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Sample records for gram-positive antibacterial activity

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Endolysin P28 against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongling; Zhu, Chaoyang; Chen, Jingyi; Ye, Xing; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Maltocin P28 is a phage-tail like bacteriocin produced by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia P28. The ORF8 of maltocin P28 gene cluster is predicted to encode an endolysin and we name it endolysin P28. Sequence analysis revealed that it contains the lysozyme_like superfamily conserved domain. Endolysin P28 has the four consensus motifs as that of Escherichia coli phage lambda gpR. In this study, endolysin P28 was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified with a C-terminal oligo-histidine tag. The antibacterial activity of endolysin P28 increased as the temperature rose from 25 to 45°C. Thermostability assays showed that endolysin P28 was stable up to 50°C, while its residual activity was reduced by 55% after treatment at 70°C for 30 min. Acidity and high salinity could enhance its antibacterial activity. Endolysin P28 exhibited a broad antibacterial activity against 14 out of 16 tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria besides S. maltophilia. Moreover, it could effectively lyse intact Gram-negative bacteria in the absence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as an outer membrane permeabilizer. Therefore, the characteristics of endolysin P28 make it a potential therapeutic agent against multi-drug-resistant pathogens. PMID:26635765

  2. Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that AgNPs could be used as an adjuvant for the treatment of infectious diseases.

  3. Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that AgNPs could be used as an adjuvant for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:25136281

  4. Antibacterial activity of sphingoid bases and fatty acids against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Carol L; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2012-03-01

    There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity--the sphingoid bases D-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid--against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P < 0.0001) for each bacterial species except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. D-sphingosine (MBC range, 0.3 to 19.6 μg/ml), dihydrosphingosine (MBC range, 0.6 to 39.1 μg/ml), and phytosphingosine (MBC range, 3.3 to 62.5 μg/ml) were active against all bacteria except S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection. PMID:22155833

  5. Efficient enzymatic systems for synthesis of novel α-mangostin glycosides exhibiting antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Le, Tuoi Thi; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Gurung, Rit Bahadur; Dhakal, Dipesh; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Two enzymatic systems were developed for the efficient synthesis of glycoside products of α-mangostin, a natural xanthonoid exhibiting anti-oxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In these systems, one-pot reactions for the synthesis of UDP-α-D-glucose and UDP-α-D-2-deoxyglucose were modified and combined with a glycosyltransferase (GT) from Bacillus licheniformis DSM-13 to afford C-3 and C-6 position modified glucose and 2-deoxyglucose conjugated novel α-mangostin derivatives. α-Mangostin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, α-mangostin 6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, α-mangostin 3,6-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, α-mangostin 3-O-β-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside, α-mangostin 6-O-β-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside, and α-mangostin 3,6-di-O-β-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside were successfully produced in practical quantities and characterized by high-resolution quadruple time-of-flight electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-QTOF ESI/MS), (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses. In excess of the substrate, the maximum productions of three α-mangostin glucopyranosides (4.8 mg/mL, 86.5 % overall conversion of α-mangostin) and three α-mangostin 2-deoxyglucopyronosides (4.0 mg/mL, 79 % overall conversion of α-mangostin) were achieved at 4-h incubation period. All the α-mangostin glycosides exhibited improved water solubility, and their antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus was drastically enhanced by the glucosylation at C-3 position. In this study, diverse glycosylated α-mangostin were produced in significant quantities by using inexpensive starting materials and recycling co-factors within a reaction vessel without use of expensive NDP-sugars in the glycosylation reactions. PMID:25038930

  6. In vitro activity of XF-73, a novel antibacterial agent, against antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J; Robbins, Marion; Rhys-Williams, William; Love, William G

    2010-06-01

    The antibacterial activity of XF-73, a dicationic porphyrin drug, was investigated against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with known antibiotic resistance profiles, including resistance to cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, and DNA and RNA synthesis inhibitors as well as cell membrane-active antibiotics. Antibiotic-sensitive strains for each of the bacterial species tested were also included for comparison purposes. XF-73 was active [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.25-4 mg/L] against all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, irrespective of the antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates, suggesting that the mechanism of action of XF-73 is unique compared with the major antibiotic classes. Gram-negative activity was lower (MIC 1 mg/L to > 64 mg/L). Minimum bactericidal concentration data confirmed that the activity of XF-73 was bactericidal. Time-kill kinetics against healthcare-associated and community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates demonstrated that XF-73 was rapidly bactericidal, with > 5 log(10) kill obtained after 15 min at 2 x MIC, the earliest time point sampled. The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) for XF-73 under conditions where the PAE for vancomycin was < 0.4h was found to be > 5.4 h. XF-73 represents a novel broad-spectrum Gram-positive antibacterial drug with potentially beneficial characteristics for the treatment and prevention of Gram-positive bacterial infections. PMID:20346634

  7. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of U-100592 and U-100766, two oxazolidinone antibacterial agents for the potential treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Brickner, S J; Hutchinson, D K; Barbachyn, M R; Manninen, P R; Ulanowicz, D A; Garmon, S A; Grega, K C; Hendges, S K; Toops, D S; Ford, C W; Zurenko, G E

    1996-02-01

    Bacterial resistance development has become a very serious clinical problem for many classes of antibiotics. The 3-aryl-2-oxazolidinones are a relatively new class of synthetic antibacterial agents, having a new mechanism of action which involves very early inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis. We have prepared two potent, synthetic oxazolidinones, U-100592 and U-100766, which are currently in clinical development for the treatment of serious multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections caused by strains of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. The in vitro and in vivo (po and iv) activities of U-100592 and U-100766 against representative strains are similar to those of vancomycin. U-100592 and U-100766 demonstrate potent in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of (5S)-(acetamidomethyl)-2-oxazolidinones has been developed and is employed for the synthesis of U-100592 and U-100766. This involves the reaction of N-lithioarylcarbamates with (R)-glycidyl butyrate, resulting in excellent yields and high enantiomeric purity of the intermediate (R)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-oxazolidinones. PMID:8576909

  8. Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Le Coustumer, Phillippe; Constantin, Liliana Violeta; Predoi, Daniela

    2012-06-01

    Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10- x Ag x (PO4)6(OH)2, x Ag = 0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a = b = 9.435 Å, c = 6.876 Å for x Ag = 0.05, a = b = 9.443 Å, c = 6.875 Å for x Ag = 0.2, and a = b = 9.445 Å, c = 6.877 Å for x Ag = 0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a = b = 9.418 Å, c = 6.884 Å (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples ( x Ag = 0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of x Ag in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth ( P. stuartii).

  9. Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2, xAg = 0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a = b = 9.435 Å, c = 6.876 Å for xAg = 0.05, a = b = 9.443 Å, c = 6.875 Å for xAg = 0.2, and a = b = 9.445 Å, c = 6.877 Å for xAg = 0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a = b = 9.418 Å, c = 6.884 Å (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples (xAg = 0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of xAg in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth (P. stuartii). PMID:22721352

  10. Significance of postgrowth processing of ZnO nanostructures on antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Shahid; Rehman, Malik A; Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra; Bhatti, Arshad S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we highlighted the effect of surface modifications of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures (NSs) grown by the vapor–solid mechanism on their antibacterial activity. Two sets of ZnO NSs were modified separately – one set was modified by annealing in an Ar environment, and the second set was modified in O2 plasma. Annealing in Ar below 800°C resulted in a compressed lattice, which was due to removal of Zn interstitials and increased O vacancies. Annealing above 1,000°C caused the formation of a new prominent phase, Zn2SiO4. Plasma oxidation of the ZnO NSs caused an expansion in the lattice due to the removal of O vacancies and incorporation of excess O. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed for the quantification of defects associated with Zn and O in the as-grown and processed ZnO NS. Two distinct bands were observed, one in the ultraviolet (UV) region, due to interband transitions, and other in the visible region, due to defects associated with Zn and O. PL confirmed the surface modification of ZnO NS, as substantial decrease in intensities of visible band was observed. Antibacterial activity of the modified ZnO NSs demonstrated that the surface modifications by Ar annealing limited the antibacterial characteristics of ZnO NS against Staphylococcus aureus. However, ZnO NSs annealed at 1,000°C or higher showed a remarkable antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. O2 plasma–treated NS showed appreciable antibacterial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus. The minimum inhibition concentration was determined to be 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL for Ar-annealed and plasma-oxidized ZnO NS, respectively. It was thus proved that the O content at the surface of the ZnO NS was crucial to tune the antibacterial activity against both selected gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive (S. aureus) bacterial species. PMID:26213466

  11. Enhancement of Antibacterial Activity of Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Combination with Antibiotics, on Model Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Rastogi, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The nanoparticles used in this study were prepared from AgNO3 using NaBH4 in the presence of capping agents such as citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The formed nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of yellow colour and an absorption maximum between 399 and 404 nm. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and polydisperse. For citrate, SDS, and PVP capped nanoparticles, the average particle sizes were 38.3 ± 13.5, 19.3 ± 6.0, and 16.0 ± 4.8 nm, respectively. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles in FCC structure is confirmed from the SAED and XRD patterns. Also, the combined antibacterial activity of these differently capped nanoparticles with selected antibiotics (streptomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) was evaluated on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, employing disc diffusion assay. The activity of the tested antibiotics was enhanced in combination with all the stabilized nanoparticles, against both the Gram classes of bacteria. The combined effects of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics were more prominent with PVP capped nanoparticles as compared to citrate and SDS capped ones. The results of this study demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics. PMID:23970844

  12. Discovery of a new class of non-β-lactam inhibitors of penicillin-binding proteins with Gram-positive antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    O'Daniel, Peter I; Peng, Zhihong; Pi, Hualiang; Testero, Sebastian A; Ding, Derong; Spink, Edward; Leemans, Erika; Boudreau, Marc A; Yamaguchi, Takao; Schroeder, Valerie A; Wolter, William R; Llarrull, Leticia I; Song, Wei; Lastochkin, Elena; Kumarasiri, Malika; Antunes, Nuno T; Espahbodi, Mana; Lichtenwalter, Katerina; Suckow, Mark A; Vakulenko, Sergei; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland

    2014-03-01

    Infections caused by hard-to-treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a serious global public-health concern, as MRSA has become broadly resistant to many classes of antibiotics. We disclose herein the discovery of a new class of non-β-lactam antibiotics, the oxadiazoles, which inhibit penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) of MRSA. The oxadiazoles show bactericidal activity against vancomycin- and linezolid-resistant MRSA and other Gram-positive bacterial strains, in vivo efficacy in a mouse model of infection, and have 100% oral bioavailability. PMID:24517363

  13. Discovery of a New Class of Non-β-lactam Inhibitors of Penicillin-Binding Proteins with Gram-Positive Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by hard-to-treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a serious global public-health concern, as MRSA has become broadly resistant to many classes of antibiotics. We disclose herein the discovery of a new class of non-β-lactam antibiotics, the oxadiazoles, which inhibit penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) of MRSA. The oxadiazoles show bactericidal activity against vancomycin- and linezolid-resistant MRSA and other Gram-positive bacterial strains, in vivo efficacy in a mouse model of infection, and have 100% oral bioavailability. PMID:24517363

  14. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of AZD0914, a New Spiropyrimidinetrione DNA Gyrase/Topoisomerase Inhibitor with Potent Activity against Gram-Positive, Fastidious Gram-Negative, and Atypical Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Patricia A.; Otterson, Linda G.; Basarab, Gregory S.; Kutschke, Amy C.; Giacobbe, Robert A.; Patey, Sara A.; Alm, Richard A.; Johnstone, Michele R.; Potter, Marie E.; Miller, Paul F.; Mueller, John P.

    2014-01-01

    AZD0914 is a new spiropyrimidinetrione bacterial DNA gyrase/topoisomerase inhibitor with potent in vitro antibacterial activity against key Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae), fastidious Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae), atypical (Legionella pneumophila), and anaerobic (Clostridium difficile) bacterial species, including isolates with known resistance to fluoroquinolones. AZD0914 works via inhibition of DNA biosynthesis and accumulation of double-strand cleavages; this mechanism of inhibition differs from those of other marketed antibacterial compounds. AZD0914 stabilizes and arrests the cleaved covalent complex of gyrase with double-strand broken DNA under permissive conditions and thus blocks religation of the double-strand cleaved DNA to form fused circular DNA. Whereas this mechanism is similar to that seen with fluoroquinolones, it is mechanistically distinct. AZD0914 exhibited low frequencies of spontaneous resistance in S. aureus, and if mutants were obtained, the mutations mapped to gyrB. Additionally, no cross-resistance was observed for AZD0914 against recent bacterial clinical isolates demonstrating resistance to fluoroquinolones or other drug classes, including macrolides, β-lactams, glycopeptides, and oxazolidinones. AZD0914 was bactericidal in both minimum bactericidal concentration and in vitro time-kill studies. In in vitro checkerboard/synergy testing with 17 comparator antibacterials, only additivity/indifference was observed. The potent in vitro antibacterial activity (including activity against fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates), low frequency of resistance, lack of cross-resistance, and bactericidal activity of AZD0914 support its continued development. PMID:25385112

  15. Non-Aqueous Glycerol Monolaurate Gel Exhibits Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Elizabeth A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin and surgical infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are causes of patient morbidity and increased healthcare costs. These organisms grow planktonically and as biofilms, and many strains exhibit antibiotic resistance. This study examines the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of glycerol monolaurate (GML), as solubilized in a non-aqueous vehicle (5% GML Gel), as a novel, broadly-active topical antimicrobial. The FDA has designated GML as generally recognized as safe for human use, and the compound is commonly used in the cosmetic and food industries. Methods In vitro, bacterial strains in broths and biofilms were exposed to GML Gel, and effects on bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs) were assessed. In vivo,subcutaneous incisions were made in New Zealand white rabbits; the incisions were closed with four sutures. Bacterial strains were painted onto the incision sites, and then GML Gel or placebo was liberally applied to cover the sites completely. Rabbits were allowed to awaken and were examined for CFUs as a function of exposure time. Results In vitro, GML Gel was bactericidal for all broth culture and biofilm organisms in <1 hour and <4 hour, respectively; no CFUs were detected after the entire 24 h test period. In vivo, GML Gel inhibited bacterial growth in the surgical incision sites, compared to no growth inhibition in controls. GML Gel significantly reduced inflammation, as viewed by lack of redness in and below the incision sites. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 5% GML Gel is useful as a potent topical antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent for prevention of infections. PMID:25799455

  16. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains isolated from honey marketed in Malaysia against selected multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Aween, Mohamed Mustafa; Hassan, Zaiton; Muhialdin, Belal J; Eljamel, Yossra A; Al-Mabrok, Asma Saleh W; Lani, Mohd Nizam

    2012-07-01

    A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 honey samples commercially marketed in Malaysia, 6 strains identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus by API CHL50. The isolates had antibacterial activities against multiple antibiotic resistant's Staphylococcus aureus (25 to 32 mm), Staphylococcus epidermis (14 to 22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 to 19 mm) in the agar overlay method after 24 h incubation at 30 °C. The crude supernatant was heat stable at 90 °C and 121 °C for 1 h. Treatment with proteinase K and RNase II maintained the antimicrobial activity of all the supernatants except sample H006-A and H010-G. All the supernatants showed antimicrobial activities against target bacteria at pH 3 and pH 5 but not at pH 6 within 72 h incubation at 30 °C. S. aureus was not inhibited by sample H006-A isolated from Libyan honey and sample H008-D isolated from Malaysian honey at pH 5, compared to supernatants from other L. acidophilus isolates. The presence of different strains of L. acidophilus in honey obtained from different sources may contribute to the differences in the antimicrobial properties of honey. PMID:22757710

  17. Robenidine Analogues as Gram-Positive Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rebecca J; Stevens, Andrew J; Young, Kelly A; Russell, Cecilia; Qvist, Anastasia; Khazandi, Manouchehr; Wong, Hui San; Abraham, Sam; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Page, Stephen W; O'Handley, Ryan; McCluskey, Adam; Trott, Darren J

    2016-03-10

    Robenidine, 1 (2,2'-bis[(4-chlorophenyl)methylene]carbonimidic dihydrazide), was active against MRSA and VRE with MIC's of 8.1 and 4.7 μM, respectively. SAR revealed tolerance for 4-Cl isosteres with 4-F (8), 3-F (9), 3-CH3 (22), and 4-C(CH3)3 (27) (23.7-71 μM) and with 3-Cl (3), 4-CH3 (21), and 4-CH(CH3)2 (26) (8.1-13.0 μM). Imine carbon alkylation identified a methyl/ethyl binding pocket that also accommodated a CH2OH moiety (75; 2,2'-bis[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethylidene]carbonimidic dihydrazide). Analogues 1, 27 (2,2'-bis{[4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl]methylene}carbonimidic dihydrazide), and 69 (2,2'-bis[1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylidene]carbonimidic dihydrazide hydrochloride) were active against 24 clinical MRSA and MSSA isolates. No dose-limiting cytotoxicity at ≥2× MIC or hemolysis at ≥8× MIC was observed. Polymyxin B addition engendered Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram-negative activity MIC's of 4.2-21.6 μM. 1 and 75 displayed excellent microsomal stability, intrinsic clearance, and hepatic extraction ratios with T1/2 > 247 min, CLint < 7 μL/min/mg protein, and EH < 0.22 in both human and mouse liposomes for 1 and in human liposomes for 75. PMID:26765953

  18. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial and antifungal activities towards Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacterial strains and different species of Candida fungus.

    PubMed

    Rahisuddin; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Khan, Zaheer; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2015-09-01

    Biomimetic and economic method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with controlled size has been reported in presence of shape-directing cetlytrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Biochemical reduction of Ag(+) ions in micellar solution with an aqueous lemon extract produced spherical and polyhedral AgNPs with size ranging from 15 to 30 nm. The influence of [CTAB] and [lemon extract] on the size of particles, fraction of metallic silver and their antimicrobial properties is discussed. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities (antibacterial and antifungal) against different pathogenic organisms. For this purpose, AgNPs were tested against two model bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC3160) and Escherichia coli (MTCC405)) and three species of Candida fungus (Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Candida glabrata (ATCC90030) and Candida tropicalis (ATCC750). AgNPs were found to be highly toxic towards both bacteria. The inhibition action was due to the structural changes in the protein cell wall. PMID:26017756

  19. Development of a five-hour radiometric serum antibacterial assay for gram-positive cocci

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, D.G.; Guidon, P.T. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    A preliminary report on a 5-hr radiometric serum antibacterial assay (ABA) for Gram-positive cocci is presented. The method agreed within +- one twofold dilution with static ABA endpoints in 24/26 (92%) of the assays and with cidal ABA end-points in 23/26 (88%) of the assays performed.

  20. Antibacterial properties of biosurfactants against selected Gram-positive and -negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Díaz De Rienzo, Mayri A; Stevenson, Paul; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial properties and ability to disrupt biofilms of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids, sophorolipids) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in the presence and absence of selected organic acids were investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was inhibited by sophorolipids and SDS at concentrations >5% v/v, and the growth of Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 was also inhibited by sophorolipids and SDS at concentrations >5% and 0.1% v/v, respectively. Bacillus subtilis NCTC 10400 was inhibited by rhamnolipids, sophorolipids and SDS at concentrations >0.5% v/v of all three; the same effect was observed with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144. The ability to attach to surfaces and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1, E. coli NCTC 10418 and B. subtilis NCTC 10400 was inhibited by sophorolipids (1% v/v) in the presence of caprylic acid (0.8% v/v). In the case of S. aureus ATCC 9144, the best results were obtained using caprylic acid on its own. It was concluded that sophorolipids are promising compounds for the inhibition/disruption of biofilms formed by Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms and this activity can be enhanced by the presence of booster compounds such as caprylic acid. PMID:26598715

  1. First Multitarget Chemo-Bioinformatic Model To Enable the Discovery of Antibacterial Peptides against Multiple Gram-Positive Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Kleandrova, Valeria V; Ruso, Juan M; D S Cordeiro, M N

    2016-03-28

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as promising therapeutic alternatives to fight against the diverse infections caused by different pathogenic microorganisms. In this context, theoretical approaches in bioinformatics have paved the way toward the creation of several in silico models capable of predicting antimicrobial activities of peptides. All current models have several significant handicaps, which prevent the efficient search for highly active AMPs. Here, we introduce the first multitarget (mt) chemo-bioinformatic model devoted to performing alignment-free prediction of antibacterial activity of peptides against multiple Gram-positive bacterial strains. The model was constructed from a data set containing 2488 cases of AMPs sequences assayed against at least 1 out of 50 Gram-positive bacterial strains. This mt-chemo-bioinformatic model displayed percentages of correct classification higher than 90.00% in both training and prediction (test) sets. For the first time, two computational approaches derived from basic concepts in genetics and molecular biology were applied, allowing the calculations of the relative contributions of any amino acid (in a defined position) to the antibacterial activity of an AMP and depending on the bacterial strain used in the biological assay. The present mt-chemo-bioinformatic model constitutes a powerful tool to enable the discovery of potent and versatile AMPs. PMID:26960000

  2. Bioengineered Nisin A Derivatives with Enhanced Activity against Both Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Field, Des; Begley, Maire; OConnor, Paula M.; Daly, Karen M.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G), with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E) with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. PMID:23056510

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of PD 0305970 and PD 0326448, New Bacterial Gyrase/Topoisomerase Inhibitors with Potent Antibacterial Activities versus Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive and Fastidious Organism Groups▿

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Michael D.; Cohen, Michael A.; Zurack, Margaret; Hanna, Debra L.; Skerlos, Laura A.; Sulavik, Mark C.; Gibson, Glenn W.; Gage, Jeffrey W.; Ellsworth, Edmund; Stier, Michael A.; Gracheck, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 are new bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase inhibitors (quinazoline-2,4-diones) that possess outstanding in vitro and in vivo activities against a wide spectrum of bacterial species including quinolone- and multidrug-resistant gram-positive and fastidious organism groups. The respective MICs (μg/ml) for PD 0305970 capable of inhibiting ≥90% of bacterial strains tested ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 versus staphylococci, 0.03 to 0.06 versus streptococci, 0.25 to 2 versus enterococci, and 0.25 to 0.5 versus Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria spp. PD 0326448 MIC90s were generally twofold higher versus these same organism groups. Comparative quinolone MIC90 values were 4- to 512-fold higher than those of PD 0305970. In testing for frequency of resistance, PD 0305970 and levofloxacin showed low levels of development of spontaneous resistant mutants versus both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unlike quinolones, which target primarily gyrA and parC, analysis of resistant mutants in S. pneumoniae indicates that the likely targets of PD 0305970 are gyrB and parE. PD 0305970 demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity by in vitro time-kill testing versus streptococci. This bactericidal activity carried over to in vivo testing, where PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 displayed outstanding Streptococcus pyogenes 50% protective doses (PD50s) (oral dosing) of 0.7 and 3.6 mg/kg, respectively (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin PD50s were >100 and 17.7 mg/kg, respectively). PD 0305970 was also potent in a pneumococcal pneumonia mouse infection model (PD50 = 3.2 mg/kg) and was 22-fold more potent than levofloxacin. PMID:17261623

  4. Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Ameer; Ahmed, Arham S; Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad S; Habib, Sami S; Memic, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods and results Nanosized particles of three metal oxides (ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3) were synthesized by a sol–gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. The particle sizes were observed to be 18, 22, and 28 nm for ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3, respectively. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Conclusion Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. The order of antibacterial activity was demonstrated to be the following: ZnO > CuO > Fe2O3. PMID:23233805

  5. New potent antibacterials against Gram-positive multiresistant pathogens: effects of side chain modification and chirality in linezolid-like 1,2,4-oxadiazoles.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Cosimo G; Berardozzi, Roberto; Bonaccorso, Carmela; Caltabiano, Gianluigi; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Goracci, Laura; Guarcello, Annalisa; Pace, Andrea; Palumbo Piccionello, Antonio; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Pierro, Paola; Lonati, Elena; Bulbarelli, Alessandra; Cocuzza, Clementina E A; Musumarra, Giuseppe; Musumeci, Rosario

    2014-12-15

    The effects of side chain modification and chirality in linezolid-like 1,2,4-oxadiazoles have been studied to design new potent antibacterials against Gram-positive multidrug-resistant pathogens. The adopted strategy involved a molecular modelling approach, the synthesis and biological evaluation of new designed compounds, enantiomers separation and absolute configuration assignment. Experimental determination of the antibacterial activity of the designed (S)-1-((3-(4-(3-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)phenyl)-oxazolidin-2-one-5-yl)methyl)-3-methylthiourea and (S)-1-((3-(3-fluoro-4-(3-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)phenyl)-oxazolidin-2-one-5-yl)methyl)-3-methylthiourea against multidrug resistant linezolid bacterial strains was higher than that of linezolid. PMID:25464880

  6. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Daniels, Dwayne; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50  μ L leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  7. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  8. Armadillidin: a novel glycine-rich antibacterial peptide directed against gram-positive bacteria in the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare (Terrestrial Isopod, Crustacean).

    PubMed

    Herbinière, Juline; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Grève, Pierre; Strub, Jean-Marc; Frère, Jacques; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    We report the isolation and the characterization of a novel antibacterial peptide from hemocytes of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare, naturally infected or uninfected by Wolbachia, an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium. This molecule displays antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria despite its composition which classes it into the glycine-rich antibacterial peptide family, usually directed against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. The complete sequence was determined by a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and cDNA cloning using a hemocyte library. The mature peptide (53 residues) has a 5259 Da molecular mass and is post-translationally modified by a C-terminal amidation. This peptide is characterized by a high level of glycine (47%) and a fivefold repeated motif GGGFH(R/S). As no evident sequence homology to other hitherto described antibacterial peptides has been found out, this antibacterial peptide was named armadillidin. Armadillidin is constitutively expressed in hemocytes and appears to be specific of A. vulgare. PMID:15752546

  9. Antibacterial effect (in vitro) of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Viera, Gustavo Hitzschky Fernandes; Mourão, Jozeanne Alves; Angelo, Angela Maria; Costa, Renata Albuquerque; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seeds of moringa (Moringa oleifera) and pods of soursop (Annona muricata) in the concentration of 1:5 and 1:10 in volumes 50, 100, 150 and 200 microL were examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolated from the organism and the aquatic environment) and Salmonella Enteritidis. Antibacterial activity (inhibition halo > 13 mm) against S. aureus, V. cholerae and E. coli isolated from the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannmaei, was detected in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of moringa. E. coli isolated from tilapiafish, Oreochromis niloticus, was sensitive to the ethanolic extract of moringa. The aqueous extracts of soursop showed an antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae, but the antibacterial activity by the ethanol extracts of this plant was not demonstrated. PMID:20602021

  10. Penetration into tissues of various drugs active against gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kropec, A; Daschner, F D

    1991-04-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are the most important pathogens causing hospital- and community-acquired infections. We therefore reviewed the penetration of various antibiotics active against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus into tissues, where staphylococcal infections are common. Rifampicin reaches heart valve concentrations of 65% of the simultaneous serum levels. At 8 h after administration blood and tissues concentrations of rifampicin exceeded the MIC90 values for S. aureus as well as for S. epidermidis. After a 2-g intravenous bolus injection of flucloxacillin heart valve concentrations exceeded MIC values for staphylococci for more than 8 h whereas subcutaneous and muscle concentrations declined within the same time to undetectable levels. The MIC90 values of vancomycin for S. epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis are 2.0 and 4.0 mg/l respectively and for S. aureus 1.0 mg/l. This concentration is reached in subcutaneous tissue, heart valves and muscle for at least 4-6 h after administration of 15 mg/kg, however the corresponding value for Enterococcus faecalis in heart valve is maintained only for 3-4 h. After two and three dose regimens of teicoplanin serum and bone levels were significantly higher than fat levels, exceeding the MIC90 values for S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. faecalis. The ratio of tissue concentration of teicoplanin to serum concentrations was 11% for fat and 65% for bone. PMID:2055819

  11. Effect of kojic acid-grafted-chitosan oligosaccharides as a novel antibacterial agent on cell membrane of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Yu, Peipei

    2015-09-01

    Our work here, for the first time, reported the antibacterial activity of kojic acid-grafted-chitosan oligosaccharides (COS/KA) against three gram-positive and three gram-negative bacteria. Integrity of cell membrane, outer membrane (OM) and inner membrane (IM) permeabilization assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) assay, and SDS-PAGE assay techniques were used to investigate the interactions between COS/KA and bacterial membranes. The antibacterial activity of COS/KA was higher than those of unmodified COS. The electric conductivity of bacteria suspensions increased, followed by increasing of the units of average release for ALP and G6PDH. COS/KA can also rapidly increase the 1-N-phenylanphthylamine (NPN) uptake and the release of β-galactosidase via increasing the permeability of OM and IM in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE indicated the content of cellular soluble proteins decreased significantly in COS/KA-treated bacteria. Hence, COS/KA has potential in food industry and biomedical sciences. PMID:25682520

  12. Anti-bacterial performance of azithromycin nanoparticles as colloidal drug delivery system against different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Azhdarzadeh, Morteza; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Mohammadi, Ghobad; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Azithromycin (AZI) is a new macrolide antibiotic with a better activity against intracellular gram negative bacteria in comparison with Erythromycin. The purpose of this research was to prepare AZI nanoparticles (NPs) using PLGA polymer and to compare the effectiveness of prepared nanoparticles with untreated AZI solution. Methods: AZI NPs were prepared by Modified Quasi-Emulsion Solvent Diffusion method. The antibacterial activities of prepared NPs in comparison with AZI solution were assayed against indicator bacteria of Escherichia coli (PTCC 1330), Haemophilus influenzae (PTCC 1623) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PTCC 1240) using agar well diffusion. Inhibition zone diameters (IZD) of nano-formulation were compared to the corresponding untreated AZI. Mean Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of AZI were also determined using serial dilution method in nutrient broth medium. Results: Mean IZD of nano-formulations for all indicator bacteria were significantly higher than that of untreated AZI (P<0.01). The enhanced antibacterial efficacy was more dominant in the gram positive species. The MIC values of NPs against the tested bacteria were reduced 8 times in comparison to those of untreated AZI. Conclusion: These results indicated an improved potency of AZI NPs which could be attributed to the modified surface characteristics as well as increased drug adsorption and uptake. PMID:24312766

  13. Activation and manipulation of host responses by a Gram-positive bacterium.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Vasudevan; Sessa, Guido

    2008-10-01

    The interaction between tomato plants and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) represents a model pathosystem to study the interplay between the virulence determinants of a Gram-positive bacterium and the attempt of a crop plant to counteract pathogen invasion. To investigate plant responses activated during this compatible interaction, we recently analyzed gene expression profiles of tomato stems infected with Cmm. This analysis revealed activation of basal defense responses that are typically observed upon plant perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In addition, Cmm infection upregulated the expression of host genes related to ethylene synthesis and response. Further analysis of tomato plants impaired in ethylene perception and production demonstrated an important role for ethylene in the development of disease symptoms. Here we discuss possible molecular strategies used by the plant to recognize Cmm infection and possible mechanisms employed by the pathogen to interfere with the activation of plant defense responses and promote disease. PMID:19704516

  14. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivatives Possessing a Trihydroxylated A Ring Are Potent Gram-Positive Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Rong; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Qi-Ji; Wang, Dao-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Luo, Heng; Yang, Xiao-Sheng

    2016-04-22

    The oleanane-type triterpene 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (1) was modified chemically through the introduction of a trihydroxylated A ring and an ester moiety at C-20 to enhance its antibacterial activity. Compounds 22, 23, 25, 28, 29, 31, and 32 showed more potent inhibitory activity against Streptomyces scabies than the positive control, streptomycin. Additionally, the inhibitory activity of the most potent compound, 29, against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was greater than that of the positive controls. The antibacterial mode of action of the active derivatives involved the regulation of the expression of genes associated with peptidoglycans, the respiratory metabolism, and the inherent virulence factors found in bacteria, as determined through a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay. PMID:26928299

  15. In vitro activities of two ketolides, HMR 3647 and HMR 3004, against gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Malathum, K; Coque, T M; Singh, K V; Murray, B E

    1999-04-01

    The in vitro activities of two new ketolides, HMR 3647 and HMR 3004, were tested by the agar dilution method against 280 strains of gram-positive bacteria with different antibiotic susceptibility profiles, including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus spp. (group A streptococci, group B streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and alpha-hemolytic streptococci). Seventeen erythromycin-susceptible (EMs), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains were found to have HMR 3647 and HMR 3004 MICs 4- to 16-fold lower than those of erythromycin (MIC at which 50% of isolates were inhibited [MIC50] [HMR 3647 and HMR 3004], 0.03 microgram/ml; range, 0.03 to 0.06 microgram/ml; MIC50 [erythromycin], 0.25 microgram/ml; range, 0.25 to 0.5 microgram/ml). All methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains tested were resistant to erythromycin and had HMR 3647 and HMR 3004 MICs of > 64 micrograms/ml. The ketolides were slightly more active against E. faecalis than against E. faecium, and MICs for individual strains varied with erythromycin susceptibility. The MIC50s of HMR 3647 and HMR 3004 against Ems enterococci (MIC < or = 0.5 microgram/ml) and those enterococcal isolates with erythromycin MICs of 1 to 16 micrograms/ml were 0.015 microgram/ml. E. faecalis strains that had erythromycin MICs of 128 to > 512 micrograms/ml showed HMR 3647 MICs in the range of 0.03 to 16 micrograms/ml and HMR 3004 MICs in the range of 0.03 to 64 micrograms/ml. In the group of E. faecium strains for which MICs of erythromycin were > or = 512 micrograms/ml, MICs of both ketolides were in the range of 1 to 64 micrograms/ml, with almost all isolates showing ketolide MICs of < or = 16 micrograms/ml. The ketolides were also more active than erythromycin against group A streptococci, group B streptococci, S. pneumoniae, rhodococci, leuconostocs, pediococci, lactobacilli, and diphtheroids. Time-kill studies showed bactericidal activity against one strain of S. aureus among the four strains tested. The increased activity of ketolides against gram-positive bacteria suggests that further study of these agents for possible efficacy against infections caused by these bacteria is warranted. PMID:10103202

  16. In vitro activity of the trinem sanfetrinem (GV104326) against gram-positive organisms.

    PubMed

    Singh, K V; Coque, T M; Murray, B E

    1996-09-01

    The in vitro activity of the trinem sanfetrinem (formerly GV104326) (GV) was compared with that of vancomycin, ampicillin, and/or nafcillin against 287 gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant enterococci, by the agar and microbroth dilution methods. GV demonstrated 2 to 16 times more activity than ampicillin and nafcillin against the majority of these organisms. The MIC range of GV was 16 to 64 micrograms/ml for 19 Enterococcus faecium strains that were highly resistant to ampicillin (ampicillin MIC range, 64 to 512 micrograms/ml) and vancomycin resistant and 0.25 to 32 micrograms/ml for resistant Rhodococcus spp. Similar activities (+/-1 dilution) were observed by either the agar or the broth microdilution method. GV demonstrated bactericidal activity against a beta-lactamase-producing Enterococcus faecalis strain and against two methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains in 10(5)-CFU/ml inocula. Synergy between GV and gentamicin was observed against an E. faecalis strain that lacked high-level gentamicin resistance. The activity of GV suggests this compound warrants further study. PMID:8878596

  17. Tribolium castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tonk, Miray; Knorr, Eileen; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J; Kollewe, Christian; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a destructive insect pest of stored food and feed products, and a model organism for development, evolutionary biology and immunity. The insect innate immune system includes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Defensins are an evolutionarily-conserved class of AMPs and a potential new source of antimicrobial agents. In this context, we report the antimicrobial activity, phylogenetic and structural properties of three T. castaneum defensins (Def1, Def2 and Def3) and their relevance in the immunity of T. castaneum against bacterial pathogens. All three recombinant defensins showed bactericidal activity against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tolworthi, but only Def1 and Def2 showed a bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus epidermidis. None of the defensins showed activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas entomophila or against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All three defensins were transcriptionally upregulated following a bacterial challenge, suggesting a key role in the immunity of T. castaneum against bacterial pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis showed that defensins from T. castaneum, mealworms, Udo longhorn beetle and houseflies cluster within a well-defined clade of insect defensins. We conclude that T. castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria and that other AMPs may play a more prominent role against Gram-negative species. PMID:26522790

  18. Gram-positive bacterial cell envelopes: The impact on the activity of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Malanovic, Nermina; Lohner, Karl

    2016-05-01

    A number of cationic antimicrobial peptides, effectors of innate immunity, are supposed to act at the cytoplasmic membrane leading to permeabilization and eventually membrane disruption. Thereby, interaction of antimicrobial peptides with anionic membrane phospholipids is considered to be a key factor in killing of bacteria. Recently, evidence was provided that killing takes place only when bacterial cell membranes are completely saturated with peptides. This adds to an ongoing debate, which role cell wall components such as peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide may play in the killing event, i.e. if they rather entrap or facilitate antimicrobial peptides access to the cytoplasmic membrane. Therefore, in this review we focused on the impact of Gram-positive cell wall components for the mode of action and activity of antimicrobial peptides as well as in innate immunity. This led us to conclude that interaction of antimicrobial peptides with peptidoglycan may not contribute to a reduction of their antimicrobial activity, whereas interaction with anionic lipoteichoic acids may reduce the local concentration of antimicrobial peptides on the cytoplasmic membrane necessary for sufficient destabilization of the membranes and bacterial killing. Further affinity studies of antimicrobial peptides toward the different cell wall as well as membrane components will be needed to address this problem on a quantitative level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26577273

  19. Tedizolid: a novel oxazolidinone with potent activity against multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, George G; Love, Riley; Adam, Heather; Golden, Alyssa; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Schweizer, Frank; Gorityala, Bala; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Rubinstein, Ethan; Walkty, Andrew; Gin, Alfred S; Gilmour, Matthew; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

    2015-02-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a novel oxazolidinone prodrug (converted to the active form tedizolid by phosphatases in vivo) that has been developed and recently approved (June 2014) by the United States FDA for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) caused by susceptible Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Tedizolid is an oxazolidinone, but differs from other oxazolidinones by possessing a modified side chain at the C-5 position of the oxazolidinone nucleus which confers activity against certain linezolid-resistant pathogens and has an optimized C- and D-ring system that improves potency through additional binding site interactions. The mechanism of action of tedizolid is similar to other oxazolidinones and occurs through inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the 50S subunit of the ribosome. As with other oxazolidinones, the spontaneous frequency of resistance development to tedizolid is low. Tedizolid is four- to eightfold more potent in vivo than linezolid against all species of staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci, including drug-resistant phenotypes such as MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and linezolid-resistant phenotypes. Importantly, tedizolid demonstrates activity against linezolid-resistant bacterial strains harboring the horizontally transmissible cfr gene, in the absence of certain ribosomal mutations conferring reduced oxazolidinone susceptibility. With its half-life of approximately 12 h, tedizolid is dosed once daily. It demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics, has a high oral bioavailability of approximately 90 %, and is primarily excreted by the liver as an inactive, non-circulating sulphate conjugate. Tedizolid does not require dosage adjustment in patients with any degree of renal dysfunction or hepatic dysfunction. Studies in animals have demonstrated that the pharmacodynamic parameter most closely associated with the efficacy of tedizolid is fAUC(0-24h)/MIC. In non-neutropenic animals, a dose-response enhancement was observed with tedizolid and lower exposures were required compared to neutropenic cohorts. Two Phase III clinical trials have demonstrated non-inferiority of a once-daily tedizolid 200 mg dose for 6-10 days versus twice-daily 600 mg linezolid for the treatment of ABSSSIs. Both trials used the primary endpoint of early clinical response at 48-72 h; however, one trial compared oral formulations while the other initiated therapy with the parenteral formulation and allowed oral sequential therapy following initial clinical response. Throughout its development, tedizolid has demonstrated that it is well tolerated and animal studies have shown a lower propensity for neuropathies with long-term use than its predecessor linezolid. Data from the two completed Phase III clinical trials demonstrated that the studied tedizolid regimen (200 mg once daily for 6 days) had significantly less impact on hematologic parameters as well as significantly less gastrointestinal treatment-emergent adverse effects (TEAEs) than its comparator linezolid. As with linezolid, tedizolid is a weak, reversible MAO inhibitor; however, a murine head twitch model validated to assess serotonergic activity reported no increase in the number of head twitches with tedizolid even at doses that exceeded the C max in humans by up to 25-fold. Tyramine and pseudoephedrine challenge studies in humans have also reported no meaningful MAO-related interactions with tedizolid. With its enhanced in vitro activity against a broad-spectrum of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria, convenient once-daily dosing, a short 6-day course of therapy, availability of both oral and intravenous routes of administration, and an adverse effect profile that appears to be more favorable than linezolid, tedizolid is an attractive agent for use in both the hospital and community settings. Tedizolid is currently undergoing additional Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and ventilated nosocomial pneumonia (VNP). PMID:25673021

  20. In Vitro Activity of Ozenoxacin against Quinolone-Susceptible and Quinolone-Resistant Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lpez, Y.; Tato, M.; Espinal, P.; Garcia-Alonso, F.; Gargallo-Viola, D.; Cantn, R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro activity of ozenoxacin, a novel nonfluorinated topical (L. D. Saravolatz and J. Leggett, Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:12101215, 2003) quinolone, was compared with the activities of other quinolones against well-characterized quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Ozenoxacin was 3-fold to 321-fold more active than other quinolones. Ozenoxacin could represent a first-in-class nonfluorinated quinolone for the topical treatment of a broad range of dermatological infections. PMID:24080666

  1. In Vitro Activities of a New Lipopeptide, HMR 1043, against Susceptible and Resistant Gram-Positive Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bemer, Pascale; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bryskier, Andre; Drugeon, Henri

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of HMR 1043 with those of daptomycin and teicoplanin against gram-positive isolates. Susceptibility tests were performed for 52 strains, 26 parental strains, including staphylococcal, streptococcal, enterococcal, and listerial strains, and 26 HMR 1043-resistant mutants obtained from parental strains by using the Szybalski method. Agar dilution and disk diffusion susceptibility tests were performed by the procedures outlined by the NCCLS. HMR 1043 demonstrated good activity against susceptible and resistant gram-positive bacteria. The activity of HMR 1043 in vitro was less influenced by the presence of calcium ions than that of daptomycin. Susceptibility test breakpoints were not defined because of the poor correlation coefficients obtained with the different disks tested. PMID:12937020

  2. In vitro activities of a new lipopeptide, HMR 1043, against susceptible and resistant gram-positive isolates.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Pascale; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bryskier, Andre; Drugeon, Henri

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of HMR 1043 with those of daptomycin and teicoplanin against gram-positive isolates. Susceptibility tests were performed for 52 strains, 26 parental strains, including staphylococcal, streptococcal, enterococcal, and listerial strains, and 26 HMR 1043-resistant mutants obtained from parental strains by using the Szybalski method. Agar dilution and disk diffusion susceptibility tests were performed by the procedures outlined by the NCCLS. HMR 1043 demonstrated good activity against susceptible and resistant gram-positive bacteria. The activity of HMR 1043 in vitro was less influenced by the presence of calcium ions than that of daptomycin. Susceptibility test breakpoints were not defined because of the poor correlation coefficients obtained with the different disks tested. PMID:12937020

  3. Isolation of Highly Active Monoclonal Antibodies against Multiresistant Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Friederike S.; Laverde, Diana; Kropec, Andrea; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Meyer-Buehn, Melanie; Huebner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Multiresistant nosocomial pathogens often cause life-threatening infections that are sometimes untreatable with currently available antibiotics. Staphylococci and enterococci are the predominant Gram-positive species associated with hospital-acquired infections. These infections often lead to extended hospital stay and excess mortality. In this study, a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies was isolated from a healthy individual by selection of B-cells producing antibodies with high opsonic killing against E. faecalis 12030. Variable domains (VH and VL) of these immunoglobulin genes were amplified by PCR and cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector containing the constant domains of a human IgG1 molecule and the human lambda constant domain. These constructs were transfected into CHO cells and culture supernatants were collected and tested by opsonophagocytic assay against E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (including MRSA). At concentrations of 600 pg/ml, opsonic killing was between 40% and 70% against all strains tested. Monoclonal antibodies were also evaluated in a mouse sepsis model (using S. aureus LAC and E. faecium), a mouse peritonitis model (using S. aureus Newman and LAC) and a rat endocarditis model (using E. faecalis 12030) and were shown to provide protection in all models at a concentration of 4 μg/kg per animal. Here we present a method to produce fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that are opsonic in vitro and protective in vivo against several multiresistant Gram-positive bacteria. The monoclonal antibodies presented in this study are significantly more effective compared to another monoclonal antibody currently in clinical trials. PMID:25706415

  4. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-benzoyl-1-dichlorobenzoylthiosemicarbazides as potent Gram-positive antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Paneth, Agata; Plech, Tomasz; Kaproń, Barbara; Hagel, Dominika; Kosikowska, Urszula; Kuśmierz, Edyta; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Paneth, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Twelve 4-benzoyl-1-dichlorobenzoylthiosemicarbazides have been tested as potential antibacterials. All the compounds had MICs between 0.49 and 15.63 µg/ml toward Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis indicating, in most cases, equipotent or even more effective action than cefuroxime. In order to clarify if the observed antibacterial effects are universal, further research were undertaken to test inhibitory potency of two most potent compounds 3 and 11 on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 11 inhibited the growth of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) at MICs of 1.95-7.81 µg/ml, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at MICs of 0.49-1.95 µg/ml and MDR-MRSA at MIC of 0.98 and 3.90 µg/ml, respectively. Finally, inhibitory efficacy of 3 and 11 on planktonic cells and biofilms formation in clinical isolates of S. aureus and Haemophilus parainfluenzae was tested. The majority of cells in biofilm populations of MSSA and MRSA were eradicated at low level of 3, with MBICs in the range of 7.82-15.63 µg/ml. PMID:25897586

  5. Bacteriocins of gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Jack, R W; Tagg, J R; Ray, B

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, a group of antibacterial proteins produced by gram-positive bacteria have attracted great interest in their potential use as food preservatives and as antibacterial agents to combat certain infections due to gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. They are ribosomally synthesized peptides of 30 to less than 60 amino acids, with a narrow to wide antibacterial spectrum against gram-positive bacteria; the antibacterial property is heat stable, and a producer strain displays a degree of specific self-protection against its own antibacterial peptide. In many respects, these proteins are quite different from the colicins and other bacteriocins produced by gram-negative bacteria, yet customarily they also are grouped as bacteriocins. Although a large number of these bacteriocins (or bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances) have been reported, only a few have been studied in detail for their mode of action, amino acid sequence, genetic characteristics, and biosynthesis mechanisms. Nevertheless, in general, they appear to be translated as inactive prepeptides containing an N-terminal leader sequence and a C-terminal propeptide component. During posttranslational modifications, the leader peptide is removed. In addition, depending on the particular type, some amino acids in the propeptide components may undergo either dehydration and thioether ring formation to produce lanthionine and beta-methyl lanthionine (as in lantibiotics) or thio ester ring formation to form cystine (as in thiolbiotics). Some of these steps, as well as the translocation of the molecules through the cytoplasmic membrane and producer self-protection against the homologous bacteriocin, are mediated through specific proteins (enzymes). Limited genetic studies have shown that the structural gene for such a bacteriocin and the genes encoding proteins associated with immunity, translocation, and processing are present in a cluster in either a plasmid, the chromosome, or a transposon. Following posttranslational modification and depending on the pH, the molecules may either be released into the environment or remain bound to the cell wall. The antibacterial action against a sensitive cell of a gram-positive strain is produced principally by destabilization of membrane functions. Under certain conditions, gram-negative bacterial cells can also be sensitive to some of these molecules. By application of site-specific mutagenesis, bacteriocin variants which may differ in their antimicrobial spectrum and physicochemical characteristics can be produced. Research activity in this field has grown remarkably but sometimes with an undisciplined regard for conformity in the definition, naming, and categorization of these molecules and their genetic effectors. Some suggestions for improved standardization of nomenclature are offered. PMID:7603408

  6. Assessing the interactions of a natural antibacterial clay with model Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londono, S. C.; Williams, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and increasing accumulations of antibiotics in reclaimed water, drive the quest for new natural antimicrobials. We are studying the antibacterial mechanism(s) of clays that have shown an ability to destroy bacteria or significantly inhibit their growth. One possible mode of action is from soluble transition metal species, particularly reduced Fe, capable of generating deleterious oxygen radical species. Yet another possibility is related to membrane damage as a consequence of physical or electrostatic interaction between clay and bacteria. Both mechanisms could combine to produce cell death. This study addresses a natural antibacterial clay from the NW Amazon basin, South America (AMZ clay). Clay mineralogy is composed of disordered kaolinite (28.9%), halloysite (17.8%) illite (12%) and smectite (16.7%). Mean particle size is 1.6μm and total and specific surface area 278.82 and 51.23 m2/g respectively. The pH of a suspension (200mg/ml) is 4.1 and its Eh is 361mV after 24h of equilibration. The ionic strength of the water in equilibrium with the clay after 24 h. is 6 x10-4M. These conditions, affect the element solubility, speciation, and interactions between clay and bacteria. Standard microbiological methods were used to assess the viability of two model bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) after incubation with clay at 37 degC for 24 hrs. A threefold reduction in bacterial viability was observed upon treatment with AMZ clay. We separated the cells from the clay using Nycodenz gradient media and observed the mounts under the TEM and SEM. Results showed several membrane anomalies and structural changes that were not observed in the control cells. Additionally, clay minerals appeared in some places attached to cell walls. Experiments showed that exchanging AMZ clay with KCl caused loss of antibacterial property. Among the exchangeable -and potentially toxic- ions we measured Al+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Ba+2 and Co+2. Besides being toxic at high concentrations, these species affect the electrophoretic interactions between clay and bacteria surfaces. Additionally, the cation exchange neutralizes the clay surface charge thus modifying further the behavior of particles in suspension. Therefore, we evaluated the clay and bacteria zeta potential (ζ) as an index for possible electrostatic forces and modeled the total interactions using DLVO theory. We suspended the particles in water equilibrated with clay (leachate). Results show that at pH 4, the ζ of clays is -14 mV while it is -3mV for bacteria. The divalent ions and trivalent Aluminum, present in the AMZ leachate, compress the thickness of the double layer (hydration shell) thus decreasing electrostatic repulsion and allowing particles to come closer. The proximity of particles increases the probability of attractive forces to bind clays and cells. In summary, results indicate that a process other than simple chemical transfer from clay to bacteria is operating. The electrostatic attraction and physical proximity may enhance the toxic action of metals and interfere with the membrane properties or processes.

  7. Comparative in-vitro activity of the new fluoroquinolone trovafloxacin (CP-99,219) against gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed

    Coque, T M; Singh, K V; Murray, B E

    1996-05-01

    The in-vitro activities of the new fluoroquinolone trovafloxacin (CP-99,219) and ciprofloxacin were determined against 225 Gram-positive cocci. Trovafloxacin was 4-32 fold more active than ciprofloxacin against staphylococci and streptococci and also showed greater activity against enterococci including vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis that were highly resistant to aminoglycosides and/or produced beta-lactamase. Trovafloxacin was also bactericidal at 3 mg/L against enterococci except for isolates for which the MICs were > or = 2 mg/L. PMID:8737152

  8. Antimicrobial and efflux pump inhibitory activity of caffeoylquinic acids from Artemisia absinthium against gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Fiamegos YC; Kastritis PL; Exarchou V; Han H; Bonvin AM; Vervoort J; Lewis K; Hamblin MR; Tegos GP

    1812-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional antibiotics are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance amongst pathogenic bacteria leading to a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections being investigated as potential alternative treatments. One plausible antimicrobial alternative could be the combination of conventional antimicrobial agents/antibiotics with small molecules which block multidrug efflux systems known as efflux pump inhibitors. Bioassay-driven purification and structural determination of compounds from plant sources have yielded a number of pump inhibitors which acted against gram positive bacteria.METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report the identification and characterization of 4',5'-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4',5'-ODCQA) from Artemisia absinthium as a pump inhibitor with a potential of targeting efflux systems in a wide panel of gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, 3',5'-ODCQA, 4',5'-ODCQA) was based on hyphenated chromatographic techniques such as liquid chromatography with post column solid-phase extraction coupled with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. Microbial susceptibility testing and potentiation of well know pump substrates revealed at least two active compounds; chlorogenic acid with weak antimicrobial activity and 4',5'-ODCQA with pump inhibitory activity whereas 3',5'-ODCQA was ineffective. These initial findings were further validated with checkerboard, berberine accumulation efflux assays using efflux-related phenotypes and clinical isolates as well as molecular modeling methodology.CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These techniques facilitated the direct analysis of the active components from plant extracts, as well as dramatically reduced the time needed to analyze the compounds, without the need for prior isolation. The calculated energetics of the docking poses supported the biological information for the inhibitory capabilities of 4',5'-ODCQA and furthermore contributed evidence that CQAs show a preferential binding to Major Facilitator Super family efflux systems, a key multidrug resistance determinant in gram-positive bacteria.

  9. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Iñigo; Novick, Richard P; Christie, Gail E; Penadés, José R

    2013-08-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  10. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Ms, Mara ngeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, igo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penads, Jos R.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  11. Tryptophan-containing lipopeptide antibiotics derived from polymyxin B with activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grau-Campistany, Ariadna; Manresa, Ángeles; Pujol, Montserrat; Rabanal, Francesc; Cajal, Yolanda

    2016-02-01

    Resistance to all known antibiotics is a growing concern worldwide, and has renewed the interest in antimicrobial peptides, a structurally diverse class of amphipathic molecules that essentially act on the bacterial membrane. Propelled by the antimicrobial potential of this compound class, we have designed three new lipopeptides derived from polymyxin B, sp-34, sp-96 and sp-100, with potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The three peptides bind with high affinity to lipopolysaccharide as demonstrated by monolayer penetration and dansyl-displacement. The interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane has been elucidated by biophysical experiments with model membranes of POPG or POPE/POPG (6:4), mimicking the Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial membrane. Trp-based fluorescence experiments including steady-state, quenching, anisotropy and FRET, reveal selectivity for anionic phospholipids and deep insertion into the membrane. All three lipopeptides induce membrane fusion and leakage from anionic vesicles, a process that is favored by the presence of POPE. The molecules bind to zwitterionic POPC vesicles, a model of the eukaryotic membrane, but in a different way, with lower affinity, less penetration into the bilayer and no fusion or permeabilization of the membrane. Results in model membranes are consistent with flow cytometry experiments in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using a membrane potential sensitive dye (bis-oxonol) and a nucleic acid dye (propidium iodide), suggesting that the mechanism of action is based on membrane binding and collapse of membrane integrity by depolarization and permeabilization. PMID:26607008

  12. Production of a bacteriocin by a poultry derived Campylobacter jejuni isolate with antimicrobial activity against Clostridium perfringens and other Gram positive bacteria.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have purified a bacteriocin peptide (termed CUV-3), produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni (strain CUV-3) with inhibitory activity against Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Listeria mon...

  13. In vitro activity of MDL 62,879 (GE2270 A) against aerobic gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    King, A; Bethune, L; Phillips, I

    1993-01-01

    The in vitro activity of MDL 62,879, a new peptide antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis through an interaction with elongation factor Tu, against a wide range of recent clinical isolates of common aerobic gram-positive and anaerobic organisms was determined. MDL 62,879 was highly active against staphylococci (MIC for 90% of isolates [MIC90], 0.125 microgram/ml), streptococci (MIC90, 1 microgram/ml), and enterococci (MIC90, 0.03 microgram/ml). All isolates of peptostreptococci and Mobiluncus spp. were susceptible, as were most isolates of clostridia. MDL 62,879 was not active against isolates of fusobacteria or Bacteroides spp., but some isolates of Prevotella spp. and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica were susceptible. PMID:8494370

  14. In vitro and in vivo activities of novel 2-(thiazol-2-ylthio)-1beta-methylcarbapenems with potent activities against multiresistant gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yutaka; Sunagawa, Makoto

    2003-08-01

    SM-197436, SM-232721, and SM-232724 are new 1beta-methylcarbapenems with a unique 4-substituted thiazol-2-ylthio moiety at the C-2 side chain. In agar dilution susceptibility testing these novel carbapenems were active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) with a MIC(90) of activity against MRSA, in contrast to linezolid, which was bacteriostatic up to four times the MIC. SM-232724 showed good therapeutic efficacy comparable to those of vancomycin and linezolid against systemic infections of MRSA in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. The MICs of SM-197436, SM-232721, and SM-232724 for streptococci, including penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, ranged from active beta-lactams tested against Enterococcus faecium, and the MIC(90) s for ampicillin-resistant E. faecium ranged between 8 and 16 micro g/ml, which were slightly higher than the value for linezolid. However, time-kill assays revealed the superior bactericidal activity of SM-232724 compared to those of quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid against an E. faecium strain with a 4-log reduction in CFU at four times the MIC after 24 h of exposure to antibiotics. In addition, SM-232724 significantly reduced the numbers of bacteria in a murine abscess model with the E. faecium strain: its efficacy was superior to that of linezolid, although the MICs (2 micro g/ml) of these two agents are the same. Among gram-negative bacteria, these three carbapenems were highly active against Haemophilus influenzae (including ampicillin-resistant strains), Moraxella catarrhalis, and Bacteroides fragilis, and showed antibacterial activity equivalent to that of imipenem for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus spp. Thus, these new carbapenems are promising candidates for agents to treat nosocomial bacterial infections by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, especially multiresistant gram-positive cocci, including MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. PMID:12878507

  15. In vitro activity of telavancin compared with vancomycin and linezolid against Gram-positive organisms isolated from cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Kenneth; Wang, Weiqun; Nesher, Lior; Coyle, Elizabeth; Shelburne, Samuel; Prince, Randall A

    2014-07-01

    Telavancin is a dual action, bactericidal lipoglycopeptide. Its in vitro activity was compared with vancomycin and linezolid against 392 Gram-positive isolates from cancer patients. MIC90 values (μg ml(-1)) for telavancin, vancomycin and linezolid were determined for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible (MS), methicillin-resistant (MR), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), viridans group streptococci (VGS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus species, Corynebacterium species and Micrococcus species. Telavancin had potent activity against β-hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Whereas 100% of MRSA and 98% of MSSA had vancomycin MICs ⩾ 1.0 μg ml(-1) (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at which poor clinical responses have been reported), the highest telavancin MIC was 0.38 μg ml(-1). For CoNS, 95% of MS and 100% of MR isolates had vancomycin MICs ⩾ 1.0 μg ml(-1), whereas the highest telavancin MIC was 0.38 μg ml(-1). Furthermore, 48% of VGS had vancomycin MICs ⩾ 1.0 μg ml(-1), whereas the highest telavancin MIC was 0.064 μg ml(-1). A similar pattern was noticed for S. lugdunensis, Bacillus species, Corynebacterium species and β-hemolytic streptococci. These data suggest that telavancin and linezolid have potent activity against most Gram-positive organisms that cause infections in cancer patients. Consequently, they may be considered as alternatives to vancomycin, especially in institutions wherein a substantial proportion of infections are caused by organisms with vancomycin MICs ⩾ 1.0 μg ml(-1). PMID:24824818

  16. In Vitro Activity of Tedizolid Against Gram-Positive Bacteria in Patients With Skin and Skin Structure Infections and Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia: A Korean Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yangsoon; Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, SungHak; Im, Weonbin; Yong, Dongeun

    2015-01-01

    We compared the activities of tedizolid to those of linezolid and other commonly used antimicrobial agents against gram-positive cocci recovered from patients with skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in Korean hospitals. Gram-positive isolates were collected from 356 patients with SSSIs and 144 patients with HAP at eight hospitals in Korea from 2011 to 2014. SSSIs included impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas, furuncles, abscesses, and infected burns. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by using the CLSI agar dilution method. All of the gram-positive isolates were inhibited by ≤1 µg/mL tedizolid. The minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]90 of tedizolid was 0.5 µg/mL for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which was 4-fold lower than that of linezolid. Tedizolid may become a useful option for the treatment of SSSIs and HAP caused by gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26206690

  17. In vitro activity of tedizolid against gram-positive bacteria in patients with skin and skin structure infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia: a Korean multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yangsoon; Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Sunghak; Im, Weonbin; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-09-01

    We compared the activities of tedizolid to those of linezolid and other commonly used antimicrobial agents against gram-positive cocci recovered from patients with skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in Korean hospitals. Gram-positive isolates were collected from 356 patients with SSSIs and 144 patients with HAP at eight hospitals in Korea from 2011 to 2014. SSSIs included impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas, furuncles, abscesses, and infected burns. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by using the CLSI agar dilution method. All of the gram-positive isolates were inhibited by ≤1 μg/mL tedizolid. The minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]₉₀ of tedizolid was 0.5 μg/mL for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which was 4-fold lower than that of linezolid. Tedizolid may become a useful option for the treatment of SSSIs and HAP caused by gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26206690

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus Faecium Fair-E 198 against gram-positive pathogens

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Maristela da Silva; Moreno, Izildinha; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Using the critical-dilution method, the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium FAIR-E 198 inhibited all L. monocytogenes strains evaluated (1,600 to 19,200 AU mL-1). However, none of the B. cereus and S. aureus strains investigated were inhibited. The maximum activity of this bacteriocin (800 AU mL-1) was observed in MRS broth, while the activity in milk was 100 AU mL-1. In the co-cultivation test in milk, B. cereus K1-B041 was reduced to below the detection limit (1.00 log CFU mL-1) after 48 h. E. faecium reduced the initial L. monocytogenes Scott A population by 1 log CFU mL-1 after 3 h at 35°C, However, the pathogen regained growth, reaching 3.68 log CFU mL-1 after 48 h. E. faecium did not influence the growth of S. aureus ATCC 27154 during the 48 h of co-cultivation, Therefore, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of the antimicrobial activity of E. faecium FAIR-E 198 is strictly related to the species and strain of the target microorganism and to the culture medium, PMID:24031466

  19. Lantibiotics: biosynthesis and biological activities of uniquely modified peptides from gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sahl, H G; Bierbaum, G

    1998-01-01

    A plethora of novel gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides from animals, plants and bacteria has been described during the last decade. Many of the bacterial peptides possess modified building blocks such as thioethers and thiazoles or unsaturated and stereoinverted amino acids, which are unique among ribosomally made peptides. Genetic and biochemical studies of many of these peptides, mostly the so-called lantibiotics, have revealed the degree to which cells are capable of transforming peptides by posttranslational modification. The biosynthesis follows a general scheme: Precursor peptides are first modified and then proteolytically activated; the latter may occur prior to, concomitantly with or after export from the cell. The genes for the biosynthetic machinery are organized in clusters and include information for the antibiotic prepeptide, the modification enzymes and accessory functions such as dedicated proteases and ABC transporters as well as immunity factors and regulatory proteins. These fundamental aspects are discussed along with the biotechnological potential of the peptides and of the biosynthesis enzymes, which could be used for construction of novel, peptide-based biomedical effector molecules. PMID:9891793

  20. End group modification: Efficient tool for improving activity of antimicrobial peptide analogues towards Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jahnsen, Rasmus O; Sandberg-Schaal, Anne; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Franzyk, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Increased incidence of infections with multidrug-resistant bacterial strains warrants an intensive search for novel potential antimicrobial agents. Here, an antimicrobial peptide analogue with a cationic/hydrophobic alternating design displaying only moderate activity against Gram-positive pathogens was optimized. Generally, introduction of hydrophobic moieties at the N-terminus resulted in analogues with remarkably increased activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium. Interestingly, the potency against Escherichia coli strains was unaffected, whereas modification with hydrophobic moieties led to increased activity towards the Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii. Despite increased cytotoxicity against murine fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the optimized peptide analogues exhibited significantly improved cell selectivity. Overall, the most favorable hydrophobic activity-inducing moieties were found to be cyclohexylacetyl and pentafluorophenylacetyl groups, while the presence of a short PEG-like chain had no significant effect on activity. Introduction of cationic moieties conferred no effect or merely a moderate activity-promoting effect to the analogues. PMID:25622790

  1. Gramicidin A Mutants with Antibiotic Activity against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zerfas, Breanna L; Joo, Yechaan; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-03-17

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown potential as alternatives to traditional antibiotics for fighting infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One promising example of this is gramicidin A (gA). In its wild-type sequence, gA is active by permeating the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. However, gA is toxic to human red blood cells at similar concentrations to those required for it to exert its antimicrobial effects. Installing cationic side chains into gA has been shown to lower its hemolytic activity while maintaining the antimicrobial potency. In this study, we present the synthesis and the antibiotic activity of a new series of gA mutants that display cationic side chains. Specifically, by synthesizing alkylated lysine derivatives through reductive amination, we were able to create a broad selection of structures with varied activities towards Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Importantly, some of the new mutants were observed to have an unprecedented activity towards important Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Psuedomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26918268

  2. Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H; Stepanik, D; Vilches, V; Scarano, S; Sarachian, B; Mikaelian, G; Finlay, J; Sucari, A

    2001-08-01

    The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against 1,000 clinical isolates of 147 Streptococcus pneumoniae (115, penicilin susceptible; 26, intermediate penicillin-resistant and 6, penicillin-resistant), 127 Hemophilus influenzae (109, beta lactamasa non-producer; 18, beta lactamase producers), 95 Streptococcus pyogenes (6, azytromycin-resistant), 84 Moraxella catarrhalis (79, beta lactamase producers), 110 Staphilococcus aureus (89, methicillin-susceptible; 21, methicilin-resistant), 98 Eenterococcus faecalis and 339 Enterobacteriacea, (recovered from patients with respiratory tract infection; skin and soft tissue infection and urinary tract infection), was compared with the activities of four fluorquinolones and five other antimicrobial agents. Of the quinolones tested, gemifloxacin was the most potent against Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin intermediate and resistant strains. Mic(90) values obtained for gemifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and trvafloxacin were 0.03, 2, 2, 1 and 0.25 mg/L respectively. Gemifloxacin was 16 fold more potent than ciprofloxacin against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and 32 fold more potent than ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus pyogenes. When tested against Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Enterobacteriaceae, all the quinolones showed similar activity. Our results demonstrate that gemifloxacin has similar activity than the other quinolones tested against Gram-negative organisms and is considerably more potent against Gram-positive organisms. PMID:11576792

  3. Design of a Nanostructured Active Surface against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria through Plasma Activation and in Situ Silver Reduction.

    PubMed

    Gilabert-Porres, Joan; Martí, Sara; Calatayud, Laura; Ramos, Victor; Rosell, Antoni; Borrós, Salvador

    2016-01-13

    Nowadays there is an increasing focus for avoiding bacterial colonization in a medical device after implantation. Bacterial infection associated with prosthesis implantation, or even along the lifetime of the implanted prosthesis, entails a serious problem, emphasized with immunocompromised patients. This work shows a new methodology to create highly hydrophobic micro-/nanostructured silver antibacterial surfaces against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, using low-pressure plasma. PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) samples, typically used in tracheal prosthesis, are coated with PFM (pentafluorophenyl methacrylate) through PECVD (plasma enhance chemical vapor deposition) technique. PFM thin films offer highly reactive ester groups that allow them to react preferably with amine bearing molecules, such as amine sugar, to create controlled reductive surfaces capable of reducing silver salts to a nanostructured metallic silver. This micro-/nanostructured silver coating shows interesting antibacterial properties combined with an antifouling behavior causing a reduction of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria viability. In addition, these types of silver-coated samples show no apparent cytotoxicity against COS-7 cells. PMID:26593038

  4. Antimicrobial activity of cationic gemini surfactant containing an oxycarbonyl group in the lipophilic portion against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Taiga; Imai, Yoshitane; Kawaguchi, Kakuhiro; Miyano, Naoko; Ikeda, Isao

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activities of a cationic Gemini surfactant, trans-1,4-bis[2-(alkanoyloxy)ethyldimethylammonio]-2-butene dichloride [II-m-2(t-butene)] and its derivatives against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The II-m-2(t-butene) compound was previously shown to have good surface activity and biodegradability. A dodecanoyloxy derivative (m = 12) of II-m-2(t-butene) showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive Streptococcus aureus [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 7.8 μg/mL] and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC: 31.2 μg/mL). PMID:24420061

  5. E-4695, a new C-7 azetidinyl fluoronaphthyridine with enhanced activity against gram-positive and anaerobic pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Guinea, J; Gargallo-Viola, D; Robert, M; Tudela, E; Xicota, M A; Garcia, J; Esteve, M; Coll, R; Pares, M; Roser, R

    1995-01-01

    E-4695, (-)-7-[3-(R)-amino-2-(S)-methyl-1-azetidinyl]-1-cyclopropyl-1,4- dihydro-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid, is a new fluorinated naphthyridine with an azetidine moiety. The MICs of E-4695 at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) were 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml for gram-positive cocci, including species of the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus, and the MIC90s against gram-negative pathogens such as members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (with the exception of Providencia spp. [MIC90, 8 micrograms/ml]) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 0.015 to 0.5 microgram/ml. E-4695 inhibited 90% of the Clostridium perfringens and Bacteroides fragilis isolates at 0.25 and 4 micrograms/ml, respectively. Against gram-positive cocci the potency of E-4695 was 2- to 8-fold higher than that of ciprofloxacin, 4- to 8-fold higher than that of ofloxacin, and 8- to 16-fold higher than that of fleroxacin. Against enteric bacteria and P. aeruginosa the potency of E-4695 was, in general, similar to that of ciprofloxacin and eightfold higher than those of ofloxacin and fleroxacin. E-4695 was four- and eightfold more potent than ciprofloxacin against C. perfringens and B. fragilis isolates, respectively. E-4695 and ciprofloxacin showed similar properties when the effects of pH or magnesium concentration were tested on them. E-4695 and ciprofloxacin had substantial reductions of activity only when pH decreased below 4.8. E-4695 and ciprofloxacin activities were not markedly affected by the presence of 5 or 10 mM Mg2+. The presence of serum and human urine at pH 7.2 decreased the activity of E-4695 between two- and fourfold. After an oral dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight, the maximum level in serum, the biological half-life, and the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 10 h for E-4695 were 13.2 microgram/ml, 3.3 h, and 45.6 microgram . h/ml, respectively. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 4 h for ciprofloxacin was 2.3 microgram . h/ml at the same dose. Fifty-percent effective doses (ED50S) against Staphylococcus aureus HS-93 infections in mice were 4.5 mg/kg with E-4695 and 37.6 mg/kg with ciprofloxacin. Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae 29206 was more effectively treated with E-4695 (ED50, 41,2 mg/kg) than with ciprofloxacin (ED50, 200 mg/kg). The ED50 of E-4695 for infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae 1625 was 132.2 mg/kg; ciprofloxacin was ineffective at 400 mg/kg against this strain. E-4695 was also more potent than ciprofloxacin in treatment of infections caused by gram-negative organisms such as Escherichia coli HM-42 (ED50S, 1.0 and 3.9 mg/kg, respectively). The ED50S of E-4695 and ciprofloxacin were 33.0 and 145.5 mg/kg against P. aeruginosa HS-116 and 9.6 and 18.9 mg/kg against P. aeruginosa B-120, respectively. The therapeutic efficacy of E-4695 may depend not only on its in vitro activity but also on its improved pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:7726507

  6. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  7. Expanding the Use of a Fluorogenic Method to Determine Activity and Mode of Action of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriocins Against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M.; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Espino Monzón, A. N.; Pacheco Cano, R. D.; Balagurusamy, N.; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Salcedo-Hernández, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Previously we described a rapid fluorogenic method to measure the activity of five bacteriocins produced by Mexican strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against B. cereus 183. Here we standardize this method to efficiently determine the activity of bacteriocins against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was determined that the crucial parameter required to obtain reproducible results was the number of cells used in the assay, that is, ~4 × 108 cell/mL and ~7 × 108 cell/mL, respectively, for target Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Comparative analyses of the fluorogenic and traditional well-diffusion assays showed correlation coefficients of 0.88 to 0.99 and 0.83 to 0.99, respectively, for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluorogenic method demonstrated that the five bacteriocins of B. thuringiensis have bacteriolytic and bacteriostatic activities against all microorganisms tested, including clinically significant bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Shigella flexneri reported previously to be resistant to the antimicrobials as determined using the well-diffusion protocol. These results demonstrate that the fluorogenic assay is a more sensitive, reliable, and rapid method when compared with the well-diffusion method and can easily be adapted in screening protocols for bacteriocin production by other microorganisms. PMID:22919330

  8. Expanding the use of a fluorogenic method to determine activity and mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriocins against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Espino Monzón, A N; Pacheco Cano, R D; Balagurusamy, N; Bideshi, Dennis K; Salcedo-Hernández, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Previously we described a rapid fluorogenic method to measure the activity of five bacteriocins produced by Mexican strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against B. cereus 183. Here we standardize this method to efficiently determine the activity of bacteriocins against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was determined that the crucial parameter required to obtain reproducible results was the number of cells used in the assay, that is, ~4 × 10(8) cell/mL and ~7 × 10(8) cell/mL, respectively, for target Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Comparative analyses of the fluorogenic and traditional well-diffusion assays showed correlation coefficients of 0.88 to 0.99 and 0.83 to 0.99, respectively, for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluorogenic method demonstrated that the five bacteriocins of B. thuringiensis have bacteriolytic and bacteriostatic activities against all microorganisms tested, including clinically significant bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Shigella flexneri reported previously to be resistant to the antimicrobials as determined using the well-diffusion protocol. These results demonstrate that the fluorogenic assay is a more sensitive, reliable, and rapid method when compared with the well-diffusion method and can easily be adapted in screening protocols for bacteriocin production by other microorganisms. PMID:22919330

  9. The molecular switch that activates the cell wall anchoring step of pilus assembly in gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mandlik, Anjali; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2008-09-16

    Cell surface pili in gram-positive bacteria orchestrate the colonization of host tissues, evasion of immunity, and the development of biofilms. Recent work revealed that pilus assembly is a biphasic process wherein pilus polymerization is catalyzed by a pilus-specific sortase followed by cell wall anchoring of the pilus that is promoted by the housekeeping sortase. Here, we present molecular genetic and biochemical studies of a heterotrimeric pilus in Corynebacterium diphtheriae, uncovering the molecular switch that terminates pilus polymerization in favor of cell wall anchoring. The prototype pilus contains a major pilin (SpaA) forming the shaft, a tip pilin (SpaC), and another minor pilin (SpaB). Cells lacking SpaB form pilus fibers, but they are largely secreted in the medium, a phenotype also observed when cells lack the housekeeping sortase. Furthermore, the average pilus length is greatly increased in the absence of SpaB. Remarkably, a SpaB mutant that lacks the cell wall sorting signal but contains a critical lysine residue is incorporated in the pilus. However, the resulting pili fail to anchor to the cell wall. We propose that a specific minor pilin acts as the terminal subunit in pilus assembly. Cell wall anchoring ensues when the pilus polymer assembled on the pilus-specific sortase is transferred to the minor pilin presented by the housekeeping sortase via lysine-mediated transpeptidation. PMID:18779588

  10. In Vitro Activity of AZD0914, a Novel Bacterial DNA Gyrase/Topoisomerase IV Inhibitor, against Clinically Relevant Gram-Positive and Fastidious Gram-Negative Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Michael D.; Hackel, Meredith; de Jonge, Boudewijn L. M.; Sahm, Daniel F.; Bradford, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    AZD0914, a new spiropyrimidinetrione bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitor with a novel mode of inhibition, has activity against bacterial species commonly cultured from patient infection specimens, including fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. This study assessed the in vitro activity of AZD0914 against key Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative clinical isolates collected globally in 2013. AZD0914 demonstrated potent activity, with MIC90s for AZD0914 of 0.25 mg/liter against Staphylococcus aureus (n = 11,680), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 1,923), streptococci (n = 4,380), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 145), 0.5 mg/liter against Staphylococcus lugdunensis (n = 120) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 352), 1 mg/liter against Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1,241), and 2 mg/liter against Haemophilus parainfluenzae (n = 70). The activity against Enterococcus faecium was more limited (MIC90, 8 mg/liter). The spectrum and potency of AZD0914 included fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates in each species group, including methicillin-resistant staphylococci, penicillin-resistant streptococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, β-lactamase-producing Haemophilus spp., and M. catarrhalis. Based on these in vitro findings, AZD0914 warrants further investigation for its utility against a variety of Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative bacterial species. PMID:26195518

  11. In Vitro Activity of AZD0914, a Novel Bacterial DNA Gyrase/Topoisomerase IV Inhibitor, against Clinically Relevant Gram-Positive and Fastidious Gram-Negative Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Huband, Michael D; Hackel, Meredith; de Jonge, Boudewijn L M; Sahm, Daniel F; Bradford, Patricia A

    2015-10-01

    AZD0914, a new spiropyrimidinetrione bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitor with a novel mode of inhibition, has activity against bacterial species commonly cultured from patient infection specimens, including fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. This study assessed the in vitro activity of AZD0914 against key Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative clinical isolates collected globally in 2013. AZD0914 demonstrated potent activity, with MIC90s for AZD0914 of 0.25 mg/liter against Staphylococcus aureus (n = 11,680), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 1,923), streptococci (n = 4,380), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 145), 0.5 mg/liter against Staphylococcus lugdunensis (n = 120) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 352), 1 mg/liter against Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1,241), and 2 mg/liter against Haemophilus parainfluenzae (n = 70). The activity against Enterococcus faecium was more limited (MIC90, 8 mg/liter). The spectrum and potency of AZD0914 included fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates in each species group, including methicillin-resistant staphylococci, penicillin-resistant streptococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, β-lactamase-producing Haemophilus spp., and M. catarrhalis. Based on these in vitro findings, AZD0914 warrants further investigation for its utility against a variety of Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative bacterial species. PMID:26195518

  12. Spectrum of gram-positive bacteraemia and in vitro activities of daptomycin, linezolid and vancomycin against organisms isolated from cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Kenneth V I; Kapadia, Mona; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Coyle, Elizabeth; Prince, Randall A

    2013-06-01

    Gram-positive organisms are the predominant bacterial pathogens in cancer patients. A survey indicated that coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (29.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.0%), Enterococcus spp. (12.1%) and viridans group streptococci (VGS) (9.1%) are isolated most often. The rate of reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (minimum inhibitory concentration ?1.0 ?g/mL) was 100% for meticillin-susceptible S. aureus and 99% for meticillin-resistant S. aureus, and 100% for meticillin-susceptible CoNS and 98% for meticillin-resistant CoNS. More than 98% of these isolates were susceptible to daptomycin and linezolid. Daptomycin and linezolid had comparable in vitro activity to vancomycin against Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Rhodococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and VGS. Both agents were active against the majority (95%) of vancomycin-resistant organisms, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pediococcus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. These data suggest that daptomycin and linezolid have an adequate antimicrobial spectrum and potent in vitro activity against Gram-positive isolates from cancer patients and may be considered as alternatives to vancomycin for empirical or targeted therapy in this setting. PMID:23481658

  13. Facile synthesis of gold nanoparticles on propylamine functionalized SBA-15 and effect of surface functionality of its enhanced bactericidal activity against gram positive bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Diganta; Gogoi, Animesh; Saikia, Mrinal; Saikia, Ratul; Saikia, Lakshi

    2015-07-01

    The facile synthesis of an SBA-15-pr-+NH3.Au0 nano-hybrid material by spontaneous autoreduction of aqueous chloroaurate anions on propylamine functionalized SBA-15 was successfully demonstrated. The as-synthesized SBA-15-pr-+NH3.Au0 nano-hybrid material was well characterized using low and wide angle x-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Visible spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The activity of the nano-hybrid material as a potent bactericidal agent was successfully tested against Gram positive/negative bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The colony killing percentage of Gram positive bacteria was found to be higher than Gram negative bacteria due to the stronger electrostatic interaction between the positively-charged amine functionality of SBA-15 and the negatively charged functionality of the bacterial cell wall.

  14. Occurrence of ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity and its ion specificity in several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Gallegos, Rene; Jones, J Andrew; Barquera, Blanca; Malamy, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    A ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase was recently discovered as a redox-driven ion pump in the anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The enzyme is assumed to be encoded by the rnf genes. Since these genes are present in the genomes of many bacteria, we tested for ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity in cytoplasmic membranes from several different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that have annotated rnf genes. We found this activity in Clostridium tetanomorphum, Clostridium ljungdahlii, Bacteroides fragilis, and Vibrio cholerae but not in Escherichia coli and Rhodobacter capsulatus. As in A. woodii, the activity was Na+-dependent in C. tetanomorphum and B. fragilis but Na+-independent in C. ljungdahlii and V. cholerae. We deleted the rnf genes from B. fragilis and demonstrated that the mutant has greatly reduced ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity. This is the first genetic proof that the rnf genes indeed encode the reduced ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity. PMID:26793417

  15. In Vitro Activities of Tedizolid and Linezolid against Gram-Positive Cocci Associated with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections and Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ko-Hung; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tedizolid is a novel, expanded-spectrum oxazolidinone with potent activity against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens. A total of 425 isolates of Gram-positive bacteria were obtained consecutively from patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) or pneumonia. These isolates included methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n = 100), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n = 100), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 50), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 50), Streptococcus anginosus group (n = 75), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 50), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) (Enterococcus faecium) (n = 50). The MICs of tedizolid and linezolid were determined by the agar dilution method. Tedizolid exhibited better in vitro activities than linezolid against MSSA (MIC90s, 0.5 versus 2 μg/ml), MRSA (MIC90s, 0.5 versus 2 μg/ml), S. pyogenes (MIC90s, 0.5 versus 2 μg/ml), S. agalactiae (MIC90s, 0.5 versus 2 μg/ml), Streptococcus anginosus group (MIC90s, 0.5 versus 2 μg/ml), E. faecalis (MIC90s, 0.5 versus 2 μg/ml), and VRE (MIC90s, 0.5 versus 2 μg/ml). The tedizolid MICs against E. faecalis (n = 3) and VRE (n = 2) intermediate to linezolid (MICs, 4 μg/ml) were 1 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The tedizolid MIC90s against S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius were 0.5, 1, and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively, and the rates of susceptibility based on the U.S. FDA MIC interpretive breakpoints to the isolates were 16%, 28%, and 72%, respectively. Tedizolid exhibited 2- to 4-fold better in vitro activities than linezolid against a variety of Gram-positive cocci associated with ABSSSIs and pneumonia. The lower susceptibilities of tedizolid against isolates of S. anginosus and S. constellatus than against those of S. intermedius in Taiwan were noted. PMID:26248355

  16. Highly selective antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles against Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ju; Rong, Kaifeng; Zhao, Huiping; Li, Fei; Lu, Zhong; Chen, Rong

    2013-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different sizes (5, 15 and 55 nm) were synthesized via simple method, and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The antibacterial activities of the prepared AgNPs against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) were evaluated by inhibition zone, inhibition curve, and colony counting methods. The results showed that the AgNPs exhibited obvious bacterium-selective and size-dependent antibacterial activities. The Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis were more sensitive to AgNPs than Gram-negative bacterium E. coli. Interestingly, AgNPs displayed remarkably antibacterial activities against B. subtilis among Gram-positive bacteria, regardless of whether in separately or cocultured bacteria. It also showed that AgNPs with 5 nm in size presented the highest antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The effects of AgNPs on the membrane leakage of the reducing sugars from three bacteria were also measured by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. The leakage amount of reducing sugars from B. subtilis was the highest among the tested bacteria, indicating that AgNPs could damage the structure of bacteria cell membrane and resulted in the leakage of reducing sugars, leading to the death of bacteria. PMID:24245147

  17. Lactococcus lactis TrxD represents a subgroup of thioredoxins prevalent in Gram-positive bacteria containing WCXDC active site motifs.

    PubMed

    Björnberg, Olof; Efler, Petr; Ebong, Epie Denis; Svensson, Birte; Hägglund, Per

    2014-12-15

    Three protein disulfide reductases of the thioredoxin superfamily from the industrially important Gram-positive Lactococcus lactis (LlTrxA, LlTrxD and LlNrdH) are compared to the "classical" thioredoxin from Escherichia coli (EcTrx1). LlTrxA resembles EcTrx1 with a WCGPC active site motif and other key residues conserved. By contrast, LlTrxD is more distantly related and contains a WCGDC motif. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that LlTrxD represents a subgroup of thioredoxins from Gram-positive bacteria. LlNrdH is a glutaredoxin-like electron donor for ribonucleotide reductase class Ib. Based on protein-protein equilibria LlTrxA (E°'=-259mV) and LlNrdH (E°'=-238mV) show approximately 10mV higher standard state redox potentials than the corresponding E. coli homologues, while E°' of LlTrxD is -243mV, more similar to glutaredoxin than "classical" thioredoxin. EcTrx1 and LlTrxA have high capacity to reduce insulin disulfides and their exposed active site thiol is alkylated at a similar rate at pH 7.0. LlTrxD on the other hand, is alkylated by iodoacetamide at almost 100 fold higher rate and shows no activity towards insulin disulfides. LlTrxA, LlTrxD and LlNrdH are all efficiently reduced by NADPH dependent thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from L. lactis and good cross-reactivity towards E. coli TrxR was observed with LlTrxD as the notable exception. PMID:25255970

  18. Antibacterial activity of soluble pyridinium-type polymers.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, N; Nishiguchi, M

    1988-10-01

    Cross-linked poly(N-benzyl-4-vinylpyridinium halide) (designated insoluble BVP) was previously reported to capture bacterial cells alive by contact with them. The corresponding linear polymer poly(N-benzyl-4-vinylpyridinium salt) (designated soluble BVP) was found to exhibit antibacterial activity. This soluble pyridinium-type polymer showed strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas it was less active against gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of this cationic, polymeric disinfectant was considerably greater than that of the corresponding monomeric compound and was approximately equal to that of conventional disinfectants such as benzalkonium chloride and chlorohexidine. PMID:3202632

  19. In vitro activity of dalbavancin and five comparator agents against common and uncommon Gram-positive organisms isolated from cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Kenneth V I; Wang, Weiqun; Nesher, Lior; Shelburne, Samuel A; Prince, Randall A

    2016-05-01

    Dalbavancin is a long acting, bactericidal lipoglycopeptide. Its in vitro activity was compared with that of vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and levofloxacin against 241 Gram-positive organisms isolated from cancer patients. The rank order of potency for the glycopeptides based on MIC90 (μg ml(-1)), that is, the concentration of antimicrobial agent required to inhibit 90% of isolates tested was dalbavancin (0.12 μg ml(-1))>daptomycin (1.0 μg ml(-1))>vancomycin (2.0 μg ml(-1)) for coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolates (including methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains). Dalbavancin had potent activity against staphylococcal isolates with vancomycin MICs⩾1.0 μg ml(-1). TMP/SMX also had potent activity against staphylococci including methicillin-resistant strains, whereas levofloxacin had moderate to poor anti-staphylococcal activity. Dalbavancin also exhibited more potent activity than vancomycin and daptomycin against Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Micrococcus spp. and various streptococci (including Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci (VGS), beta-hemolytic streptococci and gamma-hemolytic streptococci). MBC determinations showed that dalbavancin had potent bactericidal activity against MRSA with no tolerance being detected. These data suggest that dalbavancin may be considered as an alternative to vancomycin, especially in institutions wherein a substantial proportion of infections are caused by organisms with vancomycin MICs⩾1.0 μg ml(-1). PMID:26626876

  20. In vitro activity of ceftazidime, ceftaroline and aztreonam alone and in combination with avibactam against European Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Testa, Raymond; Cantón, Rafael; Giani, Tommaso; Morosini, María-Isabel; Nichols, Wright W; Seifert, Harald; Stefanik, Danuta; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Nordmann, Patrice

    2015-06-01

    Recent clinical isolates of key Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were collected in 2012 from hospitalised patients in medical centres in four European countries (France, Germany, Italy and Spain) and were tested using standard broth microdilution methodology to assess the impact of 4 mg/L avibactam on the in vitro activities of ceftazidime, ceftaroline and aztreonam. Against Enterobacteriaceae, addition of avibactam significantly enhanced the level of activity of these antimicrobials. MIC(90) values (minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits 90% of the isolates) of ceftazidime, ceftaroline and aztreonam for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii and Morganella morganii were reduced up to 128-fold or greater when combined with avibactam. A two-fold reduction in the MIC(90) of ceftazidime to 8 mg/L was noted in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates when combined with avibactam, whereas little effect of avibactam was noted on the MIC values of the test compounds when tested against Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. Avibactam had little effect on the excellent activity of ceftazidime, ceftaroline and aztreonam against Haemophilus influenzae. It had no impact on the in vitro activity of ceftazidime and ceftaroline against staphylococci and streptococci. This study demonstrates that addition of avibactam enhances the activities of ceftazidime, ceftaroline and aztreonam against Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa but not against A. baumannii. PMID:25748553

  1. Cyclohexane triones, novel membrane-active antibacterial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, W J; Broadhurst, A V; Hall, M J; Andrews, K J; Barber, W E; Wong-Kai-In, P

    1988-01-01

    The cyclohexane triones are a novel group of synthetic antibacterial agents that are active against gram-positive bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycobacterium smegmatis. In general, these compounds behaved in a manner similar to that of hexachlorophene, inhibiting the transport of low-molecular-weight hydrophilic substances into bacteria. Unlike cationic detergents, such as chlorhexidine, they did not cause disruption of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane over a short time period. The most potent antibacterial cyclohexane trione studied had a reduced ability to inhibit solute transport in comparison with certain less active analogs. Cyclohexane triones may express more than a single type of antibacterial effect. PMID:3137860

  2. Antimicrobial activity of the investigational pleuromutilin compound BC-3781 tested against Gram-positive organisms commonly associated with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Paukner, Susanne; Ivezic-Schoenfeld, Zrinka; Jones, Ronald N

    2012-03-01

    BC-3781 is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antimicrobial agent developed as an intravenous and oral therapy for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and respiratory tract infections (RTI). BC-3781 and comparator agents were tested by the broth microdilution method against 1,893 clinical Gram-positive organisms predominantly causing ABSSSI. BC-3781 exhibited potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC(50/90), 0.12/0.25 μg/ml), coagulase-negative staphylococci (MIC(50/90), 0.06/0.12 μg/ml), β-hemolytic streptococci (MIC(50/90), 0.03/0.06 μg/ml), viridans group streptococci (MIC(50/90), 0.12/0.5 μg/ml), and Enterococcus faecium (including vancomycin-nonsusceptible strains) (MIC(50/90), 0.12/2 μg/ml). Compared with other antibiotics in use for the treatment of ABSSSI, BC-3781 displayed the lowest MICs and only a minimal potential for cross-resistance with other antimicrobial classes. PMID:22232289

  3. Growth of Ag-nanoparticles in an aqueous solution and their antimicrobial activities against Gram positive, Gram negative bacterial strains and Candida fungus.

    PubMed

    Aazam, Elham Shafik; Zaheer, Zoya

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves aqueous extract as reducing as well as a capping agent in absence and presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The resulting nanomaterials were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, and transmission electron microscope. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of AgNPs at 400-450 nm. TEM photographs indicate that the truncated triangular silver nanoplates and/or spherical morphology of the AgNPs with an average diameter of 25 nm have been distorted markedly in presence of CTAB. The AgNPs were almost mono disperse in nature. Antimicrobial activities of AgNPs were determined by using two bacteria (Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus MTCC-3160), Gram negative Escherichia coli MTCC-450) and one species of Candida fungus (Candida albicans ATCC 90030) with Kirby-Bauer or disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition seems extremely good showing a relatively large zone of inhibition in both Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans strains. PMID:26796584

  4. Amino acid modified xanthone derivatives: novel, highly promising membrane-active antimicrobials for multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jun-Jie; Lin, Shuimu; Aung, Thet Tun; Lim, Fanghui; Zou, Hanxun; Bai, Yang; Li, Jianguo; Lin, Huifen; Pang, Li Mei; Koh, Wee Luan; Salleh, Shuhaida Mohamed; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Zhou, Lei; Qiu, Shengxiang; Pervushin, Konstantin; Verma, Chandra; Tan, Donald T H; Cao, Derong; Liu, Shouping; Beuerman, Roger W

    2015-01-22

    Antibiotic resistance is a critical global health care crisis requiring urgent action to develop more effective antibiotics. Utilizing the hydrophobic scaffold of xanthone, we identified three components that mimicked the action of an antimicrobial cationic peptide to produce membrane-targeting antimicrobials. Compounds 5c and 6, which contain a hydrophobic xanthone core, lipophilic chains, and cationic amino acids, displayed very promising antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA and VRE, rapid time-kill, avoidance of antibiotic resistance, and low toxicity. The bacterial membrane selectivity of these molecules was comparable to that of several membrane-targeting antibiotics in clinical trials. 5c and 6 were effective in a mouse model of corneal infection by S. aureus and MRSA. Evidence is presented indicating that 5c and 6 target the negatively charged bacterial membrane via a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These results suggest that 5c and 6 have significant promise for combating life-threatening infections. PMID:25474410

  5. Cyclic Hexapeptides from the Deep South China Sea-Derived Streptomyces scopuliridis SCSIO ZJ46 Active Against Pathogenic Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxiang; Li, Qinglian; Liu, Xue; Chen, Yuchan; Zhang, Yun; Sun, Aijun; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Jingren; Ju, Jianhua

    2014-08-22

    Three new cyclohexapeptides, desotamides B-D (2-4), and the known desotamide (1) were isolated from marine microbe Streptomyces scopuliridis SCSIO ZJ46. The sequences and absolute configurations of 2-4 were elucidated on the basis of high-resolution spectroscopic data, Marfey's method, and chiral-phase HPLC data. Desotamide C (3) contains a unique N-formyl-kynurenine residue, whereas 4 lacks formylation at the same site. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed notable antibacterial activities against strains of Streptococcus pnuemoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and structure activity relationship studies revealed the indispensability of the Trp component for antibacterial activity within this new scaffold. PMID:25072108

  6. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis CBMDC3f with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive foodborne pathogenic bacteria: UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis of its bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Petroselli, G; Daz, M; Erra-Balsells, R; Audisio, M C

    2015-06-01

    In this work a new Bacillus sp. strain, isolated from honey, was characterized phylogenetically. Its antibacterial activity against three relevant foodborne pathogenic bacteria was studied; the main bioactive metabolites were analyzed using ultraviolet matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI MS). Bacillus CBMDC3f was phylogenetically characterized as Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis after rRNA analysis of the 16S subunit and the gyrA gene (access codes Genbank JX120508 and JX120516, respectively). Its antibacterial potential was evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes (9 strains), B. cereus (3 strains) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Its cell suspension and cell-free supernatant (CFS) exerted significant anti-Listeria and anti-S. aureus activities, while the lipopeptides fraction (LF) also showed anti-B. cereus effect. The UV-MALDI-MS analysis revealed surfactin, iturin and fengycin in the CFS, whereas surfactin predominated in the LF. The CFS from CBMDC3f contained surfactin, iturin and fengycin with four, two and four homologues per family, respectively, whereas four surfactin, one iturin and one fengycin homologues were identified in the LF. For some surfactin homologues, their UV-MALDI-TOF/TOF (MS/MS; Laser Induced Decomposition method, LID) spectra were also obtained. Mass spectrometry analysis contributed with relevant information about the type of lipopeptides that Bacillus strains can synthesize. From our results, surfactin would be the main metabolite responsible for the antibacterial effect. PMID:25820813

  7. Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance. PMID:9457430

  8. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  9. Potential antibacterial activity of coumarin and coumarin-3-acetic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Fauzia Anjum; Munawar, Munawar Ali; Nisa, Mehrun; Ashraf, Mohammad; Kousar, Samina; Arshad, Shafia

    2015-05-01

    Coumarin and coumarin-3-acetic acid derivatives were synthesized by reacting phenols with malic acid, ethyl acetoacetate and ethyl acetylsuccinate in appropriate reaction conditions. All synthesized compounds were subjected to test for their antimicrobial activities against variety of gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacterial stains (Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli) by agar dilution method. Several of them exhibited appreciable good antibacterial activity against the different strains of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. These findings suggest a great potential of these compounds for screening and use as antibacterial agents for further studies with a battery of bacteria. PMID:26004713

  10. Novel antimicrobial agents against multi-drug-resistant gram-positive bacteria: an overview.

    PubMed

    Giannakaki, Venetia; Miyakis, Spiros

    2012-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens to compromise the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. Strains resistant to most (if not all) antibiotics available have emerged. Gram-positive such representatives include strains of Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and highly-resistant to penicillin Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although the phenomenon of antimicrobial drug resistance is expanding, limited number of new antibiotics has been successfully developed in the last few decades. Several novel antimicrobial agents, however, are currently in diverse phases of development and undergoing clinical trials. This review will summarize the main candidates for novel antibacterial agents active against Gram-positive multi-resistant pathogens along with the discussion of some patents relevant to the topic. PMID:23016758

  11. Developing of a novel antibacterial agent by functionalization of graphene oxide with guanidine polymer with enhanced antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Sun, Shiyu; Dong, Alideertu; Hao, Yanping; Shi, Shuangqiang; Sun, Zijia; Gao, Ge; Chen, Yuxin

    2015-11-01

    New materials with excellent antibacterial activity attract numerous research interests. Herein, a facile synthetic method of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHGC) dual-polymer-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) (GO-PEG-PHGC), a novel antibacterial material, was reported. The as-prepared products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray pattern (XRD) and elemental analysis. The antibacterial effect on the bacterial strain was investigated by incubating both Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The results show that GO-PEG-PHGC has enhanced antibacterial activity when compared to GO, GO-PEG or GO-PHGC alone. The improved antibacterial activity was described to be related to a better dispersion of GO-PEG-PHGC in the presence of PEG. This better dispersion leads to a greater contact between the bacteria membrane and nanomaterials, therefore leading to greater cell damage. Not only Gram-negative bacteria but also Gram-positive bacteria are greatly inhibited by this antibacterial agent. With the powerful antibacterial activity as well as its low cost and facile preparation, the GO-PEG-PHGC as a novel antibacterial agent can find potential application in the areas of healthcare and environmental engineering.

  12. Antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites synthesized by chemical reduction route

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the functions of polymers and size of nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites (Ag BNCs). In this research, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were incorporated into biodegradable polymers that are chitosan, gelatin and both polymers via chemical reduction method in solvent in order to produce Ag BNCs. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were employed as a metal precursor and reducing agent respectively. On the other hand, chitosan and gelatin were added as a polymeric matrix and stabilizer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of silver nanoparticles was investigated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton Agar. Results The properties of Ag BNCs were studied as a function of the polymer weight ratio in relation to the use of chitosan and gelatin. The morphology of the Ag BNCs films and the distribution of the Ag NPs were also characterized. The diameters of the Ag NPs were measured and their size is less than 20 nm. The antibacterial trait of silver/chitosan/gelatin bionanocomposites was investigated. The silver ions released from the Ag BNCs and their antibacterial activities were scrutinized. The antibacterial activities of the Ag BNC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (S. aureus and M. luteus) by diffusion method using Muller-Hinton agar. Conclusions The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs with size less than 20 nm was demonstrated and showed positive results against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The Ag NPs stabilized well in the polymers matrix. PMID:22967920

  13. Identification of proteins capable of metal reduction from the proteome of the Gram-positive bacterium Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1 using an NADH-based activity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Otwell, Annie E.; Sherwood, Roberts; Zhang, Sheng; Nelson, Ornella D.; Li, Zhi; Lin, Hening; Callister, Stephen J.; Richardson, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Metal reduction capability has been found in numerous species of environmentally abundant Gram-positive bacteria. However, understanding of microbial metal reduction is based almost solely on studies of Gram-negative organisms. In this study, we focus on Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1, a Gram-positive metal reducer whose genome lacks genes with similarity to any characterized metal reductase. D. reducens has been shown to reduce not only Fe(III), but also the environmentally important contaminants U(VI) and Cr(VI). By extracting, separating, and analyzing the functional proteome of D. reducens, using a ferrozine-based assay in order to screen for chelated Fe(III)-NTA reduction with NADH as electron donor, we have identified proteins not previously characterized as iron reductases. Their function was confirmed by heterologous expression in E. coli. These are the protein NADH:flavin oxidoreductase (Dred_2421) and a protein complex composed of oxidoreductase FAD/NAD(P)-binding subunit (Dred_1685) and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase 1B (Dred_1686). Dred_2421 was identified in the soluble proteome and is predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein. Dred_1685 and Dred_1686 were identified in both the soluble as well as the insoluble (presumably membrane) protein fraction, suggesting a type of membrane-association, although PSORTb predicts both proteins are cytoplasmic. Furthermore, we show that these proteins have the capability to reduce soluble Cr(VI) and U(VI) with NADH as electron donor. This study is the first functional proteomic analysis of D. reducens, and one of the first analyses of metal and radionuclide reduction in an environmentally relevant Gram-positive bacterium.

  14. Identification of a new family of enzymes with potential O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase activity in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Weadge, Joel T; Pfeffer, John M; Clarke, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Background The metabolism of the rigid bacterial cell wall heteropolymer peptidoglycan is a dynamic process requiring continuous biosynthesis and maintenance involving the coordination of both lytic and synthetic enzymes. The O-acetylation of peptidoglycan has been proposed to provide one level of control on these activities as this modification inhibits the action of the major endogenous lytic enzymes, the lytic transglycosylases. The O-acetylation of peptidoglycan also inhibits the activity of the lysozymes which serve as the first line of defense of host cells against the invasion of bacterial pathogens. Despite this central importance, there is a dearth of information regarding peptidoglycan O-acetylation and nothing has previously been reported on its de-acetylation. Results Homology searches of the genome databases have permitted this first report on the identification of a potential family of O-Acetylpeptidoglycan esterases (Ape). These proteins encoded in the genomes of a variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including a number of important human pathogens such as species of Neisseria, Helicobacter, Campylobacter, and Bacillus anthracis, have been organized into three families based on amino acid sequence similarities with family 1 being further divided into three sub-families. The genes encoding these proteins are shown to be clustered with Peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferases (Pat) and in some cases, together with other genes involved in cell wall metabolism. Representative bacteria that encode the Ape proteins were experimentally shown to produce O-acetylated peptidoglycan. Conclusion The hypothetical proteins encoded by the pat and ape genes have been organized into families based on sequence similarities. The Pat proteins have sequence similarity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgI, an integral membrane protein known to participate in the O-acetylation of the exopolysaccaride, alginate. As none of the bacteria that harbor the pat genes produce alginate, we propose that the Pat proteins serve to O-acetylate peptidoglycan which is known to be a maturation event occurring in the periplasm. The Ape sequences have amino acid sequence similarity to the CAZy CE 3 carbohydrate esterases, a family previously known to be composed of only O-acetylxylan esterases. They are predicted to contain the ?/? hydrolase fold associated with the GDSL and TesA hydrolases and they possess the signature motifs associated with the catalytic residues of the CE3 esterases. Specific signature sequence motifs were identified for the Ape proteins which led to their organization into distinct families. We propose that by expressing both Pat and Ape enzymes, bacteria would be able to obtain a high level of localized control over the degradation of peptidoglycan through the attachment and removal of O-linked acetate. This would facilitate the efficient insertion of pores and flagella, localize spore formation, and control the level of general peptidoglycan turnover. PMID:16111493

  15. Comparative In Vitro Activities of SMT19969, a New Antimicrobial Agent, against Clostridium difficile and 350 Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Aerobic and Anaerobic Intestinal Flora Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Merriam, C. Vreni

    2013-01-01

    The comparative in vitro activity of SMT19969, a novel, narrow-spectrum, nonabsorbable agent, was studied against 50 ribotype-defined Clostridium difficile strains, 174 Gram-positive and 136 Gram-negative intestinal anaerobes, and 40 Gram-positive aerobes. SMT19969 was one dilution more active against C. difficile isolates (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml), including ribotype 027 strains, than fidaxomicin (range, 0.06 to 1 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) and two to six dilutions lower than either vancomycin or metronidazole. SMT19969 and fidaxomicin were generally less active against Gram-negative anaerobes, especially the Bacteroides fragilis group species, than vancomycin and metronidazole, suggesting that SMT19969 has a lesser impact on the normal intestinal microbiota that maintain colonization resistance. SMT19969 showed limited activity against other Gram-positive anaerobes, including Bifidobacteria species, Eggerthella lenta, Finegoldia magna, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, with MIC90s of >512, >512, 64, and 64 μg/ml, respectively. Clostridium species showed various levels of susceptibility, with C. innocuum being susceptible (MIC90, 1 μg/ml) and C. ramosum and C. perfringens being nonsusceptible (MIC90, >512 μg/ml). Activity against Lactobacillus spp. (range, 0.06 to >512 μg/ml; MIC90, >512 μg/ml) was comparable to that of fidaxomicin and varied by species and strain. Gram-positive aerobic cocci (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and streptococci) showed high SMT19969 MIC90 values (128 to >512 μg/ml). PMID:23877700

  16. Results of the surveillance of Tedizolid activity and resistance program: in vitro susceptibility of gram-positive pathogens collected in 2011 and 2012 from the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Daniel F; Deane, Jennifer; Bien, Paul A; Locke, Jeffrey B; Zuill, Douglas E; Shaw, Karen J; Bartizal, Ken F

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity and spectrum of tedizolid and comparators were analyzed against 6884 Gram-positive clinical isolates collected from multiple US and European sites as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance Program in 2011 and 2012. Organisms included 4499 Staphylococcus aureus, 537 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 873 enterococci, and 975 β-hemolytic streptococci. The MIC values that inhibited 90% of the isolates within each group (MIC90) were 0.25 μg/mL for Staphylococcus epidermidis and β-hemolytic streptococci and 0.5 μg/mL for S. aureus, other CoNS, and enterococci. Of 16 isolates with elevated tedizolid or linezolid MIC values (intermediate or resistant isolates), 10 had mutations in the genes encoding 23S rRNA (primarily G2576T), 5 had mutations in the genes encoding ribosomal proteins L3 or L4, and 5 carried the cfr multidrug resistance gene. Overall, tedizolid showed excellent activity against Gram-positive bacteria and was at least 4-fold more potent than linezolid against wild-type and linezolid-resistant isolates. Given the low overall frequency of isolates that would be resistant to tedizolid at the proposed break point of 0.5 μg/mL (0.19%) and potent activity against contemporary US and European isolates, tedizolid has the potential to serve as a valuable therapeutic option in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25488274

  17. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts of Leonurus japonicus Houtt.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Liang; Peng, Cheng; Zhou, Qin-Mei; Wan, Feng; Xie, Xiao-Fang; Guo, Li; Li, Xiao-Hong; He, Cheng-Jun; Dai, Ou

    2013-01-01

    The herb and fruits of Leonurus japonicus Houtt., named "Yimucao" and "Chongweizi", respectively, in Chinese, have been widely used in China as gynecological medicines. The components of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils was determined by micro-dilution assay. The results showed large variations in the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the oils. The oil of "Yimucao" showed antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive bacteria and consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, with phytone, phytol, caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene being the most significant constituents, whereas the oil of "Chongweizi", mainly made up of bornyl acetate and aliphatic hydrocarbons, was inactive in the antibacterial assay. Further study of the main compounds in "Yimucao oil" showed that β-caryophyllene had wide-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23344204

  18. Antibacterial activity of lichen Usnea rubrotincta, Ramalina dumeticola, and Cladonia verticillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, Saranyapiriya; Rajan, Vinoshene Pillai; Samsudin, Mohd. Wahid; Din, Laily; Ramanathan, Surash; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activity of extract and chemical constituents of Usnea rubrotincta, Ramalina dumeticola and Cladonia verticillata. Extracts of U. rubrotincta and R. dumeticola showed promising antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The lowest value of MIC (15.63 μg/mL) was observed for the acetone extract of U. rubrotincta against B. subtilis. While extract of C. verticillata was neither active against gram positive nor gram negative bacteria at the highest tested concentration of 500 μg/m. This is the first evaluation of antibacterial activity of lichens found in Malaysia and to our knowledge, this is the first report of antibacterial

  19. Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Action of a Novel Anilinouracil-Fluoroquinolone Hybrid Compound▿

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Michelle M.; LaMarr, William A.; Foster, Kimberly A.; Barnes, Marjorie H.; Skow, Donna J.; Lyden, Patrick T.; Kustigian, Lauren M.; Zhi, Chengxin; Brown, Neal C.; Wright, George E.; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    The anilinouracils (AUs) such as 6-(3-ethyl-4-methylanilino)uracil (EMAU) are a novel class of gram-positive, selective, bactericidal antibacterials which inhibit pol IIIC, the gram-positive-specific replicative DNA polymerase. We have linked various fluoroquinolones (FQs) to the N-3 position of EMAU to generate a variety of AU-FQ “hybrids” offering the potential for targeting two distinct steps in DNA replication. In this study, the properties of a hybrid, “251D,” were compared with those of representative AUs and FQs in a variety of in vitro assays, including pol IIIC and topoisomerase/gyrase enzyme assays, antibacterial, bactericidal, and mammalian cytotoxicity assays. Compound 251D potently inhibited pol IIIC and topoisomerase/gyrase, displayed gram-positive antibacterial potency at least 15 times that of the corresponding AU compound, and as expected, acted selectively on bacterial DNA synthesis. Compound 251D was active against a broad panel of antibiotic-resistant gram-positive pathogens as well as several gram-negative organisms and was also active against both AU- and FQ-resistant gram-positive organisms, demonstrating its capacity for attacking both of its potential targets in the bacterium. 251D also was bactericidal for gram-positive organisms and lacked toxicity in vitro. Although we obtained strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to the individual parent compounds, spontaneous resistance to 251D was not observed. We obtained 251D resistance in multiple-passage experiments, but resistance developed at a pace comparable to those for the parent compounds. This class of AU-FQ hybrids provides a promising new pharmacophore with an unusual dual mechanism of action and potent activity against antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant gram-positive pathogens. PMID:17074800

  20. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of a novel anilinouracil-fluoroquinolone hybrid compound.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michelle M; Lamarr, William A; Foster, Kimberly A; Barnes, Marjorie H; Skow, Donna J; Lyden, Patrick T; Kustigian, Lauren M; Zhi, Chengxin; Brown, Neal C; Wright, George E; Bowlin, Terry L

    2007-01-01

    The anilinouracils (AUs) such as 6-(3-ethyl-4-methylanilino)uracil (EMAU) are a novel class of gram-positive, selective, bactericidal antibacterials which inhibit pol IIIC, the gram-positive-specific replicative DNA polymerase. We have linked various fluoroquinolones (FQs) to the N-3 position of EMAU to generate a variety of AU-FQ "hybrids" offering the potential for targeting two distinct steps in DNA replication. In this study, the properties of a hybrid, "251D," were compared with those of representative AUs and FQs in a variety of in vitro assays, including pol IIIC and topoisomerase/gyrase enzyme assays, antibacterial, bactericidal, and mammalian cytotoxicity assays. Compound 251D potently inhibited pol IIIC and topoisomerase/gyrase, displayed gram-positive antibacterial potency at least 15 times that of the corresponding AU compound, and as expected, acted selectively on bacterial DNA synthesis. Compound 251D was active against a broad panel of antibiotic-resistant gram-positive pathogens as well as several gram-negative organisms and was also active against both AU- and FQ-resistant gram-positive organisms, demonstrating its capacity for attacking both of its potential targets in the bacterium. 251D also was bactericidal for gram-positive organisms and lacked toxicity in vitro. Although we obtained strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to the individual parent compounds, spontaneous resistance to 251D was not observed. We obtained 251D resistance in multiple-passage experiments, but resistance developed at a pace comparable to those for the parent compounds. This class of AU-FQ hybrids provides a promising new pharmacophore with an unusual dual mechanism of action and potent activity against antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant gram-positive pathogens. PMID:17074800

  1. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Pleuromutilin Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huixian; Xiao, Sui; Zhang, Depeng; Mu, Shuhua; Zhang, Lifang; Wang, Xiaoyang; Xue, Feiqun

    2015-01-01

    In this study we describe the design, synthesis, and antibacterial activity of novel pleuromutilin analogs. A series of new compounds containing piperazine and alkylamino or arylamino groups was synthesized. The new compounds were characterized via (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, Fourier transform (FT)-IR and MS, and were further evaluated for their in vitro activity against seven Gram-positive, and one Gram-negative, pathogens. Antibacterial data revealed that all compounds exhibited moderate to good antibacterial activities against sensitive Gram-positive pathogens. Specifically, 9d displayed the best activity: its activity to Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923) is 0.125 µg/mL, which is equal to the control compound tiamulin. The antibacterial activities of 9d to Streptococcus suis (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 µg/mL), Streptococcus agalactiae (MIC of 0.5 µg/mL), and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (MIC of 0.5 µg/mL) were also excellent compared with the control drug erythromycin (MIC of >128 µg/mL). The binding modes of these compounds with active sites were calculated using the programs of Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) and Pymol. PMID:26133714

  2. Trans-generational Immune Priming Protects the Eggs Only against Gram-Positive Bacteria in the Mealworm Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Dubuffet, Aurore; Zanchi, Caroline; Boutet, Gwendoline; Moreau, Jérôme; Teixeira, Maria; Moret, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    In many vertebrates and invertebrates, offspring whose mothers have been exposed to pathogens can exhibit increased levels of immune activity and/or increased survival to infection. Such phenomena, called “Trans-generational immune priming” (TGIP) are expected to provide immune protection to the offspring. As the offspring and their mother may share the same environment, and consequently similar microbial threats, we expect the immune molecules present in the progeny to be specific to the microbes that immune challenged the mother. We provide evidence in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor that the antimicrobial activity found in the eggs is only active against Gram-positive bacteria, even when females were exposed to Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. Fungi were weak inducers of TGIP while we obtained similar levels of anti-Gram-positive activity using different bacteria for the maternal challenge. Furthermore, we have identified an antibacterial peptide from the defensin family, the tenecin 1, which spectrum of activity is exclusively directed toward Gram-positive bacteria as potential contributor to this antimicrobial activity. We conclude that maternal transfer of antimicrobial activity in the eggs of T. molitor might have evolved from persistent Gram-positive bacterial pathogens between insect generations. PMID:26430786

  3. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents. PMID:17134518

  4. Suicin 90-1330 from a Nonvirulent Strain of Streptococcus suis: a Nisin-Related Lantibiotic Active on Gram-Positive Swine Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    LeBel, Geneviève; Vaillancourt, Katy; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections (meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia) in pigs and is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Antibiotics have long been used in the swine industry for disease treatment/prevention and growth promoters. This pattern of utilization resulted in the spread of antibiotic resistance in S. suis worldwide. Interestingly, pigs may harbor S. suis in their tonsils without developing diseases, while North American strains belonging to the sequence type 28 (ST28) are nonvirulent in animal models. Consequently, the aim of this study was to purify and characterize a bacteriocin produced by a nonvirulent strain of S. suis serotype 2, with a view to a potential therapeutic and preventive application. S. suis 90-1330 belonging to ST28 and previously shown to be nonvirulent in an animal model exhibited antibacterial activity toward all S. suis pathogenic isolates tested. The bacteriocin produced by this strain was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Given its properties (molecular mass of <4 kDa, heat, pH and protease stability, and the presence of modified amino acids), the bacteriocin, named suicin 90-1330, belongs to the lantibiotic class. Using a DNA-binding fluorophore, the bacteriocin was found to possess a membrane permeabilization activity. When tested on other swine pathogens, the suicin showed activity against Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas it was inactive against all Gram-negative bacteria tested. Amino acid sequencing of the purified bacteriocin showed homology (90.9% identity) with nisin U produced by Streptococcus uberis. The putative gene cluster involved in suicin production was amplified by PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of 11 open reading frames, including the structural gene and those required for the modification of amino acids, export, regulation, and immunity. Further studies will evaluate the ability of suicin 90-1330 or the producing strain to prevent experimental S. suis infections in pigs. PMID:24973067

  5. A new prenylated flavanoid with antibacterial activity from propolis collected in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Bassuony, Ashraf; AbouZid, Sameh

    2010-01-01

    A novel prenylated flavanoid, isonymphaeol-D (1), together with two known compounds, isonymphaeol-B (2) and nymphaeol-B (3), were isolated from Egyptian propolis. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by various spectroscopic methods. 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative strains (Serratia sp., Pseudomonos sp., Escherichia coli). PMID:20184018

  6. New antibiotics against gram-positives: present and future indications.

    PubMed

    Morata, Laura; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Gram-positive cocci are the most frequent aetiology of community and nosocomially bacterial acquired infections. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria is increasing and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. New antibiotics will be available in the European market during the next months. This revision is focused on lipoglycopeptides, new cephalosporins active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the new oxazolidinone, tedizolid. The purpose of this review is to describe their in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, and experience from clinical trials. PMID:26232669

  7. Vancomycin tolerance in Gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, Miriam; Domenech, Mirian; García, Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antimicrobial agent, represents the last line of defence against a wide range of multi-resistant Gram-positive pathogens such as enterococci, staphylococci and streptococci. However, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and staphylococci, along with vancomycin-tolerant clinical isolates, are compromising the therapeutic efficacy of vancomycin. It is conceivable that tolerance may emerge during prolonged vancomycin use. It has not been until recently, however, that the molecular basis of this tolerance began to be understood. Superoxide anions might be involved in the bactericidal activity of vancomycin in enterococci, and recent evidence suggests that the stringent response is partly responsible for vancomycin tolerance in Enterococcus faecalis. The mechanism of vancomycin tolerance in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae is sometimes associated with a reduction of autolysin activity. Vancomycin tolerance in S. aureus and S. pneumoniae also appears to be somehow related with the two-component regulatory systems linked to cell envelope stress, although the precise molecular regulatory pathways remain poorly defined. PMID:23761352

  8. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of neocryptolepine, biscryptolepine and cryptoquindoline, alkaloids isolated from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta.

    PubMed

    Cimanga, K; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totte, J; Tona, L; Kambu, K; Berghe, D V; Vlietinck, A J

    1998-05-01

    From the 80% EtOH extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schlechter (Periplocaeae) root bark, a cryptolepine isomer named neocryptolepine, and two dimeric alkaloids named biscryptolepine and cryptoquindoline were isolated. These compounds were tested for their putative antibacterial and antifungal activities. Results have indicated that neocryptolepine showed an antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC < 100 μg/ml), but was less acive against Gram-negative bacteria. It also inhibited the growth of the yeast C. albicans. Biscryptolepine exhibited only an activity against some Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 62.5 or 31 μg/ml) while cryptoquindoline did not shown an activity against all selected microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of neocryptolepine and biscryptolepine is bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. No antifungal activity could be observed for all alkaloids in our test system at the highest test concentration of 100 μg/ml. PMID:23195843

  9. Pentacyclic triterpene derivatives possessing polyhydroxyl ring A inhibit gram-positive bacteria growth by regulating metabolism and virulence genes expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lirong; Luo, Heng; Li, Qiji; Wang, Daoping; Zhang, Jianxin; Hao, Xiaojiang; Yang, Xiaosheng

    2015-05-01

    The hydroxyl group in ring A of pentacyclic triterpene is essential for antibacterial activity. Pentacyclic triterpenes bearing three hydroxyl groups in ring A were mainly found in plants and displayed significant antibacterial activity. However, no study reported how to obtain this type of compounds by chemical modification. In this study, twenty-five new pentacyclic triterpenes bearing polyhydroxyl ring A were synthesized from parental compounds ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA). Here, we showed that most of these derivatives displayed a significantly increased activity against Gram-positive bacteria compared to parental compounds in vitro. Some of these compounds exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration values of 1-3-fold more potent than the positive controls. The structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that introducing two hydroxyl groups at positions C-1 and C-2 together with a small alkyl ester group at C-17 of UA and OA strongly enhanced growth-inhibiting activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial mechanism of the active derivatives was shown to be involved in regulating the expression of genes associated with peptidoglycan and respiratory metabolisms, as well as virulence factor in bacteria. The enhanced potency and unique mechanism of action of these new pentacyclic triterpenes make them a promising antibacterial agent for further studies. PMID:25794790

  10. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  11. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  12. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  13. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1996-01-09

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  14. Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Akter, A.; Neela, F. A.; Khan, M. S. I.; Islam, M. S.; Alam, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract. PMID:21188055

  15. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aromatic constituents of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, S; Subramanyam, V R; Bapaji, M; Kole, C R

    1997-01-01

    Five aromatic constituents of essential oils (cineole, citral, geraniol, linalool and menthol) were tested for antimicrobial activity against eighteen bacteria (including Gram-positive cocci and rods, and Gram-negative rods) and twelve fungi (three yeast-like and nine filamentous). In terms of antibacterial activity linalool was the most effective and inhibited seventeen bacteria, followed by cineole, geraniol (each of which inhibited sixteen bacteria), menthol and citral aromatic compounds, which inhibited fifteen and fourteen bacteria, respectively. Against fungi the citral and geraniol oils were the most effective (inhibiting all twelve fungi), followed by linalool (inhibiting ten fungi), cineole and menthol (each of which inhibited seven fungi) compounds. PMID:9218354

  16. Mechanism of Action of Recombinant Acc-Royalisin from Royal Jelly of Asian Honeybee against Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lirong; Liu, Dandan; Li, Meilu; Jin, Feng; Din, Meihui; Parnell, Laurence D.; Lai, Chao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of royalisin, an antimicrobial peptide from the royal jelly produced by honeybees, has been addressed extensively. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a recombinant royalisin, RAcc-royalisin from the royal jelly of Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana, was expressed by fusing with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli BL21, isolated and purified. The agar dilution assays with inhibition zone showed that RAcc-royalisin, similar to nisin, inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin was associated with its concentration, and was weakened by heat treatment ranging from 55°C to 85°C for 15 min. Both RAcc-royalisin and nisin exhibited the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 62.5 µg/ml, 125 µg/ml, and 250 µg/ml against Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus flavus and Staphyloccocus aureus in the microplate assay, respectively. However, RAcc-royalisin did not show antimicrobial activity against tested Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin agrees well with the decrease in bacterial cell hydrophobicity, the leakage of 260-nm absorbing materials, and the observation by transmission electron microscopy, all indicating that RAcc-royalisin induced the disruption and dysfunction of cell walls and membranes. This is the first report detailing the antibacterial mechanism of royalisin against Gram-positive bacteria, and provides insight into the application of recombinant royalisin in food and pharmaceutical industries as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:23056609

  17. Acyl-sulfamates Target the Essential Glycerol-Phosphate Acyltransferase (PlsY) in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Philip; Yao, Jiangwei; Leonardi, Roberta; Maddox, Marcus M.; Luna, Vicki A.; Rock, Charles O.; Lee, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    PlsY is the essential first step in membrane phospholipid synthesis of Gram-positive pathogens. PlsY catalyzes the transfer of the fatty acid from acyl-phosphate to the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the first intermediate in membrane biogenesis. A series of non-metabolizable, acyl-sulfamate analogs of the acyl-phosphate PlsY substrate were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus PlsY and for their Gram-positive antibacterial activities. From this series phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate had the best overall profile, selectively inhibiting S. aureus phospholipid biosynthesis and causing the accumulation of both long-chain fatty acids and acyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates demonstrating that PlsY was the primary cellular target. Bacillus anthracis was unique in being more potently inhibited by long chain acyl-sulfamates than other bacterial species. However, it is shown that Bacillus anthracis PlsY is not more sensitive to the acyl-sulfamates than S. aureus PlsY. Metabolic profiling showed that B. anthracis growth inhibition by the acyl-sulfamates was not specific for lipid synthesis illustrating that the amphipathic acyl-sulfamates can also have off-target effects in Gram-positive bacteria. Nonetheless, this study further advances PlsY as a druggable target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics, through the discovery and validation of the probe compound phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate as a S. aureus PlsY inhibitor. PMID:22795901

  18. Antibacterial Activity of DNA-Stabilized Silver Nanoclusters Tuned by Oligonucleotide Sequence.

    PubMed

    Javani, Siamak; Lorca, Romina; Latorre, Alfonso; Flors, Cristina; Cortajarena, Aitziber L; Somoza, Álvaro

    2016-04-27

    Silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) stabilized by DNA are promising materials with tunable fluorescent properties, which have been employed in a plethora of sensing systems. In this report, we explore their antimicrobial properties in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. After testing 9 oligonucleotides with different sequence and length, we found that the antibacterial activity depends on the sequence of the oligonucleotide employed. The sequences tested yielded fluorescent AgNCs, which can be grouped in blue, yellow, and red emitters. Interestingly, blue emitters yielded poor antibacterial activity, whereas yellow and red emitters afforded an activity similar to silver nitrate. Furthermore, structural studies using circular dichroism indicate the formation of complexes with different stability and structure, which might be one of the factors that modulate their activity. Finally, we prepared a trimeric structure containing the sequence that afforded the best antimicrobial activity, which inhibited the growth of Gram-positive and negative bacteria in the submicromolar range. PMID:27058628

  19. Synthesis, identification, and antibacterial activity of new sulfonamide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nabipour, Hafezeh

    2012-09-01

    Nanoparticles of sulfonamide are prepared by the reaction of a benzenesulfonyl chloride with ammonia or an amine in acetonitrile solvent. The ultrasonic treatment was applied for preparation of nanoparticles. The produced sulfonamide nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and other techniques. The antibacterial activities of sulfonamide nanoparticles derivatives tested against microorganism and compared with bulk forms (non-nano) conditions. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two Gram-positive species, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. These compounds antifungal activities have been studied against, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nigar. PMID:22929481

  20. Antibacterial and allelopathic activity of extract from Castanea sativa leaves.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Giordano, S; Ricciardi, L; Ferrara, S; Montesano, D; Castaldo Cobianchi, R; Vuotto, M L; Ferrara, L

    2000-08-01

    Following the extraction of Castanea sativa with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid (pH 3.0), the ethyl acetate soluble fraction was tested for its antibacterial and allelopathic activity. The extract was shown to have pronounced antibacterial effects against seven of the eight strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used (MIC in the range of 64-256 microg/ml and MBC in the range of 256-512 microg/ml). The active fraction was analyzed by TLC and HPLC showing the presence of rutin, hesperidin, quercetin, apigenin, morin, naringin, galangin and kaempferol. Standards of the identified flavonoids were tested against the same bacterial strains. The highest activity was shown by quercetin, rutin and apigenin. The allelopathic effect was tested against Raphanus sativus seed germination. The extract, quercetin, rutin and apigenin caused a decrease in the percentage of seed germination and root and epicotyl growth. PMID:10930721

  1. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of sulfonamides. SAR and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufas, Wahida; Dupont, Nathalie; Berredjem, Malika; Berrezag, Kamel; Becheker, Imène; Berredjem, Hajira; Aouf, Nour-Eddine

    2014-09-01

    A series of substituted sulfonamide derivatives were synthesized from chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) in tree steps (carbamoylation, sulfamoylation and deprotection). Antibacterial activity in vitro of some newly formed compounds investigated against clinical strains Gram-positive and Gram-negative: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus applying the method of dilution and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) methods. These compounds have significant bacteriostatic activity with totalities of bacterial strains used. DFT calculations with B3LYP/6-31G(d) level have been used to analyze the electronic and geometric characteristics deduced for the stable structure of three compounds presenting conjugation between a nitrogen atom N through its lone pair and an aromatic ring next to it. The principal quantum chemical descriptors have been correlated with the antibacterial activity.

  2. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa. PMID:25587332

  3. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Valle, Demetrio L; Cabrera, Esperanza C; Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria. PMID:26741962

  4. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Demetrio L.; Cabrera, Esperanza C.; Puzon, Juliana Janet M.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria. PMID:26741962

  5. Fighting infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, G

    2009-03-01

    Growing bacterial resistance in Gram-positive pathogens means that what were once effective and inexpensive treatments for infections caused by these bacteria are now being seriously questioned, including penicillin and macrolides for use against pneumococcal infections and-in hospitals-oxacillin for use against staphylococcal infections. As a whole, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive pathogens are rapidly becoming an urgent and sometimes unmanageable clinical problem. Nevertheless, and despite decades of research into the effects of antibiotics, the actual risk posed to human health by antibiotic resistance has been poorly defined; the lack of reliable data concerning the outcomes resulting from antimicrobial resistance stems, in part, from problems with study designs and the methods used in resistence determination. Surprisingly little is known, too, about the actual effectiveness of the many types of intervention aimed at controlling antibiotic resistance. New antibiotics active against MDR Gram-positive pathogens have been recently introduced into clinical practice, and the antibiotic pipeline contains additional compounds at an advanced stage of development, including new glycopeptides, new anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) beta-lactams, and new diaminopyrimidines. Many novel antimicrobial agents are likely to be niche products, endowed with narrow antibacterial spectra and/or targeted at specific clinical problems. Therefore, an important educational goal will be to change the current, long-lasting attitudes of both physicians and customers towards broad-spectrum and multipurpose compounds. Scientific societies, such as the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), must play a leading role in this process. PMID:19335367

  6. Characterization of a 3944 Da bacteriocin, produced by Enterococcus mundtii ST15, with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    De Kwaadsteniet, M; Todorov, S D; Knoetze, H; Dicks, L M T

    2005-12-15

    Strain ST15, isolated from soy beans, and identified as Enterococcus mundtii, produces a 3944 Da bacteriocin that inhibits the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Propionibacterium sp., Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus caprinus. Bacteriocin ST15 is inactivated by proteinase K, pronase, pepsin, protease and Triton X-114, but not when treated with catalase, alpha-amylase, Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, urea and EDTA. No change in activity was recorded after 2 h at pH values between 2.0 and 12.0, and after treatment at 100 degrees C for 90 min. Activity was, however, lost after treatment at 121 degrees C for 20 min. The mode of activity is bactericidal. The highest level of activity (51200 AU ml(-1)) was recorded when cells were grown in MRS broth, pH 6.5. Bacteriocin ST15 differs from other broad-spectrum bacteriocins described for Enterococcus spp. by being active against Gram-negative bacteria and by being smaller. PMID:16102864

  7. Draft Genome Sequence Analysis of a Pseudomonas putida W15Oct28 Strain with Antagonistic Activity to Gram-Positive and Pseudomonas sp. Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lumeng; Hildebrand, Falk; Dingemans, Jozef; Ballet, Steven; Laus, George; Matthijs, Sandra; Berendsen, Roeland; Cornelis, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a member of the fluorescent pseudomonads known to produce the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdine siderophore. P. putida W15Oct28, isolated from a stream in Brussels, was found to produce compound(s) with antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, an unusual characteristic for P. putida. The active compound production only occurred in media with low iron content and without organic nitrogen sources. Transposon mutants which lost their antimicrobial activity had the majority of insertions in genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine, although purified pyoverdine was not responsible for the antagonism. Separation of compounds present in culture supernatants revealed the presence of two fractions containing highly hydrophobic molecules active against P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed the presence of putisolvin biosynthesis genes and the corresponding lipopeptides were found to contribute to the antimicrobial activity. One cluster of ten genes was detected, comprising a NAD-dependent epimerase, an acetylornithine aminotransferase, an acyl CoA dehydrogenase, a short chain dehydrogenase, a fatty acid desaturase and three genes for a RND efflux pump. P. putida W15Oct28 genome also contains 56 genes encoding TonB-dependent receptors, conferring a high capacity to utilize pyoverdines from other pseudomonads. One unique feature of W15Oct28 is also the presence of different secretion systems including a full set of genes for type IV secretion, and several genes for type VI secretion and their VgrG effectors. PMID:25369289

  8. Peptide conversations in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Véronique; Juillard, Vincent; Gardan, Rozenn

    2016-05-01

    Within Gram-positive bacteria, the expression of target genes is controlled at the population level via signaling peptides, also known as pheromones. Pheromones control a wide range of functions, including competence, virulence, and others that remain unknown. Until now, their role in bacterial gene regulation has probably been underestimated; indeed, bacteria are able to produce, by ribosomal synthesis or surface protein degradation, an extraordinary variety of peptides which are released outside bacteria and among which, some are pheromones that mediate cell-to-cell communication. The review aims at giving an updated overview of these peptide-dependant communication pathways. More specifically, it follows the whole peptide circuit from the peptide production and secretion in the extracellular medium to its interaction with sensors at bacterial surface or re-import into the bacteria where it plays its regulation role. In recent years, as we have accumulated more knowledge about these systems, it has become apparent that they are more complex than they first appeared. For this reason, more research on peptide-dependant pathways is needed to develop new strategies for controlling functions of interest in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, such research could lead to alternatives to the use of antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. In perspective, the review identifies new research questions that emerge in this field and that have to be addressed. PMID:25198780

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 μg/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal. PMID:21031260

  10. Characterization of a Novel Small Molecule That Potentiates β-Lactam Activity against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dhanalakshmi R.; Monteiro, João M.; Memmi, Guido; Thanassi, Jane; Pucci, Michael; Schwartzman, Joseph; Pinho, Mariana G.

    2015-01-01

    In a loss-of-viability screen using small molecules against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain USA300 with a sub-MIC of a β-lactam, we found a small molecule, designated DNAC-1, which potentiated the effect of oxacillin (i.e., the MIC of oxacillin decreased from 64 to 0.25 μg/ml). Fluorescence microscopy indicated a disruption in the membrane structures within 15 min of exposure to DNAC-1 at 2× MIC. This permeabilization was accompanied by a rapid loss of membrane potential, as monitored by use of the DiOC2 (3,3′-diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide) dye. Macromolecular analysis showed the inhibition of staphylococcal cell wall synthesis by DNAC-1. Transmission electron microscopy of treated MRSA USA300 cells revealed a slightly thicker cell wall, together with mesosome-like projections into the cytosol. The exposure of USA300 cells to DNAC-1 was associated with the mislocalization of FtsZ accompanied by the localization of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) and PBP4 away from the septum, as well as mild activation of the vraRS-mediated cell wall stress response. However, DNAC-1 does not have any generalized toxicity toward mammalian host cells. DNAC-1 in combination with ceftriaxone is also effective against an assortment of Gram-negative pathogens. Using a murine subcutaneous coinjection model with 108 CFU of USA300 as a challenge inoculum, DNAC-1 alone or DNAC-1 with a sub-MIC of oxacillin resulted in a 6-log reduction in bacterial load and decreased abscess formation compared to the untreated control. We propose that DNAC-1, by exerting a bimodal effect on the cell membrane and cell wall, is a viable candidate in the development of combination therapy against many common bacterial pathogens. PMID:25583731

  11. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L.; Malpartida, F.; Esteban-Cubillo, A.; Pecharromán, C.; Moya, J. S.

    2009-02-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles has been studied. Nano-Ag sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed silver nanoparticles (d50≈11 ± 9 nm) were used as the source of silver. This powder presents a high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) as well as antifungal (against I. orientalis) activity. The observed high activity against yeast has been explained by considering the inhibitory effect of the Ca2+ lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the yeast colonies.

  12. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Pentacyclines: A Novel Class of Tetracycline Analogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Employing a highly efficient total synthesis approach, we synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity diverse and novel pentacycline analogs with systematic variations at C7, C8, C9, and C10. Certain substitution groups, as well as substitution patterns at various positions, were found to be preferred for increased antibacterial activity. A number of pentacycline analogs displayed potent activity in vitro and in vivo, especially against Gram-positive organisms. Several analogs have also shown promising oral bioavailability in rats and cynomolgus monkey. PMID:21500832

  13. Sonochemical coating of silver nanoparticles on textile fabrics (nylon, polyester and cotton) and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelshtein, Ilana; Applerot, Guy; Perkas, Nina; Guibert, Geoffrey; Mikhailov, Serguei; Gedanken, Aharon

    2008-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and deposited on different types of fabrics using ultrasound irradiation. The structure of silver-fabric composites was studied by physico-chemical methods. The mechanism of the strong adhesion of silver nanoparticles to the fibers is discussed. The excellent antibacterial activity of the Ag-fabric composite against Escherichia coli (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) cultures was demonstrated.

  14. Antimicrobials targeted to the replication-specific DNA polymerases of gram-positive bacteria: target potential of dnaE.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marjorie H; Butler, Michelle M; Wright, George E; Brown, Neal C

    2012-10-01

    DNA polymerases pol IIIC and dnaE [i.e. pol IIIE] are essential for replicative DNA synthesis in low G:C Gram-positive eubacteria. Therefore, they have strong potential as targets for development of Gram-positive-selective antibacterial agents. This work has sought to extend to dnaE the recent discovery of antimicrobial agents based on pol IIIC-specific dGTP analogs. Compound 324C, a member of the same dGTP analog family, was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of isolated dnaE in vitro. Surprisingly, 324C had no inhibitory effect in either intact Bacillus subtilis cells or in permeabilized cell preparations used to assess replicative DNA synthesis directly. It is proposed that the failure of 324C in the intact cell is a consequence of two major factors: (i) its template-dependent base pairing mechanism, and (ii) a specific subordinate role which dnaE apparently plays to pol IIIC. To generate an effective dnaE-selective inhibitor of replicative DNA synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria, it will likely be necessary to develop a molecule that attacks the enzyme's active site directly, without binding to template DNA. PMID:23017159

  15. Synthesis, SAR and antibacterial activity of hybrid chloro, dichloro-phenylthiazolyl-s-triazines

    PubMed Central

    Gahtori, Prashant; Ghosh, Surajit Kumar; Singh, Brijesh; Singh, Udaya Pratap; Bhat, Hans Raj; Uppal, Archana

    2011-01-01

    A series of hybrid novel chloro (1a–9a) and dichloro (10b–18b) phenylthiazolyl-s-triazine were synthesized and subsequently subjected to their antibacterial activity against three gram positive viz. Lactobacillus casei (NCIM-2651); Bacillus cereus (NCIM-2458); Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM-2120) and three gram negative viz Salmonella typhimurium (NCIM-2501); Escherichia coli (NCIM-2065); Klebsiella aerogenes (NCIM-2098). The SAR studies around the lead compound revealed that introduction of electron withdrawing groups and amino (–NH–) and mercapto (–S–) linker bridge seemed more promising towards antibacterial activity. Moreover, the virtual Molinspiration screenings are in compliance with Ghose’s rule. PMID:23960775

  16. Synthesis, SAR and antibacterial activity of hybrid chloro, dichloro-phenylthiazolyl-s-triazines.

    PubMed

    Gahtori, Prashant; Ghosh, Surajit Kumar; Singh, Brijesh; Singh, Udaya Pratap; Bhat, Hans Raj; Uppal, Archana

    2012-01-01

    A series of hybrid novel chloro (1a-9a) and dichloro (10b-18b) phenylthiazolyl-s-triazine were synthesized and subsequently subjected to their antibacterial activity against three gram positive viz. Lactobacillus casei (NCIM-2651); Bacillus cereus (NCIM-2458); Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM-2120) and three gram negative viz Salmonella typhimurium (NCIM-2501); Escherichia coli (NCIM-2065); Klebsiella aerogenes (NCIM-2098). The SAR studies around the lead compound revealed that introduction of electron withdrawing groups and amino (-NH-) and mercapto (-S-) linker bridge seemed more promising towards antibacterial activity. Moreover, the virtual Molinspiration screenings are in compliance with Ghose's rule. PMID:23960775

  17. Enhanced antibacterial activities of leonuri herba extracts containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Im, A-Rang; Han, Lina; Kim, E Ray; Kim, Jinwoong; Kim, Yeong Shik; Park, Youmie

    2012-08-01

    We report an efficient and powerful green process to enhance the antibacterial activities of the Leonuri herba extract. Plant sources, especially leaves and herbs, are precious for the generation of gold and silver nanoparticles. Various kinds of polyphenols and hydroxyl groups are capable of processing a reduction reaction to generate metals from its corresponding salts. We have prepared gold and silver nanoparticles with 70% ethanol and water extracts. No other toxic chemicals were utilized and the extracts played dual roles as reducing and stabilizing agents. For the generation of nanoparticles, both oven incubation and autoclaving methods were applied and the reaction conditions were optimized. Surface plasmon resonance band indicated that the formation of nanoparticles was successful. Images of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed mostly spherical nanoparticles ranging from 9.9 to 13.0?nm in size. A water extract containing silver nanoparticles exhibited remarkable (approximately 127-fold) enhancement in antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae when compared with the water extract alone. In addition, antibacterial activity towards Gram-negative bacteria was greater than that against Gram-positive bacteria. The process reported here has the potential to be a new approach to improve the antibacterial activities of plant extracts. PMID:22170803

  18. Glycerol Monolaurate Antibacterial Activity in Broth and Biofilm Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is an antimicrobial agent that has potent activity against gram-positive bacteria. This study examines GML antibacterial activity in comparison to lauric acid, in broth cultures compared to biofilm cultures, and against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and non-gram staining bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings GML is ≥200 times more effective than lauric acid in bactericidal activity, defined as a ≥3 log reduction in colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in broth cultures. Both molecules inhibit superantigen production by these organisms at concentrations that are not bactericidal. GML prevents biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae, as representative gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, tested in 96 well microtiter plates, and simultaneously is bactericidal for both organisms in mature biofilms. GML is bactericidal for a wide range of potential bacterial pathogens, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. In the presence of acidic pH and the cation chelator ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, GML has greatly enhanced bactericidal activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Solubilization of GML in a nonaqueous delivery vehicle (related to K-Y Warming®) enhances its bactericidal activity against S. aureus. Both R and S, and 1 and 2 position lauric acid derivatives of GML exhibit bactericidal activity. Despite year-long passage of Staphylococcus aureus on sub-growth inhibitory concentrations of GML (0.5 x minimum bactericidal concentration), resistance to GML did not develop. Conclusions/Significance GML may be useful as a broad-spectrum human or animal topical microbicide and may be useful as an environmental surface microbicide for management of bacterial infections and contamination. PMID:22808139

  19. Current and novel antibiotics against resistant Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Salata, Robert A; Bonomo, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    The challenge posed by resistance among Gram-positive bacteria, epitomized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and vancomycin-intermediate and -resistant S. aureus (VISA and VRSA) is being met by a new generation of antimicrobials. This review focuses on the new ?-lactams with activity against MRSA (ceftobiprole and ceftaroline) and on the new glycopeptides (oritavancin, dalbavancin, and telavancin). It will also consider the role of vancomycin in an era of existing alternatives such as linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline. Finally, compounds in early development are described, such as iclaprim, friulimicin, and retapamulin, among others. PMID:21694878

  20. Rose Bengal-decorated silica nanoparticles as photosensitizers for inactivation of gram-positive bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanyan; Rogelj, Snezna; Zhang, Peng

    2010-02-01

    A new type of photosensitizer, made from Rose Bengal (RB)-decorated silica (SiO2-NH2-RB) nanoparticles, was developed to inactivate gram-positive bacteria, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with high efficiency through photodynamic action. The nanoparticles were characterized microscopically and spectroscopically to confirm their structures. The characterization of singlet oxygen generated by RB, both free and immobilized on a nanoparticle surface, was performed in the presence of anthracene-9,10-dipropionic acid. The capability of SiO2-NH2-RB nanoparticles to inactivate bacteria was tested in vitro on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that RB-decorated silica nanoparticles can inactivate MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (both gram-positive) very effectively (up to eight-orders-of-magnitude reduction). Photosensitizers of such design should have good potential as antibacterial agents through a photodynamic mechanism.

  1. Rose Bengal-decorated silica nanoparticles as photosensitizers for inactivation of gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Rogelj, Snezna; Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    A new type of photosensitizer, made from Rose Bengal (RB)-decorated silica (SiO2–NH2–RB) nanoparticles, was developed to inactivate gram-positive bacteria, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with high efficiency through photodynamic action. The nanoparticles were characterized microscopically and spectroscopically to confirm their structures. The characterization of singlet oxygen generated by RB, both free and immobilized on a nanoparticle surface, was performed in the presence of anthracene-9,10-dipropionic acid. The capability of SiO2–NH2–RB nanoparticles to inactivate bacteria was tested in vitro on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that RB-decorated silica nanoparticles can inactivate MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (both gram-positive) very effectively (up to eight-orders-of-magnitude reduction). Photosensitizers of such design should have good potential as antibacterial agents through a photodynamic mechanism. PMID:20061596

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:20041800

  3. Fabrication of silver-coated cobalt ferrite nanocomposite and the study of its antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooti, M.; Saiahi, S.; Motamedi, H.

    2013-05-01

    A new silver coated cobalt ferrite nanocomposite, Ag@CoFe2O4, was prepared by a two-step procedure. In the first step, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a combustion method using glycine as a fuel. This ferrite was then coated with nanosilver via chemical reduction of Ag+ solution. The as-synthesized Ag@CoFe2O4 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The antibacterial activity of this composite was investigated against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and compared with those of silver nanoparticles and some standard antibacterial drugs.

  4. Report: Studies on antibacterial activity of some traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Israr, Fozia; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Azhar, Iqbal; Jabeen, Sabahat; Hasan, S M Farid

    2012-07-01

    Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents. PMID:22713958

  5. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis

    PubMed Central

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1–5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6–9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5–30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  6. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis.

    PubMed

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1-5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6-9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5-30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  7. Evaluation of Parmotrema reticulatum Taylor for Antibacterial and Antiinflammatory Activities.

    PubMed

    Jain, A P; Bhandarkar, S; Rai, G; Yadav, A K; Lodhi, S

    2016-01-01

    Lichens produce variety of secondary metabolites including depsides, depsidones and dibenzofurans having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Present study provides evidence for in vitro antibacterial and in vivo antiinflammatory activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of Parmotrema reticulatum. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Cotton pellet-induced granuloma, xylene-induced ear swelling, carragennan-induced edema, histamine-induced and carboxymethylcellulose sodium-induced leukocyte emigration in mice models were used to quantify the antiinflammatory activity. Acetone and ethanol extracts were showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (minimal inhibitory concentration: 100 and 150 μg/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal inhibitory concentration: 100 and 200 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (minimal inhibitory concentration: 200 and 250 μg/ml), and Pseudomonasa eruginosa (minimal inhibitory concentration: 200 and 300 μg/ml). Acetone extract was inhibited edema significantly at 200 mg/kg with xylene, cotton pellet, carragennan and histamine induced edema in vivo models. Ethanol extract was found effective at dose of 300 mg/kg with all in vivo antiinflammatory models. The results showed significant (P<0.01) antiinflammatory effects at 200 and 300 mg/kg dose of acetone and ethanol extracts, respectively, which can be concluded that significant activity may be due to presence of flavanoids in ethanol extract and usnic acid in acetone extract. PMID:27168687

  8. Antibacterial and antitumour activities of some plants grown in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Usta, Canan; Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2014-01-01

    Screening of antibacterial and antitumour activities of 33 different extracts prepared with three types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was conducted. The extracts were obtained from 11 different plant species grown in Turkey: Eryngium campestre L., Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm., Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Coronilla varia L., Onobrychis oxyodonta Boiss., Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb., Asarum europaeum L., Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmelin, Doronicum orientale Hoffm., Campanula glomerata L. and Campanula olympica Boiss. Antibacterial activity against six bacteria was evaluated: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by using disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were most sensitive to the methanolic extract from A. europaeum. S. pyogenes was vulnerable to all used extracts of D. orientale. In addition, ethanolic or methanolic extracts of E. campestre, A. mollis, D. pentaphyllum, C. varia, R. angustifolius, C. glomerata and C. olympica displayed strong antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested gram-negative bacteria. The methanolic extract from R. angustifolius showed a broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antitumour activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium-tumefaciens-induced potato disc tumour assay. Best antitumour activity was obtained with the aqueous extract from A. europaeum and methanolic extract from E. campestre (100% and 86% tumour inhibition, respectively). PMID:26740759

  9. Evaluation of Parmotrema reticulatum Taylor for Antibacterial and Antiinflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jain, A. P.; Bhandarkar, S.; Rai, G.; Yadav, A. K.; Lodhi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Lichens produce variety of secondary metabolites including depsides, depsidones and dibenzofurans having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Present study provides evidence for in vitro antibacterial and in vivo antiinflammatory activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of Parmotrema reticulatum. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Cotton pellet-induced granuloma, xylene-induced ear swelling, carragennan-induced edema, histamine-induced and carboxymethylcellulose sodium-induced leukocyte emigration in mice models were used to quantify the antiinflammatory activity. Acetone and ethanol extracts were showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (minimal inhibitory concentration: 100 and 150 μg/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal inhibitory concentration: 100 and 200 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (minimal inhibitory concentration: 200 and 250 μg/ml), and Pseudomonasa eruginosa (minimal inhibitory concentration: 200 and 300 μg/ml). Acetone extract was inhibited edema significantly at 200 mg/kg with xylene, cotton pellet, carragennan and histamine induced edema in vivo models. Ethanol extract was found effective at dose of 300 mg/kg with all in vivo antiinflammatory models. The results showed significant (P<0.01) antiinflammatory effects at 200 and 300 mg/kg dose of acetone and ethanol extracts, respectively, which can be concluded that significant activity may be due to presence of flavanoids in ethanol extract and usnic acid in acetone extract. PMID:27168687

  10. Synthesis, structure and in vitro antibacterial activities of new hybrid disinfectants quaternary ammonium compounds: pyridinium and quinolinium stilbene benzenesulfonates.

    PubMed

    Chanawanno, Kullapa; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Anantapong, Theerasak; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-09-01

    The series of pyridinium (1-10) and quinolinium (11-20) stilbene benzenesulfonates have been synthesized and their structures were investigated by UV-vis, FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. In addition, compound 5 was also determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria has been determined. The quinolinium derivatives exhibited two very potent characteristic activities, namely, (i) specific activity to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and (ii) with broad band spectrum activity. Compounds 11, 13 and 14 are the most active showing broad spectrum antibacterial activity against gram-positive (Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecalis) and gram-negative bacterium (Shigella sonnei). The MICs of these compounds were found to be better than that of Benzalkonium chloride (BZK), the commercially used disinfectant. PMID:20619939

  11. Acquired inducible antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chancey, Scott T; Zhner, Dorothea; Stephens, David S

    2012-01-01

    A major contributor to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is the expansion of acquired, inducible genetic elements. Although acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance is not new, the interest in its molecular basis has been accelerated by the widening distribution and often silent spread of the elements responsible, the diagnostic challenges of such resistance and the mounting limitations of available agents to treat Gram-positive infections. Acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance elements belong to the accessory genome of a species and are horizontally acquired by transformation/recombination or through the transfer of mobile DNA elements. The two key, but mechanistically very different, induction mechanisms are: ribosome-sensed induction, characteristic of the macrolidelincosamidestreptogramin B antibiotics and tetracycline resistance, leading to ribosomal modifications or efflux pump activation; and resistance by cell surface-associated sensing of ?-lactams (e.g., oxacillin), glycopeptides (e.g., vancomycin) and the polypeptide bacitracin, leading to drug inactivation or resistance due to cell wall alterations. PMID:22913355

  12. Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Wagate, Cyrus G; Mbaria, James M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Kareru, P G; Njuguna, Anne; Gitahi, Nduhiu; Macharia, James K; Njonge, Francis K

    2010-01-01

    Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at <1 mg/mL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation. PMID:19548257

  13. Microcins from Enterobacteria: On the Edge Between Gram-Positive Bacteriocins and Colicins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebuffat, Sylvie

    Most bacteria and archaea produce gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides/proteins called bacteriocins, which are secreted by the producing bacteria to compete against other microorganisms in a given niche. They are considered important mediators of intra- and interspecies interactions and therefore a factor in ­maintaining the microbial diversity and stability. They are ribosomally synthesized, and most of them are produced as inactive precursor proteins, which in some cases are further enzymatically modified. Bacteriocins generally exert potent antibacterial activities directed against bacterial species closely related to the producing bacteria. Bacteriocins are abundant and diverse in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This chapter focuses on colicins and microcins from enterobacteria (mainly Escherichia coli) and on bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Microcins are the lower-molecular-mass bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria with a repertoire of only 14 representatives. They form a very restricted family of bacteriocins, compared to the huge family of LAB bacteriocins that is constituted of several hundreds of peptides, with which microcins share common characteristics. Nevertheless, microcins also show similarities, particularly in their uptake mechanisms, with the higher-molecular-mass colicins, also produced by E. coli strains. On the edge between LAB bacteriocins and colicins, microcins appear to combine highly efficient strategies developed by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at different levels, including uptake, translocation, killing of target cells, and immunity of the producing bacteria, making them important actors of bacterial competitions and fascinating models for novel concepts toward antimicrobial strategies and against resistance mechanisms.

  14. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliszewska, I.; Sadowski, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects but the antimicrobial mechanism have not been clearly revealed. Here, we report on the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles of silver using wild strains of Penicillium isolated from environment. Kinetics of the formation of nanosilver was monitored using the UV-Vis. TEM micrographs showed the formation of silver nanoparticles in the range 10-100 nm. Obtained Ag nanoparticles were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As results, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were effectively inhibited. Nanosilver is a promising candidate for development of future antibacterial therapies because of its wide spectrum of activity.

  15. In Vitro Study to Evaluate Antibacterial and Non-haemolytic Activities of Four Iranian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sepahi, S; Ghorani-Azam, A; Sepahi, S; Asoodeh, A; Rostami, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aqueous extracts of four medicinal plants including Ferula gummosa, Echinophora orientalis, Nasturtium microphyllum and Verbascum thapsus were used to determine their antibacterial activities and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The aim of this study was to assess antibacterial activity of extracts of four medicinal plants against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431, and Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c). Methods: Radial diffusion assay was used to assess the antibacterial activity of extracted samples. Haemolysis assay was also used to examine their nontoxic effects on human red blood cells. Results: This study showed that all the mentioned plants have satisfactory antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of these samples were less than 750 μg/mL. In addition, no significant haemolytic activity was observed at their MIC values. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that all these studied plants have good potential for further studies for drug discovery. PMID:25429470

  16. Antioxidant Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants from the Commelinaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5–10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239

  17. Antioxidant Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants from the Commelinaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5-10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Ti3C2Tx MXene.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Kashif; Helal, Mohamed; Ali, Adnan; Ren, Chang E; Gogotsi, Yury; Mahmoud, Khaled A

    2016-03-22

    MXenes are a family of atomically thin, two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides and carbonitrides with many attractive properties. Two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx (MXene) has been recently explored for applications in water desalination/purification membranes. A major success indicator for any water treatment membrane is the resistance to biofouling. To validate this and to understand better the health and environmental impacts of the new 2D carbides, we investigated the antibacterial properties of single- and few-layer Ti3C2Tx MXene flakes in colloidal solution. The antibacterial properties of Ti3C2Tx were tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) by using bacterial growth curves based on optical densities (OD) and colonies growth on agar nutritive plates. Ti3C2Tx shows a higher antibacterial efficiency toward both Gram-negative E. coli and Gram-positive B. subtilis compared with graphene oxide (GO), which has been widely reported as an antibacterial agent. Concentration dependent antibacterial activity was observed and more than 98% bacterial cell viability loss was found at 200 μg/mL Ti3C2Tx for both bacterial cells within 4 h of exposure, as confirmed by colony forming unit (CFU) and regrowth curve. Antibacterial mechanism investigation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay indicated the damage to the cell membrane, which resulted in release of cytoplasmic materials from the bacterial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent and independent stress induction by Ti3C2Tx was investigated in two separate abiotic assays. MXenes are expected to be resistant to biofouling and offer bactericidal properties. PMID:26909865

  19. Screening for fractions of Oxytropis falcata Bunge with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Hu, J R; Zhan, W Q; Liu, X

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary studies with the four extracts of Oxytropis falcate Bunge exhibited that the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed stronger antibacterial activities against the nine tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The HPLC-scanned and bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of the main flavonoid compounds, i.e. rhamnocitrin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone and 2',4',beta-trihydroxy-dihydrochalcon. Except 2',4',beta-trihydroxy-dihydrochalcon, four other compounds had good antibacterial activities. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the four compounds ranged between 125 and 515 microg mL(-1). Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to these compounds, with MIC and MBC values from 125 to 130 microg mL(-1). This is the first report of antibacterial activity in O. falcate Bunge. In this study, evidence to evaluate the biological functions of O. falcate Bunge is provided, which promote the rational use of this herb. PMID:19521909

  20. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Rhizome of Curcuma aromatica and Partial Purification of Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Revathi, S.; Malathy, N. S.

    2013-01-01

    The hexane extract of Curcuma aromatica, a plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae was tested on 10 bacterial strains (clinical isolates and standard strains). Agar diffusion method was adopted for determining the antibacterial activity of the extract. The hexane extract was found to be active against all Gram-positive strains tested, but inactive against Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined and found to be 539 μg/ml. The phytochemical analysis of hexane extract by gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 13 compounds. The crude hexane extract was partially purified by thin layer chromatography. The zone showing good antibacterial activity was analysed further by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the probable presence of germacrone. PMID:24591751

  2. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Espeletia nana.

    PubMed

    Peña, Alexis; Rojas, Luis; Aparicio, Rosa; Alarcón, Libia; Baptista, José Gregorio; Velasco, Judith; Carmona, Juan; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2012-05-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of Espeletia nana Cuatrec., obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC-MS, which allowed the identification of 24 components, which made up 99.9% of the oil. The most abundant compounds were a-pinene (38.1%), beta-pinene (17.2%), myrcene (15.0%), spathulenol (4.2%), bicyclogermacrene (4.0%), a-zingiberene (4.0%), and gamma-himachalene (3.7%). Antibacterial activity was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the agar disk diffusion method. Activity was observed only against Gram-positive bacteria. MIC values were determined for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (200 microg/mL) and Enterococcusfaecalis ATCC 29212 (600 microg/mL). PMID:22799102

  3. Eco-friendly synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activities of some novel chalcones.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salman A; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; El-Daly, Samy A; Zayed, Mohie A M

    2013-01-01

    Chalcone derivatives have been synthesized by reaction of 1-(2,5-dimethyl-furan-3-yl)-ethanone with corresponding active aldehyde in ethanolic NaOH in microwave oven. The structure of these compounds was established by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and EI-MS spectral analysis. The anti-bacterial activity of these compounds was first tested in vitro by the disc diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined with the reference of standard drug Chloramphenicol. The results showed that pyrazol containing chalcone (compound 8) inhibited both types of bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) better than chloramphenicol. PMID:24397034

  4. Synthesis of novel bisindolylmethane Schiff bases and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Imran, Syahrul; Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Naz, Farzana; Hussain, Memona; Tauseef, Saima

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to develop new antibacterial drugs, some novel bisindolylmethane derivatives containing Schiff base moieties were prepared and screened for their antibacterial activity. The synthesis of the bisindolylmethane Schiff base derivatives 3-26 was carried out in three steps. First, the nitro group of 3,3'-((4-nitrophenyl)-methylene)bis(1H-indole) (1) was reduced to give the amino substituted bisindolylmethane 2 without affecting the unsaturation of the bisindolylmethane moiety using nickel boride in situ generated. Reduction of compound 1 using various catalysts showed that combination of sodium borohydride and nickel acetate provides the highest yield for compound 2. Bisindolylmethane Schiff base derivatives were synthesized by coupling various benzaldehydes with amino substituted bisindolylmethane 2. All synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The bisindolylmethane Schiff base derivatives were evaluated against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Derivatives having halogen and nitro substituent display weak to moderate antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A and S. paratyphi B. PMID:25102118

  5. Antibacterial activity of the venom of Heterometrus xanthopus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Umair; Mujaddad-Ur-Rehman, Malik; Khalid, Nauman; Fawad, Sardar Atiq; Fatima, Anees

    2012-01-01

    Heterometrus xanthopus (Scorpion) is one of the most venomous and ancient arthropods. Its venom contains anti-microbial peptides like hadrurin, scorpine, Pandinin 1, and Pandinin 2 that are able to effectively kill multidrug-resistant pathogens. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-bacterial activity of H. xanthopus venom. Six Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested against 1/100, 1/10, and 1/1 fractions of distilled water diluted and crude venom. 1/100 and 1/10 dilutions were not successful in any of the six bacterial strains studied while the 1/1 dilution was effective on Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 with highest zone of inhibition were obtained on B. subtilis. Crude venom was effective against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 14506, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium, and P. aeruginosa. The most effective results were observed on B. subtilis. PMID:23087515

  6. Antibacterial activity of the venom of Heterometrus xanthopus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Umair; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Khalid, Nauman; Fawad, Sardar Atiq; Fatima, Anees

    2012-01-01

    Heterometrus xanthopus (Scorpion) is one of the most venomous and ancient arthropods. Its venom contains anti-microbial peptides like hadrurin, scorpine, Pandinin 1, and Pandinin 2 that are able to effectively kill multidrug-resistant pathogens. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-bacterial activity of H. xanthopus venom. Six Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested against 1/100, 1/10, and 1/1 fractions of distilled water diluted and crude venom. 1/100 and 1/10 dilutions were not successful in any of the six bacterial strains studied while the 1/1 dilution was effective on Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 with highest zone of inhibition were obtained on B. subtilis. Crude venom was effective against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 14506, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium, and P. aeruginosa. The most effective results were observed on B. subtilis. PMID:23087515

  7. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activities of some new ferrocene-containing penems.

    PubMed

    Long, Bohua; He, Chunlian; Yang, Yingbin; Xiang, Jiannan

    2010-03-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of new penems bearing ferrocenyl group attached to the C-2 position of the penem nucleus were described. The beta-lactanic derivatives obtained had been characterized as sodium salts, through (1)H NMR and IR, as well as through element analysis. Their in vitro antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Gram-negative bacteria were tested. Most of the penems exhibited superior or equivalent efficacy of antibacterial activity as well as high stability to renal dehydropeptidase-I (DHP-I) compared with faropenem. In particular, the compound 14h having a heterocyclic group showed the most potent antibacterial activity. PMID:20053481

  8. Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well. PMID:23569896

  9. Comparative antibacterial activity of hexachlorophane in different formulations used for skin disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J. W.

    1969-01-01

    Two formulations of hexachlorophane have been compared for their antibacterial effects in respect of skin disinfection. It was found that the activity of hexachlorophane is dependent upon its vehicle of formulation. A 2·5% soap gel possesses broad-spectrum bactericidal activity with remarkable speed of kill, whereas a 3% detergent formulation has no bactericidal action against Gram-negative bacteria and only a very slow action against Gram-positive bacteria. In practice the rapid action of the 2·5% soap gel against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive transient skin bacteria can be achieved by correctly applying the preparation directly to the dry hands. It appears that the 2·5% soap gel does not need to rely on mechanical removal of transient organisms as does the 3% detergent. The 2·5% soap gel is more dependable in its action on the resident bacteria than the 3% detergent. It controlled the resident flora in the skin of all subjects tested whereas the latter appeared to be potentiated on the skin of certain individuals only. It has been possible to distinguish between the antibacterial effect on the resident organisms and the mere removal of transient bacteria by mechanical action of the 3% detergent as opposed to antibacterial effect on residents and rapid antibacterial effect on transients by the 2·5% soap gel. PMID:5784696

  10. New antimicrobial approaches to gram positive respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Liapikou, Adamantia; Cilloniz, Catia; Mensa, Josep; Torres, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, we face growing resistance among gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens that cause respiratory infection in the hospital and in the community. The spread of penicillin- and macrolide-resistant pneumococci, Community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (Ca-MRSA), the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant staphylococci underline the need for underline the need for therapeutic alternatives. A number of new therapeutic agents, with activity against the above Gram (+) respiratory pathogens, as ceftaroline, ceftopibrole, telavancin, tedizolid have become available, either in clinical trials or have been approved for clinical use. Especially, the development of new oral antibiotics, as nemonaxacin, omadacyclin, cethromycin and solithromycin will give a solution to the lack of oral drugs for outpatient treatment. In the future the clinician needs to optimize the use of old and new antibiotics to treat gram (+) respiratory serious infections. PMID:24878422

  11. Microwave-assisted synthesis of CdO-ZnO nanocomposite and its antibacterial activity against human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, K.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Gobinath, C.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.

    2015-03-01

    CdO-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared by microwave-assisted method and characterized by X-ray crystallography (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). It exhibits hexagonal cubic structure with an average crystallite size of 27 nm. From the UV-Vis spectra, the bandgap is estimated as 2.92 eV. The fluorescence spectrum shows a near band edge emission at 422 nm. In addition the antibacterial activity of CdO-ZnO nanocomposite was carried out in-vitro against two kinds of bacteria: gram negative bacteria (G -ve) i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and gram positive bacteria (G +ve): Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus spp. This study indicates the zone of inhibition of 40 mm has high antibacterial activity towards the gram positive bacterium S. aureus.

  12. Microwave-assisted synthesis of CdO-ZnO nanocomposite and its antibacterial activity against human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Karthik, K; Dhanuskodi, S; Gobinath, C; Sivaramakrishnan, S

    2015-03-15

    CdO-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared by microwave-assisted method and characterized by X-ray crystallography (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). It exhibits hexagonal cubic structure with an average crystallite size of 27 nm. From the UV-Vis spectra, the bandgap is estimated as 2.92 eV. The fluorescence spectrum shows a near band edge emission at 422 nm. In addition the antibacterial activity of CdO-ZnO nanocomposite was carried out in-vitro against two kinds of bacteria: gram negative bacteria (G -ve) i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and gram positive bacteria (G +ve): Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus spp. This study indicates the zone of inhibition of 40 mm has high antibacterial activity towards the gram positive bacterium S. aureus. PMID:25546491

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Sirodesmin PL Phytotoxin: Application to the Selection of Phytotoxin-Deficient Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Boudart, Georges

    1989-01-01

    Sirodesmin PL, a phytotoxin and mycotoxin produced by Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of stem-canker disease of crucifers, exhibited antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria and particularly Bacillus subtilis. The importance of the disulfide bridge of the molecule in antibacterial activity was demonstrated. A simple and reliable bioassay based on the antibacterial activity of the toxin was performed for screening sirodesmin PL-deficient mutants when grown on solid culture medium. A mutant was selected and found to produce 3,700-fold less toxin than did the wild-type strain. A sensitive procedure for quantification of the toxin by high-pressure liquid chromatography was developed. Levels of product as low as 100 ng could be detected by this procedure. Images PMID:16347949

  14. Unveiling the Mode of Action of Two Antibacterial Tanshinone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongdong; Zhang, Wuxia; Wang, Tingting; Li, Na; Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Jiwen; Duan, Jinyou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 2-(N-pyrrolidine-alkyl) tanshinones bearing pyrrolidine groups were synthesized and the antibacterial mechanism was explored. These derivatives selectively elicited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, their antibacterial activities were time-, concentration-dependent and persistent. It appeared that Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radicals were involved, and the disruption of cell membranes was observed. This study indicates that 2-(N-pyrrolidine-alkyl) tanshinones might be potential candidates as antibacterial agents. PMID:26263982

  15. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Rhoeo spathacea (Swartz) Stearn leaves.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2015-04-01

    The decoction and infusion of Rhoeo spathacea (Swartz) Stearn leaves have been recognized as a functional food particularly in South America, but has not yet gained international popularity as a beverage. The primary aim of this study was to establish the viability of R. spathacea aqueous leaf extracts as a beverage, in terms of its antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity. The antioxidant contents of aqueous and methanol leaf extracts were evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH radical scavenging activity (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP) and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) activity. The aqueous leaf extracts in the forms of decoction and infusion, were found to have comparable TPC and antioxidant activity with other herbal teas previously reported by our research group. Both decoction and infusion also exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram positive and four species of Gram negative bacteria, notably methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A total of four different known phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC and MS, three of which have not been previously reported to be found in this plant. Both the decoction and infusion of the leaves R. spathacea have potential to be popularized into a common beverage. PMID:25829624

  16. A review of the antibacterial activity of Hypericum perforatum L.

    PubMed

    Saddiqe, Zeb; Naeem, Ismat; Maimoona, Alya

    2010-10-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) is a perennial herb that is commonly known as St. John's Wort. The plant has been valued for its important biological and chemical perspectives and its use in the treatment of infectious diseases has been documented in ethnobotanical reports. Most recent interest in H. perforatum has focused on its antidepressant effects, and only recently has its antimicrobial activity been evaluated against a number of bacterial and fungal strains. The present review gives a comprehensive summary of the ethnobotanical uses, chemical constituents and biological effects (antibacterial and antifungal) of this species. A comprehensive account of the chemical constituents including anthraquinone derivatives (naphthodianthrones), flavonoids, prenylated phloroglucinols, tannins and volatile oils is also included. Various types of preparations, ointments, creams and extracts prepared with and compounds isolated from this species have been found to possess a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects such as antidepressant effects, wound-healing, antiviral and antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts can be related to the use of the herb as a wound healer in ancient times. The sole antibacterial principle isolated to date is a tetraketone, hyperforin, also thought to be responsible for the antidepressant activity of the herb. The available literature indicates that it has a higher antibacterial activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria, and alcoholic extracts (methanolic/ethanolic) were shown to possess more pronounced activity than aqueous extracts. Based on the chemical and pharmacological characteristics of H. perforatum, we concluded that this species has beneficial therapeutic properties and has the potential for use as an effective adaptogenic herbal remedy. PMID:20659547

  17. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of Haliclona sp. from the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, M; Alidoust Salimi, M; Alidoust Salimi, P; Motallebi, A; Tamadoni Jahromi, S; Ahmadzadeh, O

    2014-09-01

    In this study, antifungal and antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of Haliclona sp. were assessed (in vitro). The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spizizenii. The antifungal activity of the extracts was determined by using a broth microdilution test against clinical fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Our results showed diethyl ether extract of Haliclona sp. was active on Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, methanol extract in comparison with diethyl ether extract had better activity against C. albicans (MIC: 0.75 mg/mL, MFC: 1.5mg/mL) and A. fumigatus (MIC: 2mg/mL, MFC: 3mg/mL). Aqueous extract had neither antifungal nor antibacterial activities. Based our results, Haliclona sp. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic and antifungal. PMID:24934592

  18. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

    1991-02-01

    Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:2023428

  19. Design, synthesis, and antibacterial activity of novel pleuromutilin derivatives bearing an amino thiazolyl ring.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yong; Wang, Xinyang; Wang, Hui; Yu, Jianghe; Tang, Junming; Wang, Donggeng; Chen, Guangtong; Huang, Jinhua; Li, Yuqin; Zheng, Heng

    2012-08-01

    A series of novel pleuromutilin derivatives containing the amino thiazolyl ring were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antibacterial activities in vitro against Gram-positive clinical bacteria. All the target compounds showed better aqueous solubility compared with the lead compound (10). Most compounds displayed strong antibacterial activities against both susceptible and resistant bacteria, particularly for the compound (12f) which showed extraordinary antibacterial properties superior to amoxicillin and tiamulin. Molecular docking studies revealed that the amino thiazolyl ring, the side chains of the pleuromutilin derivatives, can be adopted in the binding pocket of the 50S ribosomal subunit near the mutilin core. Therefore, our novel findings may provide new insights into the design of novel pleuromutilin derivatives and lay the basis for further studies on these promising antibiotics for human clinical use. PMID:22532317

  20. Antibacterial activity of cotton coated with ZnO and ZnO-CNT composites.

    PubMed

    Yazhini, K Bharathi; Prabu, H Gurumallesh

    2015-01-01

    With the growing public health awareness of the pathogenic effects and strain formations caused by microorganisms, there is an increasing need for antibacterial materials in many applications. Zinc oxide (ZnO)-1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) and ZnO-BTCA-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites were synthesized by simple stirring method. The synthesized materials were coated on cotton fabric by pad-dry-cure method separately. The coated fabrics were characterized by FT-IR analysis that revealed the cross-linking in the composites. The fabrics were screened for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Escherichia coli. The results showed that the ZnO-BTCA-CNT-coated fabric has improved antibacterial activity when compared with the ZnO-BTCA-coated fabric. PMID:25240851

  1. In vitro antibacterial activities and mechanism of sugar fatty acid esters against five food-related bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Heyan; Hao, Tianyang; Li, Siran

    2015-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of sugar fatty acid esters, with different fatty acid and saccharide moieties, against five food-related bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Sucrose monocaprate showed the strongest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, especially Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria were 2.5 and 10 mM, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for Gram-positive bacteria were 10 mM. Time-kill assay also showed that sucrose monocaprate significantly inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. The permeability of the cell membrane and intracellular proteins were both changed by sucrose monocaprate according to cell constituents' leakage, SDS-PAGE and scanning electron microscope assays. It is suggested that sucrose monocaprate, with both emulsifying and antibacterial activities, have a potential to serve as a safe multifunctional food additive in food industries. PMID:25977039

  2. Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds. PMID:21718504

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Pseudonocardia sp. JB05, a Rare Salty Soil Actinomycete against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Nesa; Behroozi, Reza; Farajzadeh, Davoud; Farsi, Mohammad; Akbari-Noghabi, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes many harmful and life-threatening diseases. Some strains of this bacterium are resistant to available antibiotics. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of indigenous actinomycetes to produce antibacterial compounds against S. aureus and characterize the structure of the resultant antibacterial compounds. Therefore, a slightly modified agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of actinomycete isolates against the test microorganisms. The bacterial extracts with antibacterial activity were fractionated by silica gel and G-25 sephadex column chromatography. Also, the active fractions were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Finally, the partial structure of the resultant antibacterial compound was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. One of the isolates, which had a broad spectrum and high antibacterial activity, was designated as Pseudonocardia sp. JB05, based on the results of biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration for this bacterium was 40 AU mL−1 against S. aureus. The antibacterial activity of this bacterium was stable after autoclaving, 10% SDS, boiling, and proteinase K. Thin layer chromatography, using anthrone reagent, showed the presence of carbohydrates in the purified antibacterial compound. Finally, FT-IR spectrum of the active compound illustrated hydroxyl groups, hydrocarbon skeleton, and double bond of polygenic compounds in its structure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the efficient antibacterial activity by a local strain of Pseudonocardia. The results presented in this work, although at the initial stage in bioactive product characterization, will possibly contribute toward the Pseudonocardia scale-up for the production and identification of the antibacterial compounds. PMID:25202705

  4. Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sujogya K.; Padhi, L. P.; Mohanty, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 μg/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:22171295

  5. Iron acquisition by Gram-positive bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeremy S; Holden, David W

    2002-09-01

    For the majority of bacterial pathogens, acquisition of iron from host proteins is a prerequisite for growth during infection. The mechanisms by which Gram-negative bacteria obtain iron from host proteins have been well described, but only recently has substantial progress been made in identifying these mechanisms for Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. This review provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the genetic basis of iron transport for important Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:12361915

  6. Antibacterial activity of chitosan-based matrices on oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sarasam, Aparna R; Brown, Phoebe; Khajotia, Sharukh S; Dmytryk, John J; Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2008-03-01

    Chitosan is a well sought-after polysaccharide in biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability to non-toxic substances, and ease of fabrication into various configurations. However, alterations in the anti-bacterial properties of chitosan in various forms is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-bacterial properties of chitosan matrices in different configurations against two pathogens-Gram-positive Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Two-dimensional (2-D) membranes and three-dimensional (3-D) porous scaffolds were synthesized by air drying and controlled-rate freeze drying. Matrices were suspended in bacterial broths with or without lysozyme (enzyme that degrades chitosan). Influences of pore size, blending with Polycaprolactone (PCL, a synthetic polymer), and neutralization process on bacterial proliferation were studied. Transient changes in optical density of the broth, adhesion characteristics, viability, and contact-dependent bacterial activity were assessed. 3-D porous scaffolds were more effective in reducing the proliferation of S. mutans in suspension than 2-D membranes. However, no significant differences were observed on the proliferation of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Presence of lysozyme significantly increased the antibacterial activity of chitosan against A. actinomycetemcomitans. Pore size did not affect the proliferation kinetics of either species, with or without lysozyme. NaOH neutralization of chitosan increased bacterial adhesion whereas ethanol neutralization inhibited adhesion without lowering proliferation. Mat culture tests indicated that chitosan does not allow proliferation on its surface and it loses antibacterial activity upon blending with PCL. Results suggest that the chemical and structural characteristics of chitosan-based matrices can be manipulated to influence the interaction of different bacterial species. PMID:17701312

  7. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of acylide derivatives bearing an aryl-tetrazolyl chain

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Ling-Xing; Sun, Ping-Hua; Guo, Bao-Qin; Xu, Xing-Jun; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Jia-Zhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Chen, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Seventeen acylides bearing an aryl-tetrazolyl alkyl-substituted side chain were synthesized, starting from clarithromycin, via several reactions including hydrolysis, acetylating, esterification, carbamylation, and Michael addition. The structures of all new compounds were confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. All these synthesized acylides were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activities against gram-positive pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli), using the broth microdilution method. Results showed that compounds 10e, 10f, 10g, 10 h, 10o have good antibacterial activities. PMID:25284984

  8. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L.; Malpartida, F.; Esteban-Cubillo, A.; Pecharromán, C.; Moya, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d50≈30 ± 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca2+ lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of New Dibenzoxepinone Oximes with Fluorine and Trifluoromethyl Group Substituents

    PubMed Central

    Limban, Carmen; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the antimicrobial activity of some newly synthesized dibenz[b,e]oxepin derivatives bearing the oximino moiety, and fluorine (F) and trifluoromethyl (CF3) group substituents. The chemical structure and purity of the new compounds were assessed by using elemental analysis, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The new compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, by qualitative and quantitative assays. Our results demonstrated that the CF3 and F disubstituted compounds could be considered for the further development of novel antimicrobial drugs. PMID:22072897

  10. Clinical update on linezolid in the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Ager, Sally; Gould, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Gram-positive pathogens are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both community and health care settings. Glycopeptides have traditionally been the antibiotics of choice for multiresistant Gram-positive pathogens but there are problems with their use, including the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant strains, tissue penetration, and achieving and monitoring adequate serum levels. Newer antibiotics such as linezolid, a synthetic oxazolidinone, are available for the treatment of resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Linezolid is active against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria and has been generally available for the treatment of Gram-positive infections since 2000. There are potential problems with linezolid use, including its bacteriostatic action and the relatively high incidence of reported adverse effects, particularly with long-term use. Long-term use may also be complicated by the development of resistance. However, linezolid has been shown to be clinically useful in the treatment of several serious infections where traditionally bacteriocidal agents have been required and many of its adverse effects are reversible on cessation. It has also been shown to be a cost-effective treatment option in several studies, with its high oral bioavailability allowing an early change from intravenous to oral formulations with consequent earlier patient discharge and lower inpatient costs. PMID:22787406

  11. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian plant extracts--Clusiaceae.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, Ivana B; Paciencia, Mateus Lb; Nepomuceno, Daniela C; Younes, Riad N; Varella, Antonio D

    2006-05-01

    Twelve extracts obtained from nine plants belonging to six different genera of Clusiaceae were analyzed against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria using the microdilution broth assay. Tovomita aff. longifolia, T. brasiliensis, Clusia columnaris, Garcinia madruno, Haploclathra paniculata, and Caraipa grandifolia extracts showed significant results against the bacteria. The organic extract obtained from the leaves of T. aff. longifolia showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 70 microg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) = 90 microg/ml against E. faecalis and the organic extract made with the stem of C. columnaris showed MIC = 180 microg/ml and MBC = 270 microg/ml against P. aeruginosa. None of the antibacterial extracts showed lethal activity against brine shrimp nauplii. On the other hand, both aqueous and organic extracts obtained from the aerial organs of Vismia guianensis that were cytotoxic to brine shrimp nauplii did not show a significant antibacterial activity in the assay. PMID:16862324

  12. Regulation of Apoptosis by Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ulett, Glen C.; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), is an important physiological mechanism, through which the human immune system regulates homeostasis and responds to diverse forms of cellular damage. PCD may also be involved in immune counteraction to microbial infection. Over the past decade, the amount of research on bacteria-induced PCD has grown tremendously, and the implications of this mechanism on immunity are being elucidated. Some pathogenic bacteria actively trigger the suicide response in critical lineages of leukocytes that orchestrate both the innate and adaptive immune responses; other bacteria proactively prevent PCD to benefit their own survival and persistence. Currently, the microbial virulence factors, which represent the keys to unlocking the suicide response in host cells, are a primary focus of this field. In this review, we discuss these bacterial “apoptosis regulatory molecules” and the apoptotic events they either trigger or prevent, the host target cells of this regulatory activity, and the possible ramifications for immunity to infection. Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Listeria, and Clostridia species are discussed as important agents of human infection that modulate PCD pathways in eukaryotic cells. PMID:19081777

  13. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Song, Cunfeng; Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina; Dai, Lizong

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. PMID:24433897

  14. Antimicrobial activity of isopteropodine.

    PubMed

    García, Rubén; Cayunao, Cesia; Bocic, Ronny; Backhouse, Nadine; Delporte, Carle; Zaldivar, Mercedes; Erazo, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation for the determination of antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa, has led to the isolation of isopteropodine (0.3%), a known Uncaria pentacyclic oxindol alkaloid that exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria. PMID:16042336

  15. Nanostructured Ag4O4 films with enhanced antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellasega, D.; Facibeni, A.; Di Fonzo, F.; Bogana, M.; Polissi, A.; Conti, C.; Ducati, C.; Casari, C. S.; Bassi, A. Li; Bottani, C. E.

    2008-11-01

    Ag4O4 (i.e. silver(I)-silver(III) oxide) thin films with tailored structure and morphology at the nanoscale have been grown by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen-containing atmosphere and they are shown to exhibit a very strong antibacterial activity towards Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) and to completely inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus). The formation of this particular high-valence silver oxide is explained in terms of the reactions occurring during the expansion of the ablated species in the reactive atmosphere, leading to the formation of low-stability Ag-O dimers and atomic oxygen, providing reactive species at the substrate where the film grows. PLD is shown to allow control of the structure (i.e. crystallinity and grain size) and of the morphology of the films, from compact and columnar to foam-like, thus allowing the deposition of nanocrystalline films with increased porosity and surface area. The antibacterial action towards E. coli is demonstrated and is shown to be superior to that of nanostructured Ag-based medical products. This can be related to the release of Ag ions with high oxidation number, which are known to be very reactive towards bacteria, and to the peculiar morphology at the nanoscale resulting in a large effective surface area.

  16. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from serine.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, N; Judith Vijaya, J; John Kennedy, L; Priadharsini, K; Palani, P

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent and serine as a reducing agent. UV-Visible spectra were used to confirm the formation of Ag NPs by observing the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 443nm. The emission spectrum of Ag NPs showed an emission band at 484nm. In the presence of microwave radiation, serine acts as a reducing agent, which was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) were used to investigate the morphology of the synthesized sample. These images showed the sphere-like morphology. The elemental composition of the sample was determined by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) was used to find the crystalline nature of the Ag NPs. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized Ag NPs was analyzed by the cyclic voltammetry (CV). Antibacterial experiments showed that the prepared Ag NPs showed relatively similar antibacterial activities, when compared with AgNO3 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25686955

  17. Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Peptide-Modified Lysin Against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    The global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing threat to public health worldwide. Natural bacteriophage lysins are promising alternatives in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, but not Gram-negative ones, like Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the barriers posed by their outer membranes. Recently, modifying a natural lysin with an antimicrobial peptide was found able to break the barriers, and to kill Gram-negative pathogens. Herein, a new peptide-modified lysin (PlyA) was constructed by fusing the cecropin A peptide residues 1–8 (KWKLFKKI) with the OBPgp279 lysin and its antibacterial activity was studied. PlyA showed good and broad antibacterial activities against logarithmic phase A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, but much reduced activities against the cells in stationary phase. Addition of outer membrane permeabilizers (EDTA and citric acid) could enhance the antibacterial activity of PlyA against stationary phase cells. Finally, no antibacterial activity of PlyA could be observed in some bio-matrices, such as culture media, milk, and sera. In conclusion, we reported here a novel peptide-modified lysin with significant antibacterial activity against both logarithmic (without OMPs) and stationary phase (with OMPs) A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa cells in buffer, but further optimization is needed to achieve broad activity in diverse bio-matrices. PMID:26733995

  18. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jaewook; Park, Jaesung; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-04-01

    Like mammalian cells, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria release nano-sized membrane vesicles into the extracellular environment either in a constitutive manner or in a regulated manner. These bacterial extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids enriched with bioactive proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and virulence factors. Recent progress in this field supports the critical pathophysiological functions of these vesicles in both bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. This review provides an overview of the current understanding on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles, especially regarding the biogenesis, components, and functions in poly-species communities. We hope that this review will stimulate additional research in this emerging field of bacterial extracellular vesicles and contribute to the development of extracellular vesicle-based diagnostic tools and effective vaccines against pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25704309

  19. Wall teichoic acids of gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephanie; Santa Maria, John P; Walker, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The peptidoglycan layers of many gram-positive bacteria are densely functionalized with anionic glycopolymers known as wall teichoic acids (WTAs). These polymers play crucial roles in cell shape determination, regulation of cell division, and other fundamental aspects of gram-positive bacterial physiology. Additionally, WTAs are important in pathogenesis and play key roles in antibiotic resistance. We provide an overview of WTA structure and biosynthesis, review recent studies on the biological roles of these polymers, and highlight remaining questions. We also discuss prospects for exploiting WTA biosynthesis as a target for new therapies to overcome resistant infections. PMID:24024634

  20. Curcumin bioconjugates: studies on structure-activity relationship and antibacterial properties against clinically isolated strains.

    PubMed

    Rai, Diwakar; Kumari, Garima; Singh, Anuradha; Singh, Ramendra K

    2013-11-01

    Curcumin bioconjugates, with folic acid, fatty acids and dipeptide, have shown much lower MIC than curcumin against clinically isolated Gram-positive, S.viridians, and Gram-negative bacterial strains, E. coli, P. mirabilis and K. pneumoniae. Polynomial regression analysis was performed to establish a correlation between lipophilicity (logP) and antibacterial activity (pMIC), which showed the efficacy of these molecules against the bacterial strains in the following order: E. coli > S viridans = K. pneumoniae > P. mirabilis. The regression coefficients (R(2) = 0.62 to 0.91) derived for each strain were correlated significantly and led to a conclusion that it was the amphiphilic nature that governed the antibacterial activity. Thus, the bioconjugate 2, having folic acid attached at active methylene site of curcumin with free phenolic hydroxyls, showed the best result. PMID:23189999

  1. Antibacterial activity of extracts and constituents of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme.

    PubMed

    Kayser, O; Kolodziej, H

    1997-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of extracts and isolated constituents (scopoletin, umckalin, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin, 6,8-dihydroxy-5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, (+)-catechin, gallic acid and its methyl ester) of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme (Geraniaceae), plant species used in folk medicine by the Southern African native population, was evaluated against 8 microorganisms, including 3 Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus 1451) and 5 Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) varied with the preparation of the extracts and microorganisms tested, from about 0.6 mg/ml for aqueous phases to over 10 mg/ml for crude Pelargonium extracts. With the exception of the ineffective (+)-catechin, all the potentially active compounds exhibited antibacterial activities with MICs of 200-1000 micrograms/ml. The results provide for a rational basis of the traditional use of the titled Pelargonium species. PMID:9434601

  2. Facile Preparation of Ag/NiO Composite Nanosheets and Their Antibacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cui-E.; Pan, Lu; Wang, Cheng-Run; He, Yi; Wu, Yong-Feng; Xue, Sai-Sai

    2016-01-01

    Sheet-like precursors of NiO and Ag/NiO with different Ag contents were synthesized by a facile and easily controlled hydrothermal method. The NiO and Ag/NiO composite nanosheets were prepared by calcination of the corresponding precursors at 400°C for 3 h. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial activity of NiO and Ag/NiO composites to several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was examined. Results showed that NiO nanosheets hardly exhibited antibacterial activity; however, Ag/NiO composites displayed higher activity even with low Ag content.

  3. Y-doped zinc oxide (YZO) nanoflowers, microstructural analysis and test their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Sudheer Pamidimarri, D V N; Kim, Deuk Young; Na, Jeong-Geol

    2015-08-01

    Self-assembled 3D flower-like yttrium-doped zinc oxide (YZO) microstructures composed of nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal-precipitation, and tested their antibacterial activity. The morphological, structural, and compositional properties of YZO nanoflowers were characterized by various techniques, which confirmed a well-crystallized wurtzite hexagonal phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of YZO nanopowder showed the 3d core level spectra of yttrium (Y), which formed by two components at about 158.2 eV (3d5/2) and 160.4 eV (3d3/2). The antibacterial activity of YZO nanoflowers were investigated using both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Enhancement in antibacterial activity was observed by the incorporation of yttrium (Y: 2 at.%) of nanorod-based-flowers because of increased surface area. The prepared YZO nanocomposite showed potential as an antibacterial agent with applications in controlling the spread of infections and also the ability of fast antibacterial activity which can hinder the re-emergence of infection. PMID:26042696

  4. Fabrication of pDMAEMA-coated silica nanoparticles and their enhanced antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Jooyoung; Jung, Yujung; Lee, Inkyu; Jang, Jyongsik

    2013-10-01

    Thin pDMAEMA shells were formed on the surface of silica nanoparticles via vapor deposition polymerization. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis have been used to characterize the resulting pDMAEMA-coated silica nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies reveal that the thin polymer shell is formed on the silica surface. In this work, the particle diameter can be controlled (from ~19 to ~69 nm) by varying the size of silica core. The antibacterial performance of the core-shell nanoparticles was investigated against both Gram-positive (Escherichia coli) and Gram-negative (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Importantly, the nano-sized pDMAEMA particles presented antibacterial activity against both bacteria without additional quaternization due to its enlarged surface area. Additionally, the bactericidal efficiency was enhanced by reducing the particle size, because the expanded surface area of the cationic polymer nanoparticles provides more active sites that can kill the bacteria. PMID:23838333

  5. Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of cultivated thyme: antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic characterisation.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-15

    Bioactivity of thyme has been described, but mostly related to its essential oils, while studies with aqueous extracts are scarce. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract, as also their phenolic compounds, were evaluated and compared. Decoction showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (either phenolic acids or flavonoids), followed by infusion and hydroalcoholic extract. In general, the samples were effective against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris and Enterobacter sakazakii) bacteria, with decoction presenting the most pronounced effect. This sample also displayed the highest radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Data obtained support the idea that compounds with strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities are also water-soluble. Furthermore, the use of thyme infusion and decoction, by both internal and external use, at recommended doses, is safe and no adverse reactions have been described. PMID:25148969

  6. Antibacterial activity of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in liquid.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Raid A; Sulaiman, Ghassan M; Abdulrahman, Safa A; Marzoog, Thorria R

    2015-08-01

    In this study, (50-110 nm) magnetic iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of iron target in dimethylformamide (DMF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The structural properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-VIS absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of laser fluence on the characteristics of these nanoparticles was studied. Antibacterial activities of iron oxide nanoparticles were tested against Gram-positive; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The results showed a noteworthy inhibition on both bacterial strains. The preparation conditions were found to affect significantly the antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were used to capture rapidly S. aureus bacteria under the magnetic field effect. PMID:26042717

  7. Antibacterial barbituric acid analogues inspired from natural 3-acyltetramic acids; synthesis, tautomerism and structure and physicochemical property-antibacterial activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong-Chul; Moloney, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, tautomerism and antibacterial activity of novel barbiturates is reported. In particular, 3-acyl and 3-carboxamidobarbiturates exhibited antibacterial activity, against susceptible and some resistant Gram-positive strains of particular interest is that these systems possess amenable molecular weight, rotatable bonds and number of proton-donors/acceptors for drug design as well as less lipophilic character, with physicochemical properties and ionic states that are similar to current antibiotic agents for oral and injectable use. Unfortunately, the reduction of plasma protein affinity by the barbituric core is not sufficient to achieve activity in vivo. Further optimization to reduce plasma protein affinity and/or elevate antibiotic potency is therefore required, but we believe that these systems offer unusual opportunities for antibiotic drug discovery. PMID:25710842

  8. Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Shonna M.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, or AMPs, play a significant role in many environments as a tool to remove competing organisms. In response, many bacteria have evolved mechanisms to resist these peptides and prevent AMP-mediated killing. The development of AMP resistance mechanisms is driven by direct competition between bacterial species, as well as host and pathogen interactions. Akin to the number of different AMPs found in nature, resistance mechanisms that have evolved are just as varied and may confer broad-range resistance or specific resistance to AMPs. Specific mechanisms of AMP resistance prevent AMP-mediated killing against a single type of AMP, while broad resistance mechanisms often lead to a global change in the bacterial cell surface and protect the bacterium from a large group of AMPs that have similar characteristics. AMP resistance mechanisms can be found in many species of bacteria and can provide a competitive edge against other bacterial species or a host immune response. Gram-positive bacteria are one of the largest AMP producing groups, but characterization of Gram-positive AMP resistance mechanisms lags behind that of Gram-negative species. In this review we present a summary of the AMP resistance mechanisms that have been identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria. Understanding the mechanisms of AMP resistance in Gram-positive species can provide guidelines in developing and applying AMPs as therapeutics, and offer insight into the role of resistance in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:25419466

  9. Protein secretion and surface display in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2012-01-01

    The cell wall peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria functions as a surface organelle for the transport and assembly of proteins that interact with the environment, in particular, the tissues of an infected host. Signal peptide-bearing precursor proteins are secreted across the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. Some precursors carry C-terminal sorting signals with unique sequence motifs that are cleaved by sortase enzymes and linked to the cell wall peptidoglycan of vegetative forms or spores. The sorting signals of pilin precursors are cleaved by pilus-specific sortases, which generate covalent bonds between proteins leading to the assembly of fimbrial structures. Other precursors harbour surface (S)-layer homology domains (SLH), which fold into a three-pronged spindle structure and bind secondary cell wall polysaccharides, thereby associating with the surface of specific Gram-positive microbes. Type VII secretion is a non-canonical secretion pathway for WXG100 family proteins in mycobacteria. Gram-positive bacteria also secrete WXG100 proteins and carry unique genes that either contribute to discrete steps in secretion or represent distinctive substrates for protein transport reactions. PMID:22411983

  10. Presence of squalene in gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Amdur, B H; Szabo, E I; Socransky, S S

    1978-01-01

    The presence of the isoprenoid squalene, synthesized de novo, was demonstrated in 64 out of 73 strains of gram-positive bacteria by thin-layer chromatography. This observation was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography, chemical reactivity, incorporation of radiolabeled precursor, and by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy of thin-layer chromatography-recovered material. PMID:670148

  11. Diversity of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine macroalgae from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Sergio; Alvarado, Pamela; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Garrido, Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the diversity and roles of Gram-positive and pigmented bacteria in Antarctic environments, especially those associated with marine macroorganisms. This work is the first study about the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine Antarctic macroalgae. A total of 31 pigmented Gram-positive strains were isolated from the surface of six species of macroalgae collected in the King George Island, South Shetland Islands. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ≥99%, 18 phylotypes were defined, which were clustered into 11 genera of Actinobacteria (Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Kocuria, Labedella, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Rhodococcus, Salinibacterium and Sanguibacter) and one genus of the Firmicutes (Staphylococcus). It was found that five isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against a set of macroalgae-associated bacteria. The active isolates were phylogenetically related to Agrococcus baldri, Brachybacterium rhamnosum, Citricoccus zhacaiensis and Kocuria palustris. The results indicate that a diverse community of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria is associated with Antartic macroalgae and suggest its potential as a promising source of antimicrobial and pigmented natural compounds. PMID:26507390

  12. Indirect conductimetric assay of antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Sawai, J; Doi, R; Maekawa, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Kojima, H

    2002-11-01

    The applicability of indirect conductimetric assays for evaluation of antibacterial activity was examined. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) obtained by the indirect method was consistent with that by the direct conductimetric assay and the turbidity method. The indirect assay allows use of growth media, which cannot be used in the direct conductimetric assay, making it possible to evaluate the antibacterial activity of insoluble or slightly soluble materials with high turbidity, such as antibacterial ceramic powders. PMID:12407467

  13. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly desirable. Here we report a responsive, broad-spectrum, antibacterial agent that can be temporally activated with light, whereupon it auto-inactivates on the scale of hours. The use of such a ‘smart’ antibiotic might prevent the build-up of active antimicrobial material in the environment. Reversible optical control over active drug concentration enables us to obtain pharmacodynamic information. Precisely localized control of activity is achieved, allowing the growth of bacteria to be confined to defined patterns, which has potential for the development of treatments that avoid interference with the endogenous microbial population in other parts of the organism.

  14. Silver/poly (lactic acid) nanocomposites: preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Jokar, Maryam; Darroudi, Majid

    2010-01-01

    In this study, antibacterial characteristic of silver/poly (lactic acid) nanocomposite (Ag/PLA-NC) films was investigated, while silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized into biodegradable PLA via chemical reduction method in diphase solvent. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were respectively used as a silver precursor and reducing agent in the PLA, which acted as a polymeric matrix and stabilizer. Meanwhile, the properties of Ag/PLA-NCs were studied as a function of the Ag-NP weight percentages (8, 16, and 32 wt% respectively), in relation to the use of PLA. The morphology of the Ag/PLA-NC films and the distribution of the Ag-NPs were also characterized. The silver ions released from the Ag/PLA-NC films and their antibacterial activities were scrutinized. The antibacterial activities of the Ag/PLA-NC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) by diffusion method using Muller–Hinton agar. The results indicated that Ag/PLA-NC films possessed a strong antibacterial activity with the increase in the percentage of Ag-NPs in the PLA. Thus, Ag/PLA-NC films can be used as an antibacterial scaffold for tissue engineering and medical application. PMID:20856832

  15. Bioinspired synthesis of polydopamine/Ag nanocomposite particles with antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengjiao; Zhang, Guoxing; Xia, Tian; Li, Zhenni; Zhao, Kai; Deng, Ziwei; Guo, Dingzong; Peng, Bo

    2015-10-01

    Mussel-inspired chemistry (polydopamine) offers great opportunities to develop inexpensive and efficient process for many types of materials with complex shapes and functions in a mild and friendly environment. This paper describes a facile, yet green approach to synthesize polydopamine/silver (PDA/Ag) nanocomposite particles with a combination use of polydopamine chemistry and electroless metallization of Ag. In this approach, monodisperse spherical polydopamine particles are first synthesized by the oxidation and self-polymerization of dopamine (monomer) in an alkaline water-ethanol solution at room temperature, which are served as the active templates for secondary reactions due to the abundant catechol and amine groups on the surface. Subsequently, the silver precursor-[Ag(NH3)2](+) ions introduced are easily absorbed onto the surface of the PDA particles, and are immediately in situ reduced to metallic Ag nanoparticles with the help of these active catechol and amine groups. During the preparation, no additional reductants, toxic reagents and intricate instruments are needed. These as-synthesized PDA/Ag nanocomposite particles are ideal candidates for antibacterial application because they do not show significant cytotoxicity against HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells in the in vitro cytotoxicity assay, whereas demonstrate enhanced antibacterial abilities against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) in the antibacterial assays. Owing to their excellent cytocompatibilities and antibacterial activities, these PDA/Ag nanocomposite particles can be considered as the promising antibacterial materials for future biomedical applications. PMID:26117750

  16. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles on broad spectrum of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Sumera; Shah, Zaheer Hussain; Shahid, Sammia; Yasmin, Farida

    2013-01-01

    Nano particles have received increased attention regarding their potential utility in biomedicine. In this study, we have investigated the antibacterial activity of ZnO nano particles with various particle sizes. ZnO nano particles were synthesized by conventional precipitation method using zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide as precursors followed by the calcinations of precipitates at 350 °C for 6 h (sample A) and 550 °C for 2 h (sample B). The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and morphology of the particles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Antibacterial activities against four different microorganisms were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and zones of inhibitions using different concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity was directly proportional to the concentration and inversely proportional to the particle size in all the microorganisms; moreover Gram positive bacteria were generally more affected than Gram negative bacteria. The stability of ZnO nanoparticles combined with potent antibacterial properties favours their application as antibacterials against broad spectrum of microorganisms. PMID:24169721

  17. Silver-doped manganese dioxide and trioxide nanoparticles inhibit both gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kunkalekar, R K; Prabhu, M S; Naik, M M; Salker, A V

    2014-01-01

    Palladium, ruthenium and silver-doped MnO2 and silver doped Mn2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation technique. SEM-TEM analysis revealed the nano-size of these synthesized samples. XPS data illustrates that Mn is present in 4+ and 3+ oxidation states in MnO2 and Mn2O3 respectively. Thermal analysis gave significant evidence for the phase changes with increasing temperature. Antibacterial activity of these synthesized nanoparticles on three Gram positive bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Streptococcus epidermis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and three Gram negative cultures (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella abony NCTC 6017 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 1003) was investigated using a disc diffusion method and live/dead assay. Only Ag-doped MnO2 and Ag-doped Mn2O3 nanoparticles showed antibacterial property against all six-test bacteria but Ag-doped MnO2 was found to be more effective than Ag-doped Mn2O3. PMID:24140741

  18. Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Klancnik, Anja; Piskernik, Sasa; Jersek, Barbara; Mozina, Sonja Smole

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate diffusion and dilution methods for determining the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their mixtures. Several methods for measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a plant extract are available, but there is no standard procedure as there is for antibiotics. We tested different plant extracts, their mixtures and phenolic acids on selected gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Infantis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli) with the disk diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and macrodilution methods. The disk diffusion method was appropriate only as a preliminary screening test prior to quantitative MIC determination with dilution methods. A comparison of the results for MIC obtained by agar dilution and broth microdilution was possible only for gram-positive bacteria, and indicated the latter as the most accurate way of assessing the antimicrobial effect. The microdilution method with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) or INT (2-p-iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride) to indicate the viability of aerobic bacteria was found to be the best alternative approach, while only ATP determination was appropriate for microaerophilic Campylobacter spp. Using survival curves the kinetics of bacterial inactivation on plant extract exposure was followed for 24h and in this way the MIC values determined by the microdilution method were confirmed as the concentrations of extracts that inhibited bacterial growth. We suggest evaluation of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts using the broth microdilution method as a fast screening method for MIC determination and the macrodilution method at selected MIC values to confirm bacterial inactivation. Campylobacter spp. showed a similar sensitivity to plant extracts as the tested gram-positive bacteria, but S. Infantis and E. coli O157:H7 were more resistant. PMID:20171250

  19. Native and heterologous production of bacteriocins from gram-positive microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Mabel; Jaramillo, Diana; Melendez, Adelina Del Pilar; J Alméciga-Diaz, Carlos; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2011-12-01

    In nature, microorganisms can present several mechanisms for setting intercommunication and defense. One of these mechanisms is related to the production of bacteriocins, which are peptides with antimicrobial activity. Bacteriocins can be found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria are of particular interest due to the industrial use of several strains that belong to this group, especially lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which have the status of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganisms. In this work, we will review recent tendencies in the field of invention and state of art related to bacteriocin production by Gram-positive microorganism. Hundred-eight patents related to Gram-positive bacteriocin producers have been disclosed since 1965, from which 57% are related bacteriocins derived from Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus strains. Surprisingly, patents regarding heterologous bacteriocins production were mainly presented just in the last decade. Although the major application of bacteriocins is concerned to food industry to control spoilage and foodborne bacteria, during the last years bacteriocin applications have been displacing to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and plant disease resistance and growth promotion. PMID:22360468

  20. Native and heterologous production of bacteriocins from gram-positive microorganisms.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Muñoz M; Jaramillo D; Melendez Adel P; J Alméciga-Diaz C; Sánchez OF

    2011-12-01

    In nature, microorganisms can present several mechanisms for setting intercommunication and defense. One of these mechanisms is related to the production of bacteriocins, which are peptides with antimicrobial activity. Bacteriocins can be found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria are of particular interest due to the industrial use of several strains that belong to this group, especially lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which have the status of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganisms. In this work, we will review recent tendencies in the field of invention and state of art related to bacteriocin production by Gram-positive microorganism. Hundred-eight patents related to Gram-positive bacteriocin producers have been disclosed since 1965, from which 57% are related bacteriocins derived from Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus strains. Surprisingly, patents regarding heterologous bacteriocins production were mainly presented just in the last decade. Although the major application of bacteriocins is concerned to food industry to control spoilage and foodborne bacteria, during the last years bacteriocin applications have been displacing to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and plant disease resistance and growth promotion.

  1. Synthesis and anti-bacterial activity of some heterocyclic chalcone derivatives bearing thiofuran, furan, and quinoline moieties.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chang-Ji; Jiang, Sheng-Ming; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Ye, Bai-Jun; Piao, Hu-Ri

    2011-10-01

    36 Novel heterocyclic chalcone derivatives were synthesized and tested for their anti-bacterial activity. Some compounds presented good anti-microbial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (including the multidrug-resistant clinical isolates). This class of compounds presented high potency against Streptococcus mutans, among which the derivatives F2 with an MIC of 2 µg/mL was as active as the standard drug (norfloxacin) and less active than oxacillin. All the compounds did not inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli CCARM 1924 or Escherichia coli CCARM 1356) at 64 µg/mL. PMID:21887800

  2. Antibacterial activity of human neutrophil defensin HNP-1 analogs without cysteines.

    PubMed

    Varkey, Jobin; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2005-11-01

    The antibacterial activity of human neutrophil defensin HNP-1 analogs without cysteines has been investigated. A peptide corresponding to the HNP-1 sequence without the six cysteines (HNP-1deltaC) exhibited antibacterial activity toward gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Truncated analogs wherein the nine N-terminal residues of HNP-1 and the remaining three cysteines were deleted (HNP-1deltaC18) or the G was replaced with A (HNP-1deltaC18A) also exhibited antibacterial activity. Substantial activity was observed for HNP-1deltaC and HNP-1deltaC18 in the presence of 100 mM NaCl, except in the case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The linear peptides were active in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), indicating that proton motive force was not essential for killing of bacteria by the peptides. In fact, in the presence of CCCP, the peptides were active against P. aeruginosa even in the presence of 100 mM NaCl. The antibacterial activity of HNP-1deltaC, but not that of the shorter, 18-residue peptides, was attenuated in the presence of serum. The generation of defensins without cysteines would be easier than that of disulfide-linked defensins. Hence, linear defensins could have potential as therapeutic agents. PMID:16251296

  3. Synthesis and anti-bacterial activities of a bis-chalcone derived from thiophene and its bis-cyclized products.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Khan, Salman A

    2011-01-01

    A chalcone was prepared by the reaction of terephthalaldehyde with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. Treatment of this chalcone with thiosemicarbazide/phenyl hydrazine/guanidine hydrochloride/thiourea afforded the corresponding pyrazoline, pyrazole, and pyrimidine in good yields. All the new compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, GC-MS and elemental analyses. The anti-bacterial activity of these compounds were first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined with the reference of standard drug chloramphenicol. The results showed that the pyrazoline derivative is better at inhibiting growth of both types of bacteria (gram-positive and gram-negative) compared to chloramphenicol. PMID:21228758

  4. Human odontoblast-like cells produce nitric oxide with antibacterial activity upon TLR2 activation

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Bellanger, Aurélie; Ducret, Maxime; Aubert-Foucher, Elisabeth; Richard, Béatrice; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Bleicher, Françoise; Carrouel, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The penetration of cariogenic oral bacteria into enamel and dentin during the caries process triggers an immune/inflammatory response in the underlying pulp tissue, the reduction of which is considered a prerequisite to dentinogenesis-based pulp regeneration. If the role of odontoblasts in dentin formation is well known, their involvement in the antibacterial response of the dental pulp to cariogenic microorganisms has yet to be elucidated. Our aim here was to determine if odontoblasts produce nitric oxide (NO) with antibacterial activity upon activation of Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), a cell membrane receptor involved in the recognition of cariogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Human odontoblast-like cells differentiated from dental pulp explants were stimulated with the TLR2 synthetic agonist Pam2CSK4. We found that NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 gene expression was increased in Pam2CSK4-stimulated odontoblast-like cells compared to unstimulated ones. NOS2 was the most up-regulated gene. NOS1 and NOS3 proteins were not detected in Pam2CSK4-stimulated or control cultures. NOS2 protein synthesis, NOS activity and NO extracellular release were all augmented in stimulated samples. Pam2CSK4-stimulated cell supernatants reduced Streptococcus mutans growth, an effect counteracted by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In vivo, the NOS2 gene was up-regulated in the inflamed pulp of carious teeth compared with healthy ones. NOS2 protein was immunolocalized in odontoblasts situated beneath the caries lesion but not in pulp cells from healthy teeth. These results suggest that odontoblasts may participate to the antimicrobial pulp response to dentin-invading Gram-positive bacteria through NOS2-mediated NO production. They might in this manner pave the way for accurate dental pulp healing and regeneration. PMID:26157393

  5. A novel and efficient one step synthesis of 2-amino-5-cyano-6-hydroxy-4-aryl pyrimidines and their anti-bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, M B; Salunkhe, S M; Patil, D R; Anbhule, P V

    2009-06-01

    The first simple and efficient approach towards one step synthesis of 2-amino-5-cyano-6-hydroxy-4-aryl pyrimidines has been developed by three component condensation of aromatic aldehydes, ethyl cyanoacetate and guanidine hydrochloride in alkaline ethanol. The synthesized compounds evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The some of the compounds showed excellent zone of inhibition against tested bacteria. PMID:19036478

  6. Antibacterial activity in bovine lactoferrin-derived peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, K S; Milne, J M; Grieve, P A; Dionysius, D A; Smith, R

    1997-01-01

    Several peptides sharing high sequence homology with lactoferricin B (Lf-cin B) were generated from bovine lactoferrin (Lf) with recombinant chymosin. Two peptides were copurified, one identical to Lf-cin B and another differing from Lf-cin B by the inclusion of a C-terminal alanine (lactoferricin). Two other peptides were copurified from chymosin-hydrolyzed Lf, one differing from Lf-cin B by the inclusion of C-terminal alanyl-leucine and the other being a heterodimer linked by a disulfide bond. These peptides were isolated in a single step from chymosin-hydrolyzed Lf by membrane ion-exchange chromatography and were purified by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). They were characterized by N-terminal Edman sequencing, mass spectrometry, and antibacterial activity determination. Pure lactoferricin, prepared from pepsin-hydrolyzed Lf, was purified by standard chromatography techniques. This peptide was analyzed against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria before and after reduction of its disulfide bond or cleavage after its single methionine residue and was found to inhibit the growth of all the test bacteria at a concentration of 8 microM or less. Subfragments of lactoferricin were isolated from reduced and cleaved peptide by reverse-phase HPLC. Subfragment 1 (residues 1 to 10) was active against most of the test microorganisms at concentrations of 10 to 50 microM. Subfragment 2 (residues 11 to 26) was active against only a few microorganisms at concentrations up to 100 microM. These antibacterial studies indicate that the activity of lactoferricin is mainly, but not wholly, due to its N-terminal region. PMID:8980754

  7. Daptomycin: a novel lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Vogt, Ferdinand; Sodian, Ralf; Weis, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the historical background of drug resistance of Gram-positive pathogens as well as to describe in detail the novel lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic aspects are reviewed and the current clinical use of daptomycin is presented. Daptomycin seems to be a reliable drug in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, infective right-sided endocarditis, and bacteremia caused by Gram-positive agents. Its unique mechanism of action and its low resistance profile, together with its rapid bactericidal action make it a favorable alternative to vancomycin in multi-drug resistant cocci. The role of daptomycin in the treatment of prosthetic material infections, osteomyelitis, and urogenital infections needs to be evaluated in randomized clinical trials. PMID:21694898

  8. Synthesis of N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles and their enhanced antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Alideertu; Huang, Jinfeng; Lan, Shi; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Linghan; Wang, Weiwei; Zhao, Tianyi; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Fengqi; Gao, Ge; Chen, Yuxin

    2011-07-01

    N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial activity were synthesized through the encapsulation of silica nanoparticles as support with polymeric N-halamine. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles displayed powerful antibacterial performance against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, and their antibacterial activities have been greatly improved compared with their bulk counterparts. Therefore, these N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles have the potential for various significant applications such as in medical devices, healthcare products, water purification systems, hospitals, dental office equipment, food packaging, food storage, household sanitation, etc.

  9. Gram-positive Rod Surveillance for Early Anthrax Detection

    PubMed Central

    Begier, Elizabeth M.; Barrett, Nancy L.; Mshar, Patricia A.; Johnson, David G.

    2005-01-01

    Connecticut established telephone-based gram-positive rod (GPR) reporting primarily to detect inhalational anthrax cases more quickly. From March to December 2003, annualized incidence of blood isolates was 21.3/100,000 persons; reports included 293 Corynebacterium spp., 193 Bacillus spp., 73 Clostridium spp., 26 Lactobacillus spp., and 49 other genera. Around-the-clock GPR reporting has described GPR epidemiology and enhanced rapid communication with clinical laboratories. PMID:16229790

  10. Preparation and antibacterial activity of Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ping; Li, Huimin; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Hu, Jianbing; Tan, Weihong; Zhang, Shouchun; Yang, Xiaohai

    2007-07-01

    Bifunctional Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles with both superparamagnetic and antibacterial properties were prepared by reducing silver nitrate on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using the water-in-oil microemulsion method. Formation of well-dispersed nanoparticles with sizes of 60 ± 20 nm was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. X-ray diffraction patterns and UV-visible spectroscopy indicated that both Fe3O4 and silver are present in the same particle. The superparamagnetism of Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles was confirmed with a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their antibacterial activity was evaluated by means of minimum inhibitory concentration value, flow cytometry, and antibacterial rate assays. The results showed that Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles presented good antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria), Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive bacteria) and Bacillus subtilis (spore bacteria). Furthermore, Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles can be easily removed from water by using a magnetic field to avoid contamination of surroundings. Reclaimed Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles can still have antibacterial capability and can be reused.

  11. Full Spectrum Visible LED Light Activated Antibacterial System Realized by Optimized Cu2O Crystals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaotong; Xue, Chaowen; Fang, Fang; Song, Xiangwei; Yu, Fen; Liu, Miaoxing; Wei, Zhipeng; Fang, Xuan; Zhao, Dongxu; Xin, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaolei

    2016-04-01

    Assisted by three-dimensional printing technology, we proposed and demonstrated a full spectrum visible light activated antibacterial system by using a combination of 500 nm sized Cu2O crystals and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Further improved antibacterial ratios were achieved, for the first time, with pure Cu2O for both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria among all of the six different color LED lamps. For practical antibacterial applications, we revealed that the nonwoven fabric could act as excellent carrier for Cu2O crystals and provide impressive antibacterial performance. Furthermore, integrated with our self-developed app, the poly(ethylene terephthalate) film loaded with Cu2O crystals also showed significant antibacterial property, thus making it possible to be applied in field of touch screen. The present research not only provided a healthier alternative to traditional ultraviolet-based sterilization but also opened an auto-response manner to decrease the rate of microbial contamination on billions of touch screen devices. PMID:26978589

  12. Virulence Plasmids of Nonsporulating Gram-Positive Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Van Tyne, Daria; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Gram-positive bacteria are leading causes of many types of human infection, including pneumonia, skin and nasopharyngeal infections, as well as urinary tract and surgical wound infections among hospitalized patients. These infections have become particularly problematic because many of the species causing them have become highly resistant to antibiotics. The role of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-positive bacteria has been well studied; less well understood is the role of mobile elements in the evolution and spread of virulence traits among these pathogens. While these organisms are leading agents of infection, they are also prominent members of the human commensal ecology. It appears that these bacteria are able to take advantage of the intimate association between host and commensal, via virulence traits that exacerbate infection and cause disease. However, evolution into an obligate pathogen has not occurred, presumably because it would lead to rejection of pathogenic organisms from the host ecology. Instead, in organisms that exist as both commensal and pathogen, selection has favored the development of mechanisms for variability. As a result, many virulence traits are localized on mobile genetic elements, such as virulence plasmids and pathogenicity islands. Virulence traits may occur within a minority of isolates of a given species, but these minority populations have nonetheless emerged as a leading problem in infectious disease. This chapter reviews virulence plasmids in nonsporulating Gram-positive bacteria, and examines their contribution to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25544937

  13. Identification of gram positive cocci isolated from urine.

    PubMed

    Mathai, E; Margaret, A; George, V; Brahmadathan, K N

    1994-07-01

    A total of 195 strains of Gram positive cocci isolated from urine, in pure culture and in counts of > 10(3) colony forming units/ml, during January-September 1992, were speciated using schema recently described by Facklam and Washington, and Kloos and Lambe. Seventy three (85%) of the 86 enterococci were identified as Enterococcus faecalis while 11 (13%) were E. faecium. Eighteen (29%) of the 62 staphylococcal isolates were Staphylococcus aureus; 20 (45%) of the 44 coagulase negative staphylococci were speciated as Staph. haemolyticus. Of the 47 strains of beta haemolytic streptococci isolated, 45 (96%) were group B; one was group G and the other group F. Our results show the diverse species of Gram positive cocci associated with bacteriuria and the need to speciate them in a diagnostic laboratory. In the context of a larger number of tests required for the speciation of Gram positive cocci, we recommend a simplified scheme which we found feasible on a routine basis. PMID:7927545

  14. Structural biology of gram-positive bacterial adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Vengadesan, Krishnan; Narayana, Sthanam V L

    2011-01-01

    The structural biology of Gram-positive cell surface adhesins is an emerging field of research, whereas Gram-negative pilus assembly and anchoring have been extensively investigated and are well understood. Gram-positive surface proteins known as MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) and individual proteins that assemble into long, hair-like organelles known as pili have similar features at the primary sequence level as well as at the tertiary structural level. Some of these conserved features are essential for their transportation from the cytoplasm and for cell wall anchoring. More importantly, the MSCRAMMs and the individual pilins are assembled with building blocks that are variants of structural modules used for human immunoglobulins. MSCRAMMs target the host's extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen, fibrinogen, and fibronectin, and they have received considerable attention from structural biologists in the last decade, who have primarily been interested in understanding their interactions with host tissue. The recent focus is on the newly discovered pili of Gram-positive bacteria, and in this review, we highlight the advances in understanding of the individual pilus constituents and their associations and stress the similarities between the individual pilins and surface proteins. PMID:21404359

  15. Virulence Plasmids of Nonsporulating Gram-Positive Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Van Tyne, Daria; Gilmore, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are leading causes of many types of human infection, including pneumonia, skin and nasopharyngeal infections, as well as urinary tract and surgical wound infections among hospitalized patients. These infections have become particularly problematic because many of the species causing them have become highly resistant to antibiotics. The role of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-positive bacteria has been well studied; less well understood is the role of mobile elements in the evolution and spread of virulence traits among these pathogens. While these organisms are leading agents of infection, they are also prominent members of the human commensal ecology. It appears that these bacteria are able to take advantage of the intimate association between host and commensal, via virulence traits that exacerbate infection and cause disease. However, evolution into an obligate pathogen has not occurred, presumably because it would lead to rejection of pathogenic organisms from the host ecology. Instead, in organisms that exist as both commensal and pathogen, selection has favored the development of mechanisms for variability. As a result, many virulence traits are localized on mobile genetic elements, such as virulence plasmids and pathogenicity islands. Virulence traits may occur within a minority of isolates of a given species, but these minority populations have nonetheless emerged as a leading problem in infectious disease. This chapter reviews virulence plasmids in nonsporulating Gram-positive bacteria, and examines their contribution to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25544937

  16. Conjugative type IV secretion systems in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Arends, Karsten; Keller, Walter; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation presents the most important means to spread antibiotic resistance and virulence factors among closely and distantly related bacteria. Conjugative plasmids are the mobile genetic elements mainly responsible for this task. All the genetic information required for the horizontal transmission is encoded on the conjugative plasmids themselves. Two distinct concepts for horizontal plasmid transfer in Gram-positive bacteria exist, the most prominent one transports single stranded plasmid DNA via a multi-protein complex, termed type IV secretion system, across the Gram-positive cell envelope. Type IV secretion systems have been found in virtually all unicellular Gram-positive bacteria, whereas multicellular Streptomycetes seem to have developed a specialized system more closely related to the machinery involved in bacterial cell division and sporulation, which transports double stranded DNA from donor to recipient cells. This review intends to summarize the state of the art of prototype systems belonging to the two distinct concepts; it focuses on protein key players identified so far and gives future directions for research in this emerging field of promiscuous interbacterial transport. PMID:24129002

  17. Novel antibacterial polypeptide produced by Lactobacillus paracasei strain NRRL B-50314

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the production and characterization of a novel antibacterial polypeptide, designated as laparaxin, which is secreted by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314. The crude laparaxin has antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including the following: lactic a...

  18. Novel antibacterial polypeptide laparaxin produced by Lactobacillus paracasei strain NRRL B-50314 via fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the production and characterization of a novel antibacterial polypeptide, designated laparaxin, which is secreted by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314. Crude laparaxin has antibacterial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including: lactic acid bacteria ...

  19. Synthesis and antibacterial activity evaluation of two androgen derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Maria, López-Ramos; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Bety, Sarabia-Alcocer

    2015-01-01

    In this study two androgen derivatives were synthesized using several strategies; the first stage an aza-steroid derivative (3) was developed by the reaction of a testosterone derivative (1) with thiourea (2) in presence of hydrogen chloride. The second step, involves the synthesis of an amino-steroid derivative (4) by the reaction of 1 with 2 using boric acid as catalyst. The third stage was achieved by the preparation of an aminoaza-androgen derivative (6) by the reaction of 3 with ethylenediamine using boric acid as catalyst. In addition, the compound 6 was made reacting with dihydrotestosterone to form a new androgen derivative (7) in presence of boric acid. The following step was achieved by the reaction of 7 with chloroacetyl chloride to synthesize an azetidinone-androgen derivative (8) using triethylamine as catalyst. Additionally, a thiourea-androgen derivative (9) was synthetized by the reaction of 4 with dihydrotestosterone using boric acid as catalyst. Finally, the compound 9 was made reacting with chloroacetyl chloride in presence of triethylamine to synthesize a new azetidinone-androgen derivative (10). On the other hand, antibacterial activity of compounds synthesized was evaluated on Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae) and Gram positive (Staphylococos aureus) bacteria. The results indicate that only the compound 3 and 8 decrease the growth bacterial of E. coli and V. cholerae. Nevertheless, growth bacterial of S. aureus was not inhibited by these compounds. These data indicate that antibacterial activity exerted by the compounds 3 and 8 depend of their structure chemical in comparison with the controls and other androgen derivatives that are involved in this study. PMID:25448363

  20. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hymenocardia acida.

    PubMed

    Sofidiya, Margaret O; Odukoya, Olukemi A; Afolayan, Anthony J; Familoni, Oluwole B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts from Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae). The inhibition values of the extracts and quercetin were found to be very close, with no significant differences at a concentration of 0.05 mg mL(-1) in their ability to inhibit 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Total proanthocyanidins for both water and methanol extracts were 20.2 +/- 0.01 and 30.6 +/- 0.51 mg g(-1) (catechin equivalent) while the total phenol contents were 20.0 +/- 0.52 and 35.6 +/- 1.42 mg mL(-1) (tannic acid equivalent), respectively. Positive correlations R(2) = 0.85, R(2) = 0.94, R(2) = 0.97 for DPPH, reducing power and 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo thiazoline)6-sulphonic acid (ABTS). Linear regression analysis also produced a high correlation coefficient with total proanthocyanidins (DPPH, R(2) = 0.69; ABTS, R(2) = 0.94). H. acida extracts showed low antibacterial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value >or=5.0 mg mL(-1)) against gram negative bacteria but significantly (MIC value gram positive strains tested. Qualitative TLC of the extract was positive for flavonoids, phenols, steroids and triterpenoids. The results of this study support the use of H. acida in traditional Nigerian medicine and show that the alcoholic extract of the leaves can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidant and can be of assistance in some dermatological problems. PMID:19173124

  1. Antibacterial activity of polyphenols of garcinia indica.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C; Kumar, K Akshaya; Dennis, T J; Kumar, T S S P N S Sanath

    2011-07-01

    The aim of present work is to study the antibacterial activity of polyphenols isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble of methanol extract of stem bark of Garcinia indica against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli by paper disc method. The results showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus at higher concentrations, moderate at lower concentrations, against S. typhi moderate at higher concentrations but no activity against E. coli even at higher concentration for flavononylflavone. With proauthocyanin S. Aureus, S. Typhi and E. coli showed good antibacterial activity at higher concentration only. PMID:22707838

  2. Purification, characterization and antibacterial activity of L-amino acid oxidase from Cerastes cerastes.

    PubMed

    Hanane-Fadila, Ziad-Meziane; Fatima, Laraba-Djebari

    2014-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance presents a real problem in which new antibacterial molecules from natural secretions could be beneficial in the development of new drugs. In this study, Cerastes cerastes venom was investigated for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the halo inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). An L-amino acid oxidase (CcLAAO) was purified from this venom using three chromatographic steps; its homogeneity (60 kDa) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. LC-MS/MS analysis of CcLAAO showed similarities with other LAAO enzymes from Echis ocellatus and Viridovipera stejnegeri venoms. CcLAAO presents an antibacterial activity against three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) with MIC values of 10, 10, and 20 μg/mL, respectively. However, no effect was observed against Escherichia coli and yeast strains. Kinetic parameters of CcLAAO evaluated on L-leucine at pH 8.0 and 20°C were Km = 0.06 mmol and Vmax = 164 mmol/min. PMID:24817275

  3. Antibacterial and Synergistic Activity of Pentacyclic Triterpenoids Isolated from Alstonia scholaris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Min; Chen, Hsiao-Ting; Wu, Zong-Yen; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant that has been historically used in "Dai" ethnopharmacy to treat infectious diseases in China. Although various pharmacological activities have been reported, the antimicrobial constitutes of A. scholaris have not yet been identified. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial constitutes from the leaf extract of A. scholaris and to assess the synergistic effects of isolated compounds with antibiotics against bacterial pathogens.; (2) METHODS: The chemical constitutes isolated from the leaf extract of A. scholaris were structurally identified by NMR. The antibacterial and synergistic effect of compounds was assessed by calculating the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill assay.; (3) RESULTS: Six pentacyclic triterpenoids were structurally identified as (1) lupeol, (2) betulin, (3) 3-hydroxy-11-ursen-28,13-olide, (4) betulinic acid, (5) oleanolic acid and (6) ursolic acid. Both oleanolic and ursolic acid showed antibacterial activity but were limited to Gram-positive bacteria. Ursolic acid showed a synergistic effect with ampicillin and tetracycline against both Bacillus cereus and S. aureus.; (4) CONCLUSION: These findings reflect that pentacyclic triterpenoids are the antibacterial chemicals in A. scholaris. The ability of ursolic acid to enhance the activity of antibiotics can constitute a valuable group of therapeutic agents in the future. PMID:26821000

  4. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Yanglingmycin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Bo; Dan, Wen-Jia; Tan, Fang-Fang; Cui, Li-Hui; Yuan, Zhi-Peng; Wu, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wen

    2014-10-30

    The synthesis of Yanglingmycin and its enantiomer, along with eighteen Yanglingmycin analogues is reported. The structures were confirmed mainly by analyses of NMR spectral data. Antibacterial activity assays showed that Yanglingmycin and some of its analogues exhibited significant antibacterial activities against two important agricultural pathogenic bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, with MIC values ranging from 3.91 to 15.62 μg/mL. The antibacterial activities exhibited by Yanglingmycin and its analogues are promising, suggesting potential in the development of compounds for novel bactericides. PMID:25355464

  5. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of Yanglingmycin analogues.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Bo; Dan, Wen-Jia; Tan, Fang-Fang; Cui, Li-Hui; Yuan, Zhi-Peng; Wu, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of Yanglingmycin and its enantiomer, along with eighteen Yanglingmycin analogues is reported. The structures were confirmed mainly by analyses of NMR spectral data. Antibacterial activity assays showed that Yanglingmycin and some of its analogues exhibited significant antibacterial activities against two important agricultural pathogenic bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 3.91 to 15.62 µg/mL. The antibacterial activities exhibited by Yanglingmycin and its analogues are promising, suggesting potential in the development of compounds for novel bactericides. PMID:25743192

  6. Improvement of antibacterial activity of some sulfa drugs through linkage to certain phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany S; Eldehna, Wagdy M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Elaasser, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Aziz, Marwa M

    2014-10-01

    RAB1 5 is a lead antibacterial agent in which trimethoprim is linked to phthalazine moiety. Similarly, our strategy in this research depends on the interconnection between some sulfa drugs and certain phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffolds in an attempt to enhance their antibacterial activity. This approach was achieved through the combination of 4-substituted phthalazin-1(2H)-ones 9a, b or 14a, b with sulfanilamide 1a, sulfathiazole 1b or sulfadiazine 1c through amide linkers 6a, b to produce the target compounds 10a-d and 15a-e, respectively. The antibacterial activity of the newly synthesized compounds showed that all tested compounds have antibacterial activity higher than that of their reference sulfa drugs 1a-c. Compound 10c represented the highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC = 0.39 μmol/mL. Moreover, compound 10d displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium with MIC = 0.39 and 0.78 μmol/mL, respectively. PMID:25113876

  7. The Antibacterial Activity of Cassia fistula Organic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Motamedi, Hossein; Vafei, Mouzhan; Bakhtiari, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cassia fistula, is a flowering plant and a member of Fabaceae family. Its leaves are compound of 4 - 8 pairs of opposite leaflets. There are many Cassia species around the world which are used in herbal medicine. Objectives: This study was designed to examine in vitro anti-bacterial activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula native to Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The microbial inhibitory effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula was tested on 3 Gram positive: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis and 5 Gram negative: Salmonella Typhi, Kelebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis bacterial species using disc diffusion method at various concentrations. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) were measured by the tube dilution assay. Results: The extract of C. fistula was effective against B. cereus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The most susceptible microorganisms to ethanolic and methanolic extracts were E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Also B. cereus and S. aureus showed the least sensitivity to ethanolic and methanolic extracts, respectively. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of ethanolic extracts against S. aureus, E. coli, S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae were also determined. Conclusions: With respect to the obtained results and regarding to the daily increase of the resistant microbial strains to the commercial antibiotics, it can be concluded that these extracts can be proper candidates of antibacterial substance against pathogenic bacterial species especially S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis. PMID:25147664

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of S-4661, a New Carbapenem

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Masakatsu; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Ohno, Akira; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of S-4661, a new 1β-methylcarbapenem, were compared with those of imipenem, meropenem, biapenem, cefpirome, and ceftazidime. The activity of S-4661 against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci was comparable to that of imipenem, with an MIC at which 90% of the strains tested were inhibited (MIC90) equal to 0.5 μg/ml or less. S-4661 was highly active against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MIC90s ranging from 0.032 to 0.5 μg/ml. Against imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S-4661 was the most active among test agents (MIC90, 8 μg/ml). Furthermore, S-4661 displayed a high degree of activity against many ceftazidime-, ciprofloxacin-, and gentamicin-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa. The in vivo efficacy of S-4661 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa, reflected its potent in vitro activity and high levels in plasma in mice. We conclude that S-4661 is a promising new carbapenem for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa. PMID:9449267

  9. Evaluation of the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of novel CRAMP-vancomycin conjugates with diverse linkers.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nigam M; Briers, Yves; Lamberigts, Chris; Steenackers, Hans; Robijns, Stijn; Landuyt, Bart; Vanderleyden, Jos; Schoofs, Liliane; Lavigne, Rob; Luyten, Walter; Van der Eycken, Erik V

    2015-07-21

    We report the design, synthesis and antibacterial activity analysis of conjugates of vancomycin and cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptides (CRAMP). Vancomycin inhibits the nascent peptidoglycan synthesis and is highly active against Gram-positive bacteria, whereas Gram-negative bacteria are generally insensitive due to a protective outer membrane. CRAMP is known to translocate across the Gram-negative outer membrane by a self-promoted uptake mechanism. Vancomycin-CRAMP conjugates were synthesized using click chemistry with diverse hydrophilic and hydrophobic linkers, with CRAMP functioning as a carrier peptide for the transfer of vancomycin through the outer membrane. Small hydrophobic linkers with an aromatic group result in the most active conjugates against planktonic Gram-negative bacteria, while maintaining the high activity of vancomycin against Gram-positive bacteria. These conjugates thus show a broad-spectrum activity, which is absent in CRAMP or vancomycin alone, and which is strongly improved compared to an equimolar mixture of CRAMP and vancomycin. In addition, these conjugates also show a strong inhibitory activity against S. Typhimurium biofilm formation. PMID:26068402

  10. From environmental signals to regulators: modulation of biofilm development in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Eisha; Monterrosa, Ramses Gallegos; Kovács, Akos T

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial lifestyle is influenced by environmental signals, and many differentiation processes in bacteria are governed by the threshold concentrations of molecules present in their niche. Biofilm is one such example where bacteria in their sessile state adapt to a lifestyle that causes several adaptive alterations in the population. Here, a brief overview is given on a variety of environmental signals that bias biofilm development in Gram-positive bacteria, including nutrient conditions, self- and heterologously produced substances, like quorum sensing and host produced molecules. The Gram-positive model organism, Bacillus subtilis is a superb example to illustrate how distinct signals activate sensor proteins that integrate the environmental signals towards global regulators related to biofilm formation. The role of reduced oxygen level, polyketides, antimicrobials, plant secreted carbohydrates, plant cell derived polymers, glycerol, and osmotic conditions are discussed during the transcriptional activation of biofilm related genes in B. subtilis. PMID:24771632

  11. Pilins in gram-positive bacteria: A structural perspective.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vengadesan

    2015-07-01

    Pilins or fimbrilins are a class of proteins found in bacterial surface pilus, a hair-like surface appendage. Both the Gram-negative and -positive bacteria produce pilins to assemble pili on their cell-surface for different purposes including adherence, twitching motility, conjugation, immunomodulation, biofilm formation, and electron transfer. Immunogenic properties of the pilins make them attractive vaccine candidates. The polymerized pilins play a key role in the initiation of host adhesion, which is a critical step for bacterial colonization and infection. Because of their key role in adhesion and exposure on the cell surface, targeting the pilins-mediated adhesion (anti-adhesion therapy) is also seen as a promising alternative approach for preventing and treating bacterial infections, one that may overcome their ever-increasing repertoires of resistance mechanisms. Individual pilins interact with each other non-covalently to assemble the pilus fiber with the help of associated proteins like chaperones and Usher in Gram-negative bacteria. In contrast, the pilins in Gram-positive bacteria often connect with each other covalently, with the help of sortases. Certain unique structural features present on the pilins distinguish them from one another across different bacterial strains, and these dictate their cellular targets and functions. While the structure of pilins has been extensively studied in Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, the pilins in Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria have been in only during the last decade. Recently, the discovery of pilins in non-pathogenic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, has received great attention, though traditionally the attention was on pathogenic bacteria. This review summarizes and discusses the current structural knowledge of pilins in Gram-positive bacteria with emphasis on those pilins which are sortase substrates. PMID:26178080

  12. The Tat system of Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Goosens, Vivianne J; Monteferrante, Carmine G; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2014-08-01

    The twin-arginine protein translocation (Tat) system has a unique ability to translocate folded and co-factor-containing proteins across lipid bilayers. The Tat pathway is present in bacteria, archaea and in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and, depending on the organism and environmental conditions, it can be deemed important for cell survival, virulence or bioproduction. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the Tat system with specific focus on Gram-positive bacteria. The 'universal minimal Tat system' is composed of a TatA and a TatC protein. However, this pathway is more commonly composed of two TatA-like proteins and one TatC protein. Often the TatA-like proteins have diverged to have two different functions and, in this case, the second TatA-like protein is usually referred to as TatB. The correct folding and/or incorporation of co-factors are requirements for translocation, and the known quality control mechanisms are examined in this review. A number of examples of crosstalk between the Tat system and other protein transport systems, such as the Sec-YidC translocon and signal peptidases or sheddases are also discussed. Further, an overview of specific Gram-positive bacterial Tat systems found in monoderm and diderm species is detailed. Altogether, this review highlights the unique features of Gram-positive bacterial Tat systems and pinpoints key questions that remain to be addressed in future research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. PMID:24140208

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Angiopteris evecta.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R; Omoloso, A D

    2008-07-01

    The leaves, stem bark, stem heart wood, root and tubers of Angiopteris evecta were successively extracted with petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol. All the fractions exhibited a wider spectrum of antibacterial activity. The dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions of the leaves and stem bark were particularly good and were the only fractions exhibiting antifungal activity. All fractions of the tuber with the exception of petrol, exhibited very good antibacterial activity. PMID:18505704

  14. A novel synthetic peptide from a tomato defensin exhibits antibacterial activities against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Rigano, M M; Romanelli, A; Fulgione, A; Nocerino, N; D'Agostino, N; Avitabile, C; Frusciante, L; Barone, A; Capuano, F; Capparelli, R

    2012-12-01

    Defensins are a class of cysteine-rich proteins, which exert broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this work, we used a bioinformatic approach to identify putative defensins in the tomato genome. Fifteen proteins had a mature peptide that includes the well-conserved tetradisulfide array. We selected a representative member of the tomato defensin family; we chemically synthesized its γ-motif and tested its antimicrobial activity. Here, we demonstrate that the synthetic peptide exhibits potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus A170, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Listeria monocytogenes, and Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi, Escherichia coli, and Helicobacter pylori. In addition, the synthetic peptide shows minimal (<5%) hemolytic activity and absence of cytotoxic effects against THP-1 cells. Finally, SolyC exerts an anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, as it downregulates the level of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ. PMID:23124812

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  16. Synthetic Teichoic Acid Conjugate Vaccine against Nosocomial Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Laverde, Diana; Wobser, Dominique; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Hogendorf, Wouter; van der Marel, Gijsbert; Berthold, Martin; Kropec, Andrea; Codee, Jeroen; Huebner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are amphiphilic polymers that are important constituents of the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria. The chemical structures of LTA vary among organisms, albeit in the majority of Gram-positive bacteria the LTAs feature a common poly-1,3-(glycerolphosphate) backbone. Previously, the specificity of opsonic antibodies for this backbone present in some Gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated, suggesting that this minimal structure may be sufficient for vaccine development. In the present work, we studied a well-defined synthetic LTA-fragment, which is able to inhibit opsonic killing of polyclonal rabbit sera raised against native LTA from Enterococcus faecalis 12030. This promising compound was conjugated with BSA and used to raise rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the opsonic activity of this serum was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay and specificity was confirmed by an opsonophagocytic inhibition assay. The conjugated LTA-fragment was able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediate killing of the clinical strains E. faecalis 12030, Enterococcus faecium E1162, and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2 (USA400). Prophylactic immunization with the teichoic acid conjugate and with the rabbit serum raised against this compound was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies in mice, and in an enterococcal endocarditis rat model. In all animal models, a statistically significant reduction of colony counts was observed indicating that the novel synthetic LTA-fragment conjugate is a promising vaccine candidate for active or passive immunotherapy against E. faecalis and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25333799

  17. Review of meta-analyses of vancomycin compared with new treatments for Gram-positive skin and soft-tissue infections: Are we any clearer?

    PubMed

    Tsoulas, Christos; Nathwani, Dilip

    2015-07-01

    Vancomycin has been considered the standard of care for treatment of Gram-positive skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Its value has been questioned over the last decade owing to well acknowledged limitations in efficacy and tolerability and the emergence of newer meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-active antibacterial agents. However, no single agent has shown better results versus vancomycin in SSTI trials. The aim of this review was to identify and summarise data from meta-analyses (MAs) for the treatment of Gram-positive and MRSA SSTIs. A systematic search identified 21 published MAs examining the use of newer antibiotics and vancomycin in SSTIs. In terms of clinical and microbiological efficacy, linezolid (in Gram-positive and MRSA SSTIs) and telavancin (in MRSA SSTIs) were shown to be more effective than vancomycin. The safety of newer antimicrobials in general was comparable with vancomycin, except for telavancin, which was associated with more severe adverse events (AEs), and tigecycline owing to an all-cause mortality imbalance observed in all infections but not confirmed in SSTIs. Specific AEs were related to the use of newer agents, such as nephrotoxicity for telavancin, creatine phosphokinase elevations for daptomycin, and thrombocytopenia with linezolid. Some evidence suggests that daptomycin could be associated with reduced treatment duration, and linezolid with reduced length of intravenous treatment and hospital length of stay compared with vancomycin. Considering the limitations of this type of research and the comparative efficacy results demonstrated in head-to-head randomised controlled trials, data are still not sufficient to support the widespread use of new agents over vancomycin. PMID:25982913

  18. Antibacterial activity of garlic extract on streptomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli solely and in synergism with streptomycin.

    PubMed

    Palaksha, M N; Ahmed, Mansoor; Das, Sanjoy

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses the significant antibacterial activity of Garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) extract on streptomycin-resistant strains solely and in synergism with streptomycin. Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1026 and gram-negative Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 were made resistant to standard antibiotic streptomycin used as a control in the experiment. Zones of inhibition of different treatment groups were measured by agar-well-diffusion assay and compared with control. Statistical comparison of sole extract and streptomycin synergism with streptomycin control had proved it significant. PMID:22096329

  19. Synthesis of new chalcone derivatives containing a rhodanine-3-acetic acid moiety with potential anti-bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zheng, Chang-Ji; Sun, Liang-Peng; Piao, Hu-Ri

    2010-12-01

    With an intention to synergize the anti-bacterial activity of chalcones and rhodanine-3-acetic acid, several hybrid compounds possessing chalcone and rhodanine-3-acetic acid moieties were synthesized and tested for their anti-bacterial activity. Some compounds presented great anti-microbial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (including the multidrug-resistant clinical isolates). This class of compounds presented high potency against Staphylococcus aureus, among which the derivatives 5k with a MIC of 2 μg/mL was as active as the standard drug (norfloxacin) and less active than oxacillin. Compounds 5a-s did not inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli CCARM 1924 or E. coli CCARM 1356 at 64 μg/mL. PMID:20889240

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial and antitumor activities of new galactopyranosylated amino alcohols.

    PubMed

    de Souza Fernandes, Fbio; Fernandes, Tayrine Silva; da Silveira, Lgia Souza; Caneschi, Wiliam; Loureno, Maria Cristina S; Diniz, Claudio G; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Martins, Sabrina de Paula Lima; Pereira, Daiane Eleutrio; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Le Hyaric, Mireille; de Almeida, Mauro V; Couri, Mara Rubia C

    2016-01-27

    Three series of d-galactose derivatives linked to a lipophilic aminoalcohol moiety were synthesized and their antibacterial activity was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and representative species of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Five out of the thirteen tested compounds displayed activity against M.tuberculosis, with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5?g/mL and seven compounds were active against the four bacterial strains tested. The best results were obtained for amino alcohols 10 and 11 against Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC=2?g/mL). The antitumor activity was evaluated against three tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa and MO59J) and compared to the normal cell line GM07492A. The results showed that the lowest IC50 values were observed for the amino alcohol 16 against MCF-7 (11.9?M) and MO59J (10.0?M). PMID:26649907

  1. Antibacterial activity of two phloroglucinols, flavaspidic acids AB and PB, from Dryopteris crassirhizoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyang Burm; Kim, Jin Cheol; Lee, Sang Myung

    2009-05-01

    The antimicrobial effect of solvent extracts from the rhizome of a thick-stemmed wood fern (Dryopteris crassirhizoma) was evaluated and its phloroglucinol components, flavaspidic acids PB and AB. Flavaspidic acids PB and AB were isolated from the D. crassirhizoma rhizomes by methanol extraction, followed by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The chemical structures were characterized by spectral techniques, including ESI-MS, UV, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectrum analysis. When the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and compounds was tested by the paper disc method, the extracts and compounds were highly active against Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus KCTC 1928 (a MRSA bacterium), Streptococcus mutans and Bacillus subtilis. The extracts and compounds were not active against fungi and chlorella. Our study revealed that the antibacterial activity of samples from D. crassirhizoma was mainly related to the flavaspidic acids. PMID:19471878

  2. Surface enhanced Raman scattering, antibacterial and antifungal active triangular gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, S. L.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2013-02-01

    Shape controlled syntheses of gold nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as their optical, electronic, magnetic and biological properties are strongly dependent on the size and shape of the particles. Here is a report on the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth reduced gold nanoparticles consisting of triangular and spherical like particles, using 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) and crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. Nanoparticles prepared with a minimum leaf broth concentration, having a greater number of triangular like particles exhibit a SERS activity of the order of 107. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibit efficient antibacterial activity against the tested gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations on the antifungal activity of the synthesized nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum positive is also discussed.

  3. Type IV Pili in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Type IV pili (T4P) are surface-exposed fibers that mediate many functions in bacteria, including locomotion, adherence to host cells, DNA uptake (competence), and protein secretion and that can act as nanowires carrying electric current. T4P are composed of a polymerized protein, pilin, and their assembly apparatuses share protein homologs with type II secretion systems in eubacteria and the flagella of archaea. T4P are found throughout Gram-negative bacterial families and have been studied most extensively in certain model Gram-negative species. Recently, it was discovered that T4P systems are also widespread among Gram-positive species, in particular the clostridia. Since Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have many differences in cell wall architecture and other features, it is remarkable how similar the T4P core proteins are between these organisms, yet there are many key and interesting differences to be found as well. In this review, we compare the two T4P systems and identify and discuss the features they have in common and where they differ to provide a very broad-based view of T4P systems across all eubacterial species. PMID:24006467

  4. [New gram-positive opportunistic bacteria: pathogenic role and treatment].

    PubMed

    Philippon, A; Barbut, F

    1997-05-17

    NOVEL BACTERIA: The appearance of novel bacterial species among Gram positive microorganisms is mainly related to progress in bacterial taxonomy justifying such nomen species, i.e. C. jeikeium, C. urealyticum or R. equi. Another feature of such emergence of "Novel" bacteria is related to the rise in the number of clinical observations mediated by some well-known species described elsewhere such as in food bacteriology. PREDISPOSING FACTORS: Among Gram positive microorganisms, emergence for some species and renaissance or rebirth for others is mainly explained by natural resistance to widely used antibiotics including beta-lactams such as third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, or more recently glycopeptides and the combined effect of several predisposing factors (hospitalized patients, underlying disease or prematurity, interruption of the normal integumentary defense via intravascular catheters). Clinical features depend on the bacterial species. Bacteriological diagnosis is easily obtained in terms of isolation and identification. Nevertheless, as for any opportunistic pathogen, a distinction must be made between colonization and infection. Finally successful treatment regimens depend on the bacterial species and may include surgery. PMID:9205480

  5. Cell envelope stress response in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Sina; Hutchings, Matthew I; Mascher, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial cell envelope is the first and major line of defence against threats from the environment. It is an essential and yet vulnerable structure that gives the cell its shape and counteracts the high internal osmotic pressure. It also provides an important sensory interface and molecular sieve, mediating both information flow and the controlled transport of solutes. The cell envelope is also the target for numerous antibiotics. Therefore, the monitoring and maintenance of cell envelope integrity in the presence of envelope perturbating agents and conditions is crucial for survival. The underlying signal transduction is mediated by two regulatory principles, two-component systems and extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, in both the Firmicutes (low-GC) and Actinobacteria (high-GC) branches of Gram-positive bacteria. This study presents a comprehensive overview of cell envelope stress-sensing regulatory systems. This knowledge will then be applied for in-depth comparative genomics analyses to emphasize the distribution and conservation of cell envelope stress-sensing systems. Finally, the cell envelope stress response will be placed in the context of the overall cellular physiology, demonstrating that its regulatory systems are linked not only to other stress responses but also to the overall homeostasis and lifestyle of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:18173394

  6. Pili of gram-positive bacteria: roles in host colonization.

    PubMed

    Danne, Camille; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, pili, which are encoded within pathogenicity islands, have been found in many Gram-positive bacteria, including the major streptococcal and enterococcal pathogens. These long proteinaceous polymers extending from the bacterial surface are constituted of covalently linked pilin subunits, which play major roles in adhesion and host colonization. They are also involved in biofilm formation, a characteristic life-style of the bacteria constituting the oral flora. Pili are highly immunogenic structures that are under the selective pressure of host immune responses. Indeed, pilus expression was found to be heterogeneous in several bacteria with the co-existence of two subpopulations expressing various levels of pili. The molecular mechanisms underlying this complex regulation are poorly characterized except for Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this review, we will discuss the roles of Gram-positive bacteria pili in adhesion to host extracellular matrix proteins, tissue tropism, biofilm formation, modulation of innate immune responses and their contribution to virulence, and in a second part the regulation of their expression. This overview should help to understand the rise of pili as an intensive field of investigation and pinpoints the areas that need further study. PMID:23116627

  7. Potential enhancement of antibacterial activity of graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite by introducing C2 carbon chain linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hyosuk; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Lee, Kyungmi; Jeon, Seungwon; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    Various carbon chain linkages were introduced during the process of synthesizing silver-nanoparticles (AgNPs)-decorated graphene nanocomposites [referred to as GO-Cx-Ag where, HS-(CH2)x-SH = Cx and x = 0, 2, or 4] to evaluate antibacterial properties. The nano-structures of GO-Cx-Ag were characterized using TEM and XPS, revealing that GO-C2-Ag comprises well-dispersed and smaller AgNPs anchored onto the surface of graphene sheets than the GO-C0-Ag and GO-C4-Ag. The antibacterial activities of those nanocomposites were assessed using paper-disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The results showed that carbon chain linkers enhanced the antibacterial activity against Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. In particular, GO-C2-Ag showed higher antibacterial activity than GO-C0-Ag and GO-C4-Ag due to nearly eight times higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation which determined by fluorescence-based ROS detection experiment. Also, LC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LC-ICP-MS) demonstrated that the Ag release from GO-Cx-Ag was insignificant (0.03%). However, the higher ROS formation from GO-C2-Ag was facilitated by higher dispersion, smaller size, and well attachment of AgNPs with AgO species onto graphene sheets. These results suggest that the medium length carbon chain linkers in between Ag and GO can be utilized to improve antibacterial activity.

  8. Synergistic antibacterial activity of chitosan-silver nanocomposites on Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potara, Monica; Jakab, Endre; Damert, Annette; Popescu, Octavian; Canpean, Valentin; Astilean, Simion

    2011-04-01

    The approach of combining different mechanisms of antibacterial action by designing hybrid nanomaterials provides a new paradigm in the fight against resistant bacteria. Here, we present a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles enveloped in the biopolymer chitosan. The method aims at the production of bionanocomposites with enhanced antibacterial properties. We find that chitosan and silver nanoparticles act synergistically against two strains of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). As a result the bionanocomposites exhibit higher antibacterial activity than any component acting alone. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) concentrations of the chitosan-silver nanoparticles synthesized at 0 °C were found to be lower than those reported for other types of silver nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed dramatic changes in morphology of S. aureus cells due to disruption of bacterial cell wall integrity after incubation with chitosan-silver nanoparticles. Finally, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles can be used not only as antibacterial agents but also as excellent plasmonic substrates to identify bacteria and monitor the induced biochemical changes in the bacterial cell wall via surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy.

  9. In Vitro antibacterial and in Vivo cytotoxic activities of Grewia paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Nasrin, Mahmuda; Dash, Pritesh Ranjan; Ali, Mohammad Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Grewia paniculata (Family: Malvaceae) has been used to treat inflammation, respiratory disorders and fever. It is additionally employed for other health conditions including colds, diarrhea and as an insecticide in Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of different extracts of Grewia paniculata. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity was evaluated against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria using disc diffusion method by determination of the diameter of zone of inhibition. Cytotoxic activity was performed by brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Results: In disc diffusion method, all the natural products (400 μg/disc) showed moderate to potent activity against all the tested bacteria. The ethanol extract of bark (EEB) and ethanol fraction of bark (EFB) (400 μg/disc) exhibited highest activity against Shigella dysenteriae with a zone of inhibition of 23±1.63 mm and 23±1.77 mm respectively. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay all the extracts showed moderate cytotoxic activity when compared with the standard drug vincristin sulphate. For example, LC50 value of the ethanol fraction of bark (EFB) was 3.01 μg/ml while the LC50 of vincristine sulphate was 0.52 μg/ml. Conclusions: The results suggest that all the natural products possess potent antibacterial and moderate cytotoxic. PMID:25949950

  10. Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of a Scorpion Venom Peptide Derivative In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongjie; Fan, Zheng; Song, Yu; Wu, Yingliang; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin

    2012-01-01

    BmKn2 is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch by our group. In this study, Kn2-7 was derived from BmKn2 to improve the antibacterial activity and decrease hemolytic activity. Kn2-7 showed increased inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, Kn2-7 exhibited higher antibacterial activity against clinical antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In addition, the topical use of Kn2-7 effectively protected the skin of mice from infection in an S. aureus mouse skin infection model. Kn2-7 exerted its antibacterial activity via a bactericidal mechanism. Kn2-7 killed S. aureus and E. coli rapidly by binding to the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in the S. aureus cell wall and the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the E. coli cell wall, respectively. Finally, the hemolytic activity of Kn2-7 was significantly decreased, compared to the wild-type peptide BmKn2. Taken together, the Kn2-7 peptide can be developed as a topical therapeutic agent for treating bacterial infections. PMID:22792229

  11. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Varella, Antonio Drauzio; Younes, Riad Naim

    2006-12-01

    Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:17420913

  12. The CodY pleiotropic repressor controls virulence in gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stenz, Ludwig; Francois, Patrice; Whiteson, Katrine; Wolz, Christiane; Linder, Patrick; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2011-07-01

    CodY is involved in the adaptive response to starvation in at least 30 different low G+C gram-positive bacteria. After dimerization and activation by cofactor binding, CodY binds to a consensus palindromic DNA sequence, leading to the repression of approximately 5% of the genome. CodY represses the transcription of target genes when bound to DNA by competition with the RNA polymerase for promoter binding, or by interference with transcriptional elongation as a roadblock. CodY displays enhanced affinity for its DNA target when bound to GTP and/or branched chain amino acids (BCAA). When nutrients become limiting in the postexponential growth phase, a decrease of intracellular levels of GTP and BCAA causes a deactivation of CodY and decreases its affinity for DNA, leading to the induction of its regulon. CodY-regulated genes trigger adaptation of the bacteria to starvation by highly diverse mechanisms, such as secretion of proteases coupled to expression of amino acid transporters, and promotion of survival strategies like sporulation or biofilm formation. Additionally, in pathogenic bacteria, several virulence factors are regulated by CodY. As a function of their access to nutrients, pathogenic gram-positive bacteria express virulence factors in a codY-dependant manner. This is true for the anthrax toxins of Bacillus anthracis and the haemolysins of Staphylococcus aureus. The purpose of this review is to illustrate CodY-regulated mechanisms on virulence in major gram-positive pathogens. PMID:21539625

  13. In vitro antibacterial and hemolytic activities of crotamine, a small basic myotoxin from rattlesnake Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Oguiura, Nancy; Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Affonso, Regina; Zhang, Guolong

    2011-04-01

    Crotamine, a myotoxin from the venom of South American rattlesnake, is structurally related to β-defensins, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in vertebrate animals. Here, we tested the antibacterial properties of crotamine and found that it killed several strains of Escherichia coli, with the MICs ranging from 25 to 100 μg ml⁻¹. Time-kill and bacterial membrane permeabilization assays revealed that killing of bacteria by crotamine occurred within 1 h and reached the maximum by 2 h. Additionally, the anti-E. coli activity of crotamine was completely abolished with 12.5 mM NaCl. Furthermore, the three intramolecular disulfide bonds of crotamine appeared dispensable for its antibacterial activity. The reduced form of crotamine was active against E. coli as well. However, crotamine showed no or weak activity up to 200 μg ml⁻¹ against other species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Crotamine showed no appreciable hemolytic activity to erythrocytes. Our studies revealed that crotamine is also an AMP that kills bacteria through membrane permeabilization. However, crotamine appears to have a narrow antibacterial spectrum, distinct from many classical β-defensins, reinforcing the notion that crotamine originated from the β-defensin gene lineage, but has undergone significant functional diversification. PMID:21386851

  14. Norfloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. Classification, mechanism of action, and in vitro activity.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, E J

    1987-06-26

    Norfloxacin is an orally absorbed fluoroquinolone antibacterial with a fluorine at position 6 and a piperazine ring at position 7. These changes have resulted in a marked enhancement (compared with that of the older quinolones) of in vitro antibacterial activity. Specifically, the antibacterial spectrum of norfloxacin includes Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as enteric pathogens. Norfloxacin is also active against both penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Relative to its activity against gram-negative bacteria, norfloxacin is somewhat less active against gram-positive cocci. In general, the staphylococci are more susceptible to the drug than are the streptococci. As with all fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin's activity against anaerobic bacteria is poor. For urinary tract bacterial isolates, the following Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion zone-size breakpoints have been proposed: greater than or equal to 17 mm, susceptible; 13 to 16 mm, intermediate; less than or equal to 12 mm, resistant. Bacteria with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) less than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml are considered susceptible; those with MICs greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml are considered resistant to norfloxacin. The mechanism of action of norfloxacin involves inhibition of the A subunit of the important bacterial enzyme DNA gyrase, which is essential for DNA replication. Plasmid-mediated resistance to the fluoroquinolones is not encountered. Further, although some cross-resistance within the fluoroquinolone class has occurred, there is little cross-resistance between norfloxacin and antibiotics of other classes. PMID:3111257

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin.

    PubMed

    Manosalva, Loreto; Mutis, Ana; Urzúa, Alejandro; Fajardo, Victor; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed. PMID:26760994

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Geminized Amphiphilic Cationic Homopolymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Xuefeng; Yu, Danfeng; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Guang; Cui, Yingxian; Sun, Keji; Wang, Jinben; Yan, Haike

    2015-12-22

    The current study is aimed at investigating the effect of cationic charge density and hydrophobicity on the antibacterial and hemolytic activities. Two kinds of cationic surfmers, containing single or double hydrophobic tails (octyl chains or benzyl groups), and the corresponding homopolymers were synthesized. The antimicrobial activity of these candidate antibacterials was studied by microbial growth inhibition assays against Escherichia coli, and hemolysis activity was carried out using human red blood cells. It was interestingly found that the homopolymers were much more effective in antibacterial property than their corresponding monomers. Furthermore, the geminized homopolymers had significantly higher antibacterial activity than that of their counterparts but with single amphiphilic side chains in each repeated unit. Geminized homopolymers, with high positive charge density and moderate hydrophobicity (such as benzyl groups), combine both advantages of efficient antibacterial property and prominently high selectivity. To further explain the antibacterial performance of the novel polymer series, the molecular interaction mechanism is proposed according to experimental data which shows that these specimens are likely to kill microbes by disrupting bacterial membranes, leading them unlikely to induce resistance. PMID:26606647

  17. Antibacterial activity in four marine crustacean decapods.

    PubMed

    Haug, Tor; Kjuul, Anita K; Stensvåg, Klara; Sandsdalen, Erling; Styrvold, Olaf B

    2002-05-01

    A search for antibacterial activity in different body-parts of Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp), Pagurus bernhardus (hermit crab), Hyas araneus (spider crab) and Paralithodes camtschatica (king crab) was conducted. Dried samples were extracted with 60% (v/v) acetonitrile, containing 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, and further extracted and concentrated on C18 cartridges. Eluates from the solid phase extraction were tested for antibacterial, lysozyme and haemolytic activity. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Corynebacterium glutamicum and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in extracts from several tissues in all species tested, but mainly in the haemolymph and haemocyte extracts. V. anguillarum and C. glutamicum were generally the most sensitive micro-organisms. In P. borealis and P. bernhardus most of the active fractions were not affected by proteinase K treatment, while in H. araneus and P. camtschatica most fractions were sensitive to proteinase K treatment, indicating antibacterial factors of proteinaceous nature. In P. bernhardus the active fractions were generally heat labile, whereas in H. araneus the activities were resistant to heat. Differences between active extracts regarding hydrophobicity and sensitivity for heat and proteinase K treatment indicate that several compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activities detected. Lysozyme-like activity could be detected in some fractions and haemolytic activity against human red blood cells could be detected in haemolymph/haemocyte and exoskeleton extracts from all species tested. PMID:12194450

  18. Microwave-assisted synthesis of diverse pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-diones and their antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Xia, Likai; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok; Kim, Sung Hong; Wee, Young-Jung

    2014-07-14

    With the aim of developing a general and practical method for library production, a novel and efficient two-phase microwave-assisted cascade reaction between isatins and β-ketoamides in [Bmim]BF4/toluene was developed for the synthesis of pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-diones. The features of this methodology are, the use of microwave-assisted rapid synthesis, mild reaction conditions, high yields, operational simplicity, facile product separation, and recyclability. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities of the pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-dione derivatives produced were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter aerogenes) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). These derivatives showed antibacterial activities against Gram-positive strains that were at least equivalent to that against Gram-negative strains. Compound 7{3,5} displayed the most potent antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa (MIC = 0.5 μg/mL) and greater activity than standard ampicillin (MIC = 1 μg/mL). Compound 7{4,7} exhibited the best inhibitory activity against E. coli and E. aerogenes (MIC = 1 and 0.5 μg/mL), compared with the standard ampicillin (both MICs = 1 μg/mL). The synthesized pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-diones are expected to be widely used as lead compounds for the development of new antibacterial agents. PMID:24749663

  19. Antibacterial activity of N-benzylsalicylthioamides.

    PubMed

    Petrlíková, E; Waisser, K; Jílek, P; Dufková, I

    2010-09-01

    The in-vitro biological activity of N-benzylsalicylthioamides against 8 bacterial strains was determined by broth microdilution method; results were compared with those obtained with neomycin, penicillin G, ciprofloxacin and penicillin V. The compounds showed moderate to high activity against G(+) bacteria; especially compounds 4, 6, 13, 16-21 and 24 exhibited comparable or higher activity than reference drugs. The antibacterial activity was analyzed by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). The antibacterial activity increased with lipophilicity, with the presence of halogens and with increasing value of Hammet substituent constant σ. PMID:20941574

  20. Efficient one-pot protocol for diverse pyrazolylphosphonates by multi-component reactions: their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Kang, So Rang; Lee, Yong Rok

    2015-05-01

    Efficient one-pot three-component reactions of pyrazolones with arylaldehydes and triethyl phosphite were carried out in the presence of ethylenediammonium diacetate as catalyst to synthesize biologically interesting pyrazolylphosphonate derivatives. This methodology offers several significant advantages such as environmentally benign character, the use of a mild catalyst, high yields, and ease of handling. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The result showed that compound 4d [Formula: see text] exhibited a strong free radical scavenger toward DPPH free radicals compared with standard BHT [Formula: see text]. In addition, compounds 4e and 4p showed potent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria of E. coli and compound 4o exhibited a potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria of S. aureus compared with standard Ampicillin. PMID:25652237

  1. Lipoteichoic acid synthesis and function in gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Percy, Matthew G; Gründling, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall polymer found in gram-positive bacteria. Although the exact role of LTA is unknown, mutants display significant growth and physiological defects. Additionally, modification of the LTA backbone structure can provide protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides. This review provides an overview of the different LTA types and their chemical structures and synthesis pathways. The occurrence and mechanisms of LTA modifications with D-alanyl, glycosyl, and phosphocholine residues will be discussed along with their functions. Similarities between the production of type I LTA and osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in gram-negative bacteria are highlighted, indicating that LTA should perhaps be compared to these polymers rather than lipopolysaccharide, as is presently the case. Lastly, current efforts to use LTAs as vaccine candidates, synthesis proteins as novel antimicrobial targets, and LTA mutant strains as improved probiotics are highlighted. PMID:24819367

  2. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content. PMID:26688969

  3. In vitro activity of ceftaroline-avibactam against gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens isolated from patients in Canadian hospitals from 2010 to 2012: results from the CANWARD surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Karlowsky, James A; Adam, Heather J; Baxter, Melanie R; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Walkty, Andrew J; Hoban, Daryl J; Zhanel, George G

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activities of ceftaroline-avibactam, ceftaroline, and comparative agents were determined for a collection of bacterial pathogens frequently isolated from patients seeking care at 15 Canadian hospitals from January 2010 to December 2012. In total, 9,758 isolates were tested by using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method (document M07-A9, 2012), with MICs interpreted by using CLSI breakpoints (document M100-S23, 2013). Ceftaroline-avibactam demonstrated potent activity (MIC90, ≤ 0.5 μg/ml) against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Haemophilus influenzae; >99% of isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, P. mirabilis, M. morganii, C. freundii, and H. influenzae were susceptible to ceftaroline-avibactam according to CLSI MIC interpretative criteria for ceftaroline. Ceftaroline was less active than ceftaroline-avibactam against all species of Enterobacteriaceae tested, with rates of susceptibility ranging from 93.9% (P. mirabilis) to 54.0% (S. marcescens). All isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) and 99.6% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 1 μg/ml) were susceptible to ceftaroline; the addition of avibactam to ceftaroline did not alter its activity against staphylococci or streptococci. All isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90, 0.03 μg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90, ≤ 0.03 μg/ml), and Streptococcus agalactiae (MIC90, 0.015 μg/ml) tested were susceptible to ceftaroline. We conclude that combining avibactam with ceftaroline expanded its spectrum of activity to include most isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, while maintaining potent activity against staphylococci and streptococci. PMID:23979759

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Salvadora persica L. (Miswak) Extracts against Multidrug Resistant Bacterial Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ayed, Mohamed Saeed Zayed; Asaad, Ahmed Morad; Qureshi, Mohamed Ansar; Attia, Hany Goda; AlMarrani, Abduljabbar Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Much effort has focused on examining the inhibitory effect of Salvadora persica (miswak) on oral microorganisms, but information concerning its antibacterial activity against other human pathogens, particularly multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates, is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of Salvadora persica L. extracts against 10 MDR bacterial clinical isolates other than oral pathogens. The antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol miswak extracts was assessed using the agar dilution and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. Overall, the 400 mg/mL of miswak extract was the most effective on all strains. The methanol extract exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (3.3–13.6 mm) than Gram-positive (1.8–8.3 mm) bacteria. The lowest MIC value was seen for E. coli (0.39, 1.56 µg/mL), followed by Streptococcus pyogenes (1.56 µg/mL). The highest MIC value (6.25, 12.5 µg/mL) was recorded for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the moderate to strong antibacterial activity of miswak extracts against all tested MDR-pathogens. Methanol extract appears to be a potent antimicrobial agent that could be considered as complementary and alternative medicine against resistant pathogens. Further studies on a large number of MDR organisms are necessary to investigate and standardize the inhibitory effect of miswak extracts against these emerging pathogens. PMID:26904146

  5. Microbial reactions on 7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide and evaluation of biotransformed products for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Ata, Athar; Betteridge, Jordan; Schaub, Emmanuel; Kozera, Daniel J; Holloway, Paul; Samerasekera, Radhika

    2009-09-01

    7alpha-Hydroxyfrullanolide (1), a known sesquiterpenoid, was isolated from Sphaeranthus indicus using an antibacterial-activity-directed fractionation method. This compound had exhibited a significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Chemical and microbial reactions were performed to prepare eight different analogues of compound 1 in order to evaluate these newly synthesized compounds for antibacterial activity. These compounds were 1beta,7alpha-dihydroxyfrullanolide (2), 7alpha-hydroxy-1-oxofrullanolide (3), 4,5-dihydro-7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide (4), 11,13-dihydro-7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide (5), 13-acetyl-7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide (6), 2alpha,7alpha-dihydroxysphaerantholide (7), 4alpha,5alpha-epoxy-7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide (8), and 4beta,5beta-epoxy-7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide (9). Microbial reactions on 1 using whole-cell cultures of Cunninghamella echinulata and Curvularia lunata yielded compounds 2-4. Incubation of compound 1 with the liquid cultures of Apsergillus niger and Rhizopus circinans yielded metabolites 5-7, while 8 and 9 were prepared by carrying out an epoxidation reaction on 1 using meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (mCPBA). Structures of compounds 2-9 were elucidated with the aid of extensive NMR spectral studies. Compounds 2-4 were found to be new metabolites. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for antibacterial activity and found to exhibit a wide range of bioactivities. Antibacterial-activity data of 1-9 suggested that the bioactivity of 1 is largely due to the presence of C4=C5, C11=C13, and a gamma-lactone moiety. PMID:19774607

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Salvadora persica L. (Miswak) Extracts against Multidrug Resistant Bacterial Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Al-Ayed, Mohamed Saeed Zayed; Asaad, Ahmed Morad; Qureshi, Mohamed Ansar; Attia, Hany Goda; AlMarrani, Abduljabbar Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Much effort has focused on examining the inhibitory effect of Salvadora persica (miswak) on oral microorganisms, but information concerning its antibacterial activity against other human pathogens, particularly multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates, is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of Salvadora persica L. extracts against 10 MDR bacterial clinical isolates other than oral pathogens. The antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol miswak extracts was assessed using the agar dilution and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. Overall, the 400 mg/mL of miswak extract was the most effective on all strains. The methanol extract exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (3.3-13.6 mm) than Gram-positive (1.8-8.3 mm) bacteria. The lowest MIC value was seen for E. coli (0.39, 1.56 µg/mL), followed by Streptococcus pyogenes (1.56 µg/mL). The highest MIC value (6.25, 12.5 µg/mL) was recorded for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the moderate to strong antibacterial activity of miswak extracts against all tested MDR-pathogens. Methanol extract appears to be a potent antimicrobial agent that could be considered as complementary and alternative medicine against resistant pathogens. Further studies on a large number of MDR organisms are necessary to investigate and standardize the inhibitory effect of miswak extracts against these emerging pathogens. PMID:26904146

  7. Antibiotic-decorated titanium with enhanced antibacterial activity through adhesive polydopamine for dental/bone implant.

    PubMed

    He, Shu; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Linxin; Xiong, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yifei; Deng, Yi; Wei, Shicheng

    2014-06-01

    Implant-associated infections, which are normally induced by microbial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, practical approaches to prevent implant-associated infections are in great demand. Inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, here we have developed a novel antibiotic-decorated titanium (Ti) material with enhanced antibacterial activity. In this study, Ti substrate was coated by one-step pH-induced polymerization of dopamine followed by immobilization of the antibiotic cefotaxime sodium (CS) onto the polydopamine-coated Ti through catechol chemistry. Contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of CS grafted on the Ti surface. Our results demonstrated that the antibiotic-grafted Ti substrate showed good biocompatibility and well-behaved haemocompatibility. In addition, the antibiotic-grafted Ti could effectively prevent adhesion and proliferation of Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive). Moreover, the inhibition of biofilm formation on the antibiotic-decorated Ti indicated that the grafted CS could maintain its long-term antibacterial activity. This modified Ti substrate with enhanced antibacterial activity holds great potential as implant material for applications in dental and bone graft substitutes. PMID:24647910

  8. Assessment of Total Phenolic, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activities of Passiflora Species

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses. PMID:25028673

  9. Antibiotic-decorated titanium with enhanced antibacterial activity through adhesive polydopamine for dental/bone implant

    PubMed Central

    He, Shu; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Linxin; Xiong, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yifei; Deng, Yi; Wei, Shicheng

    2014-01-01

    Implant-associated infections, which are normally induced by microbial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, practical approaches to prevent implant-associated infections are in great demand. Inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, here we have developed a novel antibiotic-decorated titanium (Ti) material with enhanced antibacterial activity. In this study, Ti substrate was coated by one-step pH-induced polymerization of dopamine followed by immobilization of the antibiotic cefotaxime sodium (CS) onto the polydopamine-coated Ti through catechol chemistry. Contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of CS grafted on the Ti surface. Our results demonstrated that the antibiotic-grafted Ti substrate showed good biocompatibility and well-behaved haemocompatibility. In addition, the antibiotic-grafted Ti could effectively prevent adhesion and proliferation of Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive). Moreover, the inhibition of biofilm formation on the antibiotic-decorated Ti indicated that the grafted CS could maintain its long-term antibacterial activity. This modified Ti substrate with enhanced antibacterial activity holds great potential as implant material for applications in dental and bone graft substitutes. PMID:24647910

  10. Three new fusidic acid derivatives and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Siyuan; Zhang, Qian; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom; Zhan, Jixun

    2015-05-01

    Two steroid acids, cephalosporin P1 and isocephalosporin P1, were isolated from Hapsidospora irregularis FERM BP-2511. These compounds are structurally related to fusidic acid. Their NMR data were completely assigned on the basis of the 2D NMR spectra. Incubation of these two compounds with Microbacterium oxydans CGMCC 1788 in Luria-Bertani broth yielded the same set of three new 3-dehydrogenated products, 3-keto-isocephalosporin P1, 3-keto-cephalosporin P1 and 6-deacetyl-3-keto-cephalosporin P1. The final pH of the bacterial culture was 9.0. Incubation of 3-keto-isocephalosporin P1 or 3-keto-cephalosporin P1 in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) revealed that these two compounds can convert to each other by shifting the acetyl group between C-6 and C-7. The acetyl group at C-6 or C-7 can also be removed by hydrolysis to yield the minor product 6-deacetyl-3-keto-cephalosporin P1. These fusidic acid derivatives were tested for the antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. 3-Keto-cephalosporin P1 showed the highest activity among the five compounds, with a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of 4 μg/mL, which is more potent than the substrate cephalosporin P1. Both cephalosporin P1 and 3-keto-cephalosporin P1 were active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, with the same MIC of 8 μg/mL. PMID:25824664

  11. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%), limonene (11.50%), β-bourbonene (11.23%), cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%), trans-caryophyllene (1.04%), menthone (1.01%), menthol (1%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.99). The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL). Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent. PMID:26351584

  12. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%), limonene (11.50%), ?-bourbonene (11.23%), cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%), trans-caryophyllene (1.04%), menthone (1.01%), menthol (1%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.99). The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22?mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5?L/mL). Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent. PMID:26351584

  13. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus. PMID:16286303

  14. Chemical, spectroscopic characterization, DFT studies and antibacterial activities in vitro of a new gold(I) complex with rimantadine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucena, Suelen F.; Paiva, Raphael E. F.; Abbehausen, Camilla; Mattos, Ives B.; Lancellotti, Marcelo; Formiga, André L. B.; Corbi, Pedro P.

    2012-04-01

    A novel gold(I) complex with rimantadine (RTD) was obtained and structurally characterized by a set of chemical and spectroscopic analysis. 1H, 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements suggest coordination of the ligand to Au(I) through the N atom of the ethanamine group. Theoretical (DFT) calculations confirmed the IR assignments and permit proposing an optimized geometry for the complex. The gold(I)-rimantadine complex (Au-RTD) is soluble in methanol, ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, acetone and acetonitrile. The preliminary kinetic studies based on UV-vis spectroscopic measurements indicate the stability of the compound in solution. Antibacterial activities of the complex were evaluated by an antibiogram assay. The Au-RTD complex showed an effective in vitro antibacterial activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacterial strains.

  15. Light-activated polymethylmethacrylate nanofibers with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Elashnikov, Roman; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Ulbrich, Pavel; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2016-07-01

    The creation of an antibacterial material with triggerable properties enables us to avoid the overuse or misuse of antibacterial substances and, thus, prevent the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. As a potential light-activated antibacterial material, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanofibers doped with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) were prepared by electrospinning. TPP was chosen as an effectively reactive oxygen species (ROS) producer. Antibacterial tests on Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) showed the excellent light-triggerable antibacterial activity of the doped materials. Upon light irradiation at the wavelength corresponding to the TPP absorption peak (405nm), antibacterial activity dramatically increased, mostly due to the release of AgNPs from the polymer matrix. Furthermore, under prolonged light irradiation, the AgNPs/TPP/PMMA nanofibers, displayed enhanced longevity and photothermal stability. Thus, our results suggest that the proposed material is a promising option for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteria. PMID:27127048

  16. RX-P873, a Novel Protein Synthesis Inhibitor, Accumulates in Human THP-1 Monocytes and Is Active against Intracellular Infections by Gram-Positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-Negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Buyck, Julien M.; Peyrusson, Frédéric; Tulkens, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The pyrrolocytosine RX-P873, a new broad-spectrum antibiotic in preclinical development, inhibits protein synthesis at the translation step. The aims of this work were to study RX-P873's ability to accumulate in eukaryotic cells, together with its activity against extracellular and intracellular forms of infection by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using a pharmacodynamic approach allowing the determination of maximal relative efficacies (Emax values) and bacteriostatic concentrations (Cs values) on the basis of Hill equations of the concentration-response curves. RX-P873's apparent concentration in human THP-1 monocytes was about 6-fold higher than the extracellular one. In broth, MICs ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 mg/liter (S. aureus) and 2 to 8 mg/liter (P. aeruginosa), with no significant shift in these values against strains resistant to currently used antibiotics being noted. In concentration-dependent experiments, the pharmacodynamic profile of RX-P873 was not influenced by the resistance phenotype of the strains. Emax values (expressed as the decrease in the number of CFU from that in the initial inoculum) against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa reached more than 4 log units and 5 log units in broth, respectively, and 0.7 log unit and 2.7 log units in infected THP-1 cells, respectively, after 24 h. Cs values remained close to the MIC in all cases, making RX-P873 more potent than antibiotics to which the strains were resistant (moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and daptomycin for S. aureus; ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime for P. aeruginosa). Kill curves in broth showed that RX-P873 was more rapidly bactericidal against P. aeruginosa than against S. aureus. Taken together, these data suggest that RX-P873 may constitute a useful alternative for infections involving intracellular bacteria, especially Gram-negative species. PMID:26014952

  17. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomi, Pandi; Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh; Manisankar, Paramasivam; Ravikumar, Sundaram

    2014-05-01

    Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract. It is observed that Abutilon indicum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 15 min of reaction time. The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis. The mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles was calculated from the XRD pattern. FT-IR spectra of the leaf extract after the development of nanoparticles are determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The AgNPs thus obtained showed highly potent antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) microorganisms.

  19. Bioinspired synthesis of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rupali S; Kokate, Mangesh R; Kolekar, Sanjay S

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. We herein reports bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of novel, non toxic ecofriendly biological material namely Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract. It acts as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ∼450 nm in the UV-visible spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded to study excitation and emission. TEM and PSD by dynamic light scattering studies showed that size of silver nanoparticles to be in range 25-40 nm. Face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles are confirmed by SAED pattern. The charge on synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by zeta potential. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity against three different strains of bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Corney bacterium (gram positive), Bacillus substilus (spore forming). PMID:22381796

  20. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2015-01-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract. It is observed that Abutilon indicum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 15 min of reaction time. The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis. The mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles was calculated from the XRD pattern. FT-IR spectra of the leaf extract after the development of nanoparticles are determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The AgNPs thus obtained showed highly potent antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. PMID:24997264

  1. Superior Antibacterial Activity of Fe3O4-TiO2 Nanosheets under Solar Light.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuanglong; Zhan, Sihui; Jia, Yanan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-10-01

    Fe3O4-TiO2 nanosheets (Fe3O4-TNS) were synthesized by means of lamellar reverse micelles and solvothermal method, which were characterized by TEM, XRD, XPS, BET, and magnetic property analysis. It can be found that Fe3O4-TNS nanosheets exhibited better photocatalytic antibacterial activity toward Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus than pure Fe3O4 and TNS, and the antibacterial efficiency could reach 87.2% and 93.7% toward E. coli and S. aureus with 100 μg/mL Fe3O4-TNS after 2 h of simulated solar light illumination, respectively. The photocatalytic destruction of bacteria was further confirmed by fluorescent-based cell live/dead test and SEM images. It was uncovered that Fe3O4-TNS inactivated G- E. coli and G+ S. aureus by different mechanisms: the destruction of outer membranes and ruptured cell bodies were responsible for the bactericidal effect against E. coli, while the antibacterial effect toward S. aureus were due to the fact that the cells were adsorbed in form of clusters by massive Fe3O4-TNS, which could restrict their activities and cause malfunction of the selective permeable barriers. Furthermore, the antibacterial mechanism was studied by employing scavengers to understand exact roles of different reactive species, indicating the key roles of h(+) and H2O2. The recovery and reusability experiments indicated that Fe3O4-TNS still retained more than 90% bacteria removal efficiency even after five cycles. Considering the easy magnetic separation, bulk availability, and high antibacterial activity of Fe3O4-TNS, it is a promising candidate for cleaning the microbial contaminated water environment. PMID:26372171

  2. Antibacterial nanofiber materials activated by light.

    PubMed

    Jesenská, Soňa; Plíštil, Lukáš; Kubát, Pavel; Lang, Kamil; Brožová, Libuše; Popelka, Stěpán; Szatmáry, Lórant; Mosinger, Jiří

    2011-12-15

    Electrospun polymeric nanofiber materials doped with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) photosensitizer were prepared from four different polymers and were characterized with microscopic methods, steady-state, and time-resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The polymers used included polyurethane Larithane™ (PUR), polystyrene (PS), polycaprolactone (PCL), and polyamide 6 (PA6). The antibacterial activity of all nanofiber materials against E. coli was activated by visible light and it was dependent on oxygen permeability/diffusion coefficients and the diameter of the polymeric nanofibers. This activity is based on oxidation ability of singlet oxygen O₂(¹Δ(g)) that is generated upon irradiation. All tested nanofiber materials exhibited prolonged antibacterial properties, even in the dark after long-duration irradiation. The post-irradiation effect was explained by the photogeneration of H₂O₂, which provided the material with long-lasting antibacterial properties. PMID:21972201

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Coldenia Procumbens Linn

    PubMed Central

    Beena, AP.

    2005-01-01

    Coldenia procumbens Linn is a commonly available weed, which is widely used in the codified Indian systems of medicine namely Ayurveda and Sidha. The variety of medical applications of the plant parts and relative lack of enough literature on the pharmacological activities provoke a preliminary study on its various applications including antibacterial activity. PMID:22557163

  4. Antibacterial activity of coldenia procumbens linn.

    PubMed

    Beena, Ap

    2005-01-01

    Coldenia procumbens Linn is a commonly available weed, which is widely used in the codified Indian systems of medicine namely Ayurveda and Sidha. The variety of medical applications of the plant parts and relative lack of enough literature on the pharmacological activities provoke a preliminary study on its various applications including antibacterial activity. PMID:22557163

  5. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Liu, Xiufeng; Min, Huihua; Dong, Guanghui; Feng, Qingyuan; Zuo, Songlin

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we report a facile and green approach to prepare a uniform silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite (GO-Ag). The nanocomposite was fully characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which demonstrated that AgNPs with a diameter of approximately 22 nm were uniformly and compactly deposited on GO. To investigate the silver ion release behaviors, HEPES buffers with different pH (5.5, 7, and 8.5) were selected and the mechanism of release actions was discussed in detail. The cytotoxicity of GO-Ag nanocomposite was also studied using HEK 293 cells. GO-Ag nanocomposite displayed good cytocompatibility. Furthermore, the antibacterial properties of GO-Ag nanocomposite were studied using Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922 and Gram-positive S. aureus ATCC 6538 by both the plate count method and disk diffusion method. The nanocomposite showed excellent antibacterial activity. These results demonstrated that GO-Ag nanocomposite, as a kind of antibacterial material, had a great promise for application in a wide range of biomedical applications. PMID:25762191

  6. Streptococcus mutans: a new Gram-positive paradigm?

    PubMed

    Lemos, Jos A; Quivey, Robert G; Koo, Hyun; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2013-03-01

    Despite the enormous contributions of the bacterial paradigms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to basic and applied research, it is well known that no single organism can be a perfect representative of all other species. However, given that some bacteria are difficult, or virtually impossible, to cultivate in the laboratory, that some are recalcitrant to genetic and molecular manipulation, and that others can be extremely dangerous to manipulate, the use of model organisms will continue to play an important role in the development of basic research. In particular, model organisms are very useful for providing a better understanding of the biology of closely related species. Here, we discuss how the lifestyle, the availability of suitable in vitro and in vivo systems, and a thorough understanding of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans have greatly advanced our understanding of important areas in the field of bacteriology such as interspecies biofilms, competence development and stress responses. In this article, we provide an argument that places S. mutans, an organism that evolved in close association with the human host, as a novel Gram-positive model organism. PMID:23393147

  7. Glycopeptide Resistance in Gram-Positive Cocci: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sujatha, S.; Praharaj, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens in the past two decades all over the world and have seriously limited the choices available to clinicians for treating infections caused by these agents. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, perhaps the most notorious among the nosocomial pathogens, was till recently susceptible to vancomycin and the other glycopeptides. Emergence of vancomycin nonsusceptible strains of S. aureus has led to a worrisome scenario where the options available for treating serious infections due to these organisms are very limited and not well evaluated. Vancomycin resistance in clinically significant isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci is also on the rise in many setups. This paper aims to highlight the genetic basis of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species and S. aureus. It also focuses on important considerations in detection of vancomycin resistance in these gram-positive bacteria. The problem of glycopeptide resistance in clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci and the phenomenon of vancomycin tolerance seen in some strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae has also been discussed. Finally, therapeutic options available and being developed against these pathogens have also found a mention. PMID:22778729

  8. High-Level Fluorescence Labeling of Gram-Positive Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aymanns, Simone; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wolz, Christiane; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb) promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10–50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration. PMID:21731607

  9. Effect of Ester to Amide or N-methyl Amide Substitution on Bacterial Membrane Depolarization and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Cyclic Lipopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Bionda, Nina; Fleeman, Renee M.; Shaw, Lindsey N.; Cudic, Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic lipopeptides derived from the fusaricidin/LI-F family of naturally occurring antibiotics represent particularly attractive candidates for the development of new antibacterial agents. In comparison to natural products, these derivatives may offer better stability under physiologically relevant conditions and lower nonspecific toxicity, while preserving their antibacterial activity. In this study we have assessed the ability of cyclic lipodepsipeptide 1, and its amide 2, N-methyl amide 3 and linear peptide 4 analogues to interact with the cytoplasmic membranes of selected Gram-positive bacteria, as well as their bacteriostatic/bactericidal modes of action and in vivo potency using a Galleria mellonella model of MRSA infection. Cyclic lipopeptides 1 and 2 depolarize the cytoplasmic membranes of Gram-positive bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner. The degree of membrane depolarization was influenced by the structural and physical properties of 1 and 2, with more flexible and hydrophobic peptide 1 being most efficient. However, membrane depolarization does not correlate with bacterial cell lethality, suggesting that membrane-targeting activity is not the main mode of action for this class of antibacterial peptides. Conversely, substitution of the depsipeptide bond in 1 with an N-methyl amide bond 3, or its hydrolysis 4, lead to a complete loss of antibacterial activity, and indicate that the conformation of cyclic lipopeptides plays a role in their antibacterial activities. Cyclic lipopeptides 1 and 2 are also capable of improving the survival of G. mellonella larvae infected with MRSA with different efficiencies reflecting their in vitro activities. Gaining more insights into the structure-activity-relationship and mode of action of these cyclic lipopeptides may enable the development of new antibiotics of this class with improved antibacterial activity. PMID:23780744

  10. Enhanced antibacterial activity of bimetallic gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles at low silver concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Sharma, Shilpa; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2011-12-01

    Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure.Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10703h

  11. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of littorachalcone and related diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Kraus, George A; Kumar, Ganesh; Phillips, Gregory; Michalson, Kris; Mangano, Maria

    2008-04-01

    Littorachalcone (1) and diacid 10 were synthesized by direct routes. The antibacterial activity of 1, 10 and synthetic precursors were evaluated. Dialdehyde 3a showed potent antibacterial activity. PMID:18343663

  12. Antibacterial activity of selected Malaysian honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibacterial activity of honey is mainly dependent on a combination of its peroxide activity and non-peroxide components. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were performed for semi-quantitative evaluation. Agar well diffusion assay was used to investigate peroxide and non-peroxide activities of honey. Results The results showed that gelam honey possessed lowest MIC value against S. aureus with 5% (w/v) MIC and MBC of 6.25% (w/v). Highest MIC values were shown by pineapple honey against E. coli and P. aeruginosa as well as acacia honey against E. coli with 25% (w/v) MIC and 50% (w/v) MBC values. Agar inhibition assay showed kelulut honey to possess highest total antibacterial activity against S. aureus with 26.49 equivalent phenol concentrations (EPC) and non-peroxide activity of 25.74 EPC. Lowest antibacterial activity was observed in acacia honey against E. coli with total activity of 7.85 EPC and non-peroxide activity of 7.59 EPC. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the total antibacterial activities and non-peroxide activities of Malaysian honey. The intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC of E. coli (r = -0.8559) was high while that between MIC and EPC of P. aeruginosa was observed to be moderate (r = -0.6469). S. aureus recorded a smaller correlation towards the opposite direction (r = 0.5045). In contrast, B.cereus showed a very low intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC (r = -0.1482). Conclusions Malaysian honey, namely gelam, kelulut and tualang, have high antibacterial potency derived from total and non-peroxide activities, which implies that both peroxide and other constituents are mutually important as contributing factors to the antibacterial property of honey. PMID:23758747

  13. An insect defensin-derived β-hairpin peptide with enhanced antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2014-02-21

    Insect defensins are a class of small, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides primarily active on Gram-positive bacteria. Their roles in maggot therapy for treating chronic wound infection have been reported recently. However, a relatively narrow antibacterial spectrum together with the lack of a cost-effective means of commercial-scale production has limited their application. To further exploit the therapeutic potential of these molecules, we engineered the carboxyl-terminal β-sheet of navidefensin2-2, an insect defensin from Nasonia vitripennis, based on its structural similarity to naturally occurring microbicidal β-hairpin peptides. The designed peptide of 14 residues, referred to as NvBH, spans the β-sheet region of the defensin with two amino acids substituted for assembly of a disulfide-bonded amphipathic β-hairpin structure. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with circular dichroism (CD) analysis shows that the oxidized NvBH (oNvBH), produced from the synthetic peptide by air oxidization in an alkaline environment, folds into a typical β-hairpin structure linked by two disulfide bridges (Cys1-Cys4; Cys2-Cys3). However, such a structure appears not to be functionally necessary as synthetic NvBH with a spontaneously oxidized disulfide bridge (Cys2-Cys3) (termed poNvBH) displayed similar antibacterial potency to oNvBH. In comparison with oNvBH, poNvBH exhibited higher serum stability and more resistance on tryptic digestion. These two forms of peptides are capable of killing an array of Gram-positive (including antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus) and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens at low micromolar concentrations through a membrane disruptive mode of action. Our work indicates that the β-sheet region of insect defensins is a promising subdomain of proteins in anti-infective drug discovery. PMID:24228718

  14. Mercury(II) complexes of unsymmetric phosphorus ylides: Synthesis, spectroscopic and antibacterial activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabounchei, Seyyed Javad; Panahimehr, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Marjan; Karamian, Roya; Asadbegy, Mostafa; Masumi, Azadeh

    2014-03-01

    The reaction of Ph2PCH2PPh2 (dppm) with 2-bromo-3-nitroacetophenone and 2,2‧,4‧-trichloroacetophenone in chloroform produce the new phosphonium salts [Ph2PCH2PPh2CH2C(O)C6H4NO2]Br (1) and [Ph2PCH2PPh2CH2C(O)C6H3Cl2]Cl (2). Further, by reaction of the monophosphonium salts of dppm with the strong base triethylaminethe corresponding bidentate phosphorus ylides, Ph2PCH2PPh2C(H)C(O)C6H4NO2 (3) and Ph2PCH2PPh2C(H)C(O)C6H3Cl2 (4) were obtained. The reaction of these ligands with mercury(II) halides in dry methanol led to the formation of the mononuclear complexes {HgX2[(Ph2PCH2PPh2C(H)C(O)C6H4NO2)]} [X = Cl (5), Br (6), I (7)] and {HgX2[(Ph2PCH2PPh2C(H)C(O)C6H3Cl2)]} [X = Cl (8), Br (9), I (10)]. Characterization of the obtained compounds was performed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H, 31P and 13C NMR. The structure of compound 1 being unequivocally determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The mass spectrum of compound 6 (as an instance) also demonstrates the synthesize of these compounds. In all complexes the title ylides are coordinated through the ylidic carbon and the phosphine atom. These compounds form five membered ring under complexation. The antibacterial effects of DMSO solutions of the ligands and their metal complexes were evaluated by the disc diffusion method against six Gram positive and negative bacteria. All compounds represent antibacterial activity against these bacteria with high levels of inhibitory potency exhibited against the Gram positive species.

  15. Patterns of cytokine induction by gram-positive and gram-negative probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cross, Martin L; Ganner, Anja; Teilab, Diaa; Fray, Linley M

    2004-10-01

    Bacteria used in commercial probiotic preparations are most commonly gram-positive lactic acid-producing species, although there are also some probiotic products which utilise gram-negative coliform bacteria. Characterising how the innate immune system responds to these bacteria in vitro may give an indication as to the likely immunomodulatory events that can be triggered following probiotic administration in vivo. Here, an established gram-positive probiotic (Lactobacillus casei Shirota) was compared against a novel gram-negative probiotic strain (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917) for its ability to induce cytokine production in a cell type representative of the innate immune system; in addition, responses were contrasted against those induced by an enteropathogenic coliform, E. coli 2282. We investigated the ability of these three bacterial strains to modulate production of interleukins-10, -12 and -18; tumour necrosis factor-alpha; interferon-alpha; and transforming growth factor-beta, via a series of in vitro culture experiments involving the murine monocyte/macrophage cell line J774A.1. All bacteria induced marked secretion of IL-12 and TNFalpha by cells, while only coliforms induced production of IL-10; there was minimal or no induction of IL-18 or TGFbeta. Activation of cells with recombinant gamma-interferon promoted increased production of IL-12, but decreased production of IL-10, in response to the co-culture of coliform bacteria, indicating differential cytokine induction depending on the activation status of the target cell. In general, live bacteria stimulated higher levels of IL-10, IL-12 and TNFalpha secretion than heat-killed preparations, while only live coliforms induced IFNalpha. These findings are discussed in relation to the likely immunomodulatory effects of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria on the innate immune system in vivo, with particular emphasis on the marked similarity in cytokine response patterns observed between probiotic versus pathogenic coliform bacteria. PMID:15364101

  16. Synthesis, antibacterial and anti-MRSA activity, in vivo toxicity and a structure-activity relationship study of a quinoline thiourea.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Niamh; Gavin, Declan P; Eshwika, Ahmed; Kavanagh, Kevin; McGinley, John; Stephens, John C

    2016-01-15

    We report the synthesis, antibacterial evaluation of a series of thiourea-containing compounds. 1-(3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-((S)-(6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl)-((1S,2S,4S,5R)-5-vinylquinuclidin-2-yl)methyl)thiourea 5, was the most active against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and exhibited bacteriostatic activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) comparable to that of the well-known antibacterial agent vancomycin. Quinoline thiourea 5 was subjected to a detailed structure-activity relationship study, with 5 and its derivatives evaluated for their bacteriostatic activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. A number of structural features important for the overall activity of quinoline thiourea 5 have been identified. A selection of compounds, including 5, was also evaluated for their in vivo toxicity using the larvae of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Compound 5, and a number of derivatives, were found to be non-toxic to the larvae of Galleria mellonella. A new class of antibiotic can result from the further development of this family of compounds. PMID:26639761

  17. Biotransformation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by ligninolytic fungi--Metabolites, enzymes and residual antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Čvančarová, Monika; Moeder, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    A group of white rot fungi (Irpex lacteus, Panus tigrinus, Dichomitus squalens, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) was investigated for the biodegradation of norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OF) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). The selected fluoroquinolones were readily degraded almost completely by I. lacteus and T. versicolor within 10 and 14 d of incubation in liquid medium, respectively. The biodegradation products were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analyses indicated that the fungi use similar mechanisms to degrade structurally related antibiotics. The piperazine ring of the molecules is preferably attacked via either substitution or/and decomposition. In addition to the degradation efficiency, attention was devoted to the residual antibiotic activities estimated using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Only I. lacteus was able to remove the antibiotic activity during the course of the degradation of NOR and OF. The product-effect correlations evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) enabled elucidation of the participation of the individual metabolites in the residual antibacterial activity. Most of the metabolites correlated with the antibacterial activity, explaining the rather high residual activity remaining after the biodegradation. PCA of ligninolytic enzyme activities indicated that manganese peroxidase might participate in the degradation. PMID:25592459

  18. Performance properties and antibacterial activity of crosslinked films of quaternary ammonium modified starch and poly(vinyl alcohol).

    PubMed

    Sekhavat Pour, Zahra; Makvandi, Pooyan; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2015-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in developing antibacterial polymeric materials. In the present work, novel antibacterial cross-linked blend films were prepared based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and quaternary ammonium starch (ST-GTMAC) using citric acid (CA) as plasticizer and glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linker. The ST-GTMAC was successfully synthesized from reaction between water-soluble oxidized starch and glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC). The effect of ST-GTMAC, CA and GA contents on the swelling, solubility, mechanical and thermal properties of the films was investigated. It was found that incorporation of ST-GTMAC reduced UV-transmittance and provided antibacterial properties, increasing GA content increased tensile strength and decreased solubility and swelling degree of the films, while CA acted as plasticizer when its concentration was above 10 wt%. The results showed that ST-GTMAC/PVA/CA/GA film has fair antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. These results suggest that the prepared film might be used as potential antibacterial material in medical and packaging applications. PMID:26188297

  19. The human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 secretes a nonbacteriocin antibacterial substance(s) active in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bernet-Camard, M F; Liévin, V; Brassart, D; Neeser, J R; Servin, A L; Hudault, S

    1997-07-01

    The adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 inhibits the cell association and cell invasion of enteropathogens in cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells (M. F. Bernet, D. Brassard, J. R. Neeser, and A. L. Servin, Gut 35:483-489, 1994). Here, we demonstrate that strain LA1 developed its antibacterial activity in conventional or germ-free mouse models orally infected by Salmonella typhimurium. We present evidence that the spent culture supernatant of strain LA1 (LA1-SCS) contained antibacterial components active against S. typhimurium infecting the cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was observed in vitro against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. By contrast, no activity was observed against species of the normal gut flora, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was insensitive to proteases and independent of lactic acid production. PMID:9212421

  20. The human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 secretes a nonbacteriocin antibacterial substance(s) active in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bernet-Camard, M F; Liévin, V; Brassart, D; Neeser, J R; Servin, A L; Hudault, S

    1997-01-01

    The adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 inhibits the cell association and cell invasion of enteropathogens in cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells (M. F. Bernet, D. Brassard, J. R. Neeser, and A. L. Servin, Gut 35:483-489, 1994). Here, we demonstrate that strain LA1 developed its antibacterial activity in conventional or germ-free mouse models orally infected by Salmonella typhimurium. We present evidence that the spent culture supernatant of strain LA1 (LA1-SCS) contained antibacterial components active against S. typhimurium infecting the cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was observed in vitro against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. By contrast, no activity was observed against species of the normal gut flora, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was insensitive to proteases and independent of lactic acid production. PMID:9212421

  1. Detection of antibacterial activity of an enzymatic hydrolysate generated by processing rainbow trout by-products with trout pepsin.

    PubMed

    Wald, Maleen; Schwarz, Karin; Rehbein, Hartmut; Bußmann, Bettina; Beermann, Christopher

    2016-08-15

    Trout by-product hydrolysates, generated using trout pepsin, were characterized and studied in terms of their antibacterial effects against food contaminants and fish farming pathogens. After a hydrolysis time of 25min, the hydrolysates demonstrated inhibitory activity against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was found to exert a considerable influence on antibacterial activity, with a significant increase in the observed inhibitory effect at the beginning of hydrolysis. The highest antibacterial activity was obtained at a DH of 30% (enzyme/protein ratio 0.04U/mg of protein, enzyme activity 6.5U/mg protein, hydrolysis conditions 37°C, pH 3.0). The highest antibacterial activity detected was against the fish farming bacteria Flavobacterium psychrophilum and Renibacterium salmoninarum, with minimal inhibition concentrations of 2mg/ml and 5mg/ml, respectively. The amino acid determination of the hydrolysate (DH 30%) revealed that lysine, leucine, alanine, arginine, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid residues represented the major amino acids. PMID:27006234

  2. Problems associated with the direct viable count procedure applied to gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Regnault, B; Martin-Delautre, S; Grimont, P A

    2000-04-10

    Despite the numerous advantages of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for identifying a single bacterial cell with 16S rRNA probes, problems are encountered with starving bacteria in natural samples. The original direct viable count procedure (DVC) includes a revivification step in the presence of an antibiotic inhibiting cell division. Cells elongate and accumulate ribosomes. This results in a natural amplification of 16S rRNA molecules (target of FISH). However, it is limited to gram-negative bacteria which are sensitive to nalidixic acid. The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for estimating the number of metabolically active gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis cells by the use of a method which combines the number of substrate-responsive cells and their identification by FISH. It was observed that no single published DVC method could apply to taxonomically different gram-positive bacteria. Since cells were not counted, the revivification step in presence of nalidixic acid will be referred to as revivification without cell division. For each species, different low-nutrient media and complex media, different fluoroquinolones and beta-lactam antibiotics, concentrations of antibiotics, combinations of antibiotics, temperature and time were evaluated using bacteria in different physiological states and in natural samples. Enumeration of bacteria by plate counts and direct FISH were compared. The improved procedure should yield information about the physiological state, the taxonomic identity, and the enumeration of viable gram-positive bacteria. The application of DVC to an entire ecosystem is presently still a challenge. PMID:10791758

  3. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 μg/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 μg/ml and 15.88 μg/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:23110485

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Honey on Cariogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi – Motamayel, Fatemeh; Hendi, Seyedeh Sare; Alikhani, Mohammad Yusof; Khamverdi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Honey has antibacterial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, solutions containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50% and 100%(w/v) of natural Hamadan honey were prepared. Each blood (nutrient) agar plate was then filled with dilutions of the honey. The strains of bacteria were inoculated in blood agar for 24 hours at 37°C and were adjusted according to the McFarland scale (10×10 cfumcl−1). All assays were repeated 10 times for each of the honey concentrations. Data were analyzed by non parametric Chi-Square test. Statistical significance was set at α=0.05. Results: Significant antibacterial activity was detected for honey on Streptococcus mutans in concentrations more than 20% and on Lactobacillus in 100% concentration (P<0.05). Conclusion: It seems that antibacterial activity of honey could be used for prevention and reduction of dental caries. PMID:23724198

  5. Thiol-disulphide oxidoreductase modules in the low-GC Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kouwen, Thijs R H M; van der Goot, Annemieke; Dorenbos, Ronald; Winter, Theresa; Antelmann, Haike; Plaisier, Marie-Claire; Quax, Wim J; van Dijl, January Maarten; Dubois, Jean-Yves F

    2007-05-01

    Disulphide bond formation catalysed by thiol-disulphide oxidoreductases (TDORs) is a universally conserved mechanism for stabilizing extracytoplasmic proteins. In Escherichia coli, disulphide bond formation requires a concerted action of distinct TDORs in thiol oxidation and subsequent quinone reduction. TDOR function in other bacteria has remained largely unexplored. Here we focus on TDORs of low-GC Gram-positive bacteria, in particular DsbA of Staphylococcus aureus and BdbA-D of Bacillus subtilis. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the homologues DsbA and BdbD cluster in distinct groups typical for Staphylococcus and Bacillus species respectively. To compare the function of these TDORs, DsbA was produced in various bdb mutants of B. subtilis. Next, we assessed the ability of DsbA to sustain different TDOR-dependent processes, including heterologous secretion of E. coli PhoA, competence development and bacteriocin (sublancin 168) production. The results show that DsbA can function in all three processes. While BdbD needs a quinone oxidoreductase for activity, DsbA activity appears to depend on redox-active medium components. Unexpectedly, both quinone oxidoreductases of B. subtilis are sufficient to sustain production of sublancin. Moreover, DsbA can functionally replace these quinone oxidoreductases in sublancin production. Taken together, our unprecedented findings imply that TDOR systems of low-GC Gram-positive bacteria have a modular composition. PMID:17501922

  6. Biotransformation of the antibiotic agent flumequine by ligninolytic fungi and residual antibacterial activity of the transformation mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cvan?arov, Monika; Moeder, Monika; Filipov, Alena; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Cajthaml, Tom

    2013-12-17

    Flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is applied preferably in veterinary medicine, for stock breeding and treatment of aquacultures. Formation of drug resistance is a matter of general concern when antibiotics such as flumquine occur in the environment. Thus, biodegradation of flumequine in solution was investigated using five different ligninolytic fungi. Irpex lacteus, Dichomitus squalens, and Trametes versicolor proved most efficient and transformed more than 90% of flumequine within 6 or even 3 days. Panus tigrinus and Pleurotus ostreatus required up to 14 days to remove >90% of flumequine. Analyses of the metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest different transformation pathways for the different fungal strains. Structure proposals were elaborated for 8 metabolites. 7-Hydroxy-flumequine and flumequine ethyl ester were identified as common metabolites produced by all ligninolytic fungi. The largest variety of metabolites was formed by D. squalens. Residual antibacterial activity of the metabolite mixtures was tested using gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. While for the less efficient P. tigrinus and P. ostreatus cultures the antibacterial activities corresponded to the residual concentrations of flumequine, a remarkable antibacterial activity remained in the D. squalens cultures although flumequine was transformed to more than 90%. Obviously, antibacterially active transformation products were formed by this fungal strain. PMID:24261869

  7. A novel green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using soluble starch and its antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Yakout, Sobhy M; Mostafa, Ashraf A

    2015-01-01

    A green method of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) preparation has been established. This method depends on reduction of silver nitrate with soluble starch. The formation of AgNPs was observed by the color change from colorless to dark brown through the starch addition into silver nitrate solution. It was observed that use of starch makes convenient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and can reduce silver ions into the produced silver nanoparticles within one hour of reaction time without using any harsh conditions. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The synthesized green AgNPs showed a potential antibacterial activity that was stronger against Gram positive pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococus aureus and Streptococus pyogenes) than against Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Shigellasonnei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Inhibition zones diameter of antibacterial activity depends upon nanoparticles concentration as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for S.aureus (16.4 mm) followed by P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes while the least activity was observed for S. typhi (10.4 mm) at 40 μl/ disc. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agents in medical fields and process of synthesis creates new opportunities in process development for the synthesis of safe and eco-friendly AgNPs. PMID:26064246

  8. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Adonis wolgensis L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Tavakoli, Rahmatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydro-methanolic extract of Adonis wolgensis L. (A. wolgensis L.) growing wild in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Oils of A. wolgensis L. was obtained by means of Soxhlet apparatus from leaves and stems. Methyl esters were derived from the oily mixtures by trans-esterification process and were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS systems. Phenolic compounds extraction was done with aqueous methanol (90%). This extract was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods and was also tested against a panel of microorganisms. Results: Linolenic acid (45.83%) and oleic acid (47.54%) were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stems, respectively. Hydro-methanolic extract with the high amount of total phenolics (9.20 0.011 mg GAE per dry matter) was the potent antioxidant in the assays. Results obtained from measurements of MIC for extract, indicated that E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, but no activity was observed against Gram-positive microorganism (B. subtilis). Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that the oil of A. wolgensis leaves and stems contained a high source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also showed that hydro-methanolic extract of this plant contained significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25050298

  9. A novel green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using soluble starch and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Yakout, Sobhy M; Mostafa, Ashraf A

    2015-01-01

    A green method of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) preparation has been established. This method depends on reduction of silver nitrate with soluble starch. The formation of AgNPs was observed by the color change from colorless to dark brown through the starch addition into silver nitrate solution. It was observed that use of starch makes convenient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and can reduce silver ions into the produced silver nanoparticles within one hour of reaction time without using any harsh conditions. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The synthesized green AgNPs showed a potential antibacterial activity that was stronger against Gram positive pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococus aureus and Streptococus pyogenes) than against Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Shigellasonnei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Inhibition zones diameter of antibacterial activity depends upon nanoparticles concentration as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for S.aureus (16.4 mm) followed by P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes while the least activity was observed for S. typhi (10.4 mm) at 40 μl/ disc. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agents in medical fields and process of synthesis creates new opportunities in process development for the synthesis of safe and eco-friendly AgNPs. PMID:26064246

  10. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable films prepared from Schiff bases of zein.

    PubMed

    Soliman, E A; Khalil, A A; Deraz, S F; El-Fawal, G; Elrahman, S Abd

    2014-10-01

    Pure zein is known to be very hydrophobic, but is still inappropriate for coating and film applications because of their brittle nature. In an attempt to improve the flexibility and the antimicrobial activity of these coatings and films, Chemical modification of zein through forming Schiff bases with different phenolic aldhydes was tried. Influence of this modifications on mechanical, topographical, wetting properties and antimicrobial activity of zein films were evaluated. The chemical structure of the Schiff bases films were characterized by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The results indicate an improvement in mechanical properties with chemically modification of zein to form Schiff bases leading to a reduction in the elastic modulus. An increase in the elongation at break has been observed, but with slight influence on tensile strength. Plasticized zein films have similar initial contact angle (∼40°). An increase in reaction temperature and time increases film's affinity towards water. As shown by contact angle measurements, a noticeable relation was found between film composition and the hydrophilicity. Surface topography also varied by forming Schiff bases, becoming rougher than zein-based films. The antibacterial activities of zein and Schiff bases of zein-based films were investigated against gram-positive bacteria (Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium sporogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica). It was found that the antibacterial activity of the Schiff bases-based films was more effective than that of zein-based films. PMID:25328181

  11. Broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of carbon nanotubes to human gut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Bing; Gao, Di; Guan, Ming; Zheng, Lingna; Ouyang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang; Feng, Weiyue

    2013-08-26

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hold promise in manufacturing, environmental, and biomedical applications, as well as food and agricultural industries. Previous observations have shown that CNTs have antimicrobial activity; however, the impact of CNTs to human gut microbes has not been investigated. Here, the antibacterial activity of CNTs against the microbes commonly encountered in the human digestion system--L. acidophilus, B. adolescentis, E. coli, E. faecalis, and S. aureus--are evaluated. The bacteria studied include pathogenic and non-pathogenic, gram-positive and negative, and both sphere and rod strains. In this study, CNTs, including single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs, 1-3 μm), short and long multi-walled CNTs (s-MWCNTs: 0.5-2 μm; l-MWCNTs: >50 μm), and functionalized multi-walled CNTs (hydroxyl- and carboxyl-modification, 0.5-2 μm), all have broad-spectrum antibacterial effects. Notably, CNTs may selectively lyse the walls and membranes of human gut microbes, depending on not only the length and surface functional groups of CNTs, but also the shapes of the bacteria. The mechanism of antibacterial activity is associated with their diameter-dependent piercing and length-dependent wrapping on the lysis of microbial walls and membranes, inducing release of intracellular components DNA and RNA and allowing a loss of bacterial membrane potential, demonstrating complete destruction of bacteria. Thin and rigid SWCNT show more effective wall/membrane piercing on spherical bacteria than MWCNTs. Long MWCNT may wrap around gut bacteria, increasing the area making contact with the bacterial wall. This work suggests that CNTs may be broad-spectrum and efficient antibacterial agents in the gut, and selective application of CNTs could reduce the potential hazard to probiotic bacteria. PMID:23463684

  12. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of monocyclic 3-carboxamide tetramic acids

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yong-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Summary A chemical library of carboxamide-substituted tetramates designed by analogy with antibacterial natural products, a method for their rapid construction, and the evaluation of their antibacterial activity is reported. PMID:24204399

  13. Distinctive Binding of Avibactam to Penicillin-Binding Proteins of Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Asli, Abdelhamid; Brouillette, Eric; Krause, Kevin M.; Nichols, Wright W.

    2015-01-01

    Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that covalently acylates a variety of β-lactamases, causing inhibition. Although avibactam presents limited antibacterial activity, its acylation ability toward bacterial penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) was investigated. Staphylococcus aureus was of particular interest due to the reported β-lactamase activity of PBP4. The binding of avibactam to PBPs was measured by adding increasing concentrations to membrane preparations of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria prior to addition of the fluorescent reagent Bocillin FL. Relative binding (measured here as the 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]) to PBPs was estimated by quantification of fluorescence after gel electrophoresis. Avibactam was found to selectively bind to some PBPs. In Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, and S. aureus, avibactam primarily bound to PBP2, with IC50s of 0.92, 1.1, 3.0, and 51 μg/ml, respectively, whereas binding to PBP3 was observed in Streptococcus pneumoniae (IC50, 8.1 μg/ml). Interestingly, avibactam was able to significantly enhance labeling of S. aureus PBP4 by Bocillin FL. In PBP competition assays with S. aureus, where avibactam was used at a fixed concentration in combination with varied amounts of ceftazidime, the apparent IC50 of ceftazidime was found to be very similar to that determined for ceftazidime when used alone. In conclusion, avibactam is able to covalently bind to some bacterial PBPs. Identification of those PBP targets may allow the development of new diazabicyclooctane derivatives with improved affinity for PBPs or new combination therapies that act on multiple PBP targets. PMID:26574008

  14. Colloidal and antibacterial properties of novel triple-headed, double-tailed amphiphiles: exploring structure-activity relationships and synergistic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Marafino, John N; Gallagher, Tara M; Barragan, Jhosdyn; Volkers, Brandi L; LaDow, Jade E; Bonifer, Kyle; Fitzgerald, Gabriel; Floyd, Jason L; McKenna, Kristin; Minahan, Nicholas T; Walsh, Brenna; Seifert, Kyle; Caran, Kevin L

    2015-07-01

    Two novel series of tris-cationic, tripled-headed, double-tailed amphiphiles were synthesized and the effects of tail length and head group composition on the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), thermodynamic parameters, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against six bacterial strains were investigated. Synergistic antibacterial combinations of these amphiphiles were also identified. Amphiphiles in this study are composed of a benzene core with three benzylic ammonium bromide groups, two of which have alkyl chains, each 8-16 carbons in length. The third head group is a trimethylammonium or pyridinium. Log of critical aggregation concentration (log[CAC]) and heat of aggregation (ΔHagg) were both inversely proportional to the length of the linear hydrocarbon chains. Antibacterial activity increases with tail length until an optimal tail length of 12 carbons per chain, above which, activity decreased. The derivatives with two 12 carbon chains had the best antibacterial activity, killing all tested strains at concentrations of 1-2μM for Gram-positive and 4-16μM for Gram-negative bacteria. The identity of the third head group (trimethylammonium or pyridinium) had minimal effect on colloidal and antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of several binary combinations of amphiphiles from this study was higher than activity of individual amphiphiles, indicating that these combinations are synergistic. These amphiphiles show promise as novel antibacterial agents that could be used in a variety of applications. PMID:25936261

  15. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship studies, and antibacterial evaluation of 4-chromanones and chalcones, as well as olympicin A and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Maddox, Marcus M; Alam, Md Zahidul; Tsutsumi, Lissa S; Narula, Gagandeep; Bruhn, David F; Wu, Xiaoqian; Sandhaus, Shayna; Lee, Robin B; Simmons, Charles J; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching; Hurdle, Julian G; Lee, Richard E; Sun, Dianqing

    2014-10-23

    On the basis of recently reported abyssinone II and olympicin A, a series of chemically modified flavonoid phytochemicals were synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a panel of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Some of the synthesized compounds exhibited good antibacterial activities against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration as low as 0.39 μg/mL. SAR analysis revealed that the 2-hydrophobic substituent and the 4-hydrogen bond donor/acceptor of the 4-chromanone scaffold together with the hydroxy groups at 5- and 7-positions enhanced antibacterial activities; the 2',4'-dihydroxylated A ring and the lipophilic substituted B ring of chalcone derivatives were pharmacophoric elements for antibacterial activities. Mode of action studies performed on selected compounds revealed that they dissipated the bacterial membrane potential, resulting in the inhibition of macromolecular biosynthesis; further studies showed that selected compounds inhibited DNA topoisomerase IV, suggesting complex mechanisms of actions for compounds in this series. PMID:25238443

  16. Synthesis, Structure–Activity Relationship Studies, and Antibacterial Evaluation of 4-Chromanones and Chalcones, as Well as Olympicin A and Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of recently reported abyssinone II and olympicin A, a series of chemically modified flavonoid phytochemicals were synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a panel of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Some of the synthesized compounds exhibited good antibacterial activities against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration as low as 0.39 μg/mL. SAR analysis revealed that the 2-hydrophobic substituent and the 4-hydrogen bond donor/acceptor of the 4-chromanone scaffold together with the hydroxy groups at 5- and 7-positions enhanced antibacterial activities; the 2′,4′-dihydroxylated A ring and the lipophilic substituted B ring of chalcone derivatives were pharmacophoric elements for antibacterial activities. Mode of action studies performed on selected compounds revealed that they dissipated the bacterial membrane potential, resulting in the inhibition of macromolecular biosynthesis; further studies showed that selected compounds inhibited DNA topoisomerase IV, suggesting complex mechanisms of actions for compounds in this series. PMID:25238443

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of Ag/ZnO nanoparticles supported bentonite clay.

    PubMed

    Motshekga, Sarah C; Ray, Suprakas S; Onyango, Maurice S; Momba, Maggie N B

    2013-11-15

    Composites of silver-zinc oxide nanoparticles supported on bentonite clay were synthesized by the microwave-assisted synthesis method for use as an antibacterial material. Silver nitrate was used as the precursor of silver nanoparticles while zinc oxide nanoparticles were commercially sourced. The composites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and BET surface area measurements. XRD spectra showed peaks of silver confirming the formation of the silver and not of the silver nitrate or any other impurity of the metal. Meanwhile TEM confirmed the formation of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the clay layers, with particle sizes ranging from 9-30 nm and 15-70 nm, respectively. The antibacterial activities of the composites were evaluated against Gram negative Escherichia coli bacteria and Gram positive Enterococcus faecalis bacteria by the disc diffusion method. Whereas both composites of Ag-clay and ZnO-clay showed good antibacterial activity against bacteria, a better antibacterial activity was observed with Ag/ZnO-clay composite. The results therefore reveal that Ag/ZnO-clay composite is a promising bactericide that can be used for deactivating microbes in water. PMID:24076479

  18. Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-01-01

    Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities. PMID:23569748

  19. Antibacterial activity of essential oil components.

    PubMed

    Moleyar, V; Narasimham, P

    1992-08-01

    Antibacterial activity of fifteen essential oil components towards food borne Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. was studied by an agar plate technique. Cinnamic aldehyde was the most active compound followed by citral, geraniol, eugenol and menthol. At 500 micrograms/ml, cinnamic aldehyde completely inhibited the bacterial growth for more than 30 days at 30 degrees C that was comparable to 200 micrograms/ml of butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA). At lower temperatures, 25 and 20 degrees C, antibacterial activity of the five essential oil components increased. Addition of sodium chloride at 4% level (w/v) in the medium had no effect on the inhibitory activity of cinnamic aldehyde. In mixtures of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol or BHA an additive effect was observed. PMID:1457292

  20. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Piperaceae extracts and nisin on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Suelen P; Anjos, Márcia Maria Dos; Carrara, Vanessa S; Delima, Juliana N; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício G; Nakamura, Tânia U; Nakamura, Celso V; de Abreu Filho, Benício A

    2013-11-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a gram-positive aerobic bacterium. This bacterium resists pasteurization temperatures and low pH and is usually involved in the spoilage of juices and acidic drinks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of nisin and the species Piper (Piperaceae) on A. acidoterrestris. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the broth microdilution method. The species Piper aduncum had the lowest MIC and an MBC of 15.6 μg/mL and was selected for fractionation. Six fractions were obtained, and the dichloromethane fraction (F.3) had the lowest MIC/MBC (7.81 μg/mL). The dichloromethane fraction was again fractionized, and a spectral analysis revealed that the compound was prenylated chromene (F.3.7). The checkerboard method demonstrated that the crude extract (CE) of P. aduncum plus nisin had a synergistic interaction (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] = 0.24). The bactericidal activity of (F.3.7) was confirmed by the time-kill curve. P. aduncum, nisin, and prenylated chromene exhibited strong antibacterial activity against the spores and vegetative cells of A. acidoterrestris. The results of this study suggest that extracts of the genus Piper may provide an alternative to the use of thermal processing for controlling A. spoilage. PMID:24138211

  1. Potential antibacterial activity of triazine dendrimer: Synthesis and controllable drug release properties.

    PubMed

    Vembu, Sandhirakasu; Pazhamalai, Srinivasan; Gopalakrishnan, Mannathusamy

    2015-08-01

    A novel sustained release delivery system of ciprofloxacin was developed. The system consists of a viscosity enhancer plus a penetration enhancer to overcome penetration barriers and loss due to wash-out and thus achieve the desired ciprofloxacin ocular absorption. A macromolecule of piperazine core 1,3,5-triazine dendrimer with eight molecules of ciprofloxacin drug as a surface moiety has been synthesized in five steps. Antibacterial activities of this compound have been investigated for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (mtcc 737), Bacillus subtilis (mtcc 2063), Escherichia coli (mtcc-443), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mtcc 741) and Proteus mirabilis (mtcc425). It was observed that the influence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic balance per repeat unit of these dendrimer has profound effects for antibacterial activities. The MIC value of the compound very lower at 100 μg/mL(-1) when compared with standard ciprofloxacin at 500 μg/mL(-1). The compound (10) exhibits five times higher activity against tested organisms when compared with ciprofloxacin as standard. The structures of the dendrimers were determined by means of MALDI-TOF MS, NMR and IR studies. The in vitro release of ciprofloxacin from obtained dendrimer was investigated. PMID:26113186

  2. Antitubercular and antibacterial activity of quinonoid natural products against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Dey, Diganta; Ray, Ratnamala; Hazra, Banasri

    2014-07-01

    Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens represent a major threat to human health. In view of the critical need to augment the current drug regime, we have investigated therapeutic potential of five quinonoids, viz. emodin, diospyrin, plumbagin, menadione and thymoquinone, derived from natural products. The antimicrobial activity of quinonoids was evaluated against a broad panel of multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) strains, rapid growing mycobacteria and other bacterial isolates, some of which were producers of β-lactamase, Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) enzymes, as well as their drug-sensitive ATCC counterparts. All the tested quinones exhibited antimycobacterial and broad spectrum antibacterial activity, particularly against M. tuberculosis (lowest MIC 0.25 µg/mL) and Gram-positive bacteria (lowest MIC <4 µg/mL) of clinical origin. The order of antitubercular activity of the tested quinonoids was plumbagin > emodin ~ menadione ~ thymoquinone > diospyrin, whereas their antibacterial efficacy was plumbagin > menadione ~ thymoquinone > diospyrin > emodin. Furthermore, this is the first evaluation performed on these quinonoids against a broad panel of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive clinical isolates, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24318724

  3. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of six essentials oils from the Alliaceae family.

    PubMed

    Mnayer, Dima; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Hamieh, Tayssir; Nehme, Nancy; Ferrant, Christine; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Six essential oils (EOs) from the Alliaceae family, namely garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), leek (Allium porrum), Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum), shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and chive (Allium schoenoprasum) were characterized by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their functional food properties. Antibacterial properties were tested on five food-borne pathogens: Two Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19115) and three Gram-negative Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC 14028), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and Campylobacter jejuni (ATCC 33291) bacteria. Antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties were tested by means of Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Garlic, Chinese chive and onion EOs had the highest antibacterial activity whereas shallot and leek EOs were the strongest antioxidants. Heating caused a decrease in the antioxidant activity of these Eos, as shown in the Total Polar Materials (TPM) test. Suggestions on relationships between chemical composition and biological activities are presented. Results show that the EOs could be of value in the food industry as alternatives to synthetic antioxidants. PMID:25470273

  4. Antibacterial, cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activities from Hypnea esperi and Caulerpa prolifera marine algae.

    PubMed

    Selim, Samy; Amin, Abeer; Hassan, Sherif; Hagazey, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Extracts from 2 algal species (Hypnea esperi and Caulerpa prolifera) from Suez Canal region, Egypt were screened for the production of antibacterial compounds against some pathogenic bacteria. The bacteria tested included Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Algal species displayed antibacterial activity. The methanolic extracts showed variable response by producing various zones of inhibition against studied bacteria. The tested Gram-negative bacteria were less affected by studied algal extracts than Gram-positive bacteria. We determined some biopotentials properties such as cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity of most potent algal active extracts. The secondary metabolites of only Hypnea esperi algal extract effectively prevented the blood clotting to the extent of 120 seconds. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) indicated that all potent tested algal extract C inhibits Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 1 and 1.4mg/ml. The algal isolates from Egypt have been found showing promising results against infectious bacteria instead of some synthetic antibiotics. PMID:25730785

  5. [Linezolid: antibacterial activity, clinical efficacy and resistance].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Nicolaos, N; Piriou, O; Butel, M J; Doucet-Populaire, F

    2006-01-01

    Linezolid is a synthetic antibiotic, the first available agent in a new class of antibiotic called the oxazolidinones, whose particular mechanism of action consists in inhibiting the initiation of protein synthesis. Its spectrum of in vitro and in vivo activity includes staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, corynebacteria and some anaerobic bacteria (Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium, and Fusobacterium). The first therapeutic results were very encouraging, leading to the marketing of the product in France in 2002. Linezolid is indicated in the treatment of pneumonia and the complicated infections of the skin. Pharmacocinetics studies have shown that linezolid has an excellent bioavailability allowing a fast relay per os. However, failures of treatment under linezolid were reported and resistant strains of staphylococci and enterococci were obtained in vitro and in vivo after therapeutic use of this antibiotic. Changes in the domain V of 23S rRNA were found in the site of fixation, the most frequent was (G out of U) in position 2576 (numbering E. coli). In a context where resistance to traditional treatments in enterococci, pneumococci and S. aureus do not cease to increase, linezolid can be regarded as a therapeutic alternative to treat the infections with Gram-positive cocci. PMID:17162258

  6. Daptomycin: an evidence-based review of its role in the treatment of Gram-positive infections

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Ruiz, Armando; Seaton, R Andrew; Hamed, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens remain a major public health burden and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Increasing rates of infection with Gram-positive bacteria and the emergence of resistance to commonly used antibiotics have led to the need for novel antibiotics. Daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide with rapid bactericidal activity against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, has been shown to be effective and has a good safety profile for the approved indications of complicated skin and soft tissue infections (4 mg/kg/day), right-sided infective endocarditis caused by S. aureus, and bacteremia associated with complicated skin and soft tissue infections or right-sided infective endocarditis (6 mg/kg/day). Based on its pharmacokinetic profile and concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, high-dose (>6 mg/kg/day) daptomycin is considered an important treatment option in the management of various difficult-to-treat Gram-positive infections. Although daptomycin resistance has been documented, it remains uncommon despite the increasing use of daptomycin. To enhance activity and to minimize resistance, daptomycin in combination with other antibiotics has also been explored and found to be beneficial in certain severe infections. The availability of daptomycin via a 2-minute intravenous bolus facilitates its outpatient administration, providing an opportunity to reduce risk of health care-associated infections, improve patient satisfaction, and minimize health care costs. Daptomycin, not currently approved for use in the pediatric population, has been shown to be widely used for treating Gram-positive infections in children. PMID:27143941

  7. Opioid Exacerbation of Gram-positive sepsis, induced by Gut Microbial Modulation, is Rescued by IL-17A Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jingjing; Banerjee, Santanu; Li, Dan; Sindberg, Gregory M.; Wang, Fuyuan; Ma, Jing; Roy, Sabita

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is the predominant cause of mortality in ICUs, and opioids are the preferred analgesic in this setting. However, the role of opioids in sepsis progression has not been well characterized. The present study demonstrated that morphine alone altered the gut microbiome and selectively induced the translocation of Gram-positive gut bacteria in mice. Using a murine model of poly-microbial sepsis, we further demonstrated that morphine treatment led to predominantly Gram-positive bacterial dissemination. Activation of TLR2 by disseminated Gram-positive bacteria induced sustained up-regulation of IL-17A and IL-6. We subsequently showed that overexpression of IL-17A compromised intestinal epithelial barrier function, sustained bacterial dissemination and elevated systemic inflammation. IL-17A neutralization protected barrier integrity and improved survival in morphine-treated animals. We further demonstrated that TLR2 expressed on both dendritic cells and T cells play essential roles in IL-17A production. Additionally, intestinal sections from sepsis patients on opioids exhibit similar disruption in gut epithelial integrity, thus establishing the clinical relevance of this study. This is the first study to provide a mechanistic insight into the opioid exacerbation of sepsis and show that neutralization of IL-17A might be an effective therapeutic strategy to manage Gram-positive sepsis in patients on an opioid regimen. PMID:26039416

  8. Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faezeh, Fatema; Salome, Dini; Abolfazl, Dadkhah; Reza, Zolfaghari Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities.

  9. Oritavancin: A New Lipoglycopeptide Antibiotic in the Treatment of Gram-Positive Infections.

    PubMed

    Brade, Karrine D; Rybak, Jeffrey M; Rybak, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Resistance among Gram-positive organisms has been steadily increasing over the last several years; however, the development of new antibiotics to treat infections caused from these organisms has fallen short of the emergent need. Specifically, resistance among Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. to essential antibiotics is considered a major problem. Oritavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic that was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). While structurally related to vancomycin, oritavancin also possesses unique mechanisms of action that greatly enhance its antimicrobial potency against multi-drug resistant pathogens including both VanA- and VanB-mediated vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Owing to the addition of the highly hydrophobic tail group, oritavancin possesses a prolonged half-life ranging from 200-300 h. Although oritavancin is only currently Food and Drug Administration approved for ABSSSI, this agent may eventually play a role in additional indications where new innovative therapy is needed including bacteremia and deep-seeded, Gram-positive infections such as infective endocarditis or osteomyelitis. This review will focus on oritavancin's spectrum of activity, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, and the completed and ongoing clinical studies evaluating its use. PMID:26831328

  10. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Mexican tarragon (Tagetes lucida).

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; Martínez, Andrés; Serrato, Blanca; Calderón-Mugica, José C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael

    2006-05-17

    Mexican tarragon (Tagetes lucida Cv. Asteraceae: Campanulatae) is an important, nutritious plant and an effective herbal medicine. Seven coumarins, 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin (4), umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin) (5), scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) (7), esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) (11), 6-hydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (12), herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin) (13), and scopoletin (6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin) (14), and three flavonoids, patuletin (18), quercetin (19), and quercetagetin (20), were isolated from CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts from aerial parts of T. lucida. In addition, 6,7-diacetoxy coumarin (15), 6-methoxy-7-acetylcoumarin (16), and 6-acetoxy-7-methoxycoumarin (17) derivatives were synthesized. 8-Methoxypsoralen (1), 8-acetyl-7-hydroxycoumarin (2), 7,8-dihydroxy-6-meth-oxycoumarin (3), 6,7-dimethoxy-4-methylcoumarin (6), 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (8), 4-hydroxycoumarin (9), 4-hydroxy-6,7-dimethylcoumarin (10), naringenin (21), glycoside-7-rhamnonaringin (22), and rutin (23) were commercially obtained (Sigma-Aldrich). All of these compounds and extracts (M1 and M2) were assayed against bacteria and fungi. The antibacterial activity was determined on Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella sp., Shigella boydii, Shigella sp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerans, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterolitica, Vibrio cholerae (three El Tor strains, CDC-V12, clinic case, and INDRE-206, were obtained from contaminated water), and V. cholerae (NO-O1). The evaluated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium sporotrichum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most active compounds against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria were the dihydroxylated coumarins 3 and 4. In addition, 2-4, 6, 7, and 11 showed an interesting activity against V. cholerae, a key bacterium in the contaminated water; 2-4 were the most active. Coumarins were the most effective compounds against Gram-negative bacteria. The extract MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1: 4) M2 at 0.4 microg/disk inhibited the growth of E. coli and P. mirabilis (40%), K. pneumoniae (31.1%), Salmonella sp. (35.5%), and Shigella sp. (0%) at 72 h of culture. The dimethoxy compounds 6 and 7 showed a strong activity against fungal strains, especially T. mentagrophytes and R. solani (100% of inhibition at 125.0 and 250.0 microg/mL, respectively). PMID:19127719

  11. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents.

    PubMed

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine; Suntres, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

  13. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles doped in the zeolite framework and antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    Using the chemical reduction method, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were effectively synthesized into the zeolite framework in the absence of any heat treatment. Zeolite, silver nitrate, and sodium borohydride were used as an inorganic solid support, a silver precursor, and a chemical reduction agent, respectively. Silver ions were introduced into the porous zeolite lattice by an ion-exchange path. After the reduction process, Ag NPs formed in the zeolite framework, with a mean diameter of about 2.12–3.11 nm. The most favorable experimental condition for the synthesis of Ag/zeolite nanocomposites (NCs) is described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO3. The Ag/zeolite NCs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared. The results show that Ag NPs form a spherical shape with uniform homogeneity in the particle size. The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs in zeolites was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria (ie, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae) and Gram-positive bacteria (ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) by disk diffusion method using Mueller–Hinton agar at different sizes of Ag NPs. All of the synthesized Ag/zeolite NCs were found to have antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag NPs in the zeolite framework can be useful in different biological research and biomedical applications. PMID:21383858

  14. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  15. Erylivingstone A-C with antioxidant and antibacterial activities from Erythrina livingstoniana.

    PubMed

    Bedane, Kibrom Gebreheiwot; Kusari, Souvik; Eckelmann, Dennis; Masesane, Ishmael B; Spiteller, Michael; Majinda, Runner R T

    2015-09-01

    The chemical study of Erythrina livingstoniana has led to the isolation of three new flavanones namely 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-formylflavanone (erylivingstone A) (1), 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-5'-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-4'-methoxyflavanone (erylivingstone B) (2) and 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-5'-(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-trans-but-1-enyl)-4'-methoxyflavanone (erylivingstone C) (3) together with three known compounds (4-6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR data, HRMS(n) fragmentation pathway and by comparison with literature data. We evaluated the antibacterial efficacies and free-radical scavenging potential of the isolated compounds (1-6). The typical environmental strains of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli, as well as against the clinically important Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and E. coli (risk-group 2) were used for the antibacterial assay. Compounds 5 and 6 exhibited the most pronounced efficacy against tested environmental bacteria as well as against the pathogenic strain of E. coli. Compound 3 was also quite active against these three bacterial strains. The isolated compounds showed weak radical scavenging properties with compound 6 being the most active, followed by compounds 2, 3 and 5. PMID:26107527

  16. Papain-templated Cu nanoclusters: assaying and exhibiting dramatic antibacterial activity cooperating with H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hong; Zhong, Dan; Zhou, Zinan; Yang, Xiaoming

    2015-11-01

    Herein, papain-functionalized Cu nanoclusters (CuNCs@Papain) were originally synthesized in aqueous solution together with a quantum yield of 14.3%, and showed obviously red fluorescence at 620 nm. Meanwhile, their corresponding fluorescence mechanism was fully elucidated by fluorescence spectroscopy, HR-TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, and XPS. Subsequently, the as-prepared CuNCs were employed as probes for detecting H2O2. Using CuNCs as probes, H2O2 was determined in the range from 1 μM to 50 μM based on a linear decrease of fluorescence intensity as well as a detection limit of 0.2 μM with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. More significantly, it has been proved that CuNCs could convert H2O2 to &z.rad;OH, which exhibited dramatic antibacterial activity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to validate their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive/negative bacteria and actual wound infection, suggesting their potential for serving as one type of promising antibacterial material.Herein, papain-functionalized Cu nanoclusters (CuNCs@Papain) were originally synthesized in aqueous solution together with a quantum yield of 14.3%, and showed obviously red fluorescence at 620 nm. Meanwhile, their corresponding fluorescence mechanism was fully elucidated by fluorescence spectroscopy, HR-TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, and XPS. Subsequently, the as-prepared CuNCs were employed as probes for detecting H2O2. Using CuNCs as probes, H2O2 was determined in the range from 1 μM to 50 μM based on a linear decrease of fluorescence intensity as well as a detection limit of 0.2 μM with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. More significantly, it has been proved that CuNCs could convert H2O2 to &z.rad;OH, which exhibited dramatic antibacterial activity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to validate their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive/negative bacteria and actual wound infection, suggesting their potential for serving as one type of promising antibacterial material. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Relevant figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05362e

  17. Terrestrial actinomycetes from diverse locations of Uttarakhnad, India: Isolation and screening for their antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Bisht, Gajraj Singh; Gusain, Omprakash

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Uttarakhand region is less explored, but possess a great biodiversity. This diversity can be explored for isolation and characterization of new actinomycetes strains for seeking antimicrobial molecules. It can therefore be predicted that novel bioactive metabolite producing actinomycetes can be discovered to combat multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods Variations in the viable count of actinomycetes were accessed in different altitudes. Actinomycetes were isolated, indentified and screened for their antibacterial activity. Results The highest viable counts of actinomycetes were recorded in valleys followed by mid hills and high hills. A total of 512 actinomycetes were isolated which were found to belong the 14 different genera of actinomycetes. Mainly the genus Streptomyces was dominant in all the soil samples. Out of 512 isolates recovered, 23.44% exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more tested bacterial pathogens. Of these 56.67% showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria, 26.67% against Gram-negative bacteria while 16.67% showed broad spectrum activity. Isolate DV1S and GR9a-5 showed highest antibacterial properties against several multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens and were identified using polyphasic approach. DV1S and GR9a-5 were found to be most closely related with S. massasporeus NBRC 12796T and Nocardia nova JCM 6044T respectively. Conclusion The results of this study strongly support the idea that the viable count of actinomycetes varied greatly with altitude. The actinomycetes species isolated from valleys, mid hills and high hills possess significant capacity to produce compounds which are active against several drug resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:24475340

  18. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity, Phytochemical Constituents, and Cytotoxicity Effects of Thai Household Ancient Remedies

    PubMed Central

    Sinvaraphan, Naruephan; Chaipak, Ploypailin; Luxsananuwong, Atita; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Household ancient remedies reported here are described in the National List of Essential Medicines and have traditionally been used in Thailand to treat infection-related ailments. However, the safety and effectiveness of these remedies have been poorly evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of these remedies against seven gram-positive and gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria species. Phytochemical constituents and cytotoxicity of these remedies were also determined. Methods: Seven remedies, consisting of Um-Ma-Luk-Ka-Wa-Tee, Chan-Ta-Lee-La, Kheaw-Hom, Learng-Pid-Sa-Mud, Pra-Sa-Chan-Dang, Dhart-Ban-Chob, and Tree-Hom, were prepared by a licensed traditional medical doctor using a mixture of medicinal plants. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of the remedies was determined by using a broth microdilution method. Qualitative phytochemical screening analysis was carried out to identify the presence of major components. Cytotoxicity activities of the extracts against Vero cells were assessed by green fluorescent protein–based assay. Results: With the exception of Dhart-Ban-Chob extract, significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of <16 to 32 μg/mL were observed for the remedy extracts depending on the bacterial strains. The Um-Ma-Luk-Ka-Wa-Tee extract was noncytotoxic against Vero cells and possessed the highest activity, with MICs of <16 to 31 μg/mL against all methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Conclusions: Remarkable antibacterial activities against multidrug-resistant pathogens, as well as low toxicity on Vero cells, of Um-Ma-Luk-Ka-Wa-Tee support the use of this remedy in traditional medicine. Further investigation on other biological activities related to traditional applications, appropriate biomarkers, and treatment mechanisms of the household remedy are required. PMID:25415453

  19. Antibacterial activity against β- lactamase producing Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants Staphylococcus aureus: fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study reports the antibacterial capacity of alkaloid compounds in combination with Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants bacteria isolated from clinical samples. The resistance of different bacteria strains to the current antibacterial agents, their toxicity and the cost of the treatment have led to the development of natural products against the bacteria resistant infections when applied in combination with conventional antimicrobial drugs. Method The antibacterial assays in this study were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC, MBC methods, the time-kill assay and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination. On the whole, fifteen Gram-positive bacterial strains (MRSA/ARSA) were used. Negative control was prepared using discs impregnated with 10 % DMSO in water and commercially available Methicillin and Ampicillin from Alkom Laboratories LTD were used as positive reference standards for all bacterial strains. Results We noticed that the highest activities were founded with the combination of alkaloid compounds and conventional antibiotics against all bacteria strains. Then, results showed that after 7 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculums. Conclusion The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with conventional antibiotics (Methicillin, Ampicillin) exhibited antimicrobial effects against microorganisms tested. These results validate the ethno-botanical use of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae) in Burkina Faso. Moreover, this study demonstrates the potential of this herbaceous as a source of antibacterial agent that could be effectively used for future health care purposes. PMID:22716026

  20. Positive selection, cloning vectors for gram-positive bacteria based on a restriction endonuclease cassette.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, G M; Klaenhammer, T R

    1996-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis contains numerous restriction and modification (R/M) systems of different specificities. A novel IIS type R/M system encoded by the LlaI operon has previously been characterized from the L. lactis conjugative plasmid pTR2030. The LlaI operon is composed of six genes: First, a small regulatory gene llaIC precedes the methylase gene llaIM. The following three genes, llaI.1, llaI.2, llaI.3, are all essential for restriction endonuclease activity and are designed as the restriction cassette llaIR. The forth open reading frame of unknown function follows the llaIR gene cassette. We have successfully subcloned the three llaIR genes, llaI.1, llaI.2, and llaI.3, without llaIM, as a suicide cassette into the three shuttle vectors pTRKL2, pTRKH2, and pBV5030. A promoter (P6) from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356, which is functional in E. coli, lactococci, and lactobacilli (Djordjevic and Topisirovic, unpublished) was cloned upstream of the three gene cassette. Restriction activity was evaluated in Escherichia coli and several gram-positive bacteria. The llaIR restriction cassette was not functional in E. coli, but its presence was lethal to L. lactis, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Carnobacterium pisicola, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Leuconostoc gelidum. Several novel, positive selection cloning vectors were developed that can exploit unique cloning sites within the llaIR cassette. Insertions in llaI.1 resulted in complete inactivation of restriction activity and provided unconditional selection for recombinant plasmids in surviving transformants. These positive selection cloning vectors are the first for gram-positive bacteria that are based on a restriction endonuclease cassette. Functional activity of the llaIR genes in various gram-positive bacteria would also enable use of these cloning vectors for positive selection of promoters, terminators, and regulatory sequences across these genera. PMID:8693025

  1. Chemical composition and antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salmiah; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Talebpour, Amir Hossein; Zargar, Mohsen; Shameli, Kamyar; Sekawi, Zamberi; Jahanshiri, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values) was 1.88 mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50 mg/mL) suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent. PMID:23484141

  2. Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Bang, Nipaporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a `green chemistry' approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round shape and uniform size with diameter at around 48 to 117 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO- and NH2 + groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.008 mM) and gram-negative bacteria (MIC ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mM). Therefore, the SS-capped AgNPs would be a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications.

  3. Chemical composition, antibacterial activity, and mechanism of action of the essential oil from Amomum kravanh.

    PubMed

    Diao, Wen-Rui; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Feng, Sai-Sai; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2014-10-01

    Amomum kravanh is widely cultivated and used as a culinary spice. In this work, the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of A. kravanh fruits was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 34 components were identified. 1,8-Cineole (68.42%) was found to be the major component, followed by ?-pinene (5.71%), ?-terpinene (2.63%), and ?-pinene (2.41%). The results of antibacterial tests showed that the sensitivities to the essential oil of different foodborne pathogens tested were different based on the Oxford cup method, MIC, and MBC assays, and the essential oil exhibited the best antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, a gram-positive bacterium, and Escherichia coli, a gram-negative bacterium. Growth in the presence of Amomum kravanh at the MIC, as measured by monitoring optical density over time, demonstrated that the essential oil was bacteriostatic after 12 h to both B. subtilis and E. coli. Observations of cell membrane permeability, cell constituent release assay, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that this essential oil may disrupt the cell wall and cell membrane permeability, leading to leakage of intracellular constituents in both B. subtilis and E. coli. PMID:25285491

  4. Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a ‘green chemistry’ approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round shape and uniform size with diameter at around 48 to 117 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO− and NH2 + groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.008 mM) and gram-negative bacteria (MIC ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mM). Therefore, the SS-capped AgNPs would be a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications. PMID:24533676

  5. One-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles in an aqueous solution and their antibacterial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangyu; Zhang, Feng; Morikawa, Hideaki; Chen, Yueyue

    2014-03-01

    A one-step simple synthesis of silver colloid nanoparticles with controllable sizes is presented in this research. In the synthesis, an amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP-NH2) was applied as a stabilizer and a reductant. The syntheses, performed at various initial AgNO3 concentrations (0.28-0.56 g/l) in a 2 g/l HBP-NH2 aqueous solution, produced silver colloid nanoparticles having average sizes from 3 to 30 nm with narrow size distributions. The formation of silver colloid nanoparticles was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV/Visible Absorption Spectrophotometry, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements. The results indicated that both particle size and the UV absorption are strongly dependent on the initial AgNO3 concentrations. The silver colloid nanoparticles, prepared with a 0.35 g/l AgNO3 aqueous solution in the presences of 2 g/l HBP-NH2, showed good antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus). A very low concentration of nano-silver (as low as 3.0 ug/ml Ag) also gave excellent antibacterial performance.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Salmiah; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Talebpour, Amir Hossein; Zargar, Mohsen; Shameli, Kamyar; Sekawi, Zamberi; Jahanshiri, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values) was 1.88 mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50 mg/mL) suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent. PMID:23484141

  7. Electrodeposition, characterization, and antibacterial activity of zinc/silver particle composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Vidal, Y.; Suarez-Rojas, R.; Ruiz, C.; Torres, J.; Ţălu, Ştefan; Méndez, Alia; Trejo, G.

    2015-07-01

    Composite coatings consisting of zinc and silver particles (Zn/AgPs) with antibacterial activity were prepared using an electrodeposition technique. The morphology, composition, and structure of the Zn/AgPs composite coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The antibacterial properties of the coatings against the microorganisms Escherichia coli as a model Gram-negative bacterium and Staphylococcus aureus as a model Gram-positive bacterium were studied quantitatively and qualitatively. The results revealed that the dispersant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) assisted in the formation of a stable suspension of Ag particles in the electrolytic bath for 24 h. Likewise, a high concentration of CTAB in the electrolytic bath promoted an increase in the number of Ag particles occluded in the Zn/AgPs coatings. The Zn/AgPs coatings that were obtained were compact, smooth, and shiny materials. Antimicrobial tests performed on the Zn/AgPs coatings revealed that the inhibition of bacterial growth after 30 min of contact time was between 91% and 98% when the AgPs content ranged from 4.3 to 14.0 mg cm-3.

  8. A novel study of antibacterial activity of copper iodide nanoparticle mediated by DNA and membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Arindam; Laha, Dipranjan; Bhattacharya, Debalina; Pramanik, Panchanan; Karmakar, Parimal

    2012-08-01

    In this article potential activity of nanoparticles (NPs) of copper iodide (CuI) as an antibacterial agent has been presented. The nano particles are synthesized by co-precipitation method with an average size of 8 nm as determined by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The average charge of the NPs is -21.5 mV at pH 7 as obtained by zeta potential measurement and purity is determined by XRD. These NPs are able to kill both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Among the bacteria tested, DH5α is more sensitive but Bacillus subtilis is more resistant to NPs of CuI. Consequently, the MIC and MBC values of DH5α is least (0.066 mg/ml and 0.083 mg/ml respectively) and B. subtilis is highest (0.15 mg/ml and 0.18 mg/ml respectively) among the tested bacterial strains. From our studies it is inferred that CuI NPs produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and it also causes ROS mediated DNA damage for the suppression of transcription as revealed by reporter gene assay. Probably ROS is formed on the surface of NPs of CuI in presence of amine functional groups of various biological molecules. Furthermore they induce membrane damage as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thus production of ROS and membrane damage are major mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of these NPs of CuI. PMID:22521682

  9. A versatile effect of chitosan-silver nanocomposite for surface plasmonic photocatalytic and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Nithya, Arjunan; JeevaKumari, Henry Linda; Rokesh, Karuppannan; Ruckmani, Kandasamy; Jeganathan, Kulandaivel; Jothivenkatachalam, Kandasamy

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan-silver (CS-Ag) nanocomposite was green synthesised without the aid of any external chemical-reducing agents. The synthesised nanocomposite was characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and zeta potential analyser. The particle size of the synthesised CS-Ag nanocomposite was around 20 nm and was found to be thermally stable in comparison with pure chitosan. The prepared nanocomposite acts as a photocatalyst for dye decolourisation, with a maximum of 81% of methyl orange (MO) decolourisation that occurred under visible light irradiation. The kinetics was found to follow pseudo-first-order according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model. The nanocomposite also proved to be an excellent antimicrobial agent against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 16.000 ± 1.000 and 19.333 ± 1.155 (mm), proving its high susceptibility than chitosan itself. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were from 8 to 64 μg/mL, whereas the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL, with the highest antibacterial activity shown against Gram-positive Staphlococcus aureus. This report illustrates the eco-friendly approach for the reduction of silver using chitosan as a reducing agent, and its potential to dye decay and microbial contaminants. PMID:26562805

  10. Synthesis, in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of some n-acetylated and non-acetylated pyrazolines.

    PubMed

    Baseer, Muhammad; Ansari, Farzana Latif; Ashraf, Zaman

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen new N-acetylated and non-acetylated pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by reacting chalcones with hydrazine in the presence of absolute ethanol however reaction was carried out in the presence of glacial acetic acid to afford N-acetylated pyrazolines. The chemical structures of the synthesized pyrazolines were confirmed by FTIR, (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR and mass spectroscopic data. The pyrazolines (1-14) were screened for antibacterial activity against ten bacterial strains using seven Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus pterus. Pyrazolines (1-14) found to exhibit good to excellent antimicrobial activities compared to the levofloxacin and fluconazole used as standard drugs. PMID:23261729

  11. Extraction of chitosan from shrimp shells waste and application in antibacterial finishing of bamboo rayon.

    PubMed

    Teli, M D; Sheikh, Javed

    2012-06-01

    Chitosan can be best utilized as safe antibacterial agent for textiles but there is always a limitation of its durability. The chitin containing shellfish waste is available in huge quantities, but very low quantities are utilized for extraction of high value products like chitosan. In the current work chitosan was extracted from shrimp shells and then used as antibacterial exhaust finishing agent for grafted bamboo rayon. Chitosan bound bamboo rayon was then evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The product showed antibacterial activity against both types of bacterias which was durable till 30 washes. PMID:22522048

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of polyketide metabolite from marine Streptomyces sp. AP-123 and its cytotoxic effect.

    PubMed

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2013-01-01

    A Gram positive, filamentous, spore forming antagonistic Streptomyces sp. AP-123 derived from marine region of Andra Pradesh, India, was studied for its medical importance. Among the 210 Streptomyces strains screened at 64.3% exhibited activity against Gram positive bacteria, 48.5% showed activity towards Gram negative bacteria, 38.8% exhibited both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 80.85% strains revealed significant antifungal activity. However, primary screening revealed that Streptomyces sp. AP-123 exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria compared to other Streptomyces strains. The presence of l-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in the cell wall hydrolysates and streptomycin resistance indicated the strain belonged to Streptomyces genus. The 16S rDNA gene based phylogenetic affiliation was determined by using bioinformatic tools and it was identified as Streptomyces sp. AP-123 with 99% sequence similarity to Streptomyces flavogriseus. The antimicrobial substances were extracted by hexane and ethyl acetate from spent medium in which Streptomyces sp. AP-123 was cultivated at 30 C for 5 d. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro-dilution technique. A compound was obtained by eluting the crude extract using varying concentrations of solvents followed by the chromatographic purification. Based on the IR, (13)C NMR and (1)H NMR spectral data, the compound was identified as polyketide related antibiotic. It exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and also showed a potent cytotoxic activity against cell lines viz. Vero (Green monkey kidney) and HEP2 (laryngeal carcinoma cells) in vitro. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the compound against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were 25 and 37.5 ?g mL(-1), respectively. Against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa it exhibited MIC of 50 and 37.58 ?g mL(-1), respectively. However, against Candida albicans and filamentous fungus, Aspergillus niger the MIC values were 12.5 and 25 ?g mL(-1), respectively. Cloning and sequence analysis of ketoacyl synthase (KS) gene revealed similarity to the type II polyketide synthase (PKS) gene of Streptomyces species. PMID:22963878

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from an Algerian Dairy Product

    PubMed Central

    Mezaini, Abdelkader; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Dilmi Bouras, Abdelkader; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Hornez, Jean Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the antibacterial effect of 20 lactic acid bacteria isolates from a traditional cheese was investigated. 6 isolates showed antibacterial effect against Gram positive bacteria. Streptococcus thermophilus T2 strain showed the wide inhibitory spectrum against the Gram positive bacteria. Growth and bacteriocin production profiles showed that the maximal bacteriocin production, by S. thermophilus T2 cells, was measured by the end of the late-log phase (90 AU ml?1) with a bacteriocine production rate of 9.3 (AU ml?1) h?1. In addition, our findings showed that the bacteriocin, produced by S. thermophilus T2, was stable over a wide pH range (48); this indicates that such bacteriocin may be useful in acidic as well as nonacidic food. This preliminarily work shows the potential application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to improve safety of traditional fermented food. PMID:20041021

  14. Preparation and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of 18-β-glycyrrhetinic Acid Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Behrad; Manoochehri, Saeed; Kamalinia, Golnaz; Samadi, Nasrin; Amini, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Seyyed Hossein; Maghazei, Shahab; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GLA) with appropriate physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activity. GLA loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared with different drug to polymer ratios, acetone contents and sonication times and the antibacterial activity of the developed nanoparticles was examined against different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial effect was studied using serial dilution technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Results demonstrated that physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were affected by the above mentioned parameters where nanoscale size particles ranging from 175 to 212 nm were achieved. The highest encapsulation efficiency (53.2 ± 2.4%) was obtained when the ratio of drug to polymer was 1:4. Zeta potential of the developed nanoparticles was fairly negative (-11±1.5). In-vitro release profile of nanoparticles showed two phases: an initial phase of burst release for 10 h followed by a slow release pattern up to the end. The antimicrobial results revealed that the nanoparticles were more effective than pure GLA against P. aeuroginosa, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. This improvement in antibacterial activity of GLA loaded nanoparticles when compared to pure GLA may be related to higher nanoparticles penetration into infected cells and a higher amount of GLA delivery in its site of action. Herein, it was shown that GLA loaded PLGA nanoparticles displayed appropriate physicochemical properties as well as an improved antimicrobial effect. PMID:25901144

  15. Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) excretions and secretions have potent antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Gaona, María A; Segura, Nydia A; Suárez, Diana; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2014-08-01

    The most important mechanism for combating infection using larval therapy depends on larval excretions and secretions (ES). The present work was aimed at evaluating Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) ES antibacterial activity in six bacterial strains (three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative) and comparing this to the effect of Lucilia sericata-derived ES. Antibacterial activity at 50μg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed for Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC-12228 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213 strains, when the turbidimetry test involving S. magellanica ES was used; the rest of the bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-10145, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-27853) were inhibited at a 100μg/mL MIC. Twice the amount was required to inhibit the aforementioned bacteria with L. sericata-derived ES using this same technique; a similar trend was observed when the agar diffusion method was used instead. Furthermore, when the previously established MIC for each bacterial strain was used, their colonies became reduced following 1-6h incubation with S. magellanica derived ES, whilst the reduction occurred from 2 to 6hours with those from L. sericata. Although the MIC for each strain obtained with ciprofloxacin was lower than those established when using either blowfly derived-ES, the gradual reduction of the colonies occurred at a longer incubation time (6h or more). The results showed that S. magellanica ES antibacterial activity was more potent and effective, compared to that of L. sericata-derived ES. PMID:24754920

  16. Preparation and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of 18-β-glycyrrhetinic Acid Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Behrad; Manoochehri, Saeed; Kamalinia, Golnaz; Samadi, Nasrin; Amini, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Seyyed Hossein; Maghazei, Shahab; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GLA) with appropriate physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activity. GLA loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared with different drug to polymer ratios, acetone contents and sonication times and the antibacterial activity of the developed nanoparticles was examined against different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial effect was studied using serial dilution technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Results demonstrated that physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were affected by the above mentioned parameters where nanoscale size particles ranging from 175 to 212 nm were achieved. The highest encapsulation efficiency (53.2 ± 2.4%) was obtained when the ratio of drug to polymer was 1:4. Zeta potential of the developed nanoparticles was fairly negative (-11±1.5). In-vitro release profile of nanoparticles showed two phases: an initial phase of burst release for 10 h followed by a slow release pattern up to the end. The antimicrobial results revealed that the nanoparticles were more effective than pure GLA against P. aeuroginosa, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. This improvement in antibacterial activity of GLA loaded nanoparticles when compared to pure GLA may be related to higher nanoparticles penetration into infected cells and a higher amount of GLA delivery in its site of action. Herein, it was shown that GLA loaded PLGA nanoparticles displayed appropriate physicochemical properties as well as an improved antimicrobial effect. PMID:25901144

  17. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Tan, Liy Si; Shafiei, Zaleha; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586). The screening test of antibacterial activity was performed using agar-well diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using twofold serial microdilution method at a concentration ranging between 0.01?mg/mL and 5?mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained by subculturing microtiter wells which showed no changes in colour of the indicator after incubation. Both extracts showed inhibition zones which did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) against each tested bacteria. Among all tested bacteria, S. salivarius was the most susceptible. The MIC ranges for methanol and acetone extracts were the same, between 0.16 and 0.63?mg/mL. The MBC value, for methanol and acetone extracts, was in the ranges 0.311.25?mg/mL and 0.312.50?mg/mL, respectively. Both extracts of Q. infectoria galls exhibited similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens. PMID:22203875

  18. Antiviral and antibacterial polyurethanes of various modalities.

    PubMed

    Park, Daewon; Larson, Alyssa M; Klibanov, Alexander M; Wang, Yadong

    2013-02-01

    We have prepared and characterized a new polyurethane-based antimicrobial material, N,N-dodecyl,methyl-polyurethane (Quat-12-PU). It exhibits strong antiviral and antibacterial activities when coated (as an organic solution or an aqueous nanosuspension) onto surfaces and antibacterial activity when electrospun into nanofibers. Quat-12-PU surfaces are able to kill airborne Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria, as well as inactivate the enveloped influenza virus (but not the non-enveloped poliovirus). PMID:23306899

  19. Synthesis, Antibacterial and Antitubercular Activities of Some 5H-Thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ones and Sulfonic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Yu; Yan, Xin-Jia; Zou, Liang-Jing; Wang, Ya-Xin; Liu, Xue-Qi

    2015-01-01

    A series of 5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ones were synthesized by the cyclization reactions of S-alkylated derivatives in concentrated H₂SO₄. Upon treatment of S-alkylated derivatives at different temperatures, intramolecular cyclization to 7-(substituted phenylamino)-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ones or sulfonation of cyclized products to sulfonic acid derivatives occurred. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and HRMS studies. The compounds were evaluated for their preliminary in vitro antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and screened for antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the broth dilution assay method. Some compounds showed good antibacterial and antitubercular activities. PMID:26378507

  20. Antibacterial Activities and In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory (Membrane Stability) Properties of Methanolic Extracts of Gardenia coronaria Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Jainul, Mohammed Abdullah; Faruq, Kazi Omar; Islam, Atiqul

    2014-01-01

    This work is carried out with Gardenia coronaria leaves that belong to the family Rubiaceae, which is a small-to-medium-sized but tall, deciduous tree, 7.6–9 m high on an average. Leaves are used for the treatment of rheumatic pain and bronchitis. The leaf of the plant consists of coronalolide, coronalolic acid, coronalolide methyl ester, ethyl coronalolate acetate triterpenes (secocycloartanes), and so forth. Methanol extract from the leaves of Gardenia coronaria was completely screened for membrane stability and antibacterial activity. The lower concentrations of Methanolic leaf extract of Gardenia coronaria gave good antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, but higher concentrations gave relatively more projecting antibacterial activity in vitro as compared with Kanamycin. The crude drug's anti-inflammatory effects were compared with those of Aspirin as positive control. The Methanolic extracts of Gardenia coronaria leaves possessed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against a variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms like Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Shigella sonnei, Shigella boydii, and Proteus mirabilis, with a zone of inhibition from 10 to 16 mm. The extract also showed good membrane stability to be considered as having significant anti-inflammatory action. PMID:24695677

  1. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Heracleum transcaucasicum and Heracleum anisactis roots essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Torbati, Mohammadali; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Nemati, Mahboob; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity and volatile compositions of two Heracleum species (Apiaceae) including Heracleum transcaucasicum and Heracleum anisactis roots Essential Oil (EO) were investigated. Methods: The volatile compositions of EOs were analyzed by GC/Mass spectroscopy. To detect the antioxidant activity of essential oils TLC-bioautography and DPPH radical scavenging assay by spectrophotometry was performed. Additionally, the antibacterial activity of two essential oils were studied and compared against four pathogenic bacteria by agar disc diffusion method and MIC values of the EOs were determined using the broth dilution method. Results: Myristicin was the dominant component in both EOs. It was identified as 96.87% and 95.15% of the essential oil composition of H. transcaucasicum and H. anisactis roots, respectively. The TLC-bioautography showed antioxidant spots in both EOs and IC50 of H. anisactis and H. transcaucasicum EO was found to be 54 ?g ml (-1) and 77 ?g ml (-1), respectively. Regarding the antimicrobial assay, H. anisactis EO exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria and also Escherichia coli, whereas the essential oil from H. transcaucasicum was inactive. Conclusion: Based on the results from this study, both tested EOs mainly consist of myristicin. Despite the presence of myristicin with known antibacterial property, the EO from H. transcacausicum showed no antibacterial activity. Thus it is supposed that the biological activity of plants is remarkably linked to the extracts chemical profile and intercomponents synergistic or antagonistic effect could play a crucial role in bioactivity of EOs and other plant extracts. PMID:25035849

  2. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Stereum ostrea, an Inedible Wild Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Jayasinghe, Chandana; Lee, Geon Woo

    2007-01-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of liquid culture filtrate, water and ethanol extract (solid culture) of Stereum ostrea were evaluated against 5 bacteria and 3 plant pathogenic fungi. To determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), we studied 5~300 mg/ml concentrations against bacteria and fungi separately. The MIC was 10 mg/ml for Bacillus subtilis and 40 mg/ml for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum miyabeanus. Liquid culture filtrate was more effective against Gram positive than Gram negative bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most inhibited (20.3 mm) bacterium. Water and ethanol extracts were effective against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and water extract was better than ethanol extract. In water and ethanol extract, inhibition zones were 23.6 and 21.0 mm (S. aureus) and 26.3 and 22.3 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), respectively. For plant pathogenic fungi, the highest and lowest percent inhibition of mycelial growth (PIMG) was found 82.8 and 14.4 against C. miyabeanus and Botrytis cinerea in liquid culture filtrate, respectively. In water extract, the PIMG was found to be the highest 85.2 and lowest 41.7 for C. miyabeanus and C. gloeosporioides, respectively. The inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was better against C. miyabeanus than C. gloeosporioides and B. cinerea. Among 3 samples, water extract was the best against tested pathogenic fungi. This study offers that the extracts isolated from S. ostrea contain potential compounds which inhibit the growth of both bacteria and fungi. PMID:24015099

  3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, their characterization, application and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Florence; Janen, Afef; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Curley, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Our research focused on the production, characterization and application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which can be utilized in biomedical research and environmental cleaning applications. We used an environmentally friendly extracellular biosynthetic technique for the production of the AgNPs. The reducing agents used to produce the nanoparticles were from aqueous extracts made from the leaves of various plants. Synthesis of colloidal AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak between 417 and 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The characterization of the AgNPs such as their size and shape was performed by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which indicated a size range of 3 to 15 nm. The anti-bacterial activity of AgNPs was investigated at concentrations between 2 and 15 ppm for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus and Kocuria rhizophila, Bacillus thuringiensis (Gram-positive organisms); Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium (Gram-negative organisms) were exposed to AgNPs using Bioscreen C. The results indicated that AgNPs at a concentration of 2 and 4 ppm, inhibited bacterial growth. Preliminary evaluation of cytotoxicity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was accomplished using the InQ™ Cell Research System instrument with HEK 293 cells. This investigation demonstrated that silver nanoparticles with a concentration of 2 ppm and 4 ppm were not toxic for human healthy cells, but inhibit bacterial growth. PMID:24157517

  4. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, Their Characterization, Application and Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Florence; Janen, Afef; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Curley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Our research focused on the production, characterization and application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which can be utilized in biomedical research and environmental cleaning applications. We used an environmentally friendly extracellular biosynthetic technique for the production of the AgNPs. The reducing agents used to produce the nanoparticles were from aqueous extracts made from the leaves of various plants. Synthesis of colloidal AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak between 417 and 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The characterization of the AgNPs such as their size and shape was performed by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which indicated a size range of 3 to 15 nm. The anti-bacterial activity of AgNPs was investigated at concentrations between 2 and 15 ppm for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus and Kocuria rhizophila, Bacillus thuringiensis (Gram-positive organisms); Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium (Gram-negative organisms) were exposed to AgNPs using Bioscreen C. The results indicated that AgNPs at a concentration of 2 and 4 ppm, inhibited bacterial growth. Preliminary evaluation of cytotoxicity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was accomplished using the InQ™ Cell Research System instrument with HEK 293 cells. This investigation demonstrated that silver nanoparticles with a concentration of 2 ppm and 4 ppm were not toxic for human healthy cells, but inhibit bacterial growth. PMID:24157517

  5. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5(T), a Gram-positive diazotrophic rhizobacterium.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luciana Fernandes; Bach, Evelise; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian; Wibberg, Daniel; Passaglia, Luciane M; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-08-10

    Paenibacillus riograndensis is a Gram-positive rhizobacterium which exhibits plant growth promoting activities. It was isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of P. riograndensis strain SBR5(T). The genome of P. riograndensis SBR5(T) consists of a circular chromosome of 7,893,056bps. The genome was finished and fully annotated, containing 6705 protein coding genes, 87 tRNAs and 27 rRNAs. The knowledge of the complete genome helped to explain why P. riograndensis SBR5(T) can grow with the carbon sources arabinose and mannitol, but not myo-inositol, and to explain physiological features such as biotin auxotrophy and antibiotic resistances. The genome sequence will be valuable for functional genomics and ecological studies as well as for application of P. riograndensis SBR5(T) as plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. PMID:25959170

  6. Regulating the Intersection of Metabolism and Pathogenesis in Gram-positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    RICHARDSON, ANTHONY R.; SOMERVILLE, GREG A.; SONENSHEIN, ABRAHAM L.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria must contend with immune systems that actively restrict the availability of nutrients and cofactors, and create a hostile growth environment. To deal with these hostile environments, pathogenic bacteria have evolved or acquired virulence determinants that aid in the acquisition of nutrients. This connection between pathogenesis and nutrition may explain why regulators of metabolism in nonpathogenic bacteria are used by pathogenic bacteria to regulate both metabolism and virulence. Such coordinated regulation is presumably advantageous because it conserves carbon and energy by aligning synthesis of virulence determinants with the nutritional environment. In Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, at least three metabolite-responsive global regulators, CcpA, CodY, and Rex, have been shown to coordinate the expression of metabolism and virulence genes. In this chapter, we discuss how environmental challenges alter metabolism, the regulators that respond to this altered metabolism, and how these regulators influence the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:26185086

  7. Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Lucila; Sesma, Fernando

    The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic host systems makes them attractive candidates for biotechnological applications. However, before suggesting or choosing a new bacteriocin for future technology developments, it is necessary to elucidate its biochemical structure and its mode of action, which may be carried out once the bacteriocin is purified to homogeneity. This chapter focuses on describing the main strategies used for the purification of numerous bacteriocins.

  8. In vitro screening of Circium arvense for potential antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arifullah; Amin, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Ali, Irshad

    2011-10-01

    The antimicrobial activities of Circium arvense extracts were evaluated against two human gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and four gram negative pathogen (Escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae). The Methanol extracts of Circium arvense were used to obtain various fractions (X1) n-hexane, (X2) chloroform, (X3) ethyl acetate and (X4) n-butanol. The agar well diffusion assay and agar dilution susceptibility testing were carried out to determine the zone of inhibitions and the minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. Antifungal activity was employed by agar well diffusion method. The Ampicilline, Ofloxacine and Itraconazole were used as standard agents. Almost all fractions exhibited more or less antimicrobial activity. The X2 (Chloroform) fraction was reported as highly active fraction with good antimicrobial activity MIC 0.312 mg/ml against staphylococcus areous. The MBC values of fraction X2 (chloroform) was 2 times the MIC. Similarly all fractions exhibited good inhibitory activities against Aspergillus niger. The fraction X1(n-hexane) was found highly active 6(±0.11), followed by X2 (chloroform) fraction 5 (±0.17). Present study provides a base to explore the antimicrobial potential of Circium arvense. It is concluded that the Circium arvense having potential antibacterial and antifungal activities, irrespective of fact that the MIC values reported were high. Further investigations are recommended to exploit the hidden medicinal value of plant. PMID:21959814

  9. Antibacterial properties of compounds isolated from Carpobrotus edulis.

    PubMed

    Martins, A; Vasas, A; Viveiros, M; Molnár, J; Hohmann, J; Amaral, L

    2011-05-01

    Several compounds isolated from the plant Carpobrotus edulis were evaluated for their activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and their efflux pump systems. Amongst the compounds isolated, six compounds were tested, namely uvaol, β-amyrin, oleanolic acid, catechin, epicatechin and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. Oleanolic acid presented high antibacterial activity against a large number of bacterial strains. The triterpene uvaol was the most active compound for modulation of efflux activity by MDR Gram-positive strains. PMID:21411294

  10. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from green huajiao (Zanthoxylum schinifolium) against selected foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Diao, Wen-Rui; Hu, Qing-Ping; Feng, Sai-Sai; Li, Wei-Qin; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2013-06-26

    Green huajiao, which is the ripe pericarp of the fruit of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc, is widely consumed in Asia as a spice. In this work, the chemical composition of the essential oil from green huajiao was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS), and the majority of components were identified. Linalool (28.2%), limonene (13.2%), and sabinene (12.1%) were found to be the major components. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oil were evaluated against selected bacteria, including food-borne pathogens. The results showed that the sensitivities to the essential oil were different for different bacteria tested, and the susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria tested was observed to be greater than that of Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was particularly strong against Staphylococcus epidermidis , with MIC and MBC values of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. A postcontact effect assay also confirmed the essential oil had a significant effect on the growth rate of surviving S. epidermidis . The antibacterial activity of the essential oil from green huajiao may be due to the increase in permeability of cell membranes, and the leakage of intracellular constituents, on the basis of the cell constituents' release assay and electron microscopy observations. PMID:23758080

  11. Anticancer and Antibacterial Activity Studies of Gold(I)-Alkynyl Chromones.

    PubMed

    Hikisz, Pawe?; Szczupak, ?ukasz; Koceva-Chy?a, Aneta; Gu Spiel, Adam; Oehninger, Luciano; Ott, Ingo; Therrien, Bruno; Solecka, Jolanta; Kowalski, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Three gold(I) complexes of alkynyl chromones were synthesized and characterized. The single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of a dinuclear compound and of a flavone derivative exhibit a typical d10 gold(I)-alkynyl linear arrangement. All complexes were evaluated as anticancer and antibacterial agents against four human cancer cell lines and four pathogenic bacterial strains. All compounds show antiproliferative activity at lower micromolar range concentrations. Complex 4 showed a broad activity profile, being more active than the reference drug auranofin against HepG2, MCF-7 and CCRF-CEM cancer cells. The cellular uptake into MCF-7 cells of the investigated complexes was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). These measurements showed a positive correlation between an increased cellular gold content and the incubation time of the complexes. Unexpectedly an opposite effect was observed for the most active compound. Biological assays revealed various molecular mechanisms for these compounds, comprising: (i) thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) inhibition, (ii) caspases-9 and -3 activation; (iii) DNA damaging activity and (iv) cell cycle disturbance. The gold(I) complexes were also bactericidal against Gram-positive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacterial strains, while showing no activity against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacterial strain. PMID:26528965

  12. Potent and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of indole-based bisamidine antibiotics: synthesis and SAR of novel analogs of MBX 1066 and MBX 1090

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John D.; Nguyen, Son T.; Gu, Shen; Ding, Xiaoyuan; Butler, Michelle M.; Tashjian, Tommy F.; Opperman, Timothy J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Peet, Norton P.; Moir, Donald T.; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in the clinic has propelled a concerted effort to find new classes of antibiotics that will circumvent current modes of resistance. We have previously described a set of bisamidine antibiotics that contains a core composed of two indoles and a central linker. The first compounds of the series, MBX 1066 and MBX 1090, have potent antibacterial properties against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We have conducted a systematic exploration of the amidine functionalities, the central linker, and substituents at the indole 3-position to determine the factors involved in potent antibacterial activity. Some of the newly synthesized compounds have even more potent and broad-spectrum activity than MBX 1066 and MBX 1090. PMID:24239389

  13. Injectable bioadhesive hydrogels with innate antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giano, Michael C.; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Medina, Scott H.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Christensen, Joani M.; Yamada, Yuji; Brandacher, Gerald; Schneider, Joel P.

    2014-06-01

    Surgical site infections cause significant postoperative morbidity and increased healthcare costs. Bioadhesives used to fill surgical voids and support wound healing are typically devoid of antibacterial activity. Here we report novel syringe-injectable bioadhesive hydrogels with inherent antibacterial properties prepared from mixing polydextran aldehyde and branched polyethylenimine. These adhesives kill both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, while sparing human erythrocytes. An optimal composition of 2.5 wt% oxidized dextran and 6.9 wt% polyethylenimine sets within seconds forming a mechanically rigid (~\

  14. Wound-dressing materials with antibacterial activity from electrospun polyurethane-dextran nanofiber mats containing ciprofloxacin HCl.

    PubMed

    Unnithan, Afeesh R; Barakat, Nasser A M; Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Gnanasekaran, Gopalsamy; Nirmala, R; Cha, Youn-Soo; Jung, Che-Hun; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Kim, Hak Yong

    2012-11-01

    Dextran is a versatile biomacromolecule for preparing electrospun nanofibrous membranes by blending with either water-soluble bioactive agents or hydrophobic biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications. In this study, an antibacterial electrospun scaffold was prepared by electrospinning of a solution composed of dextran, polyurethane (PU) and ciprofloxacin HCl (CipHCl) drug. The obtained nanofiber mats have good morphology. The mats were characterized by various analytical techniques. The interaction parameters between fibroblasts and the PU-dextran and PU-dextran-drug scaffolds such as viability, proliferation, and attachment were investigated. The results indicated that the cells interacted favorably with the scaffolds especially the drug-containing one. Moreover, the composite mat showed good bactericidal activity against both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, our results conclude that the introduced scaffold might be an ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications. PMID:22944448

  15. Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 2 Is Found in Skin and Its C-Terminal Region Encodes for Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Sørensen, Ole E.; Lundqvist, Katarina; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Background Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI-2) is a matrix-associated serine protease inhibitor with an enigmatic function in vivo. Here, we describe that TFPI-2 is present in fibrin of wounds and also expressed in skin, where it is up-regulated upon wounding. Methodology and Principal Findings Neutrophil elastase cleaved TFPI-2, and a C-terminal fragment was found to bind to bacteria. Similarly, a prototypic peptide representing this C-terminal part, EDC34, bound to bacteria and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and induced bacterial permeabilization. The peptide also induced leakage in artificial liposomes, and displayed a random coil conformation upon interactions with liposomes as well as lipopolysaccharide. EDC34 was antibacterial against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in physiological buffer conditions. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that the C-terminus of TFPI-2 encodes for antimicrobial activity, and may be released during wounding. PMID:23300768

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn. (Asclepidaceae).

    PubMed

    Kalidass, C; Glory, M; Borgio, Francis; Manickam, V S

    2009-04-01

    Leptadenia reticulata of Asclepidaceae family is a shrub, originally property of Petroleum ether, Alcohol & Chloroform extract of L. reticulata. The antimicrobial testing was carried out by "Disc diffusion method". Amongst the tested three extracts, chloroform extract showed high antimicrobial activity against E. coli, alcoholic extract showed high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Petroleum ether extract showed antibacterial activity against Klebsilla pneumonae. PMID:22557325

  17. The efficacy and safety of daptomycin: first in a new class of antibiotics for Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rybak, M J

    2006-03-01

    In the face of increasing resistance to currently available antibiotics, there is a continued interest in the development of new drugs to treat Gram-positive infections. One such agent is the cyclic lipopeptide daptomycin-licensed in the USA for treatment of Gram-positive complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) in 2003 and currently awaiting European approval for a similar indication (complicated skin and soft tissue infections). Daptomycin exerts its rapid bactericidal effect through insertion into and subsequent depolarisation of the bacterial cell membrane, a mode of action unlike that of any other available antibiotic. This novel mechanism of action makes the development of cross-resistance between daptomycin and other antibiotic classes unlikely. Daptomycin is highly active in vitro against a range of Gram-positive pathogens, including both susceptible and multidrug-resistant staphylococci and enterococci. Bactericidal activity has also been demonstrated against both growing and stationary-phase organisms, suggesting potential utility in the treatment of deep-seated infections. Two pivotal clinical studies comparing daptomycin 4 mg/kg per day intravenously with vancomycin or oxacillin-class antibiotics demonstrated the efficacy of daptomycin for treatment of cSSSIs. Daptomycin was well tolerated, with most adverse events considered to be unrelated to study medication, of mild-to-moderate intensity, and with a frequency and distribution similar to those associated with comparator antibiotics. The favourable clinical profile and low potential for development of resistance combine to make daptomycin a promising alternative to current agents for treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections. PMID:16445721

  18. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oil from Cordia verbenacea DC leaves

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Oliveira, Liana G. S.; Rodrigues, Fábio F. G.; Saraiva, Manuele E.; Almeida, Sheyla C. X.; Cabral, Mario E. S.; Campos, Adriana R.; Costa, Jose Galberto M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cordia verbenacea is a Brazilian coastal shrub popularly known as “erva baleeira”. The essential oil from fresh leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by CG/MS. The main components were identified as β-caryophyllene (25.4%), bicyclogermacrene (11.3%), δ-cadinene (9.%) and α-pinene (9.5%). In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Cordia verbenacea was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was obtained using the broth microdilution assay (from 512 to 8 μg/ml). Results: The results showed that the essential oil presented fungistatic activity against Candida albicans and Candida krusei and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and against multiresistant Gram-negative (Escherichia coli 27), in all tests the MIC was 64 μg/ml. When the essential oil was associated to aminoglycosides (subinhibitory concentrations, MIC/8), a synergic and antagonic activity was verified. The synergic effect was observed to the amikacin association (MIC reduction from 256 mlto 64 μg/ml) in all strains tested. Conclusion: The essential oil of Cordia verbenacea influences the activity of antibiotics and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. PMID:22923954

  19. The Antibacterial Activity of Date Syrup Polyphenols against S. aureus and E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Taleb, Hajer; Maddocks, Sarah E.; Morris, R. Keith; Kanekanian, Ara D.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived products such as date syrup (DS) have demonstrated antibacterial activity and can inhibit bacteria through numerous different mechanisms, which may be attributed to bioactive compounds including plant-derived phenolic molecules. DS is rich in polyphenols and this study hypothesized that DS polyphenols demonstrate inherent antimicrobial activity, which cause oxidative damage. This investigation revealed that DS has a high content of total polyphenols (605 mg/100 g), and is rich in tannins (357 mg/100 g), flavonoids (40.5 mg/100 g), and flavanols (31.7 mg/100 g) that are known potent antioxidants. Furthermore, DS, and polyphenols extracted from DS, the most abundant bioactive constituent of DS are bacteriostatic to both Gram positive and Gram negative Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. It has further been shown that the extracted polyphenols independently suppress the growth of bacteria at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 30 and 20 mg/mL for E. coli and S. aureus, and have observed that DS behaves as a prooxidant by generating hydrogen peroxide that mediates bacterial growth inhibition as a result of oxidative stress. At sub-lethal MIC concentrations DS demonstrated antioxidative activity by reducing hydrogen peroxide, and at lethal concentrations DS demonstrated prooxidant activity that inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. The high sugar content naturally present in DS did not significantly contribute to this effect. These findings highlight that DS’s antimicrobial activity is mediated through hydrogen peroxide generation in inducing oxidative stress in bacteria. PMID:26952177

  20. Chemical composition, and cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oil from ginseng leaves.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rui; Sun, Liwei; Wang, Yanbing; Liu, Jianzeng; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Hao; Zhao, Daqing

    2014-06-01

    Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, the essential oil of ginseng leaves (EOGL), collected using hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, contained a complex mixture of aliphatic (69.0%), terpenoid (21.5%) and aromatic compounds (2.4%). Among 54 components identified, the major ones were palmitic acid (36.1%), beta-farnesene (15.4%), linoleic acid (9.8%) and phytol (5.6%). In the cytotoxicity study, EOGL exhibited obvious cytotoxic activities against different cancer cell lines, including Hela, A549, ZR-75-1, HT-29, SGC7901 and B16 cells. Furthermore, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay indicated that EOGL can induce late apoptosis of ZR-75-1 cells, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0.9% to 5.6% and 67.4%). In addition to this, we also found that EOGL exhibited weak DPPH radical scavenging (12.0 +/- 0.4 mg/mL) and ABTS radical scavenging activities (1.6 +/- 0.1 mg/mL), and showed antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. The data suggest that EOGL, which possesses important biological activities, especially significant anticancer activity, could be a potential medicinal resource. PMID:25115102

  1. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel 4-bromo-1H-indazole derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Yan, Mi; Ma, Ruixin; Ma, Shutao

    2015-04-01

    A series of novel 4-bromo-1H-indazole derivatives as filamentous temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ) inhibitors were designed, synthesized, and assayed for their in vitro antibacterial activity against various phenotypes of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their cell division inhibitory activity. The results indicated that this series showed better antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes than the other tested strains. Among them, compounds 12 and 18 exhibited 256-fold and 256-fold more potent activity than 3-methoxybenzamide (3-MBA) against penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and compound 18 showed 64-fold better activity than 3-MBA but 4-fold weaker activity than ciprofloxacin in the inhibition of S. aureus ATCC29213. Particularly, compound 9 presented the best activity (4 µg/mL) against S. pyogenes PS, being 32-fold, 32-fold, and 2-fold more active than 3-MBA, curcumin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively, but it was four times less active than oxacillin sodium. In addition, some synthesized compounds displayed moderate inhibition of cell division against S. aureus ATCC25923, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, sharing a minimum cell division concentration of 128 µg/mL. PMID:25773717

  2. Superhydrophobic antibacterial cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Shateri Khalil-Abad, Mohammad; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad E

    2010-11-01

    We present a facile and effective method to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Silver particles were produced on cotton fibers by treatment with aqueous KOH and AgNO(3), followed by reduction treatment with ascorbic acid in the presence of a polymeric steric stabilizer to generate a dual-size surface roughness. Further modification of the particle-containing cotton textiles with octyltriethoxysilane led to hydrophobic surfaces. Surfaces prepared showed a sticky property, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 151 degrees for a 10 microL droplet that water drop did not slid off even when the sample was held upside down. The modified cotton has potent antibacterial activity toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The Ag particles were uniformly and stably distributed on the substrate surface and killed bacteria. These modified cotton textiles are potentially useful; as superhydrophobic antibacterial fabrics in a wide variety of biomedical and general use applications. PMID:20709327

  3. Synthesis, electronic properties, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of some new benzimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Mavrova, Anelia Ts; Yancheva, Denitsa; Anastassova, Neda; Anichina, Kamelya; Zvezdanovic, Jelena; Djordjevic, Aleksandra; Markovic, Dejan; Smelcerovic, Andrija

    2015-10-01

    Two groups of benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized using as precursors 5(6)-substituted 2-mercapto-benzimidazol-thiols and their antioxidant activity was investigated using TBA-MDA test. In the group of 1,3-disubstituted-benzimidazol-2-imines the highest lipid peroxidation inhibition effect 74.04% (IC₅₀=141.89 μg/mL) revealed ethyl [3-(2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)-2-imino-5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimdazol-1-yl]acetate 12 while in the group of 2-substituted-1,3-thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazolones the highest inhibition effect showed 2-(4-fluorobenzylidene)-7-(phenylcarbonyl)[1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one 17 90.76% (IC₅₀=53.70 μg/mL). In order to estimate the capability of the studied benzimidazoles to act as radical scavengers the structure of the most active derivative within the both subseries was optimized at B3LYP/6-311++G(∗∗) level and the respective bond dissociation enthalpies were calculated. The appropriate models for the HAT and SET-mechanism of the antioxidant activity were proposed. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was evaluated against two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Salmonella abony NCTC 6017). 1,3-Diphenylpropyl-5-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-imine 14 exhibited significant activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. abony and E. coli (with MIC values of 0.125, 0.016, 0.50 and 0.50mg/mL, respectively). The group of thiazolobenzimidazolones did not reveal antibacterial activity against the tested strains. PMID:26344590

  4. Isolating "Unknown" Bacteria in the Introductory Microbiology Laboratory: A New Selective Medium for Gram-Positives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.; Drake, MaryAnne

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, preparation, and use of a medium that can select against a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria while still allowing growth and differentiation of a wide range of Gram-positives. (WRM)

  5. 4-(Ethoxycarbonyl) phenyl-1-amino-oxobutanoic acid-chitosan complex as a new matrix for silver nanocomposite film: preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rohit; Tiwari, Dilip K; Dutta, P K

    2011-12-01

    The present work describes the preparation of new chitosan complex with 4-(ethoxycarbonyl) phenyl-1-amino-oxobutanoic acid (ETHA), as a matrix for silver nanoparticles to obtain a nanocomposite film by solution casing method. The characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film was made by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical property of nanocomposite film was analyzed by UV-Visible and photo-luminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The nanocomposite film was screen for antibacterial activity with Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive), Pseudomonas aurigionasa (gram negative) and Escherichia coli (gram negative) bacteria by adopting the disk diffusion method. The result of antibacterial study revealed that the prepared nanocomposite film may be a promising candidate for wide range of bio-medical applications. PMID:21820467

  6. Antibacterial activity of doxycycline-loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ranjita; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-01-01

    Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic with a potent antibacterial activity against a wide variety of bacteria. However, poor cellular penetration limits its use for the treatment of infectious disease caused by intracellular pathogens. One potential strategy to overcome this problem is the use of nanotechnology that can help to easily target the intracellular sites of infection. The antibacterial activity of these antibiotics is enhanced by encapsulating it in polymeric nanoparticles. In this study, we describe the improvement of the entrapment efficiency of doxycycline hydrochloride (doxycycline)-loaded PLGA:PCL nanoparticles up to 70% with variation of different formulation parameters such as polymer ratio, amount of drug loading (w/w), solvent selection, electrolyte addition, and pH alteration in the formulation. We have evaluated the efficacy of these nanoparticles over native doxycycline against a strain of Escherichia coli (DH5α) through growth inhibition and colony counting. The results indicate that doxycycline-loaded nanoparticles have superior effectiveness compared to native doxycycline against the above bacterial strain, resulting from the sustained release of doxycycline from nanoparticles. These results are encouraging for the use of these doxycycline-loaded nanoparticles for the treatment of infections caused by doxycycline-sensitive bacteria. PMID:22568901

  7. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Biopolymers Modified with Ionic Liquid and Laponite.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshu; Prakash, Prem; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R; Bohidar, H B

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial properties of modified biopolymers such as gelatin and agar have been investigated. These biopolymers (agar and gelatin) are modified by dissolving in ionic liquid (IL) [1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) and 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([C8mim][Cl])] solutions. It was noticed that agar-ionogel (Ag-IL), gelatin-ionogel (GB-IL), and gelatin organogel (gelatin-glycerol solution along with laponite, nanoclay) nanocomposite (GA-NC) formed are highly stable, optically clear, and transparent without any air bubbles. The antimicrobial activity of these (Ag-IL), (GB-IL), and GA-NC were analyzed for both gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and gram-positive bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pyogenes) and fungus A. niger, C. albicans. Antibacterial and antifungal activity studies were carried out at different dilutions such as 100, 99, and 90 % (v/v). It was found that Ag-IL, GB-IL, and individual IL ([C8mim][Cl]) exhibited superior antimicrobial activities, indicating that longer IL chain enhance the cell membrane permeability of S. aureus, S. pyogenes, and E. coli cells. However, GA-NC nanocomposite and [C2mim][Cl]-based composites does not exhibit any bacterial inhibition activity for all bacterial strains. PMID:26142901

  8. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Irailton Prazeres; da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; de Araújo, Janete Magali; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller, a medicinal plant found in Brazil which is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Among 65 endophytic fungi isolated, 18 fungi showed activity against at least one tested microorganism in preliminary screening, and the best results were obtained with Nigrospora sphaerica (URM-6060) and Pestalotiopsis maculans (URM-6061). After fermentation in liquid media and in semisolid media, only N. sphaerica demonstrated antibacterial activity (in Potato Dextrose Broth-PDB and in semisolid rice culture medium). In the next step, a methanolic extract from rice culture medium (NsME) and an ethyl acetate extract (NsEAE) from the supernatant of PDB were prepared and both exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The best result was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, for NsME and MIC and MBC values of 0.39 mg/mL and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively, for NsEAE. This study is the first report about the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi residing in I. suffruticosa leaves, in which the fungus N. sphaerica demonstrated the ability to produce bioactive agents with pharmaceutical potential, and may provide a new lead in the pursuit of new biological sources of drug candidates. PMID:25999918

  9. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Irailton Prazeres; da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; de Araújo, Janete Magali; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller, a medicinal plant found in Brazil which is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Among 65 endophytic fungi isolated, 18 fungi showed activity against at least one tested microorganism in preliminary screening, and the best results were obtained with Nigrospora sphaerica (URM-6060) and Pestalotiopsis maculans (URM-6061). After fermentation in liquid media and in semisolid media, only N. sphaerica demonstrated antibacterial activity (in Potato Dextrose Broth-PDB and in semisolid rice culture medium). In the next step, a methanolic extract from rice culture medium (NsME) and an ethyl acetate extract (NsEAE) from the supernatant of PDB were prepared and both exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The best result was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, for NsME and MIC and MBC values of 0.39 mg/mL and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively, for NsEAE. This study is the first report about the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi residing in I. suffruticosa leaves, in which the fungus N. sphaerica demonstrated the ability to produce bioactive agents with pharmaceutical potential, and may provide a new lead in the pursuit of new biological sources of drug candidates. PMID:25999918

  10. Evidence for direct electron transfer by a gram-positive bacterium isolated from a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Wrighton, K C; Thrash, J C; Melnyk, R A; Bigi, J P; Byrne-Bailey, K G; Remis, J P; Schichnes, D; Auer, M; Chang, C J; Coates, J D

    2011-11-01

    Despite their importance in iron redox cycles and bioenergy production, the underlying physiological, genetic, and biochemical mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer by Gram-positive bacteria remain insufficiently understood. In this work, we investigated respiration by Thermincola potens strain JR, a Gram-positive isolate obtained from the anode surface of a microbial fuel cell, using insoluble electron acceptors. We found no evidence that soluble redox-active components were secreted into the surrounding medium on the basis of physiological experiments and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Confocal microscopy revealed highly stratified biofilms in which cells contacting the electrode surface were disproportionately viable relative to the rest of the biofilm. Furthermore, there was no correlation between biofilm thickness and power production, suggesting that cells in contact with the electrode were primarily responsible for current generation. These data, along with cryo-electron microscopy experiments, support contact-dependent electron transfer by T. potens strain JR from the cell membrane across the 37-nm cell envelope to the cell surface. Furthermore, we present physiological and genomic evidence that c-type cytochromes play a role in charge transfer across the Gram-positive bacterial cell envelope during metal reduction. PMID:21908627

  11. Predominance of Gram-positive bacteria in house dust in the low-allergy risk Russian Karelia.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Jaakko; Hyvärinen, Anne; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Laitinen, Sirpa; Nevalainen, Aino; Mäkelä, Mika J; Haahtela, Tari; von Hertzen, Leena

    2008-12-01

    Simple living conditions and farming environment have been associated with reduced risk for allergic diseases such as atopy and asthma but the factors responsible for this effect remain unresolved. We examined the bacterial composition of house dusts obtained from Finnish and Russian Karelia, two adjacent areas with high and low occurrence of atopic diseases respectively. Two dust mixes, both composed of 10 randomly selected dust samples from 349 Finnish and 417 Russian Karelian households were studied for bacterial biomarkers (DNA, Limulus-active endotoxin, 3-OH fatty acids, muramic acid) and for 16S rRNA gene sequences. Overall, the DNA cloning revealed more taxons (94 different genera) of dustborne bacteria than seen in any previous study on residential environments. Majority (67%) of the bacterial DNA clones in house dust from the low-allergy Russian Kareliarepresented Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria), predominantly Staphylococcaceae and Corynebacteriaceae. Russian Karelian dust showed up to 20-fold higher contents of muramic acid (marker of Gram-positive bacteria) and a sevenfold higher number of clones of animal-associated species, whereas in Finnish Karelian dust Gram-negatives (mainly Proteobacteria) predominated. Clones of plant-associated bacterial species and of chloroplast, indicating plant biomass, were more numerous in Finnish than in Russian Karelian dust. In conclusion, this study revealed major disparities between Finnish and Russian house dusts. The higher bacterial content and the predominance of Gram-positive bacteria in Russian dust may have implications for occurrence of atopy. PMID:18707614

  12. Recent Advances in Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) Efflux Pump Inhibitors of Gram-Positive Bacteria S. aureus

    PubMed Central

    Handzlik, Jadwiga; Matys, Anna; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on recent achievements in the search for new chemical compounds able to inhibit multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in Gram-positive pathogens. An analysis of the results of the search for new efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) for Gram-positive bacteria, which have been performed over the last decade, indicates that almost all efforts are focused on the NorA (MFS) efflux pump in S. aureus. Considering the chemical structures of the NorA EPIs that have been identified, it can be observed that the most active agents belong to the families of compounds possessing conjugated double bonds, e.g., chalcones, piperine-like compounds, N-cinnamoylphenalkylamides or citral amide derivatives. Indole-, dihydronaphthyl-, 2-chloro-5-bromo-phenyl- or piperidine moieties seem to be profitable for the EPI properties, as well. These results, together with an increasing knowledge about a variety of efflux pumps that are involved in MDR of Gram-positive pathogens underline that further search for new EPIs should pay more attention to develop MDR efflux protein targets, including SMR, MATE, ABC or other members of the MFS family. PMID:27029290

  13. Synthesis, biological evaluation, mechanism of action and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of chalcones as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Ponnurengam Malliappan; Priya, Sobana; Doble, Mukesh

    2009-04-01

    Forty-eight chalcone analogs were synthesized and their in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 5021, Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2718, Phaseolus vulgaris NCIM 2813, Escherichia coli NCIM 2931, Salmonella typhi 2501 and Enterobacter aerogenes NCIM 5139 were evaluated by microdilution broth assay. Quantitative structure-activity relationships were developed for all the cases (r(2) = 0.68-0.79; r(2)(adj) = 0.58-0.78; q(2) = 0.51-0.68; F = 13.02-61.51). Size, polarizability, electron-donating/withdrawing and hydrophilic nature of the molecule determine the activity against these Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was the most and S. typhi was the least hydrophobic of these organisms. These chalcones act better against more hydrophobic organisms. The more active chalcones have log P between 1.5 and 3. Compound 24, one of the most active compounds, was found to act by damaging the cell wall of S. aureus. Slimicidal activity of five of the most active compounds (24, 31, 32, 34 and 37) was found to be in the range of 48-60% against S. aureus and 40-54% against E. coli. A correlation was observed among the hydrophobicity of the compounds, hydrophobicity of the bacterial cell surface and the antibacterial activity of the compound. PMID:19291103

  14. σECF factors of gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Bianca Mendes; Castro, Thiago Luiz de Paula; Carvalho, Rodrigo Dias de Oliveira; Seyffert, Nubia; Silva, Artur; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-01-01

    The survival of bacteria to different environmental conditions depends on the activation of adaptive mechanisms, which are intricately driven through gene regulation. Because transcriptional initiation is considered to be the major step in the control of bacterial genes, we discuss the characteristics and roles of the sigma factors, addressing (1) their structural, functional and phylogenetic classification; (2) how their activity is regulated; and (3) the promoters recognized by these factors. Finally, we focus on a specific group of alternative sigma factors, the so-called σECF factors, in Bacillus subtilis and some of the main species that comprise the CMNR group, providing information on the roles they play in the microorganisms’ physiology and indicating some of the genes whose transcription they regulate. PMID:24921931

  15. Potent antibacterial activity of a novel silver nanoparticle-halloysite nanotube nanocomposite powder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yatao; Chen, Yifeng; Zhang, Haoqin; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Jindun

    2013-01-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), natural nanotube, have been developed as a support for loading of antibacterial agents. Firstly, HNTs were modified by silane coupling agent (KH-792). And then, modified HNTs were immersed in silver nitrate solution and a complex reaction between the two amino groups of KH-792 and silver ions formed, leading to large clusters on the surface of HNTs. Finally, these silver containing clusters were converted into silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with about 5nm diameter by reduction process. A new antibacterial agent, Ag NPs/HNTs, was characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (STEM-EDX). The antibacterial test indicated that Ag NPs/HNTs showed good antibacterial performance against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). PMID:23123339

  16. Lysozyme-Based Antibacterial Nanomotors.

    PubMed

    Kiristi, Melek; Singh, Virendra V; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Uygun, Murat; Soto, Fernando; Aktaş Uygun, Deniz; Wang, Joseph

    2015-09-22

    An effective and rapid bacterial killing nanotechnology strategy based on lysozyme-modified fuel-free nanomotors is demonstrated. The efficient antibacterial property of lysozyme, associated with the cleavage of glycosidic bonds of peptidoglycans present in the bacteria cell wall, has been combined with ultrasound (US)-propelled porous gold nanowire (p-AuNW) motors as biocompatible dynamic bacteria nanofighters. Coupling the antibacterial activity of the enzyme with the rapid movement of these p-AuNWs, along with the corresponding fluid dynamics, promotes enzyme-bacteria interactions and prevents surface aggregation of dead bacteria, resulting in a greatly enhanced bacteria-killing capability. The large active surface area of these nanoporous motors offers a significantly higher enzyme loading capacity compared to nonporous AuNWs, which results in a higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Detailed characterization studies and control experiments provide useful insights into the underlying factors controlling the antibacterial performance of the new dynamic bacteria nanofighters. Rapid and effective killing of the Gram-positive Micrococcus lysodeikticus bacteria (69-84% within 1-5 min) is demonstrated. PMID:26308491

  17. Domino Synthesis of Embelin Derivatives with Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Peña, Rosalyn; Martín, Pedro; Feresin, Gabriela E; Tapia, Alejandro; Machín, Félix; Estévez-Braun, Ana

    2016-04-22

    A series of dihydropyran embelin derivatives was synthesized through a direct and highly efficient approach based on a domino Knoevenagel intramolecular hetero-Diels-Alder reaction from natural embelin (1), using unsaturated aldehydes in the presence of organocatalysts such as ethylendiamine diacetate or l-proline. The aliphatic aldehydes yielded exclusively trans adducts, while mixtures of trans and cis isomers were found in reactions with aromatic aldehydes, with the cis form always predominating. Some of the compounds obtained were active and selective against Gram-positive bacteria, including multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. PMID:26924672

  18. Chemical conjugation of 2-hexadecynoic acid to C5-curcumin enhances its antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Ríos, David J; Rivera-Torres, Yaritza; Rosario, Joshua; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Torres-García, Yeireliz; Montano, Nashbly; Ortíz-Soto, Gabriela; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Rodríguez, José W; Carballeira, Néstor M

    2015-11-15

    The first total synthesis of a C5-curcumin-2-hexadecynoic acid (C5-Curc-2-HDA, 6) conjugate was successfully performed. Through a three-step synthetic route, conjugate 6 was obtained in 13% overall yield and tested for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Our results revealed that 6 was active against eight MRSA strains at MICs that range between 31.3 and 62.5 μg/mL. It was found that the presence of 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA, 4) in conjugate 6 increased 4-8-fold its antibacterial activity against MRSA strains supporting our hypothesis that the chemical connection of 4 to C5-curcumin (2) increases the antibacterial activity of 2 against Gram-positive bacteria. Combinational index (CIn) values that range between 1.6 and 2.3 were obtained when eight MRSA strains were treated with an equimolar mixture of 2 and 4. These results demonstrated that an antagonistic effect is taking place. Finally, it was investigated whether conjugate 6 can affect the replication process of S. aureus, since this compound inhibited the supercoiling activity of the S. aureus DNA gyrase at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 250 μg/mL (IC50=100.2±13.9 μg/mL). Moreover, it was observed that the presence of 4 in conjugate 6 improves the anti-topoisomerase activity of 2 towards S. aureus DNA gyrase, which is in agreement with results obtained from antibacterial susceptibility tests involving MRSA strains. PMID:26483137

  19. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Sthéfane G; Alves, Lucas F; Pinto, Maria Eduarda A; Oliveira, Graziela T; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Ferreira, Jaqueline M S; Lima, Luciana A R S

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity. PMID:25763039

  20. Phenolic acids profile, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of chamomile, common yarrow and immortelle (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Skroza, Danijela; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Krstulović, Luka; Možina, Sonja Smole; Katalinić, Višnja

    2014-12-01

    Chamomile, common yarrow and immortelle ethanolic extracts were chemically analysed with respect to phenolics. Twelve phenolic acids were separated and identified by HPLC-DAD and the presence of rosmarinic acid was additionally confirmed by LC-MS. Five methods were applied for the evaluation of extracts' antioxidant properties (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, chelating activity, Briggs-Rauscher reaction), while the antibacterial activity was tested against some of the major food-borne pathogens (Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Infantis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). Immortelle extract was the richest in phenolics with a dominant flavonoid fraction, while the other two extracts contained higher amount of non-flavonoids. The phenolic acid profile also varied; high concentration of rosmarinic acid was found in chamomile and common yarrow, while caffeic acid was dominant in immortelle. The best antioxidant properties were obtained for chamomile extract, while good antimicrobial activity, especially against Gram-positive bacterial species, was detected for immortelle. The obtained results could be used as a tool for chemotaxonomic classification of the investigated plants or for their potential application as natural antioxidants/antimicrobials. PMID:25632475

  1. Helical 1:1 α/Sulfono-γ-AA Heterogeneous Peptides with Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    She, Fengyu; Nimmagadda, Alekhya; Teng, Peng; Su, Ma; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cai, Jianfeng

    2016-05-01

    As one of the greatest threats facing the 21st century, antibiotic resistance is now a major public health concern. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) offer an alternative approach to combat emerging multi-drug-resistant bacteria. It is known that helical HDPs such as magainin 2 and its analogs adopt cationic amphipathic conformations upon interaction with bacterial membranes, leading to membrane disruption and subsequent bacterial cell death. We have previously shown that amphipathic sulfono-γ-AApeptides could mimic magainin 2 and exhibit bactericidal activity. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that amphipathic helical 1:1 α/sulfono-γ-AA heterogeneous peptides, in which regular amino acids and sulfono-γ-AApeptide building blocks are alternatively present in a 1:1 pattern, display potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) suggests that the lead sequences adopt defined helical structures. The subsequent studies including fluorescence microscopy and time-kill experiments indicate that these hybrid peptides exert antimicrobial activity by mimicking the mechanism of HDPs. Our findings may lead to the development of HDP-mimicking antimicrobial peptidomimetics that combat drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In addition, our results also demonstrate the effective design of a new class of helical foldamer, which could be employed to interrogate other important biological targets such as protein-protein interactions in the future. PMID:27030636

  2. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oils of Himalayan Lauraceae species.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Joshi SC; Verma AR; Mathela CS

    2010-01-01

    The leaf essential oils from seven Himalayan Lauraceae species viz. Neolitsea pallens, Lindera pulcherrima, Dodecadenia grandiflora, Persea duthiei, Persea odoratissima, Persea gamblei and Phoebe lanceolata exhibited potent antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by using beta-carotene bleaching assay, reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation methods. The oils of D. grandiflora and L. pulcherrima showed a potent free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by low IC(50) value for DPPH radical (0.032 mg/ml and 0.087 mg/ml, respectively) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (in between IC(50)=0.44 mg/ml and IC(50)=0.74 mg/ml, respectively). The oils were tested against three Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica enterica and Pasturella multocida) and one Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria at different concentrations using disc diffusion and tube dilution methods. The inhibition zones (IZ) and MIC values for bacterial strains were in the range of 8.7-22.0mm and 3.90-31.25 microl/ml, respectively.

  3. Investigations into the Antibacterial Activity of the Silver-Based Antibiotic Drug Candidate SBC3

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Michael A.; O’Gara, James P.; Gordon, Stephen V.; Hackenberg, Frauke; Healy, Claire; Paradisi, Francesca; Patil, Siddappa; Schaible, Bettina; Tacke, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) silver(I) acetate complexes with varying lipophilic benzyl-substituents at the 1 and 3 positions starting from 4,5-diphenylimidazole, opened a new class of antibiotic drug candidates. These NHC-silver(I) acetate derivatives exhibit interesting structural motifs in the solid state and proved to be soluble and stable in biological media. The leading candidate, SBC3, which was known to exhibit good antibacterial activity in preliminary Kirby-Bauer tests, was tested quantitatively using minimum inhibitory concentrations. NHC-silver(I) acetate complexes were found to have MIC values ranging from 20 to 3.13 μg/mL for a variety of Gram-positive, Gram-negative and mycobacteria tested. These values represent good antibiotic activities against potential pathogens when compared to clinically approved antibiotics. Most striking is the fact that SBC3 is active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC value of 12.5 μg/mL.

  4. Photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of gold and silver nanoparticles synthesized using biomass of Parkia roxburghii leaf.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bappi; Bhuyan, Bishal; Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a green approach for synthesis of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) using dried biomass of Parkia roxburghii leaf. The biomass of the leaf acts as both reductant as well as stabilizer. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by time-dependent UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The UV-visible spectra of synthesized Au and Ag NPs showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 555 and 440nm after 12h. Powder XRD studies revealed formation of face-centered cubic structure for both Au and Ag NPs with average crystallite size of 8.4 and 14.74nm, respectively. The TEM image showed the Au NPs to be monodispersed, spherical in shape with sizes in the range of 5-25nm. On the other hand, Ag NPs were polydispersed, quasi-spherical in shape with sizes in the range of 5-25nm. Investigation of photocatalytic activities of Au and Ag NPs under solar light illumination reveals that both these particles have pronounced effect on degradation of dyes viz., methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine b (RhB). Antibacterial activity of the synthesized NPs was studied on Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli. Both Au and Ag NPs showed slightly higher activity on S. aureus than on E. coli. PMID:26590801

  5. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Sthéfane G.; Alves, Lucas F.; Pinto, Maria Eduarda A.; Oliveira, Graziela T.; Siqueira, Ezequias P.; Ribeiro, Rosy I. M. A.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M. S.; Lima, Luciana A. R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity. PMID:25763039

  6. Antibacterial and membrane-damaging activities of mannosylated bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Yu; Chen, Ying-Jung; Fu, Yaw-Syan; Chang, Long-Sen

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether mannosylated BSA (Man-BSA) exerts antibacterial activity on Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria) via its membrane-damaging effect. Man-BSA caused inhibition of growth of E. coli and S. aureus. Moreover, bactericidal action of Man-BSA on E. coli and S. aureus positively correlated with the increase in membrane permeability of the bacterial cells. Morphological examination showed that Man-BSA disrupted bacterial membrane integrity. Destabilization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer and inhibition of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) biosynthesis in the cell wall increased the bactericidal effect of Man-BSA on E. coli and S. aureus. Man-BSA also induced leakage and fusion of membrane-mimicking liposomes in E. coli and S. aureus. Man-BSA showed similar binding affinity for LPS and LTA. LPS and LTA strongly suppressed the membrane-damaging activity of Man-BSA, whereas an increase in the Man-BSA concentration attenuated the inhibitory action of LPS and LTA. Taken together, our data indicate that Man-BSA's bactericidal activity depends strongly on its ability to induce membrane permeability. Moreover, the bactericidal action of Man-BSA proven in this study suggests that Man-BSA may serve as a prototype for the development of anti-infective agents targeting E. coli and S. aureus. PMID:25752952

  7. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

  8. Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

    2003-12-01

    Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals. Extracellular cellulases produced by fungi are commercially developed for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation by appropriate biocatalysts in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial biocatalysts, SSF of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity leading to higher than required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial biocatalysts whose growth and fermentation requirements match the optimum conditions for commercial fungal cellulase activity (pH 5.0 and 50 deg. C). These isolates fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to L(+)-lactic acid. Xylose was metabolized through the pentose-phosphate pathway by these organisms as evidenced by the fermentation profile and analysis of the fermentation products of 13C1-xylose by NMR. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, 13C-lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products. All three strains fermented crystalline cellulose to lactic acid with the addition of fungal cellulase (Spezyme CE) (SSF) at an optimum of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. These isolates also fermented cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate simultaneously. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these isolates cluster with Bacillus coagulans although B. coagulans type strain, ATCC 7050, failed to utilize xylose as a carbon source. For successful production of ethanol from pyruvate, both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AHD) need to be produced at optimal levels in these biocatalysts. A plasmid containing the S. ventriculi pdc gene and the adh gene from geobacillus stearothermophilus was constructed using plasmid pWH1520 that was successfully used for expression of pdc in B. megaterium. The resulting portable ethanol (PET) plasmid, pJAM423, was transformed into B. megaterium. After xylose induction, a significant fraction of cell cytoplasm was composed of the S. ventriculi PDC and G. stearothermophilus ADH proteins. In preliminary experiments, the amount of ethanol produced by b. megaterium with plasmid pJAM423 was about twice (20 mM) of the bacterium without the plasmid. These results show that the PET operon is functional in B. megaterium but high level ethanol production needs further genetic and metabolic engineering. A genetic transfer system for the second generation biocatalysts needs to be developed for transferring the plasmid pJAM423 and its derivatives for engineering these organisms for ethanol production from biomass derived sugars and cellulose to ethanol. One of the new biocatalysts, strain P4-102B was found to be transformable with plasmids and the method for introducing plasmid pJAM423 into this strain and expression of the encoded DNA is being optimized. These new second generation biocatalysts have the potential to reduce the cost of SSF by minimizing the amount of fungal cellulases, a significant cost component in the use of biomass as a renewable resource for production of fuels and chemicals.

  9. Temporin-SHa peptides grafted on gold surfaces display antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Lombana, Andres; Raja, Zahid; Casale, Sandra; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Foulon, Thierry; Ladram, Ali; Humblot, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Development of resistant bacteria onto biomaterials is a major problem leading to nosocomial infections. Antimicrobial peptides are good candidates for the generation of antimicrobial surfaces because of their broad-spectrum activity and their original mechanism of action (i.e. rapid lysis of the bacterial membrane) making them less susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance. In this study, we report on the covalent immobilisation of temporin-SHa on a gold surface modified by a thiolated self-assembled monolayer. Temporin-SHa (FLSGIVGMLGKLF amide) is a small hydrophobic and low cationic antimicrobial peptide with potent and very broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and parasites. We have analysed the influence of the binding mode of temporin-SHa on the antibacterial efficiency by using a covalent binding either via the peptide NH2 groups (random grafting of α- and ε-NH2 to the surface) or via its C-terminal end (oriented grafting using the analogue temporin-SHa-COOH). The surface functionalization was characterised by IR spectroscopy (polarisation modulation reflection absorption IR spectroscopy) while antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii was assessed by microscopy techniques, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with a field emission gun. Our results revealed that temporin-SHa retains its antimicrobial activity after covalent grafting. A higher amount of bound temporin-SHa is observed for the C-terminally oriented grafting compared with the random grafting (NH2 groups). Temporin-SHa therefore represents an attractive candidate as antimicrobial coating agent. PMID:24919960

  10. [Antibacterial activity of some lichens from southern Spain].

    PubMed

    Rowe, J G; Saenz, M T; Garcia, M D

    1989-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of some lichens from south Spain has been studied. High activity against Gram+ bacteria has been observed, although Parmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri and Usnea sp. are also active against Gram- bacteria. PMID:2610471

  11. Mode of action of modified and unmodified bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Héchard, Yann; Sahl, Hans Georg

    2002-01-01

    The antibiotic activity of bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria, whether they are modified (class I bacteriocins, lantibiotics) or unmodified (class II), is based on interaction with the bacterial membrane. However, recent work has demonstrated that for many bacteriocins, generalised membrane disruption models as elaborated for amphiphilic peptides (e.g. tyriodal pore or carpet model) cannot adequately describe the bactericidal action. Rather, specific targets seem to be involved in pore formation and other activities. For the nisin and epidermin family of lantibiotics, the membrane-bound cell wall precursor lipid II has recently been identified as target. The duramycin family of lantibiotics binds specifically to phosphoethanolamine which results in inhibition of phospholipase A2 and various other cellular functions. Most of the class II bacteriocins dissipate the proton motive force (PMF) of the target cell, via pore formation. The subclass IIa bacteriocin activity likely depends on a mannose permease of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) as specific target. The subclass IIb bacteriocins (two-component) also induce dissipation of the PMF by forming cation- or anion-specific pores; specific targets have not yet been identified. Finally, the subclass IIc comprises miscellaneous peptides with various modes of action such as membrane permeabilization, specific inhibition of septum formation and pheromone activity. PMID:12423799

  12. Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

    2015-01-01

    An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO–Ppy/CS and ITO–Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs. PMID:25565815

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wan Nor Amilah, W A W; Masrah, M; Hasmah, A; Noor Izani, N J

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial activities of plants have long been evaluated for their promising use as antimicrobial agent and in minimizing the unwanted resistance effects of microorganisms. The study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall crude extracts against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in vitro. The screening test was determined by disc diffusion technique using sterile filter paper discs impregnated with 1 mg/ disc (50 mg/ml) aqueous and ethanol extracts of Q. infectoria galls tested on five selected MDR bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the twofold serial micro dilution technique at concentration ranging from 5.00 mg/ml to 0.01 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by sub culturing the microtitre wells showing no turbidity on the agar plate to obtain the MBC value. Both extracts showed substantial inhibitory effects against methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A slightly reduced inhibitory zone diameter was observed with MDR Acinetobacter sp. while no inhibitory effect was displayed among the extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) K. pneumoniae and ESBL E. coli isolates. A significant difference in the zone sizes between both extracts was only observed in MRSA (p < 0.05). The MIC values ranged from 0.08 mg/ml to 0.63 mg/ml for aqueous and ethanol extracts against MRSA, MRCoNS and MDR Acinetobacter sp. while their MBC to MIC ratio values were 2 and less. The Q. infectoria gall extracts have shown very promising in vitro antibacterial activities and may be considered as a potentially good source of antimicrobial agent especially against MDR Gram positive bacteria. PMID:25776593

  14. Ligational behavior of Schiff bases towards transition metal ion and metalation effect on their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Jai; Batra, Nisha; Malhotra, Rajesh

    2012-11-01

    New Schiff bases pyrazine-2-carboxylicacid (phenyl-pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-hydrazide (Hpch-bp) HL1 and pyrazine-2-carboxylicacid (pyridin-2-ylmethylene)-hydrazide (Hpch-pc) HL2 derived from condensation of pyrazine carboxylic hydrazide (Hpch) with 2-benzoyl pyridine (bp) or pyridine 2-carbaldehyde (pc) and their transition metal complexes of type ML(1-2)2 have been synthesized, where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). Characterization of ligands and their metal complexes was carried out by elemental analysis, conductimetric studies, magnetic susceptibility, spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-VIS, NMR, ESR, Mass) and thermogravimetric analysis. The physico-chemical studies revealed octahedral geometry or distorted octahedral geometry around metal ion. These azomethine Schiff base ligands acted as tridentate ? coordinating through carbonyl, azomethine and pyridine nitrogen present in the ligand. The thermodynamic and thermal properties of the complexes have been investigated and it was observed on the basis of these studies that thermal stability of complexes follows the order Mn < Zn < Cu < Co < Ni. The ligands and their complexes were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity at different concentrations against bacteria viz. Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas mendocina. A marked enhancement in biocidal activity of the ligands under similar experimental conditions was observed as a consequence of coordination with metal ions. The trend of growth inhibition in the complexes was found to be in the order: Cu > Mn > Ni > Co > Zn.

  15. Antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils against six meat spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, B; Simard, R E; Holley, R A; Piette, G J; Bgin, A

    1997-07-22

    The antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils was examined against two gram-negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia liquefaciens) and four gram-positive (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium piscicola, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus sake) bacteria involved in meat spoilage. Various amounts of each preservative were added to brain heart infusion or MRS (deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe) agars, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for each organism. Essential oils were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography to determine the concentration of selected components commonly found in spices. B. thermosphacta, P. fluorescens and S. liquefaciens were not affected by fatty acids, and generally overcame the inhibitory effect of essential oils after 24 h of exposure. Among the fatty acids, lauric and palmitoleic acids exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 250 to 500 micrograms/ml, while myristic, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids were completely ineffective. For essential oils, clove, cinnamon, pimento, and rosemary were found to be the most active. The 1/100 dilution of those oils inhibited at least five of the six tested organisms. A relationship was found between the inhibitory effect of essential oils and the presence of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. PMID:9310850

  16. Lipids Including Cholesteryl Linoleate and Cholesteryl Arachidonate Contribute to the Inherent Antibacterial Activity of Human Nasal Fluid1

    PubMed Central

    Do, Thai Q.; Moshkani, Safiehkhatoon; Castillo, Patricia; Anunta, Suda; Pogosyan, Adelina; Cheung, Annie; Marbois, Beth; Faull, Kym F.; Ernst, William; Chiang, Su Ming; Fujii, Gary; Clarke, Catherine F.; Foster, Krishna; Porter, Edith

    2008-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces provide first-line defense against microbial invasion through their complex secretions. The antimicrobial activities of proteins in these secretions have been well delineated, but the contributions of lipids to mucosal defense have not been defined. We found that normal human nasal fluid contains all major lipid classes (?g/ml), as well as lipoproteins and apolipoprotein AI. The predominant less polar lipids were myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid, cholesterol, and cholesteryl palmitate, -linoleate, and -arachidonate. Normal human bronchioepithelial cell secretions exhibited a similar lipid composition. Removal of less-polar lipids significantly decreased the inherent antibacterial activity of nasal fluid against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which was in part restored after replenishing the lipids. Furthermore, lipids extracted from nasal fluid exerted direct antibacterial activity in synergism with the antimicrobial peptide HNP-2 and liposomal formulations of cholesteryl linoleate and cholesteryl arachidonate were active against P. aeruginosa at physiological concentrations as found in nasal fluid and exerted inhibitory activity against other gram negative and gram positive bacteria. These data suggest that host-derived lipids contribute to mucosal defense. The emerging concept of host-derived antimicrobial lipids unveils novel roads to a better understanding of the immunology of infectious diseases. PMID:18768875

  17. Biodegradable and conducting hydrogels based on Guar gum polysaccharide for antibacterial and dye removal applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reena; Kaith, Balbir S; Kalia, Susheel; Pathania, D; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Neha; Street, Reva M; Schauer, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Conducting hydrogels possessing antibacterial activity were developed using a two-step free-radical aqueous polymerization method to incorporate polyaniline chains into an adsorbent Guar gum/acrylic acid hydrogel network. The material properties of the synthesized samples were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Conducting hydrogels were tested for antibacterial activities against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria and demonstrated antibacterial activity. Synthesized hydrogel samples can be potential adsorbent materials for dye removal applications. PMID:26217888

  18. Effect of N-terminal truncation on antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and membrane perturbation activity of Cc-CATH3.

    PubMed

    Jittikoon, Jiraphun; Ngamsaithong, Narumon; Pimthon, Jutarat; Vajragupta, Opa

    2015-10-01

    A series of amino-terminal truncated analogues of quail antimicrobial peptide Cc-CATH3(1-29) were created and examined antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblast cell line, and membrane perturbation activity against various membrane models. Parent peptide Cc-CATH3(1-29) and the first four-residue truncated peptide Cc-CATH3(5-29) were active in all tested experiments. In contrast, the eight- and twelve-residue truncated variants Cc-CATH3(9-29) and Cc-CATH3(13-29) appeared to have lost activities. Cc-CATH3(1-29) and Cc-CATH3(5-29) possessed antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 2-4 and 1-2 µM, respectively. For cytotoxicity, Cc-CATH3(1-29) and Cc-CATH3(5-29) displayed cytotoxicity with the IC50 values of 9.33 and 4.93 μM, respectively. Cc-CATH3(5-29) induced greater liposome membranes disruption than Cc-CATH3(1-29) regardless of lipid type and composition. The leakage results of Cc-CATH3(1-29) share a similar trend with that in Cc-CATH3(5-29); they exhibit no preferential binding to anionic phospholipids. In conclusion, the results suggested that the first four residues at the N-terminus "RVRR" is not essential for presenting all test activities. In contrast, residues five to eight of "FWPL" are necessary as the exclusion of this short motif in Cc-CATH3(9-29) and Cc-CATH3(13-29) leads to a loss of activities. This study will be beneficial for further design and development of Cc-CATH3 to be novel antibiotic. PMID:25861915

  19. Antibacterial activity of aquatic gliding bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sangnoi, Yutthapong; Anantapong, Theerasak; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to screen and isolate strains of freshwater aquatic gliding bacteria, and to investigate their antibacterial activity against seven common pathogenic bacteria. Submerged specimens were collected and isolated for aquatic gliding bacteria using four different isolation media (DW, MA, SAP2, and Vy/2). Gliding bacteria identification was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Crude extracts were obtained by methanol extraction. Antibacterial activity against seven pathogenic bacteria was examined by agar-well diffusion assay. Five strains of aquatic gliding bacteria including RPD001, RPD008, RPD018, RPD027 and RPD049 were isolated. Each submerged biofilm and plastic specimen provided two isolates of gliding bacteria, whereas plant debris gave only one isolate. Two strains of gliding bacteria were obtained from each DW and Vy/2 isolation medium, while one strain was obtained from the SAP2 medium. Gliding bacteria strains RPD001, RPD008 and RPD018 were identified as Flavobacterium anhuiense with 96, 82 and 96 % similarity, respectively. Strains RPD049 and RPD027 were identified as F. johnsoniae and Lysobacter brunescens, respectively, with similarity equal to 96 %. Only crude extract obtained from RPD001 inhibited growth of Listeria monocytogenes (MIC 150 µg/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 75 µg/ml) and Vibrio cholerae (MIC 300 µg/ml), but showed weak inhibitory effect on Salmonella typhimurium (MIC > 300 µg/ml). Gliding bacterium strain RPD008 should be considered to a novel genus separate from Flavobacterium due to its low similarity value. Crude extract produced by RPD001 showed potential for development as a broad antibiotic agent. PMID:26885469

  20. 24-Branched Δ5 sterols from Laurencia papillosa red seaweed with antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kavita, Kumari; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-04-01

    Methanol extract of thirty-eight seaweeds samples were first screened against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051) and -negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aerugenosa ATCC 9027) bacteria. Laurencia papillosa (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) gave maximum antimicrobial activity against these bacteria. It was finally tested against four clinical Gram-negative isolates (E. coli, P. aerugenosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella flexineri) and exhibited antibacterial activity. The extract was fractionated by column chromatography and the active fraction was identified as a cholesterol derivative, 24-propylidene cholest-5-en-3β-ol using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis also supported the structure of the compound. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 μg/mL (IC50) against clinical isolates. This is the first report of antibacterial activity of this cholesterol derivative. This compound could be exploited as potential lead molecule against broad spectrum drug development. The results also affirm the potential of seaweeds as an important natural source of antimicrobial compounds for pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23910454

  1. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ) and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV) and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 ?g/ml) especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510). Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50) was reached with 22 and 60 ?g/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential. PMID:21489272

  2. Inhibition of various gram-positive and gram- negative bacteria growth on selenium nanoparticle coated paper towels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    There are wide spread bacterial contamination issues on various paper products, such as paper towels hanging in sink splash zones or those used to clean surfaces, filter papers used in water and air purifying systems, and wrappings used in the food industry; such contamination may lead to the potential spread of bacteria and consequent severe health concerns. In this study, selenium nanoparticles were coated on normal paper towel surfaces through a quick precipitation method, introducing antibacterial properties to the paper towels in a healthy way. Their effectiveness at preventing biofilm formation was tested in bacterial assays involving Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed significant and continuous bacteria inhibition with about a 90% reduction from 24 to 72 hours for gram-positive bacteria including S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The selenium coated paper towels also showed significant inhibition of gram-negative bacteria like P. aeruginosa and E. coli growth at about 57% and 84%, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Therefore, this study established a promising selenium-based antibacterial strategy to prevent bacterial growth on paper products, which may lead to the avoidance of bacteria spreading and consequent severe health concerns. PMID:25926733

  3. Netilmicin. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Campoli-Richards, D M; Chaplin, S; Sayce, R H; Goa, K L

    1989-11-01

    Netilmicin is a semisynthetic aminoglycoside derived from sisomicin. It is active against most Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. Netilmicin has proved to be effective in Gram-negative infections of the urinary tract, skin and skin structure, and lower respiratory tract, as well as in intra-abdominal infections, septicaemia and other miscellaneous infections. In some trials, the more easily implemented once daily administration of netilmicin has been as effective as multiple dosing regimens. However, further investigation is required to confirm that efficacy and safety are not compromised with once daily administration. Comparative studies have generally revealed similar clinical and bacteriological efficacies between netilmicin and gentamicin, amikacin or tobramycin. As with other aminoglycosides, the principal adverse effects of netilmicin are nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Although animal studies strongly suggest that these are less common with netilmicin than with related drugs, there appears to be no difference in their incidence in clinical use; in clinical trials the incidence of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity has been low, with the symptoms in many cases being minor and reversible. Netilmicin is, therefore, an effective antibacterial drug for the parenteral treatment of severe infections, offering theoretical advantages in safety which may indicate its use for patients believed to be at risk of adverse effects. PMID:2689137

  4. Water-dispersible silver nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanomaterials: synthesis and enhanced antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Ngo Xuan; Chi, Do Thi; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Lan, Hoang; Van Tuan, Hoang; Van Quy, Nguyen; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Huy, Tran Quang; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, a growing number of outbreak of infectious diseases have emerged all over the world. The outbreak of re-emerging and emerging infectious diseases is a considerable burden on global economies and public health. Nano-antimicrobials have been studied as an effective solution for the prevention of infectious diseases. In this work, we demonstrated a modified photochemical approach for the preparation of carbon nanotubes-silver nanoparticles (CNTs-Ag) and graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag) nanocomposites, which can be stably dispersible in aqueous solution. The formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on the functionalized CNTs and GO nanosheets was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis measurements. These analyses indicated that the average particle sizes of Ag-NPs deposited on GO/CNTs nanostructures were ~6-7 nm with nearly uniform size distribution. Moreover, these nanocomposites were found to exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity against two strains of infectious bacteria including Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria as compared to bare Ag-NPs. Our obtained studies showed a high potential of GO-Ag and CNTs-Ag nanocomposites as effective and long-term disinfection solution to eliminate infectious bacterial pathogens.

  5. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil and main components of two Dracocephalum species from Iran.

    PubMed

    Sonboli, Ali; Gholipour, Abbas; Yousefzadi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of Dracocephalum polychaetum and D. surmandinum essential oils and two main components were investigated. Essential oils of the plants were analysed by GC and GC-MS. Twenty-three components were characterised in the essential oil of D. polychaetum. The oil was rich in oxygenated (73.1%) and hydrocarbon (25.0%) monoterpenes including perilla aldehyde (63.4 %) and limonene (22.1%) as the major constituents. From 25 identified compounds (97.8%) in the oil of D. surmandinum perilla aldehyde (54.3%) and limonene (30.1%) were the main constituents. The bioassays exhibited that all of the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested were highly inhibited in the presence of the oils and main components investigated. The most sensitive microorganism to the oils was found to be Staphylococcus epidermidis with the lowest MIC value of 0.3 mgmL(-1). The resistant Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly inhibited by the oil of D. polychaetum with MIC value of 2.4 mgmL(-1). PMID:22007732

  6. Synthesis, characterisation and antibacterial activity of PVA/TEOS/Ag-Np hybrid thin films.

    PubMed

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Pencheva, Daniela; Kale, Girish M; Lad, Umesh; Kantardjiev, T

    2010-09-01

    Novel hybrid material thin films based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) with embedded silver nanoparticles (AgNps) were synthesized using sol-gel method. Two different strategies for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in PVA/TEOS matrix were applied based on reduction of the silver ions by thermal annealing of the films or by preliminary preparation of silver nanoparticles using PVA as a reducing agent. The successful incorporation of silver nanoparticles ranging from 5 to 7nm in PVA/TEOS matrix was confirmed by TEM and EDX analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy and XRD analysis. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized hybrid materials against etalon strains of three different groups of bacteria -Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-ferment gram-negative bacteria) has been studied as they are commonly found in hospital environment. The hybrid materials showed a strong bactericidal effect against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and therefore have potential applications in biotechnology and biomedical science. PMID:20557895

  7. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activity and quantum chemical studies of N'-Acetyl propane sulfonic acid hydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyar, Saliha; Alyar, Hamit; Ozdemir, Ummuhan Ozmen; Sahin, Omer; Kaya, Kerem; Ozbek, Neslihan; Gunduzalp, Ayla Balaban

    2015-08-01

    A new N'-Acetyl propane sulfonic acid hydrazide, C3H7sbnd SO2sbnd NHsbnd NHsbnd COCH3 (Apsh, an sulfon amide compound) has been synthesized for the first time. The structure of Apsh was investigated using elemental analysis, spectral (IR, 1H/13C NMR) measurements. In addition, molecular structure of the Apsh was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique and found that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P 21/c. 1H and 13C shielding tensors for crystal structure were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods in CDCl3. The structure of Apsh is optimized using Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The vibrational band assignments were performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) theory level combined with scaled quantum mechanics force field (SQMFF) methodology. The theoretical IR frequencies are found to be in good agreement with the experimental IR frequencies. Nonlinear optical (NLO) behaviour of Apsh is also examined by the theoretically predicted values of dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α0) and first hyperpolarizability (βtot). The antibacterial activities of synthesized compound were studied against Gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 23212, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 34384, Gram negative bacteria: Eschericha coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 70063 by using microdilution method (as MICs) and disc diffusion method.

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM LAMIACEAE FAMILY.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Przybył, Jarosław; Ziarno, Małgorzata; Majewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of aqueous (ethanolic and methanolic) extracts from herbs often used in Polish cuisine and traditional herbal medicine including thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were compared. The aqueous ethanolic extracts contained slightly higher levels of phenolics compared to the aqueous methanolic extracts. In turn, GC-MS analysis showed that the aqueous methanolic extracts of thyme, rosemary and sage contained several additional compounds such as eugenol or ledol. The present studies also indicated that the bacterial species applied in the experiment exhibited different sensitivities towards tested extracts. Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be the most sensitive bacteria to aqueous (ethanolic and methanolic) rosemary and sage extracts and aqueous methanolic thyme extract. Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Proteus vulgaris NCTC 4635 were more susceptible to the aqueous methanolic thyme extract. However, Listeria monocytogenes 1043S was the most sensitive to the aqueous ethanolic rosemary extract. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the tested extracts than Gram-negative ones. PMID:26647633

  9. Cellulose aerogels functionalized with polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles: In-situ synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Green porous and lightweight cellulose aerogels have been considered as promising candidates to substitute some petrochemical host materials to support various nanomaterials. In this work, waste wheat straw was collected as feedstock to fabricate cellulose hydrogels, and a green inexpensive NaOH/polyethylene glycol solution was used as cellulose solvent. Prior to freeze-drying treatment, the cellulose hydrogels were integrated with polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles by easily-operated in-situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole using silver ions as oxidizing agent. The tri-component hybrid aerogels were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the hybrid aerogels against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Listeria monocytogenes (intracellular bacteria) was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by parallel streak method and determination of minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively. This work provides an example of combining cellulose aerogels with nanomaterials, and helps to develop novel forms of cellulose-based functional materials. PMID:27112885

  10. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Ferula vesceritensis Coss et Dur. leaves, endemic in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The biological importance of members of genus Ferula promoted us to investigate the leaves of Ferula vesceritensis Coss et Dur. (endemic plant) previously not investigated. This study presents the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the hydrodistilled oils. Results Volatile components of the leaves of F. vesceritensis have been studied by gas chromatographymass spectrometry to afford 23 compounds. The major components were found to be 5,9-tetradecadiyne (24.72%), germacrene D (24.51%), farnesene (8.57%), and ?-bisabolene (8.57%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated by disk diffusion method and tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The volatile oil showed a strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Conclusions These results reinforce the previous studies showing that the genus Ferula is considered as a good source of essential oils. The results presented here can be considered as the first information on the antimicrobial properties of F. vesceritensis. PMID:22937773

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, structural studies and antibacterial and antitumor activities of diorganotin complexes with 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandani, Marzieh; Sedaghat, Tahereh; Erfani, Nasrollah; Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2013-04-01

    Three organotin(IV) complexes, Ph2Sn(mstsc) (1), Me2Sn(mstsc) (2) and Bu2Sn(mstsc) (3), have been synthesized from reaction of R2SnCl2 (R = Ph, Me and Bu) with 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (H2mstsc). The synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy. The structures of 2 and 3 have been also confirmed by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of spectral and structural data thiosemicarbazone acts as a tridentate dianionic ligand and coordinates to tin through phenolic oxygen, the azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulfur atoms. The metal coordination geometry for 2 and 3 is described as distorted square pyramid and the crystal lattices are stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bands. On the basis of 119Sn NMR data, coordination number of tin retains five in solution. The in vitro antibacterial activity of ligand and its complexes has been evaluated against one Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Complex 2 exhibited good activity along with the standard antibacterial drugs. The in vitro cytotoxicities of the synthesized compounds against Jurkat cells were evaluated by the standard WST-1 assay. The activity decreases in the order 3 > 1 > 2 = H2mstsc.

  12. Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica and its antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Babak; Rostami, Amir; Momeni, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica (PA) and its antibacterial activity. UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX) were performed to ascertain the formation of Ag-NPs. It was observed that the growths of Ag-NPs are stopped within 35 min of reaction time. The synthesized Ag-NPs were characterized by a peak at 446 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles of 27 nm size. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic silver, respectively. The FTIR result clearly showed that the extracts containing OH as a functional group act in capping the nanoparticles synthesis. Antibacterial activities of Ag-NPs were tested against the growth of Gram-positive (S. aureus) using SEM. The inhibition was observed in the Ag-NPs against S. aureus. The results suggest that the synthesized Ag-NPs act as an effective antibacterial agent. It is confirmed that Ag-NPs are capable of rendering high antibacterial efficacy and hence has a great potential in the preparation of used drugs against bacterial diseases. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicated that, the most strains of S. aureus was damaged and extensively disappeared by addition of Ag-NPs. The results confirmed that the (PA) is a very good eco friendly and nontoxic source for the synthesis of Ag-NPs as compared to the conventional chemical/physical methods.

  13. Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Babak; Rostami, Amir; Momeni, S S

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica (PA) and its antibacterial activity. UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX) were performed to ascertain the formation of Ag-NPs. It was observed that the growths of Ag-NPs are stopped within 35 min of reaction time. The synthesized Ag-NPs were characterized by a peak at 446 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles of 27 nm size. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic silver, respectively. The FTIR result clearly showed that the extracts containing OH as a functional group act in capping the nanoparticles synthesis. Antibacterial activities of Ag-NPs were tested against the growth of Gram-positive (S. aureus) using SEM. The inhibition was observed in the Ag-NPs against S. aureus. The results suggest that the synthesized Ag-NPs act as an effective antibacterial agent. It is confirmed that Ag-NPs are capable of rendering high antibacterial efficacy and hence has a great potential in the preparation of used drugs against bacterial diseases. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicated that, the most strains of S. aureus was damaged and extensively disappeared by addition of Ag-NPs. The results confirmed that the (PA) is a very good eco friendly and nontoxic source for the synthesis of Ag-NPs as compared to the conventional chemical/physical methods. PMID:25022505

  14. Towards long-lasting antibacterial stainless steel surfaces by combining double glow plasma silvering with active screen plasma nitriding.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y; Li, X; Tian, L; Bell, T; Sammons, R L; Dong, H

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial surface modification of biomedical materials has evolved as a potentially effective method for preventing bacterial proliferation on the surfaces of devices. However, thin antibacterial coatings or modified layers can be easily worn down when interacting with other surfaces in relative motion, thus leading to a low durability of the antibacterial surface. To this end, novel biomaterial surfaces with antibacterial Ag agents and a wear-resistant S-phase have been generated on stainless steel by duplex plasma silvering-nitriding techniques for application to load-bearing medical devices. The chemical composition, microstructure, surface topography, roughness and wettability of SS surfaces were characterised using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy/wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and a contact angle goniometer. Optimal surface design for high antimicrobial activity and prolonged durability has been achieved, as evidenced by rapid bacterial killing rates (within 6h), an ultra hard matrix (875 ± 25 Hv), high load-bearing capacity (critical load 37 N) and excellent wear resistance (wear rate 4.9 × 10⁻⁶ mm³ m⁻¹). Ag embedded in the hard substrate of fcc compounds M(4)N (M=Fe, Cr, Ag, etc.) and the expanded fcc nitrogen S-phase shows deep infiltration of 6 ± 1 μm, and provides bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 and Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047 of over 97% and 90%, respectively, within 6h. The presence of silver in the surface before and after scratching under a progressive load applied up to 60 N using a diamond stylus was confirmed by WDS. PMID:20727993

  15. Antibacterial activity and bonding ability of an adhesive incorporating an antibacterial monomer DMAE-CB.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu-Hong; Ma, Sai; Chen, Ji-Hua; Chai, Zhi-Guo; Li, Fang; Wang, Ying-Jie

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial effect and microtensile bond strength of a resin-based adhesive containing an antibacterial monomer DMAE-CB (methacryloxylethyl cetyl dimethyl ammonium chloride). Cured specimens of 1, 2, and 3% DMAE-CB-containing Single Bond 2 (crosslinking monomer: Bis-GMA, dimethacrylates; functional monomer: HEMA) were prepared, and their antibacterial effects on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were investigated. Antibacterial property after 0, 30, 90, and 180 days of aging was also tested. Bonding ability of the experimental adhesive incorporating 3% DMAE-CB was evaluated by microtensile bond strength test. The cured experimental adhesive exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth, and the adhesive containing 3% DMAE-CB showed higher antibacterial efficiency compared with those incorporating 1 or 2% anibacterial monomer. Antibacterial activities of the specimens lasted for at least 180 days. Microtensile bond strength test revealed that the bonding ability of the experimental adhesive was not significantly adversely affected by the incorporation of DMAE-CB. Therefore, dental adhesives with strong and long-lasting bacteriostatic property could be achieved by incorporating DMAE-CB without negatively influencing bonding ability. PMID:19280645

  16. Effect of betamethasone in combination with antibiotics on gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Artini, M; Papa, R; Cellini, A; Tilotta, M; Barbato, G; Koverech, A; Selan, L

    2014-01-01

    Betamethasone is an anti-inflammatory steroid drug used in cases of anaphylactic and allergic reactions, of Alzheimer and Addison diseases and in soft tissue injuries. It modulates gene expression for anti-inflammatory activity suppressing the immune system response. This latter effect might decrease the effectiveness of immune system response against microbial infections. Corticosteroids, in fact, mask some symptoms of infection and during their use superimposed infections may occur. Thus, the use of glucocorticoids in patients with sepsis remains extremely controversial. In this study we analyzed the in vitro effect of a commercial formulation of betamethasone (Bentelan) on several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria of clinical relevance. It was found to be an inhibitor of the growth of most of the strains examined. Also the effect of betamethasone in combination with some classes of antibiotics was evaluated. Antibiotic-steroid combination therapy is, in such cases, superior to antibiotic-alone treatment to impair bacterial growths. Such effect was essentially not at all observable on Staphylococcus aureus or Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS). PMID:25572750

  17. [Resistance to "last resort" antibiotics in Gram-positive cocci: The post-vancomycin era].

    PubMed

    Rincn, Sandra; Panesso, Diana; Daz, Lorena; Carvajal, Lina P; Reyes, Jinnethe; Munita, Jos M; Arias, Csar A

    2014-04-01

    New therapeutic alternatives have been developed in the last years for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections. Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are considered a therapeutic challenge due to failures and lack of reliable antimicrobial options. Despite concerns related to the use of vancomycin in the treatment of severe MRSA infections in specific clinical scenarios, there is a paucity of solid clinical evidence that support the use of alternative agents (when compared to vancomycin). Linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline are antibiotics approved in the last decade and newer cephalosporins (such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and novel glycopeptides (dalvavancin, telavancin and oritavancin) have reached clinical approval or are in the late stages of clinical development. This review focuses on discussing these newer antibiotics used in the "post-vancomycin" era with emphasis on relevant chemical characteristics, spectrum of antimicrobial activity, mechanisms of action and resistance, as well as their clinical utility. PMID:24968051

  18. An overview of RNAs with regulatory functions in gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Romby, Pascale; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, RNA molecules with regulatory functions on gene expression have benefited from a renewed interest. In bacteria, recent high throughput computational and experimental approaches have led to the discovery that 10-20% of all genes code for RNAs with critical regulatory roles in metabolic, physiological and pathogenic processes. The trans-acting RNAs comprise the noncoding RNAs, RNAs with a short open reading frame and antisense RNAs. Many of these RNAs act through binding to their target mRNAs while others modulate protein activity or target DNA. The cis-acting RNAs include regulatory regions of mRNAs that can respond to various signals. These RNAs often provide the missing link between sensing changing conditions in the environment and fine-tuning the subsequent biological responses. Information on their various functions and modes of action has been well documented for gram-negative bacteria. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of regulatory RNAs in gram-positive bacteria. PMID:19859665

  19. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, P. S.; Kokila, T.; Geetha, D.

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15 nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  20. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, P S; Kokila, T; Geetha, D

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. PMID:25710891

  1. Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of some green leafy vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ramesa Shafi; Al-Daihan, Sooad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity and photochemicals of five green leafy vegetables against a panel of five bacteria strains. Methods Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity, while kanamycin was used as a reference antibiotic. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed using standard methods. Results All methanol extracts were found active against all the test bacterial strains. Overall maximum extracts shows antibacterial activity which range from 6 to 15 mm. Proteins and carbohydrates was found in all the green leaves, whereas alkaloid, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins were found in most of the test samples. Conclusions The obtain result suggests that green leafy vegetables have moderate antibacterial activity and contain various pharmacologically active compounds and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of the studied vegetables in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:25182436

  2. Alkyl sulfonic acide hydrazides: Synthesis, characterization, computational studies and anticancer, antibacterial, anticarbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O. Ozdemir, Ummuhan; İlbiz, Firdevs; Balaban Gunduzalp, Ayla; Ozbek, Neslihan; Karagoz Genç, Zuhal; Hamurcu, Fatma; Tekin, Suat

    2015-11-01

    Methane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3SO2NHNH2 (1), ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2SO2NHNH2 (2), propane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2CH2SO2NHNH2 (3) and butane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2CH2CH2SO2NHNH2 (4) have been synthesized as homologous series and characterized by using elemental analysis, spectrophotometric methods (1H-13C NMR, FT-IR, LC-MS). In order to gain insight into the structure of the compounds, we have performed computational studies by using 6-311G(d, p) functional in which B3LYP functional were implemented. The geometry of the sulfonic acide hydrazides were optimized at the DFT method with Gaussian 09 program package. A conformational analysis of compounds were performed by using NMR theoretical calculations with DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p) level of theory by applying the (GIAO) approach. The anticancer activities of these compounds on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line investigated by comparing IC50 values. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus NRRL-B-3711, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 70063 by using the disc diffusion method. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II enzyme (hCA II) have been investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values. The biological activity screening shows that butane sulfonic acide hydrazide (4) has more activity than the others against tested breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, Gram negative/Gram positive bacteria and carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) isoenzyme.

  3. Nucleotide sequence alignment of hdcA from Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Maria; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Sanchez-Llana, Esther; del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    The decarboxylation of histidine -carried out mainly by some gram-positive bacteria- yields the toxic dietary biogenic amine histamine (Ladero et al. 2010 〈10.2174/157340110791233256〉 [1], Linares et al. 2016 〈http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.013〉〉 [2]). The reaction is catalyzed by a pyruvoyl-dependent histidine decarboxylase (Linares et al. 2011 〈10.1080/10408398.2011.582813〉 [3]), which is encoded by the gene hdcA. In order to locate conserved regions in the hdcA gene of Gram-positive bacteria, this article provides a nucleotide sequence alignment of all the hdcA sequences from Gram-positive bacteria present in databases. For further utility and discussion, see 〈http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.11.035〉〉 [4].

  4. Labeling and Selective Inactivation of Gram-Positive Bacteria Employing Bimodal Photoprobes with Dual Readouts.

    PubMed

    Galstyan, Anzhela; Block, Desiree; Niemann, Silke; Grüner, Malte C; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Oneto, Michele; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Hermann, Sven; Viappiani, Cristiano; Schäfers, Michael; Löffler, Bettina; Strassert, Cristian A; Faust, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Carbohydrate-conjugated silicon(IV) phthalocyanines with bimodal photoactivity were developed as probes with both fluorescent labeling and photosensitizing capabilities, and the concomitant fluorescent labeling and photoinduced inactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative models was explored. The maltohexaose-conjugated photoprobe provides a dual readout to distinguish between both groups of pathogens, as only the Gram-positive species was inactivated, even though both appeared labeled with near-infrared luminescence. Antibiotic resistance did not hinder the phototoxic effect, as even the methicillin-resistant pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was completely photoinactivated. Time-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis suggests that the photoprobe sticks onto the outer rim of the microorganisms, explaining the resistance of Gram-negative species on the basis of their membrane constitution. The mannose-conjugated photoprobe yields a different readout because it is able to label and to inactivate only the Gram-positive strain. PMID:26929124

  5. Class D β-lactamases do exist in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Toth, Marta; Antunes, Nuno Tiago; Stewart, Nichole K; Frase, Hilary; Bhattacharya, Monolekha; Smith, Clyde A; Vakulenko, Sergei B

    2016-01-01

    Production of β-lactamases of one of four molecular classes (A, B, C and D) is the major mechanism of bacterial resistance to β-lactams, the largest class of antibiotics, which have saved countless lives since their inception 70 years ago. Although several hundred efficient class D enzymes have been identified in Gram-negative pathogens over the last four decades, none have been reported in Gram-positive bacteria. Here we demonstrate that efficient class D β-lactamases capable of hydrolyzing a wide array of β-lactam substrates are widely disseminated in various species of environmental Gram-positive organisms. Class D enzymes of Gram-positive bacteria have a distinct structural architecture and employ a unique substrate-binding mode that is quite different from that of all currently known class A, C and D β-lactamases. These enzymes thus constitute a previously unknown reservoir of novel antibiotic-resistance enzymes. PMID:26551395

  6. Nucleotide sequence alignment of hdcA from Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Maria; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Sanchez-Llana, Esther; Del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    The decarboxylation of histidine -carried out mainly by some gram-positive bacteria- yields the toxic dietary biogenic amine histamine (Ladero et al. 2010 〈10.2174/157340110791233256〉 [1], Linares et al. 2016 〈http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.013〉〉 [2]). The reaction is catalyzed by a pyruvoyl-dependent histidine decarboxylase (Linares et al. 2011 〈10.1080/10408398.2011.582813〉 [3]), which is encoded by the gene hdcA. In order to locate conserved regions in the hdcA gene of Gram-positive bacteria, this article provides a nucleotide sequence alignment of all the hdcA sequences from Gram-positive bacteria present in databases. For further utility and discussion, see 〈http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.11.035〉〉 [4]. PMID:26958625

  7. Activation of antibacterial autophagy by NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ju; Canadien, Veronica; Lam, Grace Y; Steinberg, Benjamin E; Dinauer, Mary C; Magalhaes, Marco A O; Glogauer, Michael; Grinstein, Sergio; Brumell, John H

    2009-04-14

    Autophagy plays an important role in immunity to microbial pathogens. The autophagy system can target bacteria in phagosomes, promoting phagosome maturation and preventing pathogen escape into the cytosol. Recently, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling from phagosomes was found to initiate their targeting by the autophagy system, but the mechanism by which TLR signaling activates autophagy is unclear. Here we show that autophagy targeting of phagosomes is not exclusive to those containing TLR ligands. Engagement of either TLRs or the Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaRs) during phagocytosis induced recruitment of the autophagy protein LC3 to phagosomes with similar kinetics. Both receptors are known to activate the NOX2 NADPH oxidase, which plays a central role in microbial killing by phagocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that NOX2-generated ROS are necessary for LC3 recruitment to phagosomes. Antibacterial autophagy in human epithelial cells, which do not express NOX2, was also dependent on ROS generation. These data reveal a coupling of oxidative and nonoxidative killing activities of the NOX2 NADPH oxidase in phagocytes through autophagy. Furthermore, our results suggest a general role for members of the NOX family in regulating autophagy. PMID:19339495

  8. Antiseptic mouthwashes: in vitro antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Evandro; Nascimento, Andresa P; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane M; Razaboni, Ana M; de Andrade, Denise; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2015-08-01

    Mouthwashes are used as an adjunct to tooth brushing for improving breath and preventing oral diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro Maximum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) of 3 mouthwashes with different active ingredients against mutans streptococci (MS). The products analyzed were PeriogardR, CepacolR and PlaxR Fresh Mint. Their antibacterial activity was assessed in duplicate in 96-well microtiter plates against 36 clinical isolates of MS. Each mouthwash was submitted to a serial two-fold dilution (1/2.5 to 1/5120) using double concentration of Tryptose Soy Broth with 1.0% yeast extract. The final volume in each well was 100 mL plus 5 mL of a bacterial suspension, equivalent to 107 CFU/mL. They were incubated microaerobically at 37oC for 48 hours and the MIDs determined. MID was 1/320 for PeriogardR and CepacolR, and 1/20 for PlaxR. Statistical analysis revealed that the MID of PeriogardR MID did not differ from that of CepacolR (p>0.05), and was higher than that of PlaxR (p<0.05). In conclusion, the antiseptic mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine (PeriogardR) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CepacolR) had higher in vitroantibacterial activity (MID) against MS than the antiseptic mouthwash containing triclosan (PlaxR), according to microbiological method employed. PMID:26355890

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn. (Asclepidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kalidass, C.; Glory, M.; Borgio, Francis; Manickam, V S

    2009-01-01

    Leptadenia reticulata of Asclepidaceae family is a shrub, originally property of Petroleum ether, Alcohol & Chloroform extract of L. reticulata. The antimicrobial testing was carried out by “Disc diffusion method”. Amongst the tested three extracts, chloroform extract showed high antimicrobial activity against E. coli, alcoholic extract showed high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Petroleum ether extract showed antibacterial activity against Klebsilla pneumonae PMID:22557325

  10. 45S5Bioglass®-based scaffolds coated with selenium nanoparticles or with poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/selenium particles: Processing, evaluation and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Filipović, Nenad; Djurdjević, Jelena; Lukić, Miodrag; Milenković, Marina; Boccaccini, Aldo

    2015-08-01

    In the bone tissue engineering field, there is a growing interest in the application of bioactive glass scaffolds (45S5Bioglass(®)) due to their bone bonding ability, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. However, such scaffolds still lack some of the required functionalities to enable the successful formation of new bone, e.g. effective antibacterial properties. A large number of studies suggest that selenium (Se) has significant role in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of cell proliferation. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNp) have also been reported to possess antibacterial as well as antiviral activities. In this investigation, uniform, stable, amorphous SeNp have been synthesized and additionally immobilized within spherical PLGA particles (PLGA/SeNp). These particles were used to coat bioactive glass-based scaffolds synthesized by the foam replica method. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SeNp, 45S5Bioglass(®)/SeNp and 45S5Bioglass(®)/PLGA/SeNp showed a considerable antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, one of the main causative agents of orthopedic infections. The functionalized Se-coated bioactive glass scaffolds represent a new family of bioactive, antibacterial scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26047884

  11. Fresh layers of RNA-mediated regulation in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bouloc, Philippe; Repoila, Francis

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial regulatory RNAs have been defined as diverse classes of cis and trans elements that may intervene at each step of gene expression, from RNA and protein synthesis to degradation. Here, we report on a few examples from Gram-positive bacteria that extend the definition of regulatory RNAs to include 5' and 3' UTRs that also act as cis and trans regulators. New examples unveil the existence of cis and trans acting regulatory RNAs on a single molecule. Also, we highlight data showing that a key RNA chaperone in Enterobacteriaceae, Hfq, does not fulfill the same role in Gram-positive Firmicutes. PMID:26773797

  12. The Central Hinge Link Truncation of the Antimicrobial Peptide Fowlicidin-3 Enhances Its Cell Selectivity without Antibacterial Activity Loss.

    PubMed

    Qu, Pei; Gao, Wei; Chen, Huixian; Li, Dan; Yang, Na; Zhu, Jian; Feng, Xingjun; Liu, Chunlong; Li, Zhongqiu

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been paid considerable attention because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and a reduced possibility of the development of bacterial drug resistance. Fowlicidin-3 (Fow-3) is an identified type of chicken cathelicidin AMP that has exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. To reduce cell toxicity and improve cell selectivity, several truncated peptides of fowlicidin-3, Fow-3(1-15), Fow-3(1-19), Fow-3(1-15-20-27), and Fow-3(20-27), were synthesized. Our results indicated that neither the N- nor C-terminal segment alone [Fow-3(1-15), Fow-3(1-19), Fow-3(20-27)] was sufficient to confer antibacterial activity. However, Fow-3(1-19) with the inclusion of the central hinge link (-AGIN-) retained substantial cell toxicity, which other analogs lost. Fow-3(1-15-20-27) displayed potent antimicrobial activity for a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and no obvious hemolytic activity or cytotoxicity. The central link region was shown to be critically important in the function of cell toxicity but was not relevant to antibacterial activity. Fow-3(1-15-20-27) maintained antibacterial activity in the presence of physiological concentrations of salts. The results from fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microcopy, and transmission electron microcopy showed that Fow-3(1-15-20-27) as well as fowlicidin-3 killed bacterial cells by increasing membrane permeability and damaging the membrane envelope integrity. Fow-3(1-15-20-27) could be a promising antimicrobial agent for clinical application. PMID:26902768

  13. Synthesis, characterizations and anti-bacterial activities of pure and Ag doped CdO nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Venkatesan, A.; Soundhirarajan, P.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, synthesized pure and Ag (1%, 2%, and 3%) doped Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method. Then, the synthesized products were characterized by thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultra violet-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) spectroscopy, and anti-bacterial activities, respectively. The transition temperatures and phase transitions of Cd(OH)2 to CdO at 400 °C was confirmed by TG-DTA analysis. The XRD patterns show the cubic shape and average particle sizes are 21, 40, 34, and 37 nm, respectively for pure and Ag doped samples. FT-IR study confirmed the presence of CdO and Ag at 677 and 459 cm-1, respectively. UV-Vis-DRS study shows the variation on direct and indirect band gaps. The surface morphologies and elemental analysis have been confirmed from SEM and with EDX. In addition, the synthesized products have been characterized by antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Further, the present investigation suggests that CdO nanoparticles have the great potential applications on various industrial and medical fields of research.

  14. Synthesis and anti-bacterial activity of Cu, Ag and Cu-Ag alloy nanoparticles: A green approach

    SciTech Connect

    Valodkar, Mayur; Modi, Shefaly; Pal, Angshuman; Thakore, Sonal

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthesis of novel nanosized copper-silver alloys of different compositions. {yields} Completely green approach for synthesis of water soluble bimetallic nanoparticle. {yields} Interesting anti-bacterial activity of as synthesized metal and alloy nanoparticle. -- Abstract: Metallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of copper and silver in various proportions were prepared by microwave assisted chemical reduction in aqueous medium using the biopolymer, starch as a stabilizing agent. Ascorbic acid was used as the reducing agent. The silver and copper nanoparticles exhibited surface plasmon absorption resonance maxima (SPR) at 416 and 584 nm, respectively; while SPR for the Cu-Ag alloys appeared in between depending on the alloy composition. The SPR maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changes linearly with increasing copper content in the alloy. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) showed monodispersed particles in the range of 20 {+-} 5 nm size. Both silver and copper nanoparticles exhibited emission band at 485 and 645 nm, respectively. The starch-stabilized nanoparticles exhibited interesting antibacterial activity with both gram positive and gram negative bacteria at micromolar concentrations.

  15. An extreme-halophile archaebacterium possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase characteristic of the Gram-positive eubacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. A.; d'Amato, T. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1988-01-01

    The focal point of phenylalanine biosynthesis is a dehydratase reaction which in different organisms may be prephenate dehydratase, arogenate dehydratase, or cyclohexadienyl dehydratase. Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and cyanobacterial divisions of the eubacterial kingdom exhibit different dehydratase patterns. A new extreme-halophile isolate, which grows on defined medium and is tentatively designated as Halobacterium vallismortis CH-1, possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase present in Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the conventional sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine, the phenomenon of metabolic interlock was exemplified by the sensitivity of prephenate dehydratase to allosteric effects produced by extra-pathway (remote) effectors. Thus, L-tryptophan inhibited activity while L-tyrosine, L-methionine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine activated the enzyme. L-Isoleucine and L-phenylalanine were effective at micromolar levels; other effectors operated at mM levels. A regulatory mutant selected for resistance to growth inhibition caused by beta-2-thienylalanine possessed an altered prephenate dehydratase in which a phenomenon of disproportionately low activity at low enzyme concentration was abolished. Inhibition by L-tryptophan was also lost, and activation by allosteric activators was diminished. Not only was sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine lost, but the mutant enzyme was now activated by this amino acid (a mutation type previously observed in Bacillus subtilis). It remains to be seen whether this type of prephenate dehydratase will prove to be characteristic of all archaebacteria or of some archaebacterial subgroup cluster.

  16. Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many medicinal plants from Leguminosae family can be found easily in Malaysia. These plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups, where they are prepared as decoction, pastes for wound infections, and some have been eaten as salad. This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant potential, antibacterial activity and classes of phytochemicals of nine plants from the Leguminosae family. Methods Acacia auriculiformis, Bauhinia kockiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calliandra tergemina, Cassia surattensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Samanea saman were extracted with aqueous methanol and dichloromethane:methanol mixture to test for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was conducted to quantify the total phenolic content and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the free radical quenching capacity. Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) assay. Screening for major classes of phytochemical was done using standard chemical tests. Results B. kockiana flowers and C. pulcherrima leaves contained high total phenolic content (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging ability with TPC of 8280 ± 498 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 27.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL and TPC of 5030 ± 602 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 50.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL respectively. Positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. Most extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria at 1 mg, while none showed activity against Gram negative bacteria at the same dose. All extracts (except Samanea saman flower) showed antibacterial activity against two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MID values ranging between 100 μg/disc and 500 μg/disc. Conclusion The potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infection treatments were found in B. kockiana, C. pulcherrima, C. tergemina and P. pterocarpum. These preliminary results would be a guide in the selection of potential candidates for further pharmacological study and in search of new drug candidate in treating MRSA infections. PMID:21306653

  17. ppGpp negatively impacts ribosome assembly affecting growth and antimicrobial tolerance in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Rebecca M.; Bellows, Lauren E.; Wood, Alison

    2016-01-01

    The stringent response is a survival mechanism used by bacteria to deal with stress. It is coordinated by the nucleotides guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp], which interact with target proteins to promote bacterial survival. Although this response has been well characterized in proteobacteria, very little is known about the effectors of this signaling system in Gram-positive species. Here, we report on the identification of seven target proteins for the stringent response nucleotides in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrate that the GTP synthesis enzymes HprT and Gmk bind with a high affinity, leading to an inhibition of GTP production. In addition, we identified five putative GTPases—RsgA, RbgA, Era, HflX, and ObgE—as (p)ppGpp target proteins. We show that RsgA, RbgA, Era, and HflX are functional GTPases and that their activity is promoted in the presence of ribosomes but strongly inhibited by the stringent response nucleotides. By characterizing the function of RsgA in vivo, we ascertain that this protein is involved in ribosome assembly, with an rsgA deletion strain, or a strain inactivated for GTPase activity, displaying decreased growth, a decrease in the amount of mature 70S ribosomes, and an increased level of tolerance to antimicrobials. We additionally demonstrate that the interaction of ppGpp with cellular GTPases is not unique to the staphylococci, as homologs from Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis retain this ability. Taken together, this study reveals ribosome inactivation as a previously unidentified mechanism through which the stringent response functions in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26951678

  18. ppGpp negatively impacts ribosome assembly affecting growth and antimicrobial tolerance in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Rebecca M; Bellows, Lauren E; Wood, Alison; Gründling, Angelika

    2016-03-22

    The stringent response is a survival mechanism used by bacteria to deal with stress. It is coordinated by the nucleotides guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp], which interact with target proteins to promote bacterial survival. Although this response has been well characterized in proteobacteria, very little is known about the effectors of this signaling system in Gram-positive species. Here, we report on the identification of seven target proteins for the stringent response nucleotides in the Gram-positive bacteriumStaphylococcus aureus We demonstrate that the GTP synthesis enzymes HprT and Gmk bind with a high affinity, leading to an inhibition of GTP production. In addition, we identified five putative GTPases-RsgA, RbgA, Era, HflX, and ObgE-as (p)ppGpp target proteins. We show that RsgA, RbgA, Era, and HflX are functional GTPases and that their activity is promoted in the presence of ribosomes but strongly inhibited by the stringent response nucleotides. By characterizing the function of RsgA in vivo, we ascertain that this protein is involved in ribosome assembly, with anrsgAdeletion strain, or a strain inactivated for GTPase activity, displaying decreased growth, a decrease in the amount of mature 70S ribosomes, and an increased level of tolerance to antimicrobials. We additionally demonstrate that the interaction of ppGpp with cellular GTPases is not unique to the staphylococci, as homologs fromBacillus subtilisandEnterococcus faecalisretain this ability. Taken together, this study reveals ribosome inactivation as a previously unidentified mechanism through which the stringent response functions in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26951678