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1

Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that AgNPs could be used as an adjuvant for the treatment of infectious diseases.

Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2014-07-01

2

Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that AgNPs could be used as an adjuvant for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:25136281

2014-01-01

3

Efficient enzymatic systems for synthesis of novel ?-mangostin glycosides exhibiting antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Two enzymatic systems were developed for the efficient synthesis of glycoside products of ?-mangostin, a natural xanthonoid exhibiting anti-oxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In these systems, one-pot reactions for the synthesis of UDP-?-D-glucose and UDP-?-D-2-deoxyglucose were modified and combined with a glycosyltransferase (GT) from Bacillus licheniformis DSM-13 to afford C-3 and C-6 position modified glucose and 2-deoxyglucose conjugated novel ?-mangostin derivatives. ?-Mangostin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 6-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 3,6-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 3-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 6-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside, and ?-mangostin 3,6-di-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside were successfully produced in practical quantities and characterized by high-resolution quadruple time-of-flight electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-QTOF ESI/MS), (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses. In excess of the substrate, the maximum productions of three ?-mangostin glucopyranosides (4.8 mg/mL, 86.5 % overall conversion of ?-mangostin) and three ?-mangostin 2-deoxyglucopyronosides (4.0 mg/mL, 79 % overall conversion of ?-mangostin) were achieved at 4-h incubation period. All the ?-mangostin glycosides exhibited improved water solubility, and their antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus was drastically enhanced by the glucosylation at C-3 position. In this study, diverse glycosylated ?-mangostin were produced in significant quantities by using inexpensive starting materials and recycling co-factors within a reaction vessel without use of expensive NDP-sugars in the glycosylation reactions. PMID:25038930

Le, Tuoi Thi; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Gurung, Rit Bahadur; Dhakal, Dipesh; Sohng, Jae Kyung

2014-10-01

4

Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10- x Ag x (PO4)6(OH)2, x Ag = 0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a = b = 9.435 Å, c = 6.876 Å for x Ag = 0.05, a = b = 9.443 Å, c = 6.875 Å for x Ag = 0.2, and a = b = 9.445 Å, c = 6.877 Å for x Ag = 0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a = b = 9.418 Å, c = 6.884 Å (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples ( x Ag = 0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of x Ag in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth ( P. stuartii).

Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Le Coustumer, Phillippe; Constantin, Liliana Violeta; Predoi, Daniela

2012-06-01

5

Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2, xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a?=?b?=?9.435 Å, c?=?6.876 Å for xAg?=?0.05, a?=?b?=?9.443 Å, c?=?6.875 Å for xAg?=?0.2, and a?=?b?=?9.445 Å, c?=?6.877 Å for xAg?=?0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a?=?b?=?9.418 Å, c?=?6.884 Å (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples (xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of xAg in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth (P. stuartii). PMID:22721352

2012-01-01

6

In Vitro Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Three Different Central Venous Catheters Against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of three different catheters against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and the slime-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 (RP62A). Three central venous catheters were evaluated: one impregnated with silver sulfadiazine–chlorhexidine,\\u000a one to which minocycline\\/rifampin is bonded and a novel one into which silver, platinum and carbon are incorporated. A nonantiseptic\\u000a catheter

K. Yorganci; C. Krepel; J. Weigelt; C. Edmiston

2002-01-01

7

Discovery of a New Class of Non-?-lactam Inhibitors of Penicillin-Binding Proteins with Gram-Positive Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by hard-to-treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a serious global public-health concern, as MRSA has become broadly resistant to many classes of antibiotics. We disclose herein the discovery of a new class of non-?-lactam antibiotics, the oxadiazoles, which inhibit penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) of MRSA. The oxadiazoles show bactericidal activity against vancomycin- and linezolid-resistant MRSA and other Gram-positive bacterial strains, in vivo efficacy in a mouse model of infection, and have 100% oral bioavailability. PMID:24517363

2015-01-01

8

Antibacterial inhibitors of Gram-positive thymidylate kinase: structure-activity relationships and chiral preference of a new hydrophobic binding region.  

PubMed

Thymidylate kinase (TMK), an essential enzyme in bacterial DNA biosynthesis, is an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel antibacterial agents, and we continue to explore TMK inhibitors with improved potency, protein binding, and pharmacokinetic potential. A structure-guided design approach was employed to exploit a previously unexplored region in Staphylococcus aureus TMK via novel interactions. These efforts produced compound 39, with 3 nM IC50 against S. aureus TMK and 2 ?g/mL MIC against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This compound exhibits a striking inverted chiral preference for binding relative to earlier compounds and also has improved physical properties and pharmacokinetics over previously published compounds. An example of this new series was efficacious in a murine S. aureus infection model, suggesting that compounds like 39 are options for further work toward a new Gram-positive antibiotic by maintaining a balance of microbiological potency, low clearance, and low protein binding that can result in lower efficacious doses. PMID:24828090

Kawatkar, Sameer P; Keating, Thomas A; Olivier, Nelson B; Breen, John N; Green, Oluyinka M; Guler, Satenig Y; Hentemann, Martin F; Loch, James T; McKenzie, Andrew R; Newman, Joseph V; Otterson, Linda G; Martínez-Botella, Gabriel

2014-06-12

9

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of AZD0914, a New Spiropyrimidinetrione DNA Gyrase/Topoisomerase Inhibitor with Potent Activity against Gram-Positive, Fastidious Gram-Negative, and Atypical Bacteria.  

PubMed

AZD0914 is a new spiropyrimidinetrione bacterial DNA gyrase/topoisomerase inhibitor with potent in vitro antibacterial activity against key Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae), fastidious Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae), atypical (Legionella pneumophila), and anaerobic (Clostridium difficile) bacterial species, including isolates with known resistance to fluoroquinolones. AZD0914 works via inhibition of DNA biosynthesis and accumulation of double-strand cleavages; this mechanism of inhibition differs from those of other marketed antibacterial compounds. AZD0914 stabilizes and arrests the cleaved covalent complex of gyrase with double-strand broken DNA under permissive conditions and thus blocks religation of the double-strand cleaved DNA to form fused circular DNA. Whereas this mechanism is similar to that seen with fluoroquinolones, it is mechanistically distinct. AZD0914 exhibited low frequencies of spontaneous resistance in S. aureus, and if mutants were obtained, the mutations mapped to gyrB. Additionally, no cross-resistance was observed for AZD0914 against recent bacterial clinical isolates demonstrating resistance to fluoroquinolones or other drug classes, including macrolides, ?-lactams, glycopeptides, and oxazolidinones. AZD0914 was bactericidal in both minimum bactericidal concentration and in vitro time-kill studies. In in vitro checkerboard/synergy testing with 17 comparator antibacterials, only additivity/indifference was observed. The potent in vitro antibacterial activity (including activity against fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates), low frequency of resistance, lack of cross-resistance, and bactericidal activity of AZD0914 support its continued development. PMID:25385112

Huband, Michael D; Bradford, Patricia A; Otterson, Linda G; Basarab, Gregory S; Kutschke, Amy C; Giacobbe, Robert A; Patey, Sara A; Alm, Richard A; Johnstone, Michele R; Potter, Marie E; Miller, Paul F; Mueller, John P

2015-01-01

10

Bioengineered Nisin A Derivatives with Enhanced Activity against Both Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G), with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E) with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. PMID:23056510

Field, Des; Begley, Maire; O’Connor, Paula M.; Daly, Karen M.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

2012-01-01

11

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of PD 0305970 and PD 0326448, New Bacterial Gyrase/Topoisomerase Inhibitors with Potent Antibacterial Activities versus Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive and Fastidious Organism Groups?  

PubMed Central

PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 are new bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase inhibitors (quinazoline-2,4-diones) that possess outstanding in vitro and in vivo activities against a wide spectrum of bacterial species including quinolone- and multidrug-resistant gram-positive and fastidious organism groups. The respective MICs (?g/ml) for PD 0305970 capable of inhibiting ?90% of bacterial strains tested ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 versus staphylococci, 0.03 to 0.06 versus streptococci, 0.25 to 2 versus enterococci, and 0.25 to 0.5 versus Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria spp. PD 0326448 MIC90s were generally twofold higher versus these same organism groups. Comparative quinolone MIC90 values were 4- to 512-fold higher than those of PD 0305970. In testing for frequency of resistance, PD 0305970 and levofloxacin showed low levels of development of spontaneous resistant mutants versus both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unlike quinolones, which target primarily gyrA and parC, analysis of resistant mutants in S. pneumoniae indicates that the likely targets of PD 0305970 are gyrB and parE. PD 0305970 demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity by in vitro time-kill testing versus streptococci. This bactericidal activity carried over to in vivo testing, where PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 displayed outstanding Streptococcus pyogenes 50% protective doses (PD50s) (oral dosing) of 0.7 and 3.6 mg/kg, respectively (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin PD50s were >100 and 17.7 mg/kg, respectively). PD 0305970 was also potent in a pneumococcal pneumonia mouse infection model (PD50 = 3.2 mg/kg) and was 22-fold more potent than levofloxacin. PMID:17261623

Huband, Michael D.; Cohen, Michael A.; Zurack, Margaret; Hanna, Debra L.; Skerlos, Laura A.; Sulavik, Mark C.; Gibson, Glenn W.; Gage, Jeffrey W.; Ellsworth, Edmund; Stier, Michael A.; Gracheck, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

12

Gram-negative and gram-positive antibacterial properties of the whole plant extract of willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium).  

PubMed

The emergence of new pathogens and the increase in the number of multidrug-resistant strains in well-established pathogens during the past decade represent a growing public health concern globally. With the current lack of research and development of new antibiotics by large pharmaceutical companies due to poor financial returns, new alternatives need to be explored including natural herbal or plant-based extracts with reported antibacterial properties. Willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium) preparations have been used in traditional aboriginal and folk medicine preparations externally as an antiphlogistic to treat prostate and gastrointestinal disorders and as an antiseptic to treat infected wounds. The authors hypothesized that a whole plant extract of willow herb would exhibit antimicrobial properties on a variety of both Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in culture. The authors found that, in comparison to growth controls, willow herb extract significantly inhibited the growth of Micrococcus luteus (p < .01), Staphylococcus aureus (p < .05), Escherichia coli (p < .001), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p < .001). They also found that willow herb extract inhibited the growth of bacteria in culture more effectively than vancomycin (p < .05) or tetracycline (p < .004). These results provide preliminary support for the traditional folkloric claim that the plant willow herb possesses antibacterial properties against a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Given that whole plant extract was utilized for this study, further investigations are warranted to determine which specific part of the plant (i.e., leaves, stem, roots, and flowers) possess the antibacterial properties. PMID:21208973

Bartfay, Wally J; Bartfay, Emma; Johnson, Julia Green

2012-01-01

13

Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods and results Nanosized particles of three metal oxides (ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3) were synthesized by a sol–gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. The particle sizes were observed to be 18, 22, and 28 nm for ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3, respectively. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Conclusion Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. The order of antibacterial activity was demonstrated to be the following: ZnO > CuO > Fe2O3. PMID:23233805

Azam, Ameer; Ahmed, Arham S; Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad S; Habib, Sami S; Memic, Adnan

2012-01-01

14

Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.  

PubMed

Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50? ? L leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3?mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0?mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Daniels, Dwayne; Yadav, Anand

2013-01-01

15

Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial infection activates two distinct intracellular signalling cascades in the immune-responsive fat body of Drosophila. Gram-positive bacteria and fungi predominantly induce the Toll signalling pathway, whereas Gram-negative bacteria activate the Imd pathway. Loss-of-function mutants in either pathway reduce the resistance to corresponding infections. Genetic screens have identified a range of genes involved in these intracellular signalling cascades, but how they

Tatiana Michel; Jean-Marc Reichhart; Jules A. Hoffmann; Julien Royet

2001-01-01

16

Silver nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation: as a potent antibacterial agent for human enteropathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Present investigation deals with the study, to quantify the antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles (SNPs), synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in aqueous media, on some human enteropathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. Antibacterial property was studied by measuring the zone of inhibition using agar cup double-diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration by serial dilution method, and growth curve for 24 h. The results clearly show the potency of antibacterial property of PLA-synthesized SNPs and suggest that it can be used as an effective growth inhibitor against various pathogenic bacterial strains in various medical devices and antibacterial control systems. PMID:24801405

Pandey, Jitendra Kumar; Swarnkar, R K; Soumya, K K; Dwivedi, Priyanka; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sundaram, Shanthy; Gopal, R

2014-10-01

17

Novel tetrahydropyran-based bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors with potent anti-gram positive activity and improved safety profile.  

PubMed

Novel antibacterial drugs that are effective against infections caused by multidrug resistant pathogens are urgently needed. In a previous report, we have shown that tetrahydropyran-based inhibitors of bacterial type II topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) display potent antibacterial activity and exhibit no target-mediated cross-resistance with fluoroquinolones. During the course of our optimization program, lead compound 5 was deprioritized due to adverse findings in cardiovascular safety studies. In the effort of mitigating these findings and optimizing further the pharmacological profile of this class of compounds, we have identified a subseries of tetrahydropyran-based molecules that are potent DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV inhibitors and display excellent antibacterial activity against Gram positive pathogens, including clinically relevant resistant isolates. One representative of this class, compound 32d, elicited only weak inhibition of hERG K(+) channels and hNaV1.5 Na(+) channels, and no effects were observed on cardiovascular parameters in anesthetized guinea pigs. In vivo efficacy in animal infection models has been demonstrated against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. PMID:25494934

Surivet, Jean-Philippe; Zumbrunn, Cornelia; Rueedi, Georg; Bur, Daniel; Bruyère, Thierry; Locher, Hans; Ritz, Daniel; Seiler, Peter; Kohl, Christopher; Ertel, Eric A; Hess, Patrick; Gauvin, Jean-Christophe; Mirre, Azely; Kaegi, Verena; Dos Santos, Marina; Kraemer, Stéphanie; Gaertner, Mika; Delers, Jonathan; Enderlin-Paput, Michel; Weiss, Maria; Sube, Romain; Hadana, Hakim; Keck, Wolfgang; Hubschwerlen, Christian

2015-01-22

18

In Vitro Activities of Membrane-Active Peptides against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four peptides, cecropin P1, magainin II, indolicidin, and ranalexin, were evaluated against 202 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic bacteria by a microbroth dilution method. The gram- negative isolates were more susceptible to cecropin P1. Ranalexin was the most active compound against the gram-positive strains. The bactericidal activity of each peptide was equivalent to, or 1 dilution above, the

A. GIACOMETTI; O. CIRIONI; G. GREGANTI; M. QUARTA; G. SCALISE

1998-01-01

19

Structure-Activity Relationships of 3,3?-Phenylmethylene-bis-4-hydroxycoumarins: Selective and Potent Inhibitors of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Dicoumarols and coumarin derivatives have shown a variety of pharmaceutical activities and have been found to be potent inhibitor for the NAD(P)H-dependent flavoproteins. In this report, dicoumarol and its derivatives containing the substituted benzene ring at the methylenebis position were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. The results showed that the synthesized dicoumarols affect cell growth but are selective against gram-positive over gram-negative bacterial cells. However, for most derivatives, the substitution of steric bulky benzene group on the methylenebis position appears to decrease in the efficacy of antibacterial effect. This finding is roughly described by the predicted poorer docked structure of the derivatives to a homology model of S. aureus flavoprotein. 3D-QSAR study highlighted structural features around the substituted benzene ring of dicoumarols as the antibacterial activity. CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps support the idea that steric repulsion at the para position could diminish the antibacterial activity. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the molecular basis for the antibacterial activity of dicoumarols. PMID:24459419

Chavasiri, Warinthorn

2013-01-01

20

Activity of a New Oral Streptogramin, XRP2868, against Gram-Positive Cocci Harboring Various Mechanisms of Resistance to Streptogramins  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of XRP2868, a new oral streptogramin composed of a combination of RPR132552 (streptogramin A) and RPR202868 (streptogramin B), was evaluated against a collection of clinical gram-positive isolates with characterized phenotypes and genotypes of streptogramin resistance. The effects of genes for resistance to streptogramin A or B on the activity of XRP2868 and its components were also tested by cloning these genes individually or in various combinations in gram-positive recipient strains susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin. The species tested included Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and other species of streptococci. XRP2868 was generally fourfold more potent than quinupristin-dalfopristin against S. aureus, E. faecium, and streptococci and had activity against E. faecalis (MICs = 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml). XRP2868 appeared to be affected by the same mechanisms of resistance as those to quinupristin-dalfopristin. Nevertheless, the strong activity of factor A of the oral streptogramin enabled the combination to be very potent against streptogramin-susceptible staphylococci, streptococci, and E. faecium (MICs = 0.03 to 0.25 ?g/ml) and to retain low MICs against the strains harboring a mechanism of resistance to factor A or factor B of the streptogramin. However, the combination of mechanisms of resistance to factors A and B caused an increase in the MICs of XRP2868, which reached 1 to 4 ?g/ml. As with the other streptogramins, there was a reduction in the bactericidal effect of XRPR2868 when the staphylococcal strains acquired a constitutively expressed erm gene. PMID:16377692

Dupuis, Michel; Leclercq, Roland

2006-01-01

21

Two Active Forms of UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Enolpyruvyl Transferase in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Gene sequences encoding the enzymes UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) from many bacterial sources were analyzed. It was shown that whereas gram-negative bacteria have only one murA gene, gram-positive bacteria have two distinct genes encoding these enzymes which have possibly arisen from gene duplication. The two murA genes of the gram-positive organism Streptococcus pneumoniae were studied further. Each of the murA genes was individually inactivated by allelic replacement. In each case, the organism was viable despite losing one of its murA genes. However, when attempts were made to construct a double-deletion strain, no mutants were obtained. This indicates that both genes encode active enzymes that can substitute for each other, but that the presence of a MurA function is essential to the organism. The two genes were further cloned and overexpressed, and the enzymes they encode were purified. Both enzymes catalyzed the transfer of enolpyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, confirming they are both active UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferases. The catalytic parameters of the two enzymes were similar, and they were both inhibited by the antibiotic fosfomycin. PMID:10894720

Du, Wensheng; Brown, James R.; Sylvester, Daniel R.; Huang, Jianzhong; Chalker, Alison F.; So, Chi Y.; Holmes, David J.; Payne, David J.; Wallis, Nicola G.

2000-01-01

22

Two active forms of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase in gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Gene sequences encoding the enzymes UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) from many bacterial sources were analyzed. It was shown that whereas gram-negative bacteria have only one murA gene, gram-positive bacteria have two distinct genes encoding these enzymes which have possibly arisen from gene duplication. The two murA genes of the gram-positive organism Streptococcus pneumoniae were studied further. Each of the murA genes was individually inactivated by allelic replacement. In each case, the organism was viable despite losing one of its murA genes. However, when attempts were made to construct a double-deletion strain, no mutants were obtained. This indicates that both genes encode active enzymes that can substitute for each other, but that the presence of a MurA function is essential to the organism. The two genes were further cloned and overexpressed, and the enzymes they encode were purified. Both enzymes catalyzed the transfer of enolpyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, confirming they are both active UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferases. The catalytic parameters of the two enzymes were similar, and they were both inhibited by the antibiotic fosfomycin. PMID:10894720

Du, W; Brown, J R; Sylvester, D R; Huang, J; Chalker, A F; So, C Y; Holmes, D J; Payne, D J; Wallis, N G

2000-08-01

23

In Vitro Activities of Dalbavancin and Nine Comparator Agents against Anaerobic Gram-Positive Species and Corynebacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dalbavancin is a novel semisynthetic glycopeptide with enhanced activity against gram-positive species. Its comparative in vitro activities and those of nine comparator agents, including daptomycin, vancomycin, linezolid, and quinupristin-dalfopristin, against 290 recent gram-positive clinical isolates strains, as deter- mined by the NCCLS agar dilution method, were studied. The MICs of dalbavancin at which 90% of various isolates tested were inhibited

Ellie J. C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; C. Vreni Merriam; Yumi Warren; Kerin Tyrrell; Helen T. Fernandez

2003-01-01

24

ppGpp analogues inhibit synthetase activity of Rel proteins from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

A prominent feature of the stringent response is the accumulation of two unusual phosphorylated derivatives of GTP and GDP (pppGpp: 5'-triphosphate-3'-diphosphate, and ppGpp: 5'-3'-bis-diphosphate), collectively called (p)ppGpp, within a few seconds after the onset of amino-acid starvation. The synthesis of these 'alarmone' compounds is catalyzed by RelA homologues. Other features of the stringent response include inhibition of stable RNA synthesis and modulation of transcription, replication, and translation. (p)ppGpp accumulation is important for virulence induction, differentiation and antibiotic resistance. We have synthesized a group of (p)ppGpp analogues and tested them as competitive inhibitors of Rel proteins in vitro. 2'-Deoxyguanosine-3'-5'-di(methylene bisphosphonate) [compound (10)] was found as an inhibitor that reduces ppGpp formation in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In silico docking together with competitive inhibition analysis suggests that compound (10) inhibits activity of Rel proteins by competing with GTP/GDP for its binding site. As Rel proteins are completely absent in mammalians, this appears to be a very attractive approach for the development of novel antibacterial agents. PMID:20483622

Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Katzhendler, Jehoshua; Saleem-Batcha, Raspudin; Hansen, Guido; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Glaser, Gad; Vidavski, Roee R

2010-06-15

25

In vitro activity of the trinem sanfetrinem (GV104326) against gram-positive organisms.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of the trinem sanfetrinem (formerly GV104326) (GV) was compared with that of vancomycin, ampicillin, and/or nafcillin against 287 gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant enterococci, by the agar and microbroth dilution methods. GV demonstrated 2 to 16 times more activity than ampicillin and nafcillin against the majority of these organisms. The MIC range of GV was 16 to 64 micrograms/ml for 19 Enterococcus faecium strains that were highly resistant to ampicillin (ampicillin MIC range, 64 to 512 micrograms/ml) and vancomycin resistant and 0.25 to 32 micrograms/ml for resistant Rhodococcus spp. Similar activities (+/-1 dilution) were observed by either the agar or the broth microdilution method. GV demonstrated bactericidal activity against a beta-lactamase-producing Enterococcus faecalis strain and against two methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains in 10(5)-CFU/ml inocula. Synergy between GV and gentamicin was observed against an E. faecalis strain that lacked high-level gentamicin resistance. The activity of GV suggests this compound warrants further study. PMID:8878596

Singh, K V; Coque, T M; Murray, B E

1996-01-01

26

Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi. PMID:23095488

Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

2014-10-01

27

Bacteriocins of gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a group of antibacterial proteins produced by gram-positive bacteria have attracted great interest in their potential use as food preservatives and as antibacterial agents to combat certain infections due to gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. They are ribosomally synthesized peptides of 30 to less than 60 amino acids, with a narrow to wide antibacterial spectrum against gram-positive bacteria; the antibacterial property is heat stable, and a producer strain displays a degree of specific self-protection against its own antibacterial peptide. In many respects, these proteins are quite different from the colicins and other bacteriocins produced by gram-negative bacteria, yet customarily they also are grouped as bacteriocins. Although a large number of these bacteriocins (or bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances) have been reported, only a few have been studied in detail for their mode of action, amino acid sequence, genetic characteristics, and biosynthesis mechanisms. Nevertheless, in general, they appear to be translated as inactive prepeptides containing an N-terminal leader sequence and a C-terminal propeptide component. During posttranslational modifications, the leader peptide is removed. In addition, depending on the particular type, some amino acids in the propeptide components may undergo either dehydration and thioether ring formation to produce lanthionine and beta-methyl lanthionine (as in lantibiotics) or thio ester ring formation to form cystine (as in thiolbiotics). Some of these steps, as well as the translocation of the molecules through the cytoplasmic membrane and producer self-protection against the homologous bacteriocin, are mediated through specific proteins (enzymes). Limited genetic studies have shown that the structural gene for such a bacteriocin and the genes encoding proteins associated with immunity, translocation, and processing are present in a cluster in either a plasmid, the chromosome, or a transposon. Following posttranslational modification and depending on the pH, the molecules may either be released into the environment or remain bound to the cell wall. The antibacterial action against a sensitive cell of a gram-positive strain is produced principally by destabilization of membrane functions. Under certain conditions, gram-negative bacterial cells can also be sensitive to some of these molecules. By application of site-specific mutagenesis, bacteriocin variants which may differ in their antimicrobial spectrum and physicochemical characteristics can be produced. Research activity in this field has grown remarkably but sometimes with an undisciplined regard for conformity in the definition, naming, and categorization of these molecules and their genetic effectors. Some suggestions for improved standardization of nomenclature are offered. PMID:7603408

Jack, R W; Tagg, J R; Ray, B

1995-01-01

28

In Vitro Activities of Dalbavancin and Nine Comparator Agents against Anaerobic Gram-Positive Species and Corynebacteria  

PubMed Central

Dalbavancin is a novel semisynthetic glycopeptide with enhanced activity against gram-positive species. Its comparative in vitro activities and those of nine comparator agents, including daptomycin, vancomycin, linezolid, and quinupristin-dalfopristin, against 290 recent gram-positive clinical isolates strains, as determined by the NCCLS agar dilution method, were studied. The MICs of dalbavancin at which 90% of various isolates tested were inhibited were as follows: Actinomyces spp., 0.5 ?g/ml; Clostridium clostridioforme, 8 ?g/ml; C. difficile, 0.25 ?g/ml; C. innocuum, 0.25 ?g/ml; C. perfringens, 0.125 ?g/ml; C. ramosum, 1 ?g/ml; Eubacterium spp., 1 ?g/ml; Lactobacillus spp., >32 ?g/ml, Propionibacterium spp., 0.5 ?g/ml; and Peptostreptococcus spp., 0.25 ?g/ml. Dalbavancin was 1 to 3 dilutions more active than vancomycin against most strains. Dalbavancin exhibited excellent activity against gram-positive strains tested and warrants clinical evaluation. PMID:12760876

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi; Tyrrell, Kerin; Fernandez, Helen T.

2003-01-01

29

Antibacterial activity of Helichrysum aureonitens (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity of extracts from Helichrysum aureonitens was investigated. The dichloromethane extract was active against all five gram positive bacteria tested and the methanol extract was active only against Bacillus cereus, B. pumilus and Micrococcus kristinae, while the water extract had no activity against any of the organisms. None of the extracts inhibited the growth of the five gram

J. J. M. Meyer; A. J. Afolayan

1995-01-01

30

Assessing the interactions of a natural antibacterial clay with model Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and increasing accumulations of antibiotics in reclaimed water, drive the quest for new natural antimicrobials. We are studying the antibacterial mechanism(s) of clays that have shown an ability to destroy bacteria or significantly inhibit their growth. One possible mode of action is from soluble transition metal species, particularly reduced Fe, capable of generating deleterious oxygen radical species. Yet another possibility is related to membrane damage as a consequence of physical or electrostatic interaction between clay and bacteria. Both mechanisms could combine to produce cell death. This study addresses a natural antibacterial clay from the NW Amazon basin, South America (AMZ clay). Clay mineralogy is composed of disordered kaolinite (28.9%), halloysite (17.8%) illite (12%) and smectite (16.7%). Mean particle size is 1.6?m and total and specific surface area 278.82 and 51.23 m2/g respectively. The pH of a suspension (200mg/ml) is 4.1 and its Eh is 361mV after 24h of equilibration. The ionic strength of the water in equilibrium with the clay after 24 h. is 6 x10-4M. These conditions, affect the element solubility, speciation, and interactions between clay and bacteria. Standard microbiological methods were used to assess the viability of two model bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) after incubation with clay at 37 degC for 24 hrs. A threefold reduction in bacterial viability was observed upon treatment with AMZ clay. We separated the cells from the clay using Nycodenz gradient media and observed the mounts under the TEM and SEM. Results showed several membrane anomalies and structural changes that were not observed in the control cells. Additionally, clay minerals appeared in some places attached to cell walls. Experiments showed that exchanging AMZ clay with KCl caused loss of antibacterial property. Among the exchangeable -and potentially toxic- ions we measured Al+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Ba+2 and Co+2. Besides being toxic at high concentrations, these species affect the electrophoretic interactions between clay and bacteria surfaces. Additionally, the cation exchange neutralizes the clay surface charge thus modifying further the behavior of particles in suspension. Therefore, we evaluated the clay and bacteria zeta potential (?) as an index for possible electrostatic forces and modeled the total interactions using DLVO theory. We suspended the particles in water equilibrated with clay (leachate). Results show that at pH 4, the ? of clays is -14 mV while it is -3mV for bacteria. The divalent ions and trivalent Aluminum, present in the AMZ leachate, compress the thickness of the double layer (hydration shell) thus decreasing electrostatic repulsion and allowing particles to come closer. The proximity of particles increases the probability of attractive forces to bind clays and cells. In summary, results indicate that a process other than simple chemical transfer from clay to bacteria is operating. The electrostatic attraction and physical proximity may enhance the toxic action of metals and interfere with the membrane properties or processes.

Londono, S. C.; Williams, L. B.

2013-12-01

31

Antibacterial activity of Helichrysum pedunculatum used in circumcision rites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial assays of Helichrysum pedunculatum showed that dichloromethane extracts are active against all the gram positive bacteria tested, as well as two gram negative bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens. A water extract was effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus kristinae, while a methanol extract showed no activity against any of the tested organisms. The antibacterial activity of dichloromethane extract

J. J. M. Meyer; F. Dilika

1996-01-01

32

A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penadés, José R.

2013-01-01

33

Production of a bacteriocin by a poultry derived Campylobacter jejuni isolate with antimicrobial activity against Clostridium perfringens and other Gram positive bacteria.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have purified a bacteriocin peptide (termed CUV-3), produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni (strain CUV-3) with inhibitory activity against Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Listeria mon...

34

In vitro antibacterial activity of different clotrimazole formulations.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of two different clotrimazole formulations was tested in vitro. A neutral vaginal tablet with 100 mg active ingredient has a partial bactericidal effect on gram-positive bacteria. A new formula containing 500 mg clotrimazole and lactic acid, designed for a one-dose therapy of vulvovaginal mycoses, shows an improved bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria and, owing to the lactic acid content, a broad bactericidal effect on gram-negative species. PMID:7160238

Schaller, K

1982-01-01

35

Sortase activity is controlled by a flexible lid in the pilus biogenesis mechanism of gram-positive pathogens.  

PubMed

Pili are surface-linked virulence factors that play key roles in infection establishment in a variety of pathogenic species. In Gram-positive pathogens, pilus formation requires the action of sortases, dedicated transpeptidases that covalently associate pilus building blocks. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, all genes required for pilus formation are harbored in a single pathogenicity islet which encodes three structural proteins (RrgA, RrgB, RrgC) and three sortases (SrtC-1, SrtC-2, SrtC-3). RrgB forms the backbone of the streptococcal pilus, to which minor pilins RrgA and RrgC are covalently associated. SrtC-1 is the main sortase involved in polymerization of the RrgB fiber and displays a lid which encapsulates the active site, a feature present in all pilus-related sortases. In this work, we show that catalysis by SrtC-1 proceeds through a catalytic triad constituted of His, Arg, and Cys and that lid instability affects protein fold and catalysis. In addition, we show by thermal shift analysis that lid flexibility can be stabilized by the addition of substrate-like peptides, a feature shared by other periplasmic transpeptidases. We also report the characterization of a trapped acyl-enzyme intermediate formed between SrtC-1 and RrgB. The presence of lid-encapsulated sortases in the pilus biogenesis systems in many Gram-positive pathogens points to a common mechanism of substrate recognition and catalysis that should be taken into consideration in the development of sortase inhibitors. PMID:19810750

Manzano, Clothilde; Izoré, Thierry; Job, Viviana; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Dessen, Andréa

2009-11-10

36

Pyrrolidine bis-cyclic guanidines with antimicrobial activity against drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens  

E-print Network

(MRSA). The eight compound mixtures exhibiting bactericidal activity (10 lg/mL) against MRSA were used to direct the synthesis of 36 individual compounds that were then screened for activity against MRSA individual compounds were bactericidal for MRSA at 62.5 lg/mL, with a subset of these compounds showing

Nizet, Victor

37

Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates in Argentina.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against 1,000 clinical isolates of 147 Streptococcus pneumoniae (115, penicilin susceptible; 26, intermediate penicillin-resistant and 6, penicillin-resistant), 127 Hemophilus influenzae (109, beta lactamasa non-producer; 18, beta lactamase producers), 95 Streptococcus pyogenes (6, azytromycin-resistant), 84 Moraxella catarrhalis (79, beta lactamase producers), 110 Staphilococcus aureus (89, methicillin-susceptible; 21, methicilin-resistant), 98 Eenterococcus faecalis and 339 Enterobacteriacea, (recovered from patients with respiratory tract infection; skin and soft tissue infection and urinary tract infection), was compared with the activities of four fluorquinolones and five other antimicrobial agents. Of the quinolones tested, gemifloxacin was the most potent against Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin intermediate and resistant strains. Mic(90) values obtained for gemifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and trvafloxacin were 0.03, 2, 2, 1 and 0.25 mg/L respectively. Gemifloxacin was 16 fold more potent than ciprofloxacin against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and 32 fold more potent than ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus pyogenes. When tested against Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Enterobacteriaceae, all the quinolones showed similar activity. Our results demonstrate that gemifloxacin has similar activity than the other quinolones tested against Gram-negative organisms and is considerably more potent against Gram-positive organisms. PMID:11576792

Lopez, H; Stepanik, D; Vilches, V; Scarano, S; Sarachian, B; Mikaelian, G; Finlay, J; Sucari, A

2001-08-01

38

3,5-Dioxopyrazolidines, Novel Inhibitors of UDP-N- Acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine Reductase (MurB) with Activity against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A series of 3,5-dioxopyrazolidines was identified as novel inhibitors of UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase (MurB). Compounds 1 to 3, which are 1,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dioxopyrazolidine-4-carboxamides, inhibited Escherichia coli MurB, Staphyloccocus aureus MurB, and E. coli MurA with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the range of 4.1 to 6.8 ?M, 4.3 to 10.3 ?M, and 6.8 to 29.4 ?M, respectively. Compound 4, a C-4-unsubstituted 1,2-bis(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3,5-dioxopyrazolidine, showed moderate inhibitory activity against E. coli MurB, S. aureus MurB, and E. coli MurC (IC50s, 24.5 to 35 ?M). A fluorescence-binding assay indicated tight binding of compound 3 with E. coli MurB, giving a dissociation constant of 260 nM. Structural characterization of E. coli MurB was undertaken, and the crystal structure of a complex with compound 4 was obtained at 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal structure indicated the binding of a compound at the active site of MurB and specific interactions with active-site residues and the bound flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis studies using a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis revealed reduced peptidoglycan biosynthesis upon incubation with 3,5-dioxopyrazolidines, with IC50s of 0.39 to 11.1 ?M. Antibacterial activity was observed for compounds 1 to 3 (MICs, 0.25 to 16 ?g/ml) and 4 (MICs, 4 to 8 ?g/ml) against gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:16436710

Yang, Youjun; Severin, Anatoly; Chopra, Rajiv; Krishnamurthy, Girija; Singh, Guy; Hu, William; Keeney, David; Svenson, Kristine; Petersen, Peter J.; Labthavikul, Pornpen; Shlaes, David M.; Rasmussen, Beth A.; Failli, Amedeo A.; Shumsky, Jay S.; Kutterer, Kristina M. K.; Gilbert, Adam; Mansour, Tarek S.

2006-01-01

39

Mechanism of Action of the Mannopeptimycins, a Novel Class of Glycopeptide Antibiotics Active against Vancomycin-Resistant Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naturally occurring mannopeptimycins (formerly AC98-1 through AC98-5) are a novel class of glyco- peptide antibiotics that are active against a wide variety of gram-positive bacteria. The structures of the mannopeptimycins suggested that they might act by targeting cell wall biosynthesis, similar to other known glycopeptide antibiotics; but the fact that the mannopeptimycins retain activity against vancomycin-resistant organisms suggested that

Alexey Ruzin; Guy Singh; Anatoly Severin; Youjun Yang; Russell G. Dushin; Alan G. Sutherland; Albert Minnick; Michael Greenstein; Michael K. May; David M. Shlaes; Patricia A. Bradford

2004-01-01

40

Lysis of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by antibacterial porous polymeric monolith formed in microfluidic biochips for sample preparation.  

PubMed

Bacterial cell lysis is demonstrated using polymeric microfluidic biochips operating via a hybrid mechanical shearing/contact killing mechanism. These biochips are fabricated from a cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (X-PMMA) substrate by well-controlled, high-throughput laser micromachining. The unreacted double bonds at the surface of X-PMMA provide covalent bonding for the formation of a porous polymeric monolith (PPM), thus contributing to the mechanical stability of the biochip and eliminating the need for surface treatment. The lysis efficiency of these biochips was tested for gram-positive (Enterococcus saccharolyticus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and confirmed by off-chip PCR without further purification. The influence of the flow rate when pumping the bacterial suspension through the PPM, and of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance on the cell lysis efficiency was investigated at a cell concentration of 10(5) CFU/mL. It was shown that the contribution of contact killing to cell lysis was more important than that of mechanical shearing in the PPM. The biochip showed better lysis efficiency than the off-chip chemical, mechanical, and thermal lysis techniques used in this work. The biochip also acts as a filter that isolates cell debris and allows PCR-amplifiable DNA to pass through. The system performs more efficient lysis for gram-negative than for gram-positive bacteria. The biochip does not require chemical/enzymatic reagents, power consumption, or complicated design and fabrication processes, which makes it an attractive on-chip lysis device that can be used in sample preparation for genetics and point-of-care diagnostics. The biochips were reused for 20 lysis cycles without any evidence of physical damage to the PPM, significant performance degradation, or DNA carryover when they were back-flushed between cycles. The biochips efficiently lysed both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in about 35 min per lysis and PPM regeneration cycle. PMID:25059724

Aly, Mohamed Aly Saad; Gauthier, Mario; Yeow, John

2014-09-01

41

Activity of Linezolid against 3,251 Strains of Uncommonly Isolated Gram-Positive Organisms: Report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program?  

PubMed Central

Linezolid was tested against 32 species of uncommonly isolated gram-positive organisms (3,251 strains) by reference MIC methods and found to be highly active (MIC50 range, 0.25 to 2 ?g/ml; MIC90 range, 0.25 to 2 ?g/ml). Only one isolate (viridans group streptococcus; 0.03% of tested strains) was resistant to linezolid. PMID:17210770

Jones, Ronald N.; Stilwell, Matthew G.; Hogan, Patricia A.; Sheehan, Daniel J.

2007-01-01

42

Activity of Linezolid against 3,251 Strains of Uncommonly Isolated Gram-Positive Organisms: Report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linezolid was tested against 32 species of uncommonly isolated gram-positive organisms (3,251 strains) by reference MIC methods and found to be highly active (MIC50 range, 0.25 to 2 g\\/ml; MIC90 range, 0.25 to 2 g\\/ml). Only one isolate (viridans group streptococcus; 0.03% of tested strains) was resistant to linezolid.

Ronald N. Jones; Matthew G. Stilwell; Patricia A. Hogan; Daniel J. Sheehan

2007-01-01

43

In Vitro Activities of the New Semisynthetic Glycopeptide Telavancin (TD6424), Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, and Four Comparator Agents against Anaerobic Gram-Positive Species and Corynebacterium spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telavancin is a new semisynthetic glycopeptide anti-infective with multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of bacterial membrane phospholipid synthesis and inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. We determined the in vitro activities of telavancin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ampicillin against 268 clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-positive organisms and 31 Corynebacterium strains using agar dilution methods according to

Ellie J. C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; C. Vreni Merriam; Yumi A. Warren; Kerin L. Tyrrell; Helen T. Fernandez

2004-01-01

44

In Vitro Activities of Daptomycin, Vancomycin, Quinupristin- Dalfopristin, Linezolid, and Five Other Antimicrobials against 307 Gram-Positive Anaerobic and 31 Corynebacterium Clinical Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide, and eight other agents were determined against 338 strains of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and corynebacteria by the NCCLS reference agar dilution method with supplemented brucella agar for the anaerobes and Mueller-Hinton agar for the corynebacteria. The dapto- mycin MICs determined on Ca2-supplemented (50 mg\\/liter) brucella agar plates were one- to fourfold lower than

Ellie J. C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; C. Vreni Merriam; Yumi A. Warren; Kerrin L. Tyrrell; Helen T. Fernandez

2003-01-01

45

Expanding the Use of a Fluorogenic Method to Determine Activity and Mode of Action of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriocins Against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Previously we described a rapid fluorogenic method to measure the activity of five bacteriocins produced by Mexican strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against B. cereus 183. Here we standardize this method to efficiently determine the activity of bacteriocins against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was determined that the crucial parameter required to obtain reproducible results was the number of cells used in the assay, that is, ~4?×?108?cell/mL and ~7?×?108?cell/mL, respectively, for target Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Comparative analyses of the fluorogenic and traditional well-diffusion assays showed correlation coefficients of 0.88 to 0.99 and 0.83 to 0.99, respectively, for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluorogenic method demonstrated that the five bacteriocins of B. thuringiensis have bacteriolytic and bacteriostatic activities against all microorganisms tested, including clinically significant bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Shigella flexneri reported previously to be resistant to the antimicrobials as determined using the well-diffusion protocol. These results demonstrate that the fluorogenic assay is a more sensitive, reliable, and rapid method when compared with the well-diffusion method and can easily be adapted in screening protocols for bacteriocin production by other microorganisms. PMID:22919330

de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M.; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Espino Monzón, A. N.; Pacheco Cano, R. D.; Balagurusamy, N.; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Salcedo-Hernández, Rubén

2012-01-01

46

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BIOCONVERTED LINOLEIC ACID PRODUCED BY PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PR3  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crude extract of bioconverted linoleic acid using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 was evaluated for its antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Crude extract showed antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), S. aureus (KCTC 1916)...

47

In vitro activities of daptomycin, vancomycin, quinupristin- dalfopristin, linezolid, and five other antimicrobials against 307 gram-positive anaerobic and 31 Corynebacterium clinical isolates.  

PubMed

The activities of daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide, and eight other agents were determined against 338 strains of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and corynebacteria by the NCCLS reference agar dilution method with supplemented brucella agar for the anaerobes and Mueller-Hinton agar for the corynebacteria. The daptomycin MICs determined on Ca(2+)-supplemented (50 mg/liter) brucella agar plates were one- to fourfold lower than those determined in unsupplemented media. Daptomycin was highly active (MICs, active than vancomycin against Clostridium innocuum and 16 of 34 strains of vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli. Three strains of C. difficile for which quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid MICs were >8 microg/ml were inhibited by <1 microg of daptomycin per ml. Daptomycin MICs were >or=4 microg/ml for most strains of Clostridium clostridioforme, Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium tertium, and Clostridium ramosum; the isolates were generally more resistant to other antimicrobials. Daptomycin was two- to fourfold less active against Actinomyces spp. than vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or linezolid. Twenty-nine of 31 strains of Corynebacterium spp., including Corynebacterium jeikeium, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, were inhibited by activities against a broad range of gram-positive organisms including vancomycin-resistant C. innocuum and lactobacillus strains and quinupristin-dalfopristin- and linezolid-resistant C. difficile strains. PMID:12499210

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Warren, Yumi A; Tyrrell, Kerrin L; Fernandez, Helen T

2003-01-01

48

In Vitro Activities of Daptomycin, Vancomycin, Quinupristin- Dalfopristin, Linezolid, and Five Other Antimicrobials against 307 Gram-Positive Anaerobic and 31 Corynebacterium Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

The activities of daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide, and eight other agents were determined against 338 strains of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and corynebacteria by the NCCLS reference agar dilution method with supplemented brucella agar for the anaerobes and Mueller-Hinton agar for the corynebacteria. The daptomycin MICs determined on Ca2+-supplemented (50 mg/liter) brucella agar plates were one- to fourfold lower than those determined in unsupplemented media. Daptomycin was highly active (MICs, ?2 ?g/ml) against many strains including 36 of 37 peptostreptococci, 37 of 48 isolates of the Eubacterium group, and all strains of Propionibacterium spp., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, and other Clostridium spp. It was fourfold or greater more active than vancomycin against Clostridium innocuum and 16 of 34 strains of vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli. Three strains of C. difficile for which quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid MICs were >8 ?g/ml were inhibited by <1 ?g of daptomycin per ml. Daptomycin MICs were ?4 ?g/ml for most strains of Clostridium clostridioforme, Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium tertium, and Clostridium ramosum; the isolates were generally more resistant to other antimicrobials. Daptomycin was two- to fourfold less active against Actinomyces spp. than vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or linezolid. Twenty-nine of 31 strains of Corynebacterium spp., including Corynebacterium jeikeium, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, were inhibited by ?0.25 ?g of daptomycin per ml. For two strains of “Corynebacterium aquaticum,” 8 ?g of daptomycin per ml was required for inhibition. Daptomycin demonstrated very good activities against a broad range of gram-positive organisms including vancomycin-resistant C. innocuum and lactobacillus strains and quinupristin-dalfopristin- and linezolid-resistant C. difficile strains. PMID:12499210

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerrin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

2003-01-01

49

Lactococcus lactis TrxD represents a subgroup of thioredoxins prevalent in Gram-positive bacteria containing WCXDC active site motifs.  

PubMed

Three protein disulfide reductases of the thioredoxin superfamily from the industrially important Gram-positive Lactococcus lactis (LlTrxA, LlTrxD and LlNrdH) are compared to the "classical" thioredoxin from Escherichia coli (EcTrx1). LlTrxA resembles EcTrx1 with a WCGPC active site motif and other key residues conserved. By contrast, LlTrxD is more distantly related and contains a WCGDC motif. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that LlTrxD represents a subgroup of thioredoxins from Gram-positive bacteria. LlNrdH is a glutaredoxin-like electron donor for ribonucleotide reductase class Ib. Based on protein-protein equilibria LlTrxA (E°'=-259mV) and LlNrdH (E°'=-238mV) show approximately 10mV higher standard state redox potentials than the corresponding E. coli homologues, while E°' of LlTrxD is -243mV, more similar to glutaredoxin than "classical" thioredoxin. EcTrx1 and LlTrxA have high capacity to reduce insulin disulfides and their exposed active site thiol is alkylated at a similar rate at pH 7.0. LlTrxD on the other hand, is alkylated by iodoacetamide at almost 100 fold higher rate and shows no activity towards insulin disulfides. LlTrxA, LlTrxD and LlNrdH are all efficiently reduced by NADPH dependent thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from L. lactis and good cross-reactivity towards E. coli TrxR was observed with LlTrxD as the notable exception. PMID:25255970

Björnberg, Olof; Efler, Petr; Ebong, Epie Denis; Svensson, Birte; Hägglund, Per

2014-12-15

50

Antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites synthesized by chemical reduction route  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to investigate the functions of polymers and size of nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites (Ag BNCs). In this research, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were incorporated into biodegradable polymers that are chitosan, gelatin and both polymers via chemical reduction method in solvent in order to produce Ag BNCs. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were employed as a metal precursor and reducing agent respectively. On the other hand, chitosan and gelatin were added as a polymeric matrix and stabilizer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of silver nanoparticles was investigated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton Agar. Results The properties of Ag BNCs were studied as a function of the polymer weight ratio in relation to the use of chitosan and gelatin. The morphology of the Ag BNCs films and the distribution of the Ag NPs were also characterized. The diameters of the Ag NPs were measured and their size is less than 20 nm. The antibacterial trait of silver/chitosan/gelatin bionanocomposites was investigated. The silver ions released from the Ag BNCs and their antibacterial activities were scrutinized. The antibacterial activities of the Ag BNC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (S. aureus and M. luteus) by diffusion method using Muller-Hinton agar. Conclusions The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs with size less than 20 nm was demonstrated and showed positive results against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The Ag NPs stabilized well in the polymers matrix. PMID:22967920

2012-01-01

51

Antibacterial screening of Citrullus colocynthis.  

PubMed

Crude ethanolic extracts of fruits, leaves, stems and roots of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad were examined for their antibacterial potentialities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacilli. Ethanolic extracts of fruits, leaves, stems and roots were found to be active against Gram positive bacilli, viz., Bacillus pumilus and Staphylococcus aureus, while fruit and root extracts in double strength gave positive results against Gram positive bacillus (Bacillus subtilis). The Gram negative bacilli viz., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed no response. PMID:16414561

Memon, Usman; Brohi, Abdul Hakeem; Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin; Azhar, Iqbal; Bano, Husan

2003-01-01

52

Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials with activity against Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The alarming increase in bacterial resistance over the last decade along with a dramatic decrease in new treatments for infections has led to problems in the healthcare industry. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths per year. A world-wide threat with HIV co-infected with multi and extensively drug-resistant strains of TB has emerged. In this regard, herein, novel acrylic acid ethyl ester derivatives were synthesized in simple, efficient routes and evaluated as potential agents against several Mycobacterium species. These were synthesized via a stereospecific process for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays indicated that esters 12, 13, and 20 exhibited greater in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis than rifampin, one of the current, first-line anti-mycobacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Based on these studies the acrylic ester 20 has been developed as a potential lead compound which was found to have an MIC value of 0.4 ?g/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The SAR and biological activity of this series is presented; a Michael – acceptor mechanism appears to be important for potent activity of this series of analogs. PMID:24200931

Tiruveedhula, V.V.N. Phani Babu; Witzigmann, Christopher M.; Verma, Ranjit; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Rott, Marc; Schwan, William R.; Medina-Bielski, Sara; Lane, Michelle; Close, William; Polanowski, Rebecca L.; Sherman, David; Monte, Aaron; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Cook, James M.

2013-01-01

53

Antibacterial activity of linoleic and oleic acids isolated from Helichrysum pedunculatum: a plant used during circumcision rites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of leaves of Helichrysum pedunculatum resulted in the isolation of linoleic and oleic acids. Linoleic acid inhibited the growth of all the Gram-positive bacterial species tested with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varying between 0.01 and 1.0 mg\\/ml. Oleic acid was active against three of the five Gram-positive bacteria at a MIC

F Dilika; P. D Bremner; J. J. M Meyer

2000-01-01

54

A new multicopper oxidase from Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis with activity modulating methionine rich tail.  

PubMed

Multicopper oxidases are involved in a wide variety of physiological tasks in nature. They are part of the lignin formation/decomposition system in plants and fungi. In bacteria they are part of developmental processes and the heavy metal resistance apparatus. A well characterised example is the copper tolerance protein CueO of Escherichia coli (CueO(EC)). Here, we report the heterologous expression of the apo- and holo-form of CueO(RE), a homologue to CueO(EC) from Rhodococcus erythropolis. Upon incubation with copper(II) ions, low active apo-CueO(RE) was converted into the active holo-CueO(RE) in vivo. The holo-form was physico-chemically characterised using a copper(I) BCA complex and the model substrate 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The spectroscopic and catalytic properties are different from CueO(EC), revealing a high catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of 115 min(-1)mM(-1) with physiological K(m) of 80 ?M for the cuprous oxidase activity. At the C-terminus of CueO(RE) a methionine rich tail region was identified which can be found in a variety of actinobacteria. Chimeras of the E. coli and R. erythropolis enzymes were constructed to investigate the influence of this tail regarding kinetic parameters. It was shown that the tail did not have the same function as the corresponding methionine rich loop in CueO(EC). However, it modulated the kinetic properties of the enzyme. PMID:23485678

Classen, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jörg; Schuback, Saskia Marina

2013-05-01

55

Isolation and Purification of Enterocin E-760 with Broad Antimicrobial Activity against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Strain NRRL B-30745, isolated from chicken ceca and identified as Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium, or Enterococcus hirae, was initially identified as antagonistic to Campylobacter jejuni. The isolate produced a 5,362-Da bacteriocin (enterocin) that inhibits the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Gallinarum, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, and 20 other Campylobacter species isolates. The enterocin, E-760, was isolated and purified by cation-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatographies. The proteinaceous nature of purified enterocin E-760 was demonstrated upon treatment with various proteolytic enzymes. Specifically, the antimicrobial peptide was found to be sensitive to beta-chymotrypsin, proteinase K, and papain, while it was resistant to lysozyme and lipase. The enterocin demonstrated thermostability by retaining activity after 5 min at 100°C and was stable at pH values between 5.0 and 8.7. However, activity was lost below pH 3.0 and above pH 9.5. Administration of enterocin E-760-treated feed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonization of young broiler chicks experimentally challenged and colonized with two strains of C. jejuni by more than 8 log10 CFU. Enterocin E-760 also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonization of naturally acquired Campylobacter species in market age broiler chickens when administered in treated feed 4 days prior to analysis. PMID:18086839

Line, J. E.; Svetoch, E. A.; Eruslanov, B. V.; Perelygin, V. V.; Mitsevich, E. V.; Mitsevich, I. P.; Levchuk, V. P.; Svetoch, O. E.; Seal, B. S.; Siragusa, G. R.; Stern, N. J.

2008-01-01

56

In Vitro Activities of the New Semisynthetic Glycopeptide Telavancin (TD-6424), Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, and Four Comparator Agents against Anaerobic Gram-Positive Species and Corynebacterium spp.  

PubMed Central

Telavancin is a new semisynthetic glycopeptide anti-infective with multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of bacterial membrane phospholipid synthesis and inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. We determined the in vitro activities of telavancin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ampicillin against 268 clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-positive organisms and 31 Corynebacterium strains using agar dilution methods according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedures. Plates with daptomycin were supplemented with Ca2+ to 50 mg/liter. The MICs at which 90% of isolates tested were inhibited (MIC90s) for telavancin and vancomycin were as follows: Actinomyces spp. (n = 45), 0.25 and 1 ?g/ml, respectively; Clostridium difficile (n = 14), 0.25 and 1 ?g/ml, respectively; Clostridium ramosum (n = 16), 1 and 4 ?g/ml, respectively; Clostridium innocuum (n = 15), 4 and 16 ?g/ml, respectively; Clostridium clostridioforme (n = 15), 8 and 1 ?g/ml, respectively; Eubacterium group (n = 33), 0.25 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively; Lactobacillus spp. (n = 26), 0.5 and 4 ?g/ml, respectively; Propionibacterium spp. (n = 34), 0.125 and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively; Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 52), 0.125 and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively; and Corynebacterium spp. (n = 31), 0.03 and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively. The activity of TD-6424 was similar to that of quinupristin-dalfopristin for most strains except C. clostridioforme and Lactobacillus casei, where quinupristin-dalfopristin was three- to fivefold more active. Daptomycin had decreased activity (MIC > 4 ?g/ml) against 14 strains of Actinomyces spp. and all C. ramosum, Eubacterium lentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Linezolid showed decreased activity (MIC > 4 ?g/ml) against C. ramosum, two strains of C. difficile, and 15 strains of Lactobacillus spp. Imipenem and piperacillin-tazobactam were active against >98% of strains. The MICs of ampicillin for eight Clostridium spp. and three strains of L. casei were >1 ?g/ml. The MIC90 of TD-6424 for all strains tested was ?2 ?g/ml. TD-6424 has potential for use against infections with gram-positive anaerobes and deserves further clinical evaluation. PMID:15155214

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

2004-01-01

57

Antimicrobial activity of daptomycin tested against Gram-positive pathogens collected in Europe, Latin America, and selected countries in the Asia-Pacific Region (2011).  

PubMed

We report the results of the international daptomycin surveillance programs for Europe, Latin America, and selected Asia-Pacific nations. A total of 7948 consecutive Gram-positive organisms of clinical significance were collected in 2011 and susceptibility tested against daptomycin and various comparator agents by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. M07-A9. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard: ninth edition Wayne, PA: CLSI. 2012.; Cubicin Package Insert 2012. Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Lexington, MA. Available at http://www.cubicin.com/pdf/PrescribingInformation.pdf. Accessed January 1, 2012.) broth microdilution methods. The test medium was adjusted to contain physiological levels of calcium (50 mg/L) when testing daptomycin. Daptomycin exhibited potent activity against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus overall and for each region (MIC(50/90), 0.25-0.5/0.5 ?g/mL), with susceptibility rates at 100.0% in Latin America, Australia/New Zealand, and India, and at 99.9% in Europe. The daptomycin MIC(50/90) for coagulase-negative staphylococci was also at 0.25-0.5/0.5 ?g/mL, and only 1 isolate was considered nonsusceptible with a MIC value at 2 ?g/mL. Daptomycin was also highly active against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC(50/90), 1/1-2 ?g/mL) and E. faecium (MIC(50/90), 2/2 ?g/mL for both vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant isolates). All enterococcal isolates were susceptible to daptomycin (MIC, ?4 ?g/mL) and tigecycline. Susceptibility to linezolid for E. faecalis was at 100.0%, while for E. faecium regional susceptibility rates were at 100.0% except in Europe (99.0%). Viridans group streptococci (MIC(50/90), 0.25/1 ?g/mL) and ?-haemolytic streptococci (MIC(50/90), ?0.06/0.25 ?g/mL) continue to be very susceptible to daptomycin. In summary, the results of this investigation document the high potency and wide spectrum of daptomycin when tested against a large resistance-surveillance collection of Gram-positive pathogens and indicate that daptomycin nonsusceptibility remains rare among indicated species after many years of clinical use worldwide. PMID:23514757

Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

2013-04-01

58

Antibacterial activity of Aegle marmelos against leaf, bark and fruit extracts  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of the methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts from the leaves, bark and fruit of A. marmelos was studied using disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram Positive), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B (Gram Negative). Results suggest that the methanolic extract has significant antibacterial activity against tested bacteria. The present study justifies the claimed uses of A. marmelos in the traditional system of medicine to treat various infectious diseases. PMID:22557272

Poonkothai, M.; Saravanan, M.

2008-01-01

59

Synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activity of oxazolidine LBM-415 analogs as peptide deformylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The drug resistant bacteria pose a severe threat to human health. The increasing resistance of those pathogens to traditional antibacterial therapy renders the identification of new antibacterial agents with novel antibacterial mechanisms an urgent need. In this study, a series of (2S)-N-substituted-1-[(formyhydroxyamino)methyl]-1-oxohexyl]-2-oxazolidinecarboxamides were designed, synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity. Most of these compounds displayed good activities against Gram-positive organisms comparable to reference agent LBM-415. PMID:21288715

Yu, Linliang; Zhou, Weicheng; Wang, Zhenyu

2011-03-01

60

Membrane active phenylalanine conjugated lipophilic norspermidine derivatives with selective antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Natural and synthetic membrane active antibacterial agents offer hope as potential solutions to the problem of bacterial resistance as the membrane-active nature imparts low propensity for the development of resistance. In this report norspermidine based antibacterial molecules were developed that displayed excellent antibacterial activity against various wild-type bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and drug-resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and ?-lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae). In a novel structure-activity relationship study it has been shown how incorporation of an aromatic amino acid drastically improves selective antibacterial activity. Additionally, the effect of stereochemistry on activity, toxicity, and plasma stability has also been studied. These rapidly bactericidal, membrane active antibacterial compounds do not trigger development of resistance in bacteria and hence bear immense potential as therapeutic agents to tackle multidrug resistant bacterial infections. PMID:25335118

Konai, Mohini M; Ghosh, Chandradhish; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Samaddar, Sandip; Haldar, Jayanta

2014-11-26

61

Accentuate the (Gram) positive Victor Nizet  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL Accentuate the (Gram) positive Victor Nizet Received: 19 January 2010 /Accepted: 19 January 2010 # Springer-Verlag 2010 Keywords Gram-positive bacteria . Streptococcus . Special issue In the last two decades, Gram-positive bacteria have become the most common organisms associated

Nizet, Victor

62

Antimicrobial Activity of the Investigational Pleuromutilin Compound BC-3781 Tested against Gram-Positive Organisms Commonly Associated with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections  

PubMed Central

BC-3781 is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antimicrobial agent developed as an intravenous and oral therapy for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and respiratory tract infections (RTI). BC-3781 and comparator agents were tested by the broth microdilution method against 1,893 clinical Gram-positive organisms predominantly causing ABSSSI. BC-3781 exhibited potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 ?g/ml), coagulase-negative staphylococci (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 ?g/ml), ?-hemolytic streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 ?g/ml), viridans group streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.5 ?g/ml), and Enterococcus faecium (including vancomycin-nonsusceptible strains) (MIC50/90, 0.12/2 ?g/ml). Compared with other antibiotics in use for the treatment of ABSSSI, BC-3781 displayed the lowest MICs and only a minimal potential for cross-resistance with other antimicrobial classes. PMID:22232289

Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Paukner, Susanne; Ivezic-Schoenfeld, Zrinka; Jones, Ronald N.

2012-01-01

63

Amino Acid modified xanthone derivatives: novel, highly promising membrane-active antimicrobials for multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance is a critical global health care crisis requiring urgent action to develop more effective antibiotics. Utilizing the hydrophobic scaffold of xanthone, we identified three components that mimicked the action of an antimicrobial cationic peptide to produce membrane-targeting antimicrobials. Compounds 5c and 6, which contain a hydrophobic xanthone core, lipophilic chains, and cationic amino acids, displayed very promising antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA and VRE, rapid time-kill, avoidance of antibiotic resistance, and low toxicity. The bacterial membrane selectivity of these molecules was comparable to that of several membrane-targeting antibiotics in clinical trials. 5c and 6 were effective in a mouse model of corneal infection by S. aureus and MRSA. Evidence is presented indicating that 5c and 6 target the negatively charged bacterial membrane via a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These results suggest that 5c and 6 have significant promise for combating life-threatening infections. PMID:25474410

Koh, Jun-Jie; Lin, Shuimu; Aung, Thet Tun; Lim, Fanghui; Zou, Hanxun; Bai, Yang; Li, Jianguo; Lin, Huifen; Pang, Li Mei; Koh, Wee Luan; Salleh, Shuhaida Mohamed; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Zhou, Lei; Qiu, Shengxiang; Pervushin, Konstantin; Verma, Chandra; Tan, Donald T H; Cao, Derong; Liu, Shouping; Beuerman, Roger W

2015-01-22

64

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic. PMID:19057813

Cyrus, Wagate G; Daniel, Gakuya W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Njonge, Francis K; Mbaria, James M

2008-11-01

65

Semisynthetic derivatives of madurahydroxylactone and their antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

Madurahydroxylactone is a secondary metabolite from Nonomuria rubra (former Actinomadura rubra) with in vitro activity against gram-positive bacteria and belongs to the family of benzo[a]naphthacenequinones. A series of derivatives of madurahydroxylactone were synthesized to investigate the effect on the antibacterial activity. Reaction with alcohols and amines gave cyclic acetals or aminals derived from the lactone form, whereas other amino reagents like hydroxylamines and acyl or sulfonyl hydrazides led to the corresponding imine derivatives of the aldehyde. Hydrazine, alkyl and aryl hydrazines react with madurahydroxylactone under cyclization to give compounds of the new heterocyclic basic structure naphthaceno[1,2-g]phthalazine. Some new compounds strongly inhibit gram-positive bacteria, in part stronger than the parent compound. PMID:10656576

Heinisch, L; Roemer, E; Jütten, P; Haas, W; Werner, W; Möllmann, U

1999-11-01

66

Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract. PMID:21188055

Akter, A.; Neela, F. A.; Khan, M. S. I.; Islam, M. S.; Alam, M. F.

2010-01-01

67

Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

2014-03-11

68

Antibacterial activity of human urine  

PubMed Central

The fate of bacteria in human urine was studied after inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and other bacterial strains commonly implicated in urinary tract infection. Urine from normal individuals was often inhibitory and sometimes bactericidal for growth of these organisms. Antibacterial activity of urine was not related to lack of nutrient material as addition of broth did not decrease inhibitory activity. Antibacterial activity was correlated with osmolality, urea concentration and ammonium concentration, but not with organic acid, sodium, or potassium concentration. Between a pH range of 5.0-6.5 antibacterial activity of urine was greater at lower pH. Ultrafiltration and column chromatography to remove protein did not decrease antibacterial activity. Urea concentration was a more important determinant of antibacterial activity than osmolality or ammonium concentration. Increasing the urea of a noninhibitory urine to equal that of an inhibitory urine made the urine inhibitory. However, increasing osmolality (with sodium chloride) or increasing ammonium to equal the osmolality or ammonium of an inhibitory urine did not increase antibacterial activity. Similarly, dialysis to decrease osmolality or ammonium but preserve urea did not decrease inhibitory activity. Decreasing urea with preservation of ammonium and osmolality decreased antibacterial activity. Removal of ammonium with an ion exchanger did not decrease antibacterial activity, whereas conversion of urea to ammonium with urease and subsequent removal of the ammonium decreased antibacterial activity. Urine collected from volunteers after ingestion of urea demonstrated a marked increase in antibacterial activity, as compared with urine collected before ingestion of urea. PMID:4877682

Kaye, Donald

1968-01-01

69

Comparative In Vitro Activities of SMT19969, a New Antimicrobial Agent, against Clostridium difficile and 350 Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Aerobic and Anaerobic Intestinal Flora Isolates  

PubMed Central

The comparative in vitro activity of SMT19969, a novel, narrow-spectrum, nonabsorbable agent, was studied against 50 ribotype-defined Clostridium difficile strains, 174 Gram-positive and 136 Gram-negative intestinal anaerobes, and 40 Gram-positive aerobes. SMT19969 was one dilution more active against C. difficile isolates (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 ?g/ml; MIC90, 0.25 ?g/ml), including ribotype 027 strains, than fidaxomicin (range, 0.06 to 1 ?g/ml; MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml) and two to six dilutions lower than either vancomycin or metronidazole. SMT19969 and fidaxomicin were generally less active against Gram-negative anaerobes, especially the Bacteroides fragilis group species, than vancomycin and metronidazole, suggesting that SMT19969 has a lesser impact on the normal intestinal microbiota that maintain colonization resistance. SMT19969 showed limited activity against other Gram-positive anaerobes, including Bifidobacteria species, Eggerthella lenta, Finegoldia magna, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, with MIC90s of >512, >512, 64, and 64 ?g/ml, respectively. Clostridium species showed various levels of susceptibility, with C. innocuum being susceptible (MIC90, 1 ?g/ml) and C. ramosum and C. perfringens being nonsusceptible (MIC90, >512 ?g/ml). Activity against Lactobacillus spp. (range, 0.06 to >512 ?g/ml; MIC90, >512 ?g/ml) was comparable to that of fidaxomicin and varied by species and strain. Gram-positive aerobic cocci (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and streptococci) showed high SMT19969 MIC90 values (128 to >512 ?g/ml). PMID:23877700

Citron, Diane M.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Merriam, C. Vreni

2013-01-01

70

Results of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance Program: in vitro susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens collected in 2011 and 2012 from the United States and Europe.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity and spectrum of tedizolid and comparators were analyzed against 6884 Gram-positive clinical isolates collected from multiple US and European sites as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance Program in 2011 and 2012. Organisms included 4499 Staphylococcus aureus, 537 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 873 enterococci, and 975 ?-hemolytic streptococci. The MIC values that inhibited 90% of the isolates within each group (MIC90) were 0.25 ?g/mL for Staphylococcus epidermidis and ?-hemolytic streptococci and 0.5 ?g/mL for S. aureus, other CoNS, and enterococci. Of 16 isolates with elevated tedizolid or linezolid MIC values (intermediate or resistant isolates), 10 had mutations in the genes encoding 23S rRNA (primarily G2576T), 5 had mutations in the genes encoding ribosomal proteins L3 or L4, and 5 carried the cfr multidrug resistance gene. Overall, tedizolid showed excellent activity against Gram-positive bacteria and was at least 4-fold more potent than linezolid against wild-type and linezolid-resistant isolates. Given the low overall frequency of isolates that would be resistant to tedizolid at the proposed break point of 0.5 ?g/mL (0.19%) and potent activity against contemporary US and European isolates, tedizolid has the potential to serve as a valuable therapeutic option in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25488274

Sahm, Daniel F; Deane, Jennifer; Bien, Paul A; Locke, Jeffrey B; Zuill, Douglas E; Shaw, Karen J; Bartizal, Ken F

2015-02-01

71

Gram-positive bacterial resistance. A challenge for the next millennium.  

PubMed

Penicillin G was first used in 1941. Since then, the trend in bacterial infections has changed. New antibiotics have been developed and bacterial resistance has spread as a consequence. The spread of Gram positive resistant bacteria is related to an inappropriate use of antibiotics. Antibacterial agents are abused or overused in various fields: medicine itself, veterinary science and zootechnics. Now, at the beginning of the third millennium we have been forced to limit our therapeutic options in order to combat these insidious enemies. Selective antibiotic pressure on the microbial population, notably on enterococci and staphylococci, made these two pathogens recalcitrant to traditional chemotherapy. It is a matter of concern that today, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE) and vancomycin-intermediate and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA and VRSA) are now being observed worldwide among emerging pathogens. Most pharmaceutical companies are today developing antimicrobial drugs that are active against Gram-positive bacteria. Quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid are the most promising drugs and are available only for serious infections; future agents being developed for multi-resistant Gram-positive infections include daptomycin and the glycyclines, although these are still in the development phase. Nevertheless, our group has had the opportunity to treat some serious infections with these drugs and the good results achieved are reported in this review. PMID:12094131

Bassetti, M; Melica, G; Cenderello, G; Rosso, R; Di Biagio, A; Bassetti, D

2002-09-01

72

Antibacterial Activity of REP8839, a New Antibiotic for Topical Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

REP8839 is a novel methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetS) inhibitor with potent antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and other clinically important gram-positive bacteria but little activity against gram-negative bacteria. All isolates of S. aureus, including strains resistant to methicillin, mupirocin, vancomycin, and linezolid were susceptible to REP8839 at concentrations of <0.5 g\\/ml. REP8839 was also active against

Ian A. Critchley; Casey L. Young; Kimberley C. Stone; Urs A. Ochsner; Joseph Guiles; Ted Tarasow; Nebojsa Janjic

2005-01-01

73

Synthesis and antibacterial activity of sulfonamides. SAR and DFT studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of substituted sulfonamide derivatives were synthesized from chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) in tree steps (carbamoylation, sulfamoylation and deprotection). Antibacterial activity in vitro of some newly formed compounds investigated against clinical strains Gram-positive and Gram-negative: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus applying the method of dilution and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) methods. These compounds have significant bacteriostatic activity with totalities of bacterial strains used. DFT calculations with B3LYP/6-31G(d) level have been used to analyze the electronic and geometric characteristics deduced for the stable structure of three compounds presenting conjugation between a nitrogen atom N through its lone pair and an aromatic ring next to it. The principal quantum chemical descriptors have been correlated with the antibacterial activity.

Boufas, Wahida; Dupont, Nathalie; Berredjem, Malika; Berrezag, Kamel; Becheker, Imène; Berredjem, Hajira; Aouf, Nour-Eddine

2014-09-01

74

Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa  

PubMed Central

The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa. PMID:25587332

Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

2014-01-01

75

Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacteria are common causes of bloodstream and other infections in hospitalized patients in the United States, and the percentage of nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria is increasing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are of particular concern. In the United States, approximately 60% of staphylococcal infections in the intensive care unit are now caused

Louis B. Rice

2006-01-01

76

Synthesis of isoindole and benzoisoindole derivatives of teicoplanin pseudoaglycon with remarkable antibacterial and antiviral activities.  

PubMed

The primary amino function of teicoplanin pseudoaglycon has been transformed into arylthioisoindole or benzoisoindole and glycosylthioisoindole derivatives, in a reaction with o-phthalaldehyde or naphtalene-2,3-dicarbaldehyde and various thiols. All of the obtained semisynthetic antibiotics exhibited potent antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria in the ng per ml concentration range. A few of them showed antiviral activity, in particular against influenza virus. PMID:23099097

Sipos, Attila; Török, Zsolt; R?th, Erzsébet; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Batta, Gyula; Bereczki, Ilona; Fejes, Zsolt; Borbás, Anikó; Ostorházi, Eszter; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Naesens, Lieve; Herczegh, Pál

2012-12-01

77

Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antimutagenic Activities of Essential Oil from (Tunisian) Cyperus rotundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil from the tubers of Cyperus rotundus, obtained by steam distillation, was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. In total, 33 compounds were identified. The oil was characterized by its high content of sesquiterpenes with cyperene (30.9%) being major. The antibacterial activity of oil from tubers of Cyperus rotundus, showed more important activity against Gram-positive bacteria specially Staphylococcus aureus than

Soumaya Kilani; Afef Abdelwahed; Ribai Ben Ammar; Nawel Hayder; Kamel Ghedira; Imed Chraief; Mohamed Hammami; Leila Chekir-Ghedira

2005-01-01

78

Suicin 90-1330 from a nonvirulent strain of Streptococcus suis: a nisin-related lantibiotic active on gram-positive swine pathogens.  

PubMed

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections (meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia) in pigs and is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Antibiotics have long been used in the swine industry for disease treatment/prevention and growth promoters. This pattern of utilization resulted in the spread of antibiotic resistance in S. suis worldwide. Interestingly, pigs may harbor S. suis in their tonsils without developing diseases, while North American strains belonging to the sequence type 28 (ST28) are nonvirulent in animal models. Consequently, the aim of this study was to purify and characterize a bacteriocin produced by a nonvirulent strain of S. suis serotype 2, with a view to a potential therapeutic and preventive application. S. suis 90-1330 belonging to ST28 and previously shown to be nonvirulent in an animal model exhibited antibacterial activity toward all S. suis pathogenic isolates tested. The bacteriocin produced by this strain was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Given its properties (molecular mass of <4 kDa, heat, pH and protease stability, and the presence of modified amino acids), the bacteriocin, named suicin 90-1330, belongs to the lantibiotic class. Using a DNA-binding fluorophore, the bacteriocin was found to possess a membrane permeabilization activity. When tested on other swine pathogens, the suicin showed activity against Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas it was inactive against all Gram-negative bacteria tested. Amino acid sequencing of the purified bacteriocin showed homology (90.9% identity) with nisin U produced by Streptococcus uberis. The putative gene cluster involved in suicin production was amplified by PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of 11 open reading frames, including the structural gene and those required for the modification of amino acids, export, regulation, and immunity. Further studies will evaluate the ability of suicin 90-1330 or the producing strain to prevent experimental S. suis infections in pigs. PMID:24973067

LeBel, Geneviève; Vaillancourt, Katy; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

2014-09-01

79

Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Evolvulus nummularius  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Evolvulus nummularius (L) L. Materials and Methods: Disc diffusion and broth serial dilution tests were used to determine the antibacterial activity of the methanol extract against two Gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilus NCIM 2718, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) and three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 70063 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922). The methanol extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis. Free radical scavenging activity of the methanol extract at different concentrations was determined with 2, 2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: The susceptible organisms to the methanol extract were Escherichia coli (MIC=12.50 mg/ml) and Bacillus subtilus (MIC=3.125 mg/ml) and the most resistant strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The methanol extracts exhibited radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 350 ?g/ml. Conclusion: The results from the study show that methanol extract of E.nummularius has antibacterial activity. The antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of tannins, flavonoids and triterpenoids in the methanol extract. The antibacterial and antioxidant activity exhibited by the methanol extract can be corroborated to the usage of this plant in Indian folk medicine. PMID:20177496

Pavithra, P.S.; Sreevidya, N.; Verma, Rama S.

2009-01-01

80

Mechanism of Action of Recombinant Acc-Royalisin from Royal Jelly of Asian Honeybee against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of royalisin, an antimicrobial peptide from the royal jelly produced by honeybees, has been addressed extensively. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a recombinant royalisin, RAcc-royalisin from the royal jelly of Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana, was expressed by fusing with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli BL21, isolated and purified. The agar dilution assays with inhibition zone showed that RAcc-royalisin, similar to nisin, inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin was associated with its concentration, and was weakened by heat treatment ranging from 55°C to 85°C for 15 min. Both RAcc-royalisin and nisin exhibited the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 62.5 µg/ml, 125 µg/ml, and 250 µg/ml against Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus flavus and Staphyloccocus aureus in the microplate assay, respectively. However, RAcc-royalisin did not show antimicrobial activity against tested Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin agrees well with the decrease in bacterial cell hydrophobicity, the leakage of 260-nm absorbing materials, and the observation by transmission electron microscopy, all indicating that RAcc-royalisin induced the disruption and dysfunction of cell walls and membranes. This is the first report detailing the antibacterial mechanism of royalisin against Gram-positive bacteria, and provides insight into the application of recombinant royalisin in food and pharmaceutical industries as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:23056609

Shen, Lirong; Liu, Dandan; Li, Meilu; Jin, Feng; Din, Meihui; Parnell, Laurence D.; Lai, Chao-Qiang

2012-01-01

81

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles has been studied. Nano-Ag sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed silver nanoparticles (d(50) approximately 11 +/- 9 nm) were used as the source of silver. This powder presents a high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) as well as antifungal (against I. orientalis) activity. The observed high activity against yeast has been explained by considering the inhibitory effect of the Ca(2+) lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the yeast colonies. PMID:19417439

Esteban-Tejeda, L; Malpartida, F; Esteban-Cubillo, A; Pecharromán, C; Moya, J S

2009-02-25

82

Synthesis and structure-antibacterial activity of triazolyl oxazolidinones containing long chain acyl moiety.  

PubMed

A series of new piperazinyl 5-triazolylmethyl oxazolidinones containing long chain acyl group at the piperazine N-4-position were synthesized and evaluated against a panel of standard and clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Derivatives having long chain acyl groups with nine or more number of carbon atoms showed significant decrease in antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity correlated positively with heat of formation of the compounds, but correlated negatively with Clog P values, surface area, ovality and molecular volume. However, no significant correlation was observed between activity and E(LUMO), E(HOMO) and dipole, respectively. PMID:18242786

Phillips, Oludotun A; Udo, Edet E; Samuel, Santhosh M

2008-05-01

83

Antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils against six meat spoilage organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils was examined against two gram-negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia liquefaciens), and four gram-positive (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium piscicola, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus sake) bacteria involved in meat spoilage. Various amounts of each preservative were added to brain heart infusion or MRS (deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe) agars, and the minimum inhibitory concentration

Blaise Ouattara; Ronald E Simard; Richard A Holley; Gabriel J.-P Piette; André Bégin

1997-01-01

84

Synthesis and antibacterial activity of chalcones bearing prenyl or geranyl groups from Angelica keiskei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chalcones bearing prenyl or geranyl groups from Angelica keiskei, such as 4-hydroxyderricin (1a), xanthoangelol (1e), xanthoangelol F (1f), xanthoangelol H (2), deoxyxanthoangelol H (3), and deoxydihydroxanthoangelol H (4) and their derivatives were synthesized. From the evaluation of antibacterial activity of the synthesized chalcones, 1a, isobavachalcone (1b), 1e, 1f, bavachalcone (5a), and broussochalcone B (5b) were found to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria.

Kazuhiro Sugamoto; Yoh-ichi Matsusita; Kana Matsui; Chiaki Kurogi; Takanao Matsui

2011-01-01

85

Acyl-sulfamates Target the Essential Glycerol-Phosphate Acyltransferase (PlsY) in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

PlsY is the essential first step in membrane phospholipid synthesis of Gram-positive pathogens. PlsY catalyzes the transfer of the fatty acid from acyl-phosphate to the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the first intermediate in membrane biogenesis. A series of non-metabolizable, acyl-sulfamate analogs of the acyl-phosphate PlsY substrate were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus PlsY and for their Gram-positive antibacterial activities. From this series phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate had the best overall profile, selectively inhibiting S. aureus phospholipid biosynthesis and causing the accumulation of both long-chain fatty acids and acyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates demonstrating that PlsY was the primary cellular target. Bacillus anthracis was unique in being more potently inhibited by long chain acyl-sulfamates than other bacterial species. However, it is shown that Bacillus anthracis PlsY is not more sensitive to the acyl-sulfamates than S. aureus PlsY. Metabolic profiling showed that B. anthracis growth inhibition by the acyl-sulfamates was not specific for lipid synthesis illustrating that the amphipathic acyl-sulfamates can also have off-target effects in Gram-positive bacteria. Nonetheless, this study further advances PlsY as a druggable target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics, through the discovery and validation of the probe compound phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate as a S. aureus PlsY inhibitor. PMID:22795901

Cherian, Philip; Yao, Jiangwei; Leonardi, Roberta; Maddox, Marcus M.; Luna, Vicki A.; Rock, Charles O.; Lee, Richard E.

2012-01-01

86

Binuclear mercury(II) complexes of sulfonium ylides: Synthesis, structural characterization and anti-bacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction of ?-keto stabilized sulfonium ylides (Me)2SCHC(O)C6H4R (R = p-Me (a); p-Cl (b)) with HgX2 (X = Cl, Br and I) in equimolar ratios using methanol as solvent leads to binuclear products of the type [HgX2(ylide)]2 (X = Cl (1), Br (2) and I (3)). Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of unexpected asymmetric halide-bridged dinuclear structures for 1a and 2b. Characterization of the compounds by IR, 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy confirmed coordination of the ylide to the metal through the carbon atom. In addition, the antibacterial effects of DMSO-solutions of the complexes were investigated by the disc diffusion method against three Gram positive and three negative bacteria. All complexes represent antibacterial activity against these bacteria with high levels of inhibitory potency exhibited against the Gram-positive species.

Sabounchei, Seyyed Javad; Bagherjeri, Fateme Akhlaghi; Boskovic, Colette; Gable, Robert W.; Karamian, Roya; Asadbegy, Mostafa

2013-02-01

87

Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes  

DOEpatents

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

1996-01-09

88

Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes  

DOEpatents

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01

89

Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes  

DOEpatents

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

1996-01-01

90

Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes  

DOEpatents

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

1999-06-29

91

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved by a novel, simple green chemistry procedure using citrus sinensis peel extract as a reducing and a capping agent. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. The successful formation of silver nanoparticles has been confirmed by UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDAX, FESEM and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) has been studied. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antibacterial agent.

Kaviya, S.; Santhanalakshmi, J.; Viswanathan, B.; Muthumary, J.; Srinivasan, K.

2011-08-01

92

Size-dependent antimicrobial properties of CuO nanoparticles against Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

Background CuO is one of the most important transition metal oxides due to its captivating properties. It is used in various technological applications such as high critical temperature superconductors, gas sensors, in photoconductive applications, and so on. Recently, it has been used as an antimicrobial agent against various bacterial species. Here we synthesized different sized CuO nanoparticles and explored the size-dependent antibacterial activity of each CuO nanoparticles preparation. Methods CuO nanoparticles were synthesized using a gel combustion method. In this approach, cupric nitrate trihydrate and citric acid were dissolved in distilled water with a molar ratio of 1:1. The resulting solution was stirred at 100°C, until gel was formed. The gel was allowed to burn at 200°C to obtain amorphous powder, which was further annealed at different temperatures to obtain different size CuO nanoparticles. We then tested the antibacterial properties using well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. Results XRD spectra confirmed the formation of single phase CuO nanoparticles. Crystallite size was found to increase with an increase in annealing temperature due to atomic diffusion. A minimum crystallite size of 20 nm was observed in the case of CuO nanoparticles annealed at 400°C. Transmission electron microscopy results corroborate well with XRD results. All CuO nanoparticles exhibited inhibitory effects against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The size of the particles was correlated with its antibacterial activity. Conclusion The antibacterial activity of CuO nanoparticles was found to be size-dependent. In addition, the highly stable minimum-sized monodispersed copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized during this study demonstrated a significant increase in antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains. PMID:22848176

Azam, Ameer; Ahmed, Arham S; Oves, M; Khan, MS; Memic, Adnan

2012-01-01

93

Biotransformation of clerodane diterpenoids by Rhizopus stolonifer and antibacterial activity of resulting metabolites.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation of clerodane lactone (1) by a plant pathogen fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer, resulted in the production of metabolites 3 and 4. While incubation of clerodane methyl ester (2) by R. stolonifer yielded metabolites 5-8. The structures of the transformed products were determined by the spectroscopic techniques and compounds 4, 7 and 8 were found. The antibacterial activity of clerodane diterpenoids 1 and 2 and their metabolites 3-8 were also studied. The metabolites 3-7 showed moderate activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. While metabolite 8 showed a moderate activity against Gram-positive organisms and a good activity against Gram-negative organisms. PMID:23535269

Iqbal Choudhary, M; Mohammad, Mohammad Yasin; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Onajobi, Ismail; Mohammad, Akhtar; Anis, Itrat; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Atta-Ur-Rahman

2013-06-01

94

Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at <1 mg/mL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation. PMID:19548257

Wagate, Cyrus G; Mbaria, James M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Kareru, P G; Njuguna, Anne; Gitahi, Nduhiu; Macharia, James K; Njonge, Francis K

2010-01-01

95

Novel semisynthetic antibiotics from caprazamycins A-G: caprazene derivatives and their antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Acidic treatment of a mixture of caprazamycins (CPZs) A-G isolated from a screen of novel antimycobacterial agents gave caprazene, a core structure of CPZs, in high yield. Chemical modification of the resulting caprazene was performed to give its various derivatives. The structure-activity relationships of the caprazene derivatives against several mycobacterial species and pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were studied. Although caprazene showed no antibacterial activity, the antibacterial activity was restored for its 1'''-alkylamide, 1'''-anilide and 1'''-ester derivatives. Compounds 4b (CPZEN-45), 4d (CPZEN-48), 4f and 4g (CPZEN-51) exhibited more potent activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex strains than CPZ-B. These results suggest that caprazene would be a good precursor from which novel semisynthetic antibacterial antibiotics can be designed for the treatment of mycobacterial diseases such as tuberculosis and M. avium complex infection. PMID:23532021

Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Masayuki; Miyake, Toshiaki; Soutome, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Kanae; Komatsuki, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Yoshiko; Nakagawa, Naoko; Hattori, Seiko; Inoue, Kunio; Doi, Norio; Akamatsu, Yuzuru

2013-03-01

96

Antibacterial Activity of Rhizome of Curcuma aromatica and Partial Purification of Active Compounds.  

PubMed

The hexane extract of Curcuma aromatica, a plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae was tested on 10 bacterial strains (clinical isolates and standard strains). Agar diffusion method was adopted for determining the antibacterial activity of the extract. The hexane extract was found to be active against all Gram-positive strains tested, but inactive against Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined and found to be 539 ?g/ml. The phytochemical analysis of hexane extract by gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 13 compounds. The crude hexane extract was partially purified by thin layer chromatography. The zone showing good antibacterial activity was analysed further by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the probable presence of germacrone. PMID:24591751

Revathi, S; Malathy, N S

2013-11-01

97

Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Curcumin Derivatives Containing Heterocyclic Moiety  

PubMed Central

A series of curcumin derivatives containing heterocyclic moiety have been synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activities. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were verified on the basis of spectral data and elemental analyses. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of the derivatives demonstrated the ability to inhibit Gram-positive microorganisms with zone of inhibition ranging from 14-18 mm, MIC ranging between 0.0625 and 0.25 mg/mL. Among all tested derivatives, diazepine 4 exhibited remarkable potency against Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus. An extensive study is underway to optimize the effectiveness of diazepine type of compounds and to determine their mode of action. PMID:24250571

A. Hamed, Othman; Mehdawi, Noha; Abu Taha, Adham; M. Hamed, Emad; A. Al-Nuri, Mohammed; S. Hussein, Ayman

2013-01-01

98

Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Heracleum Transcaucasicum and Heracleum Anisactis Aerial Parts Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Two plant essential oils (EOs), including those from Heracleum transcaucasicum and Heracleum anisactiss (Umbeliferae) were studied to detect the chemical constituents and evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: The EOs of H. transcaucasicum and H.anisactis (Apiacae) were obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of the plants. The chemical analyses of the EOs were performed by GC/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Myristicin was found to be the principal constituent in both EOs. The susceptibility tests of EOs were performed by agar disc diffusion technique against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Results: Eight components comprising 99.97% of the total essential oil of H. transcaucasicum and a total of three compounds accounting for 98.5% of the total oil composition of aerial parts of H. anisactis were identified, of which myristicin was the main compound in both EOs. The EOs of H. transcaucasicum and H. anisactis showed weak antibacterial property against Gram-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis with no measurable effect on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Our GC-MS study revealed myristicin to be the major constituent of H. transcaucasicum and H.anisactis aerial parts. In spite of all the information available on the antibacterial properties of plants essential oils, we were not able to find significant antibacterial activity for both EOs. PMID:24312869

Torbati, Mohammadali; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Nemati, Mahboob; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

99

Antibacterial activity of extracts from plants of central Argentina--isolation of an active principle from Achyrocline satureioides.  

PubMed

The great increase in bacterial infections is fueling interest in the search for antibacterial products of plant origin. Extracts obtained from 51 native and naturalized plants from central Argentina were therefore evaluated for their IN VITRO inhibitory activity on pathogenic bacteria with the aim of selecting the most active ones as new sources of effective antibiotics. The susceptibility of reference and clinical strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus was determined. Extracts from Achyrocline satureioides, Flourensia oolepis, Lepechinia floribunda, and Lithrea molleoides were the most potent, with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.006 to 2 and 0.012 to 10 mg/mL, respectively, on both gram-positive and negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity-guided isolation of A. satureioides ethanol extract showed 23-methyl-6-O-desmethylauricepyrone (1) to be the most active compound. This compound showed inhibitory effects against gram-positive bacteria with MIC and MBC values of 0.002 and 0.008 mg/mL, respectively, while on gram-negative strains, the MIC and MBC were 0.062-0.250 and 0.062-0.500 mg/mL, respectively. The strong antibacterial activity shown by the four plant extracts or the compound isolated from A. satureioides suggests that they could become part of the arsenal of antibacterial drugs currently used. PMID:20645245

Joray, Mariana B; del Rollán, María R; Ruiz, Gustavo M; Palacios, Sara M; Carpinella, María C

2011-01-01

100

Synthesis of linear and cyclic guazatine derivatives endowed with antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance has reached alarming levels in many clinically-relevant human pathogens, and there is an increasing clinical need for new antibiotics active on drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens who rapidly evolve towards pandrug resistance phenotypes. Here, we report on two related classes of guanidinic compounds endowed with antibacterial activity. The two best compounds (9a and 13d) exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging 0.12-8?g/ml with most tested pathogens, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, MIC values were not affected (1-8?g/ml) when measured using recent clinical isolates with various antibiotic resistance determinants. The results reported herein identify guazatine derivatives as an interesting starting point for the optimization of a potentially novel class of antibacterial agents. PMID:25455183

Maccari, Giorgio; Sanfilippo, Stefania; De Luca, Filomena; Deodato, Davide; Casian, Alexandru; Dasso Lang, Maria Chiara; Zamperini, Claudio; Dreassi, Elena; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Botta, Maurizio

2014-12-01

101

Microwave-assisted synthesis of CdO-ZnO nanocomposite and its antibacterial activity against human pathogens.  

PubMed

CdO-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared by microwave-assisted method and characterized by X-ray crystallography (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). It exhibits hexagonal cubic structure with an average crystallite size of 27nm. From the UV-Vis spectra, the bandgap is estimated as 2.92eV. The fluorescence spectrum shows a near band edge emission at 422nm. In addition the antibacterial activity of CdO-ZnO nanocomposite was carried out in-vitro against two kinds of bacteria: gram negative bacteria (G -ve) i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and gram positive bacteria (G +ve): Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus spp. This study indicates the zone of inhibition of 40mm has high antibacterial activity towards the gram positive bacterium S. aureus. PMID:25546491

Karthik, K; Dhanuskodi, S; Gobinath, C; Sivaramakrishnan, S

2015-03-15

102

Caprolactam-silica network, a strong potentiator of the antimicrobial activity of kanamycin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Here, we report the fabrication of a novel ?-caprolactam-silica (?-SiO2) network and assessed its biocompatibility and ability to improve the antimicrobial activity of kanamycin. The results of the quantitative antimicrobial assay demonstrate that the obtained ?-SiO2 network has efficiently improved the kanamycin activity on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 strains, with a significant decrease of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The ?-SiO2 network could be feasibly obtained and represents an alternative for the design of new antibiotic drug carriers or delivery systems to control bacterial infections. PMID:23402978

Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Ficai, Denisa; Ghitulica, Cristina Daniela; Gheorghe, Irina; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

2013-03-25

103

Draft Genome Sequence Analysis of a Pseudomonas putida W15Oct28 Strain with Antagonistic Activity to Gram-Positive and Pseudomonas sp. Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas putida is a member of the fluorescent pseudomonads known to produce the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdine siderophore. P. putida W15Oct28, isolated from a stream in Brussels, was found to produce compound(s) with antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, an unusual characteristic for P. putida. The active compound production only occurred in media with low iron content and without organic nitrogen sources. Transposon mutants which lost their antimicrobial activity had the majority of insertions in genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine, although purified pyoverdine was not responsible for the antagonism. Separation of compounds present in culture supernatants revealed the presence of two fractions containing highly hydrophobic molecules active against P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed the presence of putisolvin biosynthesis genes and the corresponding lipopeptides were found to contribute to the antimicrobial activity. One cluster of ten genes was detected, comprising a NAD-dependent epimerase, an acetylornithine aminotransferase, an acyl CoA dehydrogenase, a short chain dehydrogenase, a fatty acid desaturase and three genes for a RND efflux pump. P. putida W15Oct28 genome also contains 56 genes encoding TonB-dependent receptors, conferring a high capacity to utilize pyoverdines from other pseudomonads. One unique feature of W15Oct28 is also the presence of different secretion systems including a full set of genes for type IV secretion, and several genes for type VI secretion and their VgrG effectors. PMID:25369289

Ye, Lumeng; Hildebrand, Falk; Dingemans, Jozef; Ballet, Steven; Laus, George; Matthijs, Sandra; Berendsen, Roeland; Cornelis, Pierre

2014-01-01

104

Antifungal and antibacterial activity of Haliclona sp. from the Persian Gulf, Iran.  

PubMed

In this study, antifungal and antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of Haliclona sp. were assessed (in vitro). The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spizizenii. The antifungal activity of the extracts was determined by using a broth microdilution test against clinical fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Our results showed diethyl ether extract of Haliclona sp. was active on Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, methanol extract in comparison with diethyl ether extract had better activity against C. albicans (MIC: 0.75 mg/mL, MFC: 1.5mg/mL) and A. fumigatus (MIC: 2mg/mL, MFC: 3mg/mL). Aqueous extract had neither antifungal nor antibacterial activities. Based our results, Haliclona sp. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic and antifungal. PMID:24934592

Nazemi, M; Alidoust Salimi, M; Alidoust Salimi, P; Motallebi, A; Tamadoni Jahromi, S; Ahmadzadeh, O

2014-09-01

105

Clostridium difficile DNA polymerase IIIC: basis for activity of antibacterial compounds.  

PubMed

Based on the finding that aerobic Gram-positive antibacterials that inhibit DNA polymerase IIIC (pol IIIC) were potent inhibitors of the growth of anaerobic Clostridium difficile (CD) strains, we chose to clone and express the gene for pol IIIC from this organism. The properties of the recombinant enzyme are similar to those of related pol IIICs from Gram-positive aerobes, e.g. B. subtilis. Inhibitors of the CD enzyme also inhibited B. subtilis pol IIIC, and were competitive with respect to the cognate substrate 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (dGTP). Significantly, several of these inhibitors of the CD pol IIIC had potent activity against the growth of CD clinical isolates in culture. PMID:22844265

Torti, Andrea; Lossani, Andrea; Savi, Lida; Focher, Federico; Wright, George Edward; Brown, Neal Curtis; Xu, Wei-Chu

2011-10-01

106

Enhanced antibacterial activity of silver/polyrhodanine-composite-decorated silica nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This work describes the synthesis of silver/polyrhodanine-composite-decorated silica nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity. Polymerization of polyrhodanine proceeded preferentially on the surface of the silica nanoparticles where Ag(+) ions were located. In addition, the embedded Ag(+) ions were reduced to form metallic Ag nanoparticles; consequently, silver/polyrhodanine-composite nanoparticles (approximately 7 nm in diameter) were formed on the surface of the silica nanoparticles. The resulting nanostructure was investigated using electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The silver/polyrhodanine-nanocomposite-decorated silica nanoparticles exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity toward gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus because of the antibacterial effects of the silver nanoparticles and the polyrhodanine. The silver/polyrhodanine-composite nanoparticles may therefore have potential for use as a long-term antibacterial agent. PMID:24156562

Song, Jooyoung; Kim, Hyunyoung; Jang, Yoonsun; Jang, Jyongsik

2013-11-27

107

Antibacterial activity of Pseudonocardia sp. JB05, a rare salty soil actinomycete against Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes many harmful and life-threatening diseases. Some strains of this bacterium are resistant to available antibiotics. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of indigenous actinomycetes to produce antibacterial compounds against S. aureus and characterize the structure of the resultant antibacterial compounds. Therefore, a slightly modified agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of actinomycete isolates against the test microorganisms. The bacterial extracts with antibacterial activity were fractionated by silica gel and G-25 sephadex column chromatography. Also, the active fractions were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Finally, the partial structure of the resultant antibacterial compound was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. One of the isolates, which had a broad spectrum and high antibacterial activity, was designated as Pseudonocardia sp. JB05, based on the results of biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration for this bacterium was 40?AU?mL(-1) against S. aureus. The antibacterial activity of this bacterium was stable after autoclaving, 10% SDS, boiling, and proteinase K. Thin layer chromatography, using anthrone reagent, showed the presence of carbohydrates in the purified antibacterial compound. Finally, FT-IR spectrum of the active compound illustrated hydroxyl groups, hydrocarbon skeleton, and double bond of polygenic compounds in its structure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the efficient antibacterial activity by a local strain of Pseudonocardia. The results presented in this work, although at the initial stage in bioactive product characterization, will possibly contribute toward the Pseudonocardia scale-up for the production and identification of the antibacterial compounds. PMID:25202705

Jafari, Nesa; Behroozi, Reza; Farajzadeh, Davoud; Farsi, Mohammad; Akbari-Noghabi, Kambiz

2014-01-01

108

Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds. PMID:21718504

2011-01-01

109

Lipoprotein biogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria: knowing when to  

E-print Network

Lipoprotein biogenesis in Gram- positive bacteria: knowing when to hold `em, knowing when to fold Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK Gram-positive bacterial lipoproteins are a functionally diverse and important class of these proteins, their role in virulence in Gram-positive bacteria and their potential as vaccine candidates

Palmer, Tracy

110

Rose Bengal-decorated silica nanoparticles as photosensitizers for inactivation of gram-positive bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of photosensitizer, made from Rose Bengal (RB)-decorated silica (SiO2-NH2-RB) nanoparticles, was developed to inactivate gram-positive bacteria, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with high efficiency through photodynamic action. The nanoparticles were characterized microscopically and spectroscopically to confirm their structures. The characterization of singlet oxygen generated by RB, both free and immobilized on a nanoparticle surface, was performed in the presence of anthracene-9,10-dipropionic acid. The capability of SiO2-NH2-RB nanoparticles to inactivate bacteria was tested in vitro on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that RB-decorated silica nanoparticles can inactivate MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (both gram-positive) very effectively (up to eight-orders-of-magnitude reduction). Photosensitizers of such design should have good potential as antibacterial agents through a photodynamic mechanism.

Guo, Yanyan; Rogelj, Snezna; Zhang, Peng

2010-02-01

111

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d(50) approximately 30 +/- 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca(2+) lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies. PMID:19907067

Esteban-Tejeda, L; Malpartida, F; Esteban-Cubillo, A; Pecharromán, C; Moya, J S

2009-12-16

112

Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of Gentiana kurroo royle  

PubMed Central

In this study our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of leaves and roots of Gentiana kurroo. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined using different biochemical assays namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In all the assays, root extract exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than that of leaves. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was also evaluated and MIC values were calculated by broth dilution method. Although, the extracts prevented the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, the MIC values of methanolic extract of the leaves were higher than those of the root extract. The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the extracts was found to be positively associated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts. PMID:25313286

Baba, Shoib A.; Malik, Shahid A.

2014-01-01

113

Antimicrobial activity of isopteropodine.  

PubMed

Bioassay-directed fractionation for the determination of antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa, has led to the isolation of isopteropodine (0.3%), a known Uncaria pentacyclic oxindol alkaloid that exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria. PMID:16042336

García, Rubén; Cayunao, Cesia; Bocic, Ronny; Backhouse, Nadine; Delporte, Carle; Zaldivar, Mercedes; Erazo, Silvia

2005-01-01

114

In vitro activity of plazomicin against 5,015 gram-negative and gram-positive clinical isolates obtained from patients in canadian hospitals as part of the CANWARD study, 2011-2012.  

PubMed

Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside that is not affected by most clinically relevant aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. The in vitro activities of plazomicin and comparator antimicrobials were evaluated against a collection of 5,015 bacterial isolates obtained from patients in Canadian hospitals between January 2011 and October 2012. Susceptibility testing was performed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method, with MICs interpreted according to CLSI breakpoints, when available. Plazomicin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with all species except Proteus mirabilis having an MIC90 of ?1 ?g/ml. Plazomicin was active against aminoglycoside-nonsusceptible Escherichia coli, with MIC50 and MIC90 values identical to those for aminoglycoside-susceptible isolates. Furthermore, plazomicin demonstrated equivalent activities versus extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, with 90% of the isolates inhibited by an MIC of ?1 ?g/ml. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for plazomicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 4 ?g/ml and 16 ?g/ml, respectively, compared with 4 ?g/ml and 8 ?g/ml, respectively, for amikacin. Plazomicin had an MIC50 of 8 ?g/ml and an MIC90 of 32 ?g/ml versus 64 multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Plazomicin was active against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with both having MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.5 ?g/ml and 1 ?g/ml, respectively. In summary, plazomicin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a diverse collection of Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci obtained over a large geographic area. These data support further evaluation of plazomicin in the clinical setting. PMID:24550325

Walkty, A; Adam, H; Baxter, M; Denisuik, A; Lagacé-Wiens, P; Karlowsky, J A; Hoban, D J; Zhanel, G G

2014-05-01

115

Gram-positive toxic shock syndromes.  

PubMed

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute, multi-system, toxin-mediated illness, often resulting in multi-organ failure. It represents the most fulminant expression of a spectrum of diseases caused by toxin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus). The importance of Gram-positive organisms as pathogens is increasing, and TSS is likely to be underdiagnosed in patients with staphylococcal or group A streptococcal infection who present with shock. TSS results from the ability of bacterial toxins to act as superantigens, stimulating immune-cell expansion and rampant cytokine expression in a manner that bypasses normal MHC-restricted antigen processing. A repetitive cycle of cell stimulation and cytokine release results in a cytokine avalanche that causes tissue damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and organ dysfunction. Specific therapy focuses on early identification of the illness, source control, and administration on antimicrobial agents including drugs capable of suppressing toxin production (eg, clindamycin, linezolid). Intravenous immunoglobulin has the potential to neutralise superantigen and to mitigate subsequent tissue damage. PMID:19393958

Lappin, Emma; Ferguson, Andrew J

2009-05-01

116

Synthesis, antibacterial activities and molecular docking studies of peptide and Schiff bases as targeted antibiotics.  

PubMed

A series of peptide and Schiff bases (PSB) were synthesized by reacting salicylic acid, primary diamines with salicylaldehyde or its derivatives, and 40 of which were newly reported. The inhibitory activities against Escherichia coli beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (ecKAS III) were investigated in vitro and molecular docking simulation also surveyed. Top 10 PSB compounds which possess both good inhibitory activity and well binding affinities were picked out, and their antibacterial activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains were tested, expecting to exploit potent antibacterial agent with broad-spectrum antibiotics activity. The results demonstrate compound N-(3-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)propyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide (2d) can be as a potential antibiotics agent, displaying minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 0.39-3.13 microg/mL against various bacteria. PMID:19884012

Cheng, Kui; Zheng, Qing-Zhong; Qian, Yong; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2009-12-01

117

Mycosynthesis: antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) extract.  

PubMed

In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were rapidly synthesized from silver nitrate solution at room temperature using Inonotus obliquus extract. The mycogenic synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM revealed mostly spherical nanoparticles ranging from 14.7 to 35.2nm in size. All AgNPs concentrations showed good ABT radical scavenging activity. Further, AgNPs showed effective antibacterial activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and antiproliferative activity toward A549 human lung cancer (CCL-185) and MCF-7 human breast cancer (HTB-22) cell lines. The samples demonstrated considerably high antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities against bacterial strains and cell lines. PMID:24380885

Nagajyothi, P C; Sreekanth, T V M; Lee, Jae-il; Lee, Kap Duk

2014-01-01

118

Antibacterial Activity of Mother Tinctures of Cholistan Desert Plants in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The mother tinctures of desert were screened for antibacterial activity against bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Mother tinctures were prepared by maceration process and antibacterial activity of different plants was evaluated and compared by measuring their zones of inhibition. The results indicated that Boerrhavia diffusa mother tincture had excellent activity only against Escherichia coli. Mother tincture of Chorozophora plicata showed highly effective results against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas Echinops echinatus mother tincture showed highly effectiveness only against Salmonella typhi. Heliotropium europaeum mother tincture exhibited highly effective results against Bacillus subtilis in all concentrations. Tamrix aphylla presented maximum activity only against Bacillus subtilis in all three concentrations. Among the selected species Heliotropium europaeum, Chorozophora plicata and Tamrix aphylla were more effective plants against many microorganisms. However, Boerrhavia diffusa and Echinops echinatus were less effective plants against tested pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23716878

Ahmad, M.; Ghafoor, Nazia; Aamir, M. N.

2012-01-01

119

Microcins from Enterobacteria: On the Edge Between Gram-Positive Bacteriocins and Colicins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most bacteria and archaea produce gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides/proteins called bacteriocins, which are secreted by the producing bacteria to compete against other microorganisms in a given niche. They are considered important mediators of intra- and interspecies interactions and therefore a factor in ­maintaining the microbial diversity and stability. They are ribosomally synthesized, and most of them are produced as inactive precursor proteins, which in some cases are further enzymatically modified. Bacteriocins generally exert potent antibacterial activities directed against bacterial species closely related to the producing bacteria. Bacteriocins are abundant and diverse in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This chapter focuses on colicins and microcins from enterobacteria (mainly Escherichia coli) and on bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Microcins are the lower-molecular-mass bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria with a repertoire of only 14 representatives. They form a very restricted family of bacteriocins, compared to the huge family of LAB bacteriocins that is constituted of several hundreds of peptides, with which microcins share common characteristics. Nevertheless, microcins also show similarities, particularly in their uptake mechanisms, with the higher-molecular-mass colicins, also produced by E. coli strains. On the edge between LAB bacteriocins and colicins, microcins appear to combine highly efficient strategies developed by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at different levels, including uptake, translocation, killing of target cells, and immunity of the producing bacteria, making them important actors of bacterial competitions and fascinating models for novel concepts toward antimicrobial strategies and against resistance mechanisms.

Rebuffat, Sylvie

120

Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from serine.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent and serine as a reducing agent. UV-Visible spectra were used to confirm the formation of Ag NPs by observing the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 443nm. The emission spectrum of Ag NPs showed an emission band at 484nm. In the presence of microwave radiation, serine acts as a reducing agent, which was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) were used to investigate the morphology of the synthesized sample. These images showed the sphere-like morphology. The elemental composition of the sample was determined by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) was used to find the crystalline nature of the Ag NPs. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized Ag NPs was analyzed by the cyclic voltammetry (CV). Antibacterial experiments showed that the prepared Ag NPs showed relatively similar antibacterial activities, when compared with AgNO3 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25686955

Jayaprakash, N; Judith Vijaya, J; John Kennedy, L; Priadharsini, K; Palani, P

2015-04-01

121

Efficacy of telavancin, a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, in experimental models of Gram-positive infection.  

PubMed

Telavancin is a parenteral lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with a dual mechanism of action contributing to bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. It has been approved for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections due to susceptible Gram-positive bacteria and hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus when other alternatives are unsuitable. Telavancin has been demonstrated to be efficacious in multiple animal models of soft tissue, cardiac, systemic, lung, bone, brain and device-associated infections involving clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus, heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and daptomycin non-susceptible methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The AUC0-24h/MIC ratio is the primary pharmacodynamically-linked pharmacokinetic parameter. The preclinical data for telavancin supports further investigative clinical evaluation of its efficacy in additional serious infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25382700

Hegde, Sharath S; Janc, James W

2014-12-01

122

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:18226481

Al-Bayati, Firas A

2008-03-28

123

Antibacterial activity of extracts and constituents of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of extracts and isolated constituents (scopoletin, umckalin, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin, 6,8-dihydroxy-5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, (+)-catechin, gallic acid and its methyl ester) of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme (Geraniaceae), plant species used in folk medicine by the Southern African native population, was evaluated against 8 microorganisms, including 3 Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus 1451) and 5 Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) varied with the preparation of the extracts and microorganisms tested, from about 0.6 mg/ml for aqueous phases to over 10 mg/ml for crude Pelargonium extracts. With the exception of the ineffective (+)-catechin, all the potentially active compounds exhibited antibacterial activities with MICs of 200-1000 micrograms/ml. The results provide for a rational basis of the traditional use of the titled Pelargonium species. PMID:9434601

Kayser, O; Kolodziej, H

1997-12-01

124

Classification of Bacteriocins from Gram-Positive Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, including many Gram-positive species. The classification of bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria is complicated by their heterogeneity and thus, as the number of Gram-positive bacteriocins identified has continued to increase, classification schemes have had to continuously evolve. Here, we review the various classification approaches, both historical and current, their underlying scientific basis and their relative merit, and suggest a rational scheme given the state of the art.

Rea, Mary C.; Ross, R. Paul; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin

125

Antibacterial activity on Citrullus colocynthis Leaf extract.  

PubMed

Studies on the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude acetone extract exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zones of inhibition measuring 14.0mm. The chloroform leaf extract exhibited no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the chloroform extract was 4.0mm for Escherichia coli. PMID:22557336

Gowri, S Shyamala; Priyavardhini, S; Vasantha, K; Umadevi, M

2009-07-01

126

Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively. PMID:25460314

Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

2014-01-01

127

Antibacterial activity of baking soda.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:11524862

Drake, D

1996-01-01

128

Antibacterial activity of baking soda.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:12017929

Drake, D

1997-01-01

129

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of propolis collected by three different races of honeybees in the same region.  

PubMed

The chemical analysis and antibacterial activity of three types of propolis collected three different races of Apis mellifera bee in the same apiary were investigated. Propolis samples were investigated by GC/MS, 48 compounds were identified 32 being new for propolis. The compounds identified indicated that the main plant sources of propolis were Populus alba, Populus tremuloides and Salix alba. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was evaluated. Ethanolic extracts of propolis samples showed high antibacterial activity against Gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus), but had a weak activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and yeast (Candida albicans). Propolis sample collected by Apis mellifera caucasica showed a higher antibacterial activity than collected by Apis mellifera anatolica and Apis mellifera carnica. PMID:15848022

Silici, Sibel; Kutluca, Semiramis

2005-05-13

130

Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of cultivated thyme: antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic characterisation.  

PubMed

Bioactivity of thyme has been described, but mostly related to its essential oils, while studies with aqueous extracts are scarce. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract, as also their phenolic compounds, were evaluated and compared. Decoction showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (either phenolic acids or flavonoids), followed by infusion and hydroalcoholic extract. In general, the samples were effective against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris and Enterobacter sakazakii) bacteria, with decoction presenting the most pronounced effect. This sample also displayed the highest radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Data obtained support the idea that compounds with strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities are also water-soluble. Furthermore, the use of thyme infusion and decoction, by both internal and external use, at recommended doses, is safe and no adverse reactions have been described. PMID:25148969

Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-01-15

131

Fabrication of pDMAEMA-coated silica nanoparticles and their enhanced antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Thin pDMAEMA shells were formed on the surface of silica nanoparticles via vapor deposition polymerization. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis have been used to characterize the resulting pDMAEMA-coated silica nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies reveal that the thin polymer shell is formed on the silica surface. In this work, the particle diameter can be controlled (from ~19 to ~69 nm) by varying the size of silica core. The antibacterial performance of the core-shell nanoparticles was investigated against both Gram-positive (Escherichia coli) and Gram-negative (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Importantly, the nano-sized pDMAEMA particles presented antibacterial activity against both bacteria without additional quaternization due to its enlarged surface area. Additionally, the bactericidal efficiency was enhanced by reducing the particle size, because the expanded surface area of the cationic polymer nanoparticles provides more active sites that can kill the bacteria. PMID:23838333

Song, Jooyoung; Jung, Yujung; Lee, Inkyu; Jang, Jyongsik

2013-10-01

132

Identification and characterization of UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase (MurB) from the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

The UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase (MurB) from a Gram-positive pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, was identified and characterized. The enzyme from S. pneumoniae shows 31% identity with the MurB protein from Escherichia coli, and contains the catalytic residues, substrate-binding residues and FAD-binding motif identified previously in the E. coli protein. The gene was cloned into the pET28a+ expression vector, and the 34.5 kDa protein that it encodes was overexpressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3) to 30% of total cell protein. The majority of the protein was found to be insoluble. A variety of methods were used to increase the amount of soluble protein to 10%. This was then purified to near homogeneity in a two-step process. The absorption spectrum of the purified protein indicated it to be a flavoprotein, like its E. coli homologue, with a characteristic absorption at 463 nm. The enzyme was shown to be active, reducing UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvate with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH, and was characterized kinetically with respect to its two substrates. The enzyme showed properties similar to those of its E. coli counterpart, being activated by univalent cations and being subject to substrate inhibition. The characterization of an important cell wall biosynthesis enzyme from a Gram-positive pathogen provides a good starting point for the discovery of antibacterial agents against MurB. PMID:11284731

Sylvester, D R; Alvarez, E; Patel, A; Ratnam, K; Kallender, H; Wallis, N G

2001-01-01

133

Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:2023428

Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

1991-02-01

134

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: its antibacterial activity and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the antibacterial effect of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility was evaluated using classical microbiological techniques concomitantly with the use of flow cytometry for the evaluation of cellular physiology. Our results showed that coriander oil has an effective antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested. Also, coriander oil exhibited bactericidal activity against almost all bacteria tested, with the exception of Bacillus cereus and Enterococcus faecalis. Propidium iodide incorporation and concomitant loss of all other cellular functions such as efflux activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential seem to suggest that the primary mechanism of action of coriander oil is membrane damage, which leads to cell death. The results obtained herein further encourage the use of coriander oil in antibacterial formulations due to the fact that coriander oil effectively kills pathogenic bacteria related to foodborne diseases and hospital infections. PMID:21862758

Silva, Filomena; Ferreira, Susana; Queiroz, João A; Domingues, Fernanda C

2011-10-01

135

Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

Yang, Yunfeng

2014-05-27

136

Investigation of structural, dielectric, magnetic and antibacterial activity of Cu-Cd-Ni-FeO4 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles of Cu-Cd-Ni-FeO4 were synthesized by the auto-combustion process using a modified citric acid method. Antibacterial activity, structural, dielectric and magnetic properties were investigated. An assay showed the broad spectrum antibacterial activity of Cu-Cd-Ni-FeO4 against Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacterial strains. The existence of single phase cubic spinel structure of ferrites was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurement. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the two main absorption bands at lower frequency region. Surface morphology and compositional features were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, respectively. Results indicated that the nanosize particles greatly influenced the antibacterial activity, as well as structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of the samples. Magnetic measurements of the samples were carried out by means of vibrating sample magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic properties are strongly affected by Ni2+ substitution.

Hashim, Mohd.; Alimuddin; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Meena, S. S.; Kotnala, R. K.; Parveen, Ameena; Roy, Aashis S.; Kumar, Shalendra; Bhatt, Pramod; Kumar, Ravi

2013-09-01

137

Maturation pathway of nisin and other lantibiotics: post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides exported by Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lantibiotics form a family of highly modified peptides which are secreted by several Gram-positive bacteria. They exhibit antimicrobial activity, mainly against other Gram-positive bacteria, by forming pores in the cellular membrane. These antimicrobial peptides are ribosomally synthesized and contain leader peptides which do not show the characteristics of signal sequences. Several amino acid residues of the precursor lantibiotic are enzymatically

Willem M. de Vos; Oscar P. Kuipers; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Roland J. Siezen

1995-01-01

138

Antibacterial activity on electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) based membranes via Magainin II grafting.  

PubMed

An antimicrobial peptide (AMP), Magainin II (Mag II) was covalently immobilized on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun fibrous membranes. The surface immobilization was characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy studies showed that the surface morphology of the fibers at micron scale was not affected by the immobilization process. The antibacterial activity of the bound Mag II was tested against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial adhesion tests, SEM and confocal analyses revealed that the attachment and survival of bacteria were inhibited on Mag II functionalized membranes. AMP immobilization strategy was introduced as a new perspective for the modulation of antibacterial properties on PLGA based materials prepared by electrospinning. PMID:25491858

Yüksel, Emre; Karakeçili, Ay?e

2014-12-01

139

Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. PMID:22072893

Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Obiiyeke, Grace E.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Okoh, Anthony I.

2011-01-01

140

Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate diffusion and dilution methods for determining the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their mixtures. Several methods for measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a plant extract are available, but there is no standard procedure as there is for antibiotics. We tested different plant extracts, their mixtures and phenolic acids on selected gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Infantis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli) with the disk diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and macrodilution methods. The disk diffusion method was appropriate only as a preliminary screening test prior to quantitative MIC determination with dilution methods. A comparison of the results for MIC obtained by agar dilution and broth microdilution was possible only for gram-positive bacteria, and indicated the latter as the most accurate way of assessing the antimicrobial effect. The microdilution method with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) or INT (2-p-iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride) to indicate the viability of aerobic bacteria was found to be the best alternative approach, while only ATP determination was appropriate for microaerophilic Campylobacter spp. Using survival curves the kinetics of bacterial inactivation on plant extract exposure was followed for 24h and in this way the MIC values determined by the microdilution method were confirmed as the concentrations of extracts that inhibited bacterial growth. We suggest evaluation of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts using the broth microdilution method as a fast screening method for MIC determination and the macrodilution method at selected MIC values to confirm bacterial inactivation. Campylobacter spp. showed a similar sensitivity to plant extracts as the tested gram-positive bacteria, but S. Infantis and E. coli O157:H7 were more resistant. PMID:20171250

Klancnik, Anja; Piskernik, Sasa; Jersek, Barbara; Mozina, Sonja Smole

2010-05-01

141

Preparation and antibacterial activity of Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifunctional Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles with both superparamagnetic and antibacterial properties were prepared by reducing silver nitrate on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using the water-in-oil microemulsion method. Formation of well-dispersed nanoparticles with sizes of 60 ± 20 nm was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. X-ray diffraction patterns and UV-visible spectroscopy indicated that both Fe3O4 and silver are present in the same particle. The superparamagnetism of Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles was confirmed with a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their antibacterial activity was evaluated by means of minimum inhibitory concentration value, flow cytometry, and antibacterial rate assays. The results showed that Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles presented good antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria), Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive bacteria) and Bacillus subtilis (spore bacteria). Furthermore, Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles can be easily removed from water by using a magnetic field to avoid contamination of surroundings. Reclaimed Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles can still have antibacterial capability and can be reused.

Gong, Ping; Li, Huimin; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Hu, Jianbing; Tan, Weihong; Zhang, Shouchun; Yang, Xiaohai

2007-07-01

142

Chitosan augments photodynamic inactivation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) was shown to be a promising treatment modality for microbial infections. This study explores the effect of chitosan, a polycationic biopolymer, in increasing the PDI efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), as well as the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Chitosan at <0.1% was included in the antibacterial process either by coincubation with hematoporphyrin (Hp) and subjection to light exposure to induce the PDI effect or by addition after PDI and further incubation for 30 min. Under conditions in which Hp-PDI killed the microbe on a 2- to 4-log scale, treatment with chitosan at concentrations of as low as 0.025% for a further 30 min completely eradicated the bacteria (which were originally at ?10(8) CFU/ml). Similar results were also found with toluidine blue O (TBO)-mediated PDI in planktonic and biofilm cells. However, without PDI treatment, chitosan alone did not exert significant antimicrobial activity with 30 min of incubation, suggesting that the potentiated effect of chitosan worked after the bacterial damage induced by PDI. Further studies indicated that the potentiated PDI effect of chitosan was related to the level of PDI damage and the deacetylation level of the chitosan. These results indicate that the combination of PDI and chitosan is quite promising for eradicating microbial infections. PMID:21282440

Tsai, Tsuimin; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Wang, Tze-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Tsan; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Chen, Chin-Tin

2011-05-01

143

Antimicrobial glycopeptides: synthesis and antibacterial activity of N-linked and O-linked smaller chain glycopeptides.  

PubMed

Our objective is to synthesize the smaller chain N-linked and O-linked glycopeptides using sugars belong to mono, di and polysaccharides, with the efforts mainly directed towards the identification of antibacterial compounds. 7 glycopeptides, viz., Arg-Asn-Mannose, Arg-Asn-Lactose, His-Asn-Mannose, His-Asn-Lactose (N-glycopeptides), Arg-Ser-Lactose, Arg-Thr-Lactose, Arg-Thr-Starch (O-glycopeptides) were prepared by dicyclohexyl carbodimide (DCC) coupling for amino acids using microwave oven (50W power; 15?min) and activated and coupled with respective sugar moieties using microwave oven at 120?W for 20-25?min. The column eluted compounds were tested for disc diffusion assay using 3 gram positive S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. caprae and 3 gram negative E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. sonnei strains at different concentrations predicted by pH and inhibitory concentrations. One of the test glycopeptide, His-Asn-Lactose was found to be very effective against all the microbial strains tested and 3 other Test Compounds, viz., His-Asn-Mannose, Arg-Thr-Lactose and Arg-Thr-Starch are also proved to be effective against 2?gram positive and 2?gram negative strains tested. Maximum activity was observed at a concentration of 450??g/ml (747.51?µM) for the N-glycopeptide His-Asn-Lactose with the corresponding zonal inhibition diameters (15?mm; 19?mm; 14?mm; 18?mm; 16?mm; 17?mm) against S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. caprae, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. sonnei. This is the first evidence based report that our N-glycopeptide, His-Asn-Lactose tested, has shown antibacterial action against both gram positive and gram negative strains. Further in vivo testing and clinical studies will make sure to position our potent small chain N-glycopeptide in the arsenal of new broad spectrum anti-gram positive and negative agent. PMID:24026960

Nagarajan, K; Taleuzzamman, M; Kumar, V; Singh, S; Singh, J; Panda, B P; Ghosh, L K

2014-04-01

144

Synthesis and antibacterial activity evaluation of two androgen derivatives.  

PubMed

In this study two androgen derivatives were synthesized using several strategies; the first stage an aza-steroid derivative (3) was developed by the reaction of a testosterone derivative (1) with thiourea (2) in presence of hydrogen chloride. The second step, involves the synthesis of an amino-steroid derivative (4) by the reaction of 1 with 2 using boric acid as catalyst. The third stage was achieved by the preparation of an aminoaza-androgen derivative (6) by the reaction of 3 with ethylenediamine using boric acid as catalyst. In addition, the compound 6 was made reacting with dihydrotestosterone to form a new androgen derivative (7) in presence of boric acid. The following step was achieved by the reaction of 7 with chloroacetyl chloride to synthesize an azetidinone-androgen derivative (8) using triethylamine as catalyst. Additionally, a thiourea-androgen derivative (9) was synthetized by the reaction of 4 with dihydrotestosterone using boric acid as catalyst. Finally, the compound 9 was made reacting with chloroacetyl chloride in presence of triethylamine to synthesize a new azetidinone-androgen derivative (10). On the other hand, antibacterial activity of compounds synthesized was evaluated on Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae) and Gram positive (Staphylococos aureus) bacteria. The results indicate that only the compound 3 and 8 decrease the growth bacterial of E. coli and V. cholerae. Nevertheless, growth bacterial of S. aureus was not inhibited by these compounds. These data indicate that antibacterial activity exerted by the compounds 3 and 8 depend of their structure chemical in comparison with the controls and other androgen derivatives that are involved in this study. PMID:25448363

Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Maria, López-Ramos; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Bety, Sarabia-Alcocer

2015-01-01

145

A Myeloid Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1?-Krüppel-like Factor 2 Pathway Regulates Gram-positive Endotoxin-mediated Sepsis*  

PubMed Central

Although Gram-positive infections account for the majority of cases of sepsis, the molecular mechanisms underlying their effects remains poorly understood. We investigated how cell wall components of Gram-positive bacteria contribute to the development of sepsis. Experimental observations derived from cultured primary macrophages and the cell line indicate that Gram-positive bacterial endotoxins induce hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) mRNA and protein expression. Inoculation of live or heat-inactivated Gram-positive bacteria with macrophages induced HIF-1 transcriptional activity in macrophages. Concordant with these results, myeloid deficiency of HIF-1? attenuated Gram-positive bacterial endotoxin-induced cellular motility and proinflammatory gene expression in macrophages. Conversely, Gram-positive bacteria and their endotoxins reduced expression of the myeloid anti-inflammatory transcription factor Krüppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2). Sustained expression of KLF2 reduced and deficiency of KLF2 enhanced Gram-positive endotoxins induced HIF-1? mRNA and protein expression in macrophages. More importantly, KLF2 attenuated Gram-positive endotoxins induced cellular motility and proinflammatory gene expression in myeloid cells. Consistent with these results, mice deficient in myeloid HIF-1? were protected from Gram-positive endotoxin-induced sepsis mortality and clinical symptomatology. By contrast, myeloid KLF2-deficient mice were susceptible to Gram-positive sepsis induced mortality and clinical symptoms. Collectively, these observations identify HIF-1? and KLF2 as critical regulators of Gram-positive endotoxin-mediated sepsis. PMID:22110137

Mahabeleshwar, Ganapati H.; Qureshi, Muhammad Awais; Takami, Yoichi; Sharma, Nikunj; Lingrel, Jerry B.; Jain, Mukesh K.

2012-01-01

146

Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Yanglingmycin Analogues.  

PubMed

The synthesis of Yanglingmycin and its enantiomer, along with eighteen Yanglingmycin analogues is reported. The structures were confirmed mainly by analyses of NMR spectral data. Antibacterial activity assays showed that Yanglingmycin and some of its analogues exhibited significant antibacterial activities against two important agricultural pathogenic bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, with MIC values ranging from 3.91 to 15.62 ?g/mL. The antibacterial activities exhibited by Yanglingmycin and its analogues are promising, suggesting potential in the development of compounds for novel bactericides. PMID:25355464

Li, Long-Bo; Dan, Wen-Jia; Tan, Fang-Fang; Cui, Li-Hui; Yuan, Zhi-Peng; Wu, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wen

2014-10-30

147

Clinical update on linezolid in the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive pathogens are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both community and health care settings. Glycopeptides have traditionally been the antibiotics of choice for multiresistant Gram-positive pathogens but there are problems with their use, including the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant strains, tissue penetration, and achieving and monitoring adequate serum levels. Newer antibiotics such as linezolid, a synthetic oxazolidinone, are available for the treatment of resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Linezolid is active against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria and has been generally available for the treatment of Gram-positive infections since 2000. There are potential problems with linezolid use, including its bacteriostatic action and the relatively high incidence of reported adverse effects, particularly with long-term use. Long-term use may also be complicated by the development of resistance. However, linezolid has been shown to be clinically useful in the treatment of several serious infections where traditionally bacteriocidal agents have been required and many of its adverse effects are reversible on cessation. It has also been shown to be a cost-effective treatment option in several studies, with its high oral bioavailability allowing an early change from intravenous to oral formulations with consequent earlier patient discharge and lower inpatient costs. PMID:22787406

Ager, Sally; Gould, Kate

2012-01-01

148

Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci. PMID:6490866

Gunn, B A

1984-01-01

149

The Antibacterial Activity of Cassia fistula Organic Extracts  

PubMed Central

Background: Cassia fistula, is a flowering plant and a member of Fabaceae family. Its leaves are compound of 4 - 8 pairs of opposite leaflets. There are many Cassia species around the world which are used in herbal medicine. Objectives: This study was designed to examine in vitro anti-bacterial activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula native to Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The microbial inhibitory effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. fistula was tested on 3 Gram positive: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis and 5 Gram negative: Salmonella Typhi, Kelebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis bacterial species using disc diffusion method at various concentrations. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) were measured by the tube dilution assay. Results: The extract of C. fistula was effective against B. cereus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The most susceptible microorganisms to ethanolic and methanolic extracts were E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Also B. cereus and S. aureus showed the least sensitivity to ethanolic and methanolic extracts, respectively. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of ethanolic extracts against S. aureus, E. coli, S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae were also determined. Conclusions: With respect to the obtained results and regarding to the daily increase of the resistant microbial strains to the commercial antibiotics, it can be concluded that these extracts can be proper candidates of antibacterial substance against pathogenic bacterial species especially S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis. PMID:25147664

Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Motamedi, Hossein; Vafei, Mouzhan; Bakhtiari, Ameneh

2014-01-01

150

Antibacterial activity of silver: the role of hydrodynamic particle size at nanoscale.  

PubMed

Silver shows the highest antimicrobial activities amongst all metals. It is better than many first line antibiotics. The antimicrobial properties of silver can be tuned by altering its physical and surface properties. Researchers have demonstrated enhancement in the antibacterial properties of silver with decreasing particle size from bulk to nano. In the present article, we study the effect of particle size of silver at nanoscale on their antimicrobial properties. Two samples of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) of same physical size (?8 nm) but different hydrodynamic size (59 and 83 nm) are prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 with oleylamine followed by phase transfer with triblock copolymer Pluronic F-127. Their antimicrobial properties are investigated by microdilution method against clinically important strains of gram positive (S. aureus and B. megaterium) and gram negative (P. vulgaris and S. sonnei) bacteria. Nearly 38-50% enhancement in the antibacterial action of SNPs was observed when their hydrodynamic size was reduced to 59 nm from 83 nm. It has been observed that the antibacterial action of SNPs was governed by their hydrodynamic size and not by their crystallite and physical size. The phenomenological model was also proposed which makes an attempt to explain the microscopic mechanism responsible for the size dependent antibacterial activities of silver. PMID:24166739

Khurana, Chandni; Vala, Anjana K; Andhariya, Nidhi; Pandey, O P; Chudasama, Bhupendra

2014-10-01

151

Particle-Cell Contact Enhances Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally accepted that antibacterial properties of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) are dictated by their dissolved fraction. However, dissolution-based concept alone does not fully explain the toxic potency of nanoparticulate silver compared to silver ions. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we demonstrated that the direct contact between bacterial cell and AgNPs' surface enhanced the toxicity of nanosilver. More specifically, cell-NP contact increased the cellular uptake of particle-associated Ag ions – the single and ultimate cause of toxicity. To prove that, we evaluated the toxicity of three different AgNPs (uncoated, PVP-coated and protein-coated) to six bacterial strains: Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida and P. aeruginosa and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. While the toxicity of AgNO3 to these bacteria varied only slightly (the 4-h EC50 ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 mg Ag/l), the 4-h EC50 values of protein-coated AgNPs for various bacterial strains differed remarkably, from 0.35 to 46 mg Ag/l. By systematically comparing the intracellular and extracellular free Ag+ liberated from AgNPs, we demonstrated that not only extracellular dissolution in the bacterial test environment but also additional dissolution taking place at the particle-cell interface played an essential role in antibacterial action of AgNPs. The role of the NP-cell contact in dictating the antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs was additionally proven by the following observations: (i) separation of bacterial cells from AgNPs by particle-impermeable membrane (cut-off 20 kDa, ?4 nm) significantly reduced the toxicity of AgNPs and (ii) P. aeruginosa cells which tended to attach onto AgNPs, exhibited the highest sensitivity to all forms of nanoparticulate Ag. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide new insights into the mode of antibacterial action of nanosilver and explain some discrepancies in this field, showing that “Ag-ion” and “particle-specific” mechanisms are not controversial but, rather, are two faces of the same coin. PMID:23737965

Bondarenko, Olesja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Kahru, Anne

2013-01-01

152

Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

2014-01-01

153

Antibacterial activities of Groebke-Blackburn-Bienaymé derived imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-amines  

PubMed Central

We sought to explore the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-amines for TLR7 (or 8)-modulatory activities. This chemotype, readily accessed via the Groebke-Blackburn-Bienaymé multi-component reaction, resulted in compounds that were TLR7/8-inactive, but exhibited bacteriostatic activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). To investigate the mechanism of antibacterial activity of this new chemotype, a resistant strain of S. aureus was generated by serially passaging the organism in escalating doses of the most active analogue. A comparison of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of known bacteriostatic agents in wild-type and resistant strains indicates a novel mechanism of action. Structure-activity relationship studies have led to the identification of positions on the scaffold for additional structural modifications that should allow for the introduction of probes designed to examine cognate binding partners and molecular targets, while not significantly compromising antibacterial potency. PMID:22925449

Shukla, Nikunj M.; Salunke, Deepak B.; Yoo, Euna; Mutz, Cole A.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; David, Sunil A.

2012-01-01

154

Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of fluoroquinolones containing bulky arenesulfonyl fragment: 2D-QSAR and docking study.  

PubMed

Here in, we report the design, synthesis, and antibacterial activity of series of bulky arenesulfonamido derivatives using ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin as scaffolds. All the synthesized compounds were investigated in vitro for their antibacterial activities against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative organisms using dilution broth method. Among the tested compounds examined, compounds 3-7 showed significance difference from the standard drug ciprofloxacin. 2D-QSAR study provides details on the fine relationship linking structure and activity and offers clues for structural modifications that can improve the activity. Docking study of the compound 3b into the active site of the topoisomerase II DNA-gyrase enzymes revealed a similar binding mode to ciprofloxacin with additional classical and nonclassical hydrogen bonds. PMID:21982337

Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A-M; Asiri, Yousif A; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H M

2011-11-01

155

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of CS-023 (RO4908463), a Novel Parenteral Carbapenem  

PubMed Central

CS-023 (RO4908463, formerly R-115685) is a novel 1?-methylcarbapenem with 5-substituted pyrrolidin-3-ylthio groups, including an amidine moiety at the C-2 position. Its antibacterial activity was tested against 1,214 clinical isolates of 32 species and was compared with those of imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ampicillin, amikacin, and levofloxacin. CS-023 exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and -negative aerobes and anaerobes, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP), ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CS-023 showed the most potent activity among the compounds tested against P. aeruginosa and MRSA, with MICs at which 90% of isolates tested were inhibited of 4 ?g/ml and 8 ?g/ml, respectively. CS-023 was stable against hydrolysis by the ?-lactamases from Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. CS-023 also showed potent activity against extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. The in vivo efficacy of CS-023 was evaluated with a murine systemic infection model induced by 13 strains of gram-positive and -negative pathogens and a lung infection model induced by 2 strains of PRSP (serotypes 6 and 19). Against the systemic infections with PRSP, MRSA, and P. aeruginosa and the lung infections, the efficacy of CS-023 was comparable to those of imipenem/cilastatin and vancomycin (tested against lung infections only) and superior to those of meropenem, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime (tested against P. aeruginosa infections only). These results suggest that CS-023 has potential for the treatment of nosocomial bacterial infections by gram-positive and -negative pathogens, including MRSA and P. aeruginosa. PMID:16048932

Koga, Tetsufumi; Abe, Tomomi; Inoue, Harumi; Takenouchi, Takashi; Kitayama, Akiko; Yoshida, Tatsuhiko; Masuda, Nobuhisa; Sugihara, Chika; Kakuta, Masayo; Nakagawa, Miyuki; Shibayama, Takahiro; Matsushita, Yoko; Hirota, Takashi; Ohya, Satoshi; Utsui, Yukio; Fukuoka, Takashi; Kuwahara, Syogo

2005-01-01

156

Glucosamine sulfate—environmental antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently showed antibacterial activity against E. coli in vitro of a trademark Mega-Gluflex-containing glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The purpose of this\\u000a study was to examine the antibacterial activity of GS as a new trademark Arthryl (Manufacturer Rottapharm Ltd, Ireland; Distributor\\u000a in Israel Rafa Laboratories Ltd) in vitro. We used cabbage and chicken broths and milk

Alexander P. Rozin

2009-01-01

157

Antibacterial activity and mechanism of a scorpion venom peptide derivative in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

BmKn2 is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch by our group. In this study, Kn2-7 was derived from BmKn2 to improve the antibacterial activity and decrease hemolytic activity. Kn2-7 showed increased inhibitory activity against both gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, Kn2-7 exhibited higher antibacterial activity against clinical antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In addition, the topical use of Kn2-7 effectively protected the skin of mice from infection in an S. aureus mouse skin infection model. Kn2-7 exerted its antibacterial activity via a bactericidal mechanism. Kn2-7 killed S. aureus and E. coli rapidly by binding to the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in the S. aureus cell wall and the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the E. coli cell wall, respectively. Finally, the hemolytic activity of Kn2-7 was significantly decreased, compared to the wild-type peptide BmKn2. Taken together, the Kn2-7 peptide can be developed as a topical therapeutic agent for treating bacterial infections. PMID:22792229

Cao, Luyang; Dai, Chao; Li, Zhongjie; Fan, Zheng; Song, Yu; Wu, Yingliang; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin

2012-01-01

158

Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of a Scorpion Venom Peptide Derivative In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

BmKn2 is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch by our group. In this study, Kn2-7 was derived from BmKn2 to improve the antibacterial activity and decrease hemolytic activity. Kn2-7 showed increased inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, Kn2-7 exhibited higher antibacterial activity against clinical antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In addition, the topical use of Kn2-7 effectively protected the skin of mice from infection in an S. aureus mouse skin infection model. Kn2-7 exerted its antibacterial activity via a bactericidal mechanism. Kn2-7 killed S. aureus and E. coli rapidly by binding to the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in the S. aureus cell wall and the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the E. coli cell wall, respectively. Finally, the hemolytic activity of Kn2-7 was significantly decreased, compared to the wild-type peptide BmKn2. Taken together, the Kn2-7 peptide can be developed as a topical therapeutic agent for treating bacterial infections. PMID:22792229

Li, Zhongjie; Fan, Zheng; Song, Yu; Wu, Yingliang; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin

2012-01-01

159

Antibacterial activity of two chalcones, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin, isolated from the root of Angelica keiskei KOIDZUMI.  

PubMed

Two chalcones, xanthoangelol (I) and 4-hydroxyderricin (II), isolated from the root of Angelica keiskei KOIDZUMI (Umbelliferae) showed antibacterial activity against gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. The activity of I on Micrococcus luteus IFO-12708 (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 0.76 microgram/ml) was the same potency as that of gentamicin, which is used as a standard. Although the activity of both chalcones on plant-pathogenic bacteria was lower than that of streptomycin sulfate, used as a positive control, they also exhibited growth-inhibitory effects. The antibacterial activity of I isolated from Angelica keiskei KOIDZUMI is being reported here for the first time. The growth-inhibitory effect of II on plant-pathogenic bacteria is also reported for the first time in this paper. PMID:1934181

Inamori, Y; Baba, K; Tsujibo, H; Taniguchi, M; Nakata, K; Kozawa, M

1991-06-01

160

Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity studies of thiazole derivatives as potent ecKAS III inhibitors.  

PubMed

Two series of thiazole derivatives containing amide skeleton were synthesized and developed as potent Escherichia coli ?-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (ecKAS III) inhibitors. All the 24 new synthesized compounds were assayed for antibacterial activity against the respective Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains, including E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. In which, 10 compounds with broad-spectrum antibacterial activities were further tested for their ecKAS III inhibitory activity. Last, we have successfully found that compound 4e showed both the promising broad antibacterial activity with MIC of 1.56-6.25?g/mL against the representative bacterial stains, and also processed the most potent ecKAS III inhibitory activity with IC50 of 5.3?M. In addition, docking simulation also carried out in this study to give a potent prediction binding mode between the small molecule and ecKAS III (PDB code: 1hnj) protein. PMID:23731945

Cheng, Kui; Xue, Jia-Yu; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2013-07-15

161

Rational Design of Berberine-Based FtsZ Inhibitors with Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of the functional activity of Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) protein, an essential and highly conserved bacterial cytokinesis protein, is a promising approach for the development of a new class of antibacterial agents. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid widely used in traditional Chinese and native American medicines for its antimicrobial properties, has been recently reported to inhibit FtsZ. Using a combination of in silico structure-based design and in vitro biological assays, 9-phenoxyalkyl berberine derivatives were identified as potent FtsZ inhibitors. Compared to the parent compound berberine, the derivatives showed a significant enhancement of antibacterial activity against clinically relevant bacteria, and an improved potency against the GTPase activity and polymerization of FtsZ. The most potent compound 2 strongly inhibited the proliferation of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with MIC values between 2 and 4 µg/mL, and was active against the Gram-negative E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with MIC values of 32 and 64 µg/mL respectively. The compound perturbed the formation of cytokinetic Z-ring in E. coli. Also, the compound interfered with in vitro polymerization of S. aureus FtsZ. Taken together, the chemical modification of berberine with 9-phenoxyalkyl substituent groups greatly improved the antibacterial activity via targeting FtsZ. PMID:24824618

Sun, Ning; Chan, Fung-Yi; Lu, Yu-Jing; Neves, Marco A. C.; Lui, Hok-Kiu; Wang, Yong; Chow, Ka-Yan; Chan, Kin-Fai; Yan, Siu-Cheong; Leung, Yun-Chung; Abagyan, Ruben; Chan, Tak-Hang; Wong, Kwok-Yin

2014-01-01

162

Regulation of Apoptosis by Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), is an important physiological mechanism, through which the human immune system regulates homeostasis and responds to diverse forms of cellular damage. PCD may also be involved in immune counteraction to microbial infection. Over the past decade, the amount of research on bacteria-induced PCD has grown tremendously, and the implications of this mechanism on immunity are being elucidated. Some pathogenic bacteria actively trigger the suicide response in critical lineages of leukocytes that orchestrate both the innate and adaptive immune responses; other bacteria proactively prevent PCD to benefit their own survival and persistence. Currently, the microbial virulence factors, which represent the keys to unlocking the suicide response in host cells, are a primary focus of this field. In this review, we discuss these bacterial “apoptosis regulatory molecules” and the apoptotic events they either trigger or prevent, the host target cells of this regulatory activity, and the possible ramifications for immunity to infection. Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Listeria, and Clostridia species are discussed as important agents of human infection that modulate PCD pathways in eukaryotic cells. PMID:19081777

Ulett, Glen C.; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

2008-01-01

163

Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The main components of C. cyminum oil were p-mentha-1,4-dien-7-al, cumin aldehyde, gamma-terpinene, and beta-pinene, while those of the C. carvi oil were carvone, limonene, germacrene D, and trans-dihydrocarvone. Antibacterial activity, determined with the agar diffusion method, was observed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in this study. The activity was particularly high against the genera Clavibacter, Curtobacterium, Rhodococcus, Erwinia, Xanthomonas, Ralstonia, and Agrobacterium, which are responsible for plant or cultivated mushroom diseases worldwide. In general, a lower activity was observed against bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. These results suggest the potential use of the above essential oils for the control of bacterial diseases. PMID:15631509

Iacobellis, Nicola S; Lo Cantore, Pietro; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

2005-01-12

164

Essential oil analysis and antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus tournefortii from Algeria.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus tournefortii De Noé. growing wild in the occidental region of Algeria were analyzed by GC/MS. Thirty-six compounds were characterized representing 95.6% of the essential oil, with camphor (37.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.0%), p-cymene-7-ol (7.8%), and borneol (5.4%) as the major components. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three pathogenic bacteria: Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; mg/mL) was determined by sub-culture on Muller Hinton agar plates. The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and was also active against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:22164796

Bendeddouche, Mansouria Souria; Benhassaini, Hachemi; Hazem, Zouaoui; Romane, Abderrahmane

2011-10-01

165

Novel ureas and thioureas of 15-membered azalides with antibacterial activity against key respiratory pathogens.  

PubMed

The new ureas and thioureas of 15-membered azalides, N''-substituted 9a-(N'-carbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl) (4), 9a-(N'-thiocarbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl) (6), 9a-[N'-(beta-cyanoethyl)-N'-(carbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl)] (8) and 9a-[N'-(beta-cyanoethyl)-N'-(thiocarbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl)] (10) of 9-deoxo-9-dihydro-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A (2), were synthesized and structurally characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopic methods and mass spectrometry. The new compounds were evaluated in vitro against a panel of erythromycin susceptible and erythromycin-resistant gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. These compounds displayed an excellent overall antibacterial in vitro activity against erythromycin sensitive gram-positive strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and good against negative strains, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae. In addition, several ureas with naphthyl substituents (4f, 4g, 4h) showed better activity in comparison to azithromycin against inducible resistant S. pyogenes. Ureas with naphthyl substituents 4g, 4h and thiourea 8h displayed moderate activity against constitutively resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:19303171

Bukvi? Krajaci?, Mirjana; Novak, Predrag; Dumi?, Miljenko; Cindri?, Mario; Paljetak, Hana Cipci?; Kujundzi?, Nedjeljko

2009-09-01

166

Antibacterial activity in four marine crustacean decapods.  

PubMed

A search for antibacterial activity in different body-parts of Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp), Pagurus bernhardus (hermit crab), Hyas araneus (spider crab) and Paralithodes camtschatica (king crab) was conducted. Dried samples were extracted with 60% (v/v) acetonitrile, containing 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, and further extracted and concentrated on C18 cartridges. Eluates from the solid phase extraction were tested for antibacterial, lysozyme and haemolytic activity. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Corynebacterium glutamicum and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in extracts from several tissues in all species tested, but mainly in the haemolymph and haemocyte extracts. V. anguillarum and C. glutamicum were generally the most sensitive micro-organisms. In P. borealis and P. bernhardus most of the active fractions were not affected by proteinase K treatment, while in H. araneus and P. camtschatica most fractions were sensitive to proteinase K treatment, indicating antibacterial factors of proteinaceous nature. In P. bernhardus the active fractions were generally heat labile, whereas in H. araneus the activities were resistant to heat. Differences between active extracts regarding hydrophobicity and sensitivity for heat and proteinase K treatment indicate that several compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activities detected. Lysozyme-like activity could be detected in some fractions and haemolytic activity against human red blood cells could be detected in haemolymph/haemocyte and exoskeleton extracts from all species tested. PMID:12194450

Haug, Tor; Kjuul, Anita K; Stensvåg, Klara; Sandsdalen, Erling; Styrvold, Olaf B

2002-05-01

167

[Treatment of multiresistant Gram positive endocarditis].  

PubMed

Epidemiology of infectious endocarditis has changed in last decades, endocarditis associated to hospital practices, sustained by multiresistant pathogens being highly increased. In particular, methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA), almost resistant to a number of other antimicrobial classes, often exhibit a reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (h-VISA) with MICs' values more e than 1 mg/l, leading to suppose a reduced therapeutic efficacy of this drug. Thirty-one percent of MRSA strains in the ICE study, which prospectively collected more than 5000 endocarditis, were h-VISA. Daptomycin shows a rapid bactericidal activity against both methicillin-susceptible staphylococcci (MSSA) and MRSA, included those strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Daptomycin shows a good therapeutic efficacy in staphylococcal endocarditis: MRSA 71%, MSSA 75%. These data suggest the use of daptomycin as initial therapy for treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis, independently from methcillin susceptibility. Some experimental data showed that daptomycin efficacy can diminish, if it is used as a rescue therapy after vancomycin failure. The thickness of bacterial cell-wall recognized in h-VISA strains can represent a physical and electrical barrier to reach both the vancomycin and daptomycin target site. However, the reduced efficacy of daptomycin following vancomycin exposure is an extremely rare event in the clinical practice. It is preferrable to use daptomycin as first line therapy, at a proper dosage. As far as endocarditis is concerned, recent data proved the excellent daptomycin tolerability, with dosages up to 8-10 mg/kg/die. During the treatment, CPK values must be always monitored. For endocarditis sustained by vancomycin-resistant enterococci, therapeutic choices are based on linezolid or ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination therapy. Daptomycin alone, or in association with gentamycin and rifampin, can represent a promising therapeutic alternative. PMID:19838095

Utili, R

2009-07-01

168

Evaluation of antibacterial activity on different solvent extracts of Euphorbia caracasana Boiss and Euphorbia cotinifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) collected in Venezuela (Evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana en extractos de diferentes solventes de Euphorbia caracasana Boiss y Euphorbia cotinifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) recolectadas en Venezuela)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Euphorbia caracasana Boiss and Euphorbia cotinifolia L. has been evaluated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria using the disc diffusion agar method. E. caracasana and E. cotinifolia leaves were extracted with isopropyl alcohol. These extracts, after concentration, were fractionated by column chromatography and selected fractions, based on their

Janne ROJAS; Judith VELASCO; Antonio MORALES; Tulia DÍAZ; Gina MECCIA

2008-01-01

169

Antibacterial activity in four marine crustacean decapods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for antibacterial activity in different body-parts of Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp), Pagurus bernhardus (hermit crab), Hyas araneus (spider crab) and Paralithodes camtschatica (king crab) was conducted. Dried samples were extracted with 60% (v\\/v) acetonitrile, containing 0·1% (v\\/v) trifluoroacetic acid, and further extracted and concentrated on C18 cartridges. Eluates from the solid phase extraction were tested for antibacterial, lysozyme

Tor Haug; Anita K. Kjuul; Klara Stensvåg; Erling Sandsdalen; Olaf B. Styrvold

2002-01-01

170

Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts.  

PubMed

Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:17420913

Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Varella, Antonio Drauzio; Younes, Riad Naim

2006-12-01

171

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CS-834, a novel oral carbapenem.  

PubMed Central

CS-834 is a novel oral carbapenem antibiotic. This compound is an ester-type prodrug of the active metabolite R-95867. The antibacterial activity of R-95867 was tested against 1,323 clinical isolates of 35 species and was compared with those of oral cephems, i.e., cefteram, cefpodoxime, cefdinir, and cefditoren, and that of a parenteral carbapenem, imipenem. R-95867 exhibited a broad spectrum of activity covering both gram-positive and -negative aerobes and anaerobes. Its activity was superior to those of the other compounds tested against most of the bacterial species tested. R-95867 showed potent antibacterial activity against clinically significant pathogens: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus including ofloxacin-resistant strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae including penicillin-resistant strains, Clostridium perfringens, Neisseria spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited, < or =0.006 to 0.78 microg/ml). R-95867 was quite stable to hydrolysis by most of the beta-lactamases tested except the metallo-beta-lactamases from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Bacteroides fragilis. R-95867 showed potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. Penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 4 of S. aureus and 1Bs, 2, 3, and 4 of E. coli had high affinities for R-95867. The in vivo efficacy of CS-834 was evaluated in murine systemic infections caused by 16 strains of gram-positive and -negative pathogens. The efficacy of CS-834 was in many cases superior to those of cefteram pivoxil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefdinir, and cefditoren pivoxil, especially against infections caused by S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris. Among the drugs tested, CS-834 showed the highest efficacy against experimental pneumonia in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:9420035

Fukuoka, T; Ohya, S; Utsui, Y; Domon, H; Takenouchi, T; Koga, T; Masuda, N; Kawada, H; Kakuta, M; Kubota, M; Ishii, C; Ishii, C; Sakagawa, E; Harasaki, T; Hirasawa, A; Abe, T; Yasuda, H; Iwata, M; Kuwahara, S

1997-01-01

172

Photodynamic inactivation of Gram-positive bacteria employing natural resources.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to investigate a collection of plant extracts from Argentina as a source of new natural photosensitizers (PS) to be used in Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) of bacteria. A collection of plants were screened for phototoxicity upon the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus epidermidis. Three extracts turned out to be photoactive: Solanum verbascifolium flower, Tecoma stans flower and Cissus verticillata root. Upon exposure to a light dose of 55J/cm(2), they induced 4, 2 and 3logs decrease in bacterial survival, respectively. Photochemical characterisation of S. verbascifolium extract was carried out. PDI reaction was dependent mainly on singlet oxygen and to a lesser extent, on hydroxyl radicals, through type II and I reactions. Photodegradation experiments revealed that the active principle of the extract was not particularly photolabile. It is noticeable that S. verbascifolium -PDI was more efficient under sunlight as compared to artificial light (total eradication vs. 4 logs decrease upon 120min of sunlight). The balance between oxidant and antioxidant compounds is likely to be masking or unmasking potential PS of plant extracts, but employing the crude extract, the level of photoactivity of S. verbascifolium is similar to some artificial PS upon exposure to sunlight, demonstrating that natural resources can be employed in PDI of bacteria. PMID:24705374

Mamone, L; Di Venosa, G; Gándara, L; Sáenz, D; Vallecorsa, P; Schickinger, S; Rossetti, M V; Batlle, A; Buzzola, F; Casas, A

2014-04-01

173

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of amidine derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as novel antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Current antibacterial chemotherapeutics are facing an alarming increase in bacterial resistance pressuring the search for novel agents that would expand the available therapeutic arsenal against resistant bacterial pathogens. In line with these efforts, a series of 9 amidine derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene were synthesized and, together with 18 previously synthesized analogs, evaluated for their relative DNA binding affinity, in vitro antibacterial activities and preliminary in vitro safety profile. Encouraging antibacterial activity of several subclasses of tested amidine derivatives against Gram-positive (including resistant MRSA, MRSE, VRE strains) and Gram-negative bacterial strains was observed. The bis-phenyl derivatives were the most antibacterially active, while compound 19 from bis-benzimidazole class exhibited the widest spectrum of activity (with MIC of 4, 2, 0.5 and ?0.25 ?g/ml against laboratory strains of Staphyloccocus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, respectively and 4-32 ?g/ml against clinical isolates of sensitive and resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecium) and also demonstrated the strongest DNA binding affinity (?Tm of 15.4 °C). Asymmetrically designed compounds and carboxamide-amidines were, in general, less active. Molecular docking indicated that the shape of the 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and their ability to form multiple electrostatic and hydrogen bonds with DNA, corresponds to the binding modes of other minor-groove binders. Herein reported results encourage further investigation of this class of compounds as novel antibacterial DNA binding agents. PMID:25461312

Stoli?, Ivana; ?ip?i? Paljetak, Hana; Peri?, Mihaela; Matijaši?, Mario; Stepani?, Višnja; Verbanac, Donatella; Baji?, Miroslav

2015-01-27

174

Gram-positive bacterial resistance: future treatment options.  

PubMed

Gram-positive infections are a major burden on patients and healthcare systems globally, and the need to treat these infections correctly in an empirical manner has become paramount. Further complicating this changing etiology is the emergence of resistant strains which are no longer predictably susceptible to standard first-line antimicrobials such as oxacillin or vancomycin. Thus, new agents such as linezolid have been developed to alleviate the 'guesswork' of initial empirical prescribing in infections where Gram-positive pathogens may be present. Future agents also being developed for multiresistant Gram-positive infections include evernimicin antibiotics, daptomycin, oritavancin, glycylcyclines and novel broad-spectrum cephalosporins; however, these are still in the development phase. PMID:14508878

Bassetti, Matteo; Melica, Giovanna; Di Biagio, Antonio; Rosso, Raffaella; Gatti, Giorgio; Bassetti, Dante

2003-08-01

175

Microbial reactions on 7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide and evaluation of biotransformed products for antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

7alpha-Hydroxyfrullanolide (1), a known sesquiterpenoid, was isolated from Sphaeranthus indicus using an antibacterial-activity-directed fractionation method. This compound had exhibited a significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Chemical and microbial reactions were performed to prepare eight different analogues of compound 1 in order to evaluate these newly synthesized compounds for antibacterial activity. These compounds were 1beta,7alpha-dihydroxyfrullanolide (2), 7alpha-hydroxy-1-oxofrullanolide (3), 4,5-dihydro-7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide (4), 11,13-dihydro-7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide (5), 13-acetyl-7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide (6), 2alpha,7alpha-dihydroxysphaerantholide (7), 4alpha,5alpha-epoxy-7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide (8), and 4beta,5beta-epoxy-7alpha-hydroxyfrullanolide (9). Microbial reactions on 1 using whole-cell cultures of Cunninghamella echinulata and Curvularia lunata yielded compounds 2-4. Incubation of compound 1 with the liquid cultures of Apsergillus niger and Rhizopus circinans yielded metabolites 5-7, while 8 and 9 were prepared by carrying out an epoxidation reaction on 1 using meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (mCPBA). Structures of compounds 2-9 were elucidated with the aid of extensive NMR spectral studies. Compounds 2-4 were found to be new metabolites. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for antibacterial activity and found to exhibit a wide range of bioactivities. Antibacterial-activity data of 1-9 suggested that the bioactivity of 1 is largely due to the presence of C4=C5, C11=C13, and a gamma-lactone moiety. PMID:19774607

Ata, Athar; Betteridge, Jordan; Schaub, Emmanuel; Kozera, Daniel J; Holloway, Paul; Samerasekera, Radhika

2009-09-01

176

Antibiotic-decorated titanium with enhanced antibacterial activity through adhesive polydopamine for dental/bone implant.  

PubMed

Implant-associated infections, which are normally induced by microbial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, practical approaches to prevent implant-associated infections are in great demand. Inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, here we have developed a novel antibiotic-decorated titanium (Ti) material with enhanced antibacterial activity. In this study, Ti substrate was coated by one-step pH-induced polymerization of dopamine followed by immobilization of the antibiotic cefotaxime sodium (CS) onto the polydopamine-coated Ti through catechol chemistry. Contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of CS grafted on the Ti surface. Our results demonstrated that the antibiotic-grafted Ti substrate showed good biocompatibility and well-behaved haemocompatibility. In addition, the antibiotic-grafted Ti could effectively prevent adhesion and proliferation of Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive). Moreover, the inhibition of biofilm formation on the antibiotic-decorated Ti indicated that the grafted CS could maintain its long-term antibacterial activity. This modified Ti substrate with enhanced antibacterial activity holds great potential as implant material for applications in dental and bone graft substitutes. PMID:24647910

He, Shu; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Linxin; Xiong, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yifei; Deng, Yi; Wei, Shicheng

2014-06-01

177

Antibacterial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized with gum ghatti and gum olibanum: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Presently, silver nanoparticles produced by biological methods have received considerable significance owing to the natural abundance of renewable, cost-effective and biodegradable materials, thus implementing the green chemistry principles. Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized using chemical methods, most biogenic silver nanoparticles are protein capped, which imparts stability and biocompatibility, and enhanced antibacterial activity. In this study, we compared the antibacterial effect of two biogenic silver nanoparticles produced with natural plant gums: gum ghatti and gum olibanum against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Bacterial interaction with nanoparticles was probed both in planktonic and biofilm modes of growth; employing solid agar and liquid broth assays for inhibition zone, antibiofilm activity, inhibition of growth kinetics, leakage of intracellular contents, membrane permeabilization and reactive oxygen species production. In addition, cytotoxicity of the biogenic nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa cells, a human carcinoma cell line. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles synthesized with gum ghatti (Ag NP-GT) was greater than that produced with gum olibanum (Ag NP-OB). This could be attributed to the smaller size (5.7?nm), monodispersity and zeta potential of the Ag NP-GT. The study suggests that Ag NP-GT can be employed as a cytotoxic bactericidal agent, whereas Ag NP-OB (7.5?nm) as a biocompatible bactericidal agent.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 20 August 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2014.114. PMID:25138141

Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Sashidhar, Rao Beedu

2014-08-20

178

Assessment of Total Phenolic, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activities of Passiflora Species  

PubMed Central

This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses. PMID:25028673

Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah

2014-01-01

179

Assessment of total phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of Passiflora species.  

PubMed

This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses. PMID:25028673

Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah

2014-01-01

180

Wall Teichoic Acids of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The peptidoglycan layers of many gram-positive bacteria are densely functionalized with anionic glycopolymers called wall teichoic acids (WTAs). These polymers play crucial roles in cell shape determination, regulation of cell division, and other fundamental aspects of gram-positive bacterial physiology. Additionally, WTAs are important in pathogenesis and play key roles in antibiotic resistance. We provide an overview of WTA structure and biosynthesis, review recent studies on the biological roles of these polymers, and highlight remaining questions. We also discuss prospects for exploiting WTA biosynthesis as a target for new therapies to overcome resistant infections. PMID:24024634

Brown, Stephanie; Santa Maria, John P.; Walker, Suzanne

2013-01-01

181

Activity of nine oral agents against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria encountered in community-acquired infections: Use of pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic breakpoints in the comparative assessment of beta-lactam and macrolide antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The application of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data in conjunction with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibacterial agents has been shown to allow for improved selection and appropriate dosing of antimicrobial agents for specific infections, increasing the likelihood of bacteriologic cure and, through this, reducing the risk for the development of resistant organisms.Objectives: This study was undertaken to

Mihaela Peric; Frederick A Browne; Michael R Jacobs; Peter C Appelbaum

2003-01-01

182

Distinct localization of the complement C5b-9 complex on Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The plasma proteins of the complement system fulfil important immune defence functions, including opsonization of bacteria for phagocytosis, generation of chemo-attractants and direct bacterial killing via the Membrane Attack Complex (MAC or C5b-9). The MAC is comprised of C5b, C6, C7, C8, and multiple copies of C9 that generate lytic pores in cellular membranes. Gram-positive bacteria are protected from MAC-dependent lysis by their thick peptidoglycan layer. Paradoxically, several Gram-positive pathogens secrete small proteins that inhibit C5b-9 formation. In this study, we found that complement activation on Gram-positive bacteria in serum results in specific surface deposition of C5b-9 complexes. Immunoblotting revealed that C9 occurs in both monomeric and polymeric (SDS-stable) forms, indicating the presence of ring-structured C5b-9. Surprisingly, confocal microscopy demonstrated that C5b-9 deposition occurs at specialized regions on the bacterial cell. On Streptococcus pyogenes, C5b-9 deposits near the division septum whereas on Bacillus subtilis the complex is located at the poles. This is in contrast to C3b deposition, which occurs randomly on the bacterial surface. Altogether, these results show a previously unrecognized interaction between the C5b-9 complex and Gram-positive bacteria, which might ultimately lead to a new model of MAC assembly and functioning. PMID:23869880

Berends, Evelien T M; Dekkers, Johanna F; Nijland, Reindert; Kuipers, Annemarie; Soppe, Jasper A; van Strijp, Jos A G; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M

2013-12-01

183

Functional synergy of ?-helical antimicrobial peptides and traditional antibiotics against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

In this study, the antimicrobial activities based on the synergistic effects of traditional antibiotics (imipenem, cefepime, levofloxacin hydrochloride and vancomycin) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs; PL-5, PL-31, PL-32, PL-18, PL-29 and PL-26), alone or in combination, against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were investigated. In addition, the antimicrobial activity that was based on the synergistic effects of levofloxacin hydrochloride and PL-5 against Staphylococcus aureus in vivo was explored in a mouse infection model. Traditional antibiotics and AMPs showed significant synergistic effects on the antibacterial activities against the different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vitro. A strong synergistic effect in the PL-5 and levofloxacin hydrochloride combination against Staphylococcus aureus was observed in the mouse infection model in vivo. The mechanism of synergistic action was due to the different targets of AMPs and traditional antibiotics. The combination of AMPs and traditional antibiotics can dramatically enhance antimicrobial activity and may help prevent or delay the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Thus, this combination therapy could be a promising approach to treat bacterial infections, particularly mixed infections and multi-antibiotic-resistant infections, in the clinics. PMID:25169965

Feng, Q; Huang, Y; Chen, M; Li, G; Chen, Y

2015-01-01

184

New indolicidin analogues with potent antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Indolicidin is a 13-residue antimicrobial peptide amide, ILPWKWPWWPWRR-NH2, isolated from the cytoplasmic granules of bovine neutrophils. Indolicidin is active against a wide range of microorganisms and has also been shown to be haemolytic and cytotoxic towards erythrocytes and human T lymphocytes. The aim of the present paper is two-fold. First, we examine the importance of tryptophan in the antibacterial activity of indolicidin. We prepared five peptide analogues with the format ILPXKXPXXPXRR-NH2 in which Trp-residues 4,6,8,9,11 were replaced in all positions with X = a single non-natural building block; N-substituted glycine residue or nonproteinogenic amino acid. The analogues were tested for antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus American type culture collection (ATCC) 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. We found that tryptophan is not essential in the antibacterial activity of indolicidin, and even more active analogues were obtained by replacing tryptophan with non-natural aromatic amino acids. Using this knowledge, we then investigated a new principle for improving the antibacterial activity of small peptides. Our approach involves changing the hydrophobicity of the peptide by modifying the N-terminus with a hydrophobic non-natural building block. We prepared 22 analogues of indolicidin and [Phe(4,6,8,9,11)] indolicidin, 11 of each, carrying a hydrophobic non-natural building block attached to the N-terminus. Several active antibacterial analogues were identified. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the analogues against sheep erythrocytes was assessed in a haemolytic activity assay. The results presented here suggest that modified analogues of antibacterial peptides, containing non-natural building blocks, are promising lead structures for developing future therapeutics. PMID:15485555

Ryge, T S; Doisy, X; Ifrah, D; Olsen, J E; Hansen, P R

2004-11-01

185

Hierarchical-structured anatase-titania/cellulose composite sheet with high photocatalytic performance and antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Bulk hierarchical anatase-titania/cellulose composite sheets were fabricated by subjecting an ultrathin titania gel film pre-deposited filter paper to a solvo-co-hydrothermal treatment by using titanium butoxide as the precursor to grow anatase-titania nanocrystallites on the cellulose nanofiber surfaces. The titanium butoxide specie is firstly absorbed onto the nanofibers of the cellulose substance through a solvothermal process, which was thereafter hydrolyzed and crystallized upon the subsequent hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of fine anatase-titania nanoparticles with sizes of 2-5?nm uniformly anchored on the cellulose nanofibers. The resulting anatase-titania/cellulose composite sheet shows a significant photocatalytic performance towards degradation of a methylene blue dye, and introduction of silver nanoparticles into the composite sheet yields an Ag-NP/anatase-titania/cellulose composite material possessing excellent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25487409

Luo, Yan; Huang, Jianguo

2015-02-01

186

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract. It is observed that Abutilon indicum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 15 min of reaction time. The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis. The mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles was calculated from the XRD pattern. FT-IR spectra of the leaf extract after the development of nanoparticles are determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The AgNPs thus obtained showed highly potent antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. PMID:24997264

Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

2015-01-01

187

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract. It is observed that Abutilon indicum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 15 min of reaction time. The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis. The mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles was calculated from the XRD pattern. FT-IR spectra of the leaf extract after the development of nanoparticles are determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The AgNPs thus obtained showed highly potent antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) microorganisms.

Ashokkumar, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Velmurugan, S.

2015-01-01

188

Bioinspired synthesis of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. We herein reports bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of novel, non toxic ecofriendly biological material namely Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract. It acts as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ˜450 nm in the UV-visible spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded to study excitation and emission. TEM and PSD by dynamic light scattering studies showed that size of silver nanoparticles to be in range 25-40 nm. Face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles are confirmed by SAED pattern. The charge on synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by zeta potential. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity against three different strains of bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Corney bacterium (gram positive), Bacillus substilus (spore forming).

Patil, Rupali S.; Kokate, Mangesh R.; Kolekar, Sanjay S.

2012-06-01

189

Biosynthesis of Peptide Signals in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacteria coordinate social behavior by sensing the extracellular level of peptide signals. These signals are biosynthesized through divergent pathways and some possess unusual functional chemistry as a result of posttranslational modifications. In this chapter, the biosynthetic pathways of Bacillus intracellular signaling peptides, Enterococcus pheromones, Bacillus subtilis competence pheromones, and cyclic peptide signals from Staphylococcus and other bacteria are covered.

Matthew Thoendel; Alexander R. Horswill

2010-01-01

190

Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides, or AMPs, play a significant role in many environments as a tool to remove competing organisms. In response, many bacteria have evolved mechanisms to resist these peptides and prevent AMP-mediated killing. The development of AMP resistance mechanisms is driven by direct competition between bacterial species, as well as host and pathogen interactions. Akin to the number of different AMPs found in nature, resistance mechanisms that have evolved are just as varied and may confer broad-range resistance or specific resistance to AMPs. Specific mechanisms of AMP resistance prevent AMP-mediated killing against a single type of AMP, while broad resistance mechanisms often lead to a global change in the bacterial cell surface and protect the bacterium from a large group of AMPs that have similar characteristics. AMP resistance mechanisms can be found in many species of bacteria and can provide a competitive edge against other bacterial species or a host immune response. Gram-positive bacteria are one of the largest AMP producing groups, but characterization of Gram-positive AMP resistance mechanisms lags behind that of Gram-negative species. In this review we present a summary of the AMP resistance mechanisms that have been identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria. Understanding the mechanisms of AMP resistance in Gram-positive species can provide guidelines in developing and applying AMPs as therapeutics, and offer insight into the role of resistance in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:25419466

McBride, Shonna M.

2014-01-01

191

Screening genomes of Gram-positive bacteria for  

E-print Network

Screening genomes of Gram-positive bacteria for double-glycine-motif- containing peptides Secreted-positive bacteria, the double-glycine (GG) motif plays a key role in many peptide secretion systems involved Microbiology Comment #12;peptides and class II bacteriocins, produced by streptococci and lactic acid bacteria

192

Nitric oxide integrated polyethylenimine-based tri-block copolymer for efficient antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

The work demonstrated a successful synthesis of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing material and its antibacterial effect on Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The polymeric support composed of thermosensitive Pluronic F68 having good biocompatibility and branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) housed N-diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) which could store and release NO under appropriate physiological condition. The developed F68-BPEI-NONOates releases a sufficient amount of NO under physiological condition to elicit effective killing of E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. The antibacterial ability of the released NO was compared to untreated control or unmodified F68 polymer by using confocal microscopy; F68-BPEI-NONOates demonstrated excellent antibacterial activity with in vitro low cytotoxicity. TEM investigation also revealed the destruction of bacteria membrane caused by NO. The effectiveness of F68-BPEI-NONOates against resistant strains such as MRSA provides a very simple but highly efficient strategy to combat drug-resistant bacterial infections. PMID:23932499

Park, Junghong; Kim, Jihoon; Singha, Kaushik; Han, Dong-Keun; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Won Jong

2013-11-01

193

Enhanced antibacterial activity of bimetallic gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles at low silver concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure.Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10703h

Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Sharma, Shilpa; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

2011-12-01

194

Antibacterial activity of selected Malaysian honey  

PubMed Central

Background Antibacterial activity of honey is mainly dependent on a combination of its peroxide activity and non-peroxide components. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were performed for semi-quantitative evaluation. Agar well diffusion assay was used to investigate peroxide and non-peroxide activities of honey. Results The results showed that gelam honey possessed lowest MIC value against S. aureus with 5% (w/v) MIC and MBC of 6.25% (w/v). Highest MIC values were shown by pineapple honey against E. coli and P. aeruginosa as well as acacia honey against E. coli with 25% (w/v) MIC and 50% (w/v) MBC values. Agar inhibition assay showed kelulut honey to possess highest total antibacterial activity against S. aureus with 26.49 equivalent phenol concentrations (EPC) and non-peroxide activity of 25.74 EPC. Lowest antibacterial activity was observed in acacia honey against E. coli with total activity of 7.85 EPC and non-peroxide activity of 7.59 EPC. There were no significant differences (p?>?0.05) between the total antibacterial activities and non-peroxide activities of Malaysian honey. The intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC of E. coli (r?=?-0.8559) was high while that between MIC and EPC of P. aeruginosa was observed to be moderate (r?=?-0.6469). S. aureus recorded a smaller correlation towards the opposite direction (r?=?0.5045). In contrast, B.cereus showed a very low intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC (r?=?-0.1482). Conclusions Malaysian honey, namely gelam, kelulut and tualang, have high antibacterial potency derived from total and non-peroxide activities, which implies that both peroxide and other constituents are mutually important as contributing factors to the antibacterial property of honey. PMID:23758747

2013-01-01

195

Priming the tooth surface with chlorhexidine and antibacterial activity of resin cement  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the effect of priming the tooth surface with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on antibacterial activity of resin cement. METHODS: Ten patients in whom a single missing tooth was present on both the right and left side in the upper or lower arch were selected. Two fixed partial dentures (FPDs) in each patient on the right and left side were planned. Each FPD was assigned either to the control or test group. In the control group, FPD was luted with resin cement and in the test group, the tooth surface was primed with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate before luting with resin cement. Bacteriological samples were collected at base line level, as the patient came to the outpatient department before the start of any treatment, 5 wk prior to cementation of FPD and at 13 wk (8 wk after final cementation). Microbiological processing of all samples was done and the results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: In the test group, a predominance of aerobic/facultative gram positive cocci rod was seen which indicates a healthy periodontal site, whereas in the control group, a predominance of anaerobic gram negative rods was present which indicates an unhealthy periodontal condition. This is evident by the fact that the anaerobic bacteria percentage in the control sample is 57% and 15% in the test sample after 13 wk, whereas the aerobic/facultative bacteria percentage is 43% in the control sample and 85% in the test sample after 13 wk. The percentage of gram negative bacteria in the control sample is 61% and in the test sample is 20% after 13 wk, whereas the percentage of gram positive bacteria in the control sample is 39% and in the test sample is 80% after 13 wk. The shift from anaerobic gram negative bacteria to aerobic gram positive bacteria is clearly seen from the control to test sample after 13 wk. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that priming the tooth surface with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate may enhance antibacterial activity of the resin cement. PMID:24340277

Saini, Monika; Singh, Yashpal; Garg, Rishabh; Pandey, Anita

2013-01-01

196

Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 ?g/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 ?g/ml and 15.88 ?g/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:23110485

2012-01-01

197

Antibacterial activity of Turkish spice hydrosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antibacterial activity of the hydrosols of (distilled spice water) sixteen spices (anise, basil, cumin, dalamagia sage, dill, fennel, laurel, mint, oregano, pickling herb, rosemary, sage, summer savory, seafennel, sumac and black thyme) were tested on fifteen bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 23842, B. brevis FMC 3, B. cereus FMC 19, B. subtilis var. niger ATCC 10, Enterobacter aerogenes

Osman Sa?d?ç; Musa Özcan

2003-01-01

198

Antibacterial Activity of Honey on Cariogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objective: Honey has antibacterial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, solutions containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50% and 100%(w/v) of natural Hamadan honey were prepared. Each blood (nutrient) agar plate was then filled with dilutions of the honey. The strains of bacteria were inoculated in blood agar for 24 hours at 37°C and were adjusted according to the McFarland scale (10×10 cfumcl?1). All assays were repeated 10 times for each of the honey concentrations. Data were analyzed by non parametric Chi-Square test. Statistical significance was set at ?=0.05. Results: Significant antibacterial activity was detected for honey on Streptococcus mutans in concentrations more than 20% and on Lactobacillus in 100% concentration (P<0.05). Conclusion: It seems that antibacterial activity of honey could be used for prevention and reduction of dental caries. PMID:23724198

Ahmadi – Motamayel, Fatemeh; Hendi, Seyedeh Sare; Alikhani, Mohammad Yusof; Khamverdi, Zahra

2013-01-01

199

Daptomycin: a novel lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive pathogens  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to summarize the historical background of drug resistance of Gram-positive pathogens as well as to describe in detail the novel lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic aspects are reviewed and the current clinical use of daptomycin is presented. Daptomycin seems to be a reliable drug in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, infective right-sided endocarditis, and bacteremia caused by Gram-positive agents. Its unique mechanism of action and its low resistance profile, together with its rapid bactericidal action make it a favorable alternative to vancomycin in multi-drug resistant cocci. The role of daptomycin in the treatment of prosthetic material infections, osteomyelitis, and urogenital infections needs to be evaluated in randomized clinical trials. PMID:21694898

Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Vogt, Ferdinand; Sodian, Ralf; Weis, Florian

2010-01-01

200

Antibacterial activity of a cell wall hydrolase from Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314 produced by recombinant Bacillus megaterium.  

PubMed

The cell-free supernatant (CFS) from Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-50314 culture has been previously reported as containing antibacterial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. The CFS protein gel slice corresponding to antibacterial activities was subjected to trypsin digestion and ion trap MASS (Gel/LC-MS/MS) analysis. BlastP search of the resulted IQAVISIAEQQIGKP sequence led to a hypothetical cell-wall associated hydrolase (designated as CWH here) from Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 25302. Further analyses of CWH revealed that the IQAVISIAEQQIGKP belongs to a highly conserved region of the NlpC/P60 superfamily. The L. paracasei NRRL B-50314 CWH gene, cloned in pStrepHIS1525CWH477, was introduced into Bacillus megaterium MS 941. The production of CWH477 protein was induced by xylose. The CWH477 protein was purified by using NiNTA column, and elution fraction E2 showed highest antibacterial activity. This study and bioinformatics analyses suggested that the antibacterial activity of CWH could originate from its cell wall degrading enzymatic function. PMID:25533632

Liu, Siqing; Rich, Joseph O; Anderson, Amber

2015-02-01

201

Antibacterial activity of nanosilver ions and particles.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of nanosilver against Gram negative Escherichia coli bacteria is investigated by immobilizing nanosilver on nanostructured silica particles and closely controlling Ag content and size. These Ag/SiO(2) nanoparticles were characterized by S/TEM, EDX spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction the exposed Ag surface area was measured qualitatively by O(2) chemisorption. Furthermore, the fraction of dissolved nanosilver was determined by measuring the released (leached) Ag(+) ion concentration in aqueous suspensions of such Ag/SiO(2) particles. The antibacterial effect of Ag(+) ions was distinguished from that of nanosilver particles by monitoring the growth of E. coli populations in the presence and absence of Ag/SiO(2) particles. The antibacterial activity of nanosilver was dominated by Ag(+) ions when fine Ag nanoparticles (less than about 10 nm in average diameter) were employed that release high concentrations of Ag(+) ions. In contrast, when relatively larger Ag nanoparticles were used, the concentration of the released Ag(+) ions was lower. Then the antibacterial activity of the released Ag(+) ions and nanosilver particles was comparable. PMID:20583805

Sotiriou, Georgios A; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

2010-07-15

202

Virulence Plasmids of Nonsporulating Gram-Positive Pathogens  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Gram-positive bacteria are leading causes of many types of human infection, including pneumonia, skin and nasopharyngeal infections, as well as urinary tract and surgical wound infections among hospitalized patients. These infections have become particularly problematic because many of the species causing them have become highly resistant to antibiotics. The role of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-positive bacteria has been well studied; less well understood is the role of mobile elements in the evolution and spread of virulence traits among these pathogens. While these organisms are leading agents of infection, they are also prominent members of the human commensal ecology. It appears that these bacteria are able to take advantage of the intimate association between host and commensal, via virulence traits that exacerbate infection and cause disease. However, evolution into an obligate pathogen has not occurred, presumably because it would lead to rejection of pathogenic organisms from the host ecology. Instead, in organisms that exist as both commensal and pathogen, selection has favored the development of mechanisms for variability. As a result, many virulence traits are localized on mobile genetic elements, such as virulence plasmids and pathogenicity islands. Virulence traits may occur within a minority of isolates of a given species, but these minority populations have nonetheless emerged as a leading problem in infectious disease. This chapter reviews virulence plasmids in nonsporulating Gram-positive bacteria, and examines their contribution to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25544937

Van Tyne, Daria; Gilmore, Michael S.

2014-01-01

203

Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Adonis wolgensis L. extract  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydro-methanolic extract of Adonis wolgensis L. (A. wolgensis L.) growing wild in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Oils of A. wolgensis L. was obtained by means of Soxhlet apparatus from leaves and stems. Methyl esters were derived from the oily mixtures by trans-esterification process and were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS systems. Phenolic compounds extraction was done with aqueous methanol (90%). This extract was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods and was also tested against a panel of microorganisms. Results: Linolenic acid (45.83%) and oleic acid (47.54%) were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stems, respectively. Hydro-methanolic extract with the high amount of total phenolics (9.20 ±0.011 mg GAE per dry matter) was the potent antioxidant in the assays. Results obtained from measurements of MIC for extract, indicated that E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, but no activity was observed against Gram-positive microorganism (B. subtilis). Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that the oil of A. wolgensis leaves and stems contained a high source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also showed that hydro-methanolic extract of this plant contained significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25050298

Mohadjerani, Maryam; Tavakoli, Rahmatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman

2014-01-01

204

Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable films prepared from Schiff bases of zein.  

PubMed

Pure zein is known to be very hydrophobic, but is still inappropriate for coating and film applications because of their brittle nature. In an attempt to improve the flexibility and the antimicrobial activity of these coatings and films, Chemical modification of zein through forming Schiff bases with different phenolic aldhydes was tried. Influence of this modifications on mechanical, topographical, wetting properties and antimicrobial activity of zein films were evaluated. The chemical structure of the Schiff bases films were characterized by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The results indicate an improvement in mechanical properties with chemically modification of zein to form Schiff bases leading to a reduction in the elastic modulus. An increase in the elongation at break has been observed, but with slight influence on tensile strength. Plasticized zein films have similar initial contact angle (?40°). An increase in reaction temperature and time increases film's affinity towards water. As shown by contact angle measurements, a noticeable relation was found between film composition and the hydrophilicity. Surface topography also varied by forming Schiff bases, becoming rougher than zein-based films. The antibacterial activities of zein and Schiff bases of zein-based films were investigated against gram-positive bacteria (Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium sporogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica). It was found that the antibacterial activity of the Schiff bases-based films was more effective than that of zein-based films. PMID:25328181

Soliman, E A; Khalil, A A; Deraz, S F; El-Fawal, G; Elrahman, S Abd

2014-10-01

205

Biological Characterization of Novel Inhibitors of the Gram-Positive DNA Polymerase IIIC Enzyme  

PubMed Central

Novel N-3-alkylated 6-anilinouracils have been identified as potent and selective inhibitors of bacterial DNA polymerase IIIC, the enzyme essential for the replication of chromosomal DNA in gram-positive bacteria. A nonradioactive assay measuring the enzymatic activity of the DNA polymerase IIIC in gram-positive bacteria has been assembled. The 6-anilinouracils described inhibited the polymerase IIIC enzyme at concentrations in the nanomolar range in this assay and displayed good in vitro activity (according to their MICs) against staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. The MICs of the most potent derivatives were about 4 ?g/ml for this panel of bacteria. The 50% effective dose of the best compound (6-[(3-ethyl-4-methylphenyl)amino]-3-{[1-(isoxazol-5-ylcarbonyl)piperidin-4-yl]methyl}uracil) was 10 mg/kg of body weight after intravenous application in a staphylococcal sepsis model in mice, from which in vivo pharmacokinetic data were also acquired. PMID:15728893

Kuhl, Alexander; Svenstrup, Niels; Ladel, Christoph; Otteneder, Michael; Binas, Annegret; Schiffer, Guido; Brands, Michael; Lampe, Thomas; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Rübsamen-Waigmann, Helga; Haebich, Dieter; Ehlert, Kerstin

2005-01-01

206

Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinedione derivatives as antibacterial agents  

PubMed Central

Several thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinediones have been synthesized and examined for antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Two compounds displayed potent activity (2–16 mg/L) against multi-drug resistant Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin, vancomycin-intermediate, and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, VISA, VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Only one of these agents possessed moderate activity (16–32 mg/L) against Gram-negative strains. An examination of the cytotoxicity of these agents revealed that they displayed low toxicity (40–50 mg/L) against mammalian cell and very low hemolytic activity (2–7%). Taken together, these studies suggest that thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinediones are interesting scaffolds for the development of novel Gram-positive antibacterial agents. PMID:22405289

Dewal, Mahender B.; Wani, Amit S.; Vidaillac, Celine; Oupicky, David; Rybak, Michael J.

2012-01-01

207

Synthesis, structure-activity relationship studies, and antibacterial evaluation of 4-chromanones and chalcones, as well as olympicin A and derivatives.  

PubMed

On the basis of recently reported abyssinone II and olympicin A, a series of chemically modified flavonoid phytochemicals were synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a panel of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Some of the synthesized compounds exhibited good antibacterial activities against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration as low as 0.39 ?g/mL. SAR analysis revealed that the 2-hydrophobic substituent and the 4-hydrogen bond donor/acceptor of the 4-chromanone scaffold together with the hydroxy groups at 5- and 7-positions enhanced antibacterial activities; the 2',4'-dihydroxylated A ring and the lipophilic substituted B ring of chalcone derivatives were pharmacophoric elements for antibacterial activities. Mode of action studies performed on selected compounds revealed that they dissipated the bacterial membrane potential, resulting in the inhibition of macromolecular biosynthesis; further studies showed that selected compounds inhibited DNA topoisomerase IV, suggesting complex mechanisms of actions for compounds in this series. PMID:25238443

Feng, Li; Maddox, Marcus M; Alam, Md Zahidul; Tsutsumi, Lissa S; Narula, Gagandeep; Bruhn, David F; Wu, Xiaoqian; Sandhaus, Shayna; Lee, Robin B; Simmons, Charles J; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching; Hurdle, Julian G; Lee, Richard E; Sun, Dianqing

2014-10-23

208

Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities. PMID:23569748

Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada

2011-04-01

209

Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity  

PubMed Central

Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities. PMID:23569748

Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada

2011-01-01

210

Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities.

Faezeh, Fatema; Salome, Dini; Abolfazl, Dadkhah; Reza, Zolfaghari Mohammad

2015-01-01

211

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of a new quinolone, OPC-17116.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of OPC-17116 were compared with those of ofloxacin, enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, and tosufloxacin. The MICs of OPC-17116 for 90% of the strains tested were 0.125 to 8 micrograms/ml against gram-positive bacteria such as members of the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus: less than or equal to 0.063 to 16 micrograms/ml against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae; and less than or equal to 0.063 to 16 micrograms/ml against glucose-nonfermentative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The activity of OPC-17116 against gram-positive organisms was comparable to that of tosufloxacin and higher than those of other reference drugs. The in vitro activity of OPC-17116 against gram-negative bacteria was similar to those of the reference drugs. In experimental systemic infections in mice with various organisms, the efficacy of OPC-17116 was similar to that of tosufloxacin and greater than those of ofloxacin, enoxacin, and ciprofloxacin. In a pyelonephritic model in mice with P. aeruginosa KU-1, OPC-17116 was as active as ciprofloxacin and more active than ofloxacin, enoxacin, and tosufloxacin. In respiratory tract infections in mice with Staphylococcus aureus Smith, Streptococcus pneumoniae TMS 3, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 3K25, the efficacy of OPC-17116 was generally greater than that of tosufloxacin. The peak level of OPC-17116 in the lungs of mice was 10 times higher than that in serum and was significantly greater than levels in lung achieved with an equivalent dose of the other quinolones. The therapeutic efficacy of OPC-17116 may depend not only on its in vitro activity but also on its high concentration in tissue. PMID:1320364

Imada, T; Miyazaki, S; Nishida, M; Yamaguchi, K; Goto, S

1992-01-01

212

Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Piperaceae extracts and nisin on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.  

PubMed

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a gram-positive aerobic bacterium. This bacterium resists pasteurization temperatures and low pH and is usually involved in the spoilage of juices and acidic drinks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of nisin and the species Piper (Piperaceae) on A. acidoterrestris. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the broth microdilution method. The species Piper aduncum had the lowest MIC and an MBC of 15.6 ?g/mL and was selected for fractionation. Six fractions were obtained, and the dichloromethane fraction (F.3) had the lowest MIC/MBC (7.81 ?g/mL). The dichloromethane fraction was again fractionized, and a spectral analysis revealed that the compound was prenylated chromene (F.3.7). The checkerboard method demonstrated that the crude extract (CE) of P. aduncum plus nisin had a synergistic interaction (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] = 0.24). The bactericidal activity of (F.3.7) was confirmed by the time-kill curve. P. aduncum, nisin, and prenylated chromene exhibited strong antibacterial activity against the spores and vegetative cells of A. acidoterrestris. The results of this study suggest that extracts of the genus Piper may provide an alternative to the use of thermal processing for controlling A. spoilage. PMID:24138211

Ruiz, Suelen P; Anjos, Márcia Maria Dos; Carrara, Vanessa S; Delima, Juliana N; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício G; Nakamura, Tânia U; Nakamura, Celso V; de Abreu Filho, Benício A

2013-11-01

213

Structural, optical, photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of zinc oxide and manganese doped zinc oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline ZnO doped with Mn (5 and 10 at%) was prepared by the co-precipitation method. The effect of Mn doping on the photocatalytic, antibacterial activities and the influence of doping concentration on structural, optical properties of nanoparticles were studied. Structural and optical properties of the particles elucidated that the Mn 2+ ions have substituted the Zn 2+ ions without changing the Wurtzite structure of ZnO. The optical spectra showed a blue shift in the absorbance spectrum with increasing dopant concentration. The photocatalytic activities of ZnO powders were evaluated by measuring the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water under the UV region. It was found that undoped ZnO bleaches MB much faster than manganese doped ZnO upon its exposure to the UV light. The potential toxicity of nanosized ZnO and Mn doped ZnO were investigated using both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as test organisms. The results showed that Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles enhanced the antibacterial activity than ZnO nanoparticles.

Rekha, K.; Nirmala, M.; Nair, Manjula G.; Anukaliani, A.

2010-08-01

214

Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of six essentials oils from the Alliaceae family.  

PubMed

Six essential oils (EOs) from the Alliaceae family, namely garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), leek (Allium porrum), Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum), shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and chive (Allium schoenoprasum) were characterized by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their functional food properties. Antibacterial properties were tested on five food-borne pathogens: Two Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19115) and three Gram-negative Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC 14028), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and Campylobacter jejuni (ATCC 33291) bacteria. Antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties were tested by means of Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Garlic, Chinese chive and onion EOs had the highest antibacterial activity whereas shallot and leek EOs were the strongest antioxidants. Heating caused a decrease in the antioxidant activity of these Eos, as shown in the Total Polar Materials (TPM) test. Suggestions on relationships between chemical composition and biological activities are presented. Results show that the EOs could be of value in the food industry as alternatives to synthetic antioxidants. PMID:25470273

Mnayer, Dima; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Hamieh, Tayssir; Nehme, Nancy; Ferrant, Christine; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid

2014-01-01

215

Expression, purification and antibacterial activity of the channel catfish hepcidin mature peptide.  

PubMed

Hepcidins are small cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptides. The channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) hepcidin cDNA has been characterized, but recombinant protein expression and purification was not reported. I. punctatus hepcidin is comprised of 96 residues, with eight functionally important conserved cysteine residues located in the C-terminal region of the mature peptide, suggesting that this region is responsible for the antibacterial activity. In this study, a cDNA fragment (mCH) encoding the 25 amino acid mature peptide was cloned from channel catfish liver, and inserted into vector pET-32a(+) to produce a construct that expressed a hexahistidine-tagged thioredoxin (trxA) fusion protein that was cleavable using enterokinase. The trxA-mCH fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) at 25°C, using 1mM IPTG for induction. Greater than 80% of the fusion protein was expressed solubly, but was not biologically active. Removal of the trxA fusion partner by enterokinase resulted in mCH that exhibited antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus), and two Gram-negative (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. PMID:24269761

Tao, Yan; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Wen, Ya

2014-02-01

216

Antitubercular and antibacterial activity of quinonoid natural products against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.  

PubMed

Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens represent a major threat to human health. In view of the critical need to augment the current drug regime, we have investigated therapeutic potential of five quinonoids, viz. emodin, diospyrin, plumbagin, menadione and thymoquinone, derived from natural products. The antimicrobial activity of quinonoids was evaluated against a broad panel of multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) strains, rapid growing mycobacteria and other bacterial isolates, some of which were producers of ?-lactamase, Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC ?-lactamase, metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) enzymes, as well as their drug-sensitive ATCC counterparts. All the tested quinones exhibited antimycobacterial and broad spectrum antibacterial activity, particularly against M. tuberculosis (lowest MIC 0.25?µg/mL) and Gram-positive bacteria (lowest MIC <4?µg/mL) of clinical origin. The order of antitubercular activity of the tested quinonoids was plumbagin?>?emodin?~?menadione?~?thymoquinone?>?diospyrin, whereas their antibacterial efficacy was plumbagin?>?menadione?~?thymoquinone?>?diospyrin?>?emodin. Furthermore, this is the first evaluation performed on these quinonoids against a broad panel of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive clinical isolates, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24318724

Dey, Diganta; Ray, Ratnamala; Hazra, Banasri

2014-07-01

217

Synthetic Teichoic Acid Conjugate Vaccine against Nosocomial Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are amphiphilic polymers that are important constituents of the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria. The chemical structures of LTA vary among organisms, albeit in the majority of Gram-positive bacteria the LTAs feature a common poly-1,3-(glycerolphosphate) backbone. Previously, the specificity of opsonic antibodies for this backbone present in some Gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated, suggesting that this minimal structure may be sufficient for vaccine development. In the present work, we studied a well-defined synthetic LTA-fragment, which is able to inhibit opsonic killing of polyclonal rabbit sera raised against native LTA from Enterococcus faecalis 12030. This promising compound was conjugated with BSA and used to raise rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the opsonic activity of this serum was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay and specificity was confirmed by an opsonophagocytic inhibition assay. The conjugated LTA-fragment was able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediate killing of the clinical strains E. faecalis 12030, Enterococcus faecium E1162, and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2 (USA400). Prophylactic immunization with the teichoic acid conjugate and with the rabbit serum raised against this compound was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies in mice, and in an enterococcal endocarditis rat model. In all animal models, a statistically significant reduction of colony counts was observed indicating that the novel synthetic LTA-fragment conjugate is a promising vaccine candidate for active or passive immunotherapy against E. faecalis and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25333799

Laverde, Diana; Wobser, Dominique; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Hogendorf, Wouter; van der Marel, Gijsbert; Berthold, Martin; Kropec, Andrea; Codee, Jeroen; Huebner, Johannes

2014-01-01

218

Antibacterial activity of novel benzopolycyclic amines.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus, especially strains resistant to multiple antibiotics, is a major pathogen for humans and animals. In this paper we have synthesized and evaluated the antibacterial activity of a new series of benzopolycyclic amines. Some of them exhibited ?M MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA. Compound 8 that displayed a good selectivity index, showed to be active in eliminating bacterial cells forming a preexisting biofilm. PMID:25515953

Barniol-Xicota, Marta; Escandell, Alex; Valverde, Elena; Julián, Esther; Torrents, Eduard; Vázquez, Santiago

2015-01-15

219

Effect of Azasteroids on Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A group of nitrogen-containing steroids closely related in structure was screened for antibacterial activity, by use of Bacillus subtilis and Sarcina lutea as the test organisms. The most active compounds were cholesterol derivatives containing a tertiary or quaternary nitrogen in, or attached to, the A ring. Similar methyltestosterone or progesterone derivatives were inactive. All of the cholesterol derivatives that inhibited growth were surfactant, and, structurally, they would be classified as cationic detergents. Some of the inactive compounds were surfactant, but, structurally, they would be classified as nonionic detergents. Certain features of the antibacterial activity of one of the active steroids—ND 212 (4-dimethylaminoethyl-4-aza-5-cholesten-3-one methiodide)—were studied. Growth of a culture of B. subtilis containing 5 × 107 cells per milliliter was inhibited by 1 ?g/ml (1.7 × 10?6m) of ND 212. The amount of growth inhibition was directly related to both cell and steroid concentration. Loss of viability was rapid and irreversible. With B. subtilis, cell lysis was observed. With S. lutea grown in C14-glucose, ND 212 caused release into the media of up to 25% of the cellular radioactivity. Extensive leakage occurred before loss of viability was observed. At bacteriostatic azasteroid concentrations, there was little leakage. ND 212 was readily bound in large amounts to B. subtilis cells. Inactive azasteroids were bound poorly. C14-cholestanone was also bound, whereas C14-methyltestosterone and C14-progesterone were not bound in significant amounts. At least 50% of the bound C14-cholestanone was associated with the membrane fraction. PMID:4960181

Varricchio, Frederick; Doorenbos, Norman J.; Stevens, Audrey

1967-01-01

220

Synthesis, and antibacterial activity of novel 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole derivatives as DNA gyrase inhibitors.  

PubMed

A series of novel 4,5-dihydropyrazole derivatives (4a-4t), containing the dinitrobenzotrifluoride moiety, as DNA gyrase inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Based on the preliminary results, compounds 4d, 4f and 4t with potent inhibitory activity in bacterial growth may be wonderful antibacterial agents; among them, compound 4t displayed the most potent activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 3.125, 0.39, 0.39 and 0.39 ?g mL(-1) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli respectively, which was comparable with penicillin and kanamycin B with corresponding MIC values of 3.125, 3.125, 0.39, 0.39 ?g mL(-1) and 1.562, 1.562, 1.562, 1.562 ?g mL(-1), respectively. In particular, compound 4d showed the most potent anti-Gram-positive bacterial activity with a MIC value of 0.39 ?g mL(-1) against the tested Gram-positive bacterial strains and exhibited the most potent B. subtilis DNA gyrase and S. aureus DNA gyrase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 0.125 ?g mL(-1). Docking simulation was performed to insert compound 4d into the S. aureus DNA gyrase active site to determine the probable binding conformation. PMID:24382549

Liu, Jia-Jia; Sun, Juan; Fang, Yun-Bin; Yang, Yong-An; Jiao, Rui-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2014-02-14

221

Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of six edible wild plants (Sonchus spp.) in China.  

PubMed

The total phenolic and flavonoid, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six Sonchus wild vegetables (Sonchus oleraceus L., Sonchus arvensis L., Sonchus asper (L.) Hill., Sonchus uliginosus M.B., Sonchus brachyotus DC. and Sonchus lingianus Shih) in China were investigated. The results revealed that S. arvensis extract and S. oleraceus extract contained the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid, respectively. Among the methanol extracts of six Sonchus species, S. arvensis extract exhibited the highest radical (DPPH and ABTS+ scavenging power and lipid peroxidation inhibitory power. It also exhibited the highest reducing power at 500?µg?mL?¹ by A (700)?=?0.80. The results of antibacterial test indicated that the S. oleraceus extract showed higher activity than the other five Sonchus wild vegetables extracts, both in Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and in a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus). These results indicate that Sonchus wild food plants might be applicable in natural medicine and healthy food. PMID:21793765

Xia, Dao-Zong; Yu, Xin-Fen; Zhu, Zhuo-Ying; Zou, Zhuang-Dan

2011-12-01

222

Fabrication of silver nanoparticles doped in the zeolite framework and antibacterial activity  

PubMed Central

Using the chemical reduction method, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were effectively synthesized into the zeolite framework in the absence of any heat treatment. Zeolite, silver nitrate, and sodium borohydride were used as an inorganic solid support, a silver precursor, and a chemical reduction agent, respectively. Silver ions were introduced into the porous zeolite lattice by an ion-exchange path. After the reduction process, Ag NPs formed in the zeolite framework, with a mean diameter of about 2.12–3.11 nm. The most favorable experimental condition for the synthesis of Ag/zeolite nanocomposites (NCs) is described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO3. The Ag/zeolite NCs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared. The results show that Ag NPs form a spherical shape with uniform homogeneity in the particle size. The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs in zeolites was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria (ie, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae) and Gram-positive bacteria (ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) by disk diffusion method using Mueller–Hinton agar at different sizes of Ag NPs. All of the synthesized Ag/zeolite NCs were found to have antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag NPs in the zeolite framework can be useful in different biological research and biomedical applications. PMID:21383858

Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

2011-01-01

223

Synthesis, micellisation and interaction of novel quaternary ammonium compounds derived from l-Phenylalanine with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as model membrane in relation to their antibacterial activity, and their selectivity over human red blood cells.  

PubMed

A series of quaternary ammonium compounds (QUATS) derived from l-Phenylalanine have been synthesized and their antibacterial efficiencies were determined against various strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity increased with increasing chain length, exhibiting a cut-off effect at C14 for Gram-positive and C12 for Gram-negative bacteria. The l-Phenylalanine QUATS displayed enhanced antibacterial properties with a higher cut-off point compared to their corresponding l-Phenylalanine ester hydrochlorides. The CMC was correlated with the MIC, inferring that micellar activity contributes to the cut-off effect in antibacterial activity. The hemolytic activities (HC50) of the QUATS against human red blood cells were also determined to illustrate the selectivity of these QUATS for bacterial over mammalian cells. In general, the MIC was lower than the HC50, and assessment of the micellar contribution to the antibacterial and hemolytic evaluation in TBS as a common medium confirmed that these QUATS can act as antibacterial, yet non-toxic molecules at their monomer concentrations. The interaction of the QUATS with the phospholipid vesicles (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC) in the presence of 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) as fluorescence probes showed that the presence of the quaternary ammonium moiety causes an increase in hydrophobic interactions, thus causing an increase in antibacterial activity. PMID:25618736

Joondan, Nausheen; Caumul, Prakashanand; Akerman, Matthew; Jhaumeer-Laulloo, Sabina

2015-02-01

224

Antibacterial activity of ? 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibiting concentrations (MIC) of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) for staphylococci and streptococci in broth are in the range of 1–5 ?g\\/ml. In the same range, both compounds are also bactericidal. In media containing 4% serum or 5% blood the antibacterial activity is strongly reduced (MIC 50?g\\/ml). Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to THC and CBD.

B. van Klingeren; M. ten Ham

1976-01-01

225

Antibacterial activity against ?- lactamase producing Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants Staphylococcus aureus: fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination  

PubMed Central

Background The present study reports the antibacterial capacity of alkaloid compounds in combination with Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants bacteria isolated from clinical samples. The resistance of different bacteria strains to the current antibacterial agents, their toxicity and the cost of the treatment have led to the development of natural products against the bacteria resistant infections when applied in combination with conventional antimicrobial drugs. Method The antibacterial assays in this study were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC, MBC methods, the time-kill assay and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination. On the whole, fifteen Gram-positive bacterial strains (MRSA/ARSA) were used. Negative control was prepared using discs impregnated with 10 % DMSO in water and commercially available Methicillin and Ampicillin from Alkom Laboratories LTD were used as positive reference standards for all bacterial strains. Results We noticed that the highest activities were founded with the combination of alkaloid compounds and conventional antibiotics against all bacteria strains. Then, results showed that after 7 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculums. Conclusion The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with conventional antibiotics (Methicillin, Ampicillin) exhibited antimicrobial effects against microorganisms tested. These results validate the ethno-botanical use of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae) in Burkina Faso. Moreover, this study demonstrates the potential of this herbaceous as a source of antibacterial agent that could be effectively used for future health care purposes. PMID:22716026

2012-01-01

226

Oritavancin - a new semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide agent to tackle the challenge of resistant gram positive pathogens.  

PubMed

Natural glycopeptide antibiotics like vancomycin and teicoplanin have played a significant role in countering the threat posed by Gram-positive bacterial infections. The emergence of resistance to glycopeptides among enterococci and staphylococci has prompted the search for second-generation drugs of this class and semi-synthetic derivatives are currently under clinical trials. Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive organisms has been increasing steadily during the past several decades and the current development of antibiotics falls short of meeting the needs. Oritavancin (LY-333328 diphosphate), a promising novel second-generation semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide, has a mechanism of action similar to that of other glycopeptides. It has concentration-dependent activity against a variety of Gram-positive organisms specially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), Streptococcus pneumoniae and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. It is rapidly bactericidal against many species and in particular for enterococci where vancomycin and teicoplanin are only bacteriostatic even against susceptible strains. The pharmacokinetic profile of oritavancin has not been fully described; however, oritavancin has a long half-life of about 195.4 hours and is slowly eliminated by renal means. Oritavancin is not metabolized by the liver in animals. Oritavancin will most probably be prescribed as a once-daily dose and it demonstrates concentration-dependent bactericidal activity. Oritavancin has demonstrated preliminary safety and efficacy in Phase I and II clinical trials. In a Phase III clinical trial, oritavancin has achieved the primary efficacy end point in the treatment of complicated Gram-positive skin and skin-structure infections. To date, adverse events have been mild and limited; the most common being administration site complaints, headache, rhinitis, dry skin, pain, increases in liver transaminases and accumulation of free cholesterol and phospholipids in phagocytic (macrophages) and nonphagocytic (fibroblast) cells. Oritavancin appears to be a promising antimicrobial alternative to vancomycin (with additional activity against Staphylococcus and Enterococcus resistant to vancomycin) for the treatment of complicated Gram-positive skin and skin-structure infections. Additional clinical data are required to fully explore its use. PMID:24035967

Das, Biswadeep; Sarkar, Chayna; Schachter, Jeffrey

2013-09-01

227

Silver carboxylate metal-organic frameworks with highly antibacterial activity and biocompatibility.  

PubMed

Two novel Ag-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Ag2(O-IPA)(H2O)·(H3O)] (1) and [Ag5(PYDC)2(OH)] (2) were synthesized under the hydrothermal conditions using aromatic-carboxylic acids containing hydroxyl and pyridyl groups as ligands (HO-H2IPA=5-hydroxyisophthalic acid and H2PYDC=pyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylic acid). Single crystal X-ray diffraction indicated that two compounds exhibit three-dimensional frameworks constructed from different rod-shaped molecular building blocks. Both compounds favor slow release of Ag(+) ions leading to excellent and long-term antimicrobial activities towards Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Their antibacterial potency was evaluated by using a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) benchmark and an inhibition zone testing. High-resolution transmission electron microscope images indicate that the Ag-based MOFs could rupture the bacterial membrane resulting in cell death. Hematological study showed that these MOFs exhibit good biocompatibility in mice. In addition, good thermal stability and optical stability under UV-visible and visible light are beneficial for their antibacterial application. PMID:24935093

Lu, Xinyi; Ye, Junwei; Zhang, Dekui; Xie, Ruixia; Bogale, Raji Feyisa; Sun, Yuan; Zhao, Limei; Zhao, Qi; Ning, Guiling

2014-09-01

228

Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity  

PubMed Central

In this study, a ‘green chemistry’ approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round shape and uniform size with diameter at around 48 to 117 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO? and NH2?+ groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.008 mM) and gram-negative bacteria (MIC ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mM). Therefore, the SS-capped AgNPs would be a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications. PMID:24533676

2014-01-01

229

Chemical Composition and Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss  

PubMed Central

Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values) was 1.88?mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50?mg/mL) suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent. PMID:23484141

Ismail, Salmiah; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Talebpour, Amir Hossein; Zargar, Mohsen; Shameli, Kamyar; Sekawi, Zamberi; Jahanshiri, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

230

Chemical composition and antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss.  

PubMed

Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values) was 1.88?mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50 mg/mL) suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent. PMID:23484141

Ismail, Salmiah; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Talebpour, Amir Hossein; Zargar, Mohsen; Shameli, Kamyar; Sekawi, Zamberi; Jahanshiri, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

231

Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity.  

PubMed

In this study, a 'green chemistry' approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round shape and uniform size with diameter at around 48 to 117 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO- and NH2?+ groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.008 mM) and gram-negative bacteria (MIC ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mM). Therefore, the SS-capped AgNPs would be a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications. PMID:24533676

Aramwit, Pornanong; Bang, Nipaporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Ekgasit, Sanong

2014-01-01

232

Type IV Pili in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Type IV pili (T4P) are surface-exposed fibers that mediate many functions in bacteria, including locomotion, adherence to host cells, DNA uptake (competence), and protein secretion and that can act as nanowires carrying electric current. T4P are composed of a polymerized protein, pilin, and their assembly apparatuses share protein homologs with type II secretion systems in eubacteria and the flagella of archaea. T4P are found throughout Gram-negative bacterial families and have been studied most extensively in certain model Gram-negative species. Recently, it was discovered that T4P systems are also widespread among Gram-positive species, in particular the clostridia. Since Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have many differences in cell wall architecture and other features, it is remarkable how similar the T4P core proteins are between these organisms, yet there are many key and interesting differences to be found as well. In this review, we compare the two T4P systems and identify and discuss the features they have in common and where they differ to provide a very broad-based view of T4P systems across all eubacterial species. PMID:24006467

Craig, Lisa

2013-01-01

233

Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Heracleum transcaucasicum and Heracleum anisactis roots essential oil  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity and volatile compositions of two Heracleum species (Apiaceae) including Heracleum transcaucasicum and Heracleum anisactis roots Essential Oil (EO) were investigated. Methods: The volatile compositions of EOs were analyzed by GC/Mass spectroscopy. To detect the antioxidant activity of essential oils TLC-bioautography and DPPH radical scavenging assay by spectrophotometry was performed. Additionally, the antibacterial activity of two essential oils were studied and compared against four pathogenic bacteria by agar disc diffusion method and MIC values of the EOs were determined using the broth dilution method. Results: Myristicin was the dominant component in both EOs. It was identified as 96.87% and 95.15% of the essential oil composition of H. transcaucasicum and H. anisactis roots, respectively. The TLC-bioautography showed antioxidant spots in both EOs and IC50 of H. anisactis and H. transcaucasicum EO was found to be 54 ?g × ml (-1) and 77 ?g × ml (-1), respectively. Regarding the antimicrobial assay, H. anisactis EO exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria and also Escherichia coli, whereas the essential oil from H. transcaucasicum was inactive. Conclusion: Based on the results from this study, both tested EOs mainly consist of myristicin. Despite the presence of myristicin with known antibacterial property, the EO from H. transcacausicum showed no antibacterial activity. Thus it is supposed that the biological activity of plants is remarkably linked to the extracts’ chemical profile and intercomponents’ synergistic or antagonistic effect could play a crucial role in bioactivity of EOs and other plant extracts. PMID:25035849

Torbati, Mohammadali; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Nemati, Mahboob; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

234

Antibacterial Activity of Murrayaquinone A and 6-Methoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-carbazole-1,4(9H)-dione  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of Murrayaquinone A (10), a naturally occurring carbazoloquinone alkaloid, and 6-methoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-carbazole-1,4(9H)-dione (11), a synthetic carbazoloquinone, both obtained during the development of the synthesis of Carbazomycin G, having unique quinone moiety, was studied against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp.) bacteria. Compound 10 showed antibacterial activities against both of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus whereas compound 11 indicated the activity against Staphylococcus aureus only. Both compounds 10 and 11 exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50??g?mL?1 against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24963299

Chakraborty, Biswanath; Chakraborty, Suchandra; Saha, Chandan

2014-01-01

235

Antibacterial Activities and In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory (Membrane Stability) Properties of Methanolic Extracts of Gardenia coronaria Leaves  

PubMed Central

This work is carried out with Gardenia coronaria leaves that belong to the family Rubiaceae, which is a small-to-medium-sized but tall, deciduous tree, 7.6–9?m high on an average. Leaves are used for the treatment of rheumatic pain and bronchitis. The leaf of the plant consists of coronalolide, coronalolic acid, coronalolide methyl ester, ethyl coronalolate acetate triterpenes (secocycloartanes), and so forth. Methanol extract from the leaves of Gardenia coronaria was completely screened for membrane stability and antibacterial activity. The lower concentrations of Methanolic leaf extract of Gardenia coronaria gave good antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, but higher concentrations gave relatively more projecting antibacterial activity in vitro as compared with Kanamycin. The crude drug's anti-inflammatory effects were compared with those of Aspirin as positive control. The Methanolic extracts of Gardenia coronaria leaves possessed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against a variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms like Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Shigella sonnei, Shigella boydii, and Proteus mirabilis, with a zone of inhibition from 10 to 16?mm. The extract also showed good membrane stability to be considered as having significant anti-inflammatory action. PMID:24695677

Jainul, Mohammed Abdullah; Faruq, Kazi Omar; Islam, Atiqul

2014-01-01

236

Antibacterial activity of dentinal bonding agents.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of five bacterial species to seven dentinal bonding agents was examined in vitro. Agar diffusion tests using filterpaper disks containing 10 microL each of conditioner, primer, or resin were performed on blood agar and mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) was used as a positive control. After incubation, zones of inhibited bacterial growth were measured. Of all the compounds tested, Gluma cleanser and Gluma etchant showed the strongest growth inhibition for all bacterial strains. No antibacterial effect was noted for Prisma Universal Bond 2 and Superlux Universal Bond 2 systems. The primers of Gluma, Denthesive, and Scotchbond 2 displayed antibacterial activity that, in some cases, was comparable to that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. Zones of inhibition were seen for the resin materials of Scotchbond 2 and Tripton with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus. No inhibition was seen after these resins were cured, whereas the antibacterial effect of XR-Bond on S sanguis and A viscosus was not affected by light curing. PMID:8210322

Emilson, C G; Bergenholtz, G

1993-07-01

237

Antibacterial Activity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from an Algerian Dairy Product  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the antibacterial effect of 20 lactic acid bacteria isolates from a traditional cheese was investigated. 6 isolates showed antibacterial effect against Gram positive bacteria. Streptococcus thermophilus T2 strain showed the wide inhibitory spectrum against the Gram positive bacteria. Growth and bacteriocin production profiles showed that the maximal bacteriocin production, by S. thermophilus T2 cells, was measured by the end of the late-log phase (90 AU ml?1) with a bacteriocine production rate of 9.3 (AU ml?1) h?1. In addition, our findings showed that the bacteriocin, produced by S. thermophilus T2, was stable over a wide pH range (4–8); this indicates that such bacteriocin may be useful in acidic as well as nonacidic food. This preliminarily work shows the potential application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to improve safety of traditional fermented food. PMID:20041021

Mezaini, Abdelkader; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Dilmi Bouras, Abdelkader; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Hornez, Jean Pierre

2009-01-01

238

Potent and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of indole-based bisamidine antibiotics: synthesis and SAR of novel analogs of MBX 1066 and MBX 1090  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in the clinic has propelled a concerted effort to find new classes of antibiotics that will circumvent current modes of resistance. We have previously described a set of bisamidine antibiotics that contains a core composed of two indoles and a central linker. The first compounds of the series, MBX 1066 and MBX 1090, have potent antibacterial properties against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We have conducted a systematic exploration of the amidine functionalities, the central linker, and substituents at the indole 3-position to determine the factors involved in potent antibacterial activity. Some of the newly synthesized compounds have even more potent and broad-spectrum activity than MBX 1066 and MBX 1090. PMID:24239389

Williams, John D.; Nguyen, Son T.; Gu, Shen; Ding, Xiaoyuan; Butler, Michelle M.; Tashjian, Tommy F.; Opperman, Timothy J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Peet, Norton P.; Moir, Donald T.; Bowlin, Terry L.

2013-01-01

239

SCE-129, Antipseudomonal Cephalosporin: In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities  

PubMed Central

SCE-129 [3-(4-carbamoyl-1-pyridiniomethyl)-7?-(d-?-sulfophenylacetamido)-ceph-3-em-4-carboxylate monosodium salt], a new semisynthetic cephalosporin, shows potent in vitro antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some gram-positive bacteria, whereas it shows lower activity against many gram-negative rods. Against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa this cephalosporin exhibited higher activity than did carbenicillin, and against the strains of Staphylococcus aureus, SCE-129 had similar activity to carbenicillin. Variations in pH, addition of horse serum, and type of growth medium had no significant effects on the activity of the cephalosporin; however, the inoculum size had some effect on the activity. SCE-129 is an effective bactericidal agent against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The protective effects of SCE-129 in mice infected with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more potent than those of carbenicillin. The protective effects of SCE-129 on Pseudomonas infection in mice varied according to the dosage schedule and the challenge dose. In a multiple dose schedule, a smaller amount of SCE-129 was necessary than that in a single dose schedule. The effects of SCE-129 after subcutaneous or intraperitoneal administration were more potent than were those by intravenous administration. No protective effect was observed by oral administration. PMID:417670

Tsuchiya, Kanji; Kondo, Masahiro; Nagatomo, Hiroshi

1978-01-01

240

Baseline Activity of Telavancin against Gram-Positive Clinical Isolates Responsible for Documented Infections in U.S. Hospitals (2011-2012) as Determined by the Revised Susceptibility Testing Method.  

PubMed

Telavancin had MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.03 and 0.06 ?g/ml (100.0% susceptible), respectively, against methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Telavancin was active against vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.12 ?g/ml; 100% susceptible) and Enterococcus faecium (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 ?g/ml), while higher MIC values were obtained against vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (MIC50/90, 1/2 ?g/ml) and E. faecalis (MIC50/90, >2/>2 ?g/ml). Streptococci showed telavancin modal MIC results of ?0.015 ?g/ml, except against Streptococcus agalactiae (i.e., 0.03 ?g/ml). This study reestablishes the telavancin spectrum of activity against isolates recovered from the United States (2011-2012) using the revised broth microdilution method. PMID:25348529

Mendes, Rodrigo E; Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

2015-01-01

241

Baseline Activity of Telavancin against Gram-Positive Clinical Isolates Responsible for Documented Infections in U.S. Hospitals (2011-2012) as Determined by the Revised Susceptibility Testing Method  

PubMed Central

Telavancin had MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.03 and 0.06 ?g/ml (100.0% susceptible), respectively, against methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Telavancin was active against vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.12 ?g/ml; 100% susceptible) and Enterococcus faecium (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 ?g/ml), while higher MIC values were obtained against vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (MIC50/90, 1/2 ?g/ml) and E. faecalis (MIC50/90, >2/>2 ?g/ml). Streptococci showed telavancin modal MIC results of ?0.015 ?g/ml, except against Streptococcus agalactiae (i.e., 0.03 ?g/ml). This study reestablishes the telavancin spectrum of activity against isolates recovered from the United States (2011-2012) using the revised broth microdilution method. PMID:25348529

Farrell, David J.; Sader, Helio S.; Flamm, Robert K.; Jones, Ronald N.

2014-01-01

242

Synthesis and antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of new N-3 substituted thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives bearing the pyrazole moiety.  

PubMed

Two new series of N-3 substituted thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives bearing the pyrazole moiety (5a-j and 7a-j) were synthesized and assessed in vitro for their efficacy as antibacterial agents against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. Among the tested compounds, 7b, 7c, 7i, and 7j were found to be active against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 6.25-25 µg/mL, and some compounds were also tested against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Compounds 7c and 7j inhibited the growth of MRSA at MIC values of 6.25 and 12.5 µg/mL, respectively. The influence of the lipophilicity (C log P) on the biological profile (MIC) of the prepared products was also discussed. From the standpoint of structure-activity relationship studies, it was observed that the lipophilic profiles of the compounds were crucial for their antibacterial activities. Further, the results of the MTT cytotoxicity studies on a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line (NIH 3T3) suggested that compounds 7b, 7c, 7i, and 7j were endowed with low levels of cytotoxicity. PMID:24729458

Desai, Nisheeth C; Satodiya, Hitesh M; Kotadiya, Ghanshyam M; Vaghani, Hasit V

2014-07-01

243

Chemical composition, and cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oil from ginseng leaves.  

PubMed

Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, the essential oil of ginseng leaves (EOGL), collected using hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, contained a complex mixture of aliphatic (69.0%), terpenoid (21.5%) and aromatic compounds (2.4%). Among 54 components identified, the major ones were palmitic acid (36.1%), beta-farnesene (15.4%), linoleic acid (9.8%) and phytol (5.6%). In the cytotoxicity study, EOGL exhibited obvious cytotoxic activities against different cancer cell lines, including Hela, A549, ZR-75-1, HT-29, SGC7901 and B16 cells. Furthermore, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay indicated that EOGL can induce late apoptosis of ZR-75-1 cells, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0.9% to 5.6% and 67.4%). In addition to this, we also found that EOGL exhibited weak DPPH radical scavenging (12.0 +/- 0.4 mg/mL) and ABTS radical scavenging activities (1.6 +/- 0.1 mg/mL), and showed antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. The data suggest that EOGL, which possesses important biological activities, especially significant anticancer activity, could be a potential medicinal resource. PMID:25115102

Jiang, Rui; Sun, Liwei; Wang, Yanbing; Liu, Jianzeng; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Hao; Zhao, Daqing

2014-06-01

244

Comparison of tryptophan biosynthetic operon regulation in different Gram-positive bacterial species.  

PubMed

The tryptophan biosynthetic operon has been widely used as a model system for studying transcription regulation. In Bacillus subtilis, the trp operon is primarily regulated by a tryptophan-activated RNA-binding protein, TRAP. Here we show that in many other Gram-positive species the trp operon is regulated differently, by tRNA(Trp) sensing by the RNA-based T-box mechanism, with T-boxes arranged in tandem. Our analyses reveal an apparent relationship between trp operon organization and the specific regulatory mechanism(s) used. PMID:17555843

Gutiérrez-Preciado, Ana; Yanofsky, Charles; Merino, Enrique

2007-09-01

245

Synthesis, structure, molecular docking, and structure-activity relationship analysis of enamines: 3-aryl-4-alkylaminofuran-2(5H)-ones as potential antibacterials.  

PubMed

Thirty-one 3-aryl-4-alkylaminofuran-2(5H)-ones were designed, prepared and tested for their antibacterial activity. Some of them showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms, especially against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, but all were inactive against Gram-negative organisms. Out of these compounds, 3-(4-bromophenyl)-4-(2-(4-nitrophenyl)hydrazinyl)furan-2(5H)-one (4a11) showed the most potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC(50) of 0.42 ?g/mL. The enzyme assay revealed that the possible antibacterial mechanism of the synthetic compounds might be due to their inhibitory activity against tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. Molecular dockings of 4a11 into S. aureus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase active site were also performed. This inhibitor snugly fitting the active site might well explain its excellent inhibitory activity. Meanwhile, this modeling disclosed that a more suitable optimization strategy might be to modify the benzene ring at 3-position of furanone with hydrophilic groups. PMID:21330140

Xiao, Zhu-Ping; He, Xing-Bing; Peng, Zhi-Yun; Xiong, Tao-Ju; Peng, Juan; Chen, Li-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2011-03-01

246

Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinal plants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most

T Essawi; M Srour

2000-01-01

247

In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanol Extract of Kyllinga nemoralis  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Kyllinga nemoralis. Six different in vitro antioxidant assays including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and reducing power were carried out to ensure the scavenging effect of the plant on free radicals. In addition, total antioxidant capacity assay, total phenolic contents, tannins, flavonoids and flavonol contents of the plant were also analysed by the standard protocols. Kyllinga nemoralis exhibited high antioxidant activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay (IC50= 90 ?g/ml), superoxide radical scavenging assay (IC50= 180 ?g/ml) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay (IC50= 200 ?g/ml), compared with standards. These observations provide comprehensible supporting evidence for the antioxidant potential of the plant extract. Reducing power (IC50= 213.16 ?g/ml) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50= 223 ?g/ml) of the plant extract was remarkable. The methanol extract of K. nemoralis exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria. Standard in vitro antioxidant assays assessed the electron donating ability of the plant extract in scavenging free radicals. The inhibitory effect of the plant extract against bacterial pathogens may be due to the presence of phytochemicals. Thus, the results suggest that Kyllinga nemoralis is a potential source of antioxidants and could serve as the base for drug development. PMID:24843192

Sindhu, T.; Rajamanikandan, S.; Srinivasan, P.

2014-01-01

248

Antibacterial activity of Artemisia nilagirica leaf extracts against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background The six organic solvent extracts of Artemisia nilagirica were screened for the potential antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens and clinically important standard reference bacterial strains. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of A. nilagirica extracts against 15 bacterial strains. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the plant extracts were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 32 to 512 ?g/ml. The phytochemical screening of extracts was carried out for major phytochemical derivatives in A. nilagirica. Results All the extracts showed inhibitory activity for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The hexane extract was found to be effective against all phytopathogens with low MIC of 32 ?g/ml and the methanol extract exhibited a higher inhibition activity against Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32 ?g/ml), Bacillus subtilis (64 ?g/ml) and Shigella flaxneri (128 ?g/ml). The phytochemical screening of extracts answered for the major derivative of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, phenol, quinines, tannins and terpenoids. Conclusion All the extracts showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. Of all, methanol and hexane extracts showed high inhibition against clinical and phytopathogens, respectively. The results also indicate the presence of major phytochemical derivatives in the A. nilagirica extracts. Hence, the isolation and purification of therapeutic potential compounds from A. nilagirica could be used as an effective source against bacterial diseases in human and plants. PMID:20109237

2010-01-01

249

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

250

Phenolic acids profile, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of chamomile, common yarrow and immortelle (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Chamomile, common yarrow and immortelle ethanolic extracts were chemically analysed with respect to phenolics. Twelve phenolic acids were separated and identified by HPLC-DAD and the presence of rosmarinic acid was additionally confirmed by LC-MS. Five methods were applied for the evaluation of extracts' antioxidant properties (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, chelating activity, Briggs-Rauscher reaction), while the antibacterial activity was tested against some of the major food-borne pathogens (Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Infantis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). Immortelle extract was the richest in phenolics with a dominant flavonoid fraction, while the other two extracts contained higher amount of non-flavonoids. The phenolic acid profile also varied; high concentration of rosmarinic acid was found in chamomile and common yarrow, while caffeic acid was dominant in immortelle. The best antioxidant properties were obtained for chamomile extract, while good antimicrobial activity, especially against Gram-positive bacterial species, was detected for immortelle. The obtained results could be used as a tool for chemotaxonomic classification of the investigated plants or for their potential application as natural antioxidants/antimicrobials. PMID:25632475

Mekini?, Ivana Generali?; Skroza, Danijela; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Krstulovi?, Luka; Možina, Sonja Smole; Katalini?, Višnja

2014-12-01

251

Temporin-SHa peptides grafted on gold surfaces display antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Development of resistant bacteria onto biomaterials is a major problem leading to nosocomial infections. Antimicrobial peptides are good candidates for the generation of antimicrobial surfaces because of their broad-spectrum activity and their original mechanism of action (i.e. rapid lysis of the bacterial membrane) making them less susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance. In this study, we report on the covalent immobilisation of temporin-SHa on a gold surface modified by a thiolated self-assembled monolayer. Temporin-SHa (FLSGIVGMLGKLF amide) is a small hydrophobic and low cationic antimicrobial peptide with potent and very broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and parasites. We have analysed the influence of the binding mode of temporin-SHa on the antibacterial efficiency by using a covalent binding either via the peptide NH2 groups (random grafting of ?- and ?-NH2 to the surface) or via its C-terminal end (oriented grafting using the analogue temporin-SHa-COOH). The surface functionalization was characterised by IR spectroscopy (polarisation modulation reflection absorption IR spectroscopy) while antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii was assessed by microscopy techniques, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with a field emission gun. Our results revealed that temporin-SHa retains its antimicrobial activity after covalent grafting. A higher amount of bound temporin-SHa is observed for the C-terminally oriented grafting compared with the random grafting (NH2 groups). Temporin-SHa therefore represents an attractive candidate as antimicrobial coating agent. PMID:24919960

Lombana, Andres; Raja, Zahid; Casale, Sandra; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Foulon, Thierry; Ladram, Ali; Humblot, Vincent

2014-07-01

252

Cobra Cytotoxins: Structural Organization and Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Cardiotoxins (cytotoxins, CT) are ?-structured proteins isolated from the venom of cobra. They consist of 59–61 amino acid residues, whose antiparallel chains form three ‘fingers’. In contrast to neurotoxins with an overall similar fold, CTs are amphiphilic. The amphiphilicity is caused by positively charged lysine and arginine residues flanking the tips of the loops that consist primarily of hydrophobic amino acids. A similar distribution of amino acid residues is typical for linear (without disulfide bonds) cationic cytolytic peptides from the venoms of other snakes and insects. Many of them are now considered to be lead compounds in combatting bacterial infections and cancer. In the present review, we summarize the data on the antibacterial activity of CTs and compare it to the activity of linear peptides. PMID:25349711

Dubovskii, P. V.; Utkin, Y. N.

2014-01-01

253

Chemical composition, and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of an alkaloid extract from Crinum angustum Steud.  

PubMed

In the search for novel antibacterial agents against multidrug-resistant bacteria, an alkaloid extract obtained from whole plants of Crinum angustum Steud., containing six different groups of alkaloids, was analysed by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and its in vitro activity against American Type Culture Collection bacterial strains and clinical isolates was evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was tested against nine standard strains of microorganisms and two drug-resistant clinical isolates, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The extract exhibited a significant activity against six of the examined strains of microorganisms. Antibacterial activity was more pronounced on Gram-positive bacteria than on Gram-negative bacteria, and IC50 values ranged from 156 to 625 ?g/mL. Mycostatic activity against Candida albicans was also found, with an IC50 of 78 ?g/mL after 48 h of incubation . Promising results were also obtained from tests carried out on both clinical isolates investigated. PMID:24444026

Iannello, Carmelina; Bastida, Jaume; Bonvicini, Francesca; Antognoni, Fabiana; Gentilomi, Giovanna Angela; Poli, Ferruccio

2014-01-01

254

Cationic amphiphilic non-hemolytic polyacrylates with superior antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Acrylic copolymers with appropriate compositions of counits having cationic charge with 2-carbon and 6-carbon spacer arms can show superior antibacterial activities with concomitant very low hemolytic effect. These amphiphilic copolymers represent one of the most promising synthetic polymer antibacterial systems reported. PMID:24854366

Punia, Ashish; He, Edward; Lee, Kevin; Banerjee, Probal; Yang, Nan-Loh

2014-07-01

255

Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities  

PubMed Central

An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO–Ppy/CS and ITO–Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs. PMID:25565815

Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

2015-01-01

256

Antibacterial activities of peptides from the water-soluble extracts of Italian cheese varieties.  

PubMed

Water-soluble extracts of 9 Italian cheese varieties that differed mainly for type of cheese milk, starter, technology, and time of ripening were fractionated by reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography, and the antimicrobial activity of each fraction was first assayed toward Lactobacillus sakei A15 by well-diffusion assay. Active fractions were further analyzed by HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry, and peptide sequences were identified by comparison with a proteomic database. Parmigiano Reggiano, Fossa, and Gorgonzola water-soluble extracts did not show antibacterial peptides. Fractions of Pecorino Romano, Canestrato Pugliese, Crescenza, and Caprino del Piemonte contained a mixture of peptides with a high degree of homology. Pasta filata cheeses (Caciocavallo and Mozzarella) also had antibacterial peptides. Peptides showed high levels of homology with N-terminal, C-terminal, or whole fragments of well known antimicrobial or multifunctional peptides reported in the literature: alphaS1-casokinin (e.g., sheep alphaS1-casein (CN) f22-30 of Pecorino Romano and cow alphaS1-CN f24-33 of Canestrato Pugliese); isracidin (e.g., sheep alphaS1-CN f10-21 of Pecorino Romano); kappacin and casoplatelin (e.g., cow kappa-CN f106-115 of Canestrato Pugliese and Crescenza); and beta-casomorphin-11 (e.g., goat beta-CN f60-68 of Caprino del Piemonte). As shown by the broth microdilution technique, most of the water-soluble fractions had a large spectrum of inhibition (minimal inhibitory concentration of 20 to 200 microg/mL) toward gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species, including potentially pathogenic bacteria of clinical interest. Cheeses manufactured from different types of cheese milk (cow, sheep, and goat) have the potential to generate similar peptides with antimicrobial activity. PMID:15956298

Rizzello, C G; Losito, I; Gobbetti, M; Carbonara, T; De Bari, M D; Zambonin, P G

2005-07-01

257

Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO-Ppy/CS and ITO-Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs. PMID:25565815

Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

2015-01-01

258

Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis).  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antiparasitic activities of free oleanolic acid and its glucosides and glucuronides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis) were investigated. The MIC of oleanolic acid and the effect on bacterial growth were estimated by A600 measurements. Oleanolic acid's influence on bacterial survival and the ability to induce autolysis were measured by counting the number of cfu. Cell morphology and the presence of endospores were observed under electron and light microscopy, respectively. Oleanolic acid inhibited bacterial growth and survival, influenced cell morphology and enhanced the autolysis of Gram-positive bacteria suggesting that bacterial envelopes are the target of its activity. On the other hand, glycosides of oleanolic acid inhibited the development of L3 Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae, the infective stage of this intestinal parasitic nematode. In addition, both oleanolic acid and its glycosides reduced the rate of L3 survival during prolonged storage, but only oleanolic acid glucuronides affected nematode infectivity. The presented results suggest that oleanolic acid and its glycosides can be considered as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:18951335

Szakiel, Anna; Ruszkowski, Dariusz; Grudniak, Anna; Kurek, Anna; Wolska, Krystyna I; Doligalska, Maria; Janiszowska, Wirginia

2008-11-01

259

Antibacterial activity of honey from stingless honeybees (Hymenoptera; Apidae; Meliponinae).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine antibacterial activity of the honey of stingless honeybees (Meliponinae). An agar well diffusion assay demonstrated that many honey samples of stingless honeybees inhibited the growth of test strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; moreover, they exhibited non-peroxide antibacterial activity against those strains. This is the first time that non-peroxide antimicrobial activity of honey from a number of species of stingless honeybees has been demonstrated. These antibacterial activities appear to be powerful, even when compared to those of"manuka honey" from Apinae honeybees. PMID:18254500

Temaru, Emi; Shimura, Satoshi; Amano, Kazuhiro; Karasawa, Tadahiro

2007-01-01

260

Chemotyping of diverse Eucalyptus species grown in Egypt and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of its respective essential oils.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa and Eucalyptus gomphocephala grown in northern Egypt was analysed by using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The antibacterial (agar disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods) and antioxidant activities (2,2'-diphenypicrylhydrazyl) were examined. The main oils constituents were 1,8-cineole (21.75%), ?-pinene (20.51%) and methyleugenol (6.10%) in E. camaldulensis; spathulenol (37.46%), p-cymene (17.20%) and crypton (8.88%) in E. gomphocephala; spathulenol (18.37%), p-cymene (19.38%) and crypton (16.91%) in E. camaldulensis var. obtusa. The essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus spp. exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The values of total antioxidant activity were 70 ± 3.13%, 50 ± 3.34% and 84 ± 4.64% for E. camaldulensis, E. camaldulensis var. obtusa and E. gomphocephala, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity value of 84 ± 4.64% could be attributed to the high amount of spathulenol (37.46%). PMID:25421867

Salem, Mohamed Z M; Ashmawy, Nader A; Elansary, Hosam O; El-Settawy, Ahmed A

2014-11-25

261

Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum Desf. at Different Phenological Stages  

PubMed Central

Abstract Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil (EO) of wild population of Origanum vulgare at different phenological stages, including vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, is reported. The oils of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation. The yield of oils (w/w%) at different stages were in the order of late vegetative (2.0%), early vegetative (1.7%), and flowering (0.6%) set. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 36, 33, and 16 components were identified and quantified in vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, representing 94.47%, 95.91%, and 99.62% of the oil, respectively. Carvacrol was the major compound in all samples. The ranges of major constituents were as follows: carvacrol (61.08–83.37%), p-cymene (3.02–9.87%), and ?-terpinene (4.13–6.34%). Antibacterial activity of the oils was tested against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion method and determining their diameter of inhibition and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial strains, which were sensitive to the EO of O. vulgare subsp. glandulosum, were in the range of 9–36?mm and 125–600??g/mL, respectively. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against all tested bacteria, of which Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive and resistant strain, respectively. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that exhibited potential for use in pathogenic systems. PMID:24320986

Chaabane, Hédia; Jemli, Maroua; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

2013-01-01

262

In Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Pexiganan, an Analog of Magainin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 mg\\/ml or less

YIGONG GE; DOROTHY L. MACDONALD; KENNETH J. HOLROYD; CLYDE THORNSBERRY; HANNAH WEXLER; MICHAEL ZASLOFF

1999-01-01

263

Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of some green leafy vegetables  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity and photochemicals of five green leafy vegetables against a panel of five bacteria strains. Methods Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity, while kanamycin was used as a reference antibiotic. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed using standard methods. Results All methanol extracts were found active against all the test bacterial strains. Overall maximum extracts shows antibacterial activity which range from 6 to 15 mm. Proteins and carbohydrates was found in all the green leaves, whereas alkaloid, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins were found in most of the test samples. Conclusions The obtain result suggests that green leafy vegetables have moderate antibacterial activity and contain various pharmacologically active compounds and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of the studied vegetables in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:25182436

Bhat, Ramesa Shafi; Al-Daihan, Sooad

2014-01-01

264

Water-dispersible silver nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanomaterials: synthesis and enhanced antibacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a growing number of outbreak of infectious diseases have emerged all over the world. The outbreak of re-emerging and emerging infectious diseases is a considerable burden on global economies and public health. Nano-antimicrobials have been studied as an effective solution for the prevention of infectious diseases. In this work, we demonstrated a modified photochemical approach for the preparation of carbon nanotubes-silver nanoparticles (CNTs-Ag) and graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag) nanocomposites, which can be stably dispersible in aqueous solution. The formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on the functionalized CNTs and GO nanosheets was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis measurements. These analyses indicated that the average particle sizes of Ag-NPs deposited on GO/CNTs nanostructures were ~6-7 nm with nearly uniform size distribution. Moreover, these nanocomposites were found to exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity against two strains of infectious bacteria including Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria as compared to bare Ag-NPs. Our obtained studies showed a high potential of GO-Ag and CNTs-Ag nanocomposites as effective and long-term disinfection solution to eliminate infectious bacterial pathogens.

Dinh, Ngo Xuan; Chi, Do Thi; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Lan, Hoang; Van Tuan, Hoang; Van Quy, Nguyen; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Huy, Tran Quang; Le, Anh-Tuan

2015-01-01

265

Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica and its antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

In the present work, we describe the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica (PA) and its antibacterial activity. UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX) were performed to ascertain the formation of Ag-NPs. It was observed that the growths of Ag-NPs are stopped within 35 min of reaction time. The synthesized Ag-NPs were characterized by a peak at 446 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles of 27 nm size. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic silver, respectively. The FTIR result clearly showed that the extracts containing OH as a functional group act in capping the nanoparticles synthesis. Antibacterial activities of Ag-NPs were tested against the growth of Gram-positive (S. aureus) using SEM. The inhibition was observed in the Ag-NPs against S. aureus. The results suggest that the synthesized Ag-NPs act as an effective antibacterial agent. It is confirmed that Ag-NPs are capable of rendering high antibacterial efficacy and hence has a great potential in the preparation of used drugs against bacterial diseases. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicated that, the most strains of S. aureus was damaged and extensively disappeared by addition of Ag-NPs. The results confirmed that the (PA) is a very good eco friendly and nontoxic source for the synthesis of Ag-NPs as compared to the conventional chemical/physical methods. PMID:25022505

Sadeghi, Babak; Rostami, Amir; Momeni, S S

2015-01-01

266

Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica and its antibacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we describe the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using seed aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica (PA) and its antibacterial activity. UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX) were performed to ascertain the formation of Ag-NPs. It was observed that the growths of Ag-NPs are stopped within 35 min of reaction time. The synthesized Ag-NPs were characterized by a peak at 446 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles of 27 nm size. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) Bragg’s reflections of cubic structure of metallic silver, respectively. The FTIR result clearly showed that the extracts containing OH as a functional group act in capping the nanoparticles synthesis. Antibacterial activities of Ag-NPs were tested against the growth of Gram-positive (S. aureus) using SEM. The inhibition was observed in the Ag-NPs against S. aureus. The results suggest that the synthesized Ag-NPs act as an effective antibacterial agent. It is confirmed that Ag-NPs are capable of rendering high antibacterial efficacy and hence has a great potential in the preparation of used drugs against bacterial diseases. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicated that, the most strains of S. aureus was damaged and extensively disappeared by addition of Ag-NPs. The results confirmed that the (PA) is a very good eco friendly and nontoxic source for the synthesis of Ag-NPs as compared to the conventional chemical/physical methods.

Sadeghi, Babak; Rostami, Amir; Momeni, S. S.

2015-01-01

267

Antibacterial activity and bonding ability of an adhesive incorporating an antibacterial monomer DMAE-CB.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the antibacterial effect and microtensile bond strength of a resin-based adhesive containing an antibacterial monomer DMAE-CB (methacryloxylethyl cetyl dimethyl ammonium chloride). Cured specimens of 1, 2, and 3% DMAE-CB-containing Single Bond 2 (crosslinking monomer: Bis-GMA, dimethacrylates; functional monomer: HEMA) were prepared, and their antibacterial effects on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were investigated. Antibacterial property after 0, 30, 90, and 180 days of aging was also tested. Bonding ability of the experimental adhesive incorporating 3% DMAE-CB was evaluated by microtensile bond strength test. The cured experimental adhesive exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth, and the adhesive containing 3% DMAE-CB showed higher antibacterial efficiency compared with those incorporating 1 or 2% anibacterial monomer. Antibacterial activities of the specimens lasted for at least 180 days. Microtensile bond strength test revealed that the bonding ability of the experimental adhesive was not significantly adversely affected by the incorporation of DMAE-CB. Therefore, dental adhesives with strong and long-lasting bacteriostatic property could be achieved by incorporating DMAE-CB without negatively influencing bonding ability. PMID:19280645

Xiao, Yu-Hong; Ma, Sai; Chen, Ji-Hua; Chai, Zhi-Guo; Li, Fang; Wang, Ying-Jie

2009-08-01

268

Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Many medicinal plants from Leguminosae family can be found easily in Malaysia. These plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups, where they are prepared as decoction, pastes for wound infections, and some have been eaten as salad. This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant potential, antibacterial activity and classes of phytochemicals of nine plants from the Leguminosae family. Methods Acacia auriculiformis, Bauhinia kockiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calliandra tergemina, Cassia surattensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Samanea saman were extracted with aqueous methanol and dichloromethane:methanol mixture to test for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was conducted to quantify the total phenolic content and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the free radical quenching capacity. Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) assay. Screening for major classes of phytochemical was done using standard chemical tests. Results B. kockiana flowers and C. pulcherrima leaves contained high total phenolic content (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging ability with TPC of 8280 ± 498 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 27.0 ± 5.0 ?g/mL and TPC of 5030 ± 602 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 50.0 ± 5.0 ?g/mL respectively. Positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. Most extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria at 1 mg, while none showed activity against Gram negative bacteria at the same dose. All extracts (except Samanea saman flower) showed antibacterial activity against two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MID values ranging between 100 ?g/disc and 500 ?g/disc. Conclusion The potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infection treatments were found in B. kockiana, C. pulcherrima, C. tergemina and P. pterocarpum. These preliminary results would be a guide in the selection of potential candidates for further pharmacological study and in search of new drug candidate in treating MRSA infections. PMID:21306653

2011-01-01

269

Synthesis, characterizations and anti-bacterial activities of pure and Ag doped CdO nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, synthesized pure and Ag (1%, 2%, and 3%) doped Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method. Then, the synthesized products were characterized by thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultra violet-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) spectroscopy, and anti-bacterial activities, respectively. The transition temperatures and phase transitions of Cd(OH)2 to CdO at 400 °C was confirmed by TG-DTA analysis. The XRD patterns show the cubic shape and average particle sizes are 21, 40, 34, and 37 nm, respectively for pure and Ag doped samples. FT-IR study confirmed the presence of CdO and Ag at 677 and 459 cm-1, respectively. UV-Vis-DRS study shows the variation on direct and indirect band gaps. The surface morphologies and elemental analysis have been confirmed from SEM and with EDX. In addition, the synthesized products have been characterized by antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Further, the present investigation suggests that CdO nanoparticles have the great potential applications on various industrial and medical fields of research.

Sivakumar, S.; Venkatesan, A.; Soundhirarajan, P.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

2015-02-01

270

Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of minor groove binders: the role of non-cationic tail groups.  

PubMed

The design and synthesis of a new class of minor groove binder (MGBs) in which, the cationic tail group has been replaced by a neutral, polar variant including cyanoguanidine, nitroalkene, and trifluoroacetamide groups. Antibacterial activity (against Gram positive bacteria) was found for both the nitroalkene and trifluoroacetamide groups. For the case of the nitroalkene tail group, strong binding of a minor groove binder containing this tail group was demonstrated by both DNA footprinting and melting temperature measurements, showing a correlation between DNA binding and antibacterial activity. The compounds have also been evaluated for binding to the hERG ion channel to determine whether non-cationic but polar substituents might have an advantage compared with conventional cationic tail groups in avoiding hERG binding. In this series of compounds, it was found that whilst non-cationic compounds generally had lower affinity to the hERG ion channel, all of the compounds studied bound weakly to the hERG ion channel, probably associated with the hydrophobic head groups. PMID:22948178

Khalaf, Abedawn I; Bourdin, Claire; Breen, David; Donoghue, Gavin; Scott, Fraser J; Suckling, Colin J; Macmillan, Donna; Clements, Carol; Fox, Keith; Sekibo, Doreen A T

2012-10-01

271

Synthesis, characterizations and anti-bacterial activities of pure and Ag doped CdO nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method.  

PubMed

In the present study, synthesized pure and Ag (1%, 2%, and 3%) doped Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method. Then, the synthesized products were characterized by thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultra violet-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) spectroscopy, and anti-bacterial activities, respectively. The transition temperatures and phase transitions of Cd(OH)2 to CdO at 400°C was confirmed by TG-DTA analysis. The XRD patterns show the cubic shape and average particle sizes are 21, 40, 34, and 37nm, respectively for pure and Ag doped samples. FT-IR study confirmed the presence of CdO and Ag at 677 and 459cm(-1), respectively. UV-Vis-DRS study shows the variation on direct and indirect band gaps. The surface morphologies and elemental analysis have been confirmed from SEM and with EDX. In addition, the synthesized products have been characterized by antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Further, the present investigation suggests that CdO nanoparticles have the great potential applications on various industrial and medical fields of research. PMID:25467666

Sivakumar, S; Venkatesan, A; Soundhirarajan, P; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

2014-11-01

272

Antibacterial activity and mechanism of Ag-ZnO nanocomposite on S. aureus and GFP-expressing antibiotic resistant E. coli.  

PubMed

Emergence of multi-resistant organisms (MROs) leads to ineffective treatment with the currently available medications which pose a great threat to public health and food technology sectors. In this regard, there is an urgent need to strengthen the present therapies or to look over for other potential alternatives like use of "metal nanocomposites". Thus, the present study focuses on synthesis of silver-zinc oxide (Ag-ZnO) nanocomposites which will have a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Ag-ZnO nanocomposites of varied molar ratios were synthesized by simple microwave assisted reactions in the absence of surfactants. The crystalline behavior, composition and morphological analysis of the prepared powders were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Particle size measurements were carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Staphylococcus aureus and recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli were selected as Gram-positive and Gram-negative model systems respectively and the bactericidal activity of Ag-ZnO nanocomposite was studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum killing concentration (MKC) of the nanocomposite against the model systems were determined by visual turbidity analysis and optical density analysis. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of its antibacterial effects were performed by fluorescent microscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy and Gram staining measurements. Changes in cellular morphology were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), FE-SEM and TEM. Finally, on the basis of the present investigation and previously published reports, a plausible antibacterial mechanism of Ag-ZnO nanocomposites was proposed. PMID:24412348

Matai, Ishita; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima; Kumar, S Uday; Bhushan, Bharat; Gopinath, P

2014-03-01

273

Identification of Surprisingly Diverse Type IV Pili, across a Broad Range of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

E-print Network

Identification of Surprisingly Diverse Type IV Pili, across a Broad Range of Gram-Positive Bacteria, Pennsylvania, United States of America Abstract Background: In Gram-negative bacteria, type IV pili (TFP) have apparent that Gram-positive bacteria also express type IV pili; however, little is known about

Plotkin, Joshua B.

274

Proteolytically activated anti-bacterial hydrogel microspheres  

PubMed Central

Hydrogels are finding increased clinical utility as advances continue to exploit their favorable material properties. Hydrogels can be adapted for many applications, including surface coatings and drug delivery. Anti-infectious surfaces and delivery systems that actively destroy invading organisms are alternative ways to exploit the favorable material properties offered by hydrogels. Sterilization techniques are commonly employed to ensure the materials are non-infectious upon placement, but sterilization is not absolute and infections are still expected. Natural, anti-bacterial proteins have been discovered which have the potential to act as anti-infectious agents; however, the proteins are toxic and need localized release to have therapeutic efficacy without toxicity. In these studies, we explore the use of the glutathione s-transferase (GST) to anchor the bactericidal peptide, melittin, to the surface of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel microspheres. We show that therapeutic levels of protein can be anchored to the surface of the microspheres using the GST anchor. We compared the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant melittin released from PEGDA microspheres to melittin. We found that, when released by an activating enzyme, thrombin, recombinant melittin efficiently inhibits growth of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes as effectively as melittin created by solid phase peptide synthesis. We conclude that a GST protein anchor can be used to immobilize functional protein to PEGDA microspheres and the protein will remain immobilized under physiological conditions until the protein is enzymatically released. PMID:23816641

Buhrman, Jason S.; Cook, Laura C.; Rayahin, Jamie E.; Federle, Michael J.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

2013-01-01

275

Proteolytically activated anti-bacterial hydrogel microspheres.  

PubMed

Hydrogels are finding increased clinical utility as advances continue to exploit their favorable material properties. Hydrogels can be adapted for many applications, including surface coatings and drug delivery. Anti-infectious surfaces and delivery systems that actively destroy invading organisms are alternative ways to exploit the favorable material properties offered by hydrogels. Sterilization techniques are commonly employed to ensure the materials are non-infectious upon placement, but sterilization is not absolute and infections are still expected. Natural, anti-bacterial proteins have been discovered which have the potential to act as anti-infectious agents; however, the proteins are toxic and need localized release to have therapeutic efficacy without toxicity. In these studies, we explore the use of the glutathione s-transferase (GST) to anchor the bactericidal peptide, melittin, to the surface of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel microspheres. We show that therapeutic levels of protein can be anchored to the surface of the microspheres using the GST anchor. We compared the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant melittin released from PEGDA microspheres to melittin. We found that, when released by an activating enzyme, thrombin, recombinant melittin efficiently inhibits growth of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes as effectively as melittin created by solid phase peptide synthesis. We conclude that a GST protein anchor can be used to immobilize functional protein to PEGDA microspheres and the protein will remain immobilized under physiological conditions until the protein is enzymatically released. PMID:23816641

Buhrman, Jason S; Cook, Laura C; Rayahin, Jamie E; Federle, Michael J; Gemeinhart, Richard A

2013-11-10

276

Synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation of metronidazole derivatives containing piperazine skeleton as potential antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Metronidazole has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Hereby a series of novel metronidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized based on nitroimidazole scaffold in order to find some more potent antibacterial drugs. For these compounds which were reported for the first time, their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were tested. These compounds showed good antibacterial activities against Gram-positive strains. Compound 4m represented the most potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC of 0.003 ?g/mL and it showed the most potent activity against S. aureus TyrRS with IC50 of 0.0024 ?M. Molecular docking of 4m into S. aureus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase active site were also performed to determine the probable binding mode. PMID:24680059

Wang, She-Feng; Yin, Yong; Qiao, Fang; Wu, Xun; Sha, Shao; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2014-04-15

277

Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of bioactive petalostigma extracts: Toxicity, antibacterial and antiviral activities  

PubMed Central

Background: Petalostigma pubescens and Petalostigma triloculare were common components of pharmacopeia's of multiple Australian Aboriginal tribal groupings which traditionally inhabited the areas in which they grow. Among these groups, they had a myriad of medicinal uses in treating a wide variety of bacterial, fungal and viral infections. This study was undertaken to test P. pubescens and P. triloculare leaf and fruit extracts for the ability to inhibit bacterial and viral growth and thus validate Australian Aboriginal usage of these plants in treating bacterial and fungal diseases. Materials and Methods: P. pubescens, and P. triloculare leaves and fruit were extracted and tested for antimicrobial, antiviral activity and toxicity. The bioactive extracts were further examined by RP-HPLC and GC-MS to identify the component compounds. Results: The methanol, water and ethyl acetate leaf and fruit extracts of displayed potent antibacterial activity. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts displayed the broadest specificity, inhibiting the growth of 10 of the 14 bacteria tested (71%) for the leaf extract and 9 of the 14 bacteria tested (64%) for the fruit extracts. The water extracts also had broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 8 (57%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 bacteria tested, respectively. All antibacterial extracts were approximately equally effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, inhibiting the growth of 50-75% of the bacteria tested. The methanol, water and ethyl acetate extracts also displayed antiviral activity in the MS2 plaque reduction assay. The methanol and water extracts inhibited 26.6-49.0% and 85.4-97.2% of MS2 plaque formation, respectively, with the fruit extracts being more potent inhibitors. All ethyl acetate extracts inhibited 100% of MS2 plaque formation. All extracts were also non-toxic or of low toxicity. Analysis of these extracts by RP-HPLC showed that the P. triloculare ethyl acetate fruit extract was the least complex of the bioactive extracts. Subsequent analysis of this extract by GC-MS revealed that it contained 9 main compounds: acetic acid; 2,2-dimethoxybutane; 4-methyl-1,3-dioxane; decane; unadecane; 2-furanmethanol; 1,2-benzenediol; 1,2,3-benzenetriol; and benzoic acid. Conclusion: These studies validate Australian Aboriginal therapeutic usage of Petalostigma species and indicate their medicinal potential. PMID:24914307

Kalt, F. R.; Cock, I. E.

2014-01-01

278

Design, synthesis and antibacterial activities of vanillic acylhydrazone derivatives as potential ?-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (FabH) inhibitors.  

PubMed

Fatty acid biosynthesis is essential for bacterial survival. FabH, ?-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III, is a particularly attractive target, since it is central to the initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis and is highly conserved among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A series of acylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized and developed as potent inhibitors of FabH. This inhibitor class demonstrates strong broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Compounds with potent antibacterial activities were tested for their Escherichia coli FabH inhibitory activity. Especially, compound E9 showed the most potent antibacterial activity with MIC values of 0.39-1.56 ?g/mL against the tested bacterial strains and exhibited the most potent E. coli FabH inhibitory activity with IC(50) of 2.5 ?M. Docking simulation was performed to position compound E9 into the E. coli FabH active site to determine the probable binding conformation. PMID:23124163

Wang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Yan-Bin; Tang, Jian-Feng; Yang, Yu-Shun; Chen, Ruo-Qi; Zhang, Fei; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2012-11-01

279

The Effect of Substituent, Degree of Acetylation and Positioning of the Cationic Charge on the Antibacterial Activity of Quaternary Chitosan Derivatives  

PubMed Central

A series of water-soluble cationic chitosan derivatives were prepared by chemoselective functionalization at the amino group of five different parent chitosans having varying degrees of acetylation and molecular weight. The quaternary moieties were introduced at different alkyl spacer lengths from the polymer backbone (C-0, C-2 and C-6) with the aid of 3,6-di-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl protection of the chitosan backbone, thus allowing full (100%) substitution of the free amino groups. All of the derivatives were characterized using 1H-NMR, 1H-1H COSY and FT-IR spectroscopy, while molecular weight was determined by GPC. Antibacterial activity was investigated against Gram positive S. aureus and Gram negative E. coli. The relationship between structure and activity/toxicity was defined, considering the effect of the cationic group’s structure and its distance from the polymer backbone, as well as the degree of acetylation within a molecular weight range of 7–23 kDa for the final compounds. The N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan with 100% quaternization showed the highest antibacterial activity with moderate cytotoxicity, while increasing the spacer length reduced the activity. Trimethylammoniumyl quaternary ammonium moieties contributed more to activity than 1-pyridiniumyl moieties. In general, no trend in the antibacterial activity of the compounds with increasing molecular weight or degree of acetylation up to 34% was observed. PMID:25196937

Sahariah, Priyanka; Gaware, Vivek S.; Lieder, Ramona; Jónsdóttir, Sigríður; Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha Á.; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E.; Másson, Már

2014-01-01

280

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic petals extract of Rosa indica and characterization of its antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using ethanolic extract of rose (Rosa indica) petals and testing their potential antibacterial activity using selective human pathogenic microbes, anticancer activity using human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cell line HCT 15 as well as anti-inflammatory activity using rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The biologically synthesized AgNPs were also characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterized AgNPs showed an effective antibacterial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) than Gram positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria. MTT assay, analysis of nuclear morphology, mRNA expression of Bcl-2, Bax and protein expression of caspase 3 as well as 9, indicated potential anticancer activity. In addition, green synthesized AgNPs also attenuated cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and free radical generation (O2(-) and NO) by rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The results of our study show the potential green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in mitigating their toxicity while retaining their antibacterial activities. PMID:25481491

Manikandan, Ramar; Manikandan, Beulaja; Raman, Thiagarajan; Arunagirinathan, Koodalingam; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Jothi Basu, Muthuramalingam; Perumal, Muthulakshmi; Palanisamy, Subramanian; Munusamy, Arumugam

2015-03-01

281

Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic host systems makes them attractive candidates for biotechnological applications. However, before suggesting or choosing a new bacteriocin for future technology developments, it is necessary to elucidate its biochemical structure and its mode of action, which may be carried out once the bacteriocin is purified to homogeneity. This chapter focuses on describing the main strategies used for the purification of numerous bacteriocins.

Saavedra, Lucila; Sesma, Fernando

282

Novel Bacterial NAD+-Dependent DNA Ligase Inhibitors with Broad-Spectrum Activity and Antibacterial Efficacy In Vivo? †  

PubMed Central

DNA ligases are indispensable enzymes playing a critical role in DNA replication, recombination, and repair in all living organisms. Bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was evaluated for its potential as a broad-spectrum antibacterial target. A novel class of substituted adenosine analogs was discovered by target-based high-throughput screening (HTS), and these compounds were optimized to render them more effective and selective inhibitors of LigA. The adenosine analogs inhibited the LigA activities of Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus, with inhibitory activities in the nanomolar range. They were selective for bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligases, showing no inhibitory activity against ATP-dependent human DNA ligase 1 or bacteriophage T4 ligase. Enzyme kinetic measurements demonstrated that the compounds bind competitively with NAD+. X-ray crystallography demonstrated that the adenosine analogs bind in the AMP-binding pocket of the LigA adenylation domain. Antibacterial activity was observed against pathogenic Gram-positive and atypical bacteria, such as S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and M. pneumoniae, as well as against Gram-negative pathogens, such as H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The mode of action was verified using recombinant strains with altered LigA expression, an Okazaki fragment accumulation assay, and the isolation of resistant strains with ligA mutations. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in a murine S. aureus thigh infection model and a murine S. pneumoniae lung infection model. Treatment with the adenosine analogs reduced the bacterial burden (expressed in CFU) in the corresponding infected organ tissue as much as 1,000-fold, thus validating LigA as a target for antibacterial therapy. PMID:21189350

Mills, Scott D.; Eakin, Ann E.; Buurman, Ed T.; Newman, Joseph V.; Gao, Ning; Huynh, Hoan; Johnson, Kenneth D.; Lahiri, Sushmita; Shapiro, Adam B.; Walkup, Grant K.; Yang, Wei; Stokes, Suzanne S.

2011-01-01

283

Antibacterial activity and genotypic-phenotypic characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Bacillus subtilis KKU213: Potential as a probiotic strain.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity and probiotic properties of Bacillus subtilis strain KKU213, isolated from local soil, were investigated. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of a KKU213 culture containing crude bacteriocins exhibited inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity of the CFS precipitated with 40% ammonium sulfate (AS) remained even after treatment at 60 and 100°C, at pH 4 and 10 and with proteolytic enzymes, detergents and heavy metals. When analyzed by SDS-PAGE and overlaid with the indicator strains B. cereus and S. aureus, the 40% AS precipitate exhibited inhibitory activity on proteins smaller than 10kDa. However, proteins larger than 25kDa and smaller than 10kDa were still observed on a native protein gel. Purified subtilosin A was prepared by Amberlite XAD-16 bead extraction and HPLC and analyzed by Nano-LC-QTOF-MS. Its molecular mass was found to be 3.4kDa, and it retained its antibacterial activity. These results are consistent with the detection of the anti-listerial subtilosin A gene of the sbo/alb cluster in the KKU213 strain, which is 100% identical to that of B. subtilis subsp. subtilis 168. In addition to stable and cyclic subtilosin A, a mixture of many extracellular antibacterial peptides was also detected in the KKU213 culture. The KKU213 strain produced extracellular amylase, cellulase, lipase and protease, is highly acid-resistant (pH 2) when cultured in inulin and promotes health and reduces infection of intestinally colonized broiler chickens. Therefore, we propose that bacteriocin-producing B. subtilis KKU213 could be used as a potential probiotic strain or protective culture. PMID:25440998

Khochamit, Nalisa; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Sukon, Peerapol; Siripornadulsil, Wilailak

2015-01-01

284

New eco-friendly 1-alkyl-3-(4-phenoxybutyl) imidazolium-based ionic liquids derivatives: a green ultrasound-assisted synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activity and POM analyses.  

PubMed

In view of the emerging importance of the ILs as "green" materials with wide applications and our general interests in green processes, a series of a twenty five new 1-alkyl-3-(4-phenoxybutyl) imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) derivatives is synthesized using a facile and green ultrasound-assisted procedure. Their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 11B, 19F, 31P, and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial screens of some selected ILs were conducted against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of each compound was measured by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) yielding very interesting and promising results. Their antibacterial activities are reported, and, on the basis of the experimental and virtual POM screening data available, attempt is also made to elucidate the structure activity relationship. PMID:25153856

Messali, Mouslim; Aouad, Mohamed R; El-Sayed, Wael S; Ali, Adeeb Al-Sheikh; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Hammouti, Belkheir

2014-01-01

285

Extracellular vesicles produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis are disrupted by the lipopeptide surfactin.  

PubMed

Previously, extracellular vesicle production in Gram-positive bacteria was dismissed due to the absence of an outer membrane, where Gram-negative vesicles originate, and the difficulty in envisioning how such a process could occur through the cell wall. However, recent work has shown that Gram-positive bacteria produce extracellular vesicles and that the vesicles are biologically active. In this study, we show that Bacillus subtilis produces extracellular vesicles similar in size and morphology to other bacteria, characterized vesicles using a variety of techniques, provide evidence that these vesicles are actively produced by cells, show differences in vesicle production between strains, and identified a mechanism for such differences based on vesicle disruption. We found that in wild strains of B. subtilis, surfactin disrupted vesicles while in laboratory strains harbouring a mutation in the gene sfp, vesicles accumulated in the culture supernatant. Surfactin not only lysed B. subtilis vesicles, but also vesicles from Bacillus anthracis, indicating a mechanism that crossed species boundaries. To our knowledge, this is the first time a gene and a mechanism has been identified in the active disruption of extracellular vesicles and subsequent release of vesicular cargo in Gram-positive bacteria. We also identify a new mechanism of action for surfactin. PMID:24826903

Brown, Lisa; Kessler, Anne; Cabezas-Sanchez, Pablo; Luque-Garcia, Jose L; Casadevall, Arturo

2014-07-01

286

Daptomycin Dose-Effect Relationship against Resistant Gram-Positive Organisms  

PubMed Central

Daptomycin exhibits in vitro bactericidal activity against clinically significant gram-positive bacteria. We employed pharmacodynamic modeling to determine a once-daily dosing regimen of daptomycin that correlates to pharmacodynamic endpoints for different resistant gram-positive clinical strains. An in vitro pharmacodynamic model with an initial inoculum of 6 log10 CFU/ml was used to simulate daptomycin regimens ranging in dose from 0 to 9 mg/kg of body weight/day, with corresponding exposures reflecting free-daptomycin concentrations in serum. Bacterial density was profiled over 48 h for two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-67 and -R515), two glycopeptide intermediate-resistant S. aureus (GISA-992 and -147398), and two vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF-12366 and -SF12047) strains. A sigmoid dose-response model was used to estimate the effective dose required to achieve 50% (ED50) and 80% (ED80) bacterial density reduction at 48 h. Daptomycin MICs for study isolates ranged from 0.125 to 4 ?g/ml. Model fitting resulted in an r2 of >0.80 for all tested isolates. Control growths at 48 h ranged from 7.3 to 8.5 log10 CFU/ml. Sigmoid relationships were not superimposable between categorical resistant species: ED50 and ED80 values were 1.9 and 3.1, 4.2 and 5.6, and 5.4 and 6.8 mg/kg for MRSA, GISA, and VREF isolates, respectively. Doses required to achieve ED50 and ED80 values correlated with MIC differences between tested organisms. Corresponding area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h/MIC exposure ratios demonstrated a wide range of ED80 values among the tested isolates. Doses ranging between 3 and 7 mg/kg produced significant bactericidal activity (ED80) against these multidrug-resistant S. aureus and E. faecium isolates. PMID:12709328

Cha, Raymond; Grucz Jr., Richard G.; Rybak, Michael J.

2003-01-01

287

Antibacterial Efficacy of Raw and Processed Honey  

PubMed Central

In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of raw and processed honey was tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi). Both types of honey showed antibacterial activity against tested organisms with the zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranging from 6.94 to 37.94?mm, while E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa showed that sensibility towards all the extracts with ZOI ranges between 13.09 to 37.94?mm. The methanol extract showed more potent activity than other organic extracts. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more susceptible as compared to Gram-positive bacteria except E. faecalis. The broth microdilution assay gave minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 625??g/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges between 625??g/mL 2500??g/mL. The study showed that honey has antibacterial activity (bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect), similar to antibiotics, against test organisms and provides alternative therapy against certain bacteria. PMID:21350671

Mohapatra, D. P.; Thakur, V.; Brar, S. K.

2011-01-01

288

Antibacterial Activity of Nanocomposites of Copper and Cellulose  

PubMed Central

The design of cheap and safe antibacterial materials for widespread use has been a challenge in materials science. The use of copper nanostructures combined with abundant biopolymers such as cellulose offers a potential approach to achieve such materials though this has been less investigated as compared to other composites. Here, nanocomposites comprising copper nanofillers in cellulose matrices have been prepared by in situ and ex situ methods. Two cellulose matrices (vegetable and bacterial) were investigated together with morphological distinct copper particulates (nanoparticles and nanowires). A study on the antibacterial activity of these nanocomposites was carried out for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as pathogen microorganisms. The results showed that the chemical nature and morphology of the nanofillers have great effect on the antibacterial activity, with an increase in the antibacterial activity with increasing copper content in the composites. The cellulosic matrices also show an effect on the antibacterial efficiency of the nanocomposites, with vegetal cellulose fibers acting as the most effective substrate. Regarding the results obtained, we anticipate the development of new approaches to prepare cellulose/copper based nanocomposites thereby producing a wide range of interesting antibacterial materials with potential use in diverse applications such as packaging or paper coatings. PMID:24455681

Pinto, Ricardo J. B.; Daina, Sara; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Trindade, Tito

2013-01-01

289

Efficient Photodynamic Therapy against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria Using THPTS, a Cationic Photosensitizer Excited by Infrared Wavelength  

PubMed Central

The worldwide rise in the rates of antibiotic resistance of bacteria underlines the need for alternative antibacterial agents. A promising approach to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria uses light in combination with a photosensitizer to induce a phototoxic reaction. Concentrations of 1, 10 and 100µM of tetrahydroporphyrin-tetratosylat (THPTS) and different incubation times (30, 90 and 180min) were used to measure photodynamic efficiency against two Gram-positive strains of S.aureus (MSSA and MRSA), and two Gram-negative strains of E.coli and P.aeruginosa. We found that phototoxicity of the drug is independent of the antibiotic resistance pattern when incubated in PBS for the investigated strains. Also, an incubation with 100µM THPTS followed by illumination, yielded a 6lg (?99.999%) decrease in the viable numbers of all bacteria strains tested, indicating that the THPTS drug has a high degree of photodynamic inactivation. We then modulated incubation time, photosensitizer concentration and monitored the effect of serum on the THPTS activity. In doing so, we established the conditions to obtain the strongest bactericidal effect. Our results suggest that this new and highly pure synthetic compound should improve the efficiency of photodynamic therapy against multiresistant bacteria and has a significant potential for clinical applications in the treatment of nosocomial infections. PMID:20652031

Schastak, Stanislaw; Ziganshyna, Svitlana; Gitter, Burkhard; Wiedemann, Peter; Claudepierre, Thomas

2010-01-01

290

Induction of nitric oxide production by polyosides from the cell walls of Streptococcus mutans OMZ 175, a gram-positive bacterium, in the rat aorta.  

PubMed Central

The cardiovascular dysfunctions associated with septic shock induced by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria (gram-positive or gram-negative septic shock) are comparable. In gram-negative septic shock, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces nitric oxide (NO) synthase, which contributes to the vascular hypotension and hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors. The role of NO in gram-positive septic shock and the nature of the bacterial wall components responsible for the vascular effects of gram-positive bacteria are not well known. This study investigated the vascular effects of cell wall serotype polyosides, rhamnose glucose polymers (RGPs), from Streptococcus mutans, in comparison with lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus, on the induction of NO synthase activity in the rat aorta. We show that 10 microg of both RGPs and LTA per ml induced hyporeactivity to noradrenaline, L-arginine-induced relaxation, increases of 2.2- and 7.8-fold, respectively, of cyclic GMP production, and increases of 7- and 12-fold in nitrite release. All of these effects appeared after several hours of incubation and were inhibited by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping experiments demonstrated directly that RGPs and LTA induced NO overproduction (four- to eightfold, respectively) in rat aortic rings; this production was inhibited by L-NAME and prevented by dexamethasone. These results demonstrate directly the induction of NO production in vascular tissue by LTA and show that another, chemically different component of gram-positive bacteria can also have these properties. This result suggests that different components of the gram-positive bacterial wall could be implicated in the genesis of cardiovascular dysfunctions observed in gram-positive septic shock. PMID:9169734

Martin, V; Kleschyov, A L; Klein, J P; Beretz, A

1997-01-01

291

Pharmacodynamics of Telavancin (TD-6424), a Novel Bactericidal Agent, against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Telavancin (TD-6424) is a novel lipoglycopeptide that produces rapid and concentration-dependent killing of clinically relevant gram-positive organisms in vitro. The present studies evaluated the in vivo pharmacodynamics of telavancin in the mouse neutropenic thigh (MNT) and mouse subcutaneous infection (MSI) animal models. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies in the MNT model demonstrated that the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio was the best predictor of efficacy. Telavancin produced dose-dependent reduction of thigh titers of several organisms, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), penicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. The 50% effective dose (ED50) estimates for telavancin ranged from 0.5 to 6.6 mg/kg of body weight (administered intravenously), and titers were reduced by up to 3 log10 CFU/g from pretreatment values. Against MRSA ATCC 33591, telavancin was 4- and 30-fold more potent (on an ED50 basis) than vancomycin and linezolid, respectively. Against MSSA ATCC 13709, telavancin was 16- and 40-fold more potent than vancomycin and nafcillin, respectively. Telavancin, vancomycin, and linezolid were all efficacious and more potent against MRSA ATCC 33591 in the MSI model compared to the MNT model. This deviation in potency was, however, disproportionately greater for vancomycin and linezolid than for telavancin, suggesting that activity of telavancin is less affected by the immune status. The findings of these studies collectively suggest that once-daily dosing of telavancin may provide an effective approach for the treatment of clinically relevant infections with gram-positive organisms. PMID:15273119

Hegde, Sharath S.; Reyes, Noe; Wiens, Tania; Vanasse, Nicole; Skinner, Robert; McCullough, Julia; Kaniga, Koné; Pace, John; Thomas, Roger; Shaw, Jeng-Pyng; Obedencio, Glen; Judice, J. Kevin

2004-01-01

292

Cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts of aerial parts of Varthemia, Varthemia iphionoides, were investigated for cytotoxic activity against human myelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells; DPPH radical-scavenging activity; antioxidative activity in the linoleic acid system; reducing power; antibacterial activity; the contents of phenolic compounds. A pronounced cytotoxic effect on human leukemia (HL-60) cells was shown in the hexane,

Maher M. Al-Dabbas; Toshihiko Suganuma; Kanefumi Kitahara; De-Xing Hou; Makoto Fujii

2006-01-01

293

Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of essential oil terpenes against pathogenic and spoilage-forming bacteria and cell structure-activity relationships evaluated by SEM microscopy.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity and antioxidant effect of the compounds ?-terpineol, linalool, eucalyptol and ?-pinene obtained from essential oils (EOs), against pathogenic and spoilage forming bacteria were determined. The antibacterial activities of these compounds were observed in vitro on four Gram-negative and three Gram-positive strains. S. putrefaciens was the most resistant bacteria to all tested components, with MIC values of 2% or higher, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was the most sensitive strain among the tested bacteria. Eucalyptol extended the lag phase of S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus at the concentrations of 0.7%, 0.6% and 1%, respectively. In vitro cell growth experiments showed the tested compounds had toxic effects on all bacterial species with different level of potency. Synergistic and additive effects were observed at least one dose pair of combination against S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus, however antagonistic effects were not found in these combinations. The results of this first study are encouraging for further investigations on mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of these EO components. PMID:25372394

Zengin, Hatice; Baysal, Ayse H

2014-01-01

294

Injectable Bioadhesive Hydrogels with Innate Antibacterial Properties  

PubMed Central

Surgical site infections cause significant postoperative morbidity and increased healthcare costs. Bioadhesives used to fill surgical voids and support wound healing are typically devoid of antibacterial activity. Here, we report novel syringe-injectable bioadhesive hydrogels with inherent antibacterial properties prepared from mixing polydextran aldehyde (PDA) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). These adhesives kill both Gram-negative and Gram–positive bacteria, while sparing human erythrocytes. An optimal composition of 2.5 wt % oxidized dextran and 6.9 wt % PEI sets within seconds forming a mechanically rigid (~1700 Pa) gel offering a maximum adhesive stress of ~ 2.8 kPa. A murine infection model showed that the adhesive is capable of killing S. pyogenes introduced subcutaneously at the bioadhesive’s surface, with minimal inflammatory response. The adhesive was also effective in a cecal ligation and puncture model, preventing sepsis and significantly improving survival. These bioadhesives represent novel, inherently antibacterial materials for wound filling applications. PMID:24958189

Giano, Michael C.; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Medina, Scott H.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Christensen, Joani M.; Yamada, Yuji; Brandacher, Gerald; Schneider, Joel P.

2014-01-01

295

In vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of iranian propolis (EEIP) against fish pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri & Streptococcus iniae)  

PubMed Central

The “in vitro” antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEIP) from Urmia, Iran was investigated against three prevalent species of fish bacterial pathogens including: Aeromonas hydrophila LMG 3770, Yersinia ruckeri LMG 3279 and Streptococcus iniae LMG 14520. In this study two standard susceptibility testing techniques (Micro-broth dilution method and Agar-well diffusion method) were used to evaluation of the antibacterial activity of EEIP against the mentioned micro-organisms. Also the chemical composition of propolis was determined by the method of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Results showed Chemical composition of EEIP contained significant amounts of flavonoids, Sesquiterpenes – mainly Eudesmol and Caryophyllene oxide - aromatic acid, and low amounts of aldehydes and triterpens. Furthermore the ethanol extract of propolis inhibited the growth of all examined micro-organisms with the highest antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus iniae. Ethanol did not influence the antimicrobial effect of EEIP. These antibacterial properties would warrant further studies on the clinical applications of propolis in aquaculture field. PMID:24031591

Tukmechi, Amir; Ownagh, Abdolghaffar; Mohebbat, Ali

2010-01-01

296

Antibacterial and catalytic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aqueous beetroot extract was used as reducing agent for silver nanoparticles synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface plasmon resonance peak of synthesized nanoparticles was observed at 438 nm. As the concentration of beetroot extract increases, absorption spectra shows blue shift with decreasing particle size. The prepared silver nanoparticles were well dispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 15 nm. The prepared silver nanoparticles are effective in inhibiting the growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The prepared silver nanoparticles reveal faster catalytic activity. This natural method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

2015-01-01

297

Evidence for Direct Electron Transfer by a Gram-Positive Bacterium Isolated from a Microbial Fuel Cell?†  

PubMed Central

Despite their importance in iron redox cycles and bioenergy production, the underlying physiological, genetic, and biochemical mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer by Gram-positive bacteria remain insufficiently understood. In this work, we investigated respiration by Thermincola potens strain JR, a Gram-positive isolate obtained from the anode surface of a microbial fuel cell, using insoluble electron acceptors. We found no evidence that soluble redox-active components were secreted into the surrounding medium on the basis of physiological experiments and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Confocal microscopy revealed highly stratified biofilms in which cells contacting the electrode surface were disproportionately viable relative to the rest of the biofilm. Furthermore, there was no correlation between biofilm thickness and power production, suggesting that cells in contact with the electrode were primarily responsible for current generation. These data, along with cryo-electron microscopy experiments, support contact-dependent electron transfer by T. potens strain JR from the cell membrane across the 37-nm cell envelope to the cell surface. Furthermore, we present physiological and genomic evidence that c-type cytochromes play a role in charge transfer across the Gram-positive bacterial cell envelope during metal reduction. PMID:21908627

Wrighton, K. C.; Thrash, J. C.; Melnyk, R. A.; Bigi, J. P.; Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Remis, J. P.; Schichnes, D.; Auer, M.; Chang, C. J.; Coates, J. D.

2011-01-01

298

8-Azatetracyclines: Synthesis and Evaluation of a Novel Class of Tetracycline Antibacterial Agents  

PubMed Central

A novel series of fully synthetic 8-azatetracyclines was prepared and evaluated for antibacterial activity. Compounds were identified that overcome both efflux (tet(K)) and ribosomal protection (tet(M)) tetracycline resistance mechanisms and are active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Two compounds were identified that exhibit comparable efficacy to marketed tetracyclines in in vivo models of bacterial infection. PMID:21302930

2011-01-01

299

Synthesis and antibacterial activity of a new series of 3-[3-(substituted phenyl)-1-isonicotinoyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-2H-chromen-2-one derivatives.  

PubMed

A novel series of 3-[3-(substituted phenyl)-1-isonicotinoyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-2H-chromen-2-one derivatives 4a-k have been synthesized by the reaction of 3-[2,3-dibromo-3-(substituted phenyl) propanoyl]-2H-chromen-2-one 3a-k and isonicotinic acid hydrazide in the presence of triethylamine in absolute ethanol, characterized by spectral data and screened for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among the series, compounds 4e, 4i, and 4k displayed an encouraging antibacterial activity profile as compared to the reference drug ampicillin against tested bacterial strains. PMID:19475595

Aragade, Prashant; Maddi, Veeresh; Khode, Suresh; Palkar, Mahesh; Ronad, Pradeepkumar; Mamledesai, Shivalingarao; Satyanarayana, Darbhamulla

2009-06-01

300

Antibacterial activity of four dentin bonding systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial action of bonding systems Gluma 2000, Syntac, Prisma Universal Bond 3, Scotchbond Multipurpose and Prime-Bond was tested against 32 strains of the caries-producing bacteria Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Actinomyces spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Clostridium spp. An agar plate diffusion method was used with chlorhexidine as the positive control. Assays were performed in triplicate for each component (primer and

Manuela Herrera; Paula Carrión; Manuel Bravo; Ana Castillo

2000-01-01

301

Synthesis of novel selenium-containing sulfa drugs and their antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

Synthesis of 3-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7,9-dimethylpyrido[3',2':4,5]selenolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines, 7-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-3,4-diphenylpyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo [2,3-c]pyridazines and 1-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-1,11-dihydro-11-oxo-4-methylpyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo[2,3-b]quinolines is reported. 4-Amino-N-pyrimidine-2-ylbenzene sulfonamide (a), 4-amino-N-(2,6-dimetnylpyrimidin-4-yl)benzene sulfonamide (b), N-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl] acetamide (c) with N-ethoxymethyleneamino of selenolo pyridine, selenolo pyridazine and selenolo quinoline derivatives respectively were obtained starting from 1-amino-N-substituted sulfanilamides. Spectroscopic data (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass spectral) confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. Substituted pyrimidines, pyridazines and quinolines were screened for antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Selenolo derivative of N-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl] acetamide (substitutent of sulfacetamide c) showed strong bactericidal effect against all the tested organisms. Selenolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin (substitutent a) showed a good bactericidal effect against Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compounds Selenolo[2,3-c]pyridazine (substitutent b), Selenolo[2,3-b]quinoline(substitutents c)) exhibited a moderate bactericidal effect against Serratia marcescens. None of the synthesized selenopyridazines has a considerable antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active compound - 3-[4-(N-acetyl sulfamoyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7,9-dimethylpyrido[3',2':4,5]selenolo [3,2-d]pyrimidine was 10 mg mL(-1). PMID:20644596

Abdel-Hafez, Sh H

2010-01-01

302

Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Antibacterial Peptides with a Spiropyran Fluorescence Probe  

PubMed Central

In this report, antibacterial peptides1-3 were prepared with a spiropyran fluorescence probe. The probe exhibits a change in fluorescence when isomerized from a colorless spiro-form (spiropyran, Sp) to a colored open-form (merocyanine, Mc) under different chemical environments, which can be used to study the mechanism of antimicrobial activity. Peptides 1-3 exhibit a marked decrease in antimicrobial activity with increasing alkyl chain length. This is likely due to the Sp-Mc isomers in different polar environments forming different aggregate sizes in TBS, as demonstrated by time-dependent dynamic light scattering (DLS). Moreover, peptides 1-3 exhibited low cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity. These probe-modified peptides may provide a novel approach to study the effect of structural changes on antibacterial activity, thus facilitating the design of new antimicrobial agents to combat bacterial infection. PMID:25358905

Chen, Lei; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Danling; Zou, Rongfeng; Wu, Junchen; Tian, He

2014-01-01

303

Antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of Cu-Ti-O nanotubes.  

PubMed

TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) have favorable biological properties, but the poor antibacterial activity limits their application especially in orthopedics fields. In this article, Cu-Ti-O nanotubes with different Cu contents are fabricated on sputtered TiCu films. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the NTs can be formed on sputtered TiCu films when the Cu content is less than 14.6 at %. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate the NTs are consist of CuO mixed with TiO2 and the Cu content in NTs decreases dramatically compared with that in TiCu films. Biological experiments show that although these NTs have poor release antibacterial activity, their contact antibacterial activity has proven to be excellent, indicating the NT surface can effectively inhibit biomaterial-associated infections. The cytocompatibility of the NTs is closely related to the Cu content and when its content is relatively low (1.01 at %), there is no appreciable cytotoxicity. So Cu-Ti-O NTs with 1 at % Cu may be suitable to achieve proper antibacterial activity and desired cytocompatibility. The Cu-Ti-O NTs integrate the favorable antibacterial activity of Cu and excellent biological properties of TiO2 NTs therefore have potential applications in orthopedics, dentistry, and other biomedical fields. PMID:23907848

Hang, Ruiqiang; Gao, Ang; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xiangyu; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin

2014-06-01

304

Anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of novel 5-hydroxy-4-acetyl-2,3-dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furans.  

PubMed

Novel 5-hydroxy-4-acetyl-2,3-dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furans (7a-k) were synthesized using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN)-catalyzed formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition. Synthesized compounds were evaluated for their tyrosinase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. A modified spectrophotometric method using l-DOPA as substrate was used to determine tyrosinase inhibitory activities, and a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to evaluate antioxidant properties. Antibacterial activities against gram-negative Escherichia coli (KCTC-1924) and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (KCTC-1916) were evaluated using the disc diffusion technique. Of the synthesized compounds, 7b with a 4-acetyl and an electron-enriched dihydronaphthofuran ring showed the highest tyrosinase-inhibition activity (IC50 = 8.91 ?g/mL), which was comparable with that of standard kojic acid (IC50 = 10.16 ?g/mL), potent antioxidant activity (IC50 = 3.33 ?g/mL), which was comparable with that of BHT (IC50 = 34.67 ?g/mL), and excellent antibacterial activities (MICs: 0.50 ?g/mL against E. coli and S. aureus strains). A mechanistic analysis of 7b demonstrated that its tyrosinase inhibitory activity was reversible and competitive. Compounds 7c and 7d showed potent antioxidant activities (IC50: 6.30 and 5.01 ?g/mL), and compound 7d also exhibited potent inhibitory activity against E. coli with a MIC of 0.5 ?g/mL. Furthermore, compounds 7a, 7e, 7f, and 7i showed potent antibacterial activities against S. aureus with MICs of 0.5 ?g/mL, which was comparable to that of ampicillin (MIC = 0.5 ?g/mL). PMID:25218909

Xia, Likai; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok; Wee, Young-Jung; Kim, Sung Hong

2014-10-30

305

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

306

Antibacterial action of chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial action of chitosan hydroglutamate (CH), chitosan lactate (CL) and chitosan derived from fungal mycelia was examined against both gram?negative and gram?positive bacteria. Plate counts indicated inactivation rates of one? to five?log?cycles within one hour. Fungal chitosan had significantly less antibiotic effect than CH and CL. The antibacterial action of CH and CL was very similar and shown to

N. R. Sudarshan; D. G. Hoover; D. Knorr

1992-01-01

307

Management of Gram-Positive Bacterial Disease: Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcal, Pneumococcal and Enterococcal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gram-positive bacteria are a diverse group of organisms that are a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with\\u000a cancer. The increasing use of long-term indwelling central catheters and cytotoxic chemotherapies has contributed to the emergence\\u000a of Gram-positive bacteria as the leading cause of bacteremia in cancer patients. These organisms are also among the foremost\\u000a causes of pneumonia, skin

Samuel Shelburne; Daniel M. Musher

308

Rapid method for distinction of gram-negative from gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method for distinction between gram-negative and grampositive bacteria by means of a 3% solution of potassium hydroxide is tested on 71 gram-positive and 55 gram-negative bacterial strains. The method proved reliable with one exception only, a Bacillus macerans strain. That strain was definately gram-negative on staining. Other Bacillus strains were proved gram-positive by the test, even those being

T. Gregersen

1978-01-01

309

Quorum sensing by peptide pheromones and two component signal transduction systems in Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-density-dependent gene expression appears to be widely spread in bacteria. This quorum-sensing phenomenon has been well established in Gram-negative bacteria, where N-acyl homoserine lactones are the diffusible communication molecules that modulate cell-density-dependent phenotypes. Similarly, a variety of processes are known to be regulated in a cell-density- or growth-phase-dependent manner in Gram-positive bacteria. Examples of such quorum-sensing modes in Gram-positive bacteria

Michiel Kleerebezem; Luis E. N. Quadri; Oscar P. Kuipers; Willem M. de Vos

1997-01-01

310

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum). Methods Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenoic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx), metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and the prevention of oxidative DNA damage. Antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion for seven strains of bacteria. Results Results found that V. corymbosum leaf extract had significant antibacterial activity. The tested extract displayed the highest activity (about 23.18 mm inhibition zone) against Salmonella typhymurium and the lowest antibacterial activity was observed against Enterococcus faecalis (about 14.08 mm inhibition zone) at 10 mg/ disc. The IC50 values for DPPH, ABTS and radical scavenging activity were 0.120, 0.049 and 1.160 mg/mL, respectively. V. corymbosum leaf extract also showed dose dependent reduction power, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage prevention and significant antioxidant enzymatic activity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that leaf extract of V. corymbosum could be used as an alternative therapy for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help prevent various free radical related diseases.

Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Beong Ou

2013-01-01

311

Polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities for two Romanian subspecies of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. distans and Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. alpina Rochel, from the Rodna Mountains (Romania). The identification and quantification of major phenolic compounds was performed by a HPLC-MS method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH bleaching method, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy method. A data indicated that A. distans subsp. alpina extract has more antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. Luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were present in the two extracts of A. distans, but in different amounts. Three flavonoids were detected only in A. distans subsp. alpina. The polyphenol-richer A. distans subsp. alpina extract showed a higher antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. A. distans subsp. distans extract showed inhibitory activity for Gram-positive bacteria, as evaluated with four species. The quantitative and qualitative differences between the two subspecies of Achillea distans could be used as a potential taxonomic marker in order to distinguish the species. PMID:23887715

Benedec, Daniela; Vlase, Laurian; Oniga, Ilioara; Mot, Augustin C; Damian, Grigore; Hanganu, Daniela; Duma, Mihaela; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

2013-01-01

312

MurF Inhibitors with Antibacterial Activity: Effect on Muropeptide Levels ?  

PubMed Central

MurF catalyzes the last cytoplasmic step of bacterial cell wall synthesis and is essential for bacterial survival. Our previous studies used a pharmacophore model of a MurF inhibitor to identify additional inhibitors with improved properties. We now present the characterization of two such inhibitors, the diarylquinolines DQ1 and DQ2. DQ1 inhibited Escherichia coli MurF (50% inhibitory concentration, 24 ?M) and had modest activity (MICs, 8 to 16 ?g/ml) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-defective E. coli and wild-type E. coli rendered permeable with polymyxin B nonapeptide. DQ2 additionally displayed activity against gram-positive bacteria (MICs, 8 to 16 ?g/ml), including methicillin (meticillin)-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates and vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. Treatment of LPS-defective E. coli cells with ?2× MIC of DQ1 resulted in a 75-fold-greater accumulation of the MurF substrate compared to the control, a 70% decline in the amount of the MurF product, and eventual cell lysis, consistent with the inhibition of MurF within bacteria. DQ2 treatment of S. aureus resulted in similar effects on the MurF substrate and product quantities. At lower levels of DQ1 (?1× MIC), the level of accumulation of the substrate was less pronounced (15-fold greater compared to the amount for the control). However, a 50% increase in the amount of the MurF product compared to the control was reproducibly observed, consistent with the possible upregulation of muropeptide biosynthesis upon partial inhibition of this pathway. The overexpression of cloned MurF appeared to partly alleviate the DQ1-mediated inhibition of muropeptide synthesis. The identification of MurF inhibitors such as DQ1 and DQ2 that disrupt cell wall biosynthesis suggests that MurF remains a viable target for an antibacterial agent. PMID:19470511

Baum, Ellen Z.; Crespo-Carbone, Steven M.; Foleno, Barbara D.; Simon, Lee D.; Guillemont, Jerome; Macielag, Mark; Bush, Karen

2009-01-01

313

Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of ?-irradiated silver nanoparticles in aqueous gelatin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were obtained through ?-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing AgNO3 and gelatin as a silver source and stabilizer, respectively. The absorbed dose of ?-irradiation influences the particle diameter of the Ag-NPs, as evidenced from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. When the ?-irradiation dose was increased (from 2 to 50 kGy), the mean particle size was decreased continuously as a result of ?-induced Ag-NPs fragmentation. The antibacterial properties of the Ag-NPs were tested against Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a) (Gram-negative) bacteria. This approach reveals that the ?-irradiation-mediated method is a promising simple route for synthesizing highly stable Ag-NPs in aqueous solutions with good antibacterial properties for different applications.

Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Hakimi, Mohammad; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, Ali Khorsand; Hosseini, Hasan Ali; Zargar, Mohsen

2013-04-01

314

Evaluations of Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity on Ag Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

E. coli and S. aureus were used as model for testing antimicrobial activity, and L-929 cell line was selected for toxicity evaluation by cellular mitochondrial function (MTT assay). The results show that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) can significantly increase antibacterial activity with the increasing of concentration of the silver nanoparticles. The lowest effective concentration of silver nanoparticles (30×10?6) which leads

Li Xinping; Li Shengli; Zhang Miaotao; Zhang Wenlong; Li Chuanghong

2011-01-01

315

Antibacterial activity of various leaf extracts of Merremia emarginata  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the aqueous, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extracts of Merremia emarginata (M. emarginata). Methods The antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of M. emarginata were evaluated by agar well diffusion method against four selected bacterial species. Results The presence of tannins, flavonoids, amino acids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in the different leaf extracts was established. The methanol extract was more effective against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, whereas aqueous extract was more effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions : The results in the present study suggest that M. emarginata leaf can be used in treating diseases caused by the tested organisms. PMID:23569802

Elumalai, EK; Ramachandran, M; Thirumalai, T; Vinothkumar, P

2011-01-01

316

Synthesis and antibacterial activity of catecholate-ciprofloxacin conjugates.  

PubMed

The development of an efficient route to obtain artificial siderophore-antibiotic conjugates active against Gram-negative bacteria is crucial. Herein, a practical access to triscatecholate enterobactin analogues linked to the ciprofloxacin along with their antibacterial evaluation are described. Two series of conjugates were obtained with and without a piperazine linker which is known to improve the pharmacokinetics profile of a drug. A monocatecholate-ciprofloxacin conjugate was also synthesized and evaluated. The antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for some conjugates are related to the iron concentration in the culture medium and seem to depend on the bacterial iron uptake systems. PMID:24972726

Fardeau, Sylvain; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Audic, Nicolas; Sasaki, André; Pillon, Marine; Baudrin, Emmanuel; Mullié, Catherine; Sonnet, Pascal

2014-08-01

317

Investigating lipoprotein biogenesis and function in the model Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolormmi_7261 943..957  

E-print Network

Investigating lipoprotein biogenesis and function in the model Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces the lipid- modified cysteine at the N-terminus of the mature lipoprotein. In all Gram-positive bacteria of the cyto- plasmic membrane. Here we identify lipoproteins in the model Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces

Palmer, Tracy

318

Experimental fossilisation of the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus SP7A: a long duration preservation study.  

E-print Network

Experimental fossilisation of the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus SP7A: a long of fossilised microbes in recent and ancient rocks, we experimentally silicified a Gram-positive bacterium of Gram-positive bacteria was extremely rapid, thus allowing very good preservation of Geobacillus SP7A

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Preparation and antibacterial activity of oligosaccharides derived from dandelion.  

PubMed

In this study, we prepared oligosaccharides from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) by hydrolysis with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and investigated their antibacterial activity. The optimum hydrolysis conditions, as determined using the response surface methodology, were as follows: reaction time, 5.12h; reaction temperature, 65.53 °C and H2O2 concentration, 3.16%. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of the oligosaccharides reached 25.43%. The sugar content in the sample was 96.8%, and the average degree of polymerisation was approximately 9. The oligosaccharides showed high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that dandelion-derived oligosaccharides have the potential to be used as antibacterial agents. PMID:24368113

Qian, Li; Zhou, Yan; Teng, Zhaolin; Du, Chun-Ling; Tian, Changrong

2014-03-01

320

Assessment of antibacterial effects of flavonoids by estimation of generation times in liquid bacterial cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activities of various flavonoids, a group of natural plant substances, have been reported previously, however,\\u000a there are contradictory data, published by various authors, regarding sensitivity of particular bacterial species to these\\u000a compounds. These problems arose apparently because of using different methods by various researchers. Here we tested sensitivity\\u000a of several bacterial species (Gram-positive: Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Sarcina sp.

Katarzyna Ulanowska; Anna Majchrzyk; Marta Moskot; Joanna Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka; Grzegorz Wþegrzyn

2007-01-01

321

Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of novel 4-alkyl substituted phenyl beta-aldehyde ketone derivatives.  

PubMed

A series of novel 4-alkylphenyl beta-aldehyde ketones and their derivatives were designed and synthesized on the basis of the chemical structures of Houttuynin and beta-lactam antibiotics. Antibacterial activities of these compounds were investigated. The results demonstrated that most of the compounds tested had moderate antibacterial activities against gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (ATTC-25923) than Houttuynin, and gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the compounds than gram-negative bacteria. Compound 23 was found to be the most potent compound with MIC of 1.0 microg/mL against S. aureus. Particularly, compounds 16, 22 and 23 showed more active antibacterial activities against the clinically important pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) than Houttuynin and levofloxacin. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis suggested that (1) the introduction of appropriate alkyl substituents into position 4 of phenyl ring enhanced antibacterial activities of these compounds, and isopropyl substituent might be more favorable; (2) the presence of ketone carbonyl moiety might play a vital role in determining significant antibacterial activities of these compounds. PMID:18450331

Liu, Jinbing; Cao, Rihui; Wu, Qifeng; Ma, Chunming; Wang, Zihou; Peng, Wenlie; Song, Huacan

2009-04-01

322

Antibacterial activity of some actinomycetes from Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate novel actinomycetes and to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methods Three soil samples were collected from Vengodu (village) in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and plating method on actinomycetes isolation agar. Results Totally 35 isolates were obtained on the basis of colony characteristics on actinomycetes isolation agar. All the isolates were screened for antibacterial activity by cross streak method. Medium and optimization of day were done for the potent strains using Nathan's agar well diffusion method. Isolation of bioactive compounds from significant active isolates was done by using different media. The most active isolate VAS 10 was identified as Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) using 16s rRNA sequence method. The hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol extracts of VAS 10 were tested against bacteria. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate; maximum zones of inhibition were observed against Enterococcus durans. The rRNA secondary structure and the restriction sites of Actinobacterium Loyola VAS 10 were predicted using Genebee and NEBCutter online tools respectively. Conclusions The present study showed that among the isolated actinomycetes, Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) showed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. PMID:23593572

Kumar, Pachaiyappan Saravana; Raj, John Poonga Preetam; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2012-01-01

323

Antibacterial activities in vitro and in vivo and pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (HR 111V), a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin.  

PubMed

Cefquinome is a new injectable aminothiazolyl cephalosporin derivative. It is stable against chromosomally and plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases and has a broad antibacterial spectrum. Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens) are inhibited at low concentrations. Cefquinome is also active against many strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococci and enterococci. Its in vitro activity against gram-negative anaerobes is very limited. The high in vitro activity of cefquinome is reflected by its high in vivo efficacy against experimental septicemia due to different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. We studied the pharmacokinetic properties of cefquinome in mice, dogs, pigs, and calves. After single parenteral administrations, cefquinome displayed high peak levels, declining with half-lives of about 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.3 h, respectively. The areas under the concentration-time curve determined for dogs and mice showed linear correlations to the given doses. In dogs the urinary recovery was more than 70% within 24 h of dosing. PMID:2014969

Limbert, M; Isert, D; Klesel, N; Markus, A; Seeger, K; Seibert, G; Schrinner, E

1991-01-01

324

Antibacterial activities in vitro and in vivo and pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (HR 111V), a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin.  

PubMed Central

Cefquinome is a new injectable aminothiazolyl cephalosporin derivative. It is stable against chromosomally and plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases and has a broad antibacterial spectrum. Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens) are inhibited at low concentrations. Cefquinome is also active against many strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococci and enterococci. Its in vitro activity against gram-negative anaerobes is very limited. The high in vitro activity of cefquinome is reflected by its high in vivo efficacy against experimental septicemia due to different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. We studied the pharmacokinetic properties of cefquinome in mice, dogs, pigs, and calves. After single parenteral administrations, cefquinome displayed high peak levels, declining with half-lives of about 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.3 h, respectively. The areas under the concentration-time curve determined for dogs and mice showed linear correlations to the given doses. In dogs the urinary recovery was more than 70% within 24 h of dosing. Images PMID:2014969

Limbert, M; Isert, D; Klesel, N; Markus, A; Seeger, K; Seibert, G; Schrinner, E

1991-01-01

325

Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors as antibacterial agents: synthesis, molecular docking and structure-activity relationship analysis of 3-aryl-4-arylaminofuran-2(5H)-ones.  

PubMed

Thirty-five 3-aryl-4-arylaminofuran-2(5H)-one derivatives were designed, prepared and tested for their inhibitory activity against tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. Out of these compounds, 3-(3-bromophenyl)-4-(3,5-dichlorophenylamino)furan-2(5H)-one (35) was the most active with IC(50) of 0.09 ± 0.02 ?M. The structure-activity relationship revealed that introduction of chlorine atoms at both meta positions of aniline moiety significantly increased the enzyme inhibitory activity. The results of antibacterial assay revealed that the tested compounds showed good activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with 35 being the most potent with MIC(50) of 0.06 ?g/mL against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Molecular docking of 35 into S. aureus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase active site was also performed. The inhibitor snugly fitting the active site may well explain its excellent inhibitory activity. PMID:21856050

Xiao, Zhu-Ping; Ma, Tao-Wu; Liao, Mei-Lin; Feng, Yu-Ting; Peng, Xiao-Chun; Li, Jia-Liang; Li, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Ying; Luo, Qun; Deng, Yang; Liang, Xiao; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2011-10-01

326

Isolation and structural elucidation of armeniaspirols?A-C: potent antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens.  

PubMed

In an antibiotic lead discovery program, the known strain Streptomyces armeniacus DSM19369 has been found to produce three new natural products when cultivated on a malt-containing medium. The challenging structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was achieved by using three independent methods, that is, chemical degradation followed by NMR spectroscopy, a computer-assisted structure prediction algorithm, and X-ray crystallography. The compounds, named armeniaspirol?A-C (2-4), exhibit a compact, hitherto unprecedented chlorinated spiro[4.4]non-8-ene scaffold. Labeling experiments with [1-(13)C] acetate, [1,2-(13)C2] acetate, and [U-(13)C] proline suggest a biosynthesis through a rare two-chain mechanism. Armeniaspirols displayed moderate to high in vitro activities against gram-positive pathogens such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE). As analogue 2 was active in vivo in an MRSA sepsis model, and showed no development of resistance in a serial passaging experiment, it represents a new antibiotic lead structure. PMID:23143837

Dufour, Cosima; Wink, Joachim; Kurz, Michael; Kogler, Herbert; Olivan, Helene; Sablé, Serge; Heyse, Winfried; Gerlitz, Martin; Toti, Luigi; Nußer, Antje; Rey, Astrid; Couturier, Cedric; Bauer, Armin; Brönstrup, Mark

2012-12-01

327

Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria induce a common early response in human monocytes  

PubMed Central

Background We infected freshly isolated human peripheral monocytes with live bacteria of three clinically important gram-positive bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes and studied the ensuing early transcriptional response using expression microarrays. Thus the observed response was unbiased by signals originating from other helper and effector cells of the host and was not limited to induction by solitary bacterial constituents. Results Activation of monocytes was demonstrated by the upregulation of chemokine rather than interleukin genes except for the prominent expression of interleukin 23, marking it as the early lead cytokine. This activation was accompanied by cytoskeleton rearrangement signals and a general anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic reaction. Remarkably, the expression profiles also provide evidence that monocytes participate in the regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial function in response to these pathogens. Conclusion Regardless of the invasion properties and survival mechanisms of the pathogens used, we found that the early response comprised of a consistent and common response. The common response was hallmarked by the upregulation of interleukin 23, a rather unexpected finding regarding Listeria infection, as this cytokine has been linked primarily to the control of extracellular bacterial dissemination. PMID:21044323

2010-01-01

328

Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesized silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.  

PubMed

The development of eco-friendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology. In this study, an extracellular enzyme system of a newly isolated microorganism, Exiguobacterium sp. KNU1, was used for the reduction of AgNO? solutions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNPs were approximately 30 nm (range 5-50 nm) in size, well-dispersed and spherical. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on different gram negative and gram positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Reasonable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. The morphological changes occurred in all the microorganisms tested. In particular, E. coli exhibited DNA fragmentation after being treated with the AgNPs. Finally, the mechanism for their bactericidal activity was proposed according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and single cell gel electrophoresis. PMID:23867968

Tamboli, Dhawal P; Lee, Dae Sung

2013-09-15

329

Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals. Extracellular cellulases produced by fungi are commercially developed for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation by appropriate biocatalysts in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial biocatalysts, SSF of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity leading to higher than required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial biocatalysts whose growth and fermentation requirements match the optimum conditions for commercial fungal cellulase activity (pH 5.0 and 50 deg. C). These isolates fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to L(+)-lactic acid. Xylose was metabolized through the pentose-phosphate pathway by these organisms as evidenced by the fermentation profile and analysis of the fermentation products of 13C1-xylose by NMR. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, 13C-lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products. All three strains fermented crystalline cellulose to lactic acid with the addition of fungal cellulase (Spezyme CE) (SSF) at an optimum of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. These isolates also fermented cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate simultaneously. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these isolates cluster with Bacillus coagulans although B. coagulans type strain, ATCC 7050, failed to utilize xylose as a carbon source. For successful production of ethanol from pyruvate, both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AHD) need to be produced at optimal levels in these biocatalysts. A plasmid containing the S. ventriculi pdc gene and the adh gene from geobacillus stearothermophilus was constructed using plasmid pWH1520 that was successfully used for expression of pdc in B. megaterium. The resulting portable ethanol (PET) plasmid, pJAM423, was transformed into B. megaterium. After xylose induction, a significant fraction of cell cytoplasm was composed of the S. ventriculi PDC and G. stearothermophilus ADH proteins. In preliminary experiments, the amount of ethanol produced by b. megaterium with plasmid pJAM423 was about twice (20 mM) of the bacterium without the plasmid. These results show that the PET operon is functional in B. megaterium but high level ethanol production needs further genetic and metabolic engineering. A genetic transfer system for the second generation biocatalysts needs to be developed for transferring the plasmid pJAM423 and its derivatives for engineering these organisms for ethanol production from biomass derived sugars and cellulose to ethanol. One of the new biocatalysts, strain P4-102B was found to be transformable with plasmids and the method for introducing plasmid pJAM423 into this strain and expression of the encoded DNA is being optimized. These new second generation biocatalysts have the potential to reduce the cost of SSF by minimizing the amount of fungal cellulases, a significant cost component in the use of biomass as a renewable resource for production of fuels and chemicals.

Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

2003-12-01

330

Light-activated antibacterial surfaces comprise photosensitizers.  

PubMed

Antibacterial surfaces were prepared using a base polyethylene sheet topped with a layer containing a mixed powder of poly (vinylidene fluoride) and photosensitizers (PSs). A crimpled stamp was placed on the mixed powder, and then it was passed through a heating and pressing device. The three chosen PSs were rose bengal, toluidine blue O and methylene blue. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that the PS surface texture was coarse and highly developed. Measurement of the apparent contact angles of the droplets deposited on the PS surfaces using goniometry showed that all three surfaces were hydrophobic. Photodynamic analysis of the surfaces into which the PSs were incorporated indicated significant reactive oxygen species formation after illumination with light fluency rate of 1.46 mW cm(-2) for 30 min. Photodynamic inactivation assays performed in nutrient broth demonstrated more than 4 log reduction of the attached Escherichia coli after illumination (1.46 mW cm(-2)) for 24 h when the inoculum was 10(3) CFU mL(-1). However, more than 4 log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus occurred even when the cultures were illuminated for only 6 h. Our results provide an inexpensive, simple, state-of-the-art method for preparing antibacterial surfaces that may help prevent infections in hospital surroundings and in some medical devices. PMID:21883241

Cahan, Rivka; Schwartz, Ronen; Langzam, Yakov; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

2011-01-01

331

Structural characterization and antibacterial activity of oligoguanidine (polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyguanidine oligomers, particularly polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) oligomer, are used extensively and safely as disinfectants and biocides. The antibacterial activity of PHMB is attributed to its interaction with cellar membrane components. However, the detailed molecular structures and components of polyguanidine oligomers are still vague and remain to be learned. In this paper, polyhexamethylene guanidine oligomer (PHMG) was prepared by polycondensation of

Dafu Wei; Qiangxiang Ma; Yong Guan; Fuzeng Hu; Anna Zheng; Xi Zhang; Zheng Teng; Hua Jiang

2009-01-01

332

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Mentha suaveolens.  

PubMed

The essential oils (EO) of Mentha suaveolens, a wild Labiatae, which grows in several regions in Morocco, were characterized and their antimicrobial activity assessed. The main aromatic constituents of this plant, as characterized by IR, NMR and MS studies, were pulegone, piperitenone oxide (PEO) and piperitone oxide (PO) occurring in different amounts depending on the subspecies. These constituents as well as a series of other aromatic products such as carvone, limonene and menthone, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 19 bacteria including Gram-positive and Gram-negative and against three fungi, using solid phase and microtitration assays. Pulegone-rich essential oil inhibited efficiently all the micro-organisms tested with MICs ranging between 0.69 and 2.77 ppm. Among the components from Mentha suaveolens EO, pulegone was the most effective against the tested microorganisms, followed by PEO and PO. The structure-activity relationship is discussed on the basis of the activity of the other aromatic derivatives tested such as carvone, limonene, menthone and the profile of the essential oils of Mentha suaveolens was compared with other Mentha species. PMID:12458474

Oumzil, H; Ghoulami, S; Rhajaoui, M; Ilidrissi, A; Fkih-Tetouani, S; Faid, M; Benjouad, A

2002-12-01

333

Antibacterial activity of Hygrophila stricta and Peperomia pellucida.  

PubMed

The crude methanolic extracts of Hygrophila scricta and Peperomia pellucida were fractionated into petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol. All the crude extracts and the fractions exhibited a very good level of broad spectrum antibacterial activity. The fractions were more active than the crude extracts. The petrol fraction of H. stricta and the butanol fraction of P. pellucida were particularly good. No activity was noticed for the moulds tested. PMID:12048020

Khan, M R; Omoloso, A D

2002-06-01

334

[Resistance to "last resort" antibiotics in Gram-positive cocci: The post-vancomycin era].  

PubMed

New therapeutic alternatives have been developed in the last years for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections. Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are considered a therapeutic challenge due to failures and lack of reliable antimicrobial options. Despite concerns related to the use of vancomycin in the treatment of severe MRSA infections in specific clinical scenarios, there is a paucity of solid clinical evidence that support the use of alternative agents (when compared to vancomycin). Linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline are antibiotics approved in the last decade and newer cephalosporins (such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and novel glycopeptides (dalvavancin, telavancin and oritavancin) have reached clinical approval or are in the late stages of clinical development. This review focuses on discussing these newer antibiotics used in the "post-vancomycin" era with emphasis on relevant chemical characteristics, spectrum of antimicrobial activity, mechanisms of action and resistance, as well as their clinical utility. PMID:24968051

Rincón, Sandra; Panesso, Diana; Díaz, Lorena; Carvajal, Lina P; Reyes, Jinnethe; Munita, José M; Arias, César A

2014-04-01

335

Surface multiheme c-type cytochromes from Thermincola potens and implications for respiratory metal reduction by Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Almost nothing is known about the mechanisms of dissimilatory metal reduction by Gram-positive bacteria, although they may be the dominant species in some environments. Thermincola potens strain JR was isolated from the anode of a microbial fuel cell inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge and operated at 55 °C. Preliminary characterization revealed that T. potens coupled acetate oxidation to the reduction of hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), an analog of the redox active components of humic substances. The genome of T. potens was recently sequenced, and the abundance of multiheme c-type cytochromes (MHCs) is unusual for a Gram-positive bacterium. We present evidence from trypsin-shaving LC-MS/MS experiments and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) that indicates the expression of a number of MHCs during T. potens growth on either HFO or AQDS, and that several MHCs are localized to the cell wall or cell surface. Furthermore, one of the MHCs can be extracted from cells with low pH or denaturants, suggesting a loose association with the cell wall or cell surface. Electron microscopy does not reveal an S-layer, and the precipitation of silver metal on the cell surface is inhibited by cyanide, supporting the involvement of surface-localized redox-active heme proteins in dissimilatory metal reduction. These results provide unique direct evidence for cell wall-associated cytochromes and support MHC involvement in conducting electrons across the cell envelope of a Gram-positive bacterium. PMID:22307634

Carlson, Hans K.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Gorur, Amita; Yeo, Boon Siang; Tran, Rosalie; Melnyk, Ryan A.; Mathies, Richard A.; Auer, Manfred; Coates, John D.

2012-01-01

336

Luminescent method for the detection of antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

A new rapid and sensitive method for the detection of antibacterial activities was based on luminescent indicator strains. Listeria innocua 8811 and Enterococcus faecalis 32 were transformed with plasmid carrying bacterial luciferase genes. Subsequent strains became capable to emit light during the exponential growth phase. The addition of bacteriocin containing culture supernatants to such cultures induced a drop of their light emission which was correlated to the combined antibacterial activity of acid stress and bacteriocin. The detection of antagonistic activity is independent of its mode of action, i.e. bactericidal or bacteriostatic. This method allowed to directly visualize the antagonistic activity of bacteriocin producer strains toward target strains in coculture experiments. However, a control co-culture with non-producing bacteriocin mutant was necessary in order to distinguish between nutrients competition and bacteriocin activity. Finally, five class IIa bacteriocins were purified from culture supernatants of eight strains detected in 3 days from a 120 lactic acid bacteria collection. PMID:11778890

Simon, L; Fremaux, C; Cenatiempo, Y; Berjeaud, J M

2001-12-01

337

Synthesis and characterization of silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposites by chemical reduction method and their antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of a small size were successfully synthesized using the wet chemical reduction method into the lamellar space layer of montmorillonite/chitosan (MMT/Cts) as an organomodified mineral solid support in the absence of any heat treatment. AgNO3, MMT, Cts, and NaBH4 were used as the silver precursor, the solid support, the natural polymeric stabilizer, and the chemical reduction agent, respectively. MMT was suspended in aqueous AgNO3/Cts solution. The interlamellar space limits were changed (d-spacing = 1.24-1.54 nm); therefore, AgNPs formed on the interlayer and external surface of MMT/Cts with d-average = 6.28-9.84 nm diameter. Characterizations were done using different methods, ie, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposite (Ag/MMT/Cts BNC) systems were examined. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs in MMT/Cts was investigated against Gram-positive bacteria, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the disc diffusion method using Mueller Hinton agar at different sizes of AgNPs. All of the synthesized Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs were found to have high antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs can be useful in different biological research and biomedical applications, including surgical devices and drug delivery vehicles. PMID:21499424

Shameli, Kamyar; Bin Ahmad, Mansor; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Moghaddam, Mansour Ghaffari

2011-01-01

338

Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), ?-terpinene (19.68%), ?-pinene (9.7%) and ?-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and ?-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were ?-calacorene (25.98%), ?-cedrene (16.55%), ?-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml. PMID:24881771

Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

2014-01-01

339

Synthesis and characterization of silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposites by chemical reduction method and their antibacterial activity  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of a small size were successfully synthesized using the wet chemical reduction method into the lamellar space layer of montmorillonite/chitosan (MMT/Cts) as an organomodified mineral solid support in the absence of any heat treatment. AgNO3, MMT, Cts, and NaBH4 were used as the silver precursor, the solid support, the natural polymeric stabilizer, and the chemical reduction agent, respectively. MMT was suspended in aqueous AgNO3/Cts solution. The interlamellar space limits were changed (d-spacing = 1.24–1.54 nm); therefore, AgNPs formed on the interlayer and external surface of MMT/Cts with d-average = 6.28–9.84 nm diameter. Characterizations were done using different methods, ie, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposite (Ag/MMT/Cts BNC) systems were examined. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs in MMT/Cts was investigated against Gram-positive bacteria, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the disc diffusion method using Mueller Hinton agar at different sizes of AgNPs. All of the synthesized Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs were found to have high antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs can be useful in different biological research and biomedical applications, including surgical devices and drug delivery vehicles. PMID:21499424

Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Moghaddam, Mansour Ghaffari

2011-01-01

340

Green synthesis of silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposites using the UV irradiation method and evaluation of antibacterial activity  

PubMed Central

In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized using a green physical synthetic route into the lamellar space of montmorillonite (MMT)/chitosan (Cts) utilizing the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation reduction method in the absence of any reducing agent or heat treatment. Cts, MMT, and AgNO3 were used as the natural polymeric stabilizer, solid support, and silver precursor, respectively. The properties of Ag/MMT/Cts bionanocomposites (BNCs) were studied as the function of UV irradiation times. UV irradiation disintegrated the Ag-NPs into smaller sizes until a relatively stable size and size distribution were achieved. Meanwhile, the crystalline structure and d-spacing of the MMT interlayer, average size and size distribution, surface morphology, elemental signal peaks, functional groups, and surface plasmon resonance of Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs were determined by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs in MMT/Cts was investigated against Gram-positive bacteria, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (ie, Escherichia coli) by the disk diffusion method on Muller–Hinton Agar at different sizes of Ag-NPs. All of the synthesized Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs were found to have high antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs can be useful in different biologic research and biomedical applications, such as surgical devices and drug delivery vehicles. PMID:21116328

Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zargar, Mohsen; Abdollahi, Yadollah

2010-01-01

341

New insights into regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon in Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The tryptophan operon of Bacillus subtilis serves as an excellent model for investigating transcription regulation in Gram-positive bacteria. In this article, we extend this knowledge by analyzing the predicted regulatory regions in the trp operons of other fully sequenced Gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, it appears that in eight of the organisms examined, transcription of the trp operon appears to be regulated by tandem T-box elements. These regulatory elements have recently been described in the trp operons of two bacterial species. Single T-box elements are commonly found in Gram-positive bacteria in operons encoding aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and proteins performing other functions. Different regulatory mechanisms appear to be associated with variations of trp gene organization within the trp operon. PMID:15953653

Gutierrez-Preciado, A; Jensen, R A; Yanofsky, C; Merino, E

2005-08-01

342

Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of honey collected from Timergara (Dir, Pakistan).  

PubMed

In this study honeys of Acacia modesta, Prunus persica, Zizyphus sativa and Isodon rogosus plants were tested against two Gram-positive bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), two Gram-negative bacterial strains (Klebsilla pneumonia and Escherichia coli) and two fungal strains (Alternaria alternata and Trichoderma harzianum) through Agar well diffusion method. The tested honeys showed high antimicrobial activities to the tested bacterial and fungal strains. All the tested honeys were more active against Gram-negative bacterial strains than the Gram-positive bacterial strains. They showed lower activity against the tested fungal strains as compared to all the tested bacterial strains. The given honeys showed free radical scavenging activity also. PMID:24374434

Zahoor, Muhammad; Naz, Sumaira; Sangeen, Muhammad

2014-01-01

343

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Patchouli Oil  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the antimicrobial tests of patchouli oil were studied by using molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro. Five biological macromolecule enzymes, required by the bacteria in the process of biosynthesis were selected as target molecules. Five antibiotics benzylpenicillin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin, which are generally acknowledged as antibacterial drugs, were selected as reference compounds. The 3 three-dimensional (3D) structures of the 5 reference compounds and 26 compounds from patchouli oil were established by using surflex-dock software (8.1). And the 3D structures of five biological macromolecule enzymes derived from Protein Data Bank (PDB). Molecular docking was carried out between the 31 chemical compounds (ligands) and the 5 enzymes (receptors) by using surflex-dock function. Furthermore, the antibacterial effects of 31 chemical compounds were investigated by the scoring function after molecular docking was completed. By comparing the scoring result of 26 compounds in patchouli oil with 5 compared components, we inferred antibacterial activity in about 26 compounds in patchouli oil. On the other hand, six frequently-used pathogenic bacteria were selected for antimicrobial test in vitro, patchouli oil and its two major compounds: (-)-patchouli alcohol and pogostone, which their contents exceeded 60% in patchouli oil samples, were selected antibacterial agents. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined. Molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro proved that patchouli oil had strong antimicrobial effects. Particularly, pogostone and (-)-patchouli alcohol have potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:24250637

Yang, Xian; Zhang, Xue; Yang, Shui-Ping; Liu, Wei-Qi

2013-01-01

344

Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia campestris ( Astraceae) and Ziziphus lotus ( Rhamnacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work quantitatively evaluates the antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of two Libyan folk medicinal plants [Artemisia campestris (Astraceae) and Ziziphus lotus (Rhamnacea)] that commonly grow in the south of Libya. The crude methanolic leaves extracts of both plants are appreciably active against Gram-positive species, associated with week anti-Gram-negative activity. These two plant extracts also showed reasonably high contents of

Mahboba B. Naili; Rabia O. Alghazeer; Nabil A. Saleh; Asma Y. Al-Najjar

2010-01-01

345

Pili in Gram-positive bacteria: assembly, involvement in colonization and biofilm development  

PubMed Central

Various cell-surface multisubunit protein polymers, known as pili or fimbriae, have a pivotal role in the colonization of specific host tissues by many pathogenic bacteria. In contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria assemble pili by a distinct mechanism involving a transpeptidase called sortase. Sortase crosslinks individual pilin monomers and ultimately joins the resulting covalent polymer to the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Here we review current knowledge of this mechanism and the roles of Gram-positive pili in the colonization of specific host tissues, modulation of host immune responses and the development of bacterial biofilms. PMID:18083568

Mandlik, Anjali; Swierczynski, Arlene; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

2010-01-01

346

The use of lysozyme modified with fluorescein for the detection of Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Lysozyme (1,4-?-N-acetylmuramidase) is commonly applied in the food, medical, and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we tested a novel application of fluorescein-modified lysozyme (using carboxyfluorescein with a triazine-based coupling reagent) as a new tool for the detection of Gram-positive soil bacteria. The results, obtained by cultivation methods, fluorescence analysis, and laser interferometry, showed that, after optimization, fluorescein-modified lysozyme could be used to evaluate the prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria essential in bioremediation of soils with low pH, such as those degraded by sulfur. PMID:24916601

Arabski, Micha?; Konieczna, Iwona; Tusi?ska, Ewa; W?sik, S?awomir; Relich, Inga; Zaj?c, Krzysztof; Kami?ski, Zbigniew J; Kaca, Wies?aw

2015-01-01

347

The synthesis of citrate-modified silver nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension of graphene oxide nanosheets and their antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

A composite material consisting of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) deposited on graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets is prepared by chemical reduction of Ag metal ions by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of trisodium citrate acting as a stabilizing agent to prevent agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The synthesized GO/Ag NPs composite was characterized by UV/vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis confirmed a high density of Ag NPs on the GO nanosheets with a particle size range of 2-25 nm. The activity of the GO/Ag NPs suspension as an antibacterial agent against Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis was investigated. The percentage of the killing bacterial colonies by Ag NPs (without GO) is found to be 96-97% while 100% of killing bacterial colonies is only obtained using GO/Ag NPs suspension. Moreover, it was also observed that leakage of sugars and proteins from the cell wall of both S. aureus and B. subtilis in interaction with GO/Ag NPs suspension is higher compared to Ag NPs (without GO) and GO nanosheets. PMID:23384688

Das, Manash R; Sarma, Rupak K; Borah, Sarat Ch; Kumari, Roopa; Saikia, Ratul; Deshmukh, Ashvini B; Shelke, Manjusha V; Sengupta, Pinaki; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah

2013-05-01

348

Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25035540

Viswanathan, V.; Phadatare, A. G.; Mukne, Alka

2014-01-01

349

Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25035540

Viswanathan, V; Phadatare, A G; Mukne, Alka

2014-05-01

350

Functionalization of cotton fabrics by radiation induced grafting of quaternary salt to impart antibacterial property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy gamma radiation has been used to covalently link polymer chains of a quaternary ammonium salt containing monomer, viz. [2-(Acryloyloxyethyl)]trimethylammonium chloride (AETC) to cotton fabric by mutual radiation grafting using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) monomer as the grafting facilitator. Grafting yield was found to increase with the radiation dose and monomer concentration. The grafted samples have been characterized for water uptake, surface morphology and thermal stability and for their antibacterial efficacy against various bacteria and were found to possess significant antibacterial activity particularly against gram-positive bacteria.

Goel, N. K.; Kumar, Virendra; Rao, M. S.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Sabharwal, S.

2011-11-01

351

Phenolic content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Erica herbacea L.  

PubMed

Antibacterial and antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves and flowers of Erica herbacea L. were studied. In vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by macrodilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) have been determined. Testing was performed on 30 clinical isolates, including different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris. The values for MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL. The most sensitive bacterial strains were Proteus vulgaris strains. The aqueous extract from E. herbacea was found the most active. The total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 14.98 and 119.88 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in extracts was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminium chloride and obtained results varied from 16.19 to 26.90 mg RU/g. Antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically using DPPH reagent. The highest capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals was found in the aqueous extract from E. herbacea. The results of the total phenolic content determination of the examined extracts indicate that E. herbacea extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and also possess a significant antioxidant activity and moderate antibacterial activity. PMID:24383325

Vuci?, Dragana M; Petkovi?, Miroslav R; Rodi?-Grabovac, Branka B; Stefanovi?, Olgica D; Vasi?, Sava M; Comi?, Ljiljana R

2013-01-01

352

Antibacterial activity of anthraquinone derivatives from Heterophyllaea pustulata (Rubiaceae).  

PubMed

Photosensitizing anthraquinones isolated from Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook f. (Rubiaceae), namely soranjidiol, rubiadin, damnacanthal and 5,5'-bisoranjidiol, showed antibacterial activity (bacteriostatic/bactericide) on Staphylococcus aureus. The mechanism of action seems to involve an increase in the levels of superoxide anion (O(2)(·-)) and/or singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O(2)). Moreover, the effect of actinic irradiation as a boosting agent for the production of both reactive species of oxygen as well as its influence on antibacterial activity was assessed. The routine susceptibility assay (minimum inhibitory concentration determination) was carried out by means of the broth macrodilution method. Bactericide activity was determined counting the colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL) in plate. The O(2)(·-) production was determined by means of an indirect photobiological assay (Nitroblue Tetrazolium test), and the production of (1)O(2) was followed using an indirect steady-state method, with methionine as the (1)O(2) chemical quencher. PMID:20965744

Comini, L R; Montoya, S C Núñez; Páez, P L; Argüello, Gustavo A; Albesa, I; Cabrera, J L

2011-02-01

353

Mechanism of antibacterial activity of copper nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In a previous communication, we reported a new method of synthesis of stable metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), which had high potency for bacterial cell filamentation and cell killing. The present study deals with the mechanism of filament formation and antibacterial roles of Cu-NPs in E. coli cells. Our results demonstrate that NP-mediated dissipation of cell membrane potential was the probable reason for the formation of cell filaments. On the other hand, Cu-NPs were found to cause multiple toxic effects such as generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA degradation in E. coli cells. In vitro interaction between plasmid pUC19 DNA and Cu-NPs showed that the degradation of DNA was highly inhibited in the presence of the divalent metal ion chelator EDTA, which indicated a positive role of Cu(2+) ions in the degradation process. Moreover, the fast destabilization, i.e. the reduction in size, of NPs in the presence of EDTA led us to propose that the nascent Cu ions liberated from the NP surface were responsible for higher reactivity of the Cu-NPs than the equivalent amount of its precursor CuCl2; the nascent ions were generated from the oxidation of metallic NPs when they were in the vicinity of agents, namely cells, biomolecules or medium components, to be reduced simultaneously. PMID:24584282

Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas

2014-04-01

354

Mechanism of antibacterial activity of copper nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous communication, we reported a new method of synthesis of stable metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), which had high potency for bacterial cell filamentation and cell killing. The present study deals with the mechanism of filament formation and antibacterial roles of Cu-NPs in E. coli cells. Our results demonstrate that NP-mediated dissipation of cell membrane potential was the probable reason for the formation of cell filaments. On the other hand, Cu-NPs were found to cause multiple toxic effects such as generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA degradation in E. coli cells. In vitro interaction between plasmid pUC19 DNA and Cu-NPs showed that the degradation of DNA was highly inhibited in the presence of the divalent metal ion chelator EDTA, which indicated a positive role of Cu2+ ions in the degradation process. Moreover, the fast destabilization, i.e. the reduction in size, of NPs in the presence of EDTA led us to propose that the nascent Cu ions liberated from the NP surface were responsible for higher reactivity of the Cu-NPs than the equivalent amount of its precursor CuCl2; the nascent ions were generated from the oxidation of metallic NPs when they were in the vicinity of agents, namely cells, biomolecules or medium components, to be reduced simultaneously.

Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas

2014-04-01

355

Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.  

PubMed

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has long been known to contain antibacterial cannabinoids, whose potential to address antibiotic resistance has not yet been investigated. All five major cannabinoids (cannabidiol (1b), cannabichromene (2), cannabigerol (3b), Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (4b), and cannabinol (5)) showed potent activity against a variety of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of current clinical relevance. Activity was remarkably tolerant to the nature of the prenyl moiety, to its relative position compared to the n-pentyl moiety (abnormal cannabinoids), and to carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety (pre-cannabinoids). Conversely, methylation and acetylation of the phenolic hydroxyls, esterification of the carboxylic group of pre-cannabinoids, and introduction of a second prenyl moiety were all detrimental for antibacterial activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that the prenyl moiety of cannabinoids serves mainly as a modulator of lipid affinity for the olivetol core, a per se poorly active antibacterial pharmacophore, while their high potency definitely suggests a specific, but yet elusive, mechanism of activity. PMID:18681481

Appendino, Giovanni; Gibbons, Simon; Giana, Anna; Pagani, Alberto; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Stavri, Michael; Smith, Eileen; Rahman, M Mukhlesur

2008-08-01

356

Caenorhabditis elegans Immune Conditioning with the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain NCFM Enhances Gram-Positive Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

Although the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to microbial infections is well established, very little is known about the effects of health-promoting probiotic bacteria on evolutionarily conserved C. elegans host responses. We found that the probiotic Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is not harmful to C. elegans and that L. acidophilus NCFM is unable to colonize the C. elegans intestine. Conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM significantly decreased the burden of a subsequent Enterococcus faecalis infection in the nematode intestine and prolonged the survival of nematodes exposed to pathogenic strains of E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Preexposure of nematodes to Bacillus subtilis did not provide any beneficial effects. Importantly, L. acidophilus NCFM activates key immune signaling pathways involved in C. elegans defenses against Gram-positive bacteria, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (via TIR-1 and PMK-1) and the ?-catenin signaling pathway (via BAR-1). Interestingly, conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM had a minimal effect on Gram-negative infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and had no or a negative effect on defense genes associated with Gram-negative pathogens or general stress. In conclusion, we describe a new system for the study of probiotic immune agents and our findings demonstrate that probiotic conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM modulates specific C. elegans immunity traits. PMID:22585961

2012-01-01

357

Antimicrobial activity of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria.  

PubMed

Solvent extracts from the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) were prepared using eight different organic solvents, and examined for antibacterial activity against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria. All solvent extracts showed higher antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria than against gram negative bacteria. The TLC-bioautography analysis of the extracts revealed that a yellow spot was detected at Rf value of 0.85, which showed strong antibacterial activity. The UV, MS, and NMR analyses revealed that the antibacterial compound was plumbagin. PMID:24077538

Ogihara, Hirokazu; Endou, Fumiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kouichi; Anzai, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

358

Comparison of antibacterial activity of Ag nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract of Parthenium hystrophorus L in aqueous media and Gentamicin sulphate: in-vitro.  

PubMed

Abstract Monodisperse silver (Ag) nanoparticles were synthesized by using Parthenium hystrophorus L leaf extract in aqueous media. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffracto-meter (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and dynamics light scattering (DLS). Size-dependent antibacterial activities of Ag nanoparticles were tested against Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus. Ag nanoparticles having 20?±?2?nm size in diameter show maximum zone of inhibition (23?±?2.2?mm) in comparison to 40?nm and 70?nm diameter nanoparticles for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus were 19?±?1.8?mm, 15?±?1.5?mm and 11?±?1?mm for 20?nm, 40?nm, and 70?nm, respectively. In addition, affect of concentration of 20?nm size Ag nanoparticles on Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus species were also reported and results were compared with 10?µg/ml dose of Gentamicin sulphate. The Parthenium hystrophorus L leaf extract capped 20?±?2?nm Ag nanoparticles (7.5?µg/ml) shows statistically significant antibacterial activity than Gentamicin sulphate (10?µg/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24111829

Anwar, Mohammad F; Yadav, Deepak; Kapoor, Sumeet; Chander, Jagdish; Samim, Mohd

2015-01-01

359

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol Extracts from 8 Traditional Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The methanol extract of 12 medicinal plants were evaluated for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (5 strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (10 strains) by assay for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) . The antibacterial activity was determined by an agar dilution method (according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute) . All the compounds (12 extracts) of the 8 medicinal plants (leaf or root) were active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative showed a more potent action than Gram positive bacteria. The MIC concentrations were various ranged from 0.6 ?g/ml to 5000 ?g/ml. The lowest MIC (0.6 ?g/ml) and MBC (1.22 ?g/ml) values were obtained with extract on 4 and 3 of the 15 microorganisms tested, respectively. PMID:24278548

Kang, Chang-Geun; Hah, Dae-Sik; Kim, Chung-Hui; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Euikyung

2011-01-01

360

Phylogenetic Diversity of Gram-Positive Bacteria Cultured from Marine Sediments? †  

PubMed Central

Major advances in our understanding of marine bacterial diversity have been gained through studies of bacterioplankton, the vast majority of which appear to be gram negative. Less effort has been devoted to studies of bacteria inhabiting marine sediments, yet there is evidence to suggest that gram-positive bacteria comprise a relatively large proportion of these communities. To further expand our understanding of the aerobic gram-positive bacteria present in tropical marine sediments, a culture-dependent approach was applied to sediments collected in the Republic of Palau from the intertidal zone to depths of 500 m. This investigation resulted in the isolation of 1,624 diverse gram-positive bacteria spanning 22 families, including many that appear to represent new taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of 189 representative isolates, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, indicated that 124 (65.6%) belonged to the class Actinobacteria while the remaining 65 (34.4%) were members of the class Bacilli. Using a sequence identity value of ?98%, the 189 isolates grouped into 78 operational taxonomic units, of which 29 (37.2%) are likely to represent new taxa. The high degree of phylogenetic novelty observed during this study highlights the fact that a great deal remains to be learned about the diversity of gram-positive bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:17400789

Gontang, Erin A.; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.

2007-01-01

361

Potential Role for Telavancin in Bacteremic Infections Due to Gram-Positive Pathogens: Focus on Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is one of the most common serious bacterial infections and the most frequent invasive infection due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Treatment is challenging, particularly for MRSA, because of limited treatment options. Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide antibiotic that is active against a range of clinically relevant gram-positive pathogens including MRSA. In experimental animal models of sepsis telavancin was shown to be more effective than vancomycin. In clinically evaluable patients enrolled in a pilot study of uncomplicated SAB, cure rates were 88% for telavancin and 89% for standard therapy. Among patients with infection due to only gram-positive pathogens enrolled in the 2 phase 3 studies of telavancin for treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia, cure rates for those with bacteremic S. aureus pneumonia were 41% (9/22, telavancin) and 40% (10/25, vancomycin) with identical mortality rates. These data support further evaluation of telavancin in larger, prospective studies of SAB. PMID:25472944

Corey, G Ralph; Rubinstein, Ethan; Stryjewski, Martin E; Bassetti, Matteo; Barriere, Steven L

2015-03-01

362

A Continuum of Anionic Charge: Structures and Functions of d-Alanyl-Teichoic Acids in Gram-Positive Bacteria†  

PubMed Central

Teichoic acids (TAs) are major wall and membrane components of most gram-positive bacteria. With few exceptions, they are polymers of glycerol-phosphate or ribitol-phosphate to which are attached glycosyl and d-alanyl ester residues. Wall TA is attached to peptidoglycan via a linkage unit, whereas lipoteichoic acid is attached to glycolipid intercalated in the membrane. Together with peptidoglycan, these polymers make up a polyanionic matrix that functions in (i) cation homeostasis; (ii) trafficking of ions, nutrients, proteins, and antibiotics; (iii) regulation of autolysins; and (iv) presentation of envelope proteins. The esterification of TAs with d-alanyl esters provides a means of modulating the net anionic charge, determining the cationic binding capacity, and displaying cations in the wall. This review addresses the structures and functions of d-alanyl-TAs, the d-alanylation system encoded by the dlt operon, and the roles of TAs in cell growth. The importance of dlt in the physiology of many organisms is illustrated by the variety of mutant phenotypes. In addition, advances in our understanding of d-alanyl ester function in virulence and host-mediated responses have been made possible through targeted mutagenesis of dlt. Studies of the mechanism of d-alanylation have identified two potential targets of antibacterial action and provided possible screening reactions for designing novel agents targeted to d-alanyl-TA synthesis. PMID:14665680

Neuhaus, Francis C.; Baddiley, James

2003-01-01

363

Osteogenic activity and antibacterial effect of zinc ion implanted titanium.  

PubMed

Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely used as orthopedic and dental implants. In this work, zinc (Zn) was implanted into oxalic acid etched titanium using plasma immersion ion implantation technology. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface morphology and composition of Zn-implanted titanium. The results indicate that the depth profile of zinc in Zn-implanted titanium resembles a Gaussian distribution, and zinc exists in the form of ZnO at the surface whereas in the form of metallic Zn in the interior. The Zn-implanted titanium can significantly stimulate proliferation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as well as initial adhesion, spreading activity, ALP activity, collagen secretion and extracellular matrix mineralization of the rat mesenchymal stem cells. The Zn-implanted titanium presents partly antibacterial effect on both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The ability of the Zn-implanted titanium to stimulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation as well as the antibacterial effect on E. coli can be improved by increasing implantation time even to 2 h in this work, indicating that the content of zinc implanted in titanium can easily be controlled within the safe concentration using plasma immersion ion implantation technology. The Zn-implanted titanium with excellent osteogenic activity and partly antibacterial effect can serve as useful candidates for orthopedic and dental implants. PMID:24632388

Jin, Guodong; Cao, Huiliang; Qiao, Yuqin; Meng, Fanhao; Zhu, Hongqin; Liu, Xuanyong

2014-05-01

364

Systemic Antibacterial Activity of Novel Synthetic Cyclic Peptides  

PubMed Central

Cyclic peptides with an even number of alternating d,l-?-amino acid residues are known to self-assemble into organic nanotubes. Such peptides previously have been shown to be stable upon protease treatment, membrane active, and bactericidal and to exert antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and other gram-positive bacteria. The present report describes the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of selected members of this cyclic peptide family. The intravenous (i.v.) efficacy of six compounds with MICs of less than 12 ?g/ml was tested in peritonitis and neutropenic-mouse thigh infection models. Four of the six peptides were efficacious in vivo, with 50% effective doses in the peritonitis model ranging between 4.0 and 6.7 mg/kg against methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). In the thigh infection model, the four peptides reduced the bacterial load 2.1 to 3.0 log units following administration of an 8-mg/kg i.v. dose. Activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus was similar to MSSA. The murine pharmacokinetic profile of each compound was determined following i.v. bolus injection. Interestingly, those compounds with poor efficacy in vivo displayed a significantly lower maximum concentration of the drug in serum and a higher volume of distribution at steady state than compounds with good therapeutic properties. S. aureus was unable to easily develop spontaneous resistance upon prolonged exposure to the peptides at sublethal concentrations, in agreement with the proposed interaction with multiple components of the bacterial membrane canopy. Although additional structure-activity relationship studies are required to improve the therapeutic window of this class of antimicrobial peptides, our results suggest that these amphipathic cyclic d,l-?-peptides have potential for systemic administration and treatment of otherwise antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:16048940

Dartois, Véronique; Sanchez-Quesada, Jorge; Cabezas, Edelmira; Chi, Ellen; Dubbelde, Chad; Dunn, Carrie; Granja, Juan; Gritzen, Colleen; Weinberger, Dana; Ghadiri, M. Reza; Parr, Thomas R.

2005-01-01

365

Identification of a structural determinant for resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causal agent of pathologies that are increasingly resistant to antibiotic treatment. Clinical resistance of S. pneumoniae to ?-lactam antibiotics is linked to multiple mutations of high molecular mass penicillin-binding proteins (H-PBPs), essential enzymes involved in the final steps of bacterial cell wall synthesis. H-PBPs from resistant bacteria have a reduced affinity for ?-lactam and a decreased hydrolytic activity on substrate analogues. In S. pneumoniae, the gene coding for one of these H-PBPs, PBP2x, is located in the cell division cluster (DCW). We present here structural evidence linking multiple ?-lactam resistance to amino acid substitutions in PBP2x within a buried cavity near the catalytic site that contains a structural water molecule. Site-directed mutation of amino acids in contact with this water molecule in the “sensitive” form of PBP2x produces mutants similar, in terms of ?-lactam affinity and substrate hydrolysis, to altered PBP2x produced in resistant clinical isolates. A reverse mutation in a PBP2x variant from a clinically important resistant clone increases the acylation efficiency for ?-lactams and substrate analogues. Furthermore, amino acid residues in contact with the structural water molecule are conserved in the equivalent H-PBPs of pathogenic Gram-positive cocci. We suggest that, probably via a local structural modification, the partial or complete loss of this water molecule reduces the acylation efficiency of PBP2x substrates to a point at which cell wall synthesis still occurs, but the sensitivity to therapeutic concentrations of ?-lactam antibiotics is lost. PMID:9811812

Mouz, N.; Gordon, E.; Di Guilmi, A.-M.; Petit, I.; Pétillot, Y.; Dupont, Y.; Hakenbeck, R.; Vernet, T.; Dideberg, O.

1998-01-01

366

Antibacterial activities of some mosses including Hylocomium splendens from South Western British Columbia.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of ten moss species and fractions prepared from 80% methanol extract of Hylocomium splendens were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Nine moss species showed antibacterial activity against Gram (+) bacteria, in particular H. splendens and its ethyl acetate fractions showed stronger activity. Enhancement of antibacterial activity against Staphylococci by UV-A light irradiation was demonstrated in the extracts of Bartramia pomiformis, Ceratodon purpureus and Neckera douglasii. PMID:17553633

Kang, S J; Kim, S H; Liu, P; Jovel, E; Towers, G H N

2007-07-01

367

Optimization of pyrrolamide topoisomerase II inhibitors toward identification of an antibacterial clinical candidate (AZD5099).  

PubMed

AZD5099 (compound 63) is an antibacterial agent that entered phase 1 clinical trials targeting infections caused by Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative bacteria. It was derived from previously reported pyrrolamide antibacterials and a fragment-based approach targeting the ATP binding site of bacterial type II topoisomerases. The program described herein varied a 3-piperidine substituent and incorporated 4-thiazole substituents that form a seven-membered ring intramolecular hydrogen bond with a 5-position carboxylic acid. Improved antibacterial activity and lower in vivo clearances were achieved. The lower clearances were attributed, in part, to reduced recognition by the multidrug resistant transporter Mrp2. Compound 63 showed notable efficacy in a mouse neutropenic Staphylococcus aureus infection model. Resistance frequency versus the drug was low, and reports of clinical resistance due to alteration of the target are few. Hence, 63 could offer a novel treatment for serious issues of resistance to currently used antibacterials. PMID:24959892

Basarab, Gregory S; Hill, Pamela J; Garner, C Edwin; Hull, Ken; Green, Oluyinka; Sherer, Brian A; Dangel, P Brian; Manchester, John I; Bist, Shanta; Hauck, Sheila; Zhou, Fei; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Illingworth, Ruth; Alm, Richard; Rooney, Mike; Eakin, Ann E

2014-07-24

368

Antibacterial activities of persimmon extracts relate with their hydrogen peroxide concentration.  

PubMed

Persimmon, a deciduous tree of the family Ebenaceae, is found throughout East Asia and contains high levels of tannins. This class of natural compounds exhibit favorable toxicity profiles along with bactericidal activity without the emergence of resistant bacteria, suggesting potential medical applications. Consistent with these observations, persimmon leaves show antibacterial activity. However, the mechanism of persimmon antibacterial activity remains unknown. In the present work, we demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of persimmon reflects the generation of reactive oxygen from tannins. The identification and quantification of reactive oxygen generated from persimmon and the level of antibacterial activity were determined. PMID:24805207

Arakawa, Hidetoshi; Takasaki, Makiko; Tajima, Noriko; Fukamachi, Haruka; Igarashi, Takeshi

2014-01-01

369

pH-Dependent Metal Ion Toxicity Influences the Antibacterial Activity of Two Natural Mineral Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecent studies have demonstrated that several mineral products sold for medicinal purposes demonstrate antimicrobial activity, but little is known about the physicochemical properties involved in antibacterial activity.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing in vitro mineral suspension testing, we have identified two natural mineral mixtures, arbitrarily designated BY07 and CB07, with antibacterial activity against a broad-spectrum of bacterial pathogens. Mineral-derived aqueous leachates also exhibited antibacterial

Tanya M. Cunningham; Jennifer L. Koehl; Jack S. Summers; Shelley E. Haydel; Christophe Herman

2010-01-01

370

Chitosan coated cotton gauze for antibacterial water filtration.  

PubMed

Communicable diseases can be transmitted by contaminated water. Water decontamination process is fundamental to eliminate microorganisms. In this work, cotton gauzes were coated with chitosan using an UV-curing process or cationized by introduction of quaternary ammonium groups and tested, in static and dynamic conditions, as water filter for biological disinfection against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Both materials showed good antibacterial activity, in static assessment, instead in dynamic conditions, chitosan treated gauze showed a high antimicrobial efficiency in few seconds of contact time. This composite could be a good candidate for application as biological filter. PMID:24528721

Ferrero, Franco; Periolatto, Monica; Vineis, Claudia; Varesano, Alessio

2014-03-15

371

Antibacterial activity of resin composites with silver-containing materials.  

PubMed

Resin composites with antibacterial activity may be useful to decrease the frequency of secondary caries around restorations. The purposes of this study were to investigate the antibacterial activity of light-activated resin composites incorporating one of three silver-containing materials and to evaluate their long-term inhibitory effect against Streptococcus mutans The three types of silver-containing materials, Novaron (N), Amenitop (AM), and AIS, were incorporated into TEGDMA-UDMA-based light-activated resin composites, and the antibacterial activities, mechanical properties and release of silver ions were examined. Minimum inhibitory concentrations in suspensions of N, AM, and AIS against S. mutans were 1.1, 1.2, and 23.0 mg/ml, respectively. Resin composites incorporating 5 wt% of Novaron (N-5) and 7 wt% of Amenitop (AM-7) inhibited the growth of S. mutans after immersion in water for 3 months, whereas the resin composite incorporating 10 wt% of AIS did not. No significant difference in either compressive or flexural strength was observed between the control and N-5 composites after 1 d and 3 months storage in water. However, for AM-5 composite, there was a significant difference in both strength parameters between the two immersion periods. There was no or extremely little release of silver ions from the N-5 and AM-5 composites after 1 d or 3 months immersion in water. These results indicated that a light-activated resin composite incorporating silver-containing materials such as Novaron may be clinically useful due to its long-term inhibitory effect against S. mutans and favorable mechanical properties. PMID:10467945

Yoshida, K; Tanagawa, M; Matsumoto, S; Yamada, T; Atsuta, M

1999-08-01

372

Antibacterial activity of luteoforol from Bridelia crenulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol extract of Bridelia crenulata stem bark (50–1.5625 mg\\/ml) and its isolated luteoforol (2–0.25 mg\\/ml) showed concentration-dependent inhibiting activity against all 10 tested bacteria.

N Ramesh; M. B Viswanathan; A Saraswathy; P Brindha; K Balakrishna; P Lakshmanaperumalsamy

2001-01-01

373

Atmospheric growth requirements for Alloiococcus species and related gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

The growth of Alloiococcus otitis under different atmospheres and nutritional conditions was studied. The growth rates of 25 strains of gram-positive cocci representing five genera on heart infusion agar plates containing 5% rabbit blood and on brucella agar plates with and without sheep blood under aerobic, increased CO2, and anaerobic atmospheres were compared. Eight strains of alloiococci plated on heart infusion agar with rabbit blood and on brucella sheep blood agar grew under aerobic and candle jar atmospheres. Two of these strains showed poor anaerobic growth after 7 days. Strains of Aerococcus viridans, Aerococcus urinae, Helcococci kunzi, Dolosigranulum pigrum, Gemella haemolysans, and Gemella morbillorum grew well under all three atmospheres and on the three types of media and in thioglycolate broth. These results confirm all the aerobic atmospheric requirements for Alloiococcus strains and show that aerobic growth characteristics help distinguish the alloiococci from the other gram-positive cocci that are facultatively anaerobic. PMID:8815077

Miller, P H; Facklam, R R; Miller, J M

1996-01-01

374

Atmospheric growth requirements for Alloiococcus species and related gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed

The growth of Alloiococcus otitis under different atmospheres and nutritional conditions was studied. The growth rates of 25 strains of gram-positive cocci representing five genera on heart infusion agar plates containing 5% rabbit blood and on brucella agar plates with and without sheep blood under aerobic, increased CO2, and anaerobic atmospheres were compared. Eight strains of alloiococci plated on heart infusion agar with rabbit blood and on brucella sheep blood agar grew under aerobic and candle jar atmospheres. Two of these strains showed poor anaerobic growth after 7 days. Strains of Aerococcus viridans, Aerococcus urinae, Helcococci kunzi, Dolosigranulum pigrum, Gemella haemolysans, and Gemella morbillorum grew well under all three atmospheres and on the three types of media and in thioglycolate broth. These results confirm all the aerobic atmospheric requirements for Alloiococcus strains and show that aerobic growth characteristics help distinguish the alloiococci from the other gram-positive cocci that are facultatively anaerobic. PMID:8815077

Miller, P H; Facklam, R R; Miller, J M

1996-04-01

375

Lipoteichoic Acids, Phosphate-Containing Polymers in the Envelope of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are polymers of alternating units of a polyhydroxy alkane, including glycerol and ribitol, and phosphoric acid, joined to form phosphodiester units that are found in the envelope of Gram-positive bacteria. Here we review four different types of LTA that can be distinguished on the basis of their chemical structure and describe recent advances in the biosynthesis pathway for type I LTA, d-alanylated polyglycerol-phosphate linked to di-glucosyl-diacylglycerol. The physiological functions of type I LTA are discussed in the context of inhibitors that block their synthesis and of mutants with discrete synthesis defects. Research on LTA structure and function represents a large frontier that has been investigated in only few Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24415723

Schneewind, Olaf

2014-01-01

376

Antibacterial Activity of Barringtonia acutangula against Selected Urinary Tract Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95%) extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts against the urinary tract pathogens under test. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected urinary tract infection causing pathogens. PMID:21394275

Sahoo, S.; Panda, P. K.; Mishra, S. R.; Parida, R. K.; Ellaiah, P.; Dash, S. K.

2008-01-01

377

Flavonoids of Helichrysum compactum and their antioxidant and antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the capitula of Helichrysum compactum, the flavonoids apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, naringenin, 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin-4?,7-di-O-glucoside and from the leafy stems apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were isolated. Extracts of the capitula of H. compactum show antioxidant activity by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and also show antibacterial activity.

Sevda Süzgeç; Ali H. Meriçli; Peter J. Houghton; Bayhan Çubukçu

2005-01-01

378

Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents  

PubMed Central

Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions. PMID:23222684

Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

379

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of 265 strains of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. Most strains were susceptible to vancomycin, doxycycline, and fusidic acid. Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium urealyticum were the most resistant organisms tested. Resistance to beta-lactams, clindamycin, erythromycin, azythromycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was common among strains of Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Ampicillin resistance among Listeria monocytogenes was more prevalent than previously reported. Optochin, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin showed very little activity against most organisms tested, but the use of nitrofurantoin as a selective agent in culture medium may prevent the recovery of some isolates. Except for the unvarying activity of vancomycin against Corynebacterium species, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the latter to other antibiotics are usually unpredictable, such that susceptibility tests are necessary for selecting the best antimicrobial treatment. PMID:7695308

Soriano, F; Zapardiel, J; Nieto, E

1995-01-01

380

Protein(s) from the Gram-Positive Bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Induces a Hypersensitive Response in Plants.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The gram-positive tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis induced a local necrotic response on four-o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. This necrosis response was characteristic of the hypersensitive response (HR). The cell-free culture supernatant from strain CMM623 also induced a necrosis that was phenotypically similar to that induced by the bacteria. Inhibitors of plant metabolism suppressed the necrotic reaction of both M. jalapa and tobacco. The HR-inducing activity present in the supernatant was heat stable, sensitive to proteases, and had an apparent molecular mass in the range of 35 to 50 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The properties observed for the necrosis-inducing activity resembled harpin and PopA described from gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria. PMID:18944953

Alarcón, C; Castro, J; Muñoz, F; Arce-Johnson, P; Delgado, J

1998-04-01

381

Isolation and Characterization of Four Gram-Positive Nickel-Tolerant Microorganisms from Contaminated Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial communities from riparian sediments contaminated with high levels of Ni and U were examined for metal-tolerant microorganisms.\\u000a Isolation of four aerobic Ni-tolerant, Gram-positive heterotrophic bacteria indicated selection pressure from Ni. These isolates\\u000a were identified as Arthrobacter oxydans NR-1, Streptomyces galbus NR-2, Streptomyces aureofaciens NR-3, and Kitasatospora cystarginea NR-4 based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. A functional gene microarray containing

Joy D. Van Nostrand; Tatiana V. Khijniak; Terry J. Gentry; Michelle T. Novak; Andrew G. Sowder; Jizhong Z. Zhou; Paul M. Bertsch; Pamela J. Morris

2007-01-01

382

Inactivation of Gram-positive biofilms by low-temperature plasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is devoted to the evaluation of the efficiency of a new low-temperature plasma jet driven in ambient air by a dc-corona discharge to inactivate adherent cells and biofilms of Gram-positive bacteria. The selected microorganisms were lactic acid bacteria, a Weissella confusa strain which has the particularity to excrete a polysaccharide polymer (dextran) when sucrose is present. Both adherent

F Marchal; H Robert; N Merbahi; C Fontagné-Faucher; M Yousfi; C E Romain; O Eichwald; C Rondel; B Gabriel

2012-01-01

383

Genome Sequence of the Diazotrophic Gram-Positive Rhizobacterium Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5T  

PubMed Central

Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5T, a nitrogen-fixing Gram-positive rhizobacterium isolated from a wheat field in the south of Brazil, has a great potential for agricultural applications due to its plant growth promotion effects. Here we present the draft genome sequence of P. riograndensis SBR5T. Its 7.37-Mb genome encodes determinants of the diazotrophic lifestyle and plant growth promotion, such as nitrogen fixation, antibiotic resistance, nitrate utilization, and iron uptake. PMID:22038959

Beneduzi, Anelise; Campos, Samanta; Ambrosini, Adriana; de Souza, Rocheli; Granada, Camille; Costa, Pedro; Arruda, Letícia; Moreira, Fernanda; Vargas, Luciano K.; Weiss, Vinícius; Tieppo, Eduardo; Faoro, Helisson; de Souza, Emanuel M.; Pedrosa, Fábio O.; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

2011-01-01

384

The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large

F. Kunst; N. Ogasawara; I. Moszer; A. M. Albertini; G. Alloni; V. Azevedo; M. G. Bertero; P. Bessières; A. Bolotin; S. Borchert; R. Borriss; L. Boursier; A. Brans; M. Braun; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; S. Brouillet; C. V. Bruschi; B. Caldwell; V. Capuano; N. M. Carter; S.-K. Choi; J.-J. Codani; I. F. Connerton; A. Danchin

1997-01-01

385

The complete genome sequence of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large

F. Kunst; N. Ogasawara; I. Moszer; A. M. Albertini; G. Alloni; V. Azevedo; M. G. Bertero; P. Bessières; A. Bolotin; S. Borchert; R. Borriss; L. Boursier; A. Brans; M. Braun; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; S. Brouillet; C. V. Bruschi; B. Caldwell; V. Capuano; N. M. Carter; S.-K. Choi; J.-J. Codani; I. F. Connerton; N. J. Cummings; R. A. Daniel; F. Denizot; K. M. Devine; A. Düsterhöft; S. D. Ehrlich; P. T. Emmerson; K. D. Entian; J. Errington; C. Fabret; E. Ferrari; D. Foulger; C. Fritz; M. Fujita; Y. Fujita; S. Fuma; A. Galizzi; N. Galleron; S.-Y. Ghim; P. Glaser; A. Goffeau; E. J. Golightly; G. Grandi; G. Guiseppi; B. J. Guy; K. Haga; J. Haiech; C. R. Harwood; A. Hénaut; H. Hilbert; S. Holsappel; S. Hosono; M.-F. Hullo; M. Itaya; L. Jones; B. Joris; D. Karamata; Y. Kasahara; M. Klaerr-Blanchard; C. Klein; Y. Kobayashi; P. Koetter; G. Koningstein; S. Krogh; M. Kumano; K. Kurita; A. Lapidus; S. Lardinois; J. Lauber; V. Lazarevic; S.-M. Lee; A. Levine; H. Liu; S. Masuda; C. Mauël; C. Médigue; N. Medina; R. P. Mellado; M. Mizuno; D. Moestl; S. Nakai; M. Noback; D. Noone; M. O'Reilly; K. Ogawa; A. Ogiwara; B. Oudega; S.-H. Park; V. Parro; T. M. Pohl; D. Portetelle; S. Porwollik; A. M. Prescott; E. Presecan; P. Pujic; B. Purnelle; G. Rapoport; M. Rieger; S. Reynolds; C. Rivolta; E. Rocha; B. Roche; M. Rose; Y. Sadaie; T. Sato; E. Scanlan; S. Schleich; R. Schroeter; F. Scoffone; J. Sekiguchi; A. Sekowska; S. J. Seror; P. Serror; B.-S. Shin; B. Soldo; A. Sorokin; E. Tacconi; T. Takagi; H. Takahashi; K. Takemaru; M. Takeuchi; A. Tamakoshi; T. Tanaka; P. Terpstra; A. Tognoni; V. Tosato; S. Uchiyama; M. Vandenbol; F. Vannier; A. Vassarotti; A. Viari; R. Wambutt; E. Wedler; H. Wedler; T. Weitzenegger; P. Winters; A. Wipat; H. Yamamoto; K. Yamane; K. Yasumoto; K. Yata; K. Yoshida; H.-F. Yoshikawa; E. Zumstein; H. Yoshikawa; A. Danchin

1997-01-01

386

Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli by Use of Vitek MS  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of Vitek MS mass spectrometric identifications was assessed for 206 clinically significant isolates of aerobic Gram-positive bacilli representing 20 genera and 38 species. The Vitek MS identifications were correct for 85% of the isolates (56.3% to the species level, 28.6% limited to the genus level), with misidentifications occurring for 7.3% of the isolates. PMID:24501030

Navas, Maria; Pincus, David H.; Wilkey, Kathy; Sercia, Linda; LaSalvia, Margaret; Wilson, Deborah; Procop, Gary W.

2014-01-01

387

Critical cell wall hole size for lysis in Gram-positive bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gram-positive bacteria transport molecules necessary for their survival through holes in their cell wall. The holes in cell walls need to be large enough to let critical nutrients pass through. However, the cell wall must also function to prevent the bacteria's membrane from protruding through a large hole into the environment and lysing the cell. As such, we hypothesize that there exists a range of cell wall hole sizes that allow for molecule transport but prevent membrane protrusion. Here we develop and analyze a biophysical theory of the response of a Gram-positive cell's membrane to the formation of a hole in the cell wall. We predict a critical hole size in the range 15-24nm beyond which lysis occurs. To test our theory, we measured hole sizes in Streptococcus pyogenes cells undergoing enzymatic lysis via transmission electron microscopy. The measured hole sizes are in strong agreement with our theoretical prediction. Together, the theory and experiments provide a means to quantify the mechanisms of death of Gram-positive cells via enzymatically mediated lysis and provides insight into the range of cell wall hole sizes compatible with bacterial homeostasis.

Mitchell, Gabriel; Wiesenfeld, Kurt; Nelson, Daniel; Weitz, Joshua

2013-03-01

388

Penaeidins, antimicrobial peptides with chitin-binding activity, are produced and stored in shrimp granulocytes and released after microbial challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeidins are members of a new family of antimicrobial peptides isolated from a crustacean, which present both Gram-positive antibacterial and antifungal activities. We have studied the localization of synthesis and storage of penaeidins in the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The distribution of penaeidin transcripts and peptides in various tissues reveals that penaeidins are constitutively synthesized and stored in the shrimp haemocytes.

Delphine Destoumieux; Marcello Muñoz; Céline Cosseau; Jenny Rodriguez; Philippe Bulet; Michel Comps; Evelyne Bachère

2000-01-01

389

Antibacterial activity of cefquinome against equine bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Cefquinome is known for its use as an antibacterial drug in cattle and pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of cefquinome against equine pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefquinome was determined for a total of 205 strains, which had recently been isolated in Europe from diseased horses (respiratory infection, foal septicaemia). The bactericidal activity was tested against 19 strains using the time killing method. The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) and post-antibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA SME) were determined against 12 strains. Cefquinome showed high activity against Actinobacillus equuli and streptococci (MIC(90) of 0.016 and 0.032microg/mL), Enterobacteriaceae (MIC(90)=0.125microg/mL) and staphylococci (MIC(90)=0.5microg/mL). The activity was limited against Rhodococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Cefquinome was shown to be a time dependent bactericidal antibiotic against the target pathogens, killing occurring at a concentration close to the MIC. A PAE of 0.5-10h was calculated against streptococci whereas no PAE was observed for Escherichia coli. A longer PA SME was determined for streptococci (3.3 to >24h with a killing effect) and E. coli (0.5-13.9h). Cefquinome was shown to have a broad spectrum of activity which covers many equine pathogens. PMID:16455213

Thomas, E; Thomas, V; Wilhelm, C

2006-06-15

390

In vitro antibacterial effect of wasp (Vespa orientalis) venom  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of antibacterial resistance against several classes of antibiotics is an inevitable consequence of drug overuse. As antimicrobial resistance spreads throughout the globe, new substances will always be necessary to fight against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Venoms of many animals have recently gained attention in the search for new antimicrobials to treat infectious diseases. Thefore, the present study aimed to study the antibacterial effects of wasp (Vespa orientalis) crude venom. Two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli and Klesiella pneumonia) were compared for their sensitivity to the venom by determining the inhibition zone (Kirby-Bauer method) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A microbroth kinetic system based on continuous monitoring of changes in the optical density of bacterial growth was also used for determination of antimicrobial activity. Results The venom exhibited a well-recognized antimicrobial property against the tested bacterial strains. The inhibition zones were determined to be 12.6, 22.7, 22.4 and 10.2 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and K. pneumonia, respectively. The corresponding MIC values were determined to be 64, 8, 64 and 128 ?g/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of the venom were respectively determined to be 63.6 and 107 ?g/mL for S. aureus, 4.3 and 7.0 ?g/mL for B. subtilis, 45.3 and 65.7 ?g/mL for E. coli and 74.4 and 119.2 ?g/mL for K. pneumonia. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the venom than gram-negative ones. Conclusions Results revealed that the venom markedly inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and could be considered a potential source for developing new antibacterial drugs. PMID:24955088

2014-01-01

391

In Vitro Susceptibilities of Aerobic and Facultative Non-Spore- Forming Gram-Positive Bacilli to HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and 14 Other Antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative in vitro activity of the ketolide HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and those of structurally related macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromy- cin, josamycin, lincomycin, pristinamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin) as well as those of benzylpenicillin, doxycycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, levofloxacin, and rifapentine against 247 aerobic and facultative non- spore-forming gram-positive bacilli were determined by an agar dilution method. The ketolide was

FRANCISCO SORIANO; RICARDO FERNANDEZ-ROBLAS; RAQUEL CALVO; GLORIA GARCIA-CALVO

1998-01-01

392

Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. amani heywood from Turkey.  

PubMed

Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum ssp. argenteum and T. densum ssp. amani from Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. argenteum ssp. argenteum was characterized with alpha-pinene 36.7%, beta-pinene 27.5% and 1,8-cineole 9.8%. T. densum ssp. amani was characterized with beta-pinene 27.2%, 1,8-cineole 13.1%, alpha-pinene 9.7% and p-cymene 8.9%. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest inhibitory