) not previously documented in the environment were also identified, one of which is commercially sold as V6 (detection frequency 15%) and contains tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) as an impurity. As an addition to this study, we used a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to estimate the bromine and chlorine content of the foam and investigate whether XRF is a useful method for predicting the presence of halogenated flame

  14. Identification of flame retardants in polyurethane foam collected from baby products.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Heather M; Klosterhaus, Susan; Keller, Alex; Ferguson, P Lee; van Bergen, Saskia; Cooper, Ellen; Webster, Thomas F; Blum, Arlene

    2011-06-15

    With the phase-out of PentaBDE in 2004, alternative flame retardants are being used in polyurethane foam to meet flammability standards. However, insufficient information is available on the identity of the flame retardants currently in use. Baby products containing polyurethane foam must meet California state furniture flammability standards, which likely affects the use of flame retardants in baby products throughout the U.S. However, it is unclear which products contain flame retardants and at what concentrations. In this study we surveyed baby products containing polyurethane foam to investigate how often flame retardants were used in these products. Information on when the products were purchased and whether they contained a label indicating that the product meets requirements for a California flammability standard were recorded. When possible, we identified the flame retardants being used and their concentrations in the foam. Foam samples collected from 101 commonly used baby products were analyzed. Eighty samples contained an identifiable flame retardant additive, and all but one of these was either chlorinated or brominated. The most common flame retardant detected was tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; detection frequency 36%), followed by components typically found in the Firemaster550 commercial mixture (detection frequency 17%). Five samples contained PBDE congeners commonly associated with PentaBDE, suggesting products with PentaBDE are still in-use. Two chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) not previously documented in the environment were also identified, one of which is commercially sold as V6 (detection frequency 15%) and contains tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) as an impurity. As an addition to this study, we used a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to estimate the bromine and chlorine content of the foam and investigate whether XRF is a useful method for predicting the presence of halogenated flame

  15. Ultrasonication assisted preparation of carbonaceous nanoparticles modified polyurethane foam with good conductivity and high oil absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hengchong; Shi, Dean; Yin, Ligang; Yang, Zhihua; Luan, Shifang; Gao, Jiefeng; Zha, Junwei; Yin, Jinghua; Li, Robert K. Y.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we report a facile, low cost and time-saving method for the fabrication of compressible, electrically conductive, oil absorptive, cost-effective and flexible polyurethane (PU) foam through ultrasonication induced carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNP) onto flexible PU foam (CNP-PU foam). SEM images showed that the CNP could be firmly anchored onto the PU foam, and made the PU foam surface much rougher. Zero-dimensional carbonaceous nanoparticles were easier to anchor onto the PU foam surface than one-dimensional nanoparticles (e.g., carbon nanotube) or two-dimensional nanoparticles (e.g., graphene oxide). The CNP-PU foam exhibited excellent elasticity and high mechanical durability even when it was subjected to 500 cyclic compression. The CNP-PU foam had excellent absorption of organic solvents up to 121 times the weight of the initial PU foam. In addition, the electrical conductivity of PU foams was considerably increased with the anchoring of CNP onto the matrix. In addition, compression experiments confirmed that the electrical conductivity of CNP-PU foams changed with their compression ratios, thus exhibiting excellent pressure sensitivity. The as-prepared materials have significant potential as oil absorbents, elastic conductors, flexible electrodes, pressure sensors, etc.In this work, we report a facile, low cost and time-saving method for the fabrication of compressible, electrically conductive, oil absorptive, cost-effective and flexible polyurethane (PU) foam through ultrasonication induced carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNP) onto flexible PU foam (CNP-PU foam). SEM images showed that the CNP could be firmly anchored onto the PU foam, and made the PU foam surface much rougher. Zero-dimensional carbonaceous nanoparticles were easier to anchor onto the PU foam surface than one-dimensional nanoparticles (e.g., carbon nanotube) or two-dimensional nanoparticles (e.g., graphene oxide). The CNP-PU foam exhibited excellent elasticity and high mechanical

  16. A model of smoldering combustion applied to flexible polyurethane foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlemiller, T. J.; Rogers, F.; Bellan, J.

    1979-01-01

    Smoldering combustion, particularly in upholstery and bedding materials, has been proven a serious life hazard. The simplest representation of this hazard situation is one-dimensional downward propagation of a smolder wave against a buoyant upflow (cocurrent smolder); the configuration treated here is identical in all respects to this except for the presence of a forced flow replacing the buoyant one. The complex degradation chemistry of the polyurethanes is here reduced to the two major overall reactions of char formation and char oxidation. The model solutions, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental results, show the smolder process to be oxygen-limited, which leads to some very simple trends. More subtle behavior aspects determine actual propagation velocity, fraction of fuel consumed, and apparent equivalence ratio (all of which are variable). The self-insulating character of the smolder wave makes it viable in a wide-ranging set of conditions if the igniting stimulus is sufficiently long. These results have significant implications regarding the problem of smolder prevention or hindrance.

  17. Development of Expanded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Bead Foams and Their Sintering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossieny, Nemat

    Polymer bead foaming technology represents a breakthrough in the production of low density plastic foamed components that have a complex geometrical structure and has helped to expand the market for plastic foams by broadening their applications. In this research, the unique microstructure of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) consisting of phase-separated hard segment (HS) domains dispersed in the soft segment (SS) matrix has been utilized to develop expanded TPU (E-TPU) bead foam with microcellular morphologies and also to create inter-bead sintering into three dimensional products using steam-chest molding machine. The phase-separation and crystallization behavior of the HS chains in the TPU microstructure was systematically studied in the presence of dissolved gases and also by changing the microstructure of TPU by melt-processing and addition of nano-/micro-sized additives. It was observed that the presence of gas improved the phase separation (i.e. crystallization) of HSs and increased the overall crystallinity of the TPU. It was also shown that by utilizing the HS crystalline domains, the overall foaming behavior of TPU (i.e. cell nucleation and expansion ratio) can be significantly improved. Moreover, the HS crystalline domains can be effective for both sintering of the beads as well strengthening the individual beads to improve the property of the moulded part. It was also observed that unlike other polymer bead foaming technologies, the E-TPU bead foaming sintering does not require formation of double melting-peak. The original broad melting peak existing in the TPU microstructure due to the wide size distribution of HS crystallites can be effectively utilized for the purpose of sintering as well as maintenance of the overall dimensional stability of the moulded part.

  18. Innovative vibration technique applied to polyurethane foam as a viable substitute for conventional fatigue testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Alexander; Just-Agosto, Frederick; Shafiq, Basir; Serrano, David

    2012-12-01

    Lifetime prediction using three-point bending (TPB) can at times be prohibitively time consuming and costly, whereas vibration testing at higher frequency may potentially save time and revenue. A vibration technique that obtains lifetimes that reasonably match those determined under flexural TPB fatigue is developed. The technique designs the specimen with a procedure based on shape optimization and finite element analysis. When the specimen is vibrated in resonance, a stress pattern that mimics the stress pattern observed under conventional TPB fatigue testing is obtained. The proposed approach was verified with polyurethane foam specimens, resulting in an average error of 4.5% when compared with TPB.

  19. Unexpected Radiologic Findings for a Casting Type of Radiolucent Colorectal Foreign Body Composed of Polyurethane Foam

    PubMed Central

    Tamamoto, Fumihiko; Ogawa, Shoichi; Sano, Maiko; Yoshimura, Tetsunori; Nozaki, Miwako

    2016-01-01

    Radiologic diagnosis of colorectal foreign bodies is usually not very difficult, because inserted materials are often clearly visible on plain abdominal radiographs. However, when they are radiolucent, a plain abdominal radiograph has been reported to be useless. As radiolucent colorectal foreign bodies appear as radiolucent artificial contours or air-trapped materials in the pelvis, almost always the diagnosis itself can be made by careful evaluation of plain abdominal radiographs. We encountered a case of casting type of radiolucent colorectal foreign body formed from polyurethane foam. It presented us with unexpected radiologic findings and led to diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27213072

  20. The extraction and determination of thiocyanate complexes by use of polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Chow, A; Ginsberg, S L

    1983-08-01

    Metal thiocyanate solutions were extracted with polyether-type polyurethane foam and the metal contents determined by X-ray fluorescence. Iron, cobalt and zinc were extracted individually and collectively from 3.0M NH(4)Cl and 1.0M NH(4)SCN solutions. Similarly platinum and palladium could be simultaneously extracted from 0.12MNH(4)SCN and 5.0MNH(4)Cl for subsequent determination. The metal extractions were more than 95% complete and the determination of one metal was not affected by the presence of the others. PMID:18963433

  1. Ultrasonic measurements of the reflection coefficient at a water/polyurethane foam interface.

    PubMed

    Sagers, Jason D; Haberman, Michael R; Wilson, Preston S

    2013-09-01

    Measured ultrasonic reflection coefficients as a function of normal incidence angle are reported for several samples of polyurethane foam submerged in a water bath. Three reflection coefficient models are employed as needed in this analysis to approximate the measured data: (1) an infinite plane wave impinging on an elastic halfspace, (2) an infinite plane wave impinging on a single fluid layer overlying a fluid halfspace, and (3) a finite acoustic beam impinging on an elastic halfspace. The compressional wave speed in each sample is calculated by minimizing the sum of squared error (SSE) between the measured and modeled data. PMID:23968059

  2. Polyurethane Foam-Filled Skull Replica of Craniosynostosis for Surgical Training.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon Jin; Lee, Jun Yong

    2016-05-01

    Craniosynostosis has a relatively low incidence in the general population and its treatment requires cautious approaches. For these reasons, patients are usually referred to several specialists or a medical center. Therefore, most trainees and young surgeons do not have any chances to experience patients of craniosynostosis, but learn about it only from textbooks. And for a surgeon who tries to operate on a craniosynostosis patient, it is hard to make a proper preoperative plan.The authors suggest a polyurethane foam-filled skull replica of craniosynostosis for trainees that can also be used in planning a craniosynostosis operation. PMID:27054421

  3. Unexpected Radiologic Findings for a Casting Type of Radiolucent Colorectal Foreign Body Composed of Polyurethane Foam.

    PubMed

    Sanjo, Emi; Tamamoto, Fumihiko; Ogawa, Shoichi; Sano, Maiko; Yoshimura, Tetsunori; Nozaki, Miwako

    2016-01-01

    Radiologic diagnosis of colorectal foreign bodies is usually not very difficult, because inserted materials are often clearly visible on plain abdominal radiographs. However, when they are radiolucent, a plain abdominal radiograph has been reported to be useless. As radiolucent colorectal foreign bodies appear as radiolucent artificial contours or air-trapped materials in the pelvis, almost always the diagnosis itself can be made by careful evaluation of plain abdominal radiographs. We encountered a case of casting type of radiolucent colorectal foreign body formed from polyurethane foam. It presented us with unexpected radiologic findings and led to diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27213072

  4. Composition-structure-property relationships of commercial polyurethane foams for mattresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfato, P.; Di Maio, L.; D'Arienzo, L.; Rinaldi, S.; Incarnato, L.

    2015-12-01

    Three commercial flexible polyurethane foams used for mattress have been submitted to chemical-physical analyses, water vapor permeability and compression mechanical tests, in order to understand the relationships among their composition, structure, and some functional properties of interest for bedding applications. The results demonstrated that all the three foams have open cell morphology and similar cell structure, with average cell diameters ranging from 430 to 510 micron and wide cell size distribution. As a consequence, they also show comparable water vapor transport behavior. On the contrary, their mechanical response, in terms of hysteresis loss, surface firmness and resistance to bottoming out, was found strongly dependent on their chemical structure and molecular mobility, as inferred from infrared spectroscopy analysis.

  5. All-dielectric invisibility cloaks made of BaTiO3-loaded polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Di; Rajab, Khalid Z.; Hao, Yang; Kallos, Efthymios; Tang, Wenxuan; Argyropoulos, Christos; Piao, Yongzhe; Yang, Shoufeng

    2011-10-01

    Transformation optics has led the way in the development of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks from science fiction to engineering practice. Invisibility cloaks have been demonstrated over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with a variety of different fabrication techniques. However, all previous schemes have relied on the use of metamaterials consisting of arrays of sub-wavelength inclusions. We report on the first cloaking structure made of a high-κ dielectric-loaded foam mixture. A polyurethane foam mixed with different ratios of barium titanate is used to produce the required range of permittivities, and the invisibility cloak is demonstrated to work for all incident angles over a wide range of microwave frequencies. This method will greatly facilitate the development and large-scale manufacture of a wide range of transformation optics-based structures.

  6. Identification of CFC and HCFC substitutes for blowing polyurethane foam insulation products. Final report, September 1993-November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, P.H.; Tunkel, J.L.; Banerjee, S.

    1995-10-01

    The report gives results of a cooperative effort to identify chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) substitutes for blowing polyurethane foam insulation products. More than 100 chemicals have been identified and ranked as polyurethane foam blowing agent candidates. The systematic investigation involved the analysis of vapor thermal conductivity predictive models and utilizing this methodology to identify and screen potential new foam blowing agents. Collection of physical/chemical properties of the new candidates enabled an overall evaluation. Based on the vapor thermal conductivity, boiling point, and other important properties, the chemical compounds were ranked to identify the most promising new blowing agent candidates. To efficiently evaluate new foam blowing agents, the compounds were placed and evaluated in 14 groups based on chemical structure.

  7. Computational modelling of the complex dynamics of chemically blown polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireka, I. E.; Niedziela, D.; Schäfer, K.; Tröltzsch, J.; Steiner, K.; Helbig, F.; Chinyoka, T.; Kroll, L.

    2015-11-01

    This study presents computational analysis of the complex dynamics observed in chemically blown polyurethane foams during reaction injection molding process. The mathematical formulation introduces an experimentally motivated non-divergence free setup for the continuity equations which reflects the self expanding behaviour observed in the physical system. The foam growth phenomena which is normally initiated by adequate pre-mixing of necessary reactant polymers, leading to an exothermic polymerization reaction, bubble nucleation, and gas formation, is captured numerically. We assume the dependence of material viscosity on the degree of cure/polymerization, gas volume fraction, and temperature as well as non-dependence of mixture density on pressure. The set of unsteady nonlinear coupled partial differential equations describing the dynamics of the system are solved numerically for state variables using finite volume techniques such that the front of the flow is tracked with high resolution interface capturing schemes. Graphical representation of the foam volume fraction, evolution of foam heights, and temperature distributions is presented. Results from our simulations are validated with experimental data. These results show good quantitative agreement with observations from experiments.

  8. Immobilization of degradative bacteria in polyurethane-based foams: embedding efficiency and effect on bacterial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Radway, J.C.; Hazen, T.C.; Hermann, P.

    1996-09-03

    The immobilization of TCE-degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia was evaluated using hydrophilic polyurethane foam. The influence of several foam formulation parameters upon cell retention was examined. Surfactant type was a major determinant of retention, with a lecithin- based compound retaining more cells than pluronic or silicone based surfactants. Excessive amounts of surfactant led to increased washout of bacteria. Increasing the biomass concentration from 4.8% to 10.5% caused fewer cells to be washed out. Embedding at reduced temperature did not significantly affect retention, while the use of a silane binding agent gave inconsistent results. The optimal formulation retained all but 0.2% of total embedded cells during passage of 2 liters of water through columns containing 2 g of foam. All foam formulations tested reduced the culturability of embedded cells by several orders of magnitude. However, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} evolution rates of embedded cells were never less than 50% of unembedded cells. Nutrient amendments stimulated an increase in cell volume and ribosomal activity as indicated by hybridization studies using fluorescently labeled ribosomal probes. these results indicated that, although immobilized cells were nonculturable, they were metabolically active and thus could be used for biodegradation of toxic compounds.

  9. Dynamic characterization of frequency response of shock mitigation of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Kolsky compression bar experiments were conducted to characterize the shock mitigation response of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam, abbreviated as PMDI foam in this study. The Kolsky bar experimental data was analyzed in the frequency domain with respect to impact energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation to perform a shock mitigation assessment on the foam material. The PMDI foam material exhibits excellent performance in both energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation, particularly for the impact frequency content over 1.5 kHz. This frequency (1.5 kHz) was observed to be independent of specimen thickness and impact speed, which may represent themore » characteristic shock mitigation frequency of the PMDI foam material under investigation. The shock mitigation characteristics of the PMDI foam material were insignificantly influenced by the specimen thickness. As a result, impact speed did have some effect.« less

  10. Dynamic characterization of frequency response of shock mitigation of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Kolsky compression bar experiments were conducted to characterize the shock mitigation response of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam, abbreviated as PMDI foam in this study. The Kolsky bar experimental data was analyzed in the frequency domain with respect to impact energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation to perform a shock mitigation assessment on the foam material. The PMDI foam material exhibits excellent performance in both energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation, particularly for the impact frequency content over 1.5 kHz. This frequency (1.5 kHz) was observed to be independent of specimen thickness and impact speed, which may represent the characteristic shock mitigation frequency of the PMDI foam material under investigation. The shock mitigation characteristics of the PMDI foam material were insignificantly influenced by the specimen thickness. As a result, impact speed did have some effect.

  11. Reduction of hydrogen cyanide concentrations and acute inhalation toxicity from flexible polyurethane foam combustion products by the addition of copper compounds. Part 3. The effect of copper additives on the flammability characteristics of flexible polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.C.; Braun, E.; Shields, J.R.; Lowe, D.

    1990-10-01

    The report addresses the issue of whether the addition of a copper compound to a flexible polyurethane foam would affect the flammability characteristics of the foam. The following properties were examined: (1) ignitability in three systems (the NBS Toxicity Test Method, the Cone Calorimeter, and Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT)), (2) heat release rate under small-scale (Cone Calorimeter) and medium-scale (furniture calorimeter), (3) smoke obscuration (Cone Calorimeter), and (4) rate of flame spread (LIFT). In all cases, no differences in flammability characteristics between the treated and untreated foam were observed.

  12. Experience gained from the use of polyurethane foam-insulated pipelines at OAO Moscow Heating-Network Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashinskii, V. I.; Lipovskikh, V. M.; Rotmistrov, Ya. G.

    2007-07-01

    Results from 10 years of experience using polyurethane foam-insulated pipelines at OAO Moscow Heating-Network Co. are presented. It is shown that the failure rate of such pipelines is considerably lower than that of pipelines laid in conduits.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1295 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA storage vessels. 63.1295 Section 63.1295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1299 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-source-wide emission limitation. 63.1299 Section 63.1299 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1296 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA equipment leaks. 63.1296 Section 63.1296 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1298 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP emissions from equipment cleaning. 63.1298 Section 63.1298 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  18. Transient Thermal Response of Lightweight Cementitious Composites Made with Polyurethane Foam Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kismi, M.; Poullain, P.; Mounanga, P.

    2012-07-01

    The development of low-cost lightweight aggregate (LWA) mortars and concretes presents many advantages, especially in terms of lightness and thermal insulation performances of structures. Low-cost LWA mainly comes from the recovery of vegetal or plastic wastes. This article focuses on the characterization of the thermal conductivity of innovative lightweight cementitious composites made with fine particles of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam waste. Five mortars were prepared with various mass substitution rates of cement with PU-foam particles. Their thermal conductivity was measured with two transient methods: the heating-film method and the hot-disk method. The incorporation of PU-foam particles causes a reduction of up to 18 % of the mortar density, accompanied by a significant improvement of the thermal insulating performance. The effect of segregation on the thermal properties of LWA mortars due to the differences of density among the cementitious matrix, sand, and LWA has also been quantified. The application of the hot-disk method reveals a gradient of thermal conductivity along the thickness of the specimens, which could be explained by a non-uniform repartition of fine PU-foam particles and mineral aggregates within the mortars. The results show a spatial variation of the thermal conductivity of the LWA mortars, ranging from 9 % to 19 %. However, this variation remains close to or even lower than that observed on a normal weight aggregate mortar. Finally, a self-consistent approach is proposed to estimate the thermal conductivity of PU-foam cement-based composites.

  19. Material Characterization and Computer Model Simulation of Low Density Polyurethane Foam Used in a Rodent Traumatic Brain Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liying; Gurao, Manish; Yang, King H.; King, Albert I.

    2011-01-01

    Computer models of the head can be used to simulate the events associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and quantify biomechanical response within the brain. Marmarou’s impact acceleration rodent model is a widely used experimental model of TBI mirroring axonal pathology in humans. The mechanical properties of the low density polyurethane (PU) foam, an essential piece of energy management used in Marmarou’s impact device, has not been fully characterized. The foam used in Marmarou’s device was tested at seven strain rates ranging from quasi-static to dynamic (0.014 ~ 42.86 s−1) to quantify the stress-strain relationships in compression. Recovery rate of the foam after cyclic compression was also determined through the periods of recovery up to three weeks. The experimentally determined stress-strain curves were incorporated into a material model in an explicit Finite Element (FE) solver to validate the strain rate dependency of the FE foam model. Compression test results have shown that the foam used in the rodent impact acceleration model is strain rate dependent. The foam has been found to be reusable for multiple impacts. However the stress resistance of used foam is reduced to 70% of the new foam. The FU_CHANG_FOAM material model in an FE solver has been found to be adequate to simulate this rate sensitive foam. PMID:21459114

  20. Material characterization and computer model simulation of low density polyurethane foam used in a rodent traumatic brain injury model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Gurao, Manish; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2011-05-15

    Computer models of the head can be used to simulate the events associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and quantify biomechanical response within the brain. Marmarou's impact acceleration rodent model is a widely used experimental model of TBI mirroring axonal pathology in humans. The mechanical properties of the low density polyurethane (PU) foam, an essential piece of energy management used in Marmarou's impact device, has not been fully characterized. The foam used in Marmarou's device was tested at seven strain rates ranging from quasi-static to dynamic (0.014-42.86 s⁻¹) to quantify the stress-strain relationships in compression. Recovery rate of the foam after cyclic compression was also determined through the periods of recovery up to three weeks. The experimentally determined stress-strain curves were incorporated into a material model in an explicit Finite Element (FE) solver to validate the strain rate dependency of the FE foam model. Compression test results have shown that the foam used in the rodent impact acceleration model is strain rate dependent. The foam has been found to be reusable for multiple impacts. However the stress resistance of used foam is reduced to 70% of the new foam. The FU_CHANG_FOAM material model in an FE solver has been found to be adequate to simulate this rate sensitive foam. PMID:21459114

  1. Aging of polyurethane foam insulation in simulated refrigerator panels -- Initial results with third-generation blowing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E.; Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.

    1998-11-01

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements -- HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for about 250 days of aging for the core-foam specimens and for the first six months of aging for the full-thickness panels.

  2. Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--One-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Gabbard, W.A.; Weaver, F.J.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1999-09-27

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and {minus}10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first year of a multi-year study for the full-thickness panels and for about 1-1/2 years of aging for the core-foam specimens.

  3. Modification, crosslinking and reactive electrospinning of a thermoplastic medical polyurethane for vascular graft applications.

    PubMed

    Theron, J P; Knoetze, J H; Sanderson, R D; Hunter, R; Mequanint, K; Franz, T; Zilla, P; Bezuidenhout, D

    2010-07-01

    Thermoplastic polyurethanes are used in a variety of medical devices and experimental tissue engineering scaffolds. Despite advances in polymer composition to improve their stability, the correct balance between chemical and mechanical properties is not always achieved. A model compound (MC) simulating the structure of a widely used medical polyurethane (Pellethane) was synthesized and reacted with aliphatic and olefinic acyl chlorides to study the reaction site and conditions. After adopting the conditions to the olefinic modification of Pellethane, processing into flat sheets, and crosslinking by thermal initiation or ultraviolet radiation, mechanical properties were determined. The modified polyurethane was additionally electrospun under ultraviolet light to produce a crosslinked tubular vascular graft prototype. Model compound studies showed reaction at the carbamide nitrogen, and the modification of Pellethane with pentenoyl chloride could be accurately controlled to up to 20% (correlation: rho=0.99). Successful crosslinking was confirmed by insolubility of the materials. Initiator concentrations were optimized and the crosslink densities shown to increase with increasing modification. Crosslinking of Pellethane containing an increasing number of pentenoyl groups resulted in decreases (up to 42%, p<0.01) in the hysteresis and 44% in creep (p<0.05), and in a significant improvement in degradation resistance in vitro. Modified Pellethane was successfully electrospun into tubular grafts and crosslinked using UV irradiation during and after spinning to render them insoluble. Prototype grafts had sufficient burst pressure (>550 mm Hg), and compliances of 12.1+/-0.8 and 6.2+/-0.3%/100 mm Hg for uncrosslinked and crosslinked samples, respectively. It is concluded that the viscoelastic properties of a standard thermoplastic polyurethane can be improved by modification and subsequent crosslinking, and that the modified material may be electrospun and initiated to yield

  4. Accelerated Aging of BKC 44306-10 Rigid Polyurethane Foam: FT-IR Spectroscopy, Dimensional Analysis, and Micro Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, Robert D.; Patterson, Brian M.; Smith, Zachary

    2014-01-02

    An accelerated aging study of BKC 44306-10 rigid polyurethane foam was carried out. Foam samples were aged in a nitrogen atmosphere at three different temperatures: 50 °C, 65 °C, and 80 °C. Foam samples were periodically removed from the aging canisters at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 month intervals when FT-IR spectroscopy, dimensional analysis, and mechanical testing experiments were performed. Micro Computed Tomography imaging was also employed to study the morphology of the foams. Over the course of the aging study the foams the decreased in size by a magnitude of 0.001 inches per inch of foam. Micro CT showed the heterogeneous nature of the foam structure likely resulting from flow effects during the molding process. The effect of aging on the compression and tensile strength of the foam was minor and no cause for concern. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the foam chemistry. However, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the changes in chemical nature of the materials due to large variability throughout the samples.

  5. A randomized, controlled trial of negative pressure wound therapy of pressure ulcers via a novel polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Marcus James Dermot; Driver, Sara; Coghlan, Patrick; Greenwood, John Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to look for any local, clinically apparent response, within and around a debrided wound, to a novel biocompatible polyurethane foam during repeated, short-term implantation, and (2) to assess the material's efficacy as a negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) interface compared with a widely used, commercially available foam. Twenty pressure ulcers in 18 patients underwent surgical debridement, then randomization to receive novel treatment or control foam as the wound interface for NPWT. Dressing changes every 2-3 days allowed qualitative wound assessment and quantitative measurement to compare outcomes. No adverse reaction was observed in any patient receiving the new foam. The new "novel foam" performed as a NPWT interface as effectively as the control "standard foam." In deep wounds, the new foam was easier to remove, fragmented less, and showed less retention than the control foam. No marginal in-growth occurred, making removal less traumatic and reducing bleeding from cavity wall granulations. The results support previous large animal studies, and independent ISO10993 testing, that the new foam is safe and biocompatible. Its efficacy as an NPWT interface, nontraumatic removal with low fragmentation and retention rate, favors the new material, especially in deep cavity wounds. PMID:24635170

  6. Quantitative separation of zinc traces from cadmium matrices by solid-phase extraction with polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Santiago de Jesus, D; Souza de Carvalho, M; Spínola Costa, A C; Costa Ferreira, S L

    1998-08-01

    A system for separation of zinc traces from large amounts of cadmium is proposed in this paper. It is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc in the form of thiocyanate complexes by the polyurethane foam. The following parameters were studied: effect of pH and of the thiocyanate concentration on the zinc extraction, shaking time required for quantitative extraction, amount of PU foam necessary for complete extraction, conditions for the separation of zinc from cadmium, influence of other cations and anions on the zinc sorption by PU foam, and required conditions for back extraction of zinc from the PU foam. The results show that zinc traces can be separated from large amounts of cadmium at pH 3.0+/-0.50, with the range of thiocyanate concentration from 0.15 to 0.20 mol l(-1), and the shaking time of 5 min. The back extraction of zinc can be done by shaking it with water for 10 min. Calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium, aluminum, nickel and iron(II) are efficiently separated. Iron(III), copper(II) and cobalt(II) are extracted simultaneously with zinc, but the iron reduction with ascorbic acid and the use of citrate to mask copper(II) and cobalt(II) increase the selectivity of the zinc extraction. The anions nitrate, chloride, sulfate, acetate, thiosulphate, tartarate, oxalate, fluoride, citrate, and carbonate do not affect the zinc extraction. Phosphate and EDTA must be absent. The method proposed was applied to determine zinc in cadmium salts using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) as a spectrophotometric reagent. The result achieved did not show significant difference in the accuracy and precision (95% confidence level) with those obtained by ICP-AES analysis. PMID:18967283

  7. Straightforward approach to graft bioactive polysaccharides onto polyurethane surfaces using an ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, Sandra; Louarn, Guy; Kébir, Nasreddine; Burel, Fabrice

    2014-09-01

    Surface properties directly affect the performance of a material in a biological environment. In this study, the goal was to develop a simple procedure allowing the grafting of antibacterial polysaccharides onto biomedical grade polyurethanes (e.g. Tecothane®). Thus, a straightforward chemical pathway involving an isothiocyanate-alcohol reaction in an ionic liquid (IL) was developed. PU isothiocyanted surfaces (PU-NCS) were first prepared by reacting p-phenylene diisothiocyanate with the surface urethane groups. Then, unmodified bioactive seaweed polysaccharides were directly grafted onto the surface, in mild conditions. The selected IL, i.e. 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium phosphate, was of particular interest since this liquid worked as solvent for p-phenylene diisothiocyanate and the polysaccharides and as catalyst for the grafting reactions. Successful grafting of the different polysaccharides was attested by changes in the surface functional groups, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that polysaccharide grafting, slightly increased the surface roughness from 1.9 to more than 7 nm. Contact angle with water decreased from 88° (for native PU) to around 75° after polysaccharide grafting, attesting a more hydrophilic surface. This procedure would be transposed to the grafting onto PU surfaces of any macromolecule of interest bearing hydroxyl, thiol or amine groups.

  8. Hydroxyalkylation and polyether polyol grafting of graphene tailored for graphene/polyurethane nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Appel, Anna-Katharina; Thomann, Ralf; Mülhaupt, Rolf

    2013-08-01

    Graphene functionalization by hydroxyalkylation and grafting with polyether polyols enables polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites formation by in situ polymerization with isocyanates combined with effective covalent interfacial coupling. Functionalized graphene (FG) hydroxylation is achieved either by alkylation, transesterification, or grafting of thermally reduced graphite oxide. In the presence of K2 CO3 as catalyst the reaction of FG-OH with ethylene carbonate at 180 °C affords hydroxyethylated FG, whereas transesterification with castor oil produces riconoleiate-modified FG polyols. In the "grafting-from" process, FG-alkoholate macro initiators initiate the graft polymerization of propylene oxide to produce hybrid FG polyols containing 38 and 59 wt% oligopropylene oxide. In the "grafting-to" process 3-ethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-oxetane is cationically polymerized onto FG-OH, producing novel hyperbranched FG-based polyether polyols. Whereas hydroxylation and grafting of FG greatly improve FG dispersion in organic solvents, polyols and even PU, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, matrix reinforcement of FG/PU is impaired by increasing alkyl chain length and polyol graft copolymer content. PMID:23836705

  9. Synthesis of Lipid Based Polyols from 1-butene Metathesized Palm Oil for Use in Polyurethane Foam Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan Pillai, Prasanth Kumar

    This thesis explores the use of 1-butene cross metathesized palm oil (PMTAG) as a feedstock for preparation of polyols which can be used to prepare rigid and flexible polyurethane foams. PMTAG is advantageous over its precursor feedstock, palm oil, for synthesizing polyols, especially for the preparation of rigid foams, because of the reduction of dangling chain effects associated with the omega unsaturated fatty acids. 1-butene cross metathesis results in shortening of the unsaturated fatty acid moieties, with approximately half of the unsaturated fatty acids assuming terminal double bonds. It was shown that the associated terminal OH groups introduced through epoxidation and hydroxylation result in rigid foams with a compressive strength approximately 2.5 times higher than that of rigid foams from palm and soybean oil polyols. Up to 1.5 times improvement in the compressive strength value of the rigid foams from the PMTAG polyol was further obtained following dry and/or solvent assisted fractionation of PMTAG in order to reduce the dangling chain effects associated with the saturated components of the PMTAG. Flexible foams with excellent recovery was achieved from the polyols of PMTAG and the high olein fraction of PMTAG indicating that these bio-derived polyurethane foams may be suitable for flexible foam applications. PMTAG polyols with controlled OH values prepared via an optimized green solvent free synthetic strategy provided flexible foams with lower compressive strength and higher recovery; i.e., better flexible foam potential compared to the PMTAG derived foams with non-controlled OH values. Overall, this study has revealed that the dangling chain issues of vegetable oils can be addressed in part using appropriate chemical and physical modification techniques such as cross metathesis and fractionation, respectively. In fact, the rigidity and the compressive strength of the polyurethane foams were in very close agreement with the percentage of terminal

  10. Polyurethane foam pica in a patient with excessive interdialytic weight gain.

    PubMed

    Iyasere, Osasuyi; Allington, Ying; Cafferkey, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining fluid balance in haemodialysis patients is important because of the adverse effects of excessive interdialytic weight gain. This often requires fluid restriction that patients often struggle with. We report a case of a 31-year-old female diabetic patient on haemodialysis with repeated excessive interdialytic weight gains despite fluid restriction and dry weight adjustment. It was subsequently discovered that she devised an unusual, albeit unsuccessful, strategy of eating the polyurethane foam from her dialysis chair while increasing her fluid intake hoping that it would absorb excess water in the gut! This under-diagnosed phenomenon known as pica has been reported in renal patients with substances such as ice, clay and baking soda. PMID:22767521

  11. Immobilization of Streptomyces thermotolerans 11432 on polyurethane foam to improve production of acetylisovaleryltylosin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongji; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Jiaheng; Caiyin, Qinggele; Qiao, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, polyurethane foam (PUF) was chemically treated to immobilize Streptomyces thermotolerans 11432 for semi-continuous production of acetylisovaleryltylosin (AIV). Based on experimental results, positive cross-linked PUF (PCPUF) was selected as the most effective carrier according to immobilized cell mass. The effect of adsorption time on immobilized mass was investigated. AIV concentration (33.54 mg/l) in batch fermentations with immobilized cells was higher than with free cells (20.34 mg/l). In repeated batch fermentations with immobilized S. thermotolerans 11432 using PCPUF cubes, high AIV concentrations and conversion rates were attained, ranging from 25.56 to 34.37 mg/l and 79.93 to 86.31 %, respectively. Significantly, this method provides a feasible strategy for efficient AIV production and offers the potential for large-scale production. PMID:25413211

  12. Pollutant emissions during the pyrolysis and combustion of flexible polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Garrido, María A; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    Thermal decomposition of flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) was studied under nitrogen and air atmospheres at 550°C and 850°C using a laboratory scale reactor to analyse the evolved products. Ammonia, hydrogen cyanide and nitrile compounds were obtained in high yields in pyrolysis at the lower temperature, whereas at 850°C polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other semivolatile compounds, especially compounds containing nitrogen (benzonitrile, aniline, quinolone and indene) were the most abundant products. Different behaviour was observed in the evolution of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) at 550°C and 850°C. At 550°C, the less chlorinated congeners, mainly PCDF, were more abundant. Contrarily, at 850°C the most chlorinated PCDD were dominant. In addition, the total yields of PCDD/Fs in the pyrolysis and combustion runs at 850°C were low and quite similar. PMID:27095290

  13. Physicochemical characterization of chitosan/nylon6/polyurethane foam chemically cross-linked ternary blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Sudha, P. N.

    2013-03-01

    Chitosan/nylon6/polyurethane foam (CS/Ny6/PUF) ternary blend was prepared and chemically cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Structural, thermal and morphological studies were performed for the prepared ternary blends. Characterizations of the ternary blends were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The FTIR results showed that the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds took place between CS, Ny6 and PUF. TGA and DSC studies reveal that the thermal stability of the blend is enhanced by glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Results of XRD indicated that the relative crystalline of pure CS film was reduced when the polymeric network was reticulated by glutaraldehyde. Finally, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the morphology of the blend is rough and heterogeneous, further it confirms the interaction between the functional groups of the blend components.

  14. Osteoinductive PolyHIPE Foams as Injectable Bone Grafts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer L; McEnery, Madison A P; Pearce, Hannah; Whitely, Michael E; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J; Hahn, Mariah S; Li, Huinan; Sears, Nicholas A; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    We have recently fabricated biodegradable polyHIPEs as injectable bone grafts and characterized the mechanical properties, pore architecture, and cure rates. In this study, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) particles were incorporated into injectable polyHIPE foams to promote osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Upon incorporation of each type of particle, stable monoliths were formed with compressive properties comparable to control polyHIPEs. Pore size quantification indicated a negligible effect of all particles on emulsion stability and resulting pore architecture. Alizarin red calcium staining illustrated the incorporation of calcium phosphate particles at the pore surface, while picrosirius red collagen staining illustrated collagen-rich DBM particles within the monoliths. Osteoinductive particles had a negligible effect on the compressive modulus (∼30 MPa), which remained comparable to human cancellous bone values. All polyHIPE compositions promoted human MSC viability (∼90%) through 2 weeks. Furthermore, gene expression analysis indicated the ability of all polyHIPE compositions to promote osteogenic differentiation through the upregulation of bone-specific markers compared to a time zero control. These findings illustrate the potential for these osteoinductive polyHIPEs to promote osteogenesis and validate future in vivo evaluation. Overall, this work demonstrates the ability to incorporate a range of bioactive components into propylene fumarate dimethacrylate-based injectable polyHIPEs to increase cellular interactions and direct specific behavior without compromising scaffold architecture and resulting properties for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:26739120

  15. Aging of Polyurethane Foam Insulation in Simulated Refrigerator Panels--Three-Year Results with Third-Generation Blowing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E.

    2001-05-29

    Laboratory data are presented on the effect of constant-temperature aging on the apparent thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam insulation for refrigerators and freezers. The foam specimens were blown with HCFC-141b and with three of its potential replacements--HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, and cyclopentane. Specimens were aged at constant temperatures of 90 F, 40 F, and -10 F. Thermal conductivity measurements were made on two types of specimens: full-thickness simulated refrigerator panels containing foam enclosed between solid plastic sheets, and thin slices of core foam cut from similar panels. Results are presented for the first three years of a multi-year aging study. Preliminary comparisons of measured data with predictions of a mathematical aging model are presented.

  16. Effect of replacing polyol by organosolv and kraft lignin on the property and structure of rigid polyurethane foam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignin is one of the three major components in plant cell walls, and it can be isolated (dissolved) from the cell wall in pretreatment or chemical pulping. However, there is a lack of high-value applications for lignin, and the commonest proposal for lignin is power and steam generation through combustion. Organosolv ethanol process is one of the effective pretreatment methods for woody biomass for cellulosic ethanol production, and kraft process is a dominant chemical pulping method in paper industry. In the present research, the lignins from organosolv pretreatment and kraft pulping were evaluated to replace polyol for producing rigid polyurethane foams (RPFs). Results Petroleum-based polyol was replaced with hardwood ethanol organosolv lignin (HEL) or hardwood kraft lignin (HKL) from 25% to 70% (molar percentage) in preparing rigid polyurethane foam. The prepared foams contained 12-36% (w/w) HEL or 9-28% (w/w) HKL. The density, compressive strength, and cellular structure of the prepared foams were investigated and compared. Chain extenders were used to improve the properties of the RPFs. Conclusions It was found that lignin was chemically crosslinked not just physically trapped in the rigid polyurethane foams. The lignin-containing foams had comparable structure and strength up to 25-30% (w/w) HEL or 19-23% (w/w) HKL addition. The results indicated that HEL performed much better in RPFs and could replace more polyol at the same strength than HKL because the former had a better miscibility with the polyol than the latter. Chain extender such as butanediol could improve the strength of lignin-containing RPFs. PMID:23356502

  17. Inhibition of protein adsorption and cell adhesion on PNIPAAm-grafted polyurethane surface: effect of graft molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tieliang; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Jun; Yu, Qian; Wu, Zhaoqiang; Yuan, Lin

    2011-06-15

    In this work, the effect of molecular weight (MW) of surface grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) on protein adsorption and cell adhesion was investigated systematically. PNIPAAm-grafted polyurethane (PU) surfaces of varying graft MW were prepared via conventional radical polymerization. The MW was controlled by adjusting the monomer concentration. Fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA) were selected as model proteins and their adsorption from phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) and blood plasma at 37°C was measured using a radiolabeling method and immunoblot analysis respectively. It was found that in both media, as the MW increased, the adsorption of these two proteins decreased gradually reaching a plateau value at MW above 7.9×10(4). Compared to the unmodified PU, the surface grafted with PNIPAAm of MW 14.6×10(4) reduced the adsorption of Fg and HSA in PBS by 91% and 86%, respectively. Moreover, the surfaces with higher MW PNIPAAm showed minimal adhesion of L929 cells presumably due to the absence of cell-adhesive proteins on the surfaces. PMID:21093225

  18. Experimental determination of drag coefficients in low-density polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M L

    2006-04-18

    We describe several experiments performed at the LLNL Site 300 firing range and on the LLNL 1/3 scale gun to investigate the deceleration of small projectiles (l {approx} 3-5 [mm]) in low-density foam ({rho} {approx} 0.08-0.32 [g/cm{sup 3}]). The experiments at the firing range researched a passive velocity diagnostic based on Faraday's law of induction, while experiments on the 1/3 scale gun investigated the effects of varying projectile surface area, projectile shape, and foam density on the drag coefficient c{sub d}. Analysis shows that the velocity diagnostic has an uncertainty on the order of 1 percent for projectiles with velocity v {approx} 0.8-1.2 [km/s]. The 1/3 scale gun experiments, dubbed the Krispy Kreme series, included nine shots considering the combinations of 3 projectile surface areas with 3 target densities. The experiments used Tantalum square surface area block projectiles (with an initial velocity v{sub 0} {approx} 1.2 [km/s], a common thickness T = 2.67 [mm], and square side lengths of 3, 4, and 5 [mm]) decelerating in polyurethane foams (with densities {rho}{sub f} of 0.08, 0.16 and 0.32 [g/cm{sup 3}]). Standard fluid models of the Krispy Kreme experiments predict Reynolds numbers Re {approx} 10{sup 5} - 10{sup 6}, Mach numbers Ma {approx} 0.5-2.0, and drag coefficients c{sub d} {approx} 2-3. However, the data indicate that c{sub d} = 1.1-1.2 (c{sub d} = 1.7) for all three block projectiles in the 0.08 and 0.16 [g/cm{sup 3}] targets (0.32 [g/cm{sup 3}] target). First, we conclude that the drag force on projectiles in solid polyurethane foam is less than in fluids with equivalent dimensionless parameters. This result is also supported by an additional Krispy Kreme experiment that used a disk projectile (with diameter d = 4.51 [mm] and thickness T = 2.67 [mm]) penetrating a target with density {rho} = 0.16 [g/cm{sup 3}], i.e., the fluid-like c{sub d} = 1.15 while the measured c{sub d} = 0.63. Second, we conclude that the measured drag

  19. Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) loose-fill foam: preparation, properties and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Gordon, S H; Imam, S H

    2004-01-01

    Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) (S-g-PMA) was prepared by ceric ion initiation of methyl acrylate in an aqueous corn starch slurry (prime starch) which maximized the accessibility of the starch for graft polymerization. A new ceric ion reaction sequence was established as starch-initiator-methyl acrylate followed by addition of a small amount of ceric ion solution when the graft polymerization was almost complete to quench the reaction. As a result of this improved procedure, no unreacted methyl acrylate monomer remained, and thus, essentially no ungrafted poly(methyl acrylate) homopolymer was formed in the final grafted product. Quantities of the high purity S-g-PMA so prepared in pilot scale were converted to resin pellets and loose-fill foam by single screw and twin screw extrusion. The use of prime starch significantly improved the physical properties of the final loose-fill foam, in comparison to foam produced from regular dry corn starch. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam had compressive strength and resiliency comparable to expanded polystyrene but higher bulk density. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam also had better moisture and water resistance than other competitive starch-based materials. Studies indicated that the starch portion in S-g-PMA loose-fill foam biodegraded rapidly, whereas poly(methyl acrylate) remained relatively stable under natural environmental conditions. PMID:14715032

  20. Identification of CFC and HCFC substitutes for blowing polyurethane foam insulation products. Report for September 1993-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, P.H.; Tunkel, J.L.; Hendriks, R.V.

    1996-04-01

    The paper gives results of a systematic search to identify additional candidates as third-generation blowing agents, chemical compounds that are not stratospheric ozone depleters that can be used as substitutes for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) blowing agents in rigid polyurethane foam insulating materials. To identify the most promising substitutes, potential third-generation blowing agents were ranked using a methodology developed for this project.

  1. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOEpatents

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1991-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

  2. Polydopamine-coated open cell polyurethane foams as an inexpensive, flexible yet robust catalyst support: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Pardieu, Elodie; Chau, Nguyet Trang Thanh; Dintzer, Thierry; Romero, Thierry; Favier, Damien; Roland, Thierry; Edouard, David; Jierry, Loïc; Ritleng, Vincent

    2016-03-17

    Commercially available polyurethane open cell foams are readily coated with mussel-inspired polydopamine. The polydopamine film allows robust immobilisation of TiO2 nanoparticles at the surface of the three-dimensional material. The resulting catalyst is efficient for the photo-degradation of an azo dye, reusable and highly resistant to mechanical stress. A novel type of robust structured catalytic support, easily accessible via an inexpensive and green process, is thus described. PMID:26952989

  3. Polyurethane rigid foam, a proven thermal insulating material for applications between +130°C and -196°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demharter, Anton

    Polyurethanes are high molecular weight polymers based on the polyaddition of polyfunctional hydroxyl-group containing compounds and polyisocyanates. A wide variety of properties can be tailored to fulfil the requirements of different applications: soft to hard, plastic, elastic or thermoset, compact or foamed. Compared with other insulating materials, PUR rigid foam is highly competitive. There are five product-related advantages: lowest thermal conductivity, high mechanical and chemical properties at both high and low temperatures, all major international fire safety requirements can be satisfied, the ability to form sandwich structures with various facer materials, and the new generation of PUR is CFC-free and recyclable. Rigid polyurethane foams perform well in most areas of low-temperature insulations. Products in density ranging from approximately 30 to 200 kg m -3 withstand temperatures down to -196°C. Typical applications are: refrigerated vehicles, road and rail tankers, vessels for refrigerated cargo, pipelines, liquid gas tanks for LPG and LNG and cryogenic wind tunnels. The paper presents applications, corresponding properties of the rigid foams used, and also other insulating materials in competition to PUR are discussed.

  4. The effect of external magnetic fields on the pore structure of polyurethane foams loaded with magnetic microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schümann, M.; Seelig, N.; Odenbach, S.

    2015-10-01

    Elastic matrices loaded with magnetic microparticles are a new kind of magnetic hybrid material gaining a lot of scientific interest during the last few years. The central advantage of those materials is given by the possibility to control the mechanical properties by external stimuli, in this case external magnetic fields. Due to their extraordinary elastic properties, polyurethane foams are a promising matrix material for a new approach to synthesize such magnetic hybrid materials. A key to a deeper understanding of this new material is the investigation on how the inner structure of the hybrid material is controllable by the application of an external magnetic field during the polymerization. This paper presents a convenient method for analysis of structural changes of magnetically influenced particle loaded polyurethane foams. The geometry and size of up to 40 000 individual pores was evaluated by means of x-ray microtomography and digital image processing. A modest impact of the magnetic field on the pore structure was found with the utilized foam material, proving the convenient applicability of this method for future investigation with magnetic hybrid foams.

  5. Real-Time Measurement Of Polyurethane Foam Reactions And Hydrogen-Bonding By FT-IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Bradley L.; Harthcock, Matthew A.; Christenson, C. P.; Turner, R. B.

    1989-12-01

    The reaction and hydrogen-bond formation kinetics which occur in polyurethane foams will have an ultimate effect on the properties of these materials. Measurement of several urethane and urea carbonyl absorptions (free and hydrogen-bonded) provides two important pieces of information: (1) the chemical reactions which occur and (2) the progression of hydrogen-bond formation after reaction has completed. An attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique has been previously developed which allows real-time data to be obtained during the foaming reaction 1,2. The authors have adapted a similar system to studying foams in order to more quantitatively interpret the real-time data in terms of the complex hydrogen-bonding structure. The vibrational assignments used for the carbonyl region of polyurethane foam spectra are as follows: 1732 cm-1 free urethane 1712 free urea 1701 ordered hydrogen-bonded urethane 1699-1653 monodentate hydrogen-bonded urea (Fig. 1) 1641 bidentate/ordered hydrogen-bonded urea. (Fig. 1)

  6. Generation of Vascular Graft Biomaterials via the Modification of Polyurethane with Hyaluronic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Amaliris

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States, necessitating surgical interventions such as small diameter (I.D. <6 mm) bypass grafting. Although the use of autologous veins as small diameter grafts produces favorable results, their limited availability provides a significant obstacle. Meanwhile, several synthetic materials have demonstrated success as large-diameter vascular grafts, but exhibit poor patency and high failure rates in small-diameter applications. Based on these limitations and the clinical issues associated with them, it is clear that there is a significant need to develop new materials for cardiovascular and blood-contacting applications that could be used to fabricate small-diameter vascular grafts. Thus, in this thesis we have designed and characterized a new polymer that is composed of both synthetic and natural elements with the goal of generating a material that is appropriate for use in cardiovascular applications. Specifically, we describe the modification of polyurethane (PU), a synthetic polymer with many favorable physical characteristics, with hyaluronic acid (HA), a native glycosaminoglycan that possesses anti-thrombotic properties as well as the ability to modulate endothelial cell proliferation in a molecular weight-dependent manner. The goal of the present work was to assess in detail the impact of 1) HA molecular weight, 2) HA quantity, and 3) the method of HA incorporation (bulk vs. surface-grafted) on the vascular-specific performance of polyurethane-HA (PU-HA) materials, under static conditions and upon exposure to physiological shear stresses. The initial findings presented in this thesis indicate that these PU-HA materials possess many of the physical and biological properties that are necessary for implementation in vascular applications. These materials were able to simultaneously address the three major design criteria in vascular graft fabrication: hemocompatibility, endothelialization, and

  7. Understanding and Improving the Elastic Compressive Modulus of Fibre Reinforced Soy-Based Polyurethane Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Sadakat

    Soy-based polyurethane foams (PUFs) were reinforced with fibres of different aspect ratios to improve the compressive modulus. Each of the three fibre types reinforced PUF differently. Shorter micro-crystalline cellulose fibres were found embedded inside the cell struts of PUF and reinforced them. The reinforcement was attributed to be stress transfer from the matrix to the fibre by comparing the experimental results to those predicted by micro-mechanical models for short fibre reinforced composites. The reinforced cell struts increased the overall compressive modulus of the foam. Longer glass fibres (470 microns, length) provided the best reinforcement. These fibres were found to be larger than the cell diameters. The micro-mechanical models could not predict the reinforcement provided by the longer glass fibres. The models predicted negligible reinforcement because the very low modulus PUF should not transfer load to the higher modulus fibres. However, using a finite element model, it was determined that the fibres were providing reinforcement through direct fibre interaction with each other. Intermediate length glass fibres (260 microns, length) were found to poorly reinforce the PUF and should be avoided. These fibres were too short to interact with each other and were on average too large to embed and reinforce cell struts. In order to produce natural fibre reinforced PUFs in the future, a novel device was invented. The purpose of the device is to deliver natural fibres at a constant mass flow rate. The device was found to consistently meter individual loose natural fibre tufts at a mass flow rate of 2 grams per second. However, the device is not robust and requires further development to deliver a fine stream of natural fibre that can mix and interact with the curing polymeric components of PUF. A design plan was proposed to address the remaining issues with the device.

  8. Piloted Ignition to Flaming in Smoldering Fire-Retarded Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putzeys, O.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Urban, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming in the fire-retarded polyurethane foam Pyrell . The samples are small rectangular blocks with a square cross section, vertically placed in the wall of a vertical wind tunnel. Three of the vertical sample sides are insulated and the fourth side is exposed to an upward oxidizer flow of variable oxygen concentration and to a variable radiant heat flux. The gases emitted from the smoldering reaction pass upwards through a pilot, which consists of a coiled resistance heating wire. In order to compensate for the solid-phase and gas-phase effects of the fire retardants on the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming in Pyrell, it was necessary to assist the process by increasing the power supplied to the smolder igniter and the pilot (compared to that used for non-fire retarded foam). The experiments indicate that the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming occurs when the gaseous mixture at the pilot passes the lean flammability limit. It was found that increasing the oxygen concentration or the external heat flux increases the likelihood of a piloted transition from smoldering to flaming, and generally decreases the time delay to transition. The piloted transition to flaming is observed in oxygen concentrations of 23% and above in both low-density and high-density Pyrell. Comparisons with previous experiments show that the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming is possible under a wider range of external conditions (i.e. lower oxygen concentration) than the spontaneous transition from smoldering to flaming. The results show that the fire retardants in Pyrell are very effective in preventing the piloted transition to flaming in normal air, but Pyrell is susceptible to smoldering and the piloted transition to flaming in oxygen-enriched environments. Therefore, precautions should be taken in the design of applications of Pyrell in oxygen-enriched environments to reduce

  9. Transition from Forward Smoldering to Flaming in Small Polyurethane Foam Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Ilan, A.; Putzeys, O.; Rein, G.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental observations are presented of the effect of the flow velocity and oxygen concentration, and of a thermal radiant flux, on the transition from smoldering to flaming in forward smoldering of small samples of polyurethane foam with a gas/solid interface. The experiments are part of a project studying the transition from smolder to flaming under conditions encountered in spacecraft facilities, i.e., microgravity, low velocity variable oxygen concentration flows. Because the microgravity experiments are planned for the International Space Station, the foam samples had to be limited in size for safety and launch mass reasons. The feasible sample size is too small for smolder to self propagate because of heat losses to the surrounding environment. Thus, the smolder propagation and the transition to flaming had to be assisted by reducing the heat losses to the surroundings and increasing the oxygen concentration. The experiments are conducted with small parallelepiped samples vertically placed in a wind tunnel. Three of the sample lateral-sides are maintained at elevated temperature and the fourth side is exposed to an upward flow and to a radiant flux. It is found that decreasing the flow velocity and increasing its oxygen concentration, and/or increasing the radiant flux enhances the transition to flaming, and reduces the delay time to transition. Limiting external ambient conditions for the transition to flaming are reported for the present experimental set-up. The results show that smolder propagation and the transition to flaming can occur in relatively small fuel samples if the external conditions are appropriate. The results also indicate that transition to flaming occurs in the char left behind by the smolder reaction, and it has the characteristics of a gas-phase ignition induced by the smolder reaction, which acts as the source of both gaseous fuel and heat.

  10. Speciation of inorganic antimony (III & V) employing polyurethane foam loaded with bromopyrogallol red.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Gonçalves, Aline D; Cruz, Graziela F B; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony (Sb(III) and Sb(V)) is proposed using polyurethane foam loaded with bromopyrogallol red (PUF-BPR) as a selective sorbent for Sb(III). The quantification of Sb in the solutions was performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS), and several variables that could affect the performance of the method were carefully evaluated. The best conditions for the sorption of Sb(III) were achieved by shaking 50mg of PUF-BPR with the solutions containing Sb(III) at pH 4.0 for 90 min. In this condition, the retention of Sb(V) was not significant, whereas the removal of Sb(III) from the solution was higher than 95%. The desorption of Sb(III) from loaded PUF-BPR was possible by shaking the loaded foam with 7.5 mL of a 2.5 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution for 30 min. No interference of metal cations was observed on the solid-phase extraction of Sb(III) by PUF-BPR. The developed method was applied in the speciation analysis of antimony in river water samples fortified with different concentrations of Sb(III) and Sb(V). Also, we performed the determination of Sb(III) in a sample of a Sb-based drug utilized in the treatment of leishmaniasis. The results show that Sb(III) can be separated from high concentrations of Sb(V), since recoveries in the range of 81-110% were obtained in the analysis of the samples. The method presented limits of detection and quantification of 0.6 and 2 µg L(-1), respectively, for Sb(III) and 1 and 3 µg L(-1) for Sb(V), respectively. PMID:26838441

  11. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D&D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Boris, G.

    2008-02-21

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer{reg_sign} H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001.

  12. The role of nanocrystalline cellulose on the microstructure of foamed castor-oil polyurethane nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Andrés Ignacio; Amalvy, Javier Ignacio; Fortunati, Elena; Kenny, José María; Chiacchiarelli, Leonel Matías

    2015-12-10

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC), obtained by sulphuric acid hydrolysis, was used to synthesize polyurethane foams (PUFs) based on a functionalized castor oil polyol and a Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Formulations with varying isocyanate index (FI) and NCO number were prepared. At 0.5 wt.%, SEM's of the fractured surface underlined that the CNC acted both as a nucleation agent and as a particulate surfactant with cell geometries and apparent density changing selectively. The chemical structure of the PUF (FTIR) changed after the incorporation of CNC by a relative change of the amount of urea, urethane and isocyanurate groups. A low NCO number and isocyanate index contributed to the migration of the CNC to the Hard Segment (HS), acting as reinforcement and improving substantially the compressive mechanical properties (Ec and σc improvements of 63 and 50%, respectively). For a high NCO number or isocyanate index, the CNC migrated to the Soft Segment (SS), without causing a reinforcement effect. The migration of the CNC was also detected with DSC, TGA and DMA, furtherly supporting the hypothesis that a low NCO number and index contributed both to the formation of a microstructure with a higher content of urethane groups. PMID:26428106

  13. Characterization of immobilized enzymes in polyurethane foams in a dynamic bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z C; Korus, R A; Stormo, K E

    1993-06-01

    beta-D-Galactosidase (E 3.2.1.23) from Aspergillus oryzae was immobilized with polyurethane foam (PUF). Among several immobilization methods attempted in this work, the immobilized enzyme preparation by in-situ co-polymerization between enzyme and prepolymer HYPOL 3000 showed the highest activity. The intrinsic kinetics of PUF-immobilized enzyme was determined in a dynamic bed reactor, used to increase transport rates. The immobilization mechanism in PUF was studied by measurements of immobilized enzyme kinetics and by using scanning electron microscopy combined with immuno-gold labeling techniques. The results showed that immobilization was predominantly by covalent bonding between primary amino groups of beta-D-galactosidase and isocyanate groups of the prepolymers. Entrapment in the PUF micropores assisted the immobilization of enzymes, and adsorption on the surface of macropores was not important for immobilization. The bicinchoninic acid method was applied for the determination of PUF loading capacity and specific enzyme activity and used to determine enzyme deactivation during immobilization. PMID:7763711

  14. Pristine stratospheric collection of interplanetary dust on an oil-free polyurethane foam substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Keller, Lindsay P.; Clemett, Simon J.

    2015-08-01

    We performed chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic studies of the first interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere without the use of silicone oil. The collection substrate, polyurethane foam, effectively traps impacting particles, but the lack of an embedding medium results in significant particle fragmentation. Two dust particles found on the collector exhibit the typical compositional and mineralogical properties of chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs). Hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic imaging revealed isotopic anomalies of typical magnitude and spatial variability observed in previous CP-IDP studies. Oxygen isotopic imaging shows that individual mineral grains and glass with embedded metal and sulfide (GEMS) grains are dominated by solar system materials. No systematic differences are observed in element abundance patterns of GEMS grains from the dry collection versus silicone oil-collected IDPs. This initial study establishes the validity of a new IDP collection substrate that avoids the use of silicone oil as a collection medium, removing the need for this problematic contaminant and the organic solvents necessary to remove it. Additional silicone oil-free collections of this type are needed to determine more accurate bulk element abundances of IDPs and to examine the indigenous soluble organic components of IDPs.

  15. Thermochemical conversion of crude glycerol to biopolyols for the production of polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaolan; Hu, Shengjun; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Yebo

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to produce biopolyols from crude glycerol via a novel thermochemical conversion process. The effect of operational parameters, including sulfuric acid loading and reaction temperature and time, on the properties of the produced biopolyols was investigated. Biopolyols produced under preferred reaction conditions of 200°C, 90 min, and 3% sulfuric acid loading showed a hydroxyl number of around 481 mg KOH/g, an acid number of around 5mg KOH/g, and a viscosity of around 25.0 Pas. The resulting polyurethane (PU) foams showed a compressive strength of around 184.5 kPa and a density of around 43.0 kg/m(3), comparable to those of some petroleum-based analogs. Characterization of the biopolyols via pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), gas chromatography (GC), and thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA) showed that the major reactions of this process were the formation of monoglycerides and diglycerides through the esterification and transesterification of different components in crude glycerol. PMID:23665694

  16. Evaluation of the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air sampler: Computational modeling and experimental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Andrew A.; Ashman, Paul; Huang, Jiaoyan; Dhaniyala, Suresh; Holsen, Thomas M.

    2011-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations coupled with wind tunnel-experiments were used to determine the sampling rate (SR) of the widely used polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive sampler. In the wind-tunnel experiments, water evaporation rates from a water saturated PUF disk installed in the sampler housing were determined by measuring weight loss over time. In addition, a modified passive sampler designed to collect elemental mercury (Hg 0) with gold-coated filters was used. Experiments were carried out at different wind speeds and various sampler angles. The SRs obtained from wind-tunnel experiments were compared to those obtained from the field by scaling the values by the ratios of air diffusivities. Three-dimensional (3D) CFD simulations were also used to generate SRs for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Hg 0. Overall, the modeled and measured SRs agree well and are consistent with the values obtained from field studies. As previously observed, the SRs increased linearly with increasing wind speed. In addition, it was determined that the SR was strongly dependent on the angle of the ambient wind. The SRs increased when the base was tilted up pointing into the wind and when the base was tilted down (i.e., such that the top of the sampler was facing the wind) the SR decreased initially and then increased. The results suggest that there may be significant uncertainty in concentrations obtained from passive sampler measurements without knowledge of wind speed and wind angle relative to the sampler.

  17. Thermal, Morphological and Rheological Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foams as Thermal Insulating Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji Mun; Han, Mi Sun; Kim, Youn Hee; Kim, Woo Nyon

    2008-07-07

    The polyurethane foams (PUFs) were prepared by polyether polyols, polymeric 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI), silicone surfactants, amine catalysts and cyclopentane as a blowing agent. Solid and liquid type fillers were used as a nucleating agent to decrease a cell size of the PUFs as well as improve the thermal insulating properties of the PUFs. The PUFs were prepared by adding solid and liquid type fillers in the range of 1 to 3 wt%. For the liquid type fillers, the cell size of the PUFs showed minimum and found to decrease compared the PUF without adding fillers. Also, thermal conductivity of the PUFs with adding fillers showed minimum. For the solid type fillers, cell size and thermal conductivity of the PUFs were observed to decrease with the filler content up to 3 wt%. From these results, it is suggested that the thermal insulating property of the PUFs can be improved by adding fillers as a nucleating agent. Also, storage and loss modulus of the PUFs will be presented to study gelling points of the PUFs.

  18. Case study for model validation : assessing a model for thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam.

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Leslie, Ian H.; Hobbs, Michael L.; Rutherford, Brian Milne; Hills, Richard Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2004-10-01

    A case study is reported to document the details of a validation process to assess the accuracy of a mathematical model to represent experiments involving thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. The focus of the report is to work through a validation process. The process addresses the following activities. The intended application of mathematical model is discussed to better understand the pertinent parameter space. The parameter space of the validation experiments is mapped to the application parameter space. The mathematical models, computer code to solve the models and its (code) verification are presented. Experimental data from two activities are used to validate mathematical models. The first experiment assesses the chemistry model alone and the second experiment assesses the model of coupled chemistry, conduction, and enclosure radiation. The model results of both experimental activities are summarized and uncertainty of the model to represent each experimental activity is estimated. The comparison between the experiment data and model results is quantified with various metrics. After addressing these activities, an assessment of the process for the case study is given. Weaknesses in the process are discussed and lessons learned are summarized.

  19. Effect of DMMP on the pyrolysis products of polyurethane foam materials in the gaseous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.; He, J.; Gao, N.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) has been used as a flame retardant containing phosphorus to decrease the flammability of the polyurethane foam material (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results show that LOI values of all PUF/DMMP samples are higher than that of the neat PUF sample and the LOI value of the samples increases with both DMMP concentration and the %P value. Thermal analysis indicates that flame retardant PUF shows a dominant condensed flame retardant activity during combustion. Thermogravimetric analysis-infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR) has been used to study the influence of DMMP on the pyrolysis products in the gaseous phase during the thermal degradation of the PUF sample. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) spectra of the PUF sample at the maximum evolution rates and the generated trends of water and the products containing -NCO have been examined to obtain more information about the pyrolysis product evolutions of the samples at high temperature. These results reveal that although DMMP could improve the thermal stability of PUF samples through the formation of the residual char layer between fire and the decomposed materials, the influence of DMMP on the gaseous phase can be also observed during the thermal degradation process of materials.

  20. One-pot, bioinspired coatings to reduce the flammability of flexible polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rick; Li, Yu-Chin; Gervasio, Michelle; Luu, Jason; Kim, Yeon Seok

    2015-03-25

    In this manuscript, natural materials were combined into a single "pot" to produce flexible, highly fire resistant, and bioinspired coatings on flexible polyurethane foam (PUF). In one step, PUF was coated with a fire protective layer constructed of a polysaccharide binder (starch or agar), a boron fire retardant (boric acid or derivative), and a dirt char former (montmorillonite clay). Nearly all coatings produced a 63% reduction in a critical flammability value, the peak heat release rate (PHRR). One formulation produced a 75% reduction in PHRR. This technology was validated in full-scale furniture fire tests, where a 75% reduction in PHRR was measured. At these PHRR values, this technology could reduce the fire threat of furniture from significant fire damage in and beyond the room of fire origin to being contained to the burning furniture. This flammability reduction was caused by three mechanisms-the gas-phase and condensed-phase processes of the boron fire retardant and the condensed-phase process of the clay. We describe the one-pot coating process and the impact of the coating composition on flammability. PMID:25723711

  1. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  2. An approach to model validation and model-based prediction -- polyurethane foam case study.

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2003-07-01

    Enhanced software methodology and improved computing hardware have advanced the state of simulation technology to a point where large physics-based codes can be a major contributor in many systems analyses. This shift toward the use of computational methods has brought with it new research challenges in a number of areas including characterization of uncertainty, model validation, and the analysis of computer output. It is these challenges that have motivated the work described in this report. Approaches to and methods for model validation and (model-based) prediction have been developed recently in the engineering, mathematics and statistical literatures. In this report we have provided a fairly detailed account of one approach to model validation and prediction applied to an analysis investigating thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. A model simulates the evolution of the foam in a high temperature environment as it transforms from a solid to a gas phase. The available modeling and experimental results serve as data for a case study focusing our model validation and prediction developmental efforts on this specific thermal application. We discuss several elements of the ''philosophy'' behind the validation and prediction approach: (1) We view the validation process as an activity applying to the use of a specific computational model for a specific application. We do acknowledge, however, that an important part of the overall development of a computational simulation initiative is the feedback provided to model developers and analysts associated with the application. (2) We utilize information obtained for the calibration of model parameters to estimate the parameters and quantify uncertainty in the estimates. We rely, however, on validation data (or data from similar analyses) to measure the variability that contributes to the uncertainty in predictions for specific systems or units (unit-to-unit variability). (3) We perform statistical analyses and

  3. The determination of acoustic reflection coefficients by using cepstral techniques, I: Experimental procedures and measurements of polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, J. S.; Gold, E.

    1986-10-01

    The authors have previously outlined a transient free field technique, based on cepstral analysis, for the measurement of acoustic reflection coefficients. In this paper are described laboratory acoustical measurements of the normal incidence reflection coefficient of an absorbent material: emphasis is placed on practical aspects of the technique. Specifically, the origin of extraction noise, which distorts the reflector impulse response as it appears in the power cepstrum, is discussed and means of reducing it are described and implemented. Secondly, a means of identifying and removing the time delay introduced when the reflector impulse response is copied from the cepstrum is described; this procedure eliminates the need for highly accurate measurements of path length difference. The absorbent material tested was a commercial partially reticulated polyurethane foam. Bonded to one side of the foam was an impermeable polyurethane membrane, and the foam was measured in two configurations: first with its film covered face uppermost, then with its uncovered face uppermost. The broad frequency range of the measurements made possible by the cepstral technique has given a good picture of the properties of this material. These results will be considered in detail in a subsequent publication.

  4. Electrospinning thermoplastic polyurethane/graphene oxide scaffolds for small diameter vascular graft applications.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin; Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R; Cordie, Travis M; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    Fabrication of small diameter vascular grafts plays an important role in vascular tissue engineering. In this study, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/graphene oxide (GO) scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning at different GO contents as potential candidates for small diameter vascular grafts. In terms of mechanical and surface properties, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and hydrophilicity of the scaffolds increased with an increase of GO content while plasma treatment dramatically improved the scaffold hydrophilicity. Mouse fibroblast (3T3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on the scaffolds separately to study their biocompatibility and potential to be used as vascular grafts. It was found that cell viability for both types of cells, fibroblast proliferation, and HUVEC attachment were the highest at a 0.5wt.% GO loading whereas oxygen plasma treatment also enhanced HUVEC viability and attachment significantly. In addition, the suture retention strength and burst pressure of tubular TPU/GO scaffolds containing 0.5wt.% GO were found to meet the requirements of human blood vessels, and endothelial cells were able to attach to the inner surface of the tubular scaffolds. Platelet adhesion tests using mice blood indicated that vascular scaffolds containing 0.5% GO had low platelet adhesion and activation. Therefore, the electrospun TPU/GO tubular scaffolds have the potential to be used in vascular tissue engineering. PMID:25686925

  5. Preparation and surface characterization of PEO-grafted and heparin-immobilized polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.K.; Park, K.D.; Ahn, K.D.; Jeong, S.Y.; Kim, Y.H.

    1989-04-01

    Surfaces of commercial polyurethanes (PUs) were modified by poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) grafting and/or heparin immobilization for long-term biomedical applications. PU surfaces were treated with diisocyanate and then reacted with PEO or heparin. The heparin immobilized by various methods on the PU surface was very stable, with concentrations of 1.45-1.84 micrograms/cm/sup 2/. Surface structure and characteristics of each modified PU were examined by performing the following surface analyses: attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic contact angle measurements. The reaction scheme and surface chemical structure of modified PUs were confirmed by ATR-IR and ESCA, respectively. SEM results showed that the PU-PEO surface was very smooth and that the smoothness of the heparinized PU surfaces varied, depending upon the solvent and coupling agent used in the process. The hydrophilicity of the surface was significantly increased after PEO grafting or heparin immobilization. Increase in the chain length of the grafted PEO resulted in significant increases in hydrophilicity and surface mobility.

  6. Value-added conversion of waste cooking oil and post-consumer PET bottles into biodiesel and polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yu; Luo, Xiaolan; Wang, Feng; Li, Yebo

    2016-06-01

    A sustainable process of value-added utilization of wastes including waste cooking oil (WCO) and post-consumer PET bottles for the production of biodiesel and polyurethane (PU) foams was developed. WCO collected from campus cafeteria was firstly converted into biodiesel, which can be used as vehicle fuel. Then crude glycerol (CG), a byproduct of the above biodiesel process, was incorporated into the glycolysis process of post-consumer PET bottles collected from campus to produce polyols. Thirdly, PU foams were synthesized through the reaction of the above produced polyols with isocyanate in the presence of catalysts and other additives. The characterization of the produced biodiesel demonstrated that its properties meet the specification of biodiesel standard. The effect of crude glycerol loading on the properties of polyols and PU foams were investigated. All the polyols showed satisfactory properties for the production of rigid PU foams which had performance comparable to those of some petroleum-based analogs. A mass balance and a cost analysis for the conversion of WCO and waste PET into biodiesel and PU foams were also discussed. This study demonstrated the potential of WCO and PET waste for the production of value-added products. PMID:27055365

  7. Removal of 2-butoxyethanol gaseous emissions by biotrickling filtration packed with polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M C; Álvarez-Hornos, F J; Engesser, K H; Dobslaw, D; Gabaldón, C

    2016-03-25

    The removal of 2-butoxyethanol from gaseous emissions was studied using two biotrickling filters (BTF1 and BTF2) packed with polyurethane foam. Two different inoculum sources were used: a pure culture of Pseudomonas sp. BOE200 (BTF1) and activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (BTF2). The bioreactors were operated at inlet loads (ILs) of 130 and 195 g m(-3) hour(-1) and at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 12.5s. Under an IL of ∼130 g m(-3) hour(-1), BTF1 presented higher elimination capacities (ECs) than BTF2, with average values of 106±7 and 68±8 g m(-3) hour(-1), respectively. However, differences in ECs between BTFs were decreased by reducing the irrigation intervals from 1 min every 12 min to 1 min every 2 hours in BTF2. Average values of EC were 111±25 and 90±7 g m(-3) hour(-1) for BTF1 and BTF2, respectively, when working at an IL of ∼195 g m(-3) hour(-1). Microbial analysis revealed a significant shift in the microbial community of BTF1 inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. BOE200. At the end of the experiment, the species Microbacterium sp., Chryseobacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp. were detected. In BTF2 inoculated with activated sludge, the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique showed a diverse microbial community including species that was able to use 2-butoxyethanol as its carbon source, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida as representative species. Although BTF1 inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. BOE200 and higher gas velocity (probably greater gas/liquid mass transfer rate) showed a slight improvement in performance, the use of activated sludge as inoculum seems to be a more feasible option for the industrial application of this technology. PMID:26596886

  8. Application of a drainage film reduces fibroblast ingrowth into large-pored polyurethane foam during negative-pressure wound therapy in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Springer, Steffen; Abel, Martin; Wesarg, Falko; Ruth, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2013-01-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an advantageous treatment option in wound management to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications. NPWT is mainly carried out using open-cell polyurethane (PU) foams that stimulate granulation tissue formation. However, growth of wound bed tissue into foam material, leading to disruption of newly formed tissue upon dressing removal, has been observed. Consequently, it would be of clinical interest to preserve the positive effects of open-cell PU foams while avoiding cellular ingrowth. The study presented analyzed effects of NPWT using large-pored PU foam, fine-pored PU foam, and the combination of large-pored foam with drainage film on human dermal fibroblasts grown in a collagen matrix. The results showed no difference between the dressings in stimulating cellular migration during NPWT. However, when NPWT was applied using a large-pored PU foam, the fibroblasts continued to migrate into the dressing. This led to significant breaches in the cell layers upon removal of the samples after vacuum treatment. In contrast, cell migration stopped at the collagen matrix edge when fine-pored PU foam was used, as well as with the combination of PU foam and drainage film. In conclusion, placing a drainage film between collagen matrix and the large-pored PU foam dressing reduced the ingrowth of cells into the foam significantly. Moreover, positive effects on cellular migration were not affected, and the effect of the foam on tissue surface roughness in vitro was also reduced. PMID:23937617

  9. Electrospun biodegradable elastic polyurethane scaffolds with dipyridamole release for small diameter vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Punnakitikashem, Primana; Truong, Danh; Menon, Jyothi U; Nguyen, Kytai T; Hong, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Acellular biodegradable small diameter vascular grafts (SDVGs) require antithrombosis, intimal hyperplasia inhibition and rapid endothelialization to improve the graft patency. However, current antithrombosis and antiproliferation approaches often conflict with endothelial cell layer formation on SDVGs. To address this limitation, biodegradable elastic polyurethane urea (BPU) and the drug dipyridamole (DPA) were mixed and then electrospun into a biodegradable fibrous scaffold. The BPU would provide the appropriate mechanical support, while the DPA in the scaffold would offer biofunctions as required above. We found that the resulting scaffolds had tensile strengths and strains comparable with human coronary artery. The DPA in the scaffolds was continuously released up to 91 days in phosphate buffer solution at 37 °C, with a low burst release within the first 3 days. Compared to BPU alone, improved non-thrombogenicity of the DPA-loaded BPU scaffolds was evidenced with extended human blood clotting time, lower TAT complex concentration, lower hemolysis and reduced human platelet deposition. The scaffolds with a higher DPA content (5 and 10%) inhibited proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cell significantly. Furthermore, the DPA-loaded scaffolds had no adverse effect on human aortic endothelial cell growth, yet it improved their proliferation. The attractive mechanical properties and biofunctions of the DPA-loaded BPU scaffold indicate its potential as an acellular biodegradable SDVG for vascular replacement. PMID:25110284

  10. Electrospun biodegradable elastic polyurethane scaffolds with dipyridamole release for small diameter vascular grafts

    PubMed Central

    Punnakitikashem, Primana; Truong, Danh; Menon, Jyothi U.; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Hong, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Acellular biodegradable small diameter vascular grafts (SDVGs) require antithrombosis, intimal hyperplasia inhibition and rapid endothelialization to improve the graft patency. However, current antithrombosis and antiproliferation approaches often conflict with endothelial cell layer formation on SDVGs. To address this limitation, biodegradable elastic polyurethane urea (BPU) and the drug dipyridamole (DPA) were mixed and then electrospun into a biodegradable fibrous scaffold. The BPU would provide the appropriate mechanical support, while the DPA in the scaffold would offer biofunctions as required above. We found that the resulting scaffolds had tensile strengths and strains comparable with human coronary artery. The DPA in the scaffolds was continuously released up to 91 days in phosphate buffer solution at 37 °C, with a low burst release within the first 3 days. Compared to BPU alone, improved non-thrombogenicity of the DPA-loaded BPU scaffolds was evidenced with extended human blood clotting time, lower TAT complex concentration, lower hemolysis and reduced human platelet deposition. The scaffolds with a higher DPA content (5 and 10%) inhibited proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cell significantly. Furthermore, the DPA-loaded scaffolds had no adverse effect on human aortic endothelial cell growth, yet it improved their proliferation. The attractive mechanical properties and biofunctions of the DPA-loaded BPU scaffold indicate its potential as an acellular biodegradable SDVG for vascular replacement. PMID:25110284

  11. Platelet adhesive resistance of segmented polyurethane film surface-grafted with vinyl benzyl sulfo monomer of ammonium zwitterions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Jiang; Yuan, Youling; Zang, Xiaopeng; Shen, Jian; Lin, Sicong

    2003-10-01

    Platelet from human plasma adhered on the segmented poly(ether urethane) (SPEU) film grafted with N,N-dimethyl-N-(p-vinylbenyl)-N-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium (DMVSA) was studied. SPEU films were hydroxylated by potassium peroxosulfate (KPS) and then grafted with DMVSA using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as initiator. The mixing time of hydroxylated SPEU/CAN and the monomer concentration effect on graft polymerization yield were determined by ATR-FTIR. Surface analysis of the grafted films by ATR-FTIR and ESCA confirmed that DMVSA was successfully grafted onto the SPEU film surface. The grafted film possessed a relatively hydrophilic surface, as revealed by water contact angle measurement. The improved blood compatibility of the grafted films was preliminarily evaluated by a platelet-rich plasma adhesion study and scanning electron microscopy, using original SPEU and hydroxylated SPEU films as the controls. The results showed that platelet attachment was decreased greatly on the segmented polyurethane films grafted with DMVSA. This kind of new biomaterials grafted with sulfo ammonium zwitterionic monomers might have potential for biomedical applications. PMID:12853253

  12. The effects of neutralized particles on the sampling efficiency of polyurethane foam used to estimate the extrathoracic deposition fraction.

    PubMed

    Tomyn, Ronald L; Sleeth, Darrah K; Thiese, Matthew S; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-01-01

    In addition to chemical composition, the site of deposition of inhaled particles is important for determining the potential health effects from an exposure. As a result, the International Organization for Standardization adopted a particle deposition sampling convention. This includes extrathoracic particle deposition sampling conventions for the anterior nasal passages (ET1) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2). This study assessed how well a polyurethane foam insert placed in an Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler can match an extrathoracic deposition sampling convention, while accounting for possible static buildup in the test particles. In this way, the study aimed to assess whether neutralized particles affected the performance of this sampler for estimating extrathoracic particle deposition. A total of three different particle sizes (4.9, 9.5, and 12.8 µm) were used. For each trial, one particle size was introduced into a low-speed wind tunnel with a wind speed set a 0.2 m/s (∼40 ft/min). This wind speed was chosen to closely match the conditions of most indoor working environments. Each particle size was tested twice either neutralized, using a high voltage neutralizer, or left in its normal (non neutralized) state as standard particles. IOM samplers were fitted with a polyurethane foam insert and placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel. Foam sampling efficiencies were calculated for all trials to compare against the normalized ET1 sampling deposition convention. The foam sampling efficiencies matched well to the ET1 deposition convention for the larger particle sizes, but had a general trend of underestimating for all three particle sizes. The results of a Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test also showed that only at 4.9 µm was there a statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.03) between the foam sampling efficiency using the standard particles and the neutralized particles. This is interpreted to mean that static

  13. Polyurethane foams based on crude glycerol-derived biopolyols: One-pot preparation of biopolyols with branched fatty acid ester chains and its effects on foam formation and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cong; Luo, Xiaolan; Li, Tao; Tong, Xinjie; Li, Yebo

    2014-01-01

    Environmentally friendly biopolyols have been produced with crude glycerol as the sole feedstock using a one-pot thermochemical conversion process without the addition of extra catalysts and reagents. Structural features of these biopolyols were characterized by rheology analysis. Rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were obtained from these crude glycerol-based biopolyols and the foaming mechanism was explored. Investigations revealed that partial carbonyl groups hydrogen-bonded with NeH were replaced by aromatic rings after the introduction of branched fatty acid ester chains in the “urea rich” phase, and that distinct microphases had formed in the foams. Studies showed that branched fatty acid ester chains in the biopolyols played an important role in reducing the degree of microphase separation and stabilizing bubbles during foaming processes. PU foams with thermal conductivity comparable to commercial products made from petroleum-based polyols were obtained. These studies show the potential for development of PU foams based on crude glycerol, a renewable resource.

  14. Field estimates of polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients for hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and bromoanisoles.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Nygren, Olle; Tysklind, Mats

    2016-09-01

    Partition coefficients of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPA) are needed in the estimation of sampling rates for PUF disk passive air samplers. We determined KPA in field experiments by conducting long-term (24-48 h) air sampling to saturate PUF traps and shorter runs (2-4 h) to measure air concentrations. Sampling events were done at daily mean temperatures ranging from 1.9 to 17.5 °C. Target compounds were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA). KPA (mL g(-1)) was calculated from quantities on the PUF traps at saturation (ng g(-1)) divided by air concentrations (ng mL(-1)). Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔHPA, kJ mol(-1)) were determined from the slopes of log KPA/mL g(-1) versus 1/T(K) for HCB and the bromoanisoles, KPA of α-HCH was measured only at 14.3 to 17.5 °C and ΔHPA was not determined. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) at 15 °C were HCB = 7.37; α-HCH = 8.08; 2,4-DiBA = 7.26 and 2,4,6-TriBA = 7.26. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) were compared with predictions based on an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) model (Shoeib and Harner, 2002a) and a polyparameter linear free relationship (pp-LFER) model (Kamprad and Goss, 2007) using different sets of solute parameters. Predicted KP values varied by factors of 3 to over 30, depending on the compound and the model. Such discrepancies provide incentive for experimental measurements of KPA for other SVOCs. PMID:27285381

  15. Sol-Gel Microspheres Doped with Glycerol: A Structural Insight in Light of Forthcoming Applications in the Polyurethane Foam Industry

    PubMed Central

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Fidalgo, Alexandra; Ilharco, Laura M; Pagliaro, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Porous silica-based microspheres encapsulating aqueous glycerol can be potential curing agents for one-component foams (OCFs). Such agents have the advantage of an enhanced sustainability profile on top of being environmentally friendly materials. A synthetically convenient and scalable sol-gel process was used to make silica and organosilica microspheres doped with aqueous glycerol. These methyl-modified silica microspheres, named “GreenCaps”, exhibit remarkable physical and chemical stability. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy at reduced pressure, and cryogenic nitrogen adsorption—desorption analysis. The structure of the materials was also analyzed at the molecular level by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. As expected, the degree of methylation affects the degree of encapsulation and pore structure. Microspheres similarly methylated, however, can differ considerably in surface area and pore size due to the templating effect of glycerol on the organosilica structure. The results of the structure analysis reveal that glycerol is efficiently encapsulated, acts as a template, barely leaches over time, but is released by depressurization. A proper application of these microspheres can later on enhance both the environmental and health profile, as well as the technical performance (curing speed, foam quality, and froth thixotropy) of spray polyurethane foams. PMID:25969809

  16. Quantification of isocyanates and amines in polyurethane foams and coated products by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mutsuga, Motoh; Yamaguchi, Miku; Kawamura, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method for the identification and quantification of 10 different isocyanates and 11 different amines in polyurethane (PUR) foam and PUR-coated products was developed and optimized. Isocyanates were extracted and derivatized with di-n-butylamine, while amines were extracted with methanol. Quantification was subsequently performed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Using this methodology, residual levels of isocyanates and amines in commercial PUR products were quantified. Although the recoveries of certain isocyanates and amines were low, the main compounds used as monomers in the production of PUR products, and their decomposition species, were clearly identified at quantifiable levels. 2,4-and 2,6-toluenediisocyanate were detected in most PUR foam samples and a pastry bag in the range of 0.02–0.92 mg/kg, with their decomposition compounds, 2,4-and 2,6-toluenediamine, detected in all PUR foam samples in the range of 9.5–59 mg/kg. PUR-coated gloves are manufactured using 4,4′-methylenebisphenyl diisocyanate as the main raw material, and a large amount of this compound, in addition to 4,4′-methylenedianiline and dicyclohexylmethane-4,4′-diamine were found in these samples. PMID:24804074

  17. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler.

    PubMed

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Balthaser, Susan A; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-03-01

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET₁) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET₂). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm-44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device. PMID:26959046

  18. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler

    PubMed Central

    Sleeth, Darrah K.; Balthaser, Susan A.; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R.

    2016-01-01

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET1) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm–44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device. PMID:26959046

  19. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Polyurethane Foam for Use as Cask Impact Limiter in Accidental Drop Scenarios - 12099

    SciTech Connect

    Kasparek, Eva M.; Voelzke, Holger; Scheidemann, Robert; Zencker, Uwe

    2012-07-01

    Rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foams are frequently used as cask impact limiters in nuclear materials and hazardous waste transport due to their high energy-absorption potential. When assessing the cask integrity in accidental scenarios based on numerical simulations, a description of the foam damping properties is required for different strain rates and for a wide temperature range with respect to waste heat generation in conjunction with critical operating and environmental conditions. Implementation and adaption of a respective finite element material model strongly relies on an appropriate experimental data base. Even though extensive impact experiments were conducted e.g. in Sandia National Laboratories, Savannah River National Laboratory and by Rolls Royce plc, not all relevant factors were taken into account. Hence, BAM who is in charge of the mechanical evaluation of such packages within the approval procedure in Germany, incorporated systematic test series into a comprehensive research project aimed to develop numerical methods for a couple of damping materials. In a first step, displacement driven compression tests have been performed on confined, cubic specimens at five loading rates ranging from 0.02 mm/s to 3 m/s at temperatures between +90 deg. C and -40 deg. C. Materials include two different polyurethane foam types called FR3718 and FR3730 having densities of 280 kg/m{sup 3} and 488 kg/m{sup 3} from the product line-up of General Plastics Manufacturing Company. Their data was used to adapt an advanced plasticity model allowing for reliably simulating cellular materials under multi-axial compression states. Therefore, an automated parameter identification procedure had been established by combining an artificial neural network with local optimization techniques. Currently, the selected numerical material input values are validated and optimized by means of more complex loading configurations with the prospect of establishing methods applicable to

  20. Application of polyurethane foam loaded with BTAC in an on-line preconcentration system: cadmium determination by FAAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, Valfredo A.; Santelli, Ricardo E.; de Carvalho, Marcelo S.; Ferreira, Sérgio L. C.

    2000-09-01

    In the present paper, the use of polyurethane foam modified by 2-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-2- p-cresol (BTAC) as a sorbent in an on-line preconcentration system to determine cadmium trace levels by FAAS is proposed. The procedure was based on the chemical sorption of cadmium (II) ions onto a minicolumn packed with polyurethane foam, followed by 0.10 mol l -1 hydrochloric acid elution and direct determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The flow system was operated in a time-based mode. Chemical and flow variables were studied. Results demonstrated that sample solutions containing cadmium(II) in the range of concentration from 0.91 to 30.00 μg l -1, pH between 6.50 and 9.25 could be determinated by this procedure, in a preconcentration time of 1 min. Flow rates in preconcentration and elution steps were 7.00 and 4.00 ml min -1, respectively. The precision of the preconcentration procedure (evaluated as standard deviation of solutions containing 1.0-30.0 μg l -1 of cadmium) varied in the range from 5 to 1%. The preconcentration factor, calculated as the ratio of the linear section of the slopes of the analytical curves before and after preconcentration, was 41, for a volume sample of 7.00 ml. The detection limit was 0.27 μg l -1 for a preconcentration time of 1 min. The proposed procedure was applied for determination of cadmium in biological reference materials. Achieved results demonstrated that the procedure can be applied for analysis of biological materials with satisfactory accuracy.

  1. Validation of heat transfer, thermal decomposition, and container pressurization of polyurethane foam using mean value and Latin hypercube sampling approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Sarah N.; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E.; Suo-Anttila, Jill M.; Erickson, Ken L.

    2014-12-09

    In this study, polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. It can be advantageous to surround objects of interest, such as electronics, with foams in a hermetically sealed container in order to protect them from hostile environments or from accidents such as fire. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of foams can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of polymeric methylene diisocyanate (PMDI)-polyether-polyol based polyurethane foam is presented and compared to experimental results to assess the validity of a 3-D finite element model of the heat transfer and degradation processes. In this series of experiments, 320 kg/m3 PMDI foam in a 0.2 L sealed steel container is heated to 1,073 K at a rate of 150 K/min. The experiment ends when the can breaches due to the buildup of pressure. The temperature at key location is monitored as well as the internal pressure of the can. Both experimental uncertainty and computational uncertainty are examined and compared. The mean value method (MV) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. The results of the both the MV method and the LHS approach show that while the model generally can predict the temperature at given locations in the system, it is less successful at predicting the pressure response. Also, these two approaches for propagating uncertainty agree with each other, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation results is also investigated, showing that for the temperature response the conductivity of the steel container and the effective conductivity of the foam, are the most important parameters. For the pressure response, the activation energy, effective conductivity, and specific heat are most important. The comparison to experiments and the identification of the drivers of uncertainty allow

  2. Validation of heat transfer, thermal decomposition, and container pressurization of polyurethane foam using mean value and Latin hypercube sampling approaches

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scott, Sarah N.; Dodd, Amanda B.; Larsen, Marvin E.; Suo-Anttila, Jill M.; Erickson, Ken L.

    2014-12-09

    In this study, polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. It can be advantageous to surround objects of interest, such as electronics, with foams in a hermetically sealed container in order to protect them from hostile environments or from accidents such as fire. In fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of foams can cause mechanical failure of sealed systems. In this work, a detailed uncertainty quantification study of polymeric methylene diisocyanate (PMDI)-polyether-polyol based polyurethane foam is presented and compared to experimental results to assess the validity of a 3-D finite element model of themore » heat transfer and degradation processes. In this series of experiments, 320 kg/m3 PMDI foam in a 0.2 L sealed steel container is heated to 1,073 K at a rate of 150 K/min. The experiment ends when the can breaches due to the buildup of pressure. The temperature at key location is monitored as well as the internal pressure of the can. Both experimental uncertainty and computational uncertainty are examined and compared. The mean value method (MV) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) approach are used to propagate the uncertainty through the model. The results of the both the MV method and the LHS approach show that while the model generally can predict the temperature at given locations in the system, it is less successful at predicting the pressure response. Also, these two approaches for propagating uncertainty agree with each other, the importance of each input parameter on the simulation results is also investigated, showing that for the temperature response the conductivity of the steel container and the effective conductivity of the foam, are the most important parameters. For the pressure response, the activation energy, effective conductivity, and specific heat are most important. The comparison to experiments and the identification of the drivers of uncertainty allow for

  3. Durable modification of segmented polyurethane for elastic blood-contacting devices by graft-type 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine copolymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihua; Inoue, Yuuki; Mahara, Atsushi; Kakinoki, Sachiro; Yamaoka, Tetsuji; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel application of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers for enhancing the performance of modified segmented polyurethane (SPU) surfaces for the development of a small-diameter vascular prosthesis. The SPU membranes were modified by random-type, block-type, and graft-type MPC polymers that were prepared using a double-solution casting procedure on stainless steel substrates. Among these MPC polymers, the graft-type poly(MPC-graft-2-ethylhexyl methacrylate [EHMA]), which is composed of a poly(MPC) segment as the main chain and poly(EHMA) segments as side chains, indicated a higher stability on the SPU membrane after being peeled off from the stainless steel substrate, as well as after immersion in an aqueous medium. This stability was caused by the intermiscibility in the domain of the poly(EHMA) segments and the soft segments of the SPU membrane. Each SPU/MPC polymer membrane exhibited a dramatic suppression of protein adsorption from human plasma and endothelium cell adhesion. Based on these results, the performance of SPU/poly(MPC-graft-EHMA) tubings 2 mm in diameter as vascular prostheses was investigated. Even after blood was passed through the tubings for 2 min, the graft-type MPC polymers effectively protected the blood-contacting surfaces from thrombus formation. In summary, SPU modified by graft-type MPC polymers has the potential for practical application in the form of a non-endothelium, small-diameter vascular prosthesis. PMID:24894706

  4. Formation of layer-by-layer assembled titanate nanotubes filled coating on flexible polyurethane foam with improved flame retardant and smoke suppression properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haifeng; Wang, Wei; Pan, Ying; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2015-01-14

    A fire blocking coating made from chitosan, titanate nanotubes and alginate was deposited on a flexible polyurethane (FPU) foam surface by a layer-by-layer assembly technique in an effort to reduce its flammability. First, titanate nanotubes were prepared by a hydrothermal method. And then the coating growth was carried out by alternately submerging FPU foams into chitosan solution, titanate nanotubes suspension and alginate solution. The mass gain of coating on the surface of FPU foams showed dependency on the concentration of titanate nanotubes suspension and the trilayers's number. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that titanate nanotubes were distributed well on the entire surface of FPU foam and showed a randomly oriented and entangled network structure. The cone calorimeter result indicated that the coated FPU foams showed reduction in the peak heat release rate (peak HRR), peak smoke production rate (peak SPR), total smoke release (TSR) and peak carbon monoxide (CO) production compared with those of the control FPU foam. Especially for the FPU foam with only 5.65 wt % mass gain, great reduction in peak HRR (70.2%), peak SPR (62.8%), TSR (40.9%) and peak CO production (63.5%) could be observed. Such a significant improvement in flame retardancy and the smoke suppression property for FPU foam could be attributed to the protective effect of titanate nanotubes network structure formed, including insulating barrier effect and adsorption effect. PMID:25496211

  5. Polyurethane foam loaded with sodium dodecylsulfate for the extraction of 'quat' pesticides from aqueous medium: Optimization of loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-09-01

    The cationic herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat are largely used in different cultures worldwide. With this, there is an intrinsic risk of environmental contamination when these herbicides achieve natural waters. The goal of this work was to propose a novel and low-cost sorbent for the removal of the cited herbicides from aqueous medium. The proposed sorbent was prepared by loading polyurethane foam with sodium dodecylsulfate. The influence of several parameters (SDS concentration, HCl concentration and shaking time) on the loading process was investigated. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that all studied variables influenced the loading process, having significant effect on the extraction efficiency of the resulted PUF-SDS. At optimized conditions, the PUF was loaded by shaking 200mg of crushed foam with 200mL of a solution containing 5.0×10(-3)molL(-1) SDS and 0.25molL(-1) HCl, for 30min. The obtained PUF-SDS was efficient for removing the three herbicides from aqueous medium, achieving extraction percentages higher than 90%. The sorption process followed a pseudo second-order kinetics, which presented excellent predictive capacity of the amount of herbicide retained with time. PMID:27213562

  6. Prosthetic Vascular Graft Infections: Bacterial Cultures from Negative-Pressure-Wound-Therapy Foams Do Not Improve Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Alexandra U; Bloemberg, Guido; Zbinden, Reinhard; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Fuchs, Claudio; Frauenfelder, Sandra; Rancic, Zoran; Mayer, Dieter; Hasse, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the diagnostic value of microorganisms cultured from negative-pressure-wound-therapy (NPWT) foam samples compared to that of microorganisms cultured from deep tissue samples from patients with vascular graft infections. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 58%, 86%, 81%, and 66%, respectively. The diagnostic value of microbiological cultures from NPWT foams was poor. PMID:27252462

  7. Enhancing oil removal from water by immobilizing multi-wall carbon nanotubes on the surface of polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Alireza; Zilouei, Hamid; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Asadinezhad, Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    A surface modification method was carried out to enhance the light crude oil sorption capacity of polyurethane foam (PUF) through immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the foam surface at various concentrations. The developed sorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and tensile elongation test. The results obtained from thermogravimetric and tensile elongation tests showed the improvement of thermal and mechanical resistance of surface-modified foam. The experimental data also revealed that the immobilization of MWCNT on PUF surface enhanced the sorption capacity of light crude oil and reduced water sorption. The highest oil removal capacity was obtained for 1 wt% MWCNT on PUF surface which was 21.44% enhancement in light crude oil sorption compared to the blank PUF. The reusability of surface modified PUF was determined through four cycles of chemical regeneration using petroleum ether. The adsorption of light crude oil with 30 g initial mass showed that 85.45% of the initial oil sorption capacity of this modified sorbent was remained after four regeneration cycles. Equilibrium isotherms for adsorption of oil were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Redlich-Peterson models through linear and non-linear regression methods. Results of equilibrium revealed that Langmuir isotherm is the best fitting model and non-linear method is a more accurate way to predict the parameters involved in the isotherms. The overall findings suggested the promising potentials of the developed sorbent in order to be efficiently used in large-scale oil spill cleanup. PMID:25917559

  8. [Clinical cases about the therapeutic use of debriding dressing hidrodetersive polyacrylate fibers with TLC and foam dressings TLC-NOSF polyurethane in chronic wounds].

    PubMed

    Blasco García, Carmen; Segovia Gómez, Teresa; Bermejo Martínez, Mariano; Cuesta Cuesta, Juan José; Alventosa Cortés, Ana María

    2012-10-01

    The treatment of chronic wounds requires the use of highly specific products for different phases of the healing process. This article raises a number of clinical cases with chronic wounds of vascular origin and pressure ulcers. Such cases required a initial debridement because of the large content of fibrin covering the wound bed at this stage was used dressing hidrodetersive polyacrylate fibers with TLC. Once the debridement is continued treatment with a polyurethane foam dressing with TLC-NOSF. PMID:23157065

  9. Polyurethane foams obtained from residues of PET manufacturing and modified with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiebra, L.; Cabulis, U.; Knite, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we report the preparation of rigid microcellular polyurethane/carbon nanotube nanocomposites with different CNT loadings (0.09-0.46%) and various isocyanate indexes (110-260). Water was used as a blowing agent for samples. Density of all obtained samples – 200 ± 10 kg/m3. Electrical properties, as well as heat conductivity, cellular structure and mechanical properties of these nanocomposites were investigated.

  10. Comparison of porous poly (vinyl alcohol)/hydroxyapatite composite cryogels and cryogels immobilized on poly (vinyl alcohol) and polyurethane foams for removal of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Min, Byung Gil

    2008-08-15

    Three novel adsorbents of hydroxyapatite/poly (vinyl alcohol) (HAp/PVA) cryogel, HAp/PVA cryogel immobilized on PVA foam and HAp/PVA cryogel immobilized on polyurethane (PU) foam have been investigated to compare the morphology and sorption performances for removal of cadmium. The adsorption kinetics was interpreted by double-exponential model, pseudo-first-order model and pseudo-second-order models. The equilibrium time was found to be 36, 24, and 12 h for cryogel, cryogel immobilized on PVA foam and PU foam, respectively. The adsorption was found to follow Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum sorption capacity was estimated to be 53.3, 53.1 and 47.7 mg g(-1) for cryogel, cryogel immobilized on PVA foam and PU foam. The effects of HAp/PVA ratio and drying method on cadmium sorption were also studied. The difference of adsorption kinetics model and equilibrium time among the three adsorbents was suggested to be ascribed to different pore size. Oven-dried HAp/PVA cryogel immobilized on PU foam was preferable due to short equilibrium time and good sorption ability. PMID:18262348

  11. Graft copolymers of polyurethane with various vinyl monomers via radiation-induced miniemulsion polymerization: Influential factors to grafting efficiency and particle morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2009-02-01

    Graft copolymers of polyurethane (PU) with various vinyl monomers were synthesized through a one-pot but two-step miniemulsion polymerization process. Firstly, the polycondensation of isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) had been performed in aqueous miniemulsion at 40 °C in order to obtain PU dispersions. Consecutively, an in-situ graft copolymerization of the vinyl monomers with the synthesized PU was initiated by γ-ray radiation at room temperature. The grafting efficiency of PU with vinyl monomer ( GPU/monomer) was calculated from 1H NMR spectra and the particle morphology of the final hybrid latex was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As there was no monomer transferring in miniemulsion system, homogenous hybrid particles would be synthesized provided that the monomer was miscible with PU, such as styrene. With the increase of the polarity of the monomer, the compatibility of PU with monomer decreased. GPU/monomer varied as GPU/styrene(37%)> GPU/butyl acrylate (BA)(21%)> GPU/methyl methacrylate (MMA)(12%). The proportion of homogeneous nucleation would increase as the hydrophilicity of the monomer increased. High temperature would destabilize the miniemulsion so as to result in a less grafting efficiency. Compared to the phase separation during the seeded emulsion polymerization, the miniemulsion polymerization method facilitated the preparation of homogeneous materials owing to its monomer droplet nucleation mechanism.

  12. Skeleton-and-bubble model of polyether-polyurethane elastic open-cell foams for finite element analysis at large deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuwala, Tapan; Gioia, Gustavo

    2013-03-01

    We formulate a new micromechanical model of elastic open-cell (EOC) foams. In this model, the usual skeleton of open-cell foams is supplemented by fitting a thin-walled bubble within each cavity of the skeleton, as a substitute for the membranes that occlude the "windows" of the foam cells in polyether-polyurethane EOC foams. The model has nine parameters; each parameter has a clear geometrical or mechanical significance, and its value may be readily estimated for any given foam. To calibrate the model, we carry out fully nonlinear, three-dimensional finite-element simulations of the experiments of Dai et al. (2011a), in which a set of five polyether-polyurethane EOC foams covering a range of commercially available relative densities was tested under compression along the rise direction, compression along a transverse direction, tension along the rise direction, simple shear combined with compression along the rise direction, and hydrostatic pressure combined with compression along the rise direction. We show that, with a suitable choice of the values of the parameters of the model, the model is capable of reproducing the most salient trends evinced in the experimental stress-stretch curves. Yet the model can no longer reproduce all of these trends if the bubbles be excluded from the model, and we conclude that the bubbles play a crucial role at large deformations. We also show that the stretch fields that obtain in our computational simulations are in good accord with the digital-image-correlation (DIC) measurements of Dai et al. For simple shear combined with compression along the rise direction, the DIC measurements of Dai et al. prove insufficient to our purposes, and we carry out DIC measurements of our own. To demonstrate the performance of the model in a typical application of polyether-polyurethane EOC foams, we carry out experiments and simulations of foam specimens loaded through a cylindrical punch and a spherical punch. We conclude the paper with a

  13. Removal of lead ions in aqueous solution by hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite foams.

    PubMed

    Jang, Suk Hyun; Min, Byung Gil; Jeong, Young Gyu; Lyoo, Won Seok; Lee, Sang Cheol

    2008-04-15

    We have prepared hydroxyapatite/polyurehthane (HAp/PU) composite foams with two different HAp contents of 20 and 50 wt.% and investigated their removal capability of Pb2+ ions from aqueous solutions with various initial Pb2+ ion concentrations and pH values of 2-6. HAp/PU composite foams synthesized exhibited well-developed open pore structures which provide paths for the aqueous solution and adsorption sites for Pb2+ ions. With increasing the HAp content in the composites, the removal capability of Pb2+ ions by the composite foams increases owing to the higher adsorption capacity, whereas the removal rate is slower due to the less uniform dispersity of HAp in composite foams. The removal rate of Pb2+ ions is also slower with increasing the initial Pb2+ ion concentration in aqueous solutions. The removal mechanism of Pb2+ ion by the composites is varied, depending on the pH value of aqueous solution: the dissolution of HAp and precipitation of hydroypyromorphite is dominant at lower pH 2-3, the adsorption of Pb2+ ions on the HAp/PU composite surface and ion exchange reaction between Ca2+ of HAp and Pb2+ in aqueous solution is dominant at higher pH 5-6, and two removal mechanisms compete at pH 4. The equilibrium removal process of Pb2+ ions by the HAp/PU composite foam at pH 5 was described well with the Langmuir isotherm model, resulting in the maximum adsorption capacity of 150 mg/g for the composite foam with 50 wt.% HAp content. PMID:17850963

  14. Rigid polyurethane foam (RPF) technology for Countermine (Sea) Program -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Woodfin, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Phase 1 report documents the results of one of the subtasks that was initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of a foam that can neutralize mines and barriers and allow the safe passage of amphibious landing craft and vehicles was the objective of this subtask of the Sea Mine Countermeasures Technology program. This phase of the program concentrated on laboratory characterization of foam properties and field experiments with prefabricated foam blocks to determine the capability of RPF to adequately carry military traffic. It also established the flammability characteristics of the material under simulated operational conditions, extended the understanding of explosive cavity formation in RPF to include surface explosions, established the tolerance to typical military fluids, and the response to bullet impact. Many of the basic analyses required to establish the operational concept are reported. The initial field experiments were conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM in November 1995 through February 1996.

  15. Low density biodegradable shape memory polyurethane foams for embolic biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pooja; Small, Ward; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Maitland, Duncan J; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    Low density shape memory polymer foams hold significant interest in the biomaterials community for their potential use in minimally invasive embolic biomedical applications. The unique shape memory behavior of these foams allows them to be compressed to a miniaturized form, which can be delivered to an anatomical site via a transcatheter process, and thereafter actuated to embolize the desired area. Previous work in this field has described the use of a highly covalently crosslinked polymer structure for maintaining excellent mechanical and shape memory properties at the application-specific ultra low densities. This work is aimed at further expanding the utility of these biomaterials, as implantable low density shape memory polymer foams, by introducing controlled biodegradability. A highly covalently crosslinked network structure was maintained by use of low molecular weight, symmetrical and polyfunctional hydroxyl monomers such as Polycaprolactone triol (PCL-t, Mn 900 g), N,N,N0,N0-Tetrakis (hydroxypropyl) ethylenediamine (HPED), and Tris (2-hydroxyethyl) amine (TEA). Control over the degradation rate of the materials was achieved by changing the concentration of the degradable PCL-t monomer, and by varying the material hydrophobicity. These porous SMP materials exhibit a uniform cell morphology and excellent shape recovery, along with controllable actuation temperature and degradation rate. We believe that they form a new class of low density biodegradable SMP scaffolds that can potentially be used as “smart” non-permanent implants in multiple minimally invasive biomedical applications. PMID:24090987

  16. Simulating and explaining passive air sampling rates for semi-volatile compounds on polyurethane foam passive samplers

    PubMed Central

    Petrich, Nicholas T.; Spak, Scott N.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Hu, Dingfei; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    Passive air samplers (PAS) including polyurethane foam (PUF) are widely deployed as an inexpensive and practical way to sample semi-volatile pollutants. However, concentration estimates from PAS rely on constant empirical mass transfer rates, which add unquantified uncertainties to concentrations. Here we present a method for modeling hourly sampling rates for semi-volatile compounds from hourly meteorology using first-principle chemistry, physics, and fluid dynamics, calibrated from depuration experiments. This approach quantifies and explains observed effects of meteorology on variability in compound-specific sampling rates and analyte concentrations; simulates nonlinear PUF uptake; and recovers synthetic hourly concentrations at a reference temperature. Sampling rates are evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners at a network of Harner model samplers in Chicago, Illinois during 2008, finding simulated average sampling rates within analytical uncertainty of those determined from loss of depuration compounds, and confirming quasi-linear uptake. Results indicate hourly, daily and interannual variability in sampling rates, sensitivity to temporal resolution in meteorology, and predictable volatility-based relationships between congeners. We quantify importance of each simulated process to sampling rates and mass transfer and assess uncertainty contributed by advection, molecular diffusion, volatilization, and flow regime within the PAS, finding PAS chamber temperature contributes the greatest variability to total process uncertainty (7.3%). PMID:23837599

  17. Immunological evaluation of four arc welders exposed to fumes from ignited polyurethane (isocyanate) foam: antibodies and immune profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, A.; Thrasher, J.D.; Gard, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Four arc welders having a flu-like illness with multiple health complaints following an exposure to high concentrations of isocyanate fumes from ignited polyurethane foam underwent immunological tests as follows: ELISA antibody assays, activated lymphocyte profiles, and lymphocyte blastogenesis. ELISA procedures revealed the presence of antibodies to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and formaldehyde (F) conjugated to human serum albumin (HDI-SA and F-SA). The results from the activated lymphocyte profiles showed deviations from the norm as follows: three welders had elevated helper/suppressor (H/S) ratios; all four had elevated percentages of Tal positive cells; two had decreases in B cells; and one had low total white cell and lymphocyte counts. In contrast, the percentage and absolute numbers of ILS receptor cells were normal in the four subjects. T cell blastogenesis to PHA, Con A and PWM resulted in the following: T-cells from one subject responded normally; in another, a high response (212% of controls) to PHA occurred with normal mitogenesis to Con A and PWM. In the remaining two welders, the T cells responded abnormally low (50 to 75% of controls) to the three mitogens. In conclusion, the existence of IgG antibodies to HDI-SA and F-SA, the altered activated immune profiles, the elevated Tal cells, and the abnormal blastogenesis are interpreted as being linked with the episode of HDI and F exposure and the subsequent flu-like illness of the four welders.

  18. Determinations of airborne synthetic musks by polyurethane foam coupled with triple quadrupole gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Ting Ivy; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Tsai, Shih-Wei

    2014-02-21

    Synthetic musk is widely used in various scented consumer products. However, the exposure via inhalation is often ignored due to pleasant smells. In addition, the information regarding the distribution of synthetic musk in air is limited. Hence, this research is aimed to develop a highly sensitive and widely applicable method for the determination of airborne synthetic musk. In this study, polyurethane foam (PUF) and filter were employed for active air sampling. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and nitrogen evaporator were performed for sample preparation. A gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (GC/MS-MS) with specific multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition pairs was applied for sample analysis. Compared with using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode traditionally, the sensitivities were improved in this study about an order at least. In terms of air concentration, as low as 0.48ngm(-3) can be determined when sampling at 3.5Lmin(-1) for 8h. The method established was further applied to the analysis of synthetic musk compounds in air samples collected in a cosmetics plant. The results showed that the airborne concentrations of gaseous polycyclic musk, gaseous nitro-musk, and particle-phase polycyclic musk were 6.4×10(2), 4.0×10(1) and 3.1×10(2)ngm(-3), respectively. Meanwhile, Cashmeran, Celstolide, Galaxolide, and Tonalide were found as the dominant musk compounds in the factory investigated. PMID:24480734

  19. Statistical properties of microcracking in polyurethane foams under tensile and creep tests: influence of temperature and density.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschanel, Stephanie; Vigier, Gerard; Godin, Nathalie; Vanel, Loic; Ciliberto, Sergio

    2007-03-01

    For some heterogeneous materials fracture can be described as a clustering of microcracks: global rupture being not controlled by a single event. We focus on polyurethane foams whose heterogeneities (pores) constitute the termination points where microcracks can stop. We record both the spatial and time distributions of acoustic emission emitted by a sample during mechanical tests: each microcrack nucleation corresponds to a burst of energy that can be localized on the widest face of the specimen. The probability distributions of the energy released is power-law distributed, independently of the material density, the loading mode or the mechanical behavior. On the other hand, the agreement of a power law for the time intervals between two damaging events seems to require a quasi constant stress during damaging. Moreover, we notice a behavior difference of the cumulative number of events and the cumulative energy of the localized events with temperature in the case of tensile tests and not any more for creep tests. The occurrence of a unique behavior and a power law in a restricted time interval for the cumulative number of events and the cumulative energy in creep allow us to apprehend interesting later studies of materials' lifetime prediction.

  20. On-line Determination of Zinc in Water and Biological Samples after Its Preconcentration onto Zincon Anchored Polyurethane Foam.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Sami M Abdel; Hanafi, Hassan A; El-Shahat, M F

    2015-01-01

    A fast and sensitive on-line procedure for the determination of zinc in water and biological samples was developed. Zinc was preconcentrated in a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) chemically modified with zincon via -N=N- bonding. The optimal conditions for preconcentration were pH 8.5 and sample flow rate of 4.0 mL min(-1). Quantitative desorption of Zn(II) was obtained by 0.1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid and subsequent spectrophotmetric determination using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol at 498 nm. The obtained detection limit was found to be 3.0 ng mL(-1), precision (RSD) was 4.8 and 6.7% at 20 and 110 ng mL(-1), respectively, for 60 s preconcentration time and enrichment factor was 31. The linearity range was from 10 to 120 ng mL(-1) and maximum sample throughput was 20 h(-1). Finally, the method was successfully applied to the determination of zinc in tap water, Nile River water and human urine samples with RSD in the range of 1.1 - 8.3%. PMID:25958868

  1. Characterization of solid-phase extraction of Fe(III) by unloaded polyurethane foam as thiocyanate complex.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gil Nunes; de Sousa, Leandro M; Pereira Netto, Annibal D; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2007-11-01

    This work presents a detailed study about the adsorption of iron(III)-thiocyanate complexes onto unloaded polyether-type polyurethane foam (PUF). A novel strategy was employed for this purpose, utilizing the adjustment of the plug cylinder of PUF to the arm of an overhead stirrer. The system was characterized in relation to equilibrium and kinetic aspects and it was modeled by applying Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results obtained showed that adsorption occurs on a monolayer and that external transport of the solute from solution to adsorbent was the rate-determining mechanism. A maximum adsorption capacity of 2.06 x 10(-4) mol Fe g(-1) was obtained under established experimental conditions (0.5 mol L(-1) SCN(-) and 0.005 mol L(-1) HCl). Sequential extraction experiments were carried out by changing PUF in time intervals previously defined (5, 20, and 40 min), and the obtained results showed that it is possible to remove around 95% of the Fe(III) in solution through five consecutive extractions of 5 min with five 200 mg PUF cylinders. PMID:17662992

  2. Potentialities of polyurethane foams for trace level analysis of triazinic metabolites in water matrices by stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Fátima C M; Pinto, Moisés L; Pires, João; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-06-01

    Polyurethane (PU) foams were applied for stir bar sorptive extraction of five triazinic metabolites (desethyl-2-hydroxyatrazine, desisopropylatrazine, desethylatrazine, 2-hydroxyatrazine and desethylterbuthylazine) in water matrices, followed by liquid desorption and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (SBSE(PU)-LD/HPLC-DAD). The optimum conditions for SBSE(PU)-LD were 5h of extraction (1000 rpm) and 5% (v/v) of methanol for the analysis of desethyl-2-hydroxyatrazine and 2-hydroxyatrazine, 15% (w/v) of sodium chloride for the remaining compounds and acetonitrile as back-extraction solvent (5 mL) under ultrasonic treatment (60 min). The methodology provided recoveries up to 26.3%, remarkable precision (RSD<2.4%), excellent linear dynamic ranges between 5.0 and 122.1 microg/L (r(2)>0.9993) and convenient detection limits (0.4-1.3 microg/L). The proposed method was applied in the analysis of triazinic metabolites in tap, river and ground waters, with remarkable performance and negligible matrix effects. The comparison of the recoveries obtained by PU and commercial stir bars was also performed, where the yields achieved with the former were up to ten times higher proving that PU is appropriate for analysis at trace level of this type of polar compounds in water matrices. PMID:20434162

  3. Comparison of using polyurethane foam passive samplers and tree bark samples from Western China to determine atmospheric organochlorine pesticide.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuxu; Lu, Yao; Jin, Jun; Li, Guangyao; Li, Peng; He, Chang; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers were deployed and tree bark samples were collected at 15 sites across western China in 2013, and the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the samples were determined. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its degradation products (collectively called DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the dominant OCPs in the PUF samples and tree bark samples. The mean DDTs, HCHs and HCB concentrations were 33, 22 and 18ng/sample in the PUF samples, and 428, 74, and 43ng/(g lipid weight (lw)) in the tree bark, respectively. The OCP concentrations in the air, calculated using PUF-air and tree-bark-air partitioning models, were of the same order of magnitude. Both sample types showed that relatively fresh inputs of DDT and HCHs to the environment have occurred in western China. Meanwhile, PUF passive samplers were compared with the use of tree bark samples as passive samplers. The OCP compositions in the PUF and tree bark samples were different. Only the relatively stable OCPs (such as HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE)) were consistent in the PUF and tree bark samples. PMID:26969054

  4. Repeated batch cultivation of the hydrocarbon-degrading, micro-algal strain Prototheca zopfii RND16 immobilized in polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Ryohei; Wada, Shun; Urano, Naoto

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the stability of the cells of a heterotrophic green micro-algal strain Prototheca zopfii RND16 immobilized in polyurethane foam (PUF) cubes during degradation of mixed hydrocarbon substrate, which was composed of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in 5 successive cycles of repeated batch cultivation at 30 degrees C. Both RND16 cells and mixed hydrocarbon substrate components had been entrapped in PUF cubes through cultivation. PUF-immobilized RND16 degraded n-alkanes almost completely, whereas the strain hardly degraded PAHs in PUFs, rather they accumulated in the matrices. It is noteworthy that this result is strikingly different from that of the free-living cell culture, where RND16 reduced concentrations of both n-alkanes and PAHs. However, PAHs accumulation in the PUFs did not impair the performance of the immobilized alga to utilize n-alkanes. These results suggest that the PUFs harboring RND16 cells could be used repeatedly for selective retrieval of PAHs from oil-polluted waters after preferential biodegradation of n-alkanes by algae. PMID:18388973

  5. EVALUATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INSTALLED-IN-PLACE POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION BY EXPERIMENT AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Bruce Hardy, B; Kurt Eberl, K; Nick Gupta, N

    2007-12-05

    In the thermal analysis of the 9977 package, it was found that calculated temperatures, determined using a typical thermal analysis code, did not match those measured in the experimental apparatus. The analysis indicated that the thermal resistance of the overpack in the experimental apparatus was less than that expected, based on manufacturer's reported value of thermal conductivity. To resolve this question, the thermal conductivity of the installed foam was evaluated from the experimental results, using a simplified analysis. This study confirmed that the thermal resistance of the experimental apparatus was lower than that which would result from the manufacturer's published values for thermal conductivity of the foam insulation. The test package was sectioned to obtain samples for measurement of material properties. In the course of the destructive examination a large uninsulated region was found at the bottom of the package, which accounted for the anomalous results. Subsequent measurement of thermal conductivity confirmed the manufacturer's published values. The study provides useful insight into the use of simplified, scoping calculations for evaluation of thermal performance of packages.

  6. In vivo degradation of polyurethane foam with 55 wt % polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; Van Leeuwen, M Barbara M; Van Minnen, Baucke; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2015-11-01

    Most topical hemostatic agents are based on animal-derived products like collagen and gelatin. They carry the potential risk of pathogen transmission while adjustments in the production process of these materials are limited. A synthetic hemostatic agent based on polyurethane (PU) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed to overcome these disadvantages. The goal of this study was to compare the degradation process of this biomaterial to collagen and gelatin hemostatic agents. Samples of the test materials were implanted subcutaneously in both rats and rabbits. The animals were sacrificed at certain time intervals up to three years and the explanted samples were microscopically assessed. The histological examination showed a comparable pattern of degradation for the different test materials. Remnants of gelatin and collagen were seen up to 26 and 39 weeks, respectively. For PU, it took up to three years before micro-particles of the material were no longer detected. All biomaterials showed a good biocompatibility and no severe foreign body reactions occurred. The good biocompatibility and predictable pattern of resorption indicate that PU can be used as a topical hemostatic agent. However, a degradation time comparable to collagen and gelatin would be favorable. PMID:25904301

  7. Polyurethane Masks Large Areas in Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Polyurethane foam provides effective mask in electroplating of copper or nickel. Thin layer of Turco maskant painted on area to be masked: Layer ensures polyurethane foam removed easily after served its purpose. Component A, isocyanate, and component B, polyol, mixed together and brushed or sprayed on mask area. Mixture reacts, yielding polyurethane foam. Foam prevents deposition of nickel or copper on covered area. New method saves time, increases productivity and uses less material than older procedures.

  8. Removal of copper and iron by polyurethane foam column in FIA system for the determination of nickel in pierced ring.

    PubMed

    Vongboot, Monnapat; Suesoonthon, Monrudee

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) mini-column was used to eliminate copper and iron for the determination of nickel in pierced rings. The PUF mini-column was connected to FIA system for on-line sorption of copper and iron in complexes form of CuSCN(+) and FeSCN(2+). For this season, the acid solution containing a mixture of Ni(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) and SCN(-) ions was firstly flew into the PUF column. Then, the percolated solution which Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions is separated from analysis was injected into FIA system to react with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) reagent in basic condition which this method is called pH gradient technique. The Ni-PAR complexes obtained were measured theirs absorbance at 500 nm by UV visible spectrophotometer. In this study, it was found that Cu(II) and Fe(III) were completely to form complexes with 400 mmol/L KSCN and entirely to eliminate in acidic condition at pH 3.0. In the optimum condition of these experiments, the method provided the linear relationship between absorbance and the concentration of Ni(II) in the range from 5.00 to 30.00 mg/L. Linear equation is y=0.0134x+0.0033 (R(2)=0.9948). Precision, assessed in the term of the relative standard deviation, RSD, and accuracy for multiple determinations obtained in values of 0.77-1.73% and 97.4%, respectively. The level of an average amount of Ni(II) in six piercing rings was evaluated to be 14.78 mg/g. PMID:25281109

  9. Stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds in polyurethane foam-type passive air samplers upon O3 exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariyasopit, Narumol; Liu, Yongchun; Liggio, John; Harner, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in polyurethane foam (PUF) disks upon O3 exposure was studied in a flow tube. A wide range of PACs was evaluated by spiking PUF disks with PACs and exposing to O3 at concentrations that were equivalent to two months exposure, a typical deployment period for these passive air samplers. Ambient concentrations of O3 (∼50 ppb) at 0% and 50% relative humidity (RH) were applied. At 0% RH, 23 of 68 PACs yielded more than 50% loss after exposure. The mean percent loss was 30% with perylene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene the most reactive polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, respectively. At 50% RH, 77% of the studied PACs was stable upon O3 exposure (PACexposed/PACunexposed > 0.7). The mean percent loss was 17% and only 7 of 68 PACs yielded greater than 50% loss. In general, the reactivity of most of the PACs decreased at higher RH, except for the reactive PAHs (acenaphthylene, 2,3-dimethylanthracene, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, dibenzothiophene, and 2-methyldibenzothiophene) which demonstrated lower RH dependence. The experimental conditions in this study represent a worst case scenario for the stability of PACs sorbed to PUF. In reality, the sampling of PACs in ambient air represents an 'aged' component of PACs where the most reactive species have already partially been removed. Also, PACs in ambient air will be associated with the particle phase to varying extents that will help to enhance their stability. Therefore, under regular operating conditions, over a 2-month exposure, we expect a minimal error in the measurement of total concentration of PACs in air using the PUF disk passive sampler.

  10. Polyurethane Filler for Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polyurethane foam proves suitable as filler for slots in parts electroplated with copper or nickel. Polyurethane causes less contamination of plating bath and of cleaning and filtering tanks than wax fillers used previously. Direct cost of maintenance and indirect cost of reduced operating time during tank cleaning also reduced.

  11. H2S removal and bacterial structure along a full-scale biofilter bed packed with polyurethane foam in a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Yan, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide accumulated under a cover film in a landfill site was treated for 7 months by a full-scale biofilter packed with polyurethane foam cubes. Sampling ports were set along the biofilter bed to investigate H2S removal and microbial characteristics in the biofilter. The H2S was removed effectively by the biofilter, and over 90% removal efficiency was achieved in steady state. Average elimination capacity of H2S was 2.21 g m(-3) h(-1) in lower part (LPB) and 0.41 g m(-3) h(-1) in upper part (UPB) of the biofilter. Most H2S was eliminated in LPB. H2S concentration varied along the polyurethane foam packed bed, the structure of the bacterial communities showed spatial variation in the biofilter, and H2S removal as well as products distribution changed accordingly. The introduction of odorants into the biofilter shifted the distribution of the existing microbial populations toward a specific culture that could metabolize the target odors. PMID:23989036

  12. Halogenated flame-retardant concentrations in settled dust, respirable and inhalable particulates and polyurethane foam at gymnastic training facilities and residences.

    PubMed

    La Guardia, Mark J; Hale, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    Halogenated flame-retardants (FRs) are used in a wide array of polymer-containing products. Animal studies and structure-activity modeling exercises suggest that FR exposure may result in detrimental toxicological effects. Workers with extended contact with such polymers (e.g., electronic dismantlers, carpet installers and aircraft personnel) have previously been observed to exhibit elevated body burdens of FRs, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Recently, elevated PBDE blood levels were also reported in a non-occupational exposure group, gymnasts. These levels were hypothesized to be related to the large volumes of FR-treated polyurethane foam in gymnastics facilities. To further our understanding of workers' potential exposure, we analyzed FR concentrations in indoor dust and size-fractionated air particulates (respirable (<4 μm) and inhalable (>4 μm)) from gymnastic studios. Values were compared to samples from the homes of coaches employed at these facilities. Polyurethane foam blocks (i.e., pit foam) were also analyzed to characterize potential FR sources. FRs examined included those used to flame-retard polyurethane foam: 8 PBDE congeners, two brominated components of Firemaster 550 (2-ethylhexyl 2, 3, 4, 5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) 3, 4, 5, 6-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH)) and three chlorinated organophosphates (tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP)). Several additional FRs not used in polyurethane were also evaluated. These have also been detected in indoor dust and air and may also lead to adverse health effects. These include: BDE-183 and its replacement product (1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), two congeners of the deca-BDE formulation (BDE-206, -209) and their replacement decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and hexabromocyclododecane (α-, β-, γ-HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)). Pit foam contained multiple

  13. Studies on thio-substituted polyurethane foam (T-PUF) as a new efficient separation medium for the removal of inorganic/organic mercury from industrial effluents and solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyulu, Y; Marayya, R; Rao, T H

    1993-01-01

    Novel thio-substituted flexible polyurethane foam (T-PUF) was synthesised by addition polymerisation of mercaptan with the precursors of an open-cell polyurethane foam, which can be used as a highly selective sorbent for inorganic and organic mercury from complex matrices. The percentage extraction of inorganic mercury was studied at different flow-rates, over a wide pH range at different concentrations ranging from 1 ppm, to 100 ppm. The break-through capacity and total capacity of unmodified and thio-foams were determined for inorganic and organic mercurials. The absorption efficiency of thio-foam was far superior to other sorbent media, such as activated carbon, polymeric ion-exchange resins and reagent-loaded polyurethane foams. It was observed that even at the 1000 ppm level, divalent ions like Cu, Mg, Ca, Zn do not appreciably influence the per cent extraction of inorganic mercury at the 10 ppm level. These matrix levels are the most concentrated ones which are likely to occur, both in local sewage and effluent waters. Further, the efficiency of this foam was sufficiently high at 10-100 ppm levels of Hg, even from 5-10 litres of effluent volumes using 50 g of thio-foam packed into different columns in series. Thio-foams were found to possess excellent abilities to remove and recover mercury even at low levels from industrial effluents and brine mud of chlor-alkali industry after pre-acid extraction. This makes it a highly efficient sorbent for possible application in effluent treatment. Model schemes for the removal and recovery of mercury from industrial effluents and municipal sewage (100-1000 litre) by a dynamic method are proposed and the costs incurred in a full-scale application method are indicated to show that the use of thio-foam could be commercially attractive. PMID:15091891

  14. Split-thickness skin graft donor site management: a randomized controlled trial comparing polyurethane with calcium alginate dressings.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Louise; Wasiak, Jason; Spinks, Anneliese; Cleland, Heather

    2012-04-01

    Split-thickness skin grafting (SSG) is a common reconstructive technique for the treatment of patients with deep burns and other traumatic injuries. The management of the donor site after harvesting an SSG remains controversial because of a variety of dressings available for use. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effectiveness of a polyurethane dressing, Allevyn™, to a calcium alginate, Kaltostat®. From August 2009 to April 2010, 36 patients were randomized to Allevyn™ or Kaltostat® for donor site management following split skin graft surgery. Pain intensity and adverse events were the primary outcomes assessed. Secondary outcome measures included time for wound healing, ease of application and removal and overall patient satisfaction. Time to first dressing change was earlier in those randomized to Allevyn™ compared with Kaltostat® (5·5 days versus 8·11 days, P = 0·014). In patients randomized to Allevyn™, excessive exudate lead to a significantly increased number of dressing changes before day 10 (14 days versus 7 days, P = 0·018). The total number of dressing changes applied was also greater in those with Allevyn™ compared with Kaltstat® (P = 0·007). There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with respect to time to wound healing, level of pain intensity, length of stay, staff and patient satisfaction levels. This trial showed Allevyn™ to be associated with increase demands on nursing time, increased cost of dressing products, medical consumables and wastes. Kaltostat® remains the dressing of choice for initial donor site dressing in this burns unit. PMID:22051247

  15. A study on the ability of quaternary ammonium groups attached to a polyurethane foam wound dressing to inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phat L; Hamood, Abdul N; de Souza, Anselm; Schultz, Gregory; Liesenfeld, Bernd; Mehta, Dilip; Reid, Ted W

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection of acute and chronic wounds impedes wound healing significantly. Part of this impediment is the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow in wound dressings. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a polyurethane (PU) foam wound dressings coated with poly diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (pDADMAC-PU) to inhibit the growth and biofilm development by three main wound pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, within the wound dressing. pDADMAC-PU inhibited the growth of all three pathogens. Time-kill curves were conducted both with and without serum to determine the killing kinetic of pDADMAC-PU. pDADMAC-PU killed S. aureus, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa. The effect of pDADMAC-PU on biofilm development was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative analysis, colony-forming unit assay, revealed that pDADMAC-PU dressing produced more than eight log reduction in biofilm formation by each pathogen. Visualization of the biofilms by either confocal laser scanning microscopy or scanning electron microscopy confirmed these findings. In addition, it was found that the pDADMAC-PU-treated foam totally inhibited migration of bacteria through the foam for all three bacterial strains. These results suggest that pDADMAC-PU is an effective wound dressing that inhibits the growth of wound pathogens both within the wound and in the wound dressing. PMID:25469865

  16. Strain compatibility tests for sprayed foam cryogenic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. L.; Kimberlin, D. O.

    1970-01-01

    Mechanical stress applied to foam-coated aluminum alloy specimens maintained at cryogenic temperature simulates actual use conditions of the foam insulation. The testing reveals defects in the polyurethane foam or in the foam to metal bond.

  17. Graft-copolymer-based approach to clear, durable, and anti-smudge polyurethane coatings.

    PubMed

    Rabnawaz, Muhammad; Liu, Guojun

    2015-05-26

    Clear anti-smudge coatings with a thickness of up to tens of micrometers have been prepared through a graft-copolymer-based approach from commercial precursors. The coatings repel water, diiodomethane, hexadecane, ink, and an artificial fingerprint liquid. In addition, they can be readily applied onto different substrates using different coating methods. These coatings could find applications in protecting hand-held electronic devices from fingerprints, windows from stains, and buildings from graffiti. PMID:25919762

  18. Biodecolorization and Bioremediation of Denim Industrial Wastewater by Adapted Bacterial Consortium Immobilized on Inert Polyurethane Foam (PUF) Matrix: A First Approach with Biobarrier Model.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, R; Prabhavathi, P; Karthiksundaram, S; Pattab, S; Kumar, S Dinesh; Santhanam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments were studied on bioremediation of denim industry wastewater by using polyurethane foam (PU foam) immobilized bacterial cells. About 30 indigenous adapted bacterial strains were isolated from denim textile effluent out of which only four isolates were found to be efficient against crude indigo carmine degradation using broth decolorization method. The selected bacterial strains were identified as Actinomyces sp., (PK07), Pseudomonas sp., (PK18), Stenotrophomonas sp., (PK23) and Staphylococcus sp., (PK28) based on microscopic and biochemical characteristics. The bacterial immobilized cells have the highest number of viable cells (PK07, PK18, PK23 and PK28 appeared to be 1 x 10(8), 1 x 10(9), 1 x 10(6) and 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml respectively) and maximum attachment efficiency of 92% on PU foam. The complete degradation using a consortium of PU foam immobilized cells was achieved at pH 6, 27 degrees C, 100% of substrate concentration and allowed to develop biofilm for one day (1.5% W/V). In SEM analysis, it was found that immobilization of bacterial cells using PUF stably maintained the production of various extracellular enzymes at levels higher than achieved with suspended forms. Finally, isatin and anthranilic acid were found to be degradation products by NMR and TLC. The decolorized dye was not toxic to monkey kidney cell (HBL 100) at a concentration of 50 μl and 95% of cell viability was retained. A mathematical model that describes bacterial transport with biodegradation involves a set of coupled reaction equations with non-standard numerical approach based on the time step scheme. PMID:26999953

  19. Assessment of the degradation of polyurethane foams after artificial and natural ageing by using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lattuati-Derieux, A; Thao-Heu, S; Lavédrine, B

    2011-07-15

    Polyurethane foams are widely present in museum collections either as part of the artefacts, or as a material for their conservation. Unfortunately many of PU foam artefacts are in poor condition and often exhibit specific conservation issues. Their fast thermal and photochemical degradations have been the aim of previous researches. It is now accepted that hydrolysis predominates for polyester-based polyurethane PU(ES) whereas oxidation is the principal cause of degradation for polyether-based polyurethane PU(ET) variety. Only a few studies have been devoted to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by polyurethanes and, to our knowledge, none were performed on polyurethane foams by using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The objective of the work described here is to assess the impact of some environmental factors (humidity, temperature and daylight) on the degradation of PU foams by evaluating their volatile fractions. We investigated morphological changes, polymerized fractions and volatile fractions of (i) one modern produced PU(ES) foam and one modern PU(ET) foam artificially aged in different conditions as well as (ii) four naturally aged foams collected from various daily life objects and selected for the representativeness of their analytical data. Characterization procedure used was based on attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and non-invasive headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). In this paper, the formation of alcohol and acid raw products for PU(ES) and glycol derivatives for PU(ET) during natural and artificial ageing is confirmed. These main products can be considered as degradation markers for PU foams. Results show that artificial and natural ageing provide similar analytical results, and confirm that the dominant degradation paths for PU(ES) and for PU(ET) are

  20. Assessing levels and seasonal variations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the Tuscan atmosphere, Italy, using polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Estellano, Victor H; Pozo, Karla; Efstathiou, Christos; Pozo, Katerine; Corsolini, Simonetta; Focardi, Silvano

    2015-10-01

    Polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed over 4 sampling periods of 3-5-months (≥ 1 year) at ten urban and rural locations throughout the Tuscany Region. The purpose was to assess the occurrence and seasonal variations of ten current-use pesticides (CUPs). PUF disk extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. The organophosphates insecticides; chlorpyrifos (3-580 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (below detection limit - to 570 pg m(-3)) presented the highest levels in air, and showed seasonal fluctuation coinciding with the growing seasons. The relative proportion urban/(urban + rural) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 showing no differences between urban and rural concentrations. Air back trajectories analysis showed air masses passing over agricultural fields and potentially enhancing the drift of pesticides into the urban sites. This study represents the first information regarding CUPs in the atmosphere of Tuscany region using PAS-PUF disk. PMID:26005863

  1. Determination of total iron in food samples after flow injection preconcentration on polyurethane foam functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azeem, S M; Bader, N R; Kuss, H M; El-Shahat, M F

    2013-06-01

    A highly selective flow injection sorption system was developed for the fast determination of total iron in food samples. Iron (III) was reduced to iron (II) by ascorbic acid and preconcentrated on a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine (SPDA). The retained Fe (II) was eluted with hydrochloric acid and subsequently reacted to 2,4,6-tri(2'-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) then measured at 593 nm. The procedure has resulted preconcentration factor 36, sample frequency 20 h(-1) and detection limit 18 μg L(-1). The precision (RSD) was found to be 5.7% and 3.1% at concentration levels 0.1 and 5.0 μg mL(-1) iron (II), respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determination of total iron in reference material and food samples. PMID:23411293

  2. Use of polyurethane foam and 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline for determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Apyari, V V; Dmitrienko, S G; Ostrovskaya, V M; Anaev, E K; Zolotov, Y A

    2008-07-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) has been suggested as a solid polymeric reagent for determination of nitrite. The determination is based on the diazotization of end toluidine groups of PUF with nitrite in acidic medium followed by coupling of polymeric diazonium cation with 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline. The intensely colored polymeric azodye formed in this reaction can be used as a convenient analytic form for the determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (c (min) = 0.7 ng mL(-1)). The possibility of using a desktop scanner, digital camera, and computer data processing for the numerical evaluation of the color intensity of the polymeric azodye has been investigated. A scanner and digital camera can be used for determination of nitrite with the same sensitivity and reproducibility as with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The approach developed was applied for determination of nitrite in river water and human exhaled breath condensate. PMID:18431561

  3. Effects of packing rates of cubic-shaped polyurethane foam carriers on the microbial community and the removal of organics and nitrogen in moving bed biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quan; Wang, Yuxiao; Wang, Tianmin; Zheng, Hao; Chu, Libing; Zhang, Chong; Chen, Hongzhang; Kong, Xiuqin; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2012-08-01

    The effects of packing rates (20%, 30%, and 40%) of polyurethane foam (PUF) to the removal of organics and nitrogen were investigated by continuously feeding artificial sewage in three aerobic moving bed biofilm reactors. The results indicated that the packing rate of the PUF carriers had little influence on the COD removal efficiency (81% on average). However, ammonium removal was affected by the packing rates, which was presumably due to the different relative abundances of nitrifying bacteria. A high ammonium removal efficiency of 96.3% at a hydraulic retention time of 5h was achieved in 40% packing rate reactor, compared with 37.4% in 20% packing rate. Microprofiles of dissolved oxygen and nitrate revealed that dense biofilm limits the DO transfer distance and nitrate diffusion. Pyrosequencing analysis of the biofilm showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were the three most abundant phyla, but the proportions of the microbial community varied with the packing rate of the PUF carriers. PMID:22621807

  4. Fire retardant foams developed to suppress fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R.; Gilwee, W. J.; Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1968-01-01

    Heat insulating polyurethane foam retards and suppresses fuel fires. Uniformly dispersed in the foam is a halogenated polymer capable of splitting off hydrogen halide upon heating and charring of the polyurethane.

  5. Metallized polymeric foam material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, B. A.; Bilow, N.

    1974-01-01

    Open-celled polyurethane foams can be coated uniformly with thin film of metal by vapor deposition of aluminum or by sensitization of foam followed by electroless deposition of nickel or copper. Foam can be further processed to increase thickness of metal overcoat to impart rigidity or to provide inert surface with only modest increase in weight.

  6. Multi-Partner Demonstration of Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Improved Methods for the Production of Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Mark L. Listemann

    2006-03-08

    The work described was focused on commercializing a new energy-efficient, enabling technology silicon surfactants that will allow the flexible foam industry to utilize environmentally benign CO2 as a blowing agent. These new products provide the means for more cost-effective and energy-efficient production of foam in an industry that is under increasing threat from foreign competition and environmental regulation.

  7. Reduction of hydrogen cyanide concentrations and acute inhalation toxicity from flexible polyurethane foam combustion products by the addition of copper compounds. Part 4. Effects of combustion conditions and scaling on the generation of hydrogen cyanide and toxicity from flexible polyurethane foam with and without copper compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.C.; Braun, E.; Paabo, M.; Harris, R.H.; Navarro, M.

    1992-12-01

    Two full-scale protocols (A B) were tested to determine the efficacy of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) in reducing the concentrations of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from flexible polyurethane foams (FPU) when thermally decomposed under realistic room conditions. In each Protocol A test, a FPU cushion (untreated or treated with 0.1% Cu2O) was cut in half, and the two halves were stacked on a load cell in a closed room. The ignition source was a hot wire placed between the two halves. Rats were exposed to the decomposition products to examine the toxicological effects of the foams with and without Cu2O. Protocol B differed from Protocol A in that chairs were simulated by four FPU cushions attached to a steel frame; the treated FPU contained 1.0% Cu2O; the cushions were covered with a cotton fabric; the chairs were ignited with cigarettes; and the burn room was open and connected to a corridor. In both protocols, the thermal decomposition progressed through nonflaming, smoldering and flaming phases and the concentrations of HCN and other gases were monitored. Foams used in the full-scale room burns were also examined under small-scale conditions (under flaming or a two-phase nonflaming/ramped heating mode) in the cup furnace smoke toxicity method. Both atmospheric and reduced O2 conditions were studied. The small-scale tests showed an 87% reduction in the concentration of HCN and a 40 to 73% reduction in the toxicity of the thermal decomposition products when the Cu2O-treated foams were tested. In the full-scale tests, the concentration of HCN was reduced 70% when the FPU contained 1.0% Cu2O, but not when the foams contained 0.1% Cu2O.

  8. Inception Cohort Study of Workers Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate at a Polyurethane Foam Factory: Initial One-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Wei; Wisnewski, Adam V.; Neamtiu, Iulia; Gurzau, Eugen; Sparer, Judith A.; Stowe, Meredith H.; Liu, Jian; Slade, Martin D.; Rusu, Olivia A.; Redlich, Carrie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Isocyanates are one of the most commonly reported causes of occupational asthma; however, the risks of developing isocyanate asthma in modern production facilities remain poorly defined. We evaluated TDI exposure and respiratory health among an inception cohort of workers during their first year of employment at a new polyurethane foam production factory. Methods Forty-nine newly hired workers were evaluated pre-employment, 6-months, and 12-months post-employment through questionnaire, spirometry and TDI-specific serology. Airborne TDI levels were monitored by fixed-point air sampling and limited personal sampling. Qualitative surface SWYPE™ tests were performed to evaluate potential sources of skin exposure. Results Airborne TDI levels overall were low; over 90% of fixed-point air measurements were below the limit of detection (0.1 ppb). Over the first year of employment,12 of the 49 original workers (24.5%) were lost to follow-up, no additional workers were enrolled, and seven of the 49 original workers (14.2%) developed either new asthma symptoms (N=3), TDI-specific IgG (N=1), new airflow obstruction (N=1) and/or a decline in FEV1≥ 15% (N=3), findings that could indicate TDI-related health effects.The prevalence of current asthma symptoms was significantly higher in the workers lost to follow-up compared to those who completed the 12 month follow-up (25% vs.2.7%; p=0.04). Conclusions The findings suggest possible early TDI-related health effects in a modern polyurethane production plant. These findings also highlight the need for further longitudinal evaluation of these workers and the challenges of studying workers at risk for isocyanate asthma. PMID:25266741

  9. Fabrication and characterization of a foamed polylactic acid (PLA)/ thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) shape memory polymer (SMP) blend for biomedical and clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Janice J.; Srivastava, Ijya; Kowalski, Jennifer; Naguib, Hani E.

    2014-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMP) are a class of stimuli-responsive materials that are able to respond to external stimulus such as heat by altering their shape. Bio-compatible SMPs have a number of advantages over static materials and are being studied extensively for biomedical and clinical applications (such as tissue stents and scaffolds). A previous study has demonstrated that the bio-compatible polymer blend of polylactic acid (PLA)/ thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) (50/50 and 70/30) exhibit good shape memory properties. In this study, the mechanical and thermo-mechanical (shape memory) properties of TPU/PLA SMP blends were characterized; the compositions studied were 80/20, 65/35, and 50/50 TPU/PLA. In addition, porous TPU/PLA SMP blends were fabricated with a gas-foaming technique; and the morphology of the porous structure of these SMPs foams were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TPU/PLA bio-compatible SMP blend was fabricated with melt-blending and compression molding. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the SMP blends was determined with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The mechanical properties studied were the stress-strain behavior, tensile strength, and elastic modulus; and the thermomechanical (or shape memory) properties studied were the shape fixity rate (Rf), shape recovery rate (Rr), response time, and the effect of recovery temperature on Rr. The porous 80/20 PLA/TPU SMP blend was found to have the highest tensile strength, toughness and percentage extension, as well as the lowest density and uniform pore structure in the micron and submicron scale. The porous 80/20 TPU/PLA SMP blend may be further developed for specific biomedical and clinical applications where a combination of tensile strength, toughness, and low density are required.

  10. Thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane foams and a survey of insulating concretes at cryogenic temperatures. Final report, January 1979-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, L.L.; Arvidson, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    Thermal and mechanical properties of expanded plastics, foams, are reported. The system studied was rigid, closed cell, CCl/sub 3/F blown, polyether based polyurethane. The primary temperature range of study was 100 to 300 K; however, several properties were determined to 4 K. The nominal densities of the foams tested were 32, 64, and 96 kg/cu m. Properties reported are thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, strength and moduli in tension and in compression, proportional limit, yield strength, ultimate strength, and shear strength. Physical properties were determined both parallel and perpendicular to the orthogonal axes of the bulk supplies. The gas content of the specimens was determined using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and with a gas displacement pycnometer. Empirical procedures for estimating the temperature dependent thermophysical properties were developed. These procedures are based on the experimental data and utilize the characterization parameters for molar gas concentration, gas pressure, and cell morphology. Regulations affecting vapor dispersion in the area around liquefied natural gas facilities make it attractive to construct dikes and impounding areas out of materials having low thermal conductivities. Several insulating concretes have the general properties required for such applications. Screening tests were done to determine the thermal conductivity, modulus of rupture, and the compressive strength of several polyester based materials with glass bead or perlite aggregate and of portland cement based materials with vermiculite or polystyrene aggregate. A bibliography resulting from an extensive literature survey of lightweight concretes is presented. Seven of the references which were particularly applicable are presented in annotated form.

  11. Effect of CNT as a Nucleating Agent on Cell Morphology and Thermal Insulation Property of the Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    PubMed

    Ahn, WonSool; Lee, Joon-Man

    2015-11-01

    The effects of MWCNT on the cell sizes, cell uniformities, thermal conductivities, bulk densities, foaming kinetics, and compressive mechanical properties of the rigid PUFs were investigated. To obtain the better uniform dispersed state of MWCNT, grease-type master batch of MWCNT/surfactant was prepared by three-roll mill. Average cell size of the PUF samples decreased from 185.1 for the neat PUF to 162.9 μm for the sample of 0.01 phr of MWCNT concentration. Cell uniformity was also enhanced showing the standard cell-size deviation of 61.7 and 35.2, respectively. While the thermal conductivity of the neat PUF was 0.0222 W/m(o)K, that of the sample with 0.01 phr of MWCNT showed 0.0204 W/m(o)K, resulting 8.2% reduction of the thermal conductivity. Bulk density of the PUF samples was observed as nearly the same values as 30.0 ± 1.0 g/cm3 regardless of MWCNT. Temperature profiles during foaming process showed that an indirect indication of the nucleation effect of MWCNT for the PUF foaming system, showing faster and higher temperature rising with time. The compressive yield stress is nearly the same as 0.030 x 10(5) Pa regardless of MWCNT. PMID:26726655

  12. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for 2,4-toluenediamine leached from polyurethane foam-covered breast implants.

    PubMed Central

    Luu, H M; Hutter, J C; Bushar, H F

    1998-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to assess the low-dose exposure of patients to the carcinogen 2, 4-toluenediamine (2,4-TDA) released from the degradation of the polyester urethane foam (PU) used in Meme silicone breast implants. The tissues are represented as five compartments: liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, slowly perfused tissues (e.g., fat), and richly perfused tissues (e.g., muscle). The PBPK model was fitted to the plasma and urine concentrations of 2,4-TDA and its metabolite 4-AAT (4-N-acetyl-2-amino toluene) in rats given low doses of 2, 4-TDA intravenously and subcutaneously. The rat model was extrapolated to simulate oral and implant routes in rats. After adjusting for human physiological parameters, the model was then used to predict the bioavailability of 2,4-TDA released from a typical 4.87-g polyester urethane foam implant found in a patient who weighed 58 kg with the Meme and had the breast implant for 10 years. A quantitative risk assessment for 2,4-TDA was performed and the polyester urethane foam did present an unreasonable risk to health for the patient. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9637796

  13. Outdoor passive air monitoring of semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs): a critical evaluation of performance and limitations of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, P; Audy, O; Škrdlíková, L; Kukučka, P; Přibylová, P; Prokeš, R; Vojta, Š; Klánová, J

    2014-03-01

    The most commonly used passive air sampler (PAS) (i.e. polyurethane foam (PUF) disk) is cheap, versatile, and capable of accumulating compounds present both in gas and particle phases. Its performance for particle associated compounds is however disputable. In this study, twelve sets of triplicate PUF-PAS were deployed outdoors for exposure periods of 1-12 weeks together with continuously operated active samplers, to characterize sampling efficiency and derive sampling rates (RS) for compounds belonging to 7 SVOC classes (including particle associated compounds). PUF-PAS efficiently and consistently sampled polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and eight novel brominated flame retardant (nBFR) compounds. Low accuracy and lack of sensitivity was observed for most polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans PCDD/Fs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (under the conditions of this study), with the exception of some congeners which may be used as qualitative markers for their respective classes. Application of compound specific RS was found crucial for all compounds except PCBs. Sampling efficiency of the particle associated compounds was often low. PMID:24526226

  14. Assessing and monitoring the ecotoxicity of pulp and paper wastewater for irrigating reed fields using the polyurethane foam unit method based on monitoring protozoal communities.

    PubMed

    Ding, Cheng; Chen, Tianming; Li, Zhaoxia; Yan, Jinlong

    2015-05-01

    Using the standardized polyurethane foam unit (PFU) method, a preliminary investigation was carried out on the bioaccumulation and the ecotoxic effects of the pulp and paper wastewater for irrigating reed fields. Static ectoxicity test had shown protozoal communities were very sensitive to variations in toxin time and effective concentration (EC) of the pulp and paper wastewater. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) was a more suitable indicator of the extent of water pollution than Gleason and Margalef diversity index (d), Simpson's diversity index (D), and Pielou's index (J). The regression equation between S eq and EC was S eq  = - 0.118EC + 18.554. The relatively safe concentration and maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) of the wastewater for the protozoal communities were about 20 % and 42 %, respectively. To safely use this wastewater for irrigation, more than 58 % of the toxins must be removed or diluted by further processing. Monitoring of the wastewater in representative irrigated reed fields showed that the regularity of the protozoal colonization process was similar to the static ectoxicity, indicating that the toxicity of the irrigating pulp and paper wastewater was not lethal to protozoal communities in the reed fields. This study demonstrated the applicability of the PFU method in monitoring the ecotoxic effects of pulp and paper wastewater on the level of microbial communities and may guide the supervision and control of pulp and paper wastewater irrigating within the reed fields ecological system (RFES). PMID:25772871

  15. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-06-01

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L-1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L-1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h-l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents. PMID:26086710

  16. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Govindwar, Sanjay; Paul, Diby

    2015-01-01

    A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L−1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L−1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h−l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents. PMID:26086710

  17. On-line solid phase extraction with polyurethane foam: trace level spectrophotometric determination of iron in natural waters and biological materials.

    PubMed

    Cassella, Ricardo J

    2002-08-01

    This paper reports the development of a simple and accurate on-line procedure for preconcentration and determination of dissolved iron in waters and biological materials using unloaded polyether-type polyurethane foam as solid extractor. In the developed flow injection system, the analyte was preconcentrated from acidic aqueous medium as iron-thiocyanate complex with post-elution with ascorbic acid solution and spectrophotometric measurement with 1,10-phenanthroline as colorimetric reagent. In order to improve the performance of the system several chemical and flow variables were investigated as well as the effect caused by the presence of possible interferents. The method was validated by the analysis of two certified reference materials. Application of the methodology was carried out by the determination of dissolved iron content in eight natural water samples with different characteristics. The results were compared with those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and no statistical difference was observed. The detection limit was 0.75 microgram l-1 and the RSD was 1.2% for 2 min preconcentration time. At this condition, a productivity of 20 samples h-1 was achieved. Increasing the preconcentration time up to 3 min, a detection limit of 0.45 microgram l-1, an RSD of 1.5% and an analytical throughput of 15 h-1 were verified. PMID:12195994

  18. Polyurethane foam/spheroid culture system using human hepatoblastoma cell line (Hep G2) as a possible new hybrid artificial liver.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y; Shimada, M; Tsujita, E; Tanaka, S; Ijima, H; Nakazawa, K; Sakiyama, R; Fukuda, J; Ueda, T; Funatsu, K; Sugimachi, K

    2001-01-01

    The risk of xenozoonosis infections poses the greatest obstacle against the clinical application of hybrid artificial liver support system (HALSS). Primary human hepatocytes are an ideal source for HALSS, but the shortage of human livers available for hepatocyte isolation limits this modality. To resolve this issue, we used human hepatocytes with replication capacity (fetal hepatocytes, Hep G2, and Huh 7) in a polyurethane foam (PUF)/spheroid culture system in vitro, and analyzed liver functions such as ammonia removal and albumin synthesis capacity; results were compared to those of porcine hepatocytes. Human fetal hepatocytes, Hep G2, and Huh 7 formed spheroids spontaneously within 24 h in a PUF/spheroid culture system; ammonia removal activity (micromol/10(6) nuclei/h) was upregulated, as was albumin synthesis activity (microg/10(6) nuclei/day). In particular, Hep G2 spheroids demonstrated high ammonia removal and albumin synthesis activities: 85% of the ammonia removal activity and 171.7% of the albumin synthesis activity of porcine hepatocytes in the monolayer culture. These results indicate the possibility of the development of a multicapillary PUF (MC-PUF) packed-bed culture system of hepatocyte spheroids as a HALSS using Hep G2. PMID:11814114

  19. On-line determination of Sb(III) and total Sb using baker's yeast immobilized on polyurethane foam and hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegário, Amauri A.; Silva, Ariovaldo José; Pozzi, Eloísa; Durrant, Steven F.; Abreu, Cassio H.

    2006-09-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was immobilized in cubes of polyurethane foam and the ability of this immobilized material to separate Sb(III) and Sb(V) was investigated. A method based on sequential determination of total Sb (after on-line reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) with thiourea) and Sb(III) (after on-line solid-liquid phase extraction) by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry is proposed. A flow system assembled with solenoid valves was used to manage all stages of the process. The effects of pH, sample loading and elution flow rates on solid-liquid phase extraction of Sb(III) were evaluated. Also, the parameters related to on-line pre-reduction (reaction coil and flow rates) were optimized. Detection limits of 0.8 and 0.15 μg L - 1 were obtained for total Sb and Sb(III), respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water and effluent samples. The results obtained for the determination of total Sb were in agreement with expected values, including the river water Standard Reference Material 1640 certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Recoveries of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked samples were between 81 ± 19 and 111 ±15% when 120 s of sample loading were used.

  20. On-line preconcentration/determination of lead in Ilex paraguariensis samples (mate tea) using polyurethane foam as filter and USN-ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Marchisio, P F; Sales, A; Cerutti, S; Marchevski, E; Martinez, L D

    2005-09-30

    The present paper proposes an on-line preconcentration procedure for lead determination in Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hilaire) samples by ultrasonic nebulization associated to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (USN-ICP-OES). It is based on the precipitation of lead(II) ion on a minicolumn packed with polyurethane foam using 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridilazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) as precipitating reagent. The collected analyte precipitate was quantitatively eluted from the minicolumn with 20% (v/v) nitric acid. An enhancement factor of 225-fold was obtained (15 for USN and 15 for preconcentration). The detection limit (DL) value for the preconcentration of 10.0 ml of sample was 40.0 ng/l. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 3.0% for a Pb concentration of 1 microg/l, calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for lead was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997, at levels near the detection limits up to at least 100 microg/l. The preconcentration procedure was successfully applied to the determination of lead in mate tea samples. PMID:15936141

  1. Synthesis and application of alizarin complexone functionalized polyurethane foam: preconcentration/separation of metal ions from tap water and human urine.

    PubMed

    Azeem, S M Abdel; Arafa, W A A; el-Shahat, M F

    2010-10-15

    A new chelating sorbent has been synthesized by the covalent condensation of alizarin complexone (ALC) to polyurethane foam (PUF) through -N=C- group. The material was characterized by IR, (1)H NMR and chemical proof. Iminodiacetic acid groups are found in the prepared sorbent and the reaction proceeded via condensation between the toluidine moieties in the PUF and non-hydrogen bonded carbonyl group in ALC. Also, the possibility of elimination reaction between the groups (NH(2), NH and OH) in the polymer and carboxylic groups in the reagent was excluded. The material has been used to separate/preconcentrate Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Chemical and flow variables such as sample pH, sorbent capacity, sample flow rate and interference from co-existing ions were investigated. All metal ions are quantitatively desorbed by 0.1 mol L(-1) nitric acid solution. The procedure provides concentration factor 100 and limits of detection 0.013 microg mL(-1). The method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials and real samples such as tap water and human urine. PMID:20619967

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) accumulation by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to biosolids-, polyurethane foam microparticle-, and Penta-BDE-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, Michael O; Harvey, Ellen; Hale, Robert C

    2013-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been used in consumer polymers at up to percent levels. While long viewed as biologically inaccessible therein, PBDEs may become bioaccessible following volatilization or polymer deterioration. PBDEs may then enter soils via polymer fragmentation or following land application of sewage sludge-derived biosolids. Studies of direct PBDE uptake from these materials by soil organisms are scarce. We thus exposed earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) to artificial soil amended with a Class B anaerobically digested biosolid (ADB), an exceptional quality composted biosolid (CB), PBDE-containing polyurethane foam (PUF) microparticles, and Penta-BDE-spiked artificial soil (SAS). Worms accumulated mg/kg (lipid) ∑Penta-PBDE burdens from all substrates. Biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for worms exposed to ADB- and CB-amended soils were comparable after 28 d. BSAFs generally decreased with increasing congener KOW and substrate dosage. Biosolids-associated PBDE bioavailability was lower than spiked PBDEs. BSAFs for worms exposed to PUF microparticles ranged from 3.9 to 33.4, with ∑Penta-PBDE tissue burdens reaching 3740 mg/kg lipid. Congener accumulation patterns were similar in worms and polyethylene passive sampling devices immersed in ADB-amended soil coincident with exposed worms. However, passive sampler accumulation factors were lower than BSAFs. Our results demonstrate that PBDEs may accumulate in organisms ingesting soils containing biosolids or waste plastics. Such organisms may then transfer their burdens to predators or translocate them from the site of application/disposal. PMID:24160918

  3. Improving cell adhesion: development of a biosensor for cell behaviour monitoring by surface grafting of sulfonic groups onto a thermoplastic polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Alves, P; Pinto, S; Ferreira, P; Kaiser, Jean-Pierre; Bruinink, Arie; de Sousa, Hermínio C; Gil, M H

    2014-08-01

    The surface properties of a material in combination with the mechanical properties are responsible for the material performance in a biological environment as well as the behaviour of the cells which contact with the material. Surface properties such as chemical, physical, biological play an important role in the biomaterials filed. In this work, the surface of a thermoplastic polyurethane film (Elastollan(®)1180A50) was tailored with sulfonic groups by grafting [2-(methacryloxyl)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide (SB) after a previous surface activation either by Argon plasma or by ultra-violet irradiation. This surface modification had the purpose of improving cell adhesion in order to develop a biosensor able to monitor cell behaviour. The surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, by atomic force microscopy and by contact angle measurements in order to evaluate the efficiency of the modification. Additionally, blood compatibility studies and cell adhesion tests with human bone marrow cells were performed. These methods allowed the grafting of SB and the results indicate that a higher density of grafting was achieved with previous surface plasma treatment than with UV irradiation. However, for both techniques, the presence of SB functional groups led to a decrease of hydrophobicity and roughness of the surface, together with an improvement of the materials biological performance. PMID:24854674

  4. Synthesis, characterization and foaming of PHEA-PLLA, a new graft copolymer for biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Carfì Pavia, Francesco; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Giammona, Gaetano

    2014-08-01

    In this study a chemical grafting procedure was set up in order to link high molecular weight poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) chains to the hydrophilic α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide (PHEA) backbone. A graft copolymer named PHEA-g-PLLA (or simply PHEA-PLLA) was obtained bearing a degree of derivatization of 1.0 mol.% of PLLA as grafted chain. This new hybrid derivative offers both the opportune crystallinity necessary for the production of scaffolds trough a thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) technique and the proper chemical reactivity to perform further functionalizations with bio-effectors and drugs. PHEA-PLLA porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were successfully obtained via TIPS and characterized. Structures with an open porosity and a good level of interconnection were detected. As the applicability of the scaffold is mainly dependent on its pore size, preliminary studies about the mechanisms governing scaffold's pore diameter were carried out. PMID:24907764

  5. Handbook of polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Szycher, M.

    1999-04-01

    This book serves as the first source of information of useful polymers. This new book thoroughly covers the entire spectrum of polyurethanes--from current technology to buyer's information. The contents include: basic concepts in PU chemistry and technology; structure-property relations in PU; isocyanate chemistry; polyols; chain extenders; flexible and semi-flexible-foams; rigid PU foams; rigid foam and surfactants; catalysts; thermoplastic elastomers; reaction injection molding; adhesives; water borne; health and safety; radiation curable adhesives and coatings; processing methods; compounding ingredients; copolymers, polybends, and IPN=S; coatings and solutions; castables, sealants, and caulking compounds; medical applications; raw material suppliers; and processing systems.

  6. Repairing Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, J.; Buras, D.

    1986-01-01

    Large holes in polyurethane foam insulation repaired reliably by simple method. Little skill needed to apply method, used for overhead repairs as well as for those in other orientations. Plug positioned in hole to be filled and held in place with mounting fixture. Fresh liquid foam injected through plug to bond it in place. As foam cures and expands, it displaces plug outward. Protrusion later removed.

  7. Advances in plastic recycling. Volume 1: Recycling of polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, K.C.; Klempner, D.; Prentice, G.

    1999-07-01

    ``Recycling of Polyurethanes'', the first volume in the Advances in Plastics Recycling series, is focused on the physical and chemical recycling of polyurethanes, with attention given to energy conversion. A compilation of the present ongoing studies on recycling of urethane and, in general, isocyanate-based polymers, the focus is on thermosetting urethane polymers. Contents include: Recycling of Polyurethane Plastics in the European Automotive Industry; Present State of Polyurethane Recycling in Europe; Processing Overview of Bonded Polyurethane Foam; Mechanical Recycling of Polyurethane Scrap; Ecostream{trademark}--A Technology Beyond Recycling; Recycling of Flexible polyurethane Foam; General purpose Adhesives Prepared from Chemically Recycled Waste Rigid Polyurethane Foams; and Utilization of Isocyanate Binders in Recycling of Scrap Automotive Headliners.

  8. Comparison of polyurethane foam and XAD-2 sampling matrices to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and their oxygen analogs in an agricultural community

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Side-by-side active air sampling for the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its oxygen analog, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-O) was conducted with two recommended air sampling matrices: OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes with XAD-2 resin, polyurethane foam (PUF) tubes, and passive PUF deposition disks. The study compared the proportion of artificially transformed CPF-O in the laboratory and in the field during a tree fruit application in Washington State. Lab results demonstrated that the NIOSH-recommended OVS tubes artificially transformed up to 32% of CPF to CPF-O during the sampling process, whereas PUF tubes had little to no artificial transformation (≤ 0.1%). In the field, the proportion of CPF-O in the sample was significantly higher on OVS tubes than on PUF tubes (p < 0.001), confirming that OVS tubes were converting a significant portion of CPF to CPF-O. In addition, PUF tubes reported measurable levels CPF-O in the field even when no artificial transformation was expected. We conclude that the PUF matrix is the superior sampling medium for OP oxygen analogs when compared to XAD-2 resin. Community-located PUF tube samples 24 hours post-application had considerably higher levels CPF-O (16–21 ng/m3) than near field samples during application (2–14 ng/m3), suggesting that the oxygen analog is volatile and formed during atmospheric transport. It is recommended that worker and community risk assessments begin to take into consideration the presence of the more toxic oxygen analogs when measuring for OP pesticide mixtures. PMID:23466277

  9. Polyurethane foam containing rhEGF as a dressing material for healing diabetic wounds: Synthesis, characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Do Gi; Choi, Hyun Jun; Yoon, Hyoung Soon; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Lee, Doo Sung

    2015-11-01

    Diabetic wounds are a major health issue associated with diabetes mellitus. To surmount this issue, we developed polyurethane foams (PUFs) incorporating varying amounts of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) (rhEGF-PUFs) as a wound dressing for diabetic wounds. From electron microscopy images, it was found that the pore size of the rhEGF-PUFs surface (the wound contact layer) was less than 100μm, regardless of rhEGF content. The release of rhEGF from the PUFs was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The result showed that the release of rhEGF was time and concentration dependent, i.e., the amount of released rhEGF significantly increased as the immersion time and the rhEGF content of the PUFs increased. In vitro cytotoxicity testing showed that rhEGF-PUFs increased the viability of HaCaT human keratinocytes and CCD986-sk human fibroblasts, which indicated that the incorporated rhEGF maintained its biological activity. In an in vitro scratch wound healing assay, the wound closure rate was faster in CCD986-sk human fibroblasts than in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Finally, the rhEGF-PUFs were evaluated as an in vivo treatment in a full-thickness wound model in diabetized Sprague-Dawley rats. The result indicated that compared with PUFs, rhEGF-PUFs accelerated wound healing by promoting wound contraction, re-epithelialization, collagen deposition and the formation of a skin appendage. These findings demonstrate that rhEGF-PUFs are a promising dressing for diabetic wounds. PMID:26340359

  10. Comparison of polyurethane foam and XAD-2 sampling matrices to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and their oxygen analogs in an agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Fenske, Richard A; Yost, Michael G; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-07-01

    Side-by-side active air sampling for the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its oxygen analog, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-O) was conducted with two recommended air sampling matrices: OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes with XAD-2 resin, polyurethane foam (PUF) tubes, and passive PUF deposition disks. The study compared the proportion of artificially transformed CPF-O in the laboratory and in the field during a tree fruit application in Washington State. Lab results demonstrated that the NIOSH-recommended OVS tubes artificially transformed up to 32% of CPF to CPF-O during the sampling process, whereas PUF tubes had little to no artificial transformation (⩽0.1%). In the field, the proportion of CPF-O in the sample was significantly higher on OVS tubes than on PUF tubes (p<0.001), confirming that OVS tubes were converting a significant portion of CPF to CPF-O. In addition, PUF tubes reported measurable levels CPF-O in the field even when no artificial transformation was expected. We conclude that the PUF matrix is the superior sampling medium for OP oxygen analogs when compared to XAD-two resin. Community-located PUF tube samples 24h post-application had considerably higher levels CPF-O (16-21ngm(-3)) than near field samples during application (2-14ngm(-3)), suggesting that the oxygen analog is volatile and formed during atmospheric transport. It is recommended that worker and community risk assessments begin to take into consideration the presence of the more toxic oxygen analogs when measuring for OP pesticide mixtures. PMID:23466277

  11. Storage-stable foamable polyurethane is activated by heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Polyurethane foamable mixture remains inert in storage unit activated to produce a rapid foaming reaction. The storage-stable foamable composition is spread as a paste on the surface of an expandable structure and, when heated, yields a rigid open-cell polyurethane foam that is self-bondable to the substrate.

  12. Synthesis of Chiral Oligomer-Grafted Biodegradable Polyurethanes and Their Chiral-Dependent Influence on Bone Marrow Stem Cell Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Deng, Jun; Zheng, Honghao; Yu, Shan; Gao, Changyou

    2016-08-01

    Chirality is one of the most fascinating and ubiquitous features in nature, especially in biological systems. The effects of chiral surfaces, especially in combination with degradable materials of good biocompatibility, on stem cell behaviors has not yet been tackled. In this communication, the chiral monomers N-acryloyl-l(d)-valine (l(d)-AV) are synthesized and are polymerized to obtain chiral (l(d)-PAV-SH) oligomers, which are covalently immobilized onto electron-deficient poly(propylene fumarate) polyurethane (PPFU) via Michael addition. The PPFU-l-PAV can interact more strongly and actively with bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) than PPFU-d-PAV, leading to a larger cell spreading area, faster migration velocity, and stronger osteodifferentiation tendency. PMID:27295370

  13. Preparation and characterization of shape memory composite foams with interpenetrating polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yongtao; Zhou, Tianyang; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports a feasible approach of fabricating shape memory composite foams with an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) based on polyurethane (PU) and shape memory epoxy resin (SMER) via a simultaneous polymerization technique. The PU component is capable of constructing a foam structure and the SMER is grafted on the PU network to offer its shape memory property in the final IPN foams. A series of IPN foams without phase separation were produced due to good compatibility and a tight chemical interaction between PU and SMER components. The relationships of the geometry of the foam cell were investigated via varying compositions of PU and SMER. The physical property and shape memory property were also evaluated. The stimulus temperature of IPN shape memory composite foams, glass temperature (Tg), could be tunable by varying the constituents and Tg of PU and SMER. The mechanism of the shape memory effect of IPN foams has been proposed. The shape memory composite foam with IPN developed in this study has the potential to extend its application field.

  14. Endothelium regeneration on luminal surface of polyurethane vascular scaffold modified with diamine and covalently grafted with gelatin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yabin; Gao, Changyou; He, Tao; Shen, Jiacong

    2004-02-01

    Using the recently developed surface modification technique, free amino groups have been introduced onto polyester-type polyurethane (PU) scaffolds. The introduction of these free amino groups increases the surface energy and provides a convenient way to further immobilize bioactive species such as gelatin, collagen or chitosan, etc. on the scaffold surface by employing glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent. These modifications are advantageous to enhance cell-material interaction. The culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro proved that the cell proliferation ratio of both the aminolyzed and the biomacromolecules-immobilized PU membranes was improved greatly comparing with the control PU. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy observations displayed that the gelatin-immobilized PU vascular scaffold had formed a monolayer of endothelial intima on its luminal surface after HUVECs were cultured for 6 d. Therefore, the aminolysis and the following biomacromolecule immobilization is a promising way to enhance the cell-PU interaction that can accelerate the endothelium regeneration, which is crucial for blood vessel tissue engineering. PMID:14585690

  15. Effective use of negative pressure wound therapy provides quick wound-bed preparation and complete graft take in the management of chronic venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Egemen, Onur; Ozkaya, Ozay; Ozturk, Muhammed Besir; Aksan, Tolga; Orman, Çağdaş; Akan, Mithat

    2012-04-01

    Venous ulcers are characterised by longstanding and recurrent loss of skin integrity. Once occurred, healing is slow and recurrence is high because of inappropriate conditions of the wound bed. This study involves 20 patients with chronic venous ulcers at least 6 weeks of duration treated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Patients underwent a radical debridement of all devitalised tissues in the first operation. After adequate haemostasis, silver-impregnated polyurethane foam was applied. Once the wounds were determined to be clean and adequate granulation tissue formation was achieved, split-thickness skin grafts were applied. Black polyurethane foam was applied over them. All wounds completely healed without the need for further debridement or regrafting. The mean number of silver-impregnated foam dressing changes prior to grafting was 2·9 (one to eight changes). The mean number of NPWT foam changes was 2·6 after skin grafting (two to five changes). Two patients who did not use conservative treatments for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) after discharge from the hospital had recurrence of venous ulcers in the follow-up period. Application of NPWT provides quick wound-bed preparation and complete graft take in venous ulcer treatment. PMID:21992173

  16. Monascus kaoliang CBS 302.78 immobilized in polyurethane foam using iso-propanol as co-substrate: Optimized immobilization conditions of a fungus as biocatalyst for the reduction of ketones.

    PubMed

    Quezada, M A; Carballeira, J D; Sinisterra, J V

    2009-03-01

    Monascus kaoliang was selected after a microbial screening as a highly active and selective whole cell catalyst for the reduction of ketones. In the present paper we describe the optimum growing conditions and an interesting immobilization procedure by adsorption in polyurethane foams (PUFs). This methodology is easy to perform and the immobilized catalyst is active, stable and reusable. The use of different co-substrates for cofactor regeneration was also tested and iso-propanol (i-PrOH) was found as the best co-substrate, as it leads to a catalyst reusable for 17 cycles, displaying better NADH regeneration properties than others e.g., glucose (10 cycles) or saccharose (6 cycles). The reduction of different prochiral ketones showed that the ketone reductase activity of this mould follows the Prelog's rule and kinetic experiments demonstrated that the process follows a pseudo-first kinetic order. PMID:19046879

  17. Materials for foam type insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    An internal foam fabrication is one of the concepts being considered for cryogenic insulation on the hydrogen tanks of the shuttle vehicle. The three-dimensional polyurethane used on the S-4 B tanks failed to meet the higher temperature requirements of the shuttle vehicle, however, and other foams under consideration include polyisocyanurates, polyphenylene oxides, polyimides, and polybenzimidazoles. Improved adhesive systems for attaching the foams to the interior tank wall are under study.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1301 - Standards for rebond foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1301 Standards for rebond foam production. Each owner or operator of a new or existing rebond foam... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standards for rebond foam...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1301 - Standards for rebond foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1301 Standards for rebond foam production. Each owner or operator of a new or existing rebond foam... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for rebond foam...

  20. A multi-center, randomized, clinical trial comparing adhesive polyurethane foam dressing and adhesive hydrocolloid dressing in patients with grade II pressure ulcers in primary care and nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are ischemic wounds in the skin and underlying tissues caused by long-standing pressure force over an external bone or cartilaginous surface. PrUs are an important challenge for the overall health system because can prolong patient hospitalization and reduce quality of life. Moreover, 95% of PrUs are avoidable, suggesting they are caused by poor quality care assistance. PrUs are also costly, increasing national costs. For example, they represent about 5% of overall annual health expenses in Spain. Stages I and II PrUs have a combined prevalence of 65%. According main clinical guidelines, stage II PrUs (PrU-IIs) are usually treated by applying special dressings (polyurethane or hydrocolloid). However, little scientific evidence regarding their efficacy has been identified in scientific literature. Our aim is to assess the comparative efficacy of adhesive polyurethane foam and hydrocolloid dressings in the treatment of PrU-IIs in terms of healed ulcer after 8 weeks of follow-up. Methods/design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a randomized clinical trial of two parallel treatment arms. A total of 820 patients with at least 1 PrU-II will be recruited from primary health care and home care centers. All patients will receive standardized healing procedures and preventive measures (e.g. positional changes and pressure-relieving support surfaces), following standardized procedures. The main outcome will be the percentage of wounds healed after 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes will include cost-effectiveness, as evaluated by cost per healed ulcer and cost per treated patient and safety evaluated by adverse events. Discussion This trial will address the hypothesis that hydrocolloid dressings will heal at least 10% more stage II PrUs and be more cost-effective than polyurethane foam dressings after 8 weeks. Trial registration This trial has been registered with controlled-trials number ISCRCTN57842461 and Eudra

  1. Assessment of DNA adducts and the frequency of 6-thioguanine resistant T-lymphocytes in F344 rats fed 2,4-toluenediamine or implanted with a toluenediisocyanate-containing polyester polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Delclos, K B; Blaydes, B; Heflich, R H; Smith, B A

    1996-04-01

    Toluenediamines have been of toxicological concern because of their industrial use as intermediates in polyurethane synthesis and because of the potential of their release from degradation of the Microthane polyesterurethane covering of some breast implants. In this study, we have assessed the extent of DNA damage in rats treated with a carcinogenic toluenediamine isomer, 2,4-toluenediamine (2,4-TDA), under conditions that result in tumor induction, and in rats implanted with Microthane polyesterurethane foam. Time and dose-dependent formation of adducts was observed in DNA from the liver and mammary gland of rats fed 10, 40, 80 and 180 ppm 2,4-TDA for up to 6 weeks. In assays conducted 1 to 32 weeks after the start of treatment, no adducts were detected in the DNA of T-lymphocytes isolated from the spleens of animals fed 40 or 180 ppm 2,4-TDA, nor was there an increase in mutations at the hprt locus in these lymphocytes. In rats fed 40 or 180 ppm, 2,4-TDA for 6 weeks, adducts were detectable in DNA isolated from liver and mammary gland for 26 to 43 weeks after termination of the treatment. No DNA damage, as assessed by both DNA adduct measurement and induction of T-lymphocyte hprt mutations, was observed in rats up to 42 weeks after receiving subcutaneous implants of polyesterurethane foam (67 or 267 mg/kg). Although 2,4-TDA is clearly capable of damaging DNA, the results of this study are consistent with the conclusion that Microthane foam-containing implants present a minimal risk of genotoxicity through release and subsequent metabolic activation of 2,4-TDA. The study also indicates that DNA adduct formation and mutation induction in lymphocytes are inadequate biomonitors for measuring exposure to toluenediamines. PMID:8628327

  2. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    DOEpatents

    Kosny, Jan; Gaskin, Sally

    2009-10-20

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  3. Foam-filled cushions for sliding trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahin, S. B.; Robb, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene tube filled with polyurethane foam forms low friction sliding surface that cushions vibrations and absorbs manufacturing tolerances and misalignment. Possible uses include packaging of components for shipping and seals for doors in lockers, cars, and refrigerators.

  4. Phenolic cutter for machining foam insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, T. A.; Miller, A. C.; Price, B. W.; Stiles, W. S.

    1970-01-01

    Pre-pregged fiber glass is an efficient abrasive for machining polystyrene and polyurethane foams. It bonds easily to any cutter base made of aluminum, steel, or phenolic, is inexpensive, and is readily available.

  5. Epoxy Foam Encapsulants: Processing and Dielectric Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Domeier; Marion Hunter

    1999-01-01

    The dielectric performance of epoxy foams was investigated to determine if such materials might provide advantages over more standard polyurethane foams in the encapsulation of electronic assemblies. Comparisons of the dielectric characteristics of epoxy and urethane encapsulant foams found no significant differences between the two resin types and no significant difference between as-molded and machined foams. This study specifically evaluated the formulation and processing of epoxy foams using simple methylhydrosiloxanes as the flowing agent and compared the dielectric performance of those to urethane foams of similar density.

  6. Cryogenic line insulation made from prefabricated polyurethane shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, G.

    1975-01-01

    Prefabricated polyurethane foam insulation is inexpensive and easily installed on cryogenic lines. Insulation sections are semicircular half shells. Pair of half shells is placed to surround cryogenic line. Cylindrically-shaped knit sock is pulled over insulation then covered with polyurethane resin to seal system.

  7. Highly hydrophobic and oleophilic foam for selective absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Changhong

    2009-12-01

    In this article, both highly hydrophobic and oleophilic foam were fabricated by coating inner surface of polyurethane (PU) foam with a super-hydrophobic film. The contact angle of the foam is large as 152.2° for water, and 0° for kerosene. The foam can absorb kerosene selectively from kerosene-water mixture and be regenerated easily. The foam may be used to reclaim oil from polluted natural water area resulted from shipwreck or leakage.

  8. Gallium trace on-line preconcentration/separation and determination using a polyurethane foam mini-column and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Application in aluminum alloys, natural waters and urine.

    PubMed

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Zachariadis, George A; Stratis, John A

    2003-07-27

    A sensitive and selective flow injection time-based method for on-line preconcentration/separation and determination of gallium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry at trace levels was developed. The on-line formed gallium chloride complex is sorbed onto a polyether-type polyurethane foam mini-column, followed by on-line quantitative elution with isobutyl methyl ketone and direct introduction into the flame pneumatic nebulizer of the atomic absorption spectrometer. All chemical and flow variables of the system as well as the possible interferences were studied. The manner of strong HCl solutions propulsion was investigated and established using a combination of two displacement bottles. For 90 s preconcentration time, a sample frequency of 28 h(-1), an enhancement factor of 40, a detection limit of 6 microg l(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation (s(r)) of 3.3% (at 1.00 mg l(-1)) were achieved. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range 0.02-3.00 mg l(-1). The accuracy of the developed method was sufficient and evaluated by the analysis of a silicon-aluminum alloy standard reference material. Finally, it was successfully applied to gallium determination in commercial aluminum alloys, natural waters and urine. PMID:18969117

  9. A new selective chromogenic reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of thallium(I) and (III) and its separation using flotation and the solid-phase extraction on polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Sherbini, Khaled S; Mostafa, Gamal A E; Hassanien, Mohamed M

    2003-09-01

    A new sensitive chromogenic reagent, 9,10-phenanthaquinone monoethylthiosemicarbazone (PET), has been synthesized and used in the spectrophotometric determination of Tl(III). In HNO3, H2SO4 or H3PO4 acids, PET can react immediately at room temperature with Tl(III) to form a red 2:1 complex with a maximum absorption at 516 nm. The different analytical parameters affecting the extraction and determination processes have been examined. The calibration curve was found to be linear over the range 0.2-10 microg cm(-3) with a molar absorptivity of 2.2 x 10(4) dm3 mol(-1) cm(-1). Sandell's sensitivity was found to be 0.0093 microg cm(-2). No interference from macroamounts of foreign ions was detected, except for Pd(II). However, Pd(II) does not affect the determination process, because its complex with PET has its lambda(max) at 625 nm. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Tl(I and III) in synthetic and natural samples after separation by flotation (in oleic acid/kerosene) and solid-phase extraction (on polyurethane foam) techniques. The two methods were found to be accurate and not subject to random error, but solid-phase extraction was preferred because it is cheap, simpler and there is no contamination risk coming from flotation reagents. PMID:14516078

  10. Dynamics of poroelastic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forterre, Yoel; Sobac, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    Soft poroelastic structures are widespread in biological tissues such as cartilaginous joints in bones, blood-filled placentae or plant organs. Here we investigate the dynamics of open elastic foams immersed in viscous fluids, as model soft poroelastic materials. The experiment consists in slowly compacting blocs of polyurethane solid foam embedded in silicon oil-tanks and studying their relaxation to equilibrium when the confining stress is suddenly released. Measurements of the local fluid pressure and foam velocity field are compared with a simple two-phase flow approach. For small initial compactions, the results show quantitative agreement with the classical diffusion theory of soil consolidation (Terzaghi, Biot). On the other hand, for large initial compactions, the dynamics exhibits long relaxation times and decompaction fronts, which are mainly controlled by the highly non-linear mechanical response of the foam. The analogy between this process and the evaporation of a polymer melt close to the glass transition will be briefly discussed.

  11. Polyurethane retainers for ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of a new ball bearing retainer material is reported. A special composite polyurethane foam ball retainer has been developed that has virtually zero wear, is chemically inert to hydrocarbon lubricants, and stores up to 60 times as much lubricant per unit volume as the most commonly used retainer material, cotton phenolic. This new retainer concept shows promise of years of ball bearing operation without reoiling, based on life testing in high vacuum.

  12. Foam-Mixing-And-Dispensing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, Keith Y.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Jackson, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Time-and-money-saving machine produces consistent, homogeneously mixed foam, enhancing production efficiency. Automatically mixes and dispenses polyurethane foam in quantities specified by weight. Consists of cart-mounted, air-driven proportioning unit; air-activated mechanical mixing gun; programmable timer/counter, and controller.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1301 - Standards for rebond foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1301 Standards for rebond foam production. Each owner or operator of a new or existing rebond... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for rebond foam...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1301 - Standards for rebond foam production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1301 Standards for rebond foam production. Each owner or operator of a new or existing rebond... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for rebond foam...

  15. Advances in cryogenic foam insulations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.; Salmassy, O. K.; Watts, C. R.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a discretely oriented thread-reinforced polyurethane foam thermal insulation system for liquid hydrogen fuel tanks. The 3-D foam and glass liner composite is designed to be adhesively bonded to the inside surface of the tank wall and to be in direct contact with liquid hydrogen. All elements of this insulation composite are capable of sustaining the loads and environmental conditions imposed by testing under simulated Space Shuttle vehicle requirements at temperatures between -423 and +350 F.

  16. Pourable Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James A.; Butler, John M.; Chartoff, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes search for polyisocyanurate/polyurethane foam insulation with superior characteristics. Discusses chemistry of current formulations. Tests of formulations, of individual ingredients and or alternative new formulations described. Search revealed commercially available formulations exhibiting increased thermal stability at temperatures up to 600 degree C, pours readily before curing, presents good appearance after curing, and remains securely bonded to aluminum at cryogenic temperatures. Total of 42 different formulations investigated, 10 found to meet requirements.

  17. System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

  18. Polyurethane membranes for surgical gown applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukpabi, Pauline Ozoemena

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently issued a directive requiring all employers to supply personnel protective equipment to employees who are at risk of exposure to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids. For the healthcare worker, a wide variety of surgical gowns is available commercially but there are concerns over their barrier effectiveness and/or wearer comfort. To successfully create a barrier fabric which combines resistance to fluid penetration with comfort, a complete understanding of the relationship between membrane structure and functional properties is required. In this study, we investigated the surface properties of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity in polyurethane membranes intended for use in surgical gowns. The polyurethane membranes were grafted with side chains of varying lengths, polyethylene glycol (PEG) being used for the hydrophilic modifications and perfluoroalkyl compounds (a monofunctional acid and a difunctional amino alcohol) for the hydrophobic modifications. The hydrophilic treatment was intended to improve the comfort properties of monolithic membranes without adversely affecting their barrier properties. The hydrophobic treatment, on the other hand, was intended to improve the fluid repellency and hence barrier properties of microporous membranes without adversely affecting their comfort properties. Reflection infrared spectroscopy showed that fluorine was successfully grafted onto the polyurethane backbone during the hydrophobic modification, but was not sensitive enough to detect PEG grafting in leached polyethylene glycol-treated polyurethanes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the perfluoroalkylated polyurethanes contained up to 40% fluorine on their surfaces and the PEG-treated polyurethanes showed an increase in their C-O content over the unmodified polyurethane. Scanning electron microscopy not only showed that perfluoroalkylation yielded polyurethane membranes with very

  19. Evaluation and guidelines for using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers in double-dome chambers to assess semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in non-industrial indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Pernilla; Audy, Ondřej; Škrdlíková, Lenka; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2014-11-01

    Indoor air pollution has been recognized as an important risk factor for human health, especially in areas where people tend to spend most of their time indoors. Many semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) have primarily indoor sources and are present in orders of magnitude higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Despite this, awareness of SVOCs in indoor air and assessment of the link between indoor concentrations and human health have lagged behind those of outdoor air. This is partially related to challenges associated with indoor sampling of SVOCs. Passive air samplers (PASs), which are widely accepted in established outdoor air monitoring networks, have been used to fill the knowledge gaps on indoor SVOCs distribution. However, their applicability for indoor environments and the assessment of human health risks lack sufficient experimental data. To address this issue, we performed an indoor calibration study of polyurethane foam (PUF) PAS deployed in a double-dome chamber, covering both legacy and new SVOC classes. PUF-PAS and a continuous low-volume active air sampler (AAS) were co-deployed for a calibration period of twelve weeks. Based on the results from this evaluation, PUF-PAS in a double-bowl chamber is recommended for indoor sampling and health risk assessment of gas phase SVOCs, including novel brominated flame retardants (nBFR) providing sufficient exposure time is applied. Data for particle associated SVOCs suffered from significant uncertainties caused by low level of detection and low precision in this study. A more open chamber design for indoor studies may allow for higher sampling rates (RS) and better performance for the particle associated SVOCs. PMID:25274245

  20. The Synergize effect of Chain extender to Phosporic acid catalyst to the ultimate property of Soy-Polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvistia Firdaus, Flora

    2016-04-01

    The polyurethanes (PUs) foam were made from vegetable oil; a soybean based polyol. The foams were categorized into flexible and semi rigid. This research is manufacturally designed polyurethane foams by a process requiring the reaction of mixture of 2, 4- and 2, 6-Toluene di Isocyanate isomers, soy polyol in the presence of other ingredients. The objective of this work was to functionalized soy-polyol using phosporic acid catalyst and chain extender, study their collaborative reaction in producing ultimate property of PU foam. Correlates the foam morphology images in accordance to mechanical properties of foams.

  1. Foam formation in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Matthews, John; Patel, Darayas

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus that produced the first polyurethane foam in low gravity has been described. The chemicals were mixed together in an apparatus designed for operation in low gravity. Mixing was by means of stirring the chemicals with an electric motor and propeller in a mixing chamber. The apparatus was flown on Consort 1, the first low-gravity materials payload launched by a commercial rocket launch team. The sounding rocket flight produced over 7 min of low gravity during which a polyurethane spheroidal foam of approximately 2300 cu cm was formed. Photographs of the formation of the foam during the flight show the development of the spheroidal form. This begins as a small sphere and grows to approximately a 17-cm-diam spheroid. The apparatus will be flown again on subsequent low-gravity flights.

  2. Open-pore polyurethane product

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, R.T.; Salyer, I.O.

    1974-02-17

    The method is described of producing an open-pore polyurethane foam having a porosity of at least 50% and a density of 0.1 to 0.5 g per cu cm, and which consists of coherent spherical particles of less than 10 mu diam separated by interconnected interstices. It is useful as a filter and oil absorbent. The product is admirably adapted to scavenging of crude oil from the surface of seawater by preferential wicking. The oil-soaked product may then be compressed to recover the oil or burned for disposal. The crosslinked polyurethane structures are remarkably solvent and heat-resistance as compared with known thermoplastic structures. Because of their relative inertness, they are useful filters for gasoline and other hydrocarbon compounds. (7 claims)

  3. Selective extraction of calcium on tri-n-butyl phosphate plasticized selective extraction of calcium on tri-n-butyl phosphate plasticized polyurethane foam for its spectrophotometric determination in glass and ceramics.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Jayanta K; Kundu, Dipali

    2005-12-01

    The present paper describes the application of a solid phase extraction system in order to separate traces of calcium from glass and ceramics for its spectrophotometric determination. The method is based on the extraction of calcium from sodium hydroxide solution by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) loaded polyurethane foam (PUF), followed by its elution in hydrochloric acid. The spectrophotometric measurement of the absorbance of calcium complex with calconcarboxylic acid (2-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxy-4-sulfo-1-naphthylazo)-3-naphthoic acid) takes place at pH 12. The following parameters were studied: effects of sodium hydroxide concentration and temperature on the extraction of calcium, time of equilibration for quantitative calcium extraction, effect of TBP concentration, effect of hydrochloric acid concentration for quantitative elution of calcium from PUF, effect of pH and concentration of calconcarboxylic acid for quantitative formation of the complex with calcium, effect of acetone on the stability of calcium-calconcarboxylic acid complex and influence of diverse ions on calcium sorption by TBP-loaded PUF. The results show that calcium traces can be separated onto TBP-loaded PUF from 0.25 mol L(-1) NaOH at 30 +/- 5 degrees C within 30 min. PUF was loaded with TBP in CCl4 (40% v/v). Elution of calcium was done in 1.0 mol l(-1) HCl. The calcium formed a complex with calconcarboxylic acid at pH 12 and absorbance was measured at 560 nm in acetone-water medium. Molar absorptivity was found to be 1.082 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1). The method obeys Beer's law from 0.10 to 5.0 microg ml(-1) Ca. The validity of the method was established by its successful application in NIST standard reference materials. The method proposed was applied to determine calcium in glass and ceramic materials. The results of the proposed method are comparable with the results of ICP-AES analysis and they are found to be in good agreement. PMID:16379392

  4. The Development of Testing Methods for Characterizing Emissions and Sources of Exposures from Polyurethane Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures is not well understood. Currently, no comprehensive standard test methods exist for characterizing and quantifying product emissions. Exposures to diisocyanate compoun...

  5. Foam Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    William G. Simpson, a NASA/Marshall employee, invented and patented a foam mixing dispensing device. He is supplying his Simpson mixer to a number of foam applications where it is used to apply foam for insulation purposes.

  6. The performance of lightweight plastic foams developed for fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a low density, polyurethane based foam to suppress a fire and to provide protection for the structure of an aircraft or spacecraft is discussed. The mechanism by which foams provide protection from heat and create a nonflammable surface is described. Various materials and their application to specific types of structures are examined.

  7. Holding Cargo in Place With Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    Foam fills entire container to protect cargo from shock and vibration. Originally developed for stowing space debris and spent satellites in Space Shuttle for return to Earth, encapsulation concept suitable for preparing shipments carried by truck, boat, or airplane. Equipment automatically injects polyurethane foam into its interior to hold cargo securely in place. Container of rectangular or other cross section built to match shape of vehicle used.

  8. Polyurethanes: versatile materials and sustainable problem solvers for today's challenges.

    PubMed

    Engels, Hans-Wilhelm; Pirkl, Hans-Georg; Albers, Reinhard; Albach, Rolf W; Krause, Jens; Hoffmann, Andreas; Casselmann, Holger; Dormish, Jeff

    2013-09-01

    Polyurethanes are the only class of polymers that display thermoplastic, elastomeric, and thermoset behavior depending on their chemical and morphological makeup. In addition to compact polyurethanes, foamed variations in particular are very widespread, and they achieve their targeted properties at very low weights. The simple production of sandwich structures and material composites in a single processing step is a key advantage of polyurethane technology. The requirement of energy and resource efficiency increasingly demands lightweight structures. Polyurethanes can serve this requirement by acting as matrix materials or as flexible adhesives for composites. Polyurethanes are indispensable when it comes to high-quality decorative coatings or maintaining the value of numerous objects. They are extremely adaptable and sustainable problem solvers for today's challenges facing our society, all of which impose special demands on materials. PMID:23893938

  9. The mechanical behavior of microcellular foams

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkul, M.H.; Mark, J.E. ); Aubert, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of microcellular open-cell foams prepared by a thermally induced phase separation process are investigated. The foams studied were prepared from isotactic polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (rigid foams), and polyurethane and Lycra (elastomeric foams). Their densities were in the range 0.04--0.27 g/cm3. Conventional polystyrene foams were used for comparison. The moduli and collapse stresses of these foams were measured in compression and compared with the current constitutive laws which relate mechanical properties to densities. A reinforcement technique based on the in-situ precipitation of silica was used to improve the mechanical properties. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Amit

    Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of the chosen filler and matrix and also facilitating the design of materials with specific properties matched to end use. However, the studies for hybrid foams have been very limited because of problems related to fiber dispersion in matrix, non uniform mixing due to presence of more than one filler and partially cured foams. An effective approach to synthesize hybrid phenolic foam has been proposed and investigated here. Hybrid composite phenolic foams were reinforced with chopped glass and aramid fibers in varied proportions. On assessing mechanical properties in compression and shear several interesting facts surfaced but overall hybrid phenolic foams exhibited a more graceful failure, greater resistance to cracking and were significantly stiffer and stronger than foams with only glass and aramid fibers. The optimum fiber ratio for the reinforced hybrid phenolic foam system was found to be 1:1 ratio of glass to aramid fibers. Also, the properties of hybrid foam were found to deviate from rule of mixture (ROM) and thus the existing theories of fiber reinforcement fell short in explaining their complex behavior. In an attempt to describe and predict mechanical behavior of hybrid foams a statistical design tool using analysis of variance technique was employed. The utilization of a statistical model for predicting foam properties was found to be an appropriate tool that affords a global perspective of the influence of process variables such as fiber weight fraction, fiber length etc. on foam properties (elastic modulus and strength). Similar approach could be extended to study other fiber composite foam systems such as polyurethane, epoxy etc. and doing so will reduce the number of experimental iterations needed to optimize foam properties and identify critical process variables. Diffusivity, accelerated aging and flammability

  11. Bio-based Polymer Foam from Soyoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnaillie, Laetitia M.; Wool, Richard P.

    2006-03-01

    The growing bio-based polymeric foam industry is presently lead by plant oil-based polyols for polyurethanes and starch foams. We developed a new resilient, thermosetting foam system with a bio-based content higher than 80%. The acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and its fatty acid monomers is foamed with pressurized carbon dioxide and cured with free-radical initiators. The foam structure and pore dynamics are highly dependent on the temperature, viscosity and extent of reaction. Low-temperature cure hinds the destructive pore coalescence and the application of a controlled vacuum results in foams with lower densities ˜ 0.1 g/cc, but larger cells. We analyze the physics of foam formation and stability, as well as the structure and mechanical properties of the cured foam using rigidity percolation theory. The parameters studied include temperature, vacuum applied, and cross-link density. Additives bring additional improvements: nucleating agents and surfactants help produce foams with a high concentration of small cells and low bulk density. Hard and soft thermosetting foams with a bio content superior to 80% are successfully produced and tested. Potential applications include foam-core composites for hurricane-resistant housing, structural reinforcement for windmill blades, and tissue scaffolds.

  12. Space Shuttle Stiffener Ring Foam Failure Analysis, a Non-Conventional Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program made use of the excellent properties of rigid polyurethane foam for cryogenic tank insulation and as structural protection on the solid rocket boosters. When foam applications de-bond, classical methods of failure analysis did not provide root cause of the failure of the foam. Realizing that foam is the ideal media to document and preserve its own mode of failure, thin sectioning was seen as a logical approach for foam failure analysis to observe the three dimensional morphology of the foam cells. The cell foam morphology provided a much greater understanding of the failure modes than previously achieved.

  13. Vacuum Head Checks Foam/Substrate Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, James F.

    1989-01-01

    Electromechanical inspection system quickly gives measurements indicating adhesion, or lack thereof, between rigid polyurethane foam and aluminum substrate. Does not damage inspected article, easy to operate, and used to perform "go/no-go" evaluations or as supplement to conventional destructive pull-plug testing. Applies vacuum to small area of foam panel and measures distance through which foam pulled into vacuum. Probe head applied to specimen and evacuated through hose to controller/monitor unit. Digital voltmeter in unit reads deflection of LVDT probe head.

  14. Graft polymerization of wood sawdust and peat with ethylene carbonate. A novel method for the preparation of supports with enhanced mechanical properties to be used in biofiltration of organic vapors.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Meléndez, O; Peydecastaing, J; Bárzana, E; Vaca-Garcia, C; Hernández-Luna, M; Borredon, M E

    2009-01-01

    The graft polymerization reaction between ethylene carbonate (EC) and scots pine sawdust (SPS) or peat moss (PM) offers a solvent-free approach to the simple and inexpensive aliphatic derivatization of these lignocellulosic fibers. This reaction was studied with liquid or vapor EC phases in three different reactor configurations: batch stirred (BSR), semi-continuous stirred (SSR) and continuous tubular in the gas phase (CVTR). The use of a vapor phase allowed a satisfactory grafting yield and minimal production of non-grafted polyol by-products. The crosslinking agent 4,4'-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) achieved superior characteristics to form shaped tablets resistant to water disaggregation, a high water retention capacity and high compression strength, characteristics that conventional organic supports like PM or PM-polyurethane foam mixtures used in biofiltration of waste gases do not completely possess. PMID:18757197

  15. Response of Polyurethane to Shock Waves: An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, V.; Rao, Keshava Subba; Thanganayaki, N.; Kumara, H. K. T.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    Formation of polyurethane (PU) in vacuum environment and controlling density of polyurethane foams are the present day challenges. Polyurethane exists in numerous forms ranging from flexible to rigid and lightweight foams to tough, stiff elastomers [1]. PU can be used to produce lightweight foams for insulation or hard rubber used as wheels to transport heavy loads and it can be used in high pressure applications. The largest volumes of commercial PU elastomers are made from toluene diisocyanate (TDI) or diphenylmethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate (MDI) [2]. Linear polyurethanes can be processed into final products by any of the standard thermoplastic processes (injection molding, extrusion, thermoforming) as well as by low pressure cast processes in presence of catalysts. Tin, tetrabutyl titanate and zirconium chelates are few effective catalysts used to produce polyurethane for particular application [3]. Thermoset elastomers are formed due to irreversible cross-links, when polymers are chemically cured. Highly porous biodegradable PU was synthesized by thermally induced phase separation technique used in tissue engineering and also in bio-degradable based fluids [4]. Properties of PU like hardness, stress/strain modulus, tear strength etc, was determine using ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard methods. PU possesses extremely high mechanical properties, excellent abrasion, tear and extrusion resistance. It has outstanding low-temperature limit (-600C) and high temperature limit up to (1500C).

  16. Polyether/Polyester Graft Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L., Jr.; Wakelyn, N.; Stoakley, D. M.; Proctor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Higher solvent resistance achieved along with lower melting temperature. New technique provides method of preparing copolymers with polypivalolactone segments grafted onto poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide) backbone. Process makes strong materials with improved solvent resistance and crystalline, thermally-reversible crosslinks. Resulting graft copolymers easier to fabricate into useful articles, including thin films, sheets, fibers, foams, laminates, and moldings.

  17. Springback Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A decade ago, NASA's Ames Research Center developed a new foam material for protective padding of airplane seats. Now known as Temper Foam, the material has become one of the most widely-used spinoffs. Latest application is a line of Temper Foam cushioning produced by Edmont-Wilson, Coshocton, Ohio for office and medical furniture. The example pictured is the Classic Dental Stool, manufactured by Dentsply International, Inc., York, Pennsylvania, one of four models which use Edmont-Wilson Temper Foam. Temper Foam is an open-cell, flameresistant foam with unique qualities.

  18. Post-processing flame-retardant for polyurethane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaghan, P.; Sidman, K. R.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of polyurethane form with elastomer formulation after processing makes foam fire resistant without compromising physical properties. In testing, once ignition source is removed, combustion stops. Treatment also prevents molten particle formation, generates no smoke or toxic gases in fire, and does not deteriorate under prolonged exposure to Sun.

  19. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by polyurethane-immobilized Flavobacterium cells.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, K T; Crawford, R L

    1989-01-01

    Polyurethane-immobilized Flavobacterium cells (ATCC 39723) degraded pentachlorophenol (PCP) at initial concentrations as high as 300 mg liter-1. The reversible binding of PCP to the polyurethane was shown to be important in the protection of the cells from inhibition of PCP degradation. The degradation activity of the bacteria was monitored for 150 days in semicontinuous batch reactors. The degradation rate dropped by about 0.6% per day. PCP was degraded in a continuous-culture bioreactor at a rate of 3.5 to 4 mg g of foam-1 day-1 for 25 days. Electron micrographs of the polyurethane suggested that the cells were entrapped within 50- to 500-microns-diameter pockets in the foam. PMID:2508552

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3...

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  5. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  7. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Emission point Emission point... Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of...

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3...

  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  12. Organically Modified Nanoclay-Reinforced Rigid Polyurethane Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong Tae; Qian, Yuqiang; Lindsay, Chris; Stein, Andreas; Macosko, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    The nanodispersion of vermiculite in polyurethanes was investigated to produce organoclay-reinforced rigid gas barrier films. Reducing gas transport can improve the insulation performance of closed cell polyurethane foam. In a previous study, the dispersion of vermiculite in polyurethanes without organic modification was not sufficient due to the non-uniform dispersion morphology. When vermiculite was modified by cation exchange with long-chain quaternary ammonium cations, the dispersion in methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was significantly improved. Dispersion was improved by combining high intensity dispersive mixing with efficient distributive mixing. Polymerization conditions were also optimized in order to provide a high state of nanodispersion in the polyurethane nanocomposite. The dispersions were characterized using rheological, microscopic and scattering/diffraction techniques. The final nanocomposites showed enhancement of mechanical properties and reduction in permeability to carbon dioxide at low clay concentration (around 2 wt percent).

  13. Inorganic nanoparticle thin film that suppresses flammability of polyurethane with only a single electrostatically-assembled bilayer.

    PubMed

    Patra, Debabrata; Vangal, Prithvi; Cain, Amanda A; Cho, Chungyeon; Regev, Oren; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to reduce the flammability of polyurethane foam, a thin film of renewable inorganic nanoparticles (i.e., anionic vermiculite [VMT] and cationic boehmite [BMT]) was deposited on polyurethane foam via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. One, two, and three bilayers (BL) of BMT-VMT resulted in foam with retained shape after being exposed to a butane flame for 10 s, while uncoated foam was completely consumed. Cone calorimetry confirmed that the coated foam exhibited a 55% reduction in peak heat release rate with only a single bilayer deposited. Moreover, this protective nanocoating reduced total smoke release by 50% relative to untreated foam. This study revealed that 1 BL, adding just 4.5 wt % to PU foam, is an effective and conformal flame retardant coating. These results demonstrate one of the most efficient and renewable nanocoatings prepared using LbL assembly, taking this technology another step closer to commercial viability. PMID:25211181

  14. Free Flap Donor Site Reconstruction: A Prospective Case Series Using an Optimized Polyurethane Biodegradable Temporizing Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Marcus J. D.; Schmitt, Bradley J.; Caplash, Yugesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We recently published a 10-patient case series where free flap donor site reconstruction was performed as a 2-stage procedure using an integrating biodegradable polyurethane matrix (to form a neodermis), followed by definitive closure with an autologous split-skin graft. Two issues were revealed by this pilot study that led to further modification of the biodegradable temporizing matrix. This involved alterations to the seal thickness and bonding to the foam matrix and the introduction of fenestrations to the seal. Objective: This article documents a second cohort of patients requiring free flap (fibular and radial forearm) donor site reconstruction with this optimized material. Methods: The biodegradable temporizing matrix was implanted when the free flap was detached from its donor site. Subsequent integration was monitored closely. Five weeks was the usual time of integration before delamination (seal removal), dermabrasion, and definitive closure with autograft. Results: Integration was complete and uncomplicated in every case, delamination occurred in 1 piece in 1 action, and subsequent graft take was 100% for every patient. Long-term scar outcomes improved compared with the pilot group. Degradation is complete by 12 months, other than occasional microscopic remnants undergoing phagocytosis. Conclusion: This study has reiterated that the biodegradable temporizing matrix can be implanted into humans, followed by neovascularization and integration. No infection was observed, and split-skin overgrafting was successful and uncomplicated. PMID:26171099

  15. Tailoring properties of reticulated vitreous carbon foams with tunable density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorygo, Oleg; Marukovich, Alexander; Mikutski, Vitali; Stathopoulos, Vassilis; Hryhoryeu, Siarhei; Sadykov, Vladislav

    2016-06-01

    Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foams were manufactured by multiple replications of a polyurethane foam template structure using ethanolic solutions of phenolic resin. The aims were to create an algorithm of fine tuning the precursor foam density and ensure an open-cell reticulated porous structure in a wide density range. The precursor foams were pyrolyzed in inert atmospheres at 700°C, 1100°C and 2000°C, and RVC foams with fully open cells and tunable bulk densities within 0.09-0.42 g/cm3 were synthesized. The foams were characterized in terms of porous structure, carbon lattice parameters, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, and corrosive resistance. The reported manufacturing approach is suitable for designing the foam microstructure, including the strut design with a graded microstructure.

  16. Experimental Investigations of Space Shuttle BX-265 Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a variety of experimental studies on the polyurethane foam, BX-265. This foam is used as a close-out foam insulation on the space shuttle external tank. The purpose of this work is to provide a better understanding of the foam s behavior and to support advanced modeling efforts. The following experiments were performed: Thermal expansion was measured for various heating rates. The in situ expansion of foam cells was documented by heating the foam in a scanning electron microscope. Expansion mechanisms are described. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed at various heating rates and for various environments. The glass transition temperature was also measured. The effects of moisture on the foam were studied. Time-dependent effects were measured to give preliminary data on viscoelastoplastic properties.

  17. Tailoring properties of reticulated vitreous carbon foams with tunable density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorygo, Oleg; Marukovich, Alexander; Mikutski, Vitali; Stathopoulos, Vassilis; Hryhoryeu, Siarhei; Sadykov, Vladislav

    2016-04-01

    Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foams were manufactured by multiple replications of a polyurethane foam template structure using ethanolic solutions of phenolic resin. The aims were to create an algorithm of fine tuning the precursor foam density and ensure an open-cell reticulated porous structure in a wide density range. The precursor foams were pyrolyzed in inert atmospheres at 700°C, 1100°C and 2000°C, and RVC foams with fully open cells and tunable bulk densities within 0.09-0.42 g/cm3 were synthesized. The foams were characterized in terms of porous structure, carbon lattice parameters, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, and corrosive resistance. The reported manufacturing approach is suitable for designing the foam microstructure, including the strut design with a graded microstructure.

  18. Application of an Elongated Kelvin Model to Space Shuttle Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle foams are rigid closed-cell polyurethane foams. The two foams used most-extensively oil space shuttle external tank are BX-265 and NCFL4-124. Because of the foaming and rising process, the foam microstructures are elongated in the rise direction. As a result, these two foams exhibit a nonisotropic mechanical behavior. A detailed microstructural characterization of the two foams is presented. Key features of the foam cells are described and the average cell dimensions in the two foams are summarized. Experimental studies are also conducted to measure the room temperature mechanical response of the two foams in the two principal material directions (parallel to the rise and perpendicular to the rise). The measured elastic modulus, proportional limit stress, ultimate tensile strength, and Poisson's ratios are reported. The generalized elongated Kelvin foam model previously developed by the authors is reviewed and the equations which result from this model are summarized. Using the measured microstructural dimensions and the measured stiffness ratio, the foam tensile strength ratio and Poisson's ratios are predicted for both foams and are compared with the experimental data. The predicted tensile strength ratio is in close agreement with the measured strength ratio for both BX-265 and NCFI24-124. The comparison between the predicted Poisson's ratios and the measured values is not as favorable.

  19. Foaming volume and foam stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Sydney

    1947-01-01

    A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.

  20. Multiple-Nozzle Spray Head Applies Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1993-01-01

    Spray head equipped with four-nozzle turret mixes two reactive components of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulating material and sprays reacting mixture onto surface to be insulated. If nozzle in use becomes clogged, fresh one automatically rotated into position, with minimal interruption of spraying process. Incorporates features recirculating and controlling pressures of reactive components to maintain quality of foam by ensuring proper blend at outset. Also used to spray protective coats on or in ships, aircraft, and pipelines. Sprays such reactive adhesives as epoxy/polyurethane mixtures. Components of spray contain solid-particle fillers for strength, fire retardance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, or radar absorption.

  1. Fatigue studies of polyurethane sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. C.; Krishna, M.; Narasimha Murthy, H. N.; Sathyamoorthy, M.; Bhattacharya, Debes

    2004-10-01

    The fatigue characteristics of polyurethane foam-cored (PUF) composite sandwich structures were investigated using three-point bending tests carried out according to ASTM C 393. Three types of specimens (epoxy/glass-PUF-epoxy/glass, polyester/glass-PUF-polyester/glass, and epoxy/glass-PUF-polyester/glass) were considered for investigation. Experimental results indicate that degradation of stiffness occurs due to debonding and sliding between the skin and the foam during fatigue cycles. Epoxy/glass-PUF-epoxy/glass sandwich structures exhibit higher bending strength along with higher stiffness degradation than the other two types of sandwich panels, due to higher initial fatigue loading. The lowest fatigue properties have been obtained for the polyester/glass-PUF-polyester/glass sandwich panel specimens. Better performance of the epoxy/glass-PUF-epoxy/glass sandwich panels is most likely due to the superior properties of the outer thin skins. Most of the specimens fail within the foam region and not at the skin level. This situation is possibly due to debonding between the foam and the skin. The fatigue damage development in the foam and skin has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  3. Hybrid Deployable Foam Antennas and Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivellini, Tommaso; Willis, Paul; Hodges, Richard; Spitz, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid deployable radio antennas and reflectors of a proposed type would feature rigid narrower apertures plus wider adjoining apertures comprising reflective surfaces supported by open-cell polymeric foam structures (see figure). The open-cell foam structure of such an antenna would be compressed for compact stowage during transport. To initiate deployment of the antenna, the foam structure would simply be released from its stowage mechanical restraint. The elasticity of the foam would drive the expansion of the foam structure to its full size and shape. There are several alternatives for fabricating a reflective surface supported by a polymeric foam structure. One approach would be to coat the foam with a metal. Another approach would be to attach a metal film or a metal-coated polymeric membrane to the foam. Yet another approach would be to attach a metal mesh to the foam. The hybrid antenna design and deployment concept as proposed offers significant advantages over other concepts for deployable antennas: 1) In the unlikely event of failure to deploy, the rigid narrow portion of the antenna would still function, providing a minimum level of assured performance. In contrast, most other concepts for deploying a large antenna from compact stowage are of an "all or nothing" nature: the antenna is not useful at all until and unless it is fully deployed. 2) Stowage and deployment would not depend on complex mechanisms or actuators, nor would it involve the use of inflatable structures. Therefore, relative to antennas deployed by use of mechanisms, actuators, or inflation systems, this antenna could be lighter, cheaper, amenable to stowage in a smaller volume, and more reliable. An open-cell polymeric (e.g., polyurethane) foam offers several advantages for use as a compressible/expandable structural material to support a large antenna or reflector aperture. A few of these advantages are the following: 3) The open cellular structure is amenable to compression to a very

  4. Foam core materials for structural sandwich panels

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jongshin.

    1991-01-01

    The author first investigates the creep of polymer foam cores. Models for the creep of linear and nonlinear viscoelastic polymer foams are proposed. Experimental results for the creep of a rigid polyurethane foam are compared to the mode; agreement is good. The results indicate that creep can limit the design of building panels with polymer foam cores. Next, he studies the potential of using ceramic foams as a core material in building panels. Ceramic foams have a high stiffness, high creep resistance, low cost, and are incombustible. Ceramic foams, however, have a low fracture toughness and tensile strength. Assuming that the variability of cell wall modulus of rupture follows a Weibull distribution, there is a cell size effect on both the fracture toughness and tensile strength. Both the tensile strength and fracture toughness of ceramic foams can be improved by controlling the cell size. Since cell wall deformation of cellular materials is primarily by bending, the mechanical properties of cellular materials may be improved by making cell walls into sandwich structures. Hollow-sphere composites are made by introducing thin-walled hollow spheres into a matrix.

  5. Fungal Susceptibility of Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Richard T.; Kaplan, Arthur M.

    1968-01-01

    One hundred laboratory-synthesized polyurethanes were tested by a mixed-culture petri dish method for susceptibility to fungus attack. Polyether polyurethanes were moderately to highly resistant to fungal attack, whereas all polyester polyurethanes tested were highly susceptible. The susceptibility of the polyethers was related to the number of adjacent methylene groups in the polymer chain. At least two such groups were required for appreciable attack to occur. The presence of side chains on the diol moiety of the polyurethane reduced susceptibility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16349806

  6. Highly fluorinated polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, E. C., Jr.; Rochow, S. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The reaction perfluorinated hydroxyl terminated polyether with diisocyanate to form polyurethane is discussed. Data are given on the resin's oxidation stability, chemical resistance, and low temperature flexibility.

  7. Synthesis of Foam-Shaped Nanoporous Zeolite Material: A Simple Template-Based Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saini, Vipin K.; Pires, Joao

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous zeolite foam is an interesting crystalline material with an open-cell microcellular structure, similar to polyurethane foam (PUF). The aluminosilicate structure of this material has a large surface area, extended porosity, and mechanical strength. Owing to these properties, this material is suitable for industrial applications such as…

  8. Comparison of anti-corrosion properties of polyurethane based composite coatings with low infrared emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yajun; Xu, Guoyue; Yu, Huijuan; Hu, Chen; Yan, Xiaoxing; Guo, Tengchao; Li, Jiufen

    2011-03-01

    Four polyurethane resins, pure polyurethane (PU), epoxy modified polyurethane (EPU), fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) and epoxy modified fluorinated polyurethane (EFPU), with similar polyurethane backbone structure but different grafting group were used as organic adhesive for preparing low infrared emissivity coatings with an extremely low emissivity near 0.10 at 8-14 μm, respectively. By using these four resins, the effect of different resin matrics on the corrosion protection of the low infrared emissivity coatings was investigated in detail by using neutral salt spray test, SEM and FTIR. It was found that the emissivity of the coatings with different resin matrics changes significantly in corrosion media. And the results indicated that the coating using EFPU as organic adhesive exhibited excellent corrosion resistance property which was mainly attributed to the presence of epoxy group and atomic fluorine in binder simultaneously.

  9. Effects of ultrasound on polymeric foam porosity.

    PubMed

    Torres-Sanchez, C; Corney, J R

    2008-04-01

    A variety of materials require functionally graded cellular microstructures whose porosity is engineered to meet specific applications (e.g. mimic bone structure for orthopaedic applications; fulfil mechanical, thermal or acoustic constraints in structural foamed components, etc.). Although a huge variety of foams can be manufactured with homogenous porosity, there are no generic processes for controlling the distribution of porosity within the resulting matrix. Motivated by the desire to create a flexible process for engineering heterogeneous foams, the authors have investigated how ultrasound, applied during the formation of a polyurethane foam, affects its cellular structure. The experimental results demonstrated how the parameters of ultrasound exposure (i.e. frequency and applied power) influenced the volume and distribution of pores within the final polyurethane matrix: the data demonstrates that porosity (i.e. volume fraction) varies in direct proportion to both the acoustic pressure and frequency of the ultrasound signal. The effects of ultrasound on porosity demonstrated by this work offer the prospect of a manufacturing process that can adjust the cellular geometry of foam and hence ensure that the resulting characteristics match the functional requirements. PMID:17602849

  10. Coating processes for increasing the moisture resistance of polyurethane baffle material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Sawko, P.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted with the objective to improve the hydrolytic stability of reticulated polyurethane baffle material. This material is used in fuel tanks of aircraft and ground vehicles. The most commonly used foam of this type is hydrolytically unstable. Potential moisture barrier coatings which were evaluated include Parylene, epoxy-polysulfide, polyether based polyurethanes, polysulfides, polyolefin rubbers, and several other materials. Parylene coatings of at least 0.2 mil were found to provide the greatest improvement in hydrolytic stability.

  11. Polyimide foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor); Sorathia, Usman A. K. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Copolyimide foams derived from a diester of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid, an aromatic diamine, and a heterocyclic diamine. A molar concentration of the heterocyclic diamine approaching but not exceeding 0.42 is employed. This results in a flexible foam with a homogeneous cellular structure and a reduced compression set loss.

  12. Polyimide foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor); Sorathia, Usman A. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Copolymide foams derived from a diester of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid, an aromatic diamine, and a heterocyclic diamine. A molar concentration of the heterocyclic diamine approaching but not exceeding 0.42 is employed. This results in a flexible foam with a homogeneous cellular structure and a reduced compression set loss.

  13. Polyimide foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor); Sorathia, Usman A. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Copolyimide foams derived from a diester of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid, an aromatic diamine, and a heterocyclic diamine. A molar concentration of the heterocyclic diamine approaching but not exceeding 0.42 is employed. This results in a flexible foam with a homogeneous cellular structure and a reduced compression set loss.

  14. Monolithic Ceramic Foams for Ultrafast Photocatalytic Inactivation of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pinggui; Xie, Rongcai; Imlay, Kari; Shang, Jian Ku

    2011-01-01

    Palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiON/PdO) foams were synthesized by a sol-gel process on a polyurethane foam template. The TiON/PdO foam was tested for microbial killing using Escherichia coli cells as a target. Under visible-light illumination, the TiON/PdO foam displayed a strong antimicrobial effect on the bacteria cells in water. The antimicrobial effect was found to be dependent on the palladium content and the calcination temperature. In a flow-through dynamic photoreactor, the new photocatalyst efficiently inactivated E. coli within a short contact time (< 1 min), the shortest ever reported for photocatalytic killing of bacteria. The strong antimicrobial functions of the TiON/PdO foam were related to the charge trapping by PdO and to the high contact efficiency of the foam structure. PMID:21423830

  15. SmartFoams with magneto-sensitive elastic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrentino, Luigi; D'Auria, Marco; Davino, Daniele; Visone, Ciro; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Polymeric foams with embedded magnetic particles can be considered as a new class of lightweight systems that could lead to relevant industrial applications both for their enhanced directional (anisotropic) mechanical properties and for their sensitivity to magnetic field that can be used to actively control their elastic modulus. A new polyurethane (PU)/magnetosensitive particles composite foam (SmartFoam) was prepared by applying a magnetic field during its in situ polymerization/foaming process. A chain-like structure of magneto-sensitive particles was induced along the magnetic field lines, in turn controlling the degree of both structural anisotropy and functional properties without affecting the foam cellular morphology. The anisotropic distribution of magnetic particles in the SmartFoam imparted the capability to real-time control its structural properties under working conditions.

  16. Cryogenic foam insulation for LH2 fueled subsonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, E. L.; Helenbrook, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Shortages of petroleum-based aircraft fuels are foreseen before the end of the century. To cope with such shortages, NASA is developing a commercial aircraft which can operate on liquid hydrogen. Various foam insulators for LH2 storage are considered in terms of thermal performance and service life. Of the cryogenic foams considered (plain foam, foam with flame retardants and fiberglass reinforcement, and foam with vapor barriers), polyurethane foams were found to be the best. Tests consisted of heating a 5 cm layer of insulation around an aluminum tank containing LH2 to 316 K, and then cooling it to 266 K, while the inner surface was maintained at LH2 temperature (20 K).

  17. Composite foams

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Jr., Joel M.; Nyitray, Alice M.; Wilkerson, Mark H.

    1990-01-01

    Composite foams are provided comprising a first rigid, microcellular, open-celled organic polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 1 micron to about 30 microns, said first foam containing a second polymer having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 or a second polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 0.01 microns to about 1.0 micron within the open cells of said first foam.

  18. Composite foams

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Jr., Joel M.; Nyitray, Alice M.; Wilkerson, Mark H.

    1991-01-01

    Composite foams are provided comprising a first rigid, microcellular, open-celled organic polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 1 micron to about 30 microns, said first foam containing a second polymer having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 or a second polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 0.01 microns to about 1.0 micron within the open cells of said first foam.

  19. Auxetic compliant flexible PU foams: static and dynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, F.; Pastorino, P.; Garelli, A.; Patsias, S.; Ruzzene, M.

    2005-03-01

    The paper describes the manufacturing and tensile testing of auxetic (negative Poisson's ratio) thermoplastic polyurethane foams, both under constant strain rate and sinusoidal excitation. The foams are produced from conventional flexible polyurethane basis following a manufacturing route developed in previous works. The Poisson's ratio behaviour over tensile strain has been analyzed using an Image Data processing technique based on Edge Detection from digital images recorded during quasi-static tensile test. The samples have been subjected to tensile and compressive tests at quasi-static and constant strain-rate values (up to 12 s-1). Analogous tests have been performed over iso-volumetric foams samples, i.e., foams subjected to the same volumetric compression of the auxetic ones, exhibiting a near zero Poisson's ratio behaviour. The auxetic and non-auxetic foams have been also tested under sinusoidal cycling load up to 10 Hz, with maximum pre-strain applied of 12%. The hysteresis of the cycling loading curve has been measured to determine the damping hysteretic loss factor for the various foams. The measurements indicate that auxetic foams have increased damping loss factor of 20% compared to the conventional foams. The energy dissipation is particularly relevant in the tensile segment of the curve, with effects given by the pre-strain level imposed on the samples.

  20. Dynamic properties of high structural integrity auxetic open cell foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, F.; Ciffo, L. G.; Yates, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    This paper illustrates various dynamic characteristics of open cell compliant polyurethane foam with auxetic (negative Poisson's ratio) behaviour. The foam is obtained from off-the-shelf open cell polyurethane grey foam with a manufacturing process based on mechanical deformation on a mould in a temperature-controlled oven. The Poisson's ratio is measured with an image processing technique based on edge detection with wavelet methods. Foam samples have been tested in a viscoelastic analyser tensile test machine to determine the Young's modulus and loss factor for small dynamic strains. The same samples have also been tested in an acoustic impedance tube to measure acoustic absorption and specific acoustic resistance and reactance with a transmissibility technique. Another set of tests has been set up on a cam plastometer machine for constant strain rate dynamic crushing analysis. All the tests have been carried out on auxetic and normal foam samples to provide a comparison between the two types of cellular solids. The results from the experimental tests are discussed and interpreted using microstructure models for cellular materials existing in the literature. The negative Poisson's ratio foam presented in this paper shows an overall superiority regarding damping and acoustic properties compared to the original conventional foam. Its dynamic crushing performance is also significantly superior to the normal foam, suggesting a possible use in structural integrity compliant elements.

  1. Morphologies, Processing and Properties of Ceramic Foams from Pre-Ceramic Foams from Pre-Ceramic Polymer Routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Mairead; Simoes, Conan R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The current research is focused on processing ceramic foams that have potential as a thermal protection material. Ceramic foams with different architectures were formed from the pyrolysis of pre-ceramic polymers at 1200 C in different atmospheres. In some systems a sacrificial polyurethane was used as the blowing agent. We have also processed foams using sacrificial fillers to introduce controlled cell sizes. Each sacrificial filler or blowing agent leads to a unique morphology. The effect of different fillers on foam morphologies will be presented. The presentation will also focus on characterization of these foams in terms of mechanical and thermal properties. Foams processed using these approaches having bulk densities ranging from 0.15 to 0.9 g per cubic centimeter and a cell sizes from 5 to 500 micrometers. Compression strengths ranged from 2 to 7 MPa for these materials.

  2. NMR Investigation of Filler Effects of (Gamma) Irradiation in Polyurethane Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S C; Gjersing, E L; Maxwell, R S; Cohenour, R

    2007-06-11

    Polyurethane and polyester elastomers have been used for decades in a wide variety of applications, from seat cushion foams to prosthetic materials to high performance adhesives. Adiprene LW-520 is a polyurethane-based adhesive used in a number of U. S. Department of Energy applications. Several investigations have been performed to determine aging properties of polyurethanes. For example, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times have been shown to be sensitive to thermal degradation in polyurethanes. Detailed information about the exact nature of the oxidative thermal degradation in related materials has also been obtained via {sup 17}O and {sup 13}C NMR, with additional insight into morphological changes being obtained using {sup 1}H spin diffusion experiments. Radiation has also been shown to change the physical and mechanical properties of the polymers; in fact many polyurethanes are cured using radiation to affect the isocyanate and free radical reactive groups, thus controlling the properties such as thermal or solvent resistance.

  3. TEPIC -- A new high temperature structural foam

    SciTech Connect

    L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods; M. L. Tootle; C. L. Neuschwanger

    1998-10-01

    The formulation, processing characteristics, microstructure and mechanical properties of a new structural foam, suitable for use at service temperatures up to 200 C, are reported. In each of these respects, the foam is compared to an existing material, called APO-BMI that is currently in use. When these two foams are directly compared, the new foam, called TEPIC, is found to be superior in its mechanical performance. TEPIC is formulated from a non-carcinogenic isocyanate, a di-functional epoxide, and glass microballoons. The authors' approach was to combine chemistries known to form thermally stable products. The principal polymerization products are an oxizolidinone produced by the reaction of the isocyanate with the epoxide and isocyanurate rings formed by the trimerization of the isocyanate. Processing has been examined and large-scale production is discussed in detail. Compared to APO-BMI processing, TEPIC processing is facile and economical. The structure of the foam resembles a traditional rigid polyurethane foam rather than that of the APO-BMI. That is, the foam is comprised of a continuous resin phase rather than weakly bonded glass microballoons. At a density of 0.42 g/cm{sup 3} or greater, maximum pore size in TEPIC was less than 2 mm, as required for the application.

  4. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  5. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  6. Forming foam structures with carbon foam substrates

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Coronado, Paul R.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2012-11-06

    The invention provides foams of desired cell sizes formed from metal or ceramic materials that coat the surfaces of carbon foams which are subsequently removed. For example, metal is located over a sol-gel foam monolith. The metal is melted to produce a metal/sol-gel composition. The sol-gel foam monolith is removed, leaving a metal foam.

  7. Foam patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  8. Foam Microrheology

    SciTech Connect

    KRAYNIK,ANDREW M.; LOEWENBERG,MICHAEL; REINELT,DOUGLAS A.

    1999-09-01

    The microrheology of liquid foams is discussed for two different regimes: static equilibrium where the capillary number Ca is zero, and the viscous regime where viscosity and surface tension are important and Ca is finite. The Surface Evolver is used to calculate the equilibrium structure of wet Kelvin foams and dry soap froths with random structure, i.e., topological disorder. The distributions of polyhedra and faces are compared with the experimental data of Matzke. Simple shearing flow of a random foam under quasistatic conditions is also described. Viscous phenomena are explored in the context of uniform expansion of 2D and 3D foams at low Reynolds number. Boundary integral methods are used to calculate the influence of Ca on the evolution of foam microstructure, which includes bubble shape and the distribution of liquid between films, Plateau borders, and (in 3D) the nodes where Plateau borders meet. The micromechanical point of view guides the development of structure-property-processing relationships for foams.

  9. FOAM DENSITY SENSITIVITY STUDY FOR THE 9977 PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorczyca, J; Tsu-Te Wu, T

    2008-05-02

    Two layers of insulation fill the volume of the 9977 package between the drum liner and the shell. One of these layers is composed of General Plastics FR-3716 polyurethane foam (also known as Last-A-Foam{reg_sign}), poured through fill holes in the drum bottom and foamed in place. There was concern that the density of the foam insulating layer may vary due to the manufacturing process and that variations in foam density would compromise the safety basis of the package. Thus, a structural finite element analysis was performed to investigate this concern. The investigation examined the effect of replacing the material properties for the FR-3716 polyurethane foam, which has a density equal to 16 lb{sub m}/ft{sup 3}, with material properties of similar foam with varying densities through finite element analysis of hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) pertaining to impact conditions. The results showed that the functional performance of the containment vessel (CV) was not compromised under the conditions investigated.

  10. Replacements For Ozone-Depleting Foaming Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, Elana; Sharpe, Jon B.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorinated ethers used in place of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Replacement necessary because CFC's and HCFC's found to contribute to depletion of ozone from upper atmosphere, and manufacture and use of them by law phased out in near future. Two fluorinated ethers do not have ozone-depletion potential and used in existing foam-producing equipment, designed to handle liquid blowing agents soluble in chemical ingredients that mixed to make foam. Any polyurethane-based foams and several cellular plastics blown with these fluorinated ethers used in processes as diverse as small batch pours, large sprays, or double-band lamination to make insulation for private homes, commercial buildings, shipping containers, and storage tanks. Fluorinated ethers proved useful as replacements for CFC refrigerants and solvents.

  11. A non-adhesive foam dressing for exuding venous leg ulcers and pressure ulcers: six case studies.

    PubMed

    Charles, H; Corser, R; Varrow, S; Hart, J

    2004-02-01

    Six patients had their wounds dressed with 3M Foam Dressing, a highly absorbent polyurethane foam covered with a breathable layer, for up to four weeks. The dressing was assessed for its effect on the wound and patient comfort, with promising results. PMID:14999990

  12. Foam Micromechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kraynik, A.M.; Neilsen, M.K.; Reinelt, D.A.; Warren, W.E.

    1998-11-03

    Foam evokes many different images: waves breaking at the seashore, the head on a pint of Guinness, an elegant dessert, shaving, the comfortable cushion on which you may be seated... From the mundane to the high tech, foams, emulsions, and cellular solids encompass a broad range of materials and applications. Soap suds, mayonnaise, and foamed polymers provide practical motivation and only hint at the variety of materials at issue. Typical of mukiphase materiaIs, the rheoIogy or mechanical behavior of foams is more complicated than that of the constituent phases alone, which may be gas, liquid, or solid. For example, a soap froth exhibits a static shear modulus-a hallmark of an elastic solid-even though it is composed primarily of two Newtonian fluids (water and air), which have no shear modulus. This apparent paradox is easily resolved. Soap froth contains a small amount of surfactant that stabilizes the delicate network of thin liq- uid films against rupture. The soap-film network deforms in response to a macroscopic strain; this increases interracial area and the corresponding sur- face energy, and provides the strain energy of classical elasticity theory [1]. This physical mechanism is easily imagined but very challenging to quantify for a realistic three-dimensional soap froth in view of its complex geome- try. Foam micromechanics addresses the connection between constituent properties, cell-level structure, and macroscopic mechanical behavior. This article is a survey of micromechanics applied to gas-liquid foams, liquid-liquid emulsions, and cellular solids. We will focus on static response where the foam deformation is very slow and rate-dependent phenomena such as viscous flow can be neglected. This includes nonlinear elasticity when deformations are large but reversible. We will also discuss elastic- plastic behavior, which involves yield phenomena. Foam structures based on polyhedra packed to fill space provide a unify- ing geometrical theme. Because a two

  13. Temper Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Fabricated by Expanded Rubber & Plastics Corporation, Temper Foam provides better impact protection for airplane passengers and enhances passenger comfort on long flights because it distributes body weight and pressure evenly over the entire contact area. Called a "memory foam" it matches the contour of the body pressing against it and returns to its original shape once the pressure is removed. As a shock absorber, a three-inch foam pad has the ability to absorb the impact of a 10-foot fall by an adult. Applications include seat cushioning for transportation vehicles, padding for furniture and a variety of athletic equipment medical applications including wheelchair padding, artificial limb socket lining, finger splint and hand padding for burn patients, special mattresses for the bedridden and dental stools. Production and sales rights are owned by Temper Foam, Inc. Material is manufactured under license by the Dewey and Almy Division of Grace Chemical Corporation. Distributors of the product are Kees Goebel Medical Specialties, Inc. and Alimed, Inc. They sell Temper Foam in bulk to the fabricators who trim it to shapes required by their customers.

  14. Starch based polyurethanes: A critical review updating recent literature.

    PubMed

    Zia, Fatima; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Kamal, Shagufta; Aslam, Nosheen

    2015-12-10

    Recent advancements in material science and technology made it obvious that use of renewable feed stock is the need of hour. Polymer industry steadily moved to get rid of its dependence on non-renewable resources. Starch, the second largest occurring biomass (renewable) on this planet provides a cheap and eco-friendly way to form huge variety of materials on blending with other biodegradable polymers. Specific structural versatility design for individual application and tailor-made properties have established the polyurethane (PU) as an important and popular class of synthetic biodegradable polymers. Blending of starch with polyurethane is relatively a developing area in PU chemistry but with lot of attraction for researchers. Herein, various starch based polyurethane materials including blends, grafts, copolymers, composites and nano-composites, as well as the prospects and latest developments are discussed. Additionally, an overview of starch based polymeric materials, including their potential applications are presented. PMID:26428186

  15. Bone Grafts

    MedlinePlus

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

  16. Injectable Silk Foams for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, E.; Lo, T.J.; Fournier, E.P.; Brown, J.E.; Abbott, R.D.; Gil, E.S.; Marra, K.G.; Rubin, J.P.; Leisk, G.G.; Kaplan, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow for the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration. Adipose derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10 day period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3 month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure was applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate. PMID:25323438

  17. Preparation and energy-saving application of polyurethane/phase change composite materials for electrical water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yougen; Zhao, Tao; Wu, Xiaolin; Lai, Maobai; Jiang, Chengming; Sun, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Thermal energy storage plays an important role in heat management because of the demand for developed energy conservation, and has applications in diverse areas, from buildings to textiles and clothings. In this study, we aimed to improve thermal characteristics of polyurethane rigid foams that have been widely used for thermal insulation in electrical water heaters. Through this work, paraffin waxes with melting point of 55~65°C act as phase change materials. Then the phase change materials were incorporated into the polyurethane foams at certain ratio. The polyurethane/phase change composite materials used as insulation layers in electrical water heaters performed the enthalpy value of 5~15 J/g. Energy efficiency of the electrical water heaters was tested according to the National Standard of China GB 21519-2008. Results show that 24 h energy consumption of the electrical water heaters manufactured by traditional polyurethane rigid foams and polyurethane/phase change material composites was 1.0612 kWh and 0.9833 kWh, respectively. The results further show that the energy-saving rate is 7.36%. These proved that polyurethane/phase change composite materials can be designed as thermal insulators equipped with electrical water heaters and have a significant effect on energy conservation.

  18. Preparation and energy-saving application of polyurethane/phase change composite materials for electrical water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yougen; Zhao, Tao; Wu, Xiaolin; Lai, Maobai; Jiang, Chengming; Sun, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Thermal energy storage plays an important role in heat management because of the demand for developed energy conservation, and has applications in diverse areas, from buildings to textiles and clothings. In this study, we aimed to improve thermal characteristics of polyurethane rigid foams that have been widely used for thermal insulation in electrical water heaters. Through this work, paraffin waxes with melting point of 55~65°C act as phase change materials. Then the phase change materials were incorporated into the polyurethane foams at certain ratio. The polyurethane/phase change composite materials used as insulation layers in electrical water heaters performed the enthalpy value of 5~15 J/g. Energy efficiency of the electrical water heaters was tested according to the National Standard of China GB 21519-2008. Results show that 24 h energy consumption of the electrical water heaters manufactured by traditional polyurethane rigid foams and polyurethane/phase change material composites was 1.0612 kWh and 0.9833 kWh, respectively. The results further show that the energy-saving rate is 7.36%. These proved that polyurethane/phase change composite materials can be designed as thermal insulators equipped with electrical water heaters and have a significant effect on energy conservation.

  19. Polyimide Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez, Juan M. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A fully imidized, solvent-free polyimide foam having excellent mechanical, acoustic, thermal, and flame resistant properties is produced. A first solution is provided, which includes one or more aromatic dianhydrides or derivatives of aromatic dianhydrides, and may include one or more aromatic diamines, dissolved in one or more polar solvents, along with an effective amount of one or more blowing agents. This first solution may also advantageously include effective amounts respectively of one or mores catalysts, one or more surfactants, and one or more fire retardants. A second solution is also provided which includes one or more isocyanates. The first and second solutions are rapidly and thoroughly mixed to produce an admixture, which is allowed to foam-in an open container, or in a closed mold-under ambient conditions to completion produce a foamed product. This foamed product is then cured by high frequency electromagnetic radiation, thermal energy, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, the process is adapted for spraying or extrusion.

  20. Polyimide foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez, Juan M. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A fully imidized, solvent-free polyimide foam having excellent mechanical, acoustic, thermal, and flame resistant properties is produced. A first solution is provided, which includes one or more aromatic dianhydrides or derivatives of aromatic dianhydrides, and may include one or more aromatic diamines, dissolved in one or more polar solvents, along with an effective amount of one or more blowing agents. This first solution may also advantageously include effective amounts respectively of one or mores catalysts, one or more surfactants, and one or more fire retardants. A second solution is also provided which includes one or more isocyanates. The first and second solutions are rapidly and thoroughly mixed to produce an admixture, which is allowed to foam?in an open container, or in a closed mold?under ambient conditions to completion produce a foamed product. This foamed product is then cured by high frequency electromagnetic radiation, thermal energy, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, the process is adapted for spraying or extrusion.

  1. Polyimide foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez, Juan M. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A fully imidized, solvent-free polyimide foam having excellent mechanical, acoustic, thermal, and flame resistant properties is produced. A first solution is provided, which includes one or more aromatic dianhydrides or derivatives of aromatic dianhydrides, and may include one or more aromatic diamines, dissolved in one or more polar solvents, along with an effective amount of one or more blowing agents. This first solution may also advantageously include effective amounts respectively of one or mores catalysts, one or more surfactants, and one or more fire retardants. A second solution is also provided which includes one or more isocyanates. The first and second solutions are rapidly and thoroughly mixed to produce an admixture, which is allowed to foam--in an open container, or in a closed mold--under ambient conditions to completion produce a foamed product. This foamed product is then cured by high frequency electromagnetic radiation, thermal energy, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, the process is adapted for spraying or extrusion.

  2. Space Shuttle Stiffener Ring Foam Failure, a Non-Conventional Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Philip M.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle makes use of the excellent properties of rigid polyurethane foam for cryogenic tank insulation and as structural protection on the solid rocket boosters. When foam applications debond, classical methods of analysis do not always provide root cause of the failure of the foam. Realizing that foam is the ideal media to document and preserve its own mode of failure, thin sectioning was seen as a logical approach for foam failure analysis. Thin sectioning in two directions, both horizontal and vertical to the application, was chosen to observe the three dimensional morphology of the foam cells. The cell foam morphology provided a much greater understanding of the failure modes than previously achieved.

  3. Erosion of polyurethane insulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, S.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed description of the test program in which erosion of the spray foam insulation used in the S-II stage of the Saturn-V Apollo launch vehicle was investigated. The behavior of the spray foam was investigated at the elevated temperature and static pressure appropriate to the S-II stage environment, but in the absence of the aerodynamic shear stress.

  4. Toxicology evaluation and hazard review for non-CFC containing rigid foams BKC 44317 and last-a-foam MSL-02A

    SciTech Connect

    Greulich, K.A.; Archuleta, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    New pour-in-place, low density, rigid polyurethane foam kits have been developed to mechanically stabilize damaged explosive ordnance. Although earlier foam systems used chlorofluorocarbons as blowing agents, the current versions rely on carbon dioxide generated by the reaction of isocynates with water. In addition, these kits were developed to manually generate small quantifies of rigid foam in the field with minimal or no protective equipment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize available hazard information for the components of these rigid foam kits and to provide recommendations for personal protective equipment to be used while performing the manual combination of the components. As with most rigid foam systems, these kits consist of two parts, one a mixture of isocyanates; the other, a combination of polyols, surfactants, and amine catalysts. Once completely deployed, the rigid foam is non-toxic. The components, however, have some important health effects which must be considered when establishing handling procedures.

  5. Development of multifunctional shape memory polymer foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Janice J.; Srivastava, Ijya; Naguib, Hani E.

    2015-05-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMP) are a class of stimuli-responsive materials which are able to respond to external stimulus such as temperature and deformation by changing their shape, and return to their original shape upon reversal or removal of the external stimulus. Although SMP materials have been studied extensively and have been used in a wide range of applications such as medicine, aerospace, and robotics, only few studies have looked at the potential of designing multifunctional SMP foams and blends. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a design of SMP foam materials and blends. The actuator construct will contain a core SMP epoxy and blend of polylactic acid and polyurethane. The effects of the processing parameters of shape memory polymer (SMP) foams on the shape memory effect (SME) were investigated. The solid state foaming technique was employed to obtain the desired foamed cellular structure. One particular point of interest is to understand how the processing parameters affect the SMP and its glass transition temperature (Tg). By correctly tailoring these parameters it is possible to modify the SMP to have an improved shape memory effect SME.

  6. Open-cell silicon foam for ultralightweight mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortini, Arthur J.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental silicon is a lightweight material that shows great promise for optical applications. Specifically, open-cell silicon foam can be used as a core material for ultralightweight mirrors by bonding single-crystal silicon faceplates to the foam. Not only does silicon have a low density, but it also has a low thermal expansion coefficient and a high thermal conductivity. Further, because of its widespread use in the semiconductor industry, it is an extremely well-characterized material. The fabrication of silicon foam begins with open-cell polyurethane foam, which is available in a wide variety of cell sizes ranging from 3 to 100 pores per linear inch. After chemical conversion to a glassy carbon foam, the individual ligaments are coated with silicon by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI), and the carbon cores are removed by oxidation. The end result is an open-cell foam composed exclusively of silicon. CVD/CVI is a very versatile process because it allows the amount of silicon in the foam to be varied. As the relative density of the foam increase, so does its strength and stiffness. Consequently, the mechanical properties of the foam can be tailored to meet the needs of a given application. For example, for space-based applications where light weight is critical, lower density foams can be used. For terrestrial applications requiring high stiffness, higher density foams can be used. In all cases, the relative density of the foam is a parameter that can be optimized to meet the needs of a particular application.

  7. Foam Cushioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One innovation developed by a contractor at Ames Research Center was an open cell polymeric foam material with unusual properties. Intended as padding for aircraft seats the material offered better impact protection against accidents, and also enhanced passenger comfort because it distributed body weight evenly over the entire contact area. Called a slow springback foam, it flows to match the contour of the body pressing against it, and returns to its original shape once the pressure is removed. It has many applications including aircraft cushions and padding, dental stools, and athletic equipment. Now it's used by Dynamic Systems, Inc. for medical applications such as wheel chairs for severely disabled people which allow them to sit for 3-8 hours where they used to be uncomfortable in 15-30 minutes.

  8. Durability of foam insulation for LH2 fuel tanks of future subsonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, E. L.; Helenbrook, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the potential short-supply of petroleum based fuels, NASA has initiated investigations concerning the feasibility of aircraft using as fuel hydrogen which is to be stored in liquid form. One of the problems to be solved for an operation of such aircraft is related to the possibility of a suitable storage of the liquid hydrogen. A description is presented of an experimental study regarding the suitability of commercially available organic foams as cryogenic insulation for liquid hydrogen tanks under extensive thermal cycling typical of subsonic airline type operation. Fourteen commercially available organic foam insulations were tested. The thermal performance of all insulations was found to deteriorate with increased simulated flight cycles. Two unreinforced polyurethane foams survived over 4200 thermal cycles (representative of approximately 15 years of airline service) without evidence of structural deterioration. The polyurethane foam insulations also exhibited excellent thermal performance.

  9. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  10. Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of infrared emissivity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yuming; Ge, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoming

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Silane coupling agent of KH550 was used to connect the ITO and polyurethanes. ► Infrared emissivity values of the hybrids were compared and analyzed. ► Interfacial synergistic action and orderly secondary structure were the key factors. -- Abstract: Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide and racemic polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposites (LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO) were prepared by grafting the organics onto the surfaces of modified ITO nanoparticles. LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO composites based on the chiral and racemic tyrosine were characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the infrared emissivity values (8–14 μm) were investigated in addition. The results indicated that the polyurethanes had been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of ITO without destroying the crystalline structure. Both composites possessed the lower infrared emissivity values than the bare ITO nanoparticles, which indicated that the interfacial interaction had great effect on the infrared emissivity. Furthermore, LPU@ITO based on the optically active polyurethane had the virtue of regular secondary structure and more interfacial synergistic actions between organics and inorganics, thus it exhibited lower infrared emissivity value than RPU@ITO based on the racemic polyurethane.

  11. Exploiting novel sterilization techniques for porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Porous polyurethane (PU) structures raise increasing interest as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. Understanding the effects of sterilization on their properties is mandatory to assess their potential use in the clinical practice. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the effects of two innovative sterilization techniques (i.e. plasma, Sterrad(®) system, and ozone) on the morphological, chemico-physical and mechanical properties of a PU foam synthesized by gas foaming, using water as expanding agent. In addition, possible toxic effects of the sterilization were evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Plasma sterilization did not affect the morphological and mechanical properties of the PU foam, but caused at some extent degradative phenomena, as detected by infrared spectroscopy. Ozone sterilization had a major effect on foam morphology, causing the formation of new small pores, and stronger degradation and oxidation on the structure of the material. These modifications affected the mechanical properties of the sterilized PU foam too. Even though, no cytotoxic effects were observed after both plasma and ozone sterilization, as confirmed by the good values of cell viability assessed by Alamar Blue assay. The results here obtained can help in understanding the effects of sterilization procedures on porous polymeric scaffolds, and how the scaffold morphology, in particular porosity, can influence the effects of sterilization, and viceversa. PMID:25893387

  12. Auxetic magnetic foams for integrated mechanical-EM shielding sandwich applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Fabrizio L.; Smith, Frank C.; Bullough, William A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper describes new concepts of flexible polyurethane auxetic (negative Poisson"s ratio) foams with embedded carbonyl dispersions. Compared to conventional flexible PU foams, this type of cellular solid exhibit higher compliance under impact loading and increased dielectric loss factors in the X-band between 12 and 18 GHz. Results from mechanical tensile tests and rectangular wave guide experiments are shown and discussed in view of possible applications on sandwich structures typical of Salisbury screens or microwave absorbers.

  13. Electrospun Vascular Grafts with Improved Compliance Matching to Native Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Nezarati, Roya M.; Eifert, Michelle B.; Dempsey, David K.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is one of the most commonly performed major surgeries in the United States. Autologous vessels such as the saphenous vein are the current gold standard for treatment; however, synthetic vascular prostheses made of expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (ePTFE) or poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) are used when autologous vessels are unavailable. These synthetic grafts have a high failure rate in small diameter (<4 mm) applications due to rapid re-occlusion via intimal hyperplasia. Current strategies to improve clinical performance are focused on preventing intimal hyperplasia by fabricating grafts with compliance and burst pressure similar to native vessels. To this end, we have developed an electrospun vascular graft from segmented polyurethanes with tunable properties by altering material chemistry and graft microarchitecture. Relationships between polyurethane tensile properties and biomechanical properties were elucidated to select polymers with desirable properties. Graft thickness, fiber tortuosity, and fiber fusions were modulated to provide additional tools for controlling graft properties. Using a combination of these strategies, a vascular graft with compliance and burst pressure exceeding the saphenous vein autograft was fabricated (compliance = 6.0 ± 0.6 %/mmHg × 10−4, burst pressure = 2260 ± 160 mmHg). This graft is hypothesized to reduce intimal hyperplasia associated with low compliance in synthetic grafts and improve long term clinical success. Additionally, the fundamental relationships between electrospun mesh microarchitecture and mechanical properties identified in this work can be utilized in various biomedical applications. PMID:24846218

  14. Evaluation of human amniotic membrane as a wound dressing for split-thickness skin-graft donor sites.

    PubMed

    Loeffelbein, Denys J; Rohleder, Nils H; Eddicks, Matthias; Baumann, Claudia M; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Wolff, Klaus-D; Drecoll, Enken; Steinstraesser, Lars; Hennerbichler, Simone; Kesting, Marco R

    2014-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) has been used as a biomaterial in various surgical procedures and exceeds some qualities of common materials. We evaluated HAM as wound dressing for split-thickness skin-graft (STSG) donor sites in a swine model (Part A) and a clinical trial (Part B). Part A: STSG donor sites in 4 piglets were treated with HAM or a clinically used conventional polyurethane (PU) foil (n = 8 each). Biopsies were taken on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, and 60 and investigated immunohistochemically for alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA: wound contraction marker), von Willebrand factor (vWF: angiogenesis), Ki-67 (cell proliferation), and laminin (basement membrane integrity). Part B: STSG donor sites in 45 adult patients (16 female/29 male) were treated with HAM covered by PU foam, solely by PU foam, or PU foil/paraffin gauze (n = 15 each). Part A revealed no difference in the rate of wound closure between groups. HAM showed improved esthetic results and inhibitory effects on cicatrization. Angioneogenesis was reduced, and basement membrane formation was accelerated in HAM group. Part B: no difference in re-epithelialization/infection rate was found. HAM caused less ichor exudation and less pruritus. HAM has no relevant advantage over conventional dressings but might be a cost-effective alternative. PMID:25003117

  15. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some foams and fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    A limited number of foams and fabrics was evaluated in the course of developing test procedures for determining the relative toxicity of materials. The principal variable studied, heating rate, did not affect the relative ranking of the materials tested. Two pyrolysis test procedures using the same basic approach but employing different sample weights, chamber volumes, laboratory animals, heating rates, and upper temperature limits, resulted in identical rankings of relative toxicity. The data obtained show that modification of conventional flexible polyurethane foams with flame retardants to comply with California upholstered furniture flammability regulations seems to consistently reduce toxicity under pyrolysis conditions.

  16. Biodegradable porous polyurethane scaffolds for tissue repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gorna, Katarzyna; Gogolewski, Sylwester

    2006-10-01

    Critical-size bone defects usually require the insertion of autogenous bone graft to heal. Harvesting of bone is traumatic and results in high morbidity at the donor site. A potential alternative to bone graft may be a bone substitute with adequate biocompatibility and biological properties produced from ceramics or bioresorbable/biodegradable polymers. In the present study, new elastomeric biodegradable polyurethanes with an enhanced affinity toward cells and tissues were synthesized using aliphatic diisocyanate, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) diol, and biologically active 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide diol) as chain extender. The polymers were processed into 3D porous scaffolds by applying a combined salt leaching-phase inverse process. The critical parameters controlling pore size and geometry were the solvents and nonsolvents used for scaffold preparation and the sizes of the solid porogen crystals. Scaffolds prepared from the polymer solution in solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide or methyl-2-pyrrolidone did not have a homogenous pore structure. Many pores were interconnected, but numerous pores were closed. Irrespective of the high pore-to-volume ratio (75%), the scaffolds showed poor water permeability. The best solvent for the preparation of scaffolds from the polyurethane used in the study was dimethylformamide (DMF). The type of nonsolvent admixed to the polymer solution in DMF strongly affected the scaffolds' pore structure. The elastomeric polyurethane scaffold prepared from the optimal solvent-nonsolvent mixture had regular interconnected pores, high water permeability, and a pore-to-volume ratio of 90%. The osteoconductive properties of the 3D porous polyurethane scaffolds can be additionally promoted by loading them with calcium phosphate salts such as hydroxyapatite or tricalcium phosphate, thus making them promising candidates for bone graft substitutes. PMID:16779769

  17. Quantum Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-10-24

    The laws of quantum mechanics and relativity are quite perplexing however it is when the two theories are merged that things get really confusing. This combined theory predicts that empty space isn’t empty at all – it’s a seething and bubbling cauldron of matter and antimatter particles springing into existence before disappearing back into nothingness. Scientists call this complicated state of affairs “quantum foam.” In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln discusses this mind-bending idea and sketches some of the experiments that have convinced scientists that this crazy prediction is actually true.

  18. Foam sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Alder, Glen; Lees, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Foam sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive treatment for lower limb varicose veins. Current evidence indicates that its efficacy may not be as high as surgery or endovenous ablation. The minimally invasive nature of the treatment however means that it has a wide application, and it can be particularly useful in patients who are not suitable for other types of treatment. NICE guidelines recommend its use as a second line after endovenous ablation. Complication rates are low and most of these are of little clinical consequence. PMID:26556698

  19. Acyclic N-halamine-immobilized polyurethane: Preparation and antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling functions

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Porteous, Nuala; Lin, Jiajin; Sun, Yuyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyl groups were introduced onto polyurethane surfaces through 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate activation, followed by diethanolamine hydroxylation. Polymethacrylamide was covalently attached to the hydroxylated polyurethane through surface grafting polymerization of methacrylamide using cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate as an initiator. After bleach treatment, the amide groups of the covalently bound polymethacrylamide chains were transformed into N-halamines. The new N-halamine-immobilized polyurethane provided a total sacrifice of 107–108 colony forming units per milliliter of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria), and Candida albicans (fungi) within 10 min and successfully prevented bacterial and fungal biofilm formation. The antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling effects were both durable and rechargeable, pointing to great potentials of the new acyclic N-halamine-immobilized polyurethane for a broad range of related applications. PMID:26089593

  20. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Feina

    Shape memory polymers are smart materials which can remember their original shapes. However, the low recovery stress and low mechanical strength limit the commercial applications of shape memory polymers. In this study, nanoclays were introduced to shape memory polyurethanes (SMPU) to augment these properties by enhance the network of SMPU. Several factors which influence the shape recovery stress were evaluated, including the nature of polymer chain by using different monomers, type of clay particles, extent of filler dispersion, clay content and deformation conditions. It was found that only reactive clay particles were well dispersed into polyurethane matrix by the tethering between --CH2CH 2OH functional groups in clay surfactants and polyurethane chains. Two different shape memory polyurethanes (Systems I & II) prepared by bulk polymerization were compared. The shape memory effect of System I was triggered by melting of the soft segment crystals, while that of System II was by glass transition of the soft segments. It was seen that the reactive clay particles dispersed well in both polyurethane matrices and augmented the recovery stress, e.g., 20% increase with 1 wt % nanoclay in System I and 40% increase with 5 wt % nanoclay in System II were observed. In System I, clay particles interfered with soft segment crystallization, and promoted phase mixing between the hard and soft segments, thus affecting the fixity and recovery ratio. Nevertheless, the soft segment crystallinity was still enough and in some cases increased due to stretching to exhibit excellent shape fixity and shape recovery ratio. The higher loading of clay particles accelerated the stress relaxation, resulting in reduction of recovery stress. In System II, no significant effect of clay particles in phase separation was observed, so there was no influence of clay on shape fixity and recovery ratio. The recovery stress increased with reactive nanoclay content. It was also found that the recovery

  1. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  2. Nano-TiO2/polyurethane composites for antibacterial and self-cleaning coatings.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, P A; Burgess, K; Wang, L; Chowdhury, R R; Lotus, A F; Moula, G

    2012-10-26

    Grafting from polymerization was used to synthesize nano-titania/polyurethane (nTiO(2)/polyurethane) composite coatings, where nTiO(2) was chemically attached to the backbone of the polyurethane polymer matrix with a bifunctional monomer, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) propionic acid (DMPA). This bifunctional monomer can coordinate to nTiO(2) through an available -COOH group, with two available hydroxyl groups that can react with diisocyanate terminated pre-polyurethane through step-growth polymerization. The coordination reaction was monitored by FTIR and TGA, with the coordination reaction found to follow first order kinetics. After step-growth polymerization, the polyurethane nanocomposites were found to be stable on standing with excellent distribution of Ti in the polymer matrix without any significant agglomeration compared to simple physical mixtures of nTiO(2) in the polyurethane coatings. The functionalized nTiO(2)-polyurethane composite coatings showed excellent antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli; 99% of E. coli were killed within less than one hour under solar irradiation. Self-cleaning was also demonstrated using stearic acid as a model for 'dirt'. PMID:23037881

  3. Nano-TiO2/polyurethane composites for antibacterial and self-cleaning coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, P. A.; Burgess, K.; Wang, L.; Chowdhury, R. R.; Lotus, A. F.; Moula, G.

    2012-10-01

    Grafting from polymerization was used to synthesize nano-titania/polyurethane (nTiO2/polyurethane) composite coatings, where nTiO2 was chemically attached to the backbone of the polyurethane polymer matrix with a bifunctional monomer, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) propionic acid (DMPA). This bifunctional monomer can coordinate to nTiO2 through an available -COOH group, with two available hydroxyl groups that can react with diisocyanate terminated pre-polyurethane through step-growth polymerization. The coordination reaction was monitored by FTIR and TGA, with the coordination reaction found to follow first order kinetics. After step-growth polymerization, the polyurethane nanocomposites were found to be stable on standing with excellent distribution of Ti in the polymer matrix without any significant agglomeration compared to simple physical mixtures of nTiO2 in the polyurethane coatings. The functionalized nTiO2-polyurethane composite coatings showed excellent antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli; 99% of E. coli were killed within less than one hour under solar irradiation. Self-cleaning was also demonstrated using stearic acid as a model for ‘dirt’.

  4. Three-dimensional porous bioscaffolds for bone tissue regeneration: fabrication via adaptive foam reticulation and freeze casting techniques, characterization, and cell study.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Kajal K; Winnett, James; van Grunsven, William; Lapworth, James; Reilly, Gwendolen C

    2012-11-01

    Highly interconnected and 3D porous bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAP) and Bioglass scaffolds have been fabricated by an adaptive version of camphene based foam reticulation (ARM) and camphene freeze casting (CFC) methods. Controlled sublimation of camphene during freeze casting at -78°C produced process optimized bioscaffolds with open, uniform, and interconnected porous structures. HAP and Bioglass scaffolds with desired porosity, pore size, and microtopography were successfully fabricated using polyurethane foam templates of appropriate structures. Macropores of 50-1100 μm with microporosity of 1-10 μm, known to facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation, were obtained. Compressive yield strength of 0.8 MPa close to the upper range of cancellous bone was achieved. The mean compressive strength of HAP scaffolds compared favorably with the theoretical model of porosity variation with strength and was higher than reported values. The nature of pore development, morphology, porosity, crystal structure, chemical composition, and thermal behavior were characterized using scanning electron and optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and mercury porosimetry. These scaffolds are suited for nonstructural graft and were not cytotoxic in vitro when osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured with the HAP constructs. The cells attached indicated by cell metabolic activity by resazurin assay and spread well when cultured on the surface of the materials. PMID:22696264

  5. Application of an Elongated Kelvin Model to Space Shuttle Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2008-01-01

    Spray-on foam insulation is applied to the exterior of the Space Shuttle s External Tank to limit propellant boil-off and to prevent ice formation. The Space Shuttle foams are rigid closed-cell polyurethane foams. The two foams used most extensively on the Space Shuttle External Tank are BX-265 and NCFI24-124. Since the catastrophic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia, numerous studies have been conducted to mitigate the likelihood and the severity of foam shedding during the Shuttle s ascent to space. Due to the foaming and rising process, the foam microstructures are elongated in the rise direction. As a result, these two foams exhibit a non-isotropic mechanical behavior. In this paper, a detailed microstructural characterization of the two foams is presented. The key features of the foam cells are summarized and the average cell dimensions in the two foams are compared. Experimental studies to measure the room temperature mechanical response of the two foams in the two principal material directions (parallel to the rise and perpendicular to the rise) are also reported. The measured elastic modulus, proportional limit stress, ultimate tensile stress and the Poisson s ratios for the two foams are compared. The generalized elongated Kelvin foam model previously developed by the authors is reviewed and the equations which result from this model are presented. The resulting equations show that the ratio of the elastic modulus in the rise direction to that in the perpendicular-to-rise direction as well as the ratio of the strengths in the two material directions is only a function of the microstructural dimensions. Using the measured microstructural dimensions and the measured stiffness ratio, the foam tensile strength ratio and Poisson s ratios are predicted for both foams. The predicted tensile strength ratio is in close agreement with the measured strength ratios for both BX-265 and NCFI24-124. The comparison between the predicted Poisson s ratios and the measured

  6. Stabilizing nanocellulose-nonionic surfactant composite foams by delayed Ca-induced gelation.

    PubMed

    Gordeyeva, Korneliya S; Fall, Andreas B; Hall, Stephen; Wicklein, Bernd; Bergström, Lennart

    2016-06-15

    Aggregation of dispersed rod-like particles like nanocellulose can improve the strength and rigidity of percolated networks but may also have a detrimental effect on the foamability. However, it should be possible to improve the strength of nanocellulose foams by multivalent ion-induced aggregation if the aggregation occurs after the foam has been formed. Lightweight and highly porous foams based on TEMPO-mediated oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were formulated with the addition of a non-ionic surfactant, pluronic P123, and CaCO3 nanoparticles. Foam volume measurements show that addition of the non-ionic surfactant generates wet CNF/P123 foams with a high foamability. Foam bubble size studies show that delayed Ca-induced aggregation of CNF by gluconic acid-triggered dissolution of the CaCO3 nanoparticles significantly improves the long-term stability of the wet composite foams. Drying the Ca-reinforced foam at 60 °C results in a moderate shrinkage and electron microscopy and X-ray tomography studies show that the pores became slightly oblate after drying but the overall microstructure and pore/foam bubble size distribution is preserved after drying. The elastic modulus (0.9-1.4 MPa) of Ca-reinforced composite foams with a density of 9-15 kg/m(3) is significantly higher than commercially available polyurethane foams used for thermal insulation. PMID:27003498

  7. Modeling shock-driven reaction in low density PMDI foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundage, Aaron; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William; Peterson, David

    Shock experiments on low density polyurethane foams reveal evidence of reaction at low impact pressures. However, these reaction thresholds are not evident over the low pressures reported for historical Hugoniot data of highly distended polyurethane at densities below 0.1 g/cc. To fill this gap, impact data given in a companion paper for polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) foam with a density of 0.087 g/cc were acquired for model validation. An equation of state (EOS) was developed to predict the shock response of these highly distended materials over the full range of impact conditions representing compaction of the inert material, low-pressure decomposition, and compression of the reaction products. A tabular SESAME EOS of the reaction products was generated using the JCZS database in the TIGER equilibrium code. In particular, the Arrhenius Burn EOS, a two-state model which transitions from an unreacted to a reacted state using single step Arrhenius kinetics, as implemented in the shock physics code CTH, was modified to include a statistical distribution of states. Hence, a single EOS is presented that predicts the onset to reaction due to shock loading in PMDI-based polyurethane foams. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Responsive aqueous foams.

    PubMed

    Fameau, Anne-Laure; Carl, Adrian; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; von Klitzing, Regine

    2015-01-12

    Remarkable properties have emerged recently for aqueous foams, including ultrastability and responsiveness. Responsive aqueous foams refer to foams for which the stability can be switched between stable and unstable states with a change in environment or with external stimuli. Responsive foams have been obtained from various foam stabilizers, such as surfactants, proteins, polymers, and particles, and with various stimuli. Different strategies have been developed to design this type of soft material. We briefly review the two main approaches used to obtain responsive foams. The first approach is based on the responsiveness of the interfacial layer surrounding the gas bubbles, which leads to responsive foams. The second approach is based on modifications that occur in the aqueous phase inside the foam liquid channels to tune the foam stability. We will highlight the most sophisticated approaches, which use light, temperature, and magnetic fields and lead to switchable foam stability. PMID:25384466

  9. FLASHFOAM : a triboluminescent polymer foam for mechanical sensing.

    SciTech Connect

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Whinnery, LeRoy L., Jr.; Goods, Steven Howard

    2003-07-01

    The formulation and processing of a brittle polyurethane foam containing triboluminescent powder additives is described. Two powder additives, known to exhibit triboluminescence, were individually examined: triethylammonium tetrakis (dibenzoylmethanato) europate [NEt3H][Eu(DBM)4] and ordinary table sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11). In each instance, the powders were mixed into the polyol component of the foam. When combined with the isocyanate component, the resulting foams had these powders incorporated into their cellular structure so as to induce a triboluminescent response upon crushing during impact testing. The triboluminescent response of foam specimens containing each of these powder additives was characterized by measuring: the time rate of change in the optical output (measured as Watts), the peak optical output, the total integrated output (Watt-seconds), during the impact event. Foams containing the europate compound were found to yield several orders of magnitude higher output when compared to the sugar-containing foam. Strain rate and concentration of the powder (in the foam) were important variables with respect to optical output. Both the peak and total triboluminescent output increased with increasing powder concentration. Peak output was also found to increase with increasing strain rate. However, the total output was found to be roughly constant for a given concentration regardless of strain rate (over the strain rate range: 20 sec-1< e& < 150 sec-1). At very low strain rates, no triboluminescent response was measured.

  10. Foam stability in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewalle, N.; Caps, H.; Delon, G.; Saint-Jalmes, A.; Rio, E.; Saulnier, L.; Adler, M.; Biance, A. L.; Pitois, O.; Cohen Addad, S.; Hohler, R.; Weaire, D.; Hutzler, S.; Langevin, D.

    2011-12-01

    Within the context of the ESA FOAM project, we have studied the stability of aqueous and non-aqueous foams both on Earth and in microgravity. Foams are dispersions of gas into liquid or solid. On Earth, the lifetime of a foam is limited by the free drainage. By drainage, we are referring to the irreversible flow of liquid through the foam (leading to the accumulation of liquid at the foam bottom, and to a global liquid content decreases within the foam). When the liquid films become thinner, they eventually break, and the foam collapses. In microgravity, this process is no more present and foams containing large amounts of liquid can be studied for longer time. While the difference between foaming and not-foaming solutions is clear, the case of slightly-foaming solutions is more complicated. On Earth, such mixtures are observed to produce unstable froth for a couple of seconds. However, these latter solutions may produce foam in microgravity. We have studied both configurations for different solutions composed of common surfactant, proteins, anti-foaming agents or silicon oil. Surprising results have been obtained, emphasizing the role played by gravity on the foam stabilization process.

  11. [Foam sclerotherapy].

    PubMed

    Partsch, Bernhard

    2011-03-01

    Leg ulcers are often caused by varicose veins, with only little or no tendency to spontaneous healing. Compression therapy is the main treatment for this ailment, but even with optimal compression by short stretch bandages healing rates are rarely better than 70 - 80 % after 6 months. Experience shows, that healing times can be shortened significantly by elimination of superficial venous refluxes. For different reasons varicose vein surgery is rarely performed in patients with open leg ulcers. The increased age of ulcer patients with frequent comorbidities or the fear of an increased intraoperative risk of infection are reasons to avoid an operative elimination of refluxes. Foam sclerotherapy is a simple alternative to an operation, which can be performed irrespective of the existence of a venous leg ulcer. PMID:21360462

  12. Stable Polyurethane Coatings for Electronic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Alkane-based polyurethanes resist deterioration while maintaining good dielectric properties. Weight loss after prolonged immersion in hot water far less for alkane-based polyurethanes than for more common ether based polyurethanes, at any given oxygen content. Major uses of polyurethanes are as connector potting materials and conformal coatings for printed circuit boards.

  13. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.

    1982-04-01

    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  14. Immobilization of amyloglucosidase using two forms of polyurethane polymer.

    PubMed

    Storey, K B; Duncan, J A; Chakrabarti, A C

    1990-03-01

    Amyloglucosidase was covalently immobilized using two hydrophilic prepolymers: Hypol FHP 2002 (creates foams) and Hypol FHP 8190H (creates gels). The foamable prepolymer was superior as a support for enzyme immobilization. The percent activity immobilized in the polyurethane foams was 25 +/- 1.5%. Large substrates (greater than 200,000 daltons in mol wt) were hydrolyzed as effectively as smaller ones by the immobilized enzyme. The Km value of the foam-immobilized enzyme increased from 0.76 mg/mL (free) to 0.86 mg/mL (immobilized), whereas the Vmax dropped from 90.9 (free) to 12.4 nmol glucose/min/mL (immobilized). The long-term (2 mo) storage stability of amyloglucosidase was enhanced by immobilization in foams (70% activity retained; free enzyme only retained 50%). Immobilization also improved the enzyme stability to various denaturing agents (sodium chloride, urea, and ethanol). The immobilized enzyme exhibited increased stability compared to the free enzyme at high temperatures (95 degrees C). Both glycogen and starch could be utilized by the immobilized enzyme, indicating that this technique could prove useful for starch hydrolysis. PMID:2112366

  15. NMR Relaxation and Diffusion Study of Ultrasound Recycling of Polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Meerwall, E.; Ghose, S.; Isayev, A. I.

    2004-04-01

    We have examined the effect of intense ultrasound on unfilled polyurethane foam and rubber using proton NMR transverse relaxation and pulsed-gradient diffusion studies, sol extraction, GPC characterization, and glass transition measurements. Results correlate well with ultrasound amplitude. The proton T2 relaxation at 70.5 deg. C exhibits three discrete components, due to heavily entangled sol and crosslinked network; unentangled polymeric sol plus dangling network chain ends; and oligomer remnants. Devulcanizing produces heavy sol, increases segmental mobility of all species, and generates more dangling chain ends. In foams, but not in rubber, additional light sol is generated at the expense of network. All mobilities are significantly lower than in the other rubbers we have studied, an effect unrelated to the glass transition, nearly constant at -60 deg. C. Diffusion measurements, possible only in foams, show a bimodal spectrum whose fast component slows markedly with ultrasound amplitude, attesting to the production of fragments heavier than the original oligomers, as confirmed by GPC analysis. This work is the first to study ultrasound devulcanization in industrial rubbery foams.

  16. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  17. Rigid polyurethane foam – kenaf core composites for structural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a fast growing summer annual crop with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). The stalks of the kenaf plants contain two distinct fiber types, bast and core fibers. The...

  18. Acoustic Properties of Polyurethane Composition Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes and Silicon Oxide Nano-powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfali, Wasim A.

    This article demonstrates the acoustic properties of added small amount of carbon-nanotube and siliconoxide nano powder (S-type, P-Type) to the host material polyurethane composition. By adding CNT and/or nano-silica in the form of powder at different concentrations up to 2% within the PU composition to improve the sound absorption were investigated in the frequency range up to 1600 Hz. Sound transmission loss measurement of the samples were determined using large impedance tube. The tests showed that addition of 0.2 wt.% Silicon Oxide Nano-powder and 0.35 wt.% carbon nanotube to polyurethane composition improved sound transmissions loss (Sound Absorption) up to 80 dB than that of pure polyurethane foam sample.

  19. Mechanochromic polyurethane strain sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellini, F.; Khapli, S.; Peterson, S. D.; Porfiri, M.

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we study the mechanical and optical response of a thermoplastic polyurethane blended with 0.5 wt. % of bis(benzoxazolyl)stilbene dye. The mechanochromic behavior of the material is characterized in a uniaxial stress-relaxation test by simultaneously acquiring the applied force, mechanical deformation, and fluorescence emission. To offer insight into the stress-strain response of the polymer-dye blend, we adapt a classical nonlinear constitutive behavior for elastomeric materials that accounts for stress-induced softening. We correlate the fluorescent response with the mechanical strain to demonstrate the possibility of accurate strain sensing for a broad range of deformations during both loading and unloading.

  20. Gelatin-Modified Polyurethanes for Soft Tissue Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Kucińska-Lipka, Justyna; Janik, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Recently, in the field of biomaterials for soft tissue scaffolds, the interest of their modification with natural polymersis growing. Synthetic polymers are often tough, and many of them do not possess fine biocompatibility. On the other hand, natural polymers are biocompatible but weak when used alone. The combination of natural and synthetic polymers gives the suitable properties for tissue engineering requirements. In our study, we modified gelatin synthetic polyurethanes prepared from polyester poly(ethylene-butylene adipate) (PEBA), aliphatic 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and two different chain extenders 1,4-butanediol (BDO) or 1-ethoxy-2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethanol (EHEE). From a chemical point of view, we replaced expensive components for building PU, such as 2,6-diisocyanato methyl caproate (LDI) and 1,4-diisocyanatobutane (BDI), with cost-effective HDI. The gelatin was added in situ (in the first step of synthesis) to polyurethane to increase biocompatibility and biodegradability of the obtained material. It appeared that the obtained gelatin-modified PU foams, in which chain extender was BDO, had enhanced interactions with media and their hydrolytic degradation profile was also improved for tissue engineering application. Furthermore, the gelatin introduction had positive impact on gelatin-modified PU foams by increasing their hemocompatibility. PMID:24363617

  1. Plastic Foam Porosity Characterization by Air-Borne Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffrén, H.; Karppinen, T.; Hæggström, E.

    2006-03-01

    We continue to develop an ultrasonic burst-reflection method for estimating porosity and tortuosity of solid materials. As a first step we report on method design considerations and measurements on polyurethane foams (Sylomer® vibration dampener) with well-defined porosity. The ultrasonic method is experimentally tested by measuring 235 kHz and 600 kHz air-borne ultrasound reflection from a foam surface at two incidence angles. The reflected sound wave from different foam samples (32% - 64% porosity) was compared to a wave that had traveled from the transmitter to the detector without reflection. The ultrasonically estimated sample porosities coincided within 8% with the porosity estimates obtained by a gravimetric reference method. This parallels the uncertainty of the gravimetric method, 8%. The repeatability of the ultrasonic porosity measurements was better than 5%.

  2. Recycling of polyurethane-urea RIM

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H.X.; Kresta, J.E.; Suthar, B.; Li, X.H.

    1997-12-31

    Polyurethane-urea (PUU) RIM are crosslinked materials, which cannot be reprocessed or recycled by using the conventional process. The chemical decrosslinking reaction or transesterification of themosetting polyurethanes by using various inorganic and organic catalysts were investigated. The recycling of waste PUU RIM materials (unpainted, painted and filler reinforced) through decrosslinking (transesterification) using low molecular weight glycols in presence of catalyst was evaluated. It was established that the transestification of PUU RIM can be carried out at the low glycol (EG)/RIM ratio (15/84.5) and that the usual recovery step for the excess glycol (EG) can be avoided resulting in an economical process. The process was scaled up in a 50 gallon reactor at the LymTal International Inc. successfully. It was established that the products from the decrosslinking of PUU RIM are a mixture of the liquid oligomers (LOs) containing urethane, OH and NH{sub 2} groups. These functional groups in LOs exhibit many potential applications as raw materials in the preparation of RIM coatings, adhesives, foams, sealants and composites. PUU RIM made from LOs exhibited promising and interesting results. Both solvent-based and waterborne urethane coatings could be made from LOs. Urethane adhesives made from LOs showed improvement of properties with increasing amounts of LOs. Structural adhesives based on epoxy and LOs were prepared and the effects of equivalent ratios and curing conditions on the adhesive strength of the epoxy/LO adhesives were investigated. Solvent-free coating based on epoxy and LOs was prepared and their properties were determined. Both wood fiber and glass fabric reinforced composites were prepared by using epoxy and LOs and they exhibited interesting properties for different potential applications.

  3. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction. PMID:23827538

  4. Durability of foam insulation for LH2 fuel tanks of future subsonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, E. L.; Helenbrook, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Organic foams were tested to determine their suitability for insulating liquid hydrogen tanks of subsonic aircraft. The specimens, including nonreinforced foams and foams with chopped glass reinforcements, flame retardants, and vapor barriers, were scaled to simulate stress conditions in large tanks. The tests were conducted within aluminum tank compartments filled with liquid hydrogen and the boil-off rate was used as the criterion of thermal performance. It was found that while all insulations deteriorated with increased cycles, two nonreinforced polyurethane foams showed no structural deterioration after 4200 thermal cycles (equivalent to 15 years of airline service). It was also found that fiberglass reinforcement and flame retardants impaired thermal performance and reduced useful life of the foams. Vapor barriers enhanced structural integrity without any deterioration in thermal properties.

  5. Infrared Thermography As Quality Control For Foamed In-Place Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Joel A.

    1989-03-01

    Since November of 1985, FOAM-TECH, INC. has been utilizing an I.S.I. Model 91 Videotherm Camera to quality control the installation of foamed in-place polyurethane and polyisocyanurate insulation. Monitoring the injection of foam into the walls and roofs of new construction and during the the retrofitting of older buildings has become an integral and routine step in daily operations. The Videotherm is also used to monitor the injection of foam into hot water tanks, trailer bodies for refrigeration trucks, and pontoons and buoys for flotation. The camera is also used for the detection of heat loss and air infiltration for conventionally insulated buildings. Appendix A are thermograms of foamed in-place insulation.

  6. Dielectric properties of novel polyurethane–PZT–graphite foam composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolvanen, Jarkko; Hannu, Jari; Nelo, Mikko; Juuti, Jari; Jantunen, Heli

    2016-09-01

    Flexible foam composite materials offer multiple benefits to future electronic applications as the rapid development of the electronics industry requires smaller, more efficient, and lighter materials to further develop foldable and wearable applications. The aims of this work were to examine the electrical properties of three- and four-phase novel foam composites in different conditions, find the optimal mixture for four-phase foam composites, and study the combined effects of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and graphite fillers. The flexible and highly compressible foams were prepared in a room-temperature mixing process using polyurethane, PZT, and graphite components as well as their combinations, in which air acted as one phase. In three-phase foams the amount of PZT varied between 20 and 80 wt% and the amount of graphite, between 1 and 15 wt%. The four-phase foams were formed by adding 40 wt% of PZT while the amount of graphite ranged between 1 and 15 wt%. The presented results and materials could be utilized to develop new flexible and soft sensor applications by means of material technology.

  7. Cryogenic Moisture Uptake in Foam Insulation for Space Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; ScholtensCoffman, Brekke E.; Sass, Jared P.; Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.; Meneghelli, Barrry J.

    2008-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams and rigid polyisocyanurate foams (spray-on foam insulation), like those flown on Shuttle, Delta IV, and will be flown on Ares-I and Ares-V, can gain an extraordinary amount of water when under cryogenic conditions for several hours. These foams, when exposed for eight hours to launch pad environments on one side and cryogenic temperature on the other, increase their weight from 35 to 80 percent depending on the duration of weathering or aging. This effect translates into several thousand pounds of additional weight for space vehicles at lift-off. A new cryogenic moisture uptake apparatus was designed to determine the amount of water/ice taken into the specimen under actual-use propellant loading conditions. This experimental study included the measurement of the amount of moisture uptake within different foam materials. Results of testing using both aged specimens and weathered specimens are presented. To better understand cryogenic foam insulation performance, cryogenic moisture testing is shown to be essential. The implications for future launch vehicle thermal protection system design and flight performance are discussed.

  8. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  9. Viscoelastic foam cushion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.; Yost, C.

    1977-01-01

    Foam is viscous and elastic with unusual and useful temperature, humidity, and compression responses. Applied weight and pressure distributed equally along entire interface with foam eliminates any pressure points. Flexible urethane foam is ideal for orthopedic and prosthetic devices, sports equipment, furniture, and crash protection.

  10. Diamine curing agents for polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Three aromatic diamines have properties that make them promising candidates as curing agents for converting isocyanates to polyurethanes with higher adhesive strengths, higher softening temperatures, better toughness, and improved abrasion resistance.

  11. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  12. Effect of the substrate-induced crystalline interphase on the adhesion of polyurethane to metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jangsoon

    Bond strengths of three polyurethane to an aluminum were measured by indentation debonding, and interfacial features between two materials were microscopically investigated. All the polyurethanes crystallized at the Al substrate surface by heterogeneous nucleation, but the spherulitic features varied as a function of OH number. For non-aged samples, crosslinking level determined the adhesion of polyurethane film to aluminum substrate, while number density of spherulites was an important factor for aged samples. There was an optimum OH number to attain the highest bond strength. Hence, it was found that the decrease of OH number below this value, which is usually done by changing blowing gas from CFC-11 to pentane, caused poor adhesion of polyurethane foam to the aluminum. The crystalline interphase formed at the aluminum surface was examined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The crystallinity of non-aged samples varied from air polymer surface to interface. The coherence lengths and interplanar spacings of all the reflections also changes up to interface by the presence of substrate. In particular, the integrated intensity of (100) and (021) reflections is linearly dependent upon X-ray penetration depth. The bond strength was exponentially proportional to the interfacial crystallinity, since stronger interface makes the adhesive force be double or redouble across interface. The preferred polymer molecular ordering in the 100 direction also provided stronger bonding of the polyurethane to the aluminum. From strain induced line broadening estimated by change of interplanar spacing, the polymer films possessing the greater dislocation density at interfacial area showed lower adhesion. It is believed that dislocations as stress concentrator play a part in determining adhesion. The rough zinc phosphated steel was used as a substrate with respect to a HCFC 141b and water co-blown polyurethane foam. Long period dissolution maintained interfacial crystallites, which

  13. Structural graphitic carbon foams

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, K.M.; Anderson, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    Graphitic carbon foams are a unique material form with very high structural and thermal properties at a light weight. A process has been developed to produce microcellular, open-celled graphitic foams. The process includes heating a mesophase pitch preform above the pitch melting temperature in a pressurized reactor. At the appropriate time, the pressure is released, the gas nucleates bubbles, and these bubbles grow forming the pitch into the foam structure. The resultant foamed pitch is then stabilized in an oxygen environment. At this point a rigid structure exists with some mechanical integrity. The foam is then carbonized to 800 C followed by a graphitization to 2700 C. The shear action from the growing bubbles aligns the graphitic planes along the foam struts to provide the ideal structure for good mechanical properties. Some of these properties have been characterized for some of the foam materials. It is known that variations of the blowing temperature, blowing pressure and saturation time result in foams of variously sized with mostly open pores; however, the mechanism of bubble nucleation is not known. Therefore foams were blown with various gases to begin to determine the nucleation method. These gases are comprised of a variety of molecular weights as well as a range of various solubility levels. By examining the resultant structures of the foam, differences were noted to develop an explanation of the foaming mechanism.

  14. Foam process models.

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2008-09-01

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

  15. Bone Grafts

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  16. Prenatal developmental safety of functional polyurethanes for cardiovascular implants.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yongjiang; Sun, Fan; Xie, Xingyi; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Ze; Guidoin, Robert; Fu, Qiang; Zhong, Yinping; Zhao, Changsheng

    2016-04-01

    Historically, polyurethanes have been regarded as promising materials for cardiovascular implants such as vascular grafts and heart valves. Their biocompatibility has been thoroughly investigated. However, their developmental toxicity is seldom reported. We recently developed two polycarbonate urethanes with polyethylene glycol side chains capped with epoxy or amino groups that can further react with specific biomolecules. Both materials in microfibrillar morphology were subjected to saline extraction at 70 °C to prompt material hydrolysis. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography all confirmed the degradation of the polyurethanes. The saline extracts containing the degradation products were administered to Sprague-Dawley female rats on day 7 to 16 of gestation via tail vein injection at a dose of 5 mL/kg/day. No maternal toxicity was observed. No external, skeletal, and visceral malformations in fetuses were found associated with the test materials, implying their safety to both adult rats and the offspring. Further investigations for applications in vascular grafts are under way. PMID:25953432

  17. 40 CFR 721.8095 - Silylated polyurethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silylated polyurethane. 721.8095... Substances § 721.8095 Silylated polyurethane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a silylated polyurethane (PMN P-95-1356)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8095 - Silylated polyurethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silylated polyurethane. 721.8095... Substances § 721.8095 Silylated polyurethane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a silylated polyurethane (PMN P-95-1356)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8095 - Silylated polyurethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silylated polyurethane. 721.8095... Substances § 721.8095 Silylated polyurethane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a silylated polyurethane (PMN P-95-1356)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.8095 - Silylated polyurethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silylated polyurethane. 721.8095... Substances § 721.8095 Silylated polyurethane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a silylated polyurethane (PMN P-95-1356)...