Sample records for gram-positive organisms bacillus

  1. Rapid in situ hybridization technique using 16S rRNA segments for detecting and differentiating the closely related gram-positive organisms Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus macerans.

    PubMed Central

    Jurtshuk, R J; Blick, M; Bresser, J; Fox, G E; Jurtshuk, P

    1992-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, inexpensive in situ hybridization technique, using 30-mer 16S rRNA probes, can specifically differentiate two closely related Bacillus spp., B. polymyxa and B. macerans. The 16S rRNA probes were labeled with a rhodamine derivative (Texas Red), and quantitative fluorescence measurements were made on individual bacterial cells. The microscopic fields analyzed were selected by phase-contrast microscopy, and the fluorescence imaging analyses were performed on 16 to 67 individual cells. The labeled 16S rRNA probe, POL, whose sequence was a 100% match with B. polymyxa 16S rRNA but only a 60% match with B. macerans 16S rRNA, gave quantitative fluorescence ratio measurements that were 34.8-fold higher for B. polymyxa cells than for B. macerans cells. Conversely, the labeled probe, MAC, which matched B. polymyxa 16S rRNA in 86.6% of its positions and B. macerans 16S rRNA in 100% of its positions, gave quantitative fluorescence measurements that were 59.3-fold higher in B. macerans cells than in B. polymyxa cells. Control probes, whose 16S rRNA sequence segment (P-M) was present in both B. polymyxa and B. macerans as well as a panprokaryotic probe (16S), having a 100% match with all known bacteria, hybridized equally well with both organisms. These latter hybridizations generated very high fluorescence signals, but their comparative fluorescence ratios (the differences between two organisms) were low. The control paneukaryotic probe (28S), which had less than 30% identity for both B. macerans and B. polymyxa, did not hybridize with either organism. Images PMID:1381173

  2. The complete genome sequence of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kunst; N. Ogasawara; I. Moszer; A. M. Albertini; G. Alloni; V. Azevedo; M. G. Bertero; P. Bessičres; A. Bolotin; S. Borchert; R. Borriss; L. Boursier; A. Brans; M. Braun; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; S. Brouillet; C. V. Bruschi; B. Caldwell; V. Capuano; N. M. Carter; S.-K. Choi; J.-J. Codani; I. F. Connerton; N. J. Cummings; R. A. Daniel; F. Denizot; K. M. Devine; A. Düsterhöft; S. D. Ehrlich; P. T. Emmerson; K. D. Entian; J. Errington; C. Fabret; E. Ferrari; D. Foulger; C. Fritz; M. Fujita; Y. Fujita; S. Fuma; A. Galizzi; N. Galleron; S.-Y. Ghim; P. Glaser; A. Goffeau; E. J. Golightly; G. Grandi; G. Guiseppi; B. J. Guy; K. Haga; J. Haiech; C. R. Harwood; A. Hénaut; H. Hilbert; S. Holsappel; S. Hosono; M.-F. Hullo; M. Itaya; L. Jones; B. Joris; D. Karamata; Y. Kasahara; M. Klaerr-Blanchard; C. Klein; Y. Kobayashi; P. Koetter; G. Koningstein; S. Krogh; M. Kumano; K. Kurita; A. Lapidus; S. Lardinois; J. Lauber; V. Lazarevic; S.-M. Lee; A. Levine; H. Liu; S. Masuda; C. Mauël; C. Médigue; N. Medina; R. P. Mellado; M. Mizuno; D. Moestl; S. Nakai; M. Noback; D. Noone; M. O'Reilly; K. Ogawa; A. Ogiwara; B. Oudega; S.-H. Park; V. Parro; T. M. Pohl; D. Portetelle; S. Porwollik; A. M. Prescott; E. Presecan; P. Pujic; B. Purnelle; G. Rapoport; M. Rieger; S. Reynolds; C. Rivolta; E. Rocha; B. Roche; M. Rose; Y. Sadaie; T. Sato; E. Scanlan; S. Schleich; R. Schroeter; F. Scoffone; J. Sekiguchi; A. Sekowska; S. J. Seror; P. Serror; B.-S. Shin; B. Soldo; A. Sorokin; E. Tacconi; T. Takagi; H. Takahashi; K. Takemaru; M. Takeuchi; A. Tamakoshi; T. Tanaka; P. Terpstra; A. Tognoni; V. Tosato; S. Uchiyama; M. Vandenbol; F. Vannier; A. Vassarotti; A. Viari; R. Wambutt; E. Wedler; H. Wedler; T. Weitzenegger; P. Winters; A. Wipat; H. Yamamoto; K. Yamane; K. Yasumoto; K. Yata; K. Yoshida; H.-F. Yoshikawa; E. Zumstein; H. Yoshikawa; A. Danchin

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large

  3. The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kunst; N. Ogasawara; I. Moszer; A. M. Albertini; G. Alloni; V. Azevedo; M. G. Bertero; P. Bessičres; A. Bolotin; S. Borchert; R. Borriss; L. Boursier; A. Brans; M. Braun; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; S. Brouillet; C. V. Bruschi; B. Caldwell; V. Capuano; N. M. Carter; S.-K. Choi; J.-J. Codani; I. F. Connerton; A. Danchin

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large

  4. CEM-101 Activity against Gram-Positive Organisms?

    PubMed Central

    Woosley, Leah N.; Castanheira, Mariana; Jones, Ronald N.

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro activity of CEM-101, a new fluoroketolide, was determined against Gram-positive organisms with various macrolide susceptibility profiles. Experiments for determination of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), timed killing, single-step and multistep mutation rates, the erythromycin induction of resistance, postantibiotic effect (PAE), and drug interactions were performed for CEM-101; and the results were compared to those obtained with telithromycin, macrolides, and lincosamides. The MBCs of CEM-101 remained lower overall than those of telithromycin, and CEM-101 displayed a 2-fold greater potency than the ketolide. Timed-killing curve testing showed that CEM-101 had greater bactericidal activity than telithromycin (a ?3-log10-CFU/ml decrease in the initial inoculum at 24 h) against the staphylococcal isolates tested. The propensity of CEM-101 to cause resistance was low, as determined from the rates of resistance determined in single-step mutational studies (<10?8 or 10?9). In multipassaging studies, mutants of two strains (both of which were USA300 isolates) resistant to CEM-101 emerged. That number was comparable to the number resistant to clindamycin but less than the number resistant to telithromycin. Erythromycin induced CEM-101 resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, similar to telithromycin; however, in seven of eight beta-hemolytic streptococci, CEM-101 resistance induction was not observed. CEM-101 showed a significant concentration- and exposure-dependent PAE against the strains tested, with the values ranging from 2.3 to 6.1 h for Gram-positive organisms (these times were longer than those for telithromycin). No antagonism was found in synergy analyses, with enhanced inhibition being most noted for combinations with CEM-101 and ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Overall, this new antimicrobial agent (CEM-101) showed good antimicrobial characteristics compared with those of the agents in its class and exhibited measured parameter values similar or superior to those of utilized comparators, indicating that CEM-101 warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:20176910

  5. Extracellular Vesicles Produced by the Gram-positive Bacterium Bacillus subtilis are Disrupted by the Lipopeptide Surfactin

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa; Kessler, Anne; Cabezas-Sanchez, Pablo; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Previously, extracellular vesicle production in Gram-positive bacteria was dismissed due to the absence of an outer membrane, where Gram-negative vesicles originate, and the difficulty in envisioning how such a process could occur through the cell wall. However, recent work has shown that Gram-positive bacteria produce extracellular vesicles and that the vesicles are biologically active. In this study, we show that Bacillus subtilis produces extracellular vesicles similar in size and morphology to other bacteria, characterized vesicles using a variety of techniques, provide evidence that these vesicles are actively produced by cells, show differences in vesicle production between strains, and identified a mechanism for such differences based on vesicle disruption. We found that in wild strains of B. subtilis, surfactin disrupted vesicles while in laboratory strains harboring a mutation in the gene sfp, vesicles accumulated in the culture supernatant. Surfactin not only lysed B. subtilis vesicles, but also vesicles from Bacillus anthracis, indicating a mechanism that crossed species boundaries. To our knowledge, this is the first time a gene and a mechanism has been identified in the active disruption of extracellular vesicles and subsequent release of vesicular cargo in Gram-positive bacteria. We also identify a new mechanism of action for surfactin. PMID:24826903

  6. Volatile organic compound analysis by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry for Gram-positive bacteria differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dolch, M E; Hornuss, C; Klocke, C; Praun, S; Villinger, J; Denzer, W; Schelling, G; Schubert, S

    2012-11-01

    Approximately 50 % of all clinically proven infections in critically ill patients are caused by Gram-positive bacteria. The timely and appropriate treatment of these infections is vital in order to avoid negative outcomes. Hence, fast and reliable methods are needed for the early detection and identification of microorganisms. Recently, direct mass spectrometry-based analysis of volatile organic compounds emitted by microorganisms has been employed to study Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report a feasibility study of ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry (IMR-MS) for in vitro growth detection and species differentiation of selected Gram-positive bacteria that are frequently isolated in blood culture samples, namely, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry was used to analyze the headspace above cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria incubated at 37 °C starting with 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. Measurements to determine the presence of volatile organic compounds were performed 4, 8, and 24 h after incubation, respectively. The detection of microbial growth was accomplished already after 8 h in cultures containing E. faecalis. After 24 h of incubation, characteristic mass spectra were obtained for all species. Processing these mass spectra by hierarchic clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) enabled us to differentiate between bacterial species. IMR-MS in conjunction with a cumulative end-point model provides the means for rapid growth detection and differentiation of Gram-positive bacteria on the species level, typically within an analysis time of less than 3 min per sample. PMID:22782437

  7. Modeling of rare earth element sorption to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis bacteria surface.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Raul E; Pourret, Olivier; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, rare earth element (REE) binding constants and site concentration on the Gram+ bacteria surfaces were quantified using a multi-site Langmuir isotherm model, along with a linear programming regression method (LPM), applied to fit experimental REE sorption data. This approach found one discrete REE binding site on the Gram+ Bacillus subtilis surface for the pH range of 2.5-4.5. Average log10 REE binding constants for a site j on these bacteria ranged from 1.08±0.04 to 1.40±0.04 for the light REE (LREE: La to Eu), and from 1.36±0.03 to 2.18±0.14 for the heavy REE (HREE: Gd to Lu) at the highest biomass concentration of 1.3 g/L of B. subtilis bacteria. Similar values were obtained for bacteria concentrations of 0.39 and 0.67 g/L indicating the independence of REE sorption constants on biomass concentration. Within the experimental pH range in this study, B. subtilis was shown to have a lower affinity for LREE (e.g. La, Ce, Pr, Nd) and a higher affinity for HREE (e.g. Tm, Yb, Lu) suggesting an enrichment of HREE on the surface of Gram+ bacteria. Total surface binding site concentrations of 6.73±0.06 to 5.67±0.06 and 5.53±0.07 to 4.54±0.03 mol/g of bacteria were observed for LREE and HREE respectively, with the exception of Y, which showed a total site concentration of 9.53±0.03, and a log K(REE,j) of 1.46±0.02 for a biomass content of 1.3 g/L. The difference in these values (e.g. a lower affinity and increased binding site concentration for LREE, and the contrary for the HREE) suggests a distinction between the LREE and HREE binding modes to the Gram+ bacteria reactive surface at low pH. This further implies that HREE may bind more than one monoprotic reactive group on the cell surface. A multisite Langmuir isotherm approach along with the LPM regression method, not requiring prior knowledge of the number or concentration of cell surface REE complexation sites, were able to distinguish between the sorption constant and binding site concentration patterns of LREE and HREE on the Gram+ B. subtilis surface. This approach quantified the enrichment of Tm, Yb and Lu on the bacteria surface and it has therefore proven to be a useful tool for the study of natural reactive sorbent materials controlling REE partitioning in the natural environment. PMID:24183437

  8. Structure analysis of a class II transposon encoding the mercury resistance of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium MB1, a strain isolated from Minamata Bay, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chieh-Chen Huang; Masaru Narita; Takeshi Yamagata; Yukihiro Itoh; Ginro Endo

    1999-01-01

    A unique transposon was found in the chromosome of Bacillus megaterium MB1, a Gram-positive bacterium isolated from mercury-polluted sediments of Minamata Bay, Japan. The transposon region of a 14.5kb DNA fragment was amplified by PCR using a single PCR primer designed from the nucleotide sequence of an inverted repeat of class II transposons. The molecular analysis revealed that the PCR-amplified

  9. Heterogenetic Antigens of Gram-Positive Bacteria1

    PubMed Central

    Chorpenning, Frank W.; Dodd, Matthew C.

    1966-01-01

    Chorpenning, Frank W. (The Ohio State University, Columbus), and Matthew C. Dodd. Heterogenetic antigens of gram-positive bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 91:1440–1445. 1966.—Soluble antigens obtained by various methods from gram-positive bacteria were used to modify erythrocytes whose hemagglutinating reactions with immune rabbit sera and normal human sera were then studied. Antigens from all gram-positive organisms studied except corynbacteria altered red cells, causing them to react with specific bacterial antisera and with normal human sera; however, cross-absorption and inhibition tests indicated that at least three different specificites were involved. One of these antigens seemed to be similar to Rantz's streptococcal NSS, which is shared with Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus spp., and is therefore heterogenetic. Another was found in streptococci but was apparently not present in S. aureus and Bacillus spp. A third antigen, also heterogenetic, appeared to be shared by several species of Bacillus and by S. aureus, but not by streptococci or any gram-negative bacteria. The third antigen was heat-stable at pH 8.0, and appeared to be essentially polysaccharide in nature. Normal human sera varied in their content of antibodies which reacted with erythrocytes modified by extracts from gram-positive bacteria. Whereas some sera reacted very broadly with red cells modified by extracts of practically any gram-positive organism, other sera agglutinated only cells which had been modified by streptococcal antigen. PMID:4956340

  10. Coping with the cold: the cold shock response in the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. W. Weber; Mohamed A. Marahiel

    2002-01-01

    All organisms examined to date, respond to a sudden change in environmental temperature with a specié c cascade of adaptation reactions that, in some cases, have been identié ed and monitored at the molecular level. According to the type of temperature change, this response has been termed heat shock response (HSR) or cold shock response (CSR). During the HSR, a

  11. In vitro activity of RP59500, an injectable streptogramin antibiotic, against vancomycin-resistant gram-positive organisms.

    PubMed

    Collins, L A; Malanoski, G J; Eliopoulos, G M; Wennersten, C B; Ferraro, M J; Moellering, R C

    1993-03-01

    The in vitro activity of RP59500, a streptogramin antibiotic, against 146 clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria was examined. Five strains of the species Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum, for which the MIC of vancomycin was 8 micrograms/ml, were also studied. Twenty-eight vancomycin-susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were included for comparison. The drug was highly active against Leuconostoc spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Pediococcus spp. (MICs, < or = 2 micrograms/ml). RP59500 was more active against vancomycin-susceptible strains of E. faecium than E. faecalis (MICs for 90% of the strains [MIC90s], 1.0 versus 32 micrograms/ml). Vancomycin-resistant strains of E. faecalis were as resistant to RP59500 as vancomycin-susceptible strains (MIC90, 32 micrograms/ml), but some vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains were relatively more resistant to the new agent (MIC90, 16; MIC range, 0.5 to 32 micrograms/ml) than were vancomycin-susceptible organisms of this species. PMID:8460927

  12. Discovery of Novel Cell Wall-Active Compounds Using PywaC, a Sensitive Reporter of Cell Wall Stress, in the Model Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Czarny, T. L.; Perri, A. L.; French, S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in recent years has radically reduced the clinical efficacy of many antibacterial treatments and now poses a significant threat to public health. One of the earliest studied well-validated targets for antimicrobial discovery is the bacterial cell wall. The essential nature of this pathway, its conservation among bacterial pathogens, and its absence in human biology have made cell wall synthesis an attractive pathway for new antibiotic drug discovery. Herein, we describe a highly sensitive screening methodology for identifying chemical agents that perturb cell wall synthesis, using the model of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We report on a cell-based pilot screen of 26,000 small molecules to look for cell wall-active chemicals in real time using an autonomous luminescence gene cluster driven by the promoter of ywaC, which encodes a guanosine tetra(penta)phosphate synthetase that is expressed under cell wall stress. The promoter-reporter system was generally much more sensitive than growth inhibition testing and responded almost exclusively to cell wall-active antibiotics. Follow-up testing of the compounds from the pilot screen with secondary assays to verify the mechanism of action led to the discovery of 9 novel cell wall-active compounds. PMID:24687489

  13. Evaluation of a microarray-based assay for rapid identification of Gram-positive organisms and resistance markers in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Linoj P; Tibbetts, Robert J; Agotesku, Adam; Fey, Margaret; Hensley, Rhonda; Meier, Frederick A

    2013-04-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens directly from positive blood cultures can play a major role in reducing patient mortality rates. We evaluated the performance of the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP) assay (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL) for detection of commonly isolated Gram-positive organisms as well as associated resistance markers from positive blood cultures. Positive blood cultures (VersaTREK; Trek Diagnostic Systems, Independence, OH) from 203 patients with Gram-positive organism infections were analyzed using the BC-GP assay within 12 h for the detection of 12 different organisms, including staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, as well as for the presence of 3 resistance markers (mecA, vanA, and vanB). Results were compared to those of routine laboratory methods for identification and susceptibility testing. For identification of organisms and detection of resistance markers in 178 monomicrobial positive blood cultures, the BC-GP assay showed 94% and 97% concordance, respectively, with routine methods. After 25 polymicrobial cultures were included, the results showed 92% and 96% agreement for identification and resistance markers, respectively, for a total of 203 positive cultures. In 6/25 polymicrobial cultures, at least 1 isolate was not detected. Concordance levels for detection of major pathogens such Staphylococcus aureus (n = 45) and enterococci (n = 19) were 98% and 95%, respectively. Agreement levels for detection of resistance markers such as mecA and vanA/B were 92% and 100%, respectively. The BC-GP assay is capable of providing rapid identification of Gram-positive cocci as well as detection of resistance markers directly from positive blood cultures at least 24 to 48 h earlier than conventional methods. PMID:23363838

  14. Antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive cocci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Jeljaszewicz; G Mlynarczyk; A Mlynarczyk

    2000-01-01

    Gram-positive cocci still predominate as a cause of nosocomial- and community-acquired infections. These organisms frequently reveal a high natural, intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. Additionally, these bacteria are able to acquire resistance to frequently used drugs rapidly through selective pressure of the environment and via the genetic evolution of bacteria. The wide application of antimicrobials in medical and veterinary practice, usage

  15. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis CBMDC3f with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive foodborne pathogenic bacteria: UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis of its bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Petroselli, G; Daz, M; Erra-Balsells, R; Audisio, M C

    2015-06-01

    In this work a new Bacillus sp. strain, isolated from honey, was characterized phylogenetically. Its antibacterial activity against three relevant foodborne pathogenic bacteria was studied; the main bioactive metabolites were analyzed using ultraviolet matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI MS). Bacillus CBMDC3f was phylogenetically characterized as Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis after rRNA analysis of the 16S subunit and the gyrA gene (access codes Genbank JX120508 and JX120516, respectively). Its antibacterial potential was evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes (9 strains), B. cereus (3 strains) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Its cell suspension and cell-free supernatant (CFS) exerted significant anti-Listeria and anti-S. aureus activities, while the lipopeptides fraction (LF) also showed anti-B. cereus effect. The UV-MALDI-MS analysis revealed surfactin, iturin and fengycin in the CFS, whereas surfactin predominated in the LF. The CFS from CBMDC3f contained surfactin, iturin and fengycin with four, two and four homologues per family, respectively, whereas four surfactin, one iturin and one fengycin homologues were identified in the LF. For some surfactin homologues, their UV-MALDI-TOF/TOF (MS/MS; Laser Induced Decomposition method, LID) spectra were also obtained. Mass spectrometry analysis contributed with relevant information about the type of lipopeptides that Bacillus strains can synthesize. From our results, surfactin would be the main metabolite responsible for the antibacterial effect. PMID:25820813

  16. Immunological crossreactivity to the catabolite control protein CcpA from Bacillus megaterium is found in many Gram-positive bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke Küster; Evert J. Luesink; Willem M. de Vos; Wolfgang Hillen

    1996-01-01

    The catabolite control protein CcpA from Bacillus megaterium was overproduced as a fusion protein to a 6xhis affinity tag and purified to homogeneity. Polyclonal antibodies of high affinity and specificity were raised against the purified protein. The serum did not crossreact with purified Lac repressor despite the fact that CcpA and LacI belong to the same protein family. Using this

  17. When Ribonucleases Come into Play in Pathogens: A Survey of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Jester, Brian C.; Romby, Pascale; Lioliou, Efthimia

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that RNA stability plays critical roles in bacterial adaptation and survival in different environments like those encountered when bacteria infect a host. Bacterial ribonucleases acting alone or in concert with regulatory RNAs or RNA binding proteins are the mediators of the regulatory outcome on RNA stability. We will give a current update of what is known about ribonucleases in the model Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis and will describe their established roles in virulence in several Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria that are imposing major health concerns worldwide. Implications on bacterial evolution through stabilization/transfer of genetic material (phage or plasmid DNA) as a result of ribonucleases' functions will be covered. The role of ribonucleases in emergence of antibiotic resistance and new concepts in drug design will additionally be discussed. PMID:22550495

  18. Triethyl-n-Hexylammonium Triethyl-n-Hexylboride: a New Antimicrobial Showing Activity Against Candida albicans and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, K. S.; Storm, D. R.; Ford, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    The organic salt triethyl-n-hexylammonium triethyl-n-hexylboride (N2226B2226) has biostatic effects against two gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus, and the yeast Candida albicans. Escherichia coli and chicken embryo fibroblasts grown in tissue culture are more refractory to this compound. Images PMID:811160

  19. Moderately halophilic gram-positive bacterial diversity in hypersaline environments.

    PubMed

    Ventosa, A; Márquez, M C; Garabito, M J; Arahal, D R

    1998-08-01

    Moderately halophilic bacteria are microorganisms that grow optimally in media containing 3%-15% (w/v) salt. They are represented by a heterogeneous group of microorganisms included in many different genera. Gram-negative moderately halophilic bacteria have been studied in more detail, but studies on gram-positive species are more scarce. Recent studies carried out by our research group on gram-positive moderate halophiles have permitted clarifying their taxonomic and phylogenetic position and describing new species. Thus, we have isolated six strains from ponds of salterns that show phenotypic and genotypic characteristics similar to those of Nesterenkonia halobia (formerly Micrococcus halobius), a moderately halophilic gram-positive coccus that was described on the basis of a single strain. Our data demonstrate quite clearly that they are members of this species and contribute to a better description of these moderately halophilic cocci. Similarly, a study of a large number of gram-positive moderately halophilic rods that were able to produce endospores led us to describe a new species, designated Bacillus salexigens. Further, isolates grouped in other three phenons, obtained by numerical taxonomy analysis and showing phenotypic features quite similar to those of this species, represent different genomovars, with very low DNA-DNA homology. Although they might represent additional new species, it will be necessary to determine new phenotypic features to differentiate them from previously described Bacillus species. We have also studied the viability of some old enrichments provided by B.E. Volcani, which were set up in 1936. We isolated 31 gram-positive motile endospore-forming rods that, according to their phenotypic characteristics, could represent a new species of the genus Bacillus. PMID:9783177

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis B. Rice

    2006-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are common causes of bloodstream and other infections in hospitalized patients in the United States, and the percentage of nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria is increasing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are of particular concern. In the United States, approximately 60% of staphylococcal infections in the intensive care unit are now caused

  1. Crystallography of Gram-Positive Bacterial Adhesins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vengadesan Krishnan; Sthanam V. L. Narayana

    \\u000a Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens display a multitude of proteins and protein assemblies (pili or fimbriae) on\\u000a their cell surfaces, which are often used for adherence and initiate colonization and pathogenesis. Adhesive proteins known\\u000a as MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), anchored by a specific enzyme called sortase\\u000a in Gram-positive bacteria, target the host’s extracellular matrix proteins (ECM)

  2. Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Shonna M.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, or AMPs, play a significant role in many environments as a tool to remove competing organisms. In response, many bacteria have evolved mechanisms to resist these peptides and prevent AMP-mediated killing. The development of AMP resistance mechanisms is driven by direct competition between bacterial species, as well as host and pathogen interactions. Akin to the number of different AMPs found in nature, resistance mechanisms that have evolved are just as varied and may confer broad-range resistance or specific resistance to AMPs. Specific mechanisms of AMP resistance prevent AMP-mediated killing against a single type of AMP, while broad resistance mechanisms often lead to a global change in the bacterial cell surface and protect the bacterium from a large group of AMPs that have similar characteristics. AMP resistance mechanisms can be found in many species of bacteria and can provide a competitive edge against other bacterial species or a host immune response. Gram-positive bacteria are one of the largest AMP producing groups, but characterization of Gram-positive AMP resistance mechanisms lags behind that of Gram-negative species. In this review we present a summary of the AMP resistance mechanisms that have been identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria. Understanding the mechanisms of AMP resistance in Gram-positive species can provide guidelines in developing and applying AMPs as therapeutics, and offer insight into the role of resistance in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:25419466

  3. Hyaluronidases of Gram-positive bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne L. Hynes; Sheryl Lynne Walton

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial hyaluronidases, enzymes capable of breaking down hyaluronate, are produced by a number of pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria that initiate infections at the skin or mucosal surfaces. Since reports of the hyaluronidases first appeared, there have been numerous suggestions as to the role of the enzyme in the disease process. Unlike some of the other more well studied virulence factors, much

  4. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  5. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  6. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  7. Changing epidemiology of infections in patients with neutropenia and cancer: emphasis on gram-positive and resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zinner, S H

    1999-09-01

    Over the past 3 decades, considerable changes have occurred in the types of bacteria causing infection in febrile patients with neutropenia and cancer. Twenty years ago, gram-negative bacteria caused approximately 70% of bloodstream infections. As a probable consequence of long-dwelling intravascular devices, fluoroquinolone prophylaxis, and high-dose chemotherapy-induced mucositis, there has been a shift toward gram-positive coccal bacteremia. In most centers today, approximately 70% of bacteremic isolates are gram-positive cocci. Of potential concern is that antimicrobial-resistant gram-positive organisms are becoming increasingly frequent in patients with neutropenia. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli are being isolated from several cancer centers. Several "new" organisms, such as Stomatococcus mucilaginosus, Bacillus cereus, Leuconostoc species, Corynebacterium jeikeium, Rhodococcus species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Moraxella catarrhalis, Burkholderia cepacia, and Bartonella species, now cause infections in these patients. Careful application of infection-control principles, judicious prophylaxis, appropriate evaluation of new antibiotics, and prompt effective therapy will maximize benefits for these patients. PMID:10530434

  8. REPORT ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF OREGANO (ORIGANUM VULGARE LINN.) AGAINST GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SABAHAT SAEED; PERWEEN TARIQ

    The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium,

  9. Lipoprotein biogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria: knowing when to

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Tracy

    Lipoprotein biogenesis in Gram- positive bacteria: knowing when to hold `em, knowing when to fold Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK Gram-positive bacterial lipoproteins are a functionally diverse and important class of these proteins, their role in virulence in Gram-positive bacteria and their potential as vaccine candidates

  10. The role of ? B in the stress response of Gram-positive bacteria – targets for food preservation and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem van Schaik; Tjakko Abee

    2005-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor żB modulates the stress response of several Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis and the food-borne human pathogens Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In all these bacteria, żB is responsible for the transcription of genes that can confer stress resistance to the vegetative cell. Recent findings indicate that żB also plays an important role in

  11. Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W Rey; Preethi Ramaiya; Beth A Nelson; Shari D Brody-Karpin; Elizabeth J Zaretsky; Maria Tang; Alfredo Lopez de Leon; Henry Xiang; Veronica Gusti; Ib Groth Clausen; Peter B Olsen; Michael D Rasmussen; Jens T Andersen; Per L Jřrgensen; Thomas S Larsen; Alexei Sorokin; Alexander Bolotin; Alla Lapidus; Nathalie Galleron; S Dusko Ehrlich; Randy M Berka

    2004-01-01

    Background: Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Results: We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of

  12. The Tat system of Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Goosens, Vivianne J; Monteferrante, Carmine G; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2014-08-01

    The twin-arginine protein translocation (Tat) system has a unique ability to translocate folded and co-factor-containing proteins across lipid bilayers. The Tat pathway is present in bacteria, archaea and in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and, depending on the organism and environmental conditions, it can be deemed important for cell survival, virulence or bioproduction. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the Tat system with specific focus on Gram-positive bacteria. The 'universal minimal Tat system' is composed of a TatA and a TatC protein. However, this pathway is more commonly composed of two TatA-like proteins and one TatC protein. Often the TatA-like proteins have diverged to have two different functions and, in this case, the second TatA-like protein is usually referred to as TatB. The correct folding and/or incorporation of co-factors are requirements for translocation, and the known quality control mechanisms are examined in this review. A number of examples of crosstalk between the Tat system and other protein transport systems, such as the Sec-YidC translocon and signal peptidases or sheddases are also discussed. Further, an overview of specific Gram-positive bacterial Tat systems found in monoderm and diderm species is detailed. Altogether, this review highlights the unique features of Gram-positive bacterial Tat systems and pinpoints key questions that remain to be addressed in future research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. PMID:24140208

  13. Autocatalytic Intramolecular Isopeptide Bond Formation in Gram-Positive Bacterial Pili: A QM/MM Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiangqian; Hu, Hao; Melvin, Jeffrey A.; Clancy, Kathleen W.; McCafferty, Dewey G.; Yang, Weitao

    2010-01-01

    Gram-positive pathogens possess external pili or fimbrae with which they adhere to host cells during the infection process. Unusual dual intramolecular isopeptide bonds between Asn and Lys side chains within the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of the pilus subunits have been observed initially in the Streptococcus pyogenes pilin subunit Spy0128 and subsequently in GBS52 from Streptococcus agalactiae, in the BcpA major pilin of Bacillus cereus and in the RrgB pilin of Streptococcus pneumoniae among others. Within each pilin subunit, intramolecular isopeptide bonds serve to stabilize the protein. These bonds provide a means to withstand large external mechanical forces, as well as possibly assisting in supporting a conformation favored for pilin subunit polymerization via sortase transpeptidases. Genome-wide analyses of pili-containing Gram-positive bacteria are known or suspected to contain isopeptide bonds in pilin subunits. For the autocatalytic formation of isopeptide crosslinks, a conservation of three amino acids including Asn, Lys, and a catalytically important acidic Glu (or Asp) residue are responsible. However, the chemical mechanism of how isopeptide bonds form within pilin remains poorly understood. Although it is possible that several mechanistic paths could lead to isopeptide bond formation in pili, the requirement of a conserved glutamate and highly organized positioning of residues within the hydrophobic environment of the active site were found in numerous pilin crystal structures such as Spy0128 and RrgB. This suggests a mechanism involving direct coupling of lysine side chain amine to the asparagine carboxamide mediated by critical acid/base or hydrogen bonding interactions with the catalytic glutamate residue. From this mechanistic perspective, we used the QM/MM minimum free-energy path method to examine the reaction details of forming the isopeptide bonds with the Spy0128 as a model pilin, specifically focusing on the role of the glutamate in catalysis. It was determined that the reaction mechanism likely consists of two major steps: the nucleophilic attack on C? by nitrogen in the unprotonated Lys ?-amino group and then two concerted proton transfers occur during the formation of the intramolecular isopeptide bond to subsequently release ammonia. More importantly, within the dual active sites of Spy0128, Glu117 and Glu258 residues function as crucial catalysts for each isopeptide bond formation, respectively, by relaying two proton transfers. This study also suggests that domain-domain interactions within Spy0128 may modulate the reactivity of residues within each active site. Our results may hopefully shed light on the molecular mechanisms of pilin biogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:21142157

  14. Multidrug resistance in hydrocarbon-tolerant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stancu, Mihaela Marilena; Grifoll, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    New Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from Poeni oily sludge, using enrichment procedures. The six Gram-positive strains belong to Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Rhodococcus genera. The eight Gram-negative strains belong to Shewanella, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella genera. Isolated bacterial strains were tolerant to saturated (i.e., n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane, n-pentadecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane), monoaromatic (i.e., benzene, toluene, styrene, xylene isomers, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene) and polyaromatic (i.e., naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, fluorene) hydrocarbons, and also resistant to different antimicrobial agents (i.e., ampicillin, kanamycin, rhodamine 6G, crystal violet, malachite green, sodium dodecyl sulfate). The presence of hydrophilic antibiotics like ampicillin or kanamycin in liquid LB-Mg medium has no effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria resistance to toxic compounds. The results indicated that Gram-negative bacteria are less sensitive to toxic compounds than Gram-positive bacteria, except one bacteria belonging to Lysinibacillus genus. There were observed cellular and molecular modifications induced by ampicillin or kanamycin to isolated bacterial strains. Gram-negative bacteria possessed between two and four catabolic genes (alkB, alkM, alkB/alkB1, todC1, xylM, PAH dioxygenase, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase), compared with Gram-positive bacteria (except one bacteria belonging to Bacillus genus) which possessed one catabolic gene (alkB/alkB1). Transporter genes (HAE1, acrAB) were detected only in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21478643

  15. Regulation of Apoptosis by Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ulett, Glen C.; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), is an important physiological mechanism, through which the human immune system regulates homeostasis and responds to diverse forms of cellular damage. PCD may also be involved in immune counteraction to microbial infection. Over the past decade, the amount of research on bacteria-induced PCD has grown tremendously, and the implications of this mechanism on immunity are being elucidated. Some pathogenic bacteria actively trigger the suicide response in critical lineages of leukocytes that orchestrate both the innate and adaptive immune responses; other bacteria proactively prevent PCD to benefit their own survival and persistence. Currently, the microbial virulence factors, which represent the keys to unlocking the suicide response in host cells, are a primary focus of this field. In this review, we discuss these bacterial “apoptosis regulatory molecules” and the apoptotic events they either trigger or prevent, the host target cells of this regulatory activity, and the possible ramifications for immunity to infection. Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Listeria, and Clostridia species are discussed as important agents of human infection that modulate PCD pathways in eukaryotic cells. PMID:19081777

  16. Multiplex Identification of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Resistance Determinants Directly from Positive Blood Culture Broths: Evaluation of an Automated Microarray-Based Nucleic Acid Test

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Blake W.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Manii, Ryhana; Cavagnolo, Robert; Pancholi, Preeti; Swyers, Lettie; Thomson, Richard B.; Anderson, Christopher; Kaul, Karen; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test (BC-GP) test to identify 12 Gram-positive bacterial gene targets and three genetic resistance determinants directly from positive blood culture broths containing Gram-positive bacteria. Methods and Findings 1,252 blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria were prospectively collected and tested at five clinical centers between April, 2011 and January, 2012. An additional 387 contrived blood cultures containing uncommon targets (e.g., Listeria spp., S. lugdunensis, vanB-positive Enterococci) were included to fully evaluate the performance of the BC-GP test. Sensitivity and specificity for the 12 specific genus or species targets identified by the BC-GP test ranged from 92.6%–100% and 95.4%–100%, respectively. Identification of the mecA gene in 599 cultures containing S. aureus or S. epidermidis was 98.6% sensitive and 94.3% specific compared to cefoxitin disk method. Identification of the vanA gene in 81 cultures containing Enterococcus faecium or E. faecalis was 100% sensitive and specific. Approximately 7.5% (87/1,157) of single-organism cultures contained Gram-positive bacteria not present on the BC-GP test panel. In 95 cultures containing multiple organisms the BC-GP test was in 71.6% (68/95) agreement with culture results. Retrospective analysis of 107 separate blood cultures demonstrated that identification of methicillin resistant S. aureus and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. was completed an average of 41.8 to 42.4 h earlier using the BC-GP test compared to routine culture methods. The BC-GP test was unable to assign mecA to a specific organism in cultures containing more than one Staphylococcus isolate and does not identify common blood culture contaminants such as Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, and Bacillus. Conclusions The BC-GP test is a multiplex test capable of detecting most leading causes of Gram-positive bacterial blood stream infections as well as genetic markers of methicillin and vancomycin resistance directly from positive blood cultures. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23843749

  17. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  18. Testing of different antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from plant tissue culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kneifel; W. Leonhardt

    1992-01-01

    Different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus xylosus, S. aureus, S. cohnii, Bacillus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Pseudomonas vesicularis) were isolated from homogenized shoot tips of Drosera rotundifolia, Spatiphyllum sp., Syngonium cv. White butterfly, Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Teddy Junior. Growth inhibition of selected bacterial strains was examined using 28 different single antibiotics and 7 antibiotic mixtures. It was found that with the

  19. Small regulatory RNAs from low-GC Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brantl, Sabine; Brückner, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that act by base-pairing were first discovered in so-called accessory DNA elements—plasmids, phages, and transposons—where they control replication, maintenance, and transposition. Since 2001, a huge body of work has been performed to predict and identify sRNAs in a multitude of bacterial genomes. The majority of chromosome-encoded sRNAs have been investigated in E. coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. However, during the past five years an increasing number of sRNAs were found in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we outline our current knowledge on chromosome-encoded sRNAs from low-GC Gram-positive species that act by base-pairing, i.e., an antisense mechanism. We will focus on sRNAs with known targets and defined regulatory mechanisms with special emphasis on Bacillus subtilis. PMID:24576839

  20. Complete Genome of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Page.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Mariana S; Hodde, Mary K; Chamakura, Karthik R; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a Gram-positive, spore-forming saprophytic inhabitant of diverse environments. It is a reservoir for industrial chemical production and is emerging as a model organism for studying sporulation and protein localization. Here, we introduce the complete genome of Page, a novel podophage infecting B. megaterium. PMID:24744341

  1. Genomics of the Bacillus cereus group of organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Rasko; Michael R. Altherr; Cliff S. Han; Jacques Ravel

    2005-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus group of organisms include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis. Collectively, these organisms represent microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Given this significance, this group contains the highest number of closely related fully sequenced genomes, giving the unique opportunity for thorough comparative genomic analyses. Much of the disease and host specificity of

  2. Fatal meningoencephalitis due to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kwong, K L; Que, T L; Wong, S N; So, K T

    1997-12-01

    We report the first case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in Hong Kong over the past 60 years. A 13 year-old boy presented with right lower quadrant pain, diarrhoea and progressive headache. Lumbar puncture yielded gram positive bacilli initially thought to be Bacillus cereus, a contaminant. He was treated with ampicillin and cefotaxime, but died 3 days after hospitalization. The organism isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid was later identified as Bacillus anthracis. PMID:9484689

  3. Wall Teichoic Acids of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephanie; Santa Maria, John P.; Walker, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The peptidoglycan layers of many gram-positive bacteria are densely functionalized with anionic glycopolymers called wall teichoic acids (WTAs). These polymers play crucial roles in cell shape determination, regulation of cell division, and other fundamental aspects of gram-positive bacterial physiology. Additionally, WTAs are important in pathogenesis and play key roles in antibiotic resistance. We provide an overview of WTA structure and biosynthesis, review recent studies on the biological roles of these polymers, and highlight remaining questions. We also discuss prospects for exploiting WTA biosynthesis as a target for new therapies to overcome resistant infections. PMID:24024634

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Piezophilic Bacteria from Deep Marine Subsurface Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runko, G. M.; Fang, J.; Kato, C.

    2014-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere remains as the least studied of all of Earth's habitats and is inadequately understood, but is extremely important to understand the impacts that microbes have on global biogeochemical cycles. Sediment samples were obtained during IODP Expedition 337 in the western Pacific Ocean, from 1,498 meters below the seafloor (mbsf; samples 6R3), 1,951-1,999 mbsf (19R1), and 2,406 mbsf (29R7). These samples were initially mixed with marine broth and cultivated under anaerobic conditions at pressure of 35 MPa (megapascal) and temperatures of 35° C, 45° C, and 55° C for 3 months on board the Chikyu. Single colonies were isolated via plating on marine broth. Then, six strains of bacteria were identified, 6R3-1, 6R3-15, 19R1-5, 29R7-12B, 29R7-12M, and 29R7-12S. The six strains were then examined for optimal growth temperature and pressure. These organisms are Gram-positive, spore-forming, facultative anaerobic piezophilic bacteria. Major fatty acids are anteiso-15:0, anteiso-17:0 and iso-15:0. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates are closely related to Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Robinsoniella peoriensis, and Bacillus subtilis. Because of their abundance in the deep marine subsurface, these microorganisms likely play an important role in sustaining the deep microbial ecosystem and influencing biogeochemical cycles in the deep biosphere.

  5. Comparative in vitro activity of levofloxacin and ofloxacin against Gram-positive bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Eliopoulos; Christine B. Wennersten; Robert C. Moellering

    1996-01-01

    The in vitro activity of levofloxacin against 506 Gram-positive bacteria was compared with those of D(?)-ofloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sparfloxacin. Levofloxacin was generally twice as active as ofloxacin against these organisms (range, 0–3 twofold dilutions). Sparfloxacin appeared to have the greatest activity overall, but for several groups of organisms minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90s) of this com pound were within one

  6. Screening genomes of Gram-positive bacteria for

    E-print Network

    Screening genomes of Gram-positive bacteria for double-glycine-motif- containing peptides Secreted-positive bacteria, the double-glycine (GG) motif plays a key role in many peptide secretion systems involved Microbiology Comment #12;peptides and class II bacteriocins, produced by streptococci and lactic acid bacteria

  7. Protein secretion and surface display in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2012-01-01

    The cell wall peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria functions as a surface organelle for the transport and assembly of proteins that interact with the environment, in particular, the tissues of an infected host. Signal peptide-bearing precursor proteins are secreted across the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. Some precursors carry C-terminal sorting signals with unique sequence motifs that are cleaved by sortase enzymes and linked to the cell wall peptidoglycan of vegetative forms or spores. The sorting signals of pilin precursors are cleaved by pilus-specific sortases, which generate covalent bonds between proteins leading to the assembly of fimbrial structures. Other precursors harbour surface (S)-layer homology domains (SLH), which fold into a three-pronged spindle structure and bind secondary cell wall polysaccharides, thereby associating with the surface of specific Gram-positive microbes. Type VII secretion is a non-canonical secretion pathway for WXG100 family proteins in mycobacteria. Gram-positive bacteria also secrete WXG100 proteins and carry unique genes that either contribute to discrete steps in secretion or represent distinctive substrates for protein transport reactions. PMID:22411983

  8. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides That Inhibit Gram Positive Bacterial Exotoxin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, Joseph A.; Nemeth, Kimberly A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, cause serious human illnesses through combinations of surface virulence factors and secretion of exotoxins. Our prior studies using the protein synthesis inhibitor clindamycin and signal transduction inhibitors glycerol monolaurate and ?-globin and ?-globin chains of hemoglobin indicate that their abilities to inhibit exotoxin production by S. aureus are separable from abilities to inhibit growth of the organism. Additionally, our previous studies suggest that inhibition of exotoxin production, in absence of ability to kill S. aureus and normal flora lactobacilli, will prevent colonization by pathogenic S. aureus, while not interfering with lactobacilli colonization. These disparate activities may be important in development of novel anti-infective agents that do not alter normal flora. We initiated studies to explore the exotoxin-synthesis-inhibition activity of hemoglobin peptides further to develop potential agents to prevent S. aureus infections. We tested synthesized ?-globin chain peptides, synthetic variants of ?-globin chain peptides, and two human defensins for ability to inhibit exotoxin production without significantly inhibiting S. aureus growth. All of these peptides were weakly or not inhibitory to bacterial growth. However, the peptides were inhibitory to exotoxin production with increasing activity dependent on increasing numbers of positively-charged amino acids. Additionally, the peptides could be immobilized on agarose beads or have amino acid sequences scrambled and still retain exotoxin-synthesis-inhibition. The peptides are not toxic to human vaginal epithelial cells and do not inhibit growth of normal flora L. crispatus. These peptides may interfere with plasma membrane signal transduction in S. aureus due to their positive charges. PMID:24748386

  9. Conjugative Plasmid Transfer in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Grohmann, Elisabeth; Muth, Günther; Espinosa, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Conjugative transfer of bacterial plasmids is the most efficient way of horizontal gene spread, and it is therefore considered one of the major reasons for the increase in the number of bacteria exhibiting multiple-antibiotic resistance. Thus, conjugation and spread of antibiotic resistance represents a severe problem in antibiotic treatment, especially of immunosuppressed patients and in intensive care units. While conjugation in gram-negative bacteria has been studied in great detail over the last decades, the transfer mechanisms of antibiotic resistance plasmids in gram-positive bacteria remained obscure. In the last few years, the entire nucleotide sequences of several large conjugative plasmids from gram-positive bacteria have been determined. Sequence analyses and data bank comparisons of their putative transfer (tra) regions have revealed significant similarities to tra regions of plasmids from gram-negative bacteria with regard to the respective DNA relaxases and their targets, the origins of transfer (oriT), and putative nucleoside triphosphatases NTP-ases with homologies to type IV secretion systems. In contrast, a single gene encoding a septal DNA translocator protein is involved in plasmid transfer between micelle-forming streptomycetes. Based on these clues, we propose the existence of two fundamentally different plasmid-mediated conjugative mechanisms in gram-positive microorganisms, namely, the mechanism taking place in unicellular gram-positive bacteria, which is functionally similar to that in gram-negative bacteria, and a second type that occurs in multicellular gram-positive bacteria, which seems to be characterized by double-stranded DNA transfer. PMID:12794193

  10. Evaluation of the Nanosphere Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Assay with the VersaTREK Blood Culture System and Assessment of Possible Impact on Selected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Stacy G.; Ciurca, Jane; Smith, Geremy; John, Jeffrey; Lee, Francesca; Doern, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) assay (Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL) is a molecular method for the rapid identification of Gram-positive organisms and resistance markers directly from blood culture bottles. A total of 148 VersaTREK REDOX 1 40-ml aerobic bottles demonstrating Gram-positive bacteria were tested. Results were compared with those from conventional biochemical and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) identifications. We obtained isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (24), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (14), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) (17), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSE) (9), other coagulase-negative staphylococci (19), Streptococcus salivarius (5), Streptococcus parasanguinis (2), Streptococcus sanguinis (1), Streptococcus cristatus (1), the Streptococcus bovis group (5), Streptococcus agalactiae (9), the Streptococcus anginosus group (1), Streptococcus pneumoniae (6), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE FCM) (16), vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (3), Aerococcus viridans (2), Bacillus (6), Corynebacterium (8), Lactobacillus (2), Micrococcus (2), Neisseria mucosa (1), Escherichia coli (3), Candida tropicalis (1), Propionibacterium (1), and Rothia (1). Overall agreement with the culture results was 95%. A total of 137 of 138 (99%) monomicrobial cultures were concordant. We tested 9 polymicrobial samples and found 33% agreement. A chart review of 31 patients with MRSA, MSSA, or VRE demonstrated that the Nanosphere BC-GP assay might have led to more appropriate antibiotic selection for these patients an average of 42 h earlier. Additionally, contact isolation could have been initiated an average of 37 h earlier for patients with MRSA or VRE. The BC-GP assay may have a positive impact on patient care, health care costs, and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:24048531

  11. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis: source of the organism.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, D; Tuazon, C U; Levy, C; Curtin, J

    1982-01-01

    Serious infections with the "nonpathogenic" Bacillus species are increasingly being recognized, especially in drug abusers. Cases of panophthalmitis secondary to infection with Bacillus cereus, with and without associated bacteremia, have been reported. Three drug abusers with panophthalmitis seen in our hospitals during a three-year period are described, and the similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. The syndrome is characterized by an acute onset with a rapid fulminating course that eventually leads to enucleation or evisceration of the eye. The pathogenic mechanism is unknown, but is probably related to the production of toxin (lecithinase) by B. cereus. Clindamycin appears to be the antibiotic of choice in the treatment of this infection. In order to identify a possible source of the organism, 59 samples of heroin and injection paraphernalia were cultured. Twenty cultures yielded organisms; Bacillus species were the predominant isolates. Thirty-eight percent of the isolates were identified as B. cereus. Thus, infections caused by Bacillus species in drug abusers can probably be associated with intravenous heroin abuse because heroin mixtures and injection paraphernalia are frequently contaminated with this organism. PMID:6803328

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Myophage Mater

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Jacob C.; Hodde, Mary K.; Hernandez, Adriana C.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a ubiquitous, soil inhabiting Gram-positive bacterium that is a common model organism and is used in industrial applications for protein production. The following reports the complete sequencing and annotation of the genome of B. megaterium myophage Mater and describes the major features identified. PMID:25593262

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Myophage Mater.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Jacob C; Hodde, Mary K; Hernandez, Adriana C; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a ubiquitous, soil inhabiting Gram-positive bacterium that is a common model organism and is used in industrial applications for protein production. The following reports the complete sequencing and annotation of the genome of B. megaterium myophage Mater and describes the major features identified. PMID:25593262

  14. Daptomycin: a novel lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Vogt, Ferdinand; Sodian, Ralf; Weis, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the historical background of drug resistance of Gram-positive pathogens as well as to describe in detail the novel lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic aspects are reviewed and the current clinical use of daptomycin is presented. Daptomycin seems to be a reliable drug in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, infective right-sided endocarditis, and bacteremia caused by Gram-positive agents. Its unique mechanism of action and its low resistance profile, together with its rapid bactericidal action make it a favorable alternative to vancomycin in multi-drug resistant cocci. The role of daptomycin in the treatment of prosthetic material infections, osteomyelitis, and urogenital infections needs to be evaluated in randomized clinical trials. PMID:21694898

  15. Conjugative type IV secretion systems in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Arends, Karsten; Keller, Walter; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation presents the most important means to spread antibiotic resistance and virulence factors among closely and distantly related bacteria. Conjugative plasmids are the mobile genetic elements mainly responsible for this task. All the genetic information required for the horizontal transmission is encoded on the conjugative plasmids themselves. Two distinct concepts for horizontal plasmid transfer in Gram-positive bacteria exist, the most prominent one transports single stranded plasmid DNA via a multi-protein complex, termed type IV secretion system, across the Gram-positive cell envelope. Type IV secretion systems have been found in virtually all unicellular Gram-positive bacteria, whereas multicellular Streptomycetes seem to have developed a specialized system more closely related to the machinery involved in bacterial cell division and sporulation, which transports double stranded DNA from donor to recipient cells. This review intends to summarize the state of the art of prototype systems belonging to the two distinct concepts; it focuses on protein key players identified so far and gives future directions for research in this emerging field of promiscuous interbacterial transport. PMID:24129002

  16. Comparative genomics of the methionine metabolism in Gram-positive bacteria: a variety of regulatory systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Vitreschak, Alexey G.; Mironov, Andrey A.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2004-01-01

    Regulation of the methionine biosynthesis and transport genes in bacteria is rather diverse and involves two RNA-level regulatory systems and at least three DNA-level systems. In particular, the methionine metabolism in Gram-positive bacteria was known to be controlled by the S-box and T-box mechanisms, both acting on the level of premature termination of transcription. Using comparative analysis of genes, operons and regulatory elements, we described the methionine metabolic pathway and the methionine regulons in available genomes of Gram-positive bacteria. A large number of methionine-specific RNA elements were identified. S-boxes were shown to be widely distributed in Bacillales and Clostridia, whereas methionine-specific T-boxes occurred mostly in Lactobacillales. A candidate binding signal (MET-box) for a hypothetical methionine regulator, possibly MtaR, was identified in Streptococcaceae, the only family in the Bacillus/Clostridium group of Gram-positive bacteria having neither S-boxes, nor methionine-specific T-boxes. Positional analysis of methionine-specific regulatory sites complemented by genome context analysis lead to identification of new members of the methionine regulon, both enzymes and transporters, and reconstruction of the methionine metabolism in various bacterial genomes. In particular, we found candidate transporters for methionine (MetT) and methylthioribose (MtnABC), as well as new enzymes forming the S-adenosylmethionine recycling pathway. Methionine biosynthetic enzymes in various bacterial species are quite variable. In particular, Oceanobacillus iheyensis possibly uses a homolog of the betaine–homocysteine methyltransferase bhmT gene from vertebrates to substitute missing bacterial-type methionine synthases. PMID:15215334

  17. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits the Effects of Gram Positive Select Agents on Eukaryotic Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2008-01-01

    Many exotoxins of gram positive bacteria, such as superantigens (staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 [TSST-1], and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins) and anthrax toxin are bioterrorism agents that cause diseases by immunostimulation or cytotoxicity. Glycerol monolaurate (GML), a fatty acid monoester found naturally in humans, has been reported to prevent synthesis of gram positive bacterial exotoxins. This study explored the ability of GML to inhibit the effects of exotoxins on mammalian cells and prevent rabbit lethality from TSS. GML (?10 ug/ml) inhibited superantigen (5 ug/ml) immunoproliferation, as determined by inhibition of 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (1 × 106 cells/ml) as well as phospholipase C?1, suggesting inhibition of signal transduction. The compound (20 ug/ml) prevented superantigen (100 ug/ml) induced cytokine secretion by human vaginal epithelial cells (HVECs) as measured by ELISA. GML (250 ug) inhibited rabbit lethality due to TSST-1 administered vaginally. GML (10 ug/ml) inhibited HVEC and macrophage cytotoxicity by anthrax toxin, prevented erythrocyte lysis by purified hemolysins (staphylococcal ? and ?) and culture fluids containing streptococcal and Bacillus anthracis hemolysins, and was non-toxic to mammalian cells (up to 100 ug/ml) and rabbits (250 ug). GML stabilized mammalian cell membranes, as erythrocyte lysis was reduced in the presence of hypotonic aqueous solutions (0 to 0.05 M saline) or staphylococcal ? and ?-hemolysins when erythrocytes were pretreated with GML. GML may be useful in management of gram positive exotoxin illnesses; its action appears to be membrane stabilization with inhibition of signal transduction. PMID:16475828

  18. Acyl-sulfamates Target the Essential Glycerol-Phosphate Acyltransferase (PlsY) in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Philip; Yao, Jiangwei; Leonardi, Roberta; Maddox, Marcus M.; Luna, Vicki A.; Rock, Charles O.; Lee, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    PlsY is the essential first step in membrane phospholipid synthesis of Gram-positive pathogens. PlsY catalyzes the transfer of the fatty acid from acyl-phosphate to the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the first intermediate in membrane biogenesis. A series of non-metabolizable, acyl-sulfamate analogs of the acyl-phosphate PlsY substrate were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus PlsY and for their Gram-positive antibacterial activities. From this series phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate had the best overall profile, selectively inhibiting S. aureus phospholipid biosynthesis and causing the accumulation of both long-chain fatty acids and acyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates demonstrating that PlsY was the primary cellular target. Bacillus anthracis was unique in being more potently inhibited by long chain acyl-sulfamates than other bacterial species. However, it is shown that Bacillus anthracis PlsY is not more sensitive to the acyl-sulfamates than S. aureus PlsY. Metabolic profiling showed that B. anthracis growth inhibition by the acyl-sulfamates was not specific for lipid synthesis illustrating that the amphipathic acyl-sulfamates can also have off-target effects in Gram-positive bacteria. Nonetheless, this study further advances PlsY as a druggable target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics, through the discovery and validation of the probe compound phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate as a S. aureus PlsY inhibitor. PMID:22795901

  19. Isolation and characterization of four novel Gram-positive bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of two endemorelict plants capable of degrading a broad range of aromatic substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lidija Djokic; Tanja Narancic; Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic; Miloje Savic; Branka Vasiljevic

    2011-01-01

    Four new Gram-positive, phenol-degrading strains were isolated from the rhizospheres of endemorelict plants Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae known to exude high amounts of phenolics in the soil. Isolates were designated Bacillus sp. PS1, Bacillus sp. PS11, Streptomyces sp. PS12, and Streptomyces sp. PN1 based on 16S rDNA sequence and biochemical analysis. In addition to their ability to tolerate and

  20. Oritavancin - a new semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide agent to tackle the challenge of resistant gram positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswadeep; Sarkar, Chayna; Schachter, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Natural glycopeptide antibiotics like vancomycin and teicoplanin have played a significant role in countering the threat posed by Gram-positive bacterial infections. The emergence of resistance to glycopeptides among enterococci and staphylococci has prompted the search for second-generation drugs of this class and semi-synthetic derivatives are currently under clinical trials. Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive organisms has been increasing steadily during the past several decades and the current development of antibiotics falls short of meeting the needs. Oritavancin (LY-333328 diphosphate), a promising novel second-generation semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide, has a mechanism of action similar to that of other glycopeptides. It has concentration-dependent activity against a variety of Gram-positive organisms specially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), Streptococcus pneumoniae and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. It is rapidly bactericidal against many species and in particular for enterococci where vancomycin and teicoplanin are only bacteriostatic even against susceptible strains. The pharmacokinetic profile of oritavancin has not been fully described; however, oritavancin has a long half-life of about 195.4 hours and is slowly eliminated by renal means. Oritavancin is not metabolized by the liver in animals. Oritavancin will most probably be prescribed as a once-daily dose and it demonstrates concentration-dependent bactericidal activity. Oritavancin has demonstrated preliminary safety and efficacy in Phase I and II clinical trials. In a Phase III clinical trial, oritavancin has achieved the primary efficacy end point in the treatment of complicated Gram-positive skin and skin-structure infections. To date, adverse events have been mild and limited; the most common being administration site complaints, headache, rhinitis, dry skin, pain, increases in liver transaminases and accumulation of free cholesterol and phospholipids in phagocytic (macrophages) and nonphagocytic (fibroblast) cells. Oritavancin appears to be a promising antimicrobial alternative to vancomycin (with additional activity against Staphylococcus and Enterococcus resistant to vancomycin) for the treatment of complicated Gram-positive skin and skin-structure infections. Additional clinical data are required to fully explore its use. PMID:24035967

  1. Current and novel antibiotics against resistant Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Salata, Robert A; Bonomo, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    The challenge posed by resistance among Gram-positive bacteria, epitomized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and vancomycin-intermediate and -resistant S. aureus (VISA and VRSA) is being met by a new generation of antimicrobials. This review focuses on the new ?-lactams with activity against MRSA (ceftobiprole and ceftaroline) and on the new glycopeptides (oritavancin, dalbavancin, and telavancin). It will also consider the role of vancomycin in an era of existing alternatives such as linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline. Finally, compounds in early development are described, such as iclaprim, friulimicin, and retapamulin, among others. PMID:21694878

  2. Fate study of water-borne gram positive vegetative bacterial cells with Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason; Tripathi, Ashish; Minter, Jennifer; Wilcox, Phillip; Christesen, Steven

    2010-04-01

    We present an initial bacterial fate study of Gram positive vegetative cells suspended in water and stored at ambient room temperature via Raman spectroscopy monitoring. Two types of cells were considered for this study: vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis which contain the polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHBA) as an energy storage compound and Bacillus subtlilis cells which do not. The cells were cultured specifically for this project. Immediately following the culturing phase, the bacteria were extracted, cleaned and at the onset of the study were suspended in de-ionized water and stored at room temperature. Aliquots of suspensions were deposited onto aluminum slides at different times and allowed to dry for Raman analysis. Spectra from multiple regions of each dried spot and each deposit time were acquired along with the bright-field and fluorescence images. Results were examined to investigate the effect of suspension time on the spectral signatures as well as the fate behavior of the three types of cells investigated. The cells were monitored daily for over a 14 period during which time the onset of starvation induced sporulation was observed.

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum gene clusters encoding putative cell-surface protein complexes for carbohydrate utilization are conserved in specific gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Siezen, Roland; Boekhorst, Jos; Muscariello, Lidia; Molenaar, Douwe; Renckens, Bernadet; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2006-01-01

    Background Genomes of gram-positive bacteria encode many putative cell-surface proteins, of which the majority has no known function. From the rapidly increasing number of available genome sequences it has become apparent that many cell-surface proteins are conserved, and frequently encoded in gene clusters or operons, suggesting common functions, and interactions of multiple components. Results A novel gene cluster encoding exclusively cell-surface proteins was identified, which is conserved in a subgroup of gram-positive bacteria. Each gene cluster generally has one copy of four new gene families called cscA, cscB, cscC and cscD. Clusters encoding these cell-surface proteins were found only in complete genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis and Bacillus cereus and in incomplete genomes of L. lactis ssp cremoris, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillius brevis, Oenococcus oeni, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus thuringiensis. These genes are neither present in the genomes of streptococci, staphylococci and clostridia, nor in the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, suggesting a niche-specific distribution, possibly relating to association with plants. All encoded proteins have a signal peptide for secretion by the Sec-dependent pathway, while some have cell-surface anchors, novel WxL domains, and putative domains for sugar binding and degradation. Transcriptome analysis in L. plantarum shows that the cscA-D genes are co-expressed, supporting their operon organization. Many gene clusters are significantly up-regulated in a glucose-grown, ccpA-mutant derivative of L. plantarum, suggesting catabolite control. This is supported by the presence of predicted CRE-sites upstream or inside the up-regulated cscA-D gene clusters. Conclusion We propose that the CscA, CscB, CscC and CscD proteins form cell-surface protein complexes and play a role in carbon source acquisition. Primary occurrence in plant-associated gram-positive bacteria suggests a possible role in degradation and utilization of plant oligo- or poly-saccharides. PMID:16723015

  4. Gram-positive cocci isolated from slaughtered poultry.

    PubMed

    Turtura, G C; Lorenzelli, P

    1994-06-01

    Gram-positive cocci were found in all meat samples of poultry slaughtered and processed for retail sale, at incidence rates ranging from 10(2) CFU/ml to 1.35 x 10(6) CFU/ml and a mode between 8 x 10(5) and 9 x 10(5) CFU/ml for 75% of the samples. The 93 isolated strains were identified as belonging to the following species: Enterococcus faecalis (48 strains), E. faecium (16), E. avium (7), E. durans (4), Aerococcus viridans (10), Streptococcus morbillorum (2), S. salivarius (1), S. sanguis (1), S. "milleri" (1), S. pneumoniae (1), S. acidominimus (1), and Gemella haemolysans (1). These species, which mainly colonize the intestinal tract, but may also be found in other parts of both the human and animal body, are pathogens or potentially such. Their presence is an indication of the fecal contamination of meat processed following gutting of slaughtered chickens (endogenous contamination). A count of the Gram-positive cocci and enterobacteria detected showed that enterococci were present in a far greater number than coliform bacteria. PMID:7921897

  5. Acquired inducible antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chancey, Scott T; Zähner, Dorothea; Stephens, David S

    2012-08-01

    A major contributor to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is the expansion of acquired, inducible genetic elements. Although acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance is not new, the interest in its molecular basis has been accelerated by the widening distribution and often 'silent' spread of the elements responsible, the diagnostic challenges of such resistance and the mounting limitations of available agents to treat Gram-positive infections. Acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance elements belong to the accessory genome of a species and are horizontally acquired by transformation/recombination or through the transfer of mobile DNA elements. The two key, but mechanistically very different, induction mechanisms are: ribosome-sensed induction, characteristic of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics and tetracycline resistance, leading to ribosomal modifications or efflux pump activation; and resistance by cell surface-associated sensing of ?-lactams (e.g., oxacillin), glycopeptides (e.g., vancomycin) and the polypeptide bacitracin, leading to drug inactivation or resistance due to cell wall alterations. PMID:22913355

  6. SubtiWiki--a comprehensive community resource for the model organism Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Mäder, Ulrike; Schmeisky, Arne G; Flórez, Lope A; Stülke, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, most components of a cell are known and they can be quantified by large-scale functional genomics approaches. However, genome annotation is the bottleneck that hampers our understanding of living cells and organisms. Up-to-date functional annotation is of special importance for model organisms that provide a frame of reference for studies with other relevant organisms. We have generated a Wiki-type database for the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis, SubtiWiki (http://subtiwiki.uni-goettingen.de/). This Wiki is centered around the individual genes and gene products of B. subtilis and provides information on each aspect of gene function and expression as well as protein activity and its control. SubtiWiki is accompanied by two companion databases SubtiPathways and SubtInteract that provide graphical representations of B. subtilis metabolism and its regulation and of protein-protein interactions, respectively. The diagrams of both databases are easily navigatable using the popular Google maps API, and they are extensively linked with the SubtiWiki gene pages. Moreover, each gene/gene product was assigned to one or more functional categories and transcription factor regulons. Pages for the specific categories and regulons provide a rapid overview of functionally related genes/proteins. Today, SubtiWiki can be regarded as one of the most complete inventories of knowledge on a living organism in one single resource. PMID:22096228

  7. Nonsporing, anaerobic, gram-positive rods in saliva and the gingival crevice of humans.

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, B; Russell, C

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative examination of anaerobically isolated flora of the gingival crevice and saliva was carried out. It was found that half the organisms were anaerobes and that there were twice as many gram-positive organisms as there were gram-negative ones. Rods were predominant in the gingival crevice (60.5%) and cocci in saliva (69.1%). Of the total organisms, nonsporing, gram-positive anaerobic rods accounted for 24% in the gingival crevice and 9.7% in saliva. These organisms were characterized on the basis of the type of fatty acids produced from glucose and various biochemical reactions. They belonged to the following genera: Actinomyces, Propionibacterium, Arachnia, Lactobacillus, Eubacterium, and Bifidobacterium. Bifidobacteria were present only in saliva. Although members of the other genera were present both in the gingival crevice and saliva, there were considerable differences in the proportion of any particular organism (in relation to the total anaerobic viable count) between the two sites. The result of this study also indicates a greater than previously appreciated level of Propionibacterium and Arachnia in the human mouth. PMID:646354

  8. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis are micro organisms found in soil. Normally, only their spores are found in soil. We

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Abstract Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis are micro organisms found in soil. Normally, only anthracis spore preparation was done. C. elegans growth inhibition by Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus their spores are found in soil. We recently showed that, B. anthracis and B. cereus do not germinate in soil

  9. Telavancin: an antimicrobial with a multifunctional mechanism of action for the treatment of serious gram-positive infections.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Steven N; Rybak, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Telavancin is a once-daily lipoglycopeptide antibiotic structurally derived from vancomycin. It has broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive bacteria, including strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Telavancin's multifunctional mechanism of action, including inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis and disruption of membrane potential, account for this enhanced activity as well as rapid bactericidal properties. In vitro activity has been demonstrated against a wide range of gram-positive pathogens such as multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as methicillin-resistant, glycopeptide-intermediate, and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The agent also displays activity against many gram-positive anaerobic organisms. Predictable linear pharmacokinetics have been demonstrated over a wide range of doses, with the most common adverse effects being taste disturbance and nausea. Clinical experience with telavancin in phase II and III studies for complicated skin and skin structure infections has shown it to have similar efficacy and tolerability compared with vancomycin and antistaphylococcal penicillins, and recently telavancin received an approvable letter from the United States Food and Drug Administration for this indication. Telavancin appears to be a promising agent for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-positive pathogens, including drug-resistant pathogens. Further clinical experience will clarify its role in therapy. PMID:18363530

  10. Recent developments in understanding the iron acquisition strategies of gram positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Jessica R; Heinrichs, David E

    2015-07-01

    Iron is a versatile redox-active catalyst and a required cofactor within a diverse array of biological processes. To almost all organisms, iron is both essential and potentially toxic, where homeostatic concentrations must be stringently maintained. Within the iron-restricted host, the survival and proliferation of microbial invaders is contingent upon exploiting the host iron pool. Bacteria express a multitude of complex, and often redundant means of acquiring iron, including surface-associated heme-uptake pathways, high affinity iron-scavenging siderophores and transporters of free inorganic iron. Within the last decade, our understanding of iron acquisition by Gram-positive pathogens has expanded substantively, from the discovery of the iron-regulated surface-determinant pathway and numerous unique siderophores through to the detailed elucidation of heme-iron extraction, and heme and siderophore coordination and transfer. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the iron acquisition strategies of notorious Gram-positive pathogens and highlights how both conserved and distinct tactics for acquiring iron contribute to the pathophysiology of these bacteria. Further, a focus on recent structural and mechanistic studies details how these iron acquisition systems may be exploited in the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25862688

  11. Anaerobic naphthalene degradation by Gram-positive, iron-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kleemann, Rita; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2011-12-01

    An anaerobic naphthalene-degrading culture (N49) was enriched with ferric iron as electron acceptor. A closed electron balance indicated the total oxidation of naphthalene to CO(2). In all growing cultures, the concentration of the presumed central metabolite of naphthalene degradation, 2-naphthoic acid, increased concomitantly with growth. The first metabolite of anaerobic methylnaphthalene degradation, naphthyl-2-methyl-succinic acid, was not identified in culture supernatants, which does not support a methylation to methylnaphthalene as the initial activation reaction of naphthalene, but rather a carboxylation, as proposed for other naphthalene-degrading cultures. Substrate utilization tests revealed that the culture was able to grow on 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, 1-naphthoic acid or 2-naphthoic acid, whereas it did not grow on 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, anthracene, phenanthrene, indane and indene. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the microbial community of the culture was dominated by one bacterial microorganism, which was closely related (99% 16S sequence similarity) to the major organism in the iron-reducing, benzene-degrading enrichment culture BF [ISME J (2007) 1: 643; Int J Syst Evol Microbiol (2010) 60: 686]. The phylogenetic classification supports a new candidate species and genus of Gram-positive spore-forming iron-reducers that can degrade non-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons. It furthermore indicates that Gram-positive microorganisms might also play an important role in anaerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degradation. PMID:22066721

  12. In vivo transfer of genetic information between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Trieu-Cuot, P; Gerbaud, G; Lambert, T; Courvalin, P

    1985-01-01

    A 1427-bp DNA fragment containing the kanamycin resistance gene, aphA-3, of plasmid pIP1433 from Campylobacter coli was inserted into a shuttle vector. Full expression of aphA-3 was obtained in Bacillus subtilis and in Escherichia coli. This DNA fragment was sequenced in its entirety and the starting point for aphA-3 transcription in B. subtilis, C. coli and E. coli was determined by S1 nuclease mapping. The sequence of the promoter consists of the hexanucleotides TTGACA and TATAAT, with a spacing of 17 bp. The nucleotide sequence of the aphA-3 gene from C. coli and from the streptococcal plasmid pJH1 are identical whereas they differ by two substitutions and deletion of a codon from that cloned from the staphylococcal plasmid pSH2. These results indicate a recent extension of the resistant gene pool of Gram-positive cocci to Gram-negative bacilli. From an analysis of the DNA sequences surrounding the promoter region, we concluded that the DNA fragment containing the aphA-3 gene in plasmid pJH1 has evolved by deletions from a sequence similar to that found in plasmid pIP1433. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3937729

  13. Genetic features of circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maqueda, Mercedes; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Fernández, Matilde; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This review highlights the main genetic features of circular bacteriocins, which require the co-ordinated expression of several genetic determinants. In general terms, it has been demonstrated that the expression of such structural genes must be combined with the activity of proteins involved in maturation (cleavage/circularization) and secretion outside the cell via different transporter systems, as well as multifaceted immunity mechanisms essential to ensuring the bacteria's self-protection against such strong inhibitors. Several circular antibacterial peptides produced by Gram-positive bacteria have been described to date, including enterocin AS-48, from Enterococcus faecalis S-48 (the first one characterized), gassericin A, from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, and a similar one, reutericin 6, from Lactobacillus reuteri LA6, butyrivibriocin AR10, from the ruminal anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens AR10, uberolysin, from Streptococcus uberis, circularin A, from Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC 25752, and subtilosin A, from Bacillus subtilis. We summarize here the progress made in the understanding of their principal genetic features over the last few years, during which the functional roles of circular proteins with wide biological activity have become clearer. PMID:18034824

  14. Mutactimycin E, a new anthracycline antibiotic with gram-positive activity.

    PubMed

    Hopp, D Craig; Rabenstein, John; Rhea, Joshua; Smith, Chris; Romari, Khadidja; Clarke, Midori; Francis, Linda; Irigoyen, Macarena; Milanowski, Dennis; Luche, Michele; Carr, Grant J; Mocek, Ulla

    2008-11-01

    Resistance to currently available antibiotics has become a widely recognized crisis in the medical community. To address this, many companies and researchers are refocusing their attention towards natural products, which have an excellent track record of producing effective antibacterial drugs. The AMRI natural product library was screened for activity against multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA). The active samples were counter screened for cytotoxicity against the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line to determine an in vitro therapeutic index (in vitro TI). Those samples with a high in vitro TI were selected for fractionation and dereplication. This led to the discovery of a new anthracycline structure. This metabolite, named mutactimycin E (1), exhibited moderate activity against several gram positive organisms. Here we report the isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities of this new compound. PMID:19168982

  15. Diversity and abundance of Gram positive bacteria in a tidal flat ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Stevens; Thorsten Brinkhoff; Beate Rink; John Vollmers; Meinhard Simon

    2007-01-01

    Summary Gram positive bacteria recently have been identified as important components of freshwater ecosystems and are also present in marine environments. However, their quantitative significance and possible role in the latter systems is still little studied, in par- ticular in coastal regions. Therefore, we investigated the abundance and composition of Gram positive bacteria in the Wadden Sea, a tidal flat

  16. Identification of Surprisingly Diverse Type IV Pili, across a Broad Range of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Identification of Surprisingly Diverse Type IV Pili, across a Broad Range of Gram-Positive Bacteria, Pennsylvania, United States of America Abstract Background: In Gram-negative bacteria, type IV pili (TFP) have apparent that Gram-positive bacteria also express type IV pili; however, little is known about

  17. The unique regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in a Gram-positive bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joana A.; Alonso-García, Noelia; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters function as cofactors of a wide range of proteins, with diverse molecular roles in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Dedicated machineries assemble the clusters and deliver them to the final acceptor molecules in a tightly regulated process. In the prototypical Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, the two existing iron-sulfur cluster assembly systems, iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) and sulfur assimilation (SUF) pathways, are closely interconnected. The ISC pathway regulator, IscR, is a transcription factor of the helix-turn-helix type that can coordinate a [2Fe-2S] cluster. Redox conditions and iron or sulfur availability modulate the ligation status of the labile IscR cluster, which in turn determines a switch in DNA sequence specificity of the regulator: cluster-containing IscR can bind to a family of gene promoters (type-1) whereas the clusterless form recognizes only a second group of sequences (type-2). However, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria is not so well characterized, and most organisms of this group display only one of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly systems. A notable exception is the unique Gram-positive dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Thermincola potens, where genes from both systems could be identified, albeit with a diverging organization from that of Gram-negative bacteria. We demonstrated that one of these genes encodes a functional IscR homolog and is likely involved in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in T. potens. Structural and biochemical characterization of T. potens and E. coli IscR revealed a strikingly similar architecture and unveiled an unforeseen conservation of the unique mechanism of sequence discrimination characteristic of this distinctive group of transcription regulators. PMID:24847070

  18. Mechanism of action of recombinant acc-royalisin from royal jelly of Asian honeybee against gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lirong; Liu, Dandan; Li, Meilu; Jin, Feng; Din, Meihui; Parnell, Laurence D; Lai, Chao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of royalisin, an antimicrobial peptide from the royal jelly produced by honeybees, has been addressed extensively. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a recombinant royalisin, RAcc-royalisin from the royal jelly of Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana, was expressed by fusing with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli BL21, isolated and purified. The agar dilution assays with inhibition zone showed that RAcc-royalisin, similar to nisin, inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin was associated with its concentration, and was weakened by heat treatment ranging from 55°C to 85°C for 15 min. Both RAcc-royalisin and nisin exhibited the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 62.5 µg/ml, 125 µg/ml, and 250 µg/ml against Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus flavus and Staphyloccocus aureus in the microplate assay, respectively. However, RAcc-royalisin did not show antimicrobial activity against tested Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin agrees well with the decrease in bacterial cell hydrophobicity, the leakage of 260-nm absorbing materials, and the observation by transmission electron microscopy, all indicating that RAcc-royalisin induced the disruption and dysfunction of cell walls and membranes. This is the first report detailing the antibacterial mechanism of royalisin against Gram-positive bacteria, and provides insight into the application of recombinant royalisin in food and pharmaceutical industries as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:23056609

  19. Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Ameer; Ahmed, Arham S; Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad S; Habib, Sami S; Memic, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods and results Nanosized particles of three metal oxides (ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3) were synthesized by a sol–gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. The particle sizes were observed to be 18, 22, and 28 nm for ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3, respectively. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Conclusion Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. The order of antibacterial activity was demonstrated to be the following: ZnO > CuO > Fe2O3. PMID:23233805

  20. Crystal structure of a DNA polymerase sliding clamp from a Gram-positive bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Argiriadi, Maria A; Goedken, Eric R; Bruck, Irina; O'Donnell, Mike; Kuriyan, John

    2006-01-01

    Background Sliding DNA clamps are processivity factors that are required for efficient DNA replication. DNA polymerases maintain proximity to nucleic acid templates by interacting with sliding clamps that encircle DNA and thereby link the polymerase enzyme to the DNA substrate. Although the structures of sliding clamps from Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), eukaryotes, archaea, and T4-like bacteriophages are well-known, the structure of a sliding clamp from Gram-positive bacteria has not been reported previously. Results We have determined the crystal structure of the dimeric ? subunit of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes. The sliding clamp from this Gram-positive organism forms a ring-shaped dimeric assembly that is similar in overall structure to that of the sliding clamps from Gram-negative bacteria, bacteriophage T4, eukaryotes and archaea. The dimer has overall dimensions of ~90 Ĺ × ~70 Ĺ × ~25 Ĺ with a central chamber that is large enough to accommodate duplex DNA. In comparison to the circular shape of other assemblies, the S. pyogenes clamp adopts a more elliptical structure. Conclusion The sequences of sliding clamps from S. pyogenes and E. coli are only 23% identical, making the generation of structural models for the S. pyogenes clamp difficult in the absence of direct experimental information. Our structure of the S. pyogenes ? subunit completes the catalog of clamp structures from all the major sequence grouping of sliding clamps. The more elliptical rather than circular structure of the S. pyogenes clamp implies that the topological nature of encircling DNA, rather than a precise geometric shape, is the most conserved aspect for this family of proteins. PMID:16403212

  1. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řkstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstř, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  2. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Daniels, Dwayne; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50? ? L leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3?mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0?mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  3. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50??L leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3?mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0?mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  4. A Toll-Like Receptor 2-Responsive Lipid Effector Pathway Protects Mammals against Skin Infections with Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Georgel, Philippe; Crozat, Karine; Lauth, Xavier; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Seltmann, Holger; Sovath, Sosathya; Hoebe, Kasper; Du, Xin; Rutschmann, Sophie; Jiang, Zhengfan; Bigby, Timothy; Nizet, Victor; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Beutler, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    flake (flk), an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced recessive germ line mutation of C57BL/6 mice, impairs the clearance of skin infections by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, gram-positive pathogens that elicit innate immune responses by activating Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) (K. Takeda and S. Akira, Cell. Microbiol. 5:143-153, 2003). Positional cloning and sequencing revealed that flk is a novel allele of the stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 gene (Scd1). flake homozygotes show reduced sebum production and are unable to synthesize the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) palmitoleate (C16:1) and oleate (C18:1), both of which are bactericidal against gram-positive (but not gram-negative) organisms in vitro. However, intradermal MUFA administration to S. aureus-infected mice partially rescues the flake phenotype, which indicates that an additional component of the sebum may be required to improve bacterial clearance. In normal mice, transcription of Scd1—a gene with numerous NF-?B elements in its promoter—is strongly and specifically induced by TLR2 signaling. Similarly, the SCD1 gene is induced by TLR2 signaling in a human sebocyte cell line. These observations reveal the existence of a regulated, lipid-based antimicrobial effector pathway in mammals and suggest new approaches to the treatment or prevention of infections with gram-positive bacteria. PMID:16040962

  5. The resemblance of clinical attributes between mastitic cows with no growth on bacterial milk cultures and those with gram-positive bacteria cultured.

    PubMed Central

    White, M E; Montgomery, M E

    1987-01-01

    The clinical attributes of 40 dairy cows which had mastitis but no growth of bacteria from the milk were analyzed and compared to the attributes in 102 cows with only gram-positive and 61 cows with only gram-negative bacteria cultured from the milk. Cows with no bacteria cultured from the milk did not differ significantly from cows with gram-positive bacteria cultured, but 9 of 12 attributes were significantly different between cows with no bacteria cultured and cows with gram-negative bacteria cultured. Discriminant analysis was used to classify cows as members of the gram-positive or gram-negative culture groups. The discriminant equation was then applied to the cows with no bacteria cultured, and 78% of cows with no bacteria cultured were classified as members of the gram-positive group. Most mastitis in cows with no bacteria grown from the milk was probably due to gram-positive bacteria. If antibiotic therapy is used in cows with persistent mastitis and a negative culture in the belief that the culture is a false negative, treatment with antibiotics effective only against gram-negative organisms would not be appropriate. PMID:3300920

  6. Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff S. Han; Gary Xie; Jean F. Challacombe; Michael R. Altherr; Smriti S. Bhotika; N. Brown; Connie S. Campbell; M. L. Campbell; Olga Chertkov; Mira Dimitrijevic; N. A. Doggett; J. J. Fawcett; Lynne A. Goodwin; Penny Hitchcock; Paul J. Jackson; Avinash Ramesh Kewalramani; Jon Longmire; Kim McMurry; Linda J. Meincke; M. Misra; B. L. Moseman; Richard T. Okinaka; B. Parson-Quintana; Donna L. Robinson; P. Richardson; E. Rubin; E. Saunders; Nina Thayer; Linda S. Thompson; Patti L. Wills; L. O. Ticknor; T. S. Brettin; P. Gilna

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspic- uous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the

  7. Isolating "Unknown" Bacteria in the Introductory Microbiology Laboratory: A New Selective Medium for Gram-Positives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.; Drake, MaryAnne

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, preparation, and use of a medium that can select against a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria while still allowing growth and differentiation of a wide range of Gram-positives. (WRM)

  8. Efficacy of telavancin, a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, in experimental models of Gram-positive infection.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Sharath S; Janc, James W

    2014-12-01

    Telavancin is a parenteral lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with a dual mechanism of action contributing to bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. It has been approved for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections due to susceptible Gram-positive bacteria and hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus when other alternatives are unsuitable. Telavancin has been demonstrated to be efficacious in multiple animal models of soft tissue, cardiac, systemic, lung, bone, brain and device-associated infections involving clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus, heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and daptomycin non-susceptible methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The AUC0-24h/MIC ratio is the primary pharmacodynamically-linked pharmacokinetic parameter. The preclinical data for telavancin supports further investigative clinical evaluation of its efficacy in additional serious infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25382700

  9. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus massilioalgeriensis sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Bendjama, Esma; Loucif, Lotfi; Diene, Seydina M.; Michelle, Caroline; Gacemi-Kirane, Djamila; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Strain EB01T sp. nov. is the type strain of Bacillus massilioalgeriensis, a new species within the genus Bacillus. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from sediment sample of the hypersaline lake Ezzemoul sabkha in northeastern Algeria. B. massilioalgeriensis is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 5,269,577 bp long genome contains 5,098 protein-coding and 95 RNA genes, including 12 rRNA genes. PMID:25197482

  10. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus massilioalgeriensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Bendjama, Esma; Loucif, Lotfi; Diene, Seydina M; Michelle, Caroline; Gacemi-Kirane, Djamila; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2014-06-15

    Strain EB01(T) sp. nov. is the type strain of Bacillus massilioalgeriensis, a new species within the genus Bacillus. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from sediment sample of the hypersaline lake Ezzemoul sabkha in northeastern Algeria. B. massilioalgeriensis is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 5,269,577 bp long genome contains 5,098 protein-coding and 95 RNA genes, including 12 rRNA genes. PMID:25197482

  11. Quorum sensing by peptide pheromones and two component signal transduction systems in Gram-positive bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiel Kleerebezem; Luis E. N. Quadri; Oscar P. Kuipers; Willem M. de Vos

    1997-01-01

    Cell-density-dependent gene expression appears to be widely spread in bacteria. This quorum-sensing phenomenon has been well established in Gram-negative bacteria, where N-acyl homoserine lactones are the diffusible communication molecules that modulate cell-density-dependent phenotypes. Similarly, a variety of processes are known to be regulated in a cell-density- or growth-phase-dependent manner in Gram-positive bacteria. Examples of such quorum-sensing modes in Gram-positive bacteria

  12. Increased Serum Concentration of Soluble CD14 Is a Prognostic Marker in Gram-Positive Sepsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Burgmann; Stefan Winkler; Gottfried J. Locker; Elisabeth Presterl; Klaus Laczika; Thomas Staudinger; Sylvia Knapp; Florian Thalhammer; Christoph Wenisch; Konstantin Zedwitz-Liebenstein; Michael Frass; Wolfgang Graninger

    1996-01-01

    Increased serum sCD14 concentrations are associated with poor outcome in Gram-negative sepsis and trauma patients. In the present study serum sCD14 concentrations were measured in patients with Gram-positive sepsis and compared with Gram-negative septic and nonseptic intensive care unit patients. Furthermore, serum sCD14 concentration was correlated with patient's outcome. Serum samples of 28 Gram-positive (8 nonsurvivors\\/20 survivors) and 10 Gram-negative

  13. i Bsu1103: a new genome-scale metabolic model of Bacillus subtilis based on SEED annotations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S Henry; Jenifer F Zinner; Matthew P Cohoon; Rick L Stevens

    2009-01-01

    Background  \\u000a Bacillus subtilis is an organism of interest because of its extensive industrial applications, its similarity to pathogenic organisms, and\\u000a its role as the model organism for Gram-positive, sporulating bacteria. In this work, we introduce a new genome-scale metabolic\\u000a model of B. subtilis 168 called iBsu1103. This new model is based on the annotated B. subtilis 168 genome generated by

  14. Transport Capabilities of Eleven Gram-positive Bacteria: Comparative Genomic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lorca, Graciela L.; Barabote, Ravi D.; Zlotopolski, Vladimir; Tran, Can; Winnen, Brit; Hvorup, Rikki N.; Stonestrom, Aaron J.; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Huang, Li-Wen; Kim, David S.; Saier, Milton H.

    2007-01-01

    The genomes of eleven Gram-positive bacteria that are important for human health and the food industry, nine low G+C lactic acid bacteria and two high G+C Gram-positive organisms, were analyzed for their complement of genes encoding transport proteins. Thirteen to eighteen percent of their genes encode transport proteins, larger percentages than observed for most other bacteria. All of these bacteria possess channel proteins, some of which probably function to relieve osmotic stress. Amino acid uptake systems predominate over sugar and peptide cation symporters, and of the sugar uptake porters, those specific for oligosaccharides and glycosides often outnumber those for free sugars. About 10% of the total transport proteins are constituents of putative multidrug efflux pumps with Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS)-type pumps (55%) being more prevalent than ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type pumps (33%), which, however, usually greatly outnumber all other types. An exception to this generalization is Streptococcus thermophilus with 54% of its drug efflux pumps belonging to the ABC superfamily and 23% belonging each to the Multidrug/Oligosaccharide/Polysaccharide (MOP) superfamily and the MFS. These bacteria also display peptide efflux pumps that may function in intercellular signalling, and macromolecular efflux pumps, many of predictable specificities. Most of the bacteria analyzed have no pmf-coupled or transmembrane flow electron carriers. The one exception is Brevibacterium linens, which in addition to these carriers, also has transporters of several families not represented in the other ten bacteria examined. Comparisons with the genomes of organisms from other bacterial kingdoms revealed that lactic acid bacteria possess distinctive proportions of recognized transporter types (e.g., more porters specific for glycosides than reducing sugars). Some homologues of transporters identified had previously been identified only in Gram-negative bacteria or in eukaryotes. Our studies reveal unique characteristics of the lactic acid bacteria such as the universal presence of genes encoding mechanosensitive channels, competence systems and large numbers of sugar transporters of the phosphotransferase system. The analyses lead to important physiological predictions regarding the preferred signalling and metabolic activities of these industrially important bacteria. PMID:17490609

  15. Investigating lipoprotein biogenesis and function in the model Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolormmi_7261 943..957

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Tracy

    Investigating lipoprotein biogenesis and function in the model Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces the lipid- modified cysteine at the N-terminus of the mature lipoprotein. In all Gram-positive bacteria of the cyto- plasmic membrane. Here we identify lipoproteins in the model Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces

  16. Experimental fossilisation of the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus SP7A: a long duration preservation study.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental fossilisation of the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus SP7A: a long of fossilised microbes in recent and ancient rocks, we experimentally silicified a Gram-positive bacterium of Gram-positive bacteria was extremely rapid, thus allowing very good preservation of Geobacillus SP7A

  17. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test for Rapid Detection of Bacteria and Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Wojewoda, Christina M.; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S.; Procop, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results. PMID:23596240

  18. Metabolic basis for the differential susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens to fatty acid synthesis inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Joshua B.; Frank, Matthew W.; Subramanian, Chitra; Saenkham, Panatda; Rock, Charles O.

    2011-01-01

    The rationale for the pursuit of bacterial type 2 fatty acid synthesis (FASII) as a target for antibacterial drug discovery in Gram-positive organisms is being debated vigorously based on their ability to incorporate extracellular fatty acids. The regulation of FASII by extracellular fatty acids was examined in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, representing two important groups of pathogens. Both bacteria use the same enzymatic tool kit for the conversion of extracellular fatty acids to acyl-acyl carrier protein, elongation, and incorporation into phospholipids. Exogenous fatty acids completely replace the endogenous fatty acids in S. pneumoniae but support only 50% of phospholipid synthesis in S. aureus. Fatty acids overcame FASII inhibition in S. pneumoniae but not in S. aureus. Extracellular fatty acids strongly suppress malonyl-CoA levels in S. pneumoniae but not in S. aureus, showing a feedback regulatory system in S. pneumoniae that is absent in S. aureus. Fatty acids overcame either a biochemical or a genetic block at acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in S. aureus, confirming that regulation at the ACC step is the key difference between these two species. Bacteria that possess a stringent biochemical feedback inhibition of ACC and malonyl-CoA formation triggered by environmental fatty acids are able to circumvent FASII inhibition. However, if exogenous fatty acids do not suppress malonyl-CoA formation, FASII inhibitors remain effective in the presence of fatty acid supplements. PMID:21876172

  19. Gram Positive Bacterial Superantigen Outside-In Signaling Causes Toxic Shock Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci) are gram-positive pathogens capable of producing a variety of bacterial exotoxins known as superantigens. Superantigens interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells to induce T cell proliferation and massive cytokine production, which leads to fever, rash, capillary leak, and subsequent hypotension, the major symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Both S. aureus and group A streptococci colonize mucosal surfaces, including the anterior nares and vagina for S. aureus, and the oropharynx and less commonly the vagina for group A streptococci. However, due to their abilities to secrete a variety of virulence factors, the organisms can also cause illnesses from the mucosa. This review provides an updated discussion of the biochemical and structural features of one group of secreted virulence factors, the staphylococcal and group A streptococcal superantigens, and their abilities to cause toxic shock syndrome from a mucosal surface. The main focus of this review, however, is the abilities of superantigens to induce cytokines and chemokines from epithelial cells, which has been linked to a dodecapeptide region that is relatively conserved among all superantigens and is distinct from the binding sites required for interactions with APCs and T cells. This phenomenon, termed outside-in signaling, acts to recruit adaptive immune cells to the submucosa, where the superantigens can then interact with those cells to initiate the final cytokine cascades that lead to toxic shock syndrome. PMID:21535475

  20. Antimicrobial activity of fusidic acid and disk diffusion susceptibility testing criteria for gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed Central

    Toma, E; Barriault, D

    1995-01-01

    The in vitro activity of fusidic acid was assessed and was compared with those of cloxacillin, cefamandole, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, and fleroxacin against 500 gram-positive cocci: 151 Staphylococcus aureus, 197 coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 152 Enterococcus faecalis strains. All clinical isolates were concomitantly tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution procedures as outlined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The results with fusidic acid were further analyzed by regression line and error rate-bounded methods. With control American Type Culture Collection organisms, the values were within the limits of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards or published limits. The incidence of resistance to fusidic acid was 0.7% for S. aureus, 2.5% for coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 99.3% for E. faecalis. The correlation coefficient between the results of disk diffusion and agar dilution tests with fusidic acid was 0.90. Current interpretive criteria for susceptibility to fusidic acid (i.e., MIC of < 2 micrograms/ml and inhibitory zone of 20 mm) gave 1% false susceptibility (all strains being E. faecalis). This error rate is practically eliminated if a zone diameter of 21 mm is considered the breakpoint for susceptibility. PMID:7665633

  1. In-vitro activity of RP 59500, a new semisynthetic streptogramin antibiotic, against gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brumfitt, W; Hamilton-Miller, J M; Shah, S

    1992-07-01

    A study of the in-vitro activity of RP 59500, a semisynthetic derivative of pristinamycin, against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including erythromycin-resistant strains was undertaken. MICs were determined by plate dilution in IsoSensitest agar and MBCs by velvet pad replication. RP 59500 was found to have in-vitro activity almost identical to that of its parent compound, pristinamycin. Sixty methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 60 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) were found to be sensitive to RP 59500, with MICs of 0.13-1 mg/L. All the MSSA and most MRSA showed an MBC less than 2 mg/L. Erythromycin-resistant S. aureus (62) were as sensitive to RP 59500 as were erythromycin-sensitive strains (58). RP 59500 was more active against MRSA than fusidate, vancomycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or erythromycin. Forty strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (11 were erythromycin-resistant) showed MICs of 0.25-1 mg/L, and RP 59500 was more active than methicillin, erythromycin, imipenem, cefotaxime or vancomycin. Sixty strains of streptococci (20 pneumococci and 40 of groups A, B, C, or G) and 20 enterococci were inhibited by 0.13-1 mg/L and 0.25-4 mg/L, respectively. Gram-positive bacilli (five each of diphtheroids, lactobacilli, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus spp., and 19 Clostridium spp.) were also sensitive, with MICs of between 0.06 and 4 mg/L. All 279 strains tested were judged to be sensitive to RP 59500, which was bactericidal and showed a small inoculum effect. The activity against MRSA, and against erythromycin-resistant strains of all species was particularly interesting. PMID:1399948

  2. Rose Bengal-decorated silica nanoparticles as photosensitizers for inactivation of gram-positive bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanyan; Rogelj, Snezna; Zhang, Peng

    2010-02-01

    A new type of photosensitizer, made from Rose Bengal (RB)-decorated silica (SiO2-NH2-RB) nanoparticles, was developed to inactivate gram-positive bacteria, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with high efficiency through photodynamic action. The nanoparticles were characterized microscopically and spectroscopically to confirm their structures. The characterization of singlet oxygen generated by RB, both free and immobilized on a nanoparticle surface, was performed in the presence of anthracene-9,10-dipropionic acid. The capability of SiO2-NH2-RB nanoparticles to inactivate bacteria was tested in vitro on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that RB-decorated silica nanoparticles can inactivate MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (both gram-positive) very effectively (up to eight-orders-of-magnitude reduction). Photosensitizers of such design should have good potential as antibacterial agents through a photodynamic mechanism.

  3. Daptomycin: a lipopeptide antibiotic for the treatment of serious Gram-positive infections.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Judith N; Alder, Jeff; Thorne, Grace M; Tally, Francis P

    2005-03-01

    Infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide with activity against most Gram-positive pathogens, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a newly US-FDA approved antimicrobial for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Daptomycin has a unique mechanism of action that results in destruction of the membrane potential. The rapid bactericidal activity of daptomycin makes it an attractive antibiotic for serious Gram-positive infections. PMID:15705644

  4. The role of the strictly conserved positively charged residue differs among the Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and chloroplast YidC homologs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Soman, Raunak; Shanmugam, Sri Karthika; Kuhn, Andreas; Dalbey, Ross E

    2014-12-19

    Recently, the structure of YidC2 from Bacillus halodurans revealed that the conserved positively charged residue within transmembrane segment one (at position 72) is located in a hydrophilic groove that is embedded in the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer. The arginine residue was essential for the Bacillus subtilis SpoIIIJ (YidC1) to insert MifM and to complement a SpoIIIJ mutant strain. Here, we investigated the importance of the conserved positively charged residue for the function of the Escherichia coli YidC, Streptococcus mutans YidC2, and the chloroplast Arabidopsis thaliana Alb3. Like the Gram-positive B. subtilis SpoIIIJ, the conserved arginine was required for functioning of the Gram-positive S. mutans YidC2 and was necessary to complement the E. coli YidC depletion strain and to promote insertion of a YidC-dependent membrane protein synthesized with one but not two hydrophobic segments. In contrast, the conserved positively charged residue was not required for the E. coli YidC or the A. thaliana Alb3 to functionally complement the E. coli YidC depletion strain or to promote insertion of YidC-dependent membrane proteins. Our results also show that the C-terminal half of the helical hairpin structure in cytoplasmic loop C1 is important for the activity of YidC because various deletions in the region either eliminate or impair YidC function. The results here underscore the importance of the cytoplasmic hairpin region for YidC and show that the arginine is critical for the tested Gram-positive YidC homolog but is not essential for the tested Gram-negative and chloroplast YidC homologs. PMID:25359772

  5. Alternating electric fields combined with activated carbon for disinfection of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in fluidized bed electrode system.

    PubMed

    Racyte, Justina; Bernard, Séverine; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H; Yntema, Doekle R; Bruning, Harry; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2013-10-15

    Strong electric fields for disinfection of wastewaters have been employed already for several decades. An innovative approach combining low strength (7 V/cm) alternating electric fields with a granular activated carbon fluidized bed electrode (FBE) for disinfection was presented recently. For disinfection performance of FBE several pure microbial cultures were tested: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis as representatives from Gram positive bacteria and Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas luteola, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli YMc10 as representatives from Gram negative bacteria. The alternating electric field amplitude and shape were kept constant. Only the effect of alternating electric field frequency on disinfection performance was investigated. From the bacteria tested, the Gram negative strains were more susceptible and the Gram positive microorganisms were more resistant to FBE disinfection. The collected data indicate that the efficiency of disinfection is frequency and strain dependent. During 6 h of disinfection, the decrease above 2 Log units was achieved with P. luteola and E. coli at 10 kHz and at dual frequency shift keying (FSK) modulated signal with frequencies of 10 kHz and 140 kHz. FBE technology appears to offer a new way for selective bacterial disinfection, however further optimizations are needed on treatment duration, and energy input, to improve effectiveness. PMID:24012021

  6. The potent antimicrobial properties of cell penetrating peptide-conjugated silver nanoparticles with excellent selectivity for Gram-positive bacteria over erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lihong; Yang, Jun; Xie, Jianping; Luo, Zhentao; Jiang, Jiang; Yang, Yi Yan; Liu, Shaomin

    2013-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles are of great interest for use as antimicrobial agents. Studies aimed at producing potent nano-silver biocides have focused on manipulation of particle size, shape, composition and surface charge. Here, we report the cell penetrating peptide catalyzed formation of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles in N,N-dimethylformamide. The novel nano-composite demonstrated a distinctly enhanced biocidal effect toward bacteria (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli) and pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans), as compared to triangular and extremely small silver nanoparticles. In addition, a satisfactory biocompatibility was verified by a haemolysis test. Our results provide a paradigm in developing strategies that can maximize the silver nanoparticle application potentials while minimizing the toxic effects.Silver nanoparticles are of great interest for use as antimicrobial agents. Studies aimed at producing potent nano-silver biocides have focused on manipulation of particle size, shape, composition and surface charge. Here, we report the cell penetrating peptide catalyzed formation of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles in N,N-dimethylformamide. The novel nano-composite demonstrated a distinctly enhanced biocidal effect toward bacteria (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli) and pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans), as compared to triangular and extremely small silver nanoparticles. In addition, a satisfactory biocompatibility was verified by a haemolysis test. Our results provide a paradigm in developing strategies that can maximize the silver nanoparticle application potentials while minimizing the toxic effects. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34254a

  7. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brazier; D. Chmelar; L. Dubreuil; G. Feierl; M. Hedberg; S. Kalenic; E. Könönen; B. Lundgren; H. Malamou-Ladas; E. Nagy; Ĺ. Sullivan; C. E. Nord

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC to species level, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, imipenem, clindamycin, metronidazole, vancomycin and linezolid were determined by the agar dilution method

  8. Impedimetric detection of pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria using an antimicrobial peptide from class IIa bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Etayash, Hashem; Jiang, Keren; Thundat, Thomas; Kaur, Kamaljit

    2014-02-01

    Real-time, label-free detection of Gram-positive bacteria with high selectivity and sensitivity is demonstrated using an interdigitated impedimetric array functionalized with naturally produced antimicrobial peptide from class IIa bacteriocins. The antimicrobial peptide, leucocin A, was chemically synthesized and covalently immobilized on interdigitated gold microelectrodes via the interaction between the C-terminal carboxylic acid of the peptide and free amines of a preattached thiolated linker. Exposing the peptide sensor to various concentrations of Gram-positive bacteria generated reproducible impedance spectra that detected peptide-bacteria interactions at a concentration of 1 cell/?L. The peptide sensor also selectively detected Listeria monocytogenes from other Gram-positive strains at a concentration of 10(3) cfu mL(-1). The study highlights that short peptide ligands from bacteriocin class offer high selectivity in bacterial detection and can be used in developing a robust, portable biosensor device to efficiently detect pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria in food samples. PMID:24400685

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Glutathione-Coated Silver Nanoparticles against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Antibacterial Activity of Glutathione-Coated Silver Nanoparticles against Gram Positive and Gram ABSTRACT: In the present paper, we study the mechanism of antibacterial activity of glutathione (GSH on GSH Ag NPs grafted on glass allowed us to elucidate more precisely the antibacterial mechanism

  10. Development of a five-hour radiometric serum antibacterial assay for gram-positive cocci

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, D.G.; Guidon, P.T. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    A preliminary report on a 5-hr radiometric serum antibacterial assay (ABA) for Gram-positive cocci is presented. The method agreed within +- one twofold dilution with static ABA endpoints in 24/26 (92%) of the assays and with cidal ABA end-points in 23/26 (88%) of the assays performed.

  11. The Pattern of Growth and Flagellar Development in Motile Gram-positive Cocci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. F. HALE; K. A. BISSET

    1958-01-01

    SUMMARY: By the use of a staining technique which enables the flagella and cell walls to be demonstrated simultaneously, the distribution of flagella on the com- ponent cells of motile Gram-positive cocci has been examined. By comparison of these preparations with others made by the technique of Pennington (1950), which indicates the physiological age of cells according to the resistance

  12. The in vitro activity of daptomycin against 514 Gram-positive aerobic clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    King, A; Phillips, I

    2001-08-01

    The in vitro activity of daptomycin was assessed in comparison with that of vancomycin and penicillin against a wide range of Gram-positive aerobic clinical isolates. MICs were determined by an agar dilution method on Mueller-Hinton agar (NCCLS/EUCAST) and on Isotonic agar adjusted to contain 50 mg/L free calcium (BSAC). Both media were enriched with 5% horse blood for fastidious organisms. Daptomycin MICs for all 172 staphylococci, including methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, were 0.03-0.5 mg/L. For 99 of the 100 enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis, n = 50; Enterococcus faecium, n = 50), including 37 vancomycin-resistant isolates, they were 0.25-2 mg/L. For all 108 beta-haemolytic streptococci, including Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae, daptomycin MICs were 0.016- 0.25 mg/L; for 101 alpha-haemolytic streptococci, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and 'viridans' streptococci, they were 0.016-2 mg/L. For miscellaneous vancomycin-resistant isolates including Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Pediococcus spp. and isolates of Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum, daptomycin MICs were 0.03-2 mg/L; MICs for the seven isolates of Listeria monocytogenes were 0.25-4 mg/L. There was little difference between the results on Mueller-Hinton agar and on supplemented Isotonic agar The discrepant results occasionally obtained tended to be one dilution higher on supplemented Isotonic agar. Daptomycin was active (MICs < or = 2 mg/L) against all the isolates tested with the exception of one isolate each of E. faecium and L. monocytogenes (MICs = 4 mg/L). Our results indicate that daptomycin MICs are independent of methicillin and vancomycin MICs. PMID:11481291

  13. Recovery of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci from pediatric liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Michaels, M

    1991-11-01

    Between November 1988 and October 1989, 49 first-time pediatric liver transplant recipients at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh were prospectively monitored for the presence of stool colonization and the development of disease caused by vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci (VRGPC). Quantitative stool culturing was done on a weekly basis, and cultures were planted onto a selective medium for VRGPC. Isolates for which the MIC was greater than or equal to 8 were considered resistant to vancomycin. Patients were monitored clinically for the development of infection, and their charts were systematically reviewed for the use of antibiotics. Eighty-six isolates were recovered from 36 of the 49 patients. Enterococcal species were isolated from 31 patients and included Enterococcus gallinarum (n = 28), E. casseliflavus (n = 14), E. faecium (n = 9), E. faecalis (n = 2), E. mundtii (n = 2), and E. durans (n = 1). Stool colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci was noted to increase steadily during the first month after transplantation. Only 9 of 31 patients demonstrated clearance of these organisms in serial repeat cultures. Additional isolates of VRGPC included Lactobacillus confusus (n = 13), Lactobacillus spp. (n = 12), and Pediococcus pentosaceus (n = 4). Infection due to VRGPC developed in three patients: a urinary tract infection in two and peritonitis in one. E. faecium was the pathogen in each of these cases. The ranges of MICs of vancomycin were 8 to 32 micrograms/ml for all enterococcal isolates and greater than 128 micrograms/ml for Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates. All Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin, although they were susceptible to daptomycin. All other isolates were susceptible to both teicoplanin and daptomycin. This study demonstrates that stool colonization with VRGPC may be a common and early finding among pediatric liver transplant recipients. However, infection appears to be uncommon. PMID:1774255

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Four Gram-Positive Nickel-Tolerant Microorganisms from Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, J. D.; Khijniak, T. V.; Gentry, T. J.; Novak, M. T.; Sowder, A. G.; Zhou, J. Z.; Bertsch, P. M.; Morris, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial communities from riparian sediments contaminated with high levels of Ni and U were examined for metal-tolerant microorganisms. Isolation of four aerobic Ni-tolerant, Gram-positive heterotrophic bacteria indicated selection pressure from Ni. These isolates were identified as Arthrobacter oxydans NR-1, Streptomyces galbus NR-2, Streptomyces aureofaciens NR-3, and Kitasatospora cystarginea NR-4 based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. A functional gene microarray containing gene probes for functions associated with biogeochemical cycling, metal homeostasis, and organic contaminant degradation showed little overlap among the four isolates. Fifteen of the genes were detected in all four isolates with only two of these related to metal resistance, specifically to tellurium. Each of the four isolates also displayed resistance to at least one of six antibiotics tested, with resistance to kanamycin, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin observed in at least two of the isolates. Further characterization of S. aureofaciens NR-3 and K. cystarginea NR-4 demonstrated that both isolates expressed Ni tolerance constitutively. In addition, both were able to grow in higher concentrations of Ni at pH 6 as compared with pH 7 (42.6 and 8.5 mM Ni at pH 6 and 7, respectively). Tolerance to Cd, Co, and Zn was also examined in these two isolates; a similar pH-dependent metal tolerance was observed when grown with Co and Zn. Neither isolate was tolerant to Cd. These findings suggest that Ni is exerting a selection pressure at this site for metal-resistant actinomycetes.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, F; Zapardiel, J; Nieto, E

    1995-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 265 strains of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. Most strains were susceptible to vancomycin, doxycycline, and fusidic acid. Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium urealyticum were the most resistant organisms tested. Resistance to beta-lactams, clindamycin, erythromycin, azythromycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was common among strains of Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Ampicillin resistance among Listeria monocytogenes was more prevalent than previously reported. Optochin, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin showed very little activity against most organisms tested, but the use of nitrofurantoin as a selective agent in culture medium may prevent the recovery of some isolates. Except for the unvarying activity of vancomycin against Corynebacterium species, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the latter to other antibiotics are usually unpredictable, such that susceptibility tests are necessary for selecting the best antimicrobial treatment. PMID:7695308

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Microsphaera multipartita gen. nov., sp. nov., a Polysaccharide-Accumulating Gram-Positive Bacterium from Activated Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YUKIHIKO YOSHIM; AURA HIRAISHI; KAZUNORI NAKAMUFU

    A new gram-positive bacterium was isolated from activated sludge acclimated with sugar-containing syn- thetic wastewater. This organism, designated strain Y-104T (T = type strain), was a coccus-shaped, aerobic chemoorganotroph that had a strictly respiratory type of metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. This strain accumulates large amounts of polysaccharide in its cells. Strain Y-104T has the following chemotaxonomic

  17. Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii gtP20b, Isolated from the Indian Ocean ?

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Longjiang; Bo, Shiping; Chen, Huan; Ye, Wanzhi; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Baumann, Heike I.; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Kleine, Michael; Cai, Daguang

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an aerobic spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium that is a model organism and of great industrial significance as the source of diverse novel functional molecules. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis strain gtP20b isolated from the marine environment. A subset of candidate genes and gene clusters were identified, which are potentially involved in production of diverse functional molecules, like novel ribosomal and nonribosomal antimicrobial peptides. The genome sequence described in this paper is due to its high strain specificity of great importance for basic as well as applied researches on marine organisms. PMID:21183663

  18. Lactose permease of Escherichia coli catalyzes active beta-galactoside transport in a gram-positive bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Brabetz, W; Liebl, W; Schleifer, K H

    1993-01-01

    The following several lines of evidence demonstrate that lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli is assembled into the cytoplasmic membrane of gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum, expressing the lacY gene, as a functional carrier protein. (i) LacY was detected immunologically in the cytoplasmic membrane fraction of the heterologous host. (ii) Recombinant C. glutamicum cells bearing the lacY gene displayed an increased influx of o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, which was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. (iii) Washed cells were capable of accumulating methyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside about 60-fold. (iv) The uptake of methyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside was energy dependent and could be inhibited by the addition of 10 microM carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. LacY of E. coli was active in the recombinant C. glutamicum cells despite the different membrane lipid compositions of these organisms. PMID:8226697

  19. Bacillus gaemokensis sp. nov., isolated from foreshore tidal flat sediment from the Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Min Young; Jung, Min-Young; Paek, Woon Kee; Park, In-Soon; Han, Jeong-Ran; Sin, Yeseul; Paek, Jayoung; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Kim, Hongik; Song, Hong Seok; Chang, Young-Hyo

    2010-12-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming organism, strain BL3-6(T), was isolated from tidal flat sediments of the Yellow Sea in the region of Tae-An. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that this isolate belongs to the Bacillus cereus group, and is closely related to Bacillus mycoides (99.0% similarity), Bacillus thuringiensis (99.0%), Bacillus weihenstephanensis (99.0%), Bacillus cereus (98.9%), Bacillus anthracis (98.8%), and Bacillus pseudomycoides (98.1%). The phylogenetic distance from any validly described Bacillus species outside the Bacillus cereus group was less than 95.6%. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 39.4 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(14:0) (17.8%), iso-C(16:0) (15.8%), and iso-C(12:0) (11.3%). The diagnostic amino acid of the cell wall was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major cell wall sugar was galactose. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization (<55.6%) and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain BL3-6(T) from the published Bacillus species. BL3-6(T) therefore represents a new species, for which the name Bacillus gaemokensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain BL3-6(T) (=KCTC 13318(T) =JCM 15801(T)). PMID:21221948

  20. Gram-positive DsbE Proteins Function Differently from Gram-negative DsbE Homologs

    E-print Network

    Bardwell, James

    Gram-positive DsbE Proteins Function Differently from Gram-negative DsbE Homologs A STRUCTURE 07103 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a Gram-positive bacte- rium, encodes a secreted Dsb-like protein oxidoreductase is an oxidant, unlike Gram-negative bacteria DsbE proteins, which have been shown to be weak

  1. Peptostreptococcus barnesae sp. nov., a Gram-positive, anaerobic, obligately purine utilizing coccus from chicken feces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holle Schiefer-Ullrich; Jan R. Andreesen

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci were obtained from chicken feces by direct isolation, which grew on the purines uric acid, xanthine, 6,8-dihydroxypurine, guanine, and hypoxanthine. Adenine and glycine were fermented, but not as readily. Acetate, formate, ammonia, and CO2 were products. The isolated strains were nutritionally non-fastidious, however, they required selenite, molybdate, and tungstate as micronutrients. The cells were spherical and 0.5–0.9

  2. Genome Sequence of the Diazotrophic Gram-Positive Rhizobacterium Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5T

    PubMed Central

    Beneduzi, Anelise; Campos, Samanta; Ambrosini, Adriana; de Souza, Rocheli; Granada, Camille; Costa, Pedro; Arruda, Letícia; Moreira, Fernanda; Vargas, Luciano K.; Weiss, Vinícius; Tieppo, Eduardo; Faoro, Helisson; de Souza, Emanuel M.; Pedrosa, Fábio O.; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5T, a nitrogen-fixing Gram-positive rhizobacterium isolated from a wheat field in the south of Brazil, has a great potential for agricultural applications due to its plant growth promotion effects. Here we present the draft genome sequence of P. riograndensis SBR5T. Its 7.37-Mb genome encodes determinants of the diazotrophic lifestyle and plant growth promotion, such as nitrogen fixation, antibiotic resistance, nitrate utilization, and iron uptake. PMID:22038959

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Four Gram-Positive Nickel-Tolerant Microorganisms from Contaminated Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy D. Van Nostrand; Tatiana V. Khijniak; Terry J. Gentry; Michelle T. Novak; Andrew G. Sowder; Jizhong Z. Zhou; Paul M. Bertsch; Pamela J. Morris

    2007-01-01

    Microbial communities from riparian sediments contaminated with high levels of Ni and U were examined for metal-tolerant microorganisms.\\u000a Isolation of four aerobic Ni-tolerant, Gram-positive heterotrophic bacteria indicated selection pressure from Ni. These isolates\\u000a were identified as Arthrobacter oxydans NR-1, Streptomyces galbus NR-2, Streptomyces aureofaciens NR-3, and Kitasatospora cystarginea NR-4 based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. A functional gene microarray containing

  4. Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Michel; Jean-Marc Reichhart; Jules A. Hoffmann; Julien Royet

    2001-01-01

    Microbial infection activates two distinct intracellular signalling cascades in the immune-responsive fat body of Drosophila. Gram-positive bacteria and fungi predominantly induce the Toll signalling pathway, whereas Gram-negative bacteria activate the Imd pathway. Loss-of-function mutants in either pathway reduce the resistance to corresponding infections. Genetic screens have identified a range of genes involved in these intracellular signalling cascades, but how they

  5. Teichoic acids and related cell-wall glycopolymers in Gram-positive physiology and host interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Weidenmaier; Andreas Peschel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract | Most Gram-positive bacteria incorporate membrane- or peptidoglycan-attached carbohydrate-based polymers into their cell envelopes. Such cell-wall glycopolymers (CWGs) often have highly variable structures and have crucial roles in protecting, connecting and controlling the major envelope constituents. Further important roles of CWGs in host-cell adhesion, inflammation and immune activation have also been described in recent years. Identifying and harnessing highly

  6. Cell to cell communication by autoinducing peptides in gram-positive bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. J. Sturme; Michiel Kleerebezem; Jiro Nakayama; Antoon D. L. Akkermans; Elaine E. Vaughan; Willem M. de Vos

    2002-01-01

    While intercellular communication systems in Gram-negative bacteria are often based on homoserine lactones as signalling molecules,\\u000a it has been shown that autoinducing peptides are involved in intercellular communication in Gram-positive bacteria. Many of\\u000a these peptides are exported by dedicated systems, posttranslationally modified in various ways, and finally sensed by other\\u000a cells via membrane-located receptors that are part of two-component regulatory

  7. Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucila Saavedra; Fernando Sesma

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become\\u000a an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and\\u000a human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic\\u000a host systems makes them attractive candidates for

  8. Critical cell wall hole size for lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Gabriel J.; Wiesenfeld, Kurt; Nelson, Daniel C.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria can transport molecules necessary for their survival through holes in their cell wall. The holes in cell walls need to be large enough to let critical nutrients pass through. However, the cell wall must also function to prevent the bacteria's membrane from protruding through a large hole into the environment and lysing the cell. As such, we hypothesize that there exists a range of cell wall hole sizes that allow for molecule transport but prevent membrane protrusion. Here, we develop and analyse a biophysical theory of the response of a Gram-positive cell's membrane to the formation of a hole in the cell wall. We predict a critical hole size in the range of 15–24 nm beyond which lysis occurs. To test our theory, we measured hole sizes in Streptococcus pyogenes cells undergoing enzymatic lysis via transmission electron microscopy. The measured hole sizes are in strong agreement with our theoretical prediction. Together, the theory and experiments provide a means to quantify the mechanisms of death of Gram-positive cells via enzymatically mediated lysis and provides insights into the range of cell wall hole sizes compatible with bacterial homeostasis. PMID:23303219

  9. Multiple Responses of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria to Mixture of Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Marilena L?z?roaie, Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Most of our knowledge about pollutants and the way they are biodegraded in the environment has previously been shaped by laboratory studies using hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strains isolated from polluted sites. In present study Gram-positive (Mycobacterium sp. IBBPo1, Oerskovia sp. IBBPo2, Corynebacterium sp. IBBPo3) and Gram-negative (Chryseomonas sp. IBBPo7, Pseudomonas sp. IBBPo10, Burkholderia sp. IBBPo12) bacteria, isolated from oily sludge, were found to be able to tolerate pure and mixture of saturated hydrocarbons, as well as pure and mixture of monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were more tolerant to mixture of saturated (n-hexane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane), monoaromatic (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene) and polyaromatic (naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, fluorene) hydrocarbons than Gram-positive bacteria. There were observed cellular and molecular modifications induced by mixture of saturated, monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These modifications differ from one strain to another and even for the same bacterial strain, according to the nature of hydrophobic substrate. PMID:24031541

  10. Daptomycin: a new drug class for the treatment of Gram-positive infections.

    PubMed

    Alder, Jeffrey D

    2005-02-01

    Daptomycin is the first member of a new class of bactericidal antibiotics, the cyclic lipopeptides. In September 2003, daptomycin was approved for the treatment of Gram-positive infections associated with complicated skin and skin structure infections. A key feature of daptomycin is its rapid, concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against significant Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, glycopeptide-intermediate and -resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (VRE). Daptomycin also has a unique mechanism of action, no cross-resistance with any other class of antibiotic and a relatively prolonged concentration-dependent postantibiotic effect in vitro. In the United States, daptomycin has been approved for use at a dose of 4 mg/ kg once daily in the treatment of S. aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains), three beta-hemolytic streptococci (S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) and E. faecalis associated with complicated skin and skin structure infections. In addition, daptomycin is undergoing a phase III evaluation for the treatment of bacteremia and endocarditis due to S. aureus. With its once-daily dosing, favorable safety profile and low potential for resistance, daptomycin is a powerful new antibiotic therapy against Gram-positive infections. PMID:15821781

  11. DNA Repair and Genome Maintenance in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Justin S.; Schroeder, Jeremy W.; Walsh, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: From microbes to multicellular eukaryotic organisms, all cells contain pathways responsible for genome maintenance. DNA replication allows for the faithful duplication of the genome, whereas DNA repair pathways preserve DNA integrity in response to damage originating from endogenous and exogenous sources. The basic pathways important for DNA replication and repair are often conserved throughout biology. In bacteria, high-fidelity repair is balanced with low-fidelity repair and mutagenesis. Such a balance is important for maintaining viability while providing an opportunity for the advantageous selection of mutations when faced with a changing environment. Over the last decade, studies of DNA repair pathways in bacteria have demonstrated considerable differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Here we review and discuss the DNA repair, genome maintenance, and DNA damage checkpoint pathways of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We present their molecular mechanisms and compare the functions and regulation of several pathways with known information on other organisms. We also discuss DNA repair during different growth phases and the developmental program of sporulation. In summary, we present a review of the function, regulation, and molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria, with a strong emphasis on B. subtilis. PMID:22933559

  12. Melanin: a photoprotection for Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticides.

    PubMed

    Sansinenea, Estibaliz; Ortiz, Aurelio

    2015-03-01

    Melanins are negatively-charged, hydrophobic, dark high molecular weight irregular biopolymers, composed of polymerized phenolic and/or indolic compounds. They are produced by most organisms. Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, soil bacterium and the most successful biological control agent that produces distinctly shaped crystals during sporulation that have insecticidal activity. However, one of the main disadvantages is that the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis formulation is unstable and rapidly loses its activity under field conditions due to UV radiation. Melanin absorbs radiation; therefore photoprotection of B. thuringiensis based on melanin has been studied and is herewith reviewed. PMID:25381045

  13. Human Transferrin Confers Serum Resistance against Bacillus anthracis*

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    Human Transferrin Confers Serum Resistance against Bacillus anthracis* Received for publication-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, does not grow in human serum. Fractionation. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis can infect humans and is notorious for its potential

  14. Sequencing and Characterization of the xyl Operon of a Gram-Positive Bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Yasuo; Takase, Kazuma; Yamato, Ichiro; Abe, Keietsu

    1998-01-01

    The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive bacterium. The xyl operon consisted of three genes, xylA, encoding a xylose isomerase, xylB, encoding a xylulose kinase, and xylE, encoding a xylose transporter, with predicted molecular weights of 49,400, 56,400, and 51,600, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the XylR, XylA, XylB, and XylE proteins were similar to those of the corresponding proteins in other gram-positive and -negative bacteria, the similarities being 37 to 64%. Each polypeptide of XylB and XylE was expressed functionally in Escherichia coli. XylE transported d-xylose in a sodium ion-dependent manner, suggesting that it is the first described xylose/Na+ symporter. The XylR protein contained a consensus sequence for binding catabolites of glucose, such as glucose-6-phosphate, which has been discovered in glucose and fructose kinases in bacteria. Correspondingly, the regulatory region of this operon contained a putative binding site of XylR with a palindromic structure. Furthermore, it contained a consensus sequence, CRE (catabolite-responsive element), for binding CcpA (catabolite control protein A). We speculate that the transcriptional regulation of this operon resembles the regulation of catabolite-repressible operons such as the amy, lev, xyl, and gnt operons in various gram-positive bacteria. We discuss the significance of the regulation of gene expression of this operon in T. halophila. PMID:9647823

  15. Homologous Recombination in Low dC + dG Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Humberto Sanchez; Begońa Carrasco; Silvia Ayora; Juan C. Alonso

    Homologous recombination is a process involved in the maintenance of chromosome integrity,\\u000a in shaping the evolution of pathogens, in the resistance to antibiotic treatment, and profoundly affecting\\u000a evolution. In low dC + dG Gram-positive bacteria genetic recombination of a non-replicative\\u000a \\u000a homologous DNA, which enters into the cell via transduction or conjugation, proceeds mainly by the\\u000a double-strand break repair machinery, and this process

  16. Mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial drugs in pathogenic Gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczyk, B; Mlynarczyk, A; Kmera-Muszynska, M; Majewski, S; Mlynarczyk, G

    2010-09-01

    Many species of Gram-positive cocci are pathogenic. The most important are staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. Widespread usage of antibiotics was the main cause for the appearance and spread of resistance to almost all antimicrobials. The occurrence, mechanisms, and genetic background of resistance to antimicrobial drugs other than beta-lactams and glycopeptides among pathogenic staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci are discussed in the text. Well-established agents (such as macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, mupirocin, chloramphenicol) as well as new agents (linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristine/dalfopristine, ratapamulin, tigecycline, iclaprim and new generations of quinolones) are considered. PMID:20370697

  17. Metabolites produced by Pseudomonas sp enable a Gram-positive bacterium to achieve extracellular electron transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Hai Pham; Peter Aelterman; Peter Clauwaert; Liesje De Schamphelaire; Lynn Vanhaecke; Katrien De Maeyer; Monica Hoefte; Willy Verstraete; Korneel Rabaey

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies revealed the abundance of Pseudomonas sp. in the\\u000a microbial community of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). These bacteria can\\u000a transfer electrons to the electrode via self-produced phenazine-based\\u000a mediators. A MFC fed with acetate where several Pseudomonas sp. were\\u000a present was found to be rich in a Gram-positive bacterium, identified as\\u000a Brevibacillus sp. PTH1. Remarkably, MFCs operated with only

  18. In-vitro susceptibility of gram-positive cocci to LY146032 teicoplanin, sodium fusidate, vancomycin, and rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Pohlod, D J; Saravolatz, L D; Somerville, M M

    1987-08-01

    LY146032, a new antimicrobial agent with activity against Gram-positive cocci, was tested against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staph. epidermidis, Staph. saprophyticus, and Streptococcus faecalis. MIC90s in cation-supplemented Mueller Hinton broth by the microdilution broth method were less than 1.0 mg/l for all organisms tested. Increasing or decreasing the inoculum size did not appreciably effect the MIC50 or MIC90 for any organism group nor did decreasing the incubation temperature. The addition of sodium chloride to the test system did not appreciably effect the susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus to LY146032. All organisms were 4 to 32 times more susceptible to LY146032 than to vancomycin. The Staph. aureus had LY146032 susceptibility patterns which were similar to those of teicoplanin and sodium fusidate. LY146032 was 4-16 times more active than teicoplanin against Staph. saprophyticus and Staph. epidermidis while teicoplanin was 8-16 times more active than LY146032 against Str. faecalis. PMID:2822646

  19. Small things considered: the small accessory subunits of RNA polymerase in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Andy; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2015-07-01

    The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase core enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria consists of seven subunits. Whilst four of them (?2??(')) are essential, three smaller subunits, ?, ? and ? (?9-21.5 kDa), are considered accessory. Both ? and ? have been viewed as integral components of RNAP for several decades; however, ? has only recently been described. Functionally these three small subunits carry out a variety of tasks, imparting important, supportive effects on the transcriptional process of Gram-positive bacteria. While ? is thought to have a wide range of roles, reaching from maintaining structural integrity of RNAP to ? factor recruitment, the only suggested function for ? thus far is in protecting cells from phage infection. The third subunit, ?, has been shown to have distinct influences in maintaining transcriptional specificity, and thus has a key role in cellular fitness. Collectively, all three accessory subunits, although dispensable under laboratory conditions, are often thought to be crucial for proper RNAP function. Herein we provide an overview of the available literature on each subunit, summarizing landmark findings that have deepened our understanding of these proteins and their function, and outline future challenges in understanding the role of these small subunits in the transcriptional process. PMID:25878038

  20. Antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera against Gram-positive isolates from pus samples

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Punum; Rawat, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine since ancient times. In the view of its varied therapeutic potential, it has also been the subject of considerable modern scientific attention. Attention has been drawn to antibacterial activity of the plant and its metabolites due to the challenge on growing antibacterial resistant pathogens. Aim: To examine the antimicrobial potential of leaf extract of W. somnifera against Gram-positive cocci. Materials and Methods: In this study, leaf extract of W. somnifera was used to examine their antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive cocci (n = 20) from pus samples of patients admitted in Government Medical College, Haldwani. Agar well diffusion method was used by taking methanolic leaf extract of W. somnifera. Results: It was observed that the methanolic leaf extract of W. somnifera was very effective in inhibiting the test pathogens including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp., with an average zone of inhibition of 20.6 mm and 19.4 mm at 2 mg/ml (100 ?l) concentration, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that the antimicrobial property of W. somnifera leaf supports the traditional use of the plant in therapeutic use against microbial infections. PMID:25972723

  1. Surface-conjugated antimicrobial peptide leucocin a displays high binding to pathogenic gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Etayash, Hashem; Norman, Lana; Thundat, Thomas; Stiles, Michael; Kaur, Kamaljit

    2014-01-22

    Leucocin A, a representative class IIa bacteriocin, is a ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that displays potent activity against specific gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of such peptides is preceded by the binding event that can be utilized for studying specific peptide-bacteria interactions. In this study, 37-residue Leucocin A (LeuA) was synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis and covalently immobilized on gold substrates from either the N- or C-terminal. Both the peptide monolayers on gold substrates were incubated separately with five strains of gram-positive bacteria and displayed differential binding to different strains with highest binding to pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes . The C-terminally immobilized LeuA showed higher bacterial binding compared to the N-terminally attached LeuA. The full length immobilized LeuA (37-residue) was active as well as displayed higher bacterial binding (73 ± 6 bacteria/100 ?m(2)) compared to 24-residue inactive LeuA fragment (40 ± 8 bacteria/100 ?m(2)) from the C-terminal region. The high and specific bacterial binding ability of LeuA functionalized surfaces support the potential use of class IIa bacteriocins in antimicrobial peptide-based diagnostic platforms. PMID:24359454

  2. Sample preparation of Gram-positive bacteria for identification by matrix assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra C Smole; Lisa A King; Peter E Leopold; Robert D Arbeit

    2002-01-01

    A new sample preparation method was developed for fresh, whole-cell Gram-positive bacteria to be analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI ToF MS). With fresh, whole-cell Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, we had previously achieved spectra consisting of >50 peaks and mass ranges of 2–25 kDa. Because similar spectral quantity could not be achieved for Gram-positive bacteria,

  3. Gram-negative bacteremia induces greater magnitude of inflammatory response than Gram-positive bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Bacteremia is recognized as a critical condition that influences the outcome of sepsis. Although large-scale surveillance studies of bacterial species causing bacteremia have been published, the pathophysiological differences in bacteremias with different causative bacterial species remain unclear. The objective of the present study is to investigate the differences in pathophysiology and the clinical course of bacteremia caused by different bacterial species. Methods We reviewed the medical records of all consecutive patients admitted to the general intensive care unit (ICU) of a university teaching hospital during the eight-year period since introduction of a rapid assay for interleukin (IL)-6 blood level to routine ICU practice in May 2000. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6 blood level, and clinical course were compared among different pathogenic bacterial species. Results The 259 eligible patients, as well as 515 eligible culture-positive blood samples collected from them, were included in this study. CRP, IL-6 blood level, and mortality were significantly higher in the septic shock group (n = 57) than in the sepsis group (n = 127) (P < 0.001). The 515 eligible culture-positive blood samples harbored a total of 593 isolates of microorganisms (Gram-positive, 407; Gram-negative, 176; fungi, 10). The incidence of Gram-negative bacteremia was significantly higher in the septic shock group than in the sepsis group (P < 0.001) and in the severe sepsis group (n = 75, P < 0.01). CRP and IL-6 blood level were significantly higher in Gram-negative bacteremia (n = 176) than in Gram-positive bacteremia (n = 407) (P < 0.001, <0.0005, respectively). Conclusions The incidence of Gram-negative bacteremia was significantly higher in bacteremic ICU patients with septic shock than in those with sepsis or severe sepsis. Furthermore, CRP and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in Gram-negative bacteremia than in Gram-positive bacteremia. These findings suggest that differences in host responses and virulence mechanisms of different pathogenic microorganisms should be considered in treatment of bacteremic patients, and that new countermeasures beyond conventional antimicrobial medications are urgently needed. PMID:20202204

  4. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5(T), a Gram-positive diazotrophic rhizobacterium.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luciana Fernandes; Bach, Evelise; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian; Wibberg, Daniel; Passaglia, Luciane M; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-08-10

    Paenibacillus riograndensis is a Gram-positive rhizobacterium which exhibits plant growth promoting activities. It was isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of P. riograndensis strain SBR5(T). The genome of P. riograndensis SBR5(T) consists of a circular chromosome of 7,893,056bps. The genome was finished and fully annotated, containing 6705 protein coding genes, 87 tRNAs and 27 rRNAs. The knowledge of the complete genome helped to explain why P. riograndensis SBR5(T) can grow with the carbon sources arabinose and mannitol, but not myo-inositol, and to explain physiological features such as biotin auxotrophy and antibiotic resistances. The genome sequence will be valuable for functional genomics and ecological studies as well as for application of P. riograndensis SBR5(T) as plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. PMID:25959170

  5. The Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies: molecular investigation of gram-positive bacterial plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies are actinomycete plant pathogens residing mainly in the xylem vessels that infect economically important host plants. In the Clavibacter subspecies michiganensis and sepedonicus, infecting tomato and potato, respectively, essential factors for disease induction are plasmid encoded and loss of the virulence plasmids converts these biotrophic pathogens into endophytes. The genes responsible for successful colonization of the host plant, including evasion/suppression of plant defense reactions, are chromosomally encoded. Several serine proteases seem to be involved in colonization. They are secreted by Clavibacter, but their targets remain unknown. A type 3 secretion system (T3SS) translocating effectors into the plant cells is absent in these gram-positive pathogens. With the development of the modern 'omics technologies for RNA and proteins based on the known genome sequences, a new phase in the investigation of the mechanisms of plant pathogenicity has begun to allow the genome-wide investigation of the Clavibacter-host interaction. PMID:21438679

  6. Activation and manipulation of host responses by a Gram-positive bacterium.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Vasudevan; Sessa, Guido

    2008-10-01

    The interaction between tomato plants and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) represents a model pathosystem to study the interplay between the virulence determinants of a Gram-positive bacterium and the attempt of a crop plant to counteract pathogen invasion. To investigate plant responses activated during this compatible interaction, we recently analyzed gene expression profiles of tomato stems infected with Cmm. This analysis revealed activation of basal defense responses that are typically observed upon plant perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In addition, Cmm infection upregulated the expression of host genes related to ethylene synthesis and response. Further analysis of tomato plants impaired in ethylene perception and production demonstrated an important role for ethylene in the development of disease symptoms. Here we discuss possible molecular strategies used by the plant to recognize Cmm infection and possible mechanisms employed by the pathogen to interfere with the activation of plant defense responses and promote disease. PMID:19704516

  7. Structure of homoserine O-acetyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus: the first Gram-positive ortholog structure.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Bharani; Pavlovsky, Alexander G; Viola, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Homoserine O-acetyltransferase (HTA) catalyzes the formation of L-O-acetyl-homoserine from L-homoserine through the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA. This is the first committed step required for the biosynthesis of methionine in many fungi, Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of HTA from Staphylococcus aureus (SaHTA) has been determined to a resolution of 2.45?Ĺ. The structure belongs to the ?/?-hydrolase superfamily, consisting of two distinct domains: a core ?/?-domain containing the catalytic site and a lid domain assembled into a helical bundle. The active site consists of a classical catalytic triad located at the end of a deep tunnel. Structure analysis revealed some important differences for SaHTA compared with the few known structures of HTA. PMID:25286936

  8. Dalbavancin and telavancin: novel lipoglycopeptides for the treatment of Gram-positive infections.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, George G; Trapp, Shannon; Gin, Alfred S; DeCorby, Mel; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Rubinstein, Ethan; Hoban, Daryl J; Karlowsky, James A

    2008-02-01

    Two glycopeptide analogues of vancomycin and teicoplanin have been developed with improved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters. Dalbavancin was derived from teicoplanin, and telavancin is a derivative of vancomycin. The half-life of dalbavancin in humans is 147-258 h (6-11 days) allowing for weekly administration. Dalbavancin possesses more potent in vitro activity than vancomycin or teicoplanin. Dalbavancin has been investigated in uncomplicated and complicated skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) in clinical trials and has demonstrated equivalent or superior (versus vancomycin only) efficacy versus comparators. Telavancin exhibits a dual mechanism of action, low potential for resistance development and is active against resistant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Clinical trials involving SSSIs have demonstrated equivalent or superior (versus vancomycin for MRSA) efficacy compared with a standard therapy. Both telavancin and dalbavancin show promise as alternative treatments for patients with serious infections caused by resistant Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:18251665

  9. Bacillus anthracis physiology and genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa M. Koehler

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a member of the Bacillus cereus group species (also known as the “group 1 bacilli”), a collection of Gram-positive spore-forming soil bacteria that are non-fastidious facultative anaerobes with very similar growth characteristics and natural genetic exchange systems. Despite their close physiology and genetics, the B. cereus group species exhibit certain species-specific phenotypes, some of which are related

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Heteroaryl Isothiazolones against Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens?

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Michael J.; Cheng, Jijun; Podos, Steven D.; Thoma, Christy L.; Thanassi, Jane A.; Buechter, Douglas D.; Mushtaq, Gohar; Vigliotti, Gerald A.; Bradbury, Barton J.; Deshpande, Milind

    2007-01-01

    The activities of several tricyclic heteroaryl isothiazolones (HITZs) against an assortment of gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates were assessed. These compounds target bacterial DNA replication and were found to possess broad-spectrum activities especially against gram-positive strains, including antibiotic-resistant staphylococci and streptococci. These included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-nonsusceptible staphylococci, and quinolone-resistant strains. The HITZs were more active than the comparator antimicrobials in most cases. For gram-negative bacteria, the tested compounds were less active against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae but showed exceptional potencies against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria spp. Good activity against several anaerobes, as well as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, was also observed. Excellent bactericidal activity against staphylococci was observed in time-kill assays, with an approximately 3-log drop in the numbers of CFU/ml occurring after 4 h of exposure to compound. Postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of 2.0 and 1.7 h for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and MRSA strains, respectively, were observed, and these were similar to those seen with moxifloxacin at 10× MIC. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in murine infections by using sepsis and thigh infection models. The 50% protective doses were ?1 mg/kg of body weight against S. aureus in the sepsis model, while decreases in the numbers of CFU per thigh equal to or greater than those detected in animals treated with a standard dose of vancomycin were seen in the animals with thigh infections. Pharmacokinetic analyses of treated mice indicated exposures similar to those to ciprofloxacin at equivalent dose levels. These promising initial data suggest further study on the use of the HITZs as antibacterial agents. PMID:17242152

  11. Isolation of Highly Active Monoclonal Antibodies against Multiresistant Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Friederike S.; Laverde, Diana; Kropec, Andrea; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Meyer-Buehn, Melanie; Huebner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Multiresistant nosocomial pathogens often cause life-threatening infections that are sometimes untreatable with currently available antibiotics. Staphylococci and enterococci are the predominant Gram-positive species associated with hospital-acquired infections. These infections often lead to extended hospital stay and excess mortality. In this study, a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies was isolated from a healthy individual by selection of B-cells producing antibodies with high opsonic killing against E. faecalis 12030. Variable domains (VH and VL) of these immunoglobulin genes were amplified by PCR and cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector containing the constant domains of a human IgG1 molecule and the human lambda constant domain. These constructs were transfected into CHO cells and culture supernatants were collected and tested by opsonophagocytic assay against E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (including MRSA). At concentrations of 600 pg/ml, opsonic killing was between 40% and 70% against all strains tested. Monoclonal antibodies were also evaluated in a mouse sepsis model (using S. aureus LAC and E. faecium), a mouse peritonitis model (using S. aureus Newman and LAC) and a rat endocarditis model (using E. faecalis 12030) and were shown to provide protection in all models at a concentration of 4 ?g/kg per animal. Here we present a method to produce fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that are opsonic in vitro and protective in vivo against several multiresistant Gram-positive bacteria. The monoclonal antibodies presented in this study are significantly more effective compared to another monoclonal antibody currently in clinical trials. PMID:25706415

  12. Raman spectroscopy of xylitol uptake and metabolism in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Palchaudhuri, Sunil; Rehse, Steven J; Hamasha, Khozima; Syed, Talha; Kurtovic, Eldar; Kurtovic, Emir; Stenger, James

    2011-01-01

    Visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the uptake and metabolism of the five-carbon sugar alcohol xylitol by Gram-positive viridans group streptococcus and the two extensively used strains of Gram-negative Escherichia coli, E. coli C and E. coli K-12. E. coli C, but not E. coli K-12, contains a complete xylitol operon, and the viridans group streptococcus contains an incomplete xylitol operon used to metabolize the xylitol. Raman spectra from xylitol-exposed viridans group streptococcus exhibited significant changes that persisted even in progeny grown from the xylitol-exposed mother cells in a xylitol-free medium for 24 h. This behavior was not observed in the E. coli K-12. In both viridans group streptococcus and the E. coli C derivative HF4714, the metabolic intermediates are stably formed to create an anomaly in bacterial normal survival. The uptake of xylitol by Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens occurs even in the presence of other high-calorie sugars, and its stable integration within the bacterial cell wall may discontinue bacterial multiplication. This could be a contributing factor for the known efficacy of xylitol when taken as a prophylactic measure to prevent or reduce occurrences of persistent infection. Specifically, these bacteria are causative agents for several important diseases of children such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and dental caries. If properly explored, such an inexpensive and harmless sugar-alcohol, alone or used in conjunction with fluoride, would pave the way to an alternative preventive therapy for these childhood diseases when the causative pathogens have become resistant to modern medicines such as antibiotics and vaccine immunotherapy. PMID:21037297

  13. A Continuum of Anionic Charge: Structures and Functions of d-Alanyl-Teichoic Acids in Gram-Positive Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Francis C.; Baddiley, James

    2003-01-01

    Teichoic acids (TAs) are major wall and membrane components of most gram-positive bacteria. With few exceptions, they are polymers of glycerol-phosphate or ribitol-phosphate to which are attached glycosyl and d-alanyl ester residues. Wall TA is attached to peptidoglycan via a linkage unit, whereas lipoteichoic acid is attached to glycolipid intercalated in the membrane. Together with peptidoglycan, these polymers make up a polyanionic matrix that functions in (i) cation homeostasis; (ii) trafficking of ions, nutrients, proteins, and antibiotics; (iii) regulation of autolysins; and (iv) presentation of envelope proteins. The esterification of TAs with d-alanyl esters provides a means of modulating the net anionic charge, determining the cationic binding capacity, and displaying cations in the wall. This review addresses the structures and functions of d-alanyl-TAs, the d-alanylation system encoded by the dlt operon, and the roles of TAs in cell growth. The importance of dlt in the physiology of many organisms is illustrated by the variety of mutant phenotypes. In addition, advances in our understanding of d-alanyl ester function in virulence and host-mediated responses have been made possible through targeted mutagenesis of dlt. Studies of the mechanism of d-alanylation have identified two potential targets of antibacterial action and provided possible screening reactions for designing novel agents targeted to d-alanyl-TA synthesis. PMID:14665680

  14. Biocompatible Fe3O4 increases the efficacy of amoxicillin delivery against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Gestal, Monica Cartelle; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Valentina; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Mogoant?, Lauren?iu; Iordache, Florin; Bleotu, Coralia; Mogo?anu, George Dan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin- functionalized magnetite nanostructures (Fe3O4@AMO), revealing and discussing several biomedical applications of these nanomaterials. Our results proved that 10 nm Fe3O4@AMO nanoparticles does not alter the normal cell cycle progression of cultured diploid cells, and an in vivo murine model confirms that the nanostructures disperse through the host body and tend to localize in particular sites and organs. The nanoparticles were found clustered especially in the lungs, kidneys and spleen, next to the blood vessels at this level, while being totally absent in the brain and liver, suggesting that they are circulated through the blood flow and have low toxicity. Fe3O4@AMO has the ability to be easily circulated through the body and optimizations may be done so these nanostructures cluster to a specific target region. Functionalized magnetite nanostructures proved a great antimicrobial effect, being active against both the Gram positive pathogen S. aureus and the Gram negative pathogen E. coli. The fabricated nanostructures significantly reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the active drug. This result has a great practical relevance, since the functionalized nanostructures may be used for decreasing the therapeutic doses which usually manifest great severe side effects, when administrated in high doses. Fe3O4@AMO represents also a suitable approach for the development of new alternative strategies for improving the activity of therapeutic agents by targeted delivery and controlled release. PMID:24759068

  15. Lysis of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by antibacterial porous polymeric monolith formed in microfluidic biochips for sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Aly, Mohamed Aly Saad; Gauthier, Mario; Yeow, John

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial cell lysis is demonstrated using polymeric microfluidic biochips operating via a hybrid mechanical shearing/contact killing mechanism. These biochips are fabricated from a cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (X-PMMA) substrate by well-controlled, high-throughput laser micromachining. The unreacted double bonds at the surface of X-PMMA provide covalent bonding for the formation of a porous polymeric monolith (PPM), thus contributing to the mechanical stability of the biochip and eliminating the need for surface treatment. The lysis efficiency of these biochips was tested for gram-positive (Enterococcus saccharolyticus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and confirmed by off-chip PCR without further purification. The influence of the flow rate when pumping the bacterial suspension through the PPM, and of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance on the cell lysis efficiency was investigated at a cell concentration of 10(5) CFU/mL. It was shown that the contribution of contact killing to cell lysis was more important than that of mechanical shearing in the PPM. The biochip showed better lysis efficiency than the off-chip chemical, mechanical, and thermal lysis techniques used in this work. The biochip also acts as a filter that isolates cell debris and allows PCR-amplifiable DNA to pass through. The system performs more efficient lysis for gram-negative than for gram-positive bacteria. The biochip does not require chemical/enzymatic reagents, power consumption, or complicated design and fabrication processes, which makes it an attractive on-chip lysis device that can be used in sample preparation for genetics and point-of-care diagnostics. The biochips were reused for 20 lysis cycles without any evidence of physical damage to the PPM, significant performance degradation, or DNA carryover when they were back-flushed between cycles. The biochips efficiently lysed both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in about 35 min per lysis and PPM regeneration cycle. PMID:25059724

  16. A Complex Genetic Switch Involving Overlapping Divergent Promoters and DNA Looping Regulates Expression of Conjugation Genes of a Gram-positive Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Gayetri; Singh, Praveen K.; Luque-Ortega, Juan Roman; Yuste, Luis; Alfonso, Carlos; Rojo, Fernando; Wu, Ling J.; Meijer, Wilfried J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid conjugation plays a significant role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants. Understanding how conjugation is regulated is important to gain insights into these features. Little is known about regulation of conjugation systems present on plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria. pLS20 is a native conjugative plasmid from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Recently the key players that repress and activate pLS20 conjugation have been identified. Here we studied in detail the molecular mechanism regulating the pLS20 conjugation genes using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Our results show that conjugation is subject to the control of a complex genetic switch where at least three levels of regulation are integrated. The first of the three layers involves overlapping divergent promoters of different strengths regulating expression of the conjugation genes and the key transcriptional regulator RcoLS20. The second layer involves a triple function of RcoLS20 being a repressor of the main conjugation promoter and an activator and repressor of its own promoter at low and high concentrations, respectively. The third level of regulation concerns formation of a DNA loop mediated by simultaneous binding of tetrameric RcoLS20 to two operators, one of which overlaps with the divergent promoters. The combination of these three layers of regulation in the same switch allows the main conjugation promoter to be tightly repressed during conditions unfavorable to conjugation while maintaining the sensitivity to accurately switch on the conjugation genes when appropriate conditions occur. The implications of the regulatory switch and comparison with other genetic switches involving DNA looping are discussed. PMID:25340403

  17. Identification of proteins capable of metal reduction from the proteome of the Gram-positive bacterium Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1 using an NADH-based activity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Otwell, Annie E.; Sherwood, Roberts; Zhang, Sheng; Nelson, Ornella D.; Li, Zhi; Lin, Hening; Callister, Stephen J.; Richardson, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Metal reduction capability has been found in numerous species of environmentally abundant Gram-positive bacteria. However, understanding of microbial metal reduction is based almost solely on studies of Gram-negative organisms. In this study, we focus on Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1, a Gram-positive metal reducer whose genome lacks genes with similarity to any characterized metal reductase. D. reducens has been shown to reduce not only Fe(III), but also the environmentally important contaminants U(VI) and Cr(VI). By extracting, separating, and analyzing the functional proteome of D. reducens, using a ferrozine-based assay in order to screen for chelated Fe(III)-NTA reduction with NADH as electron donor, we have identified proteins not previously characterized as iron reductases. Their function was confirmed by heterologous expression in E. coli. These are the protein NADH:flavin oxidoreductase (Dred_2421) and a protein complex composed of oxidoreductase FAD/NAD(P)-binding subunit (Dred_1685) and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase 1B (Dred_1686). Dred_2421 was identified in the soluble proteome and is predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein. Dred_1685 and Dred_1686 were identified in both the soluble as well as the insoluble (presumably membrane) protein fraction, suggesting a type of membrane-association, although PSORTb predicts both proteins are cytoplasmic. Furthermore, we show that these proteins have the capability to reduce soluble Cr(VI) and U(VI) with NADH as electron donor. This study is the first functional proteomic analysis of D. reducens, and one of the first analyses of metal and radionuclide reduction in an environmentally relevant Gram-positive bacterium.

  18. Indole trimers with antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms produced using combinatorial biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    McClay, Kevin; Mehboob, Shahila; Yu, Jerry; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Deng, Jiangping; Cook, James L; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Johnson, Michael E; Steffan, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    The I100V isoform of toluene-4-monooxygenase was used to catalyze the oxidative polymerization of anthranil and various indoles under mildly acidic conditions, favoring the production of trimers. Compounds produced in sufficient yield were purified and tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of B. anthracis, E. faecalis, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and in some cases, F. tularensis. 15 of the compounds displayed promising antibacterial activity (MIC < 5 µg/ml) against one or more of the strains tested, with the best MIC values being <0.8 µg/ml. All of these compounds had good selectivity, showing minimal cytotoxicity towards HepG2 cells. The structure was solved for six of the compounds that could be crystallized, revealing that minimally two classes of indole based trimers were produced. One compound class produced was a group of substituted derivatives of the natural product 2,2-bis(3-indolyl) indoxyl. The other group of compounds identified was classified as tryptanthrin-like compounds, all having multi-ring pendant groups attached at position 11 of tryptanthrin. One compound of particular interest, SAB-J85, had a structure that suggests that any compound, with a ring structure that can be activated by an oxygenase, might serve as a substrate for combinatorial biocatalysis. PMID:26112315

  19. High-frequency conjugal plasmid transfer from gram-negative Escherichia coli to various gram-positive coryneform bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, A; Kalinowski, J; Simon, R; Seep-Feldhaus, A H; Pühler, A

    1990-01-01

    We report on the mobilization of shuttle plasmids from gram-negative Escherichia coli to gram-positive corynebacteria mediated by P-type transfer functions. Introduction of plasmids into corynebacteria was markedly enhanced after heat treatment of the recipient cells. High-frequency plasmid transfer was also observed when the restriction system of the recipient was mutated. On the basis of our data, we conclude that efficient DNA transfer from gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria, at least to coryneform bacteria, is conceivable in certain natural ecosystems. PMID:2106514

  20. Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus massiliosenegalensis sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Dhamodharan; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Gorlas, Aurore; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus massiliosenegalensis strain JC6T sp. nov. is the type strain of Bacillus massiliosenegalensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bacillus. This strain was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy Senegalese patient. B. massiliosenegalensis is an aerobic Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,981,278-bp long genome comprises a 4,957,301-bp chromosome and a 23,977-bp plasmid. The chromosome contains 4,925 protein-coding and 72 RNA genes, including 4 rRNA genes. The plasmid contains 29 protein-coding genes. PMID:23991258

  1. Genome sequence of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2, a Gram-positive anaerobe capable of dehalogenation and metal reduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genome of the Gram-positive, metal-reducing, dehalorespiring Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2 was sequenced in order to gain insights into its metabolic capacities, adaptive physiology, and regulatory machineries, and to compare with that of Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51, the phylogenetically closest strain among the species with a sequenced genome. Results The genome of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2 is composed of a 5,279,134-bp circular chromosome with 5,042 predicted genes. Genome content and parallel physiological studies support the cell's ability to fix N2 and CO2, form spores and biofilms, reduce metals, and use a variety of electron acceptors in respiration, including halogenated organic compounds. The genome contained seven reductive dehalogenase genes and four nitrogenase gene homologs but lacked the Nar respiratory nitrate reductase system. The D. hafniense DCB-2 genome contained genes for 43 RNA polymerase sigma factors including 27 sigma-24 subunits, 59 two-component signal transduction systems, and about 730 transporter proteins. In addition, it contained genes for 53 molybdopterin-binding oxidoreductases, 19 flavoprotein paralogs of the fumarate reductase, and many other FAD/FMN-binding oxidoreductases, proving the cell's versatility in both adaptive and reductive capacities. Together with the ability to form spores, the presence of the CO2-fixing Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and the genes associated with oxygen tolerance add flexibility to the cell's options for survival under stress. Conclusions D. hafniense DCB-2's genome contains genes consistent with its abilities for dehalogenation, metal reduction, N2 and CO2 fixation, anaerobic respiration, oxygen tolerance, spore formation, and biofilm formation which make this organism a potential candidate for bioremediation at contaminated sites. PMID:22316246

  2. Effect of betamethasone in combination with antibiotics on gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Artini, M; Papa, R; Cellini, A; Tilotta, M; Barbato, G; Koverech, A; Selan, L

    2014-01-01

    Betamethasone is an anti-inflammatory steroid drug used in cases of anaphylactic and allergic reactions, of Alzheimer and Addison diseases and in soft tissue injuries. It modulates gene expression for anti-inflammatory activity suppressing the immune system response. This latter effect might decrease the effectiveness of immune system response against microbial infections. Corticosteroids, in fact, mask some symptoms of infection and during their use superimposed infections may occur. Thus, the use of glucocorticoids in patients with sepsis remains extremely controversial. In this study we analyzed the in vitro effect of a commercial formulation of betamethasone (Bentelan) on several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria of clinical relevance. It was found to be an inhibitor of the growth of most of the strains examined. Also the effect of betamethasone in combination with some classes of antibiotics was evaluated. Antibiotic-steroid combination therapy is, in such cases, superior to antibiotic-alone treatment to impair bacterial growths. Such effect was essentially not at all observable on Staphylococcus aureus or Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS). PMID:25572750

  3. Isolation and identification of membrane vesicle-associated proteins in Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Brown, Lisa; Casadevall, Arturo; Montalvo-Quirós, Sandra; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    Many intracellular bacterial pathogens naturally release membrane vesicles (MVs) under a variety of growth environments. For pathogenic bacteria there are strong evidences that released MVs are a delivery mechanism for the release of immunologically active molecules that contribute to virulence. Identification of membrane vesicle-associated proteins that can act as immunological modulators is crucial for opening up new horizons for understanding the pathogenesis of certain bacteria and for developing novel vaccines. In this protocol, we provide all the details for isolating MVs secreted by either mycobacteria or Gram-positive bacteria and for the subsequent identification of the protein content of the MVs by mass spectrometry. The protocol is adapted from Gram-negative bacteria and involves four main steps: (1) isolation of MVs from the culture media; (2) purification of MVs by density gradient ultrucentrifugation; (3) acetone precipitation of the MVs protein content and in-solution trypsin digestion and (4) mass spectrometry analysis of the generated peptides and protein identification. Our modifications are:•Growing Mycobacteria in a chemically defined media to reduce the number of unrelated bacterial components in the supernatant.•The use of an ultrafiltration system, which allows concentrating larger volumes.•In solution digestion of proteins followed by peptides purification by ziptip.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF LEUKIN: AN ANTIBACTERIAL FACTOR FROM LEUCOCYTES ACTIVE AGAINST GRAM-POSITIVE PATHOGENS

    PubMed Central

    Skarnes, Robert C.; Watson, Dennis W.

    1956-01-01

    A method has been described for the preparation of a potent antibacterial factor from rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Upon characterization, the factor was found to possess many properties in common with basic proteins. The amino acid analysis revealed that it contained a relatively large amount of arginine (17 per cent) and small amounts of the other two basic amino acids. It has therefore been identified as a protamine or protamine derivative. The leucocyte factor was very active against all Gram-positive pathogens tested but exhibited little or no action against Gram-negative species. A possible explanation of this phenomenon has been discussed. The factor was very heat-stable at acid and neutral pH and its staphylococcidal activity was blocked by glutamyl polypeptide, hyaluronic acid, and desoxyribonudeic acid. Because of the apparent similarity of the product studied here to other poorly defined leucocyte factors which had been termed leukins in the early literature, it is suggested that the name leukin be retained for it. The possible significance of this leukin in natural immunity has been discussed. PMID:13376807

  5. Population biology of Gram-positive pathogens: high-risk clones for dissemination of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Rob J. L.; Hanage, William P; Bessen, Debra E.; Feil, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Infections caused by multi-resistant Gram positive bacteria represent a major health burden in the community as well as in hospitalized patients. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are well-known pathogens of hospitalized patients, frequently linked with resistance against multiple antibiotics, compromising effective therapy. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes are important pathogens in the community and S. aureus has recently emerged as an important community-acquired pathogen. Population genetic studies reveal that recombination prevails as a driving force of genetic diversity in E. faecium, E. faecalis, S. pneumoniae, and S. pyogenes and thus, these species are weakly clonal. Although recombination has a relatively modest role driving the genetic variation of the core genome of S. aureus, the horizontal acquistion of resistance and virulence genes plays a key role in the emergence of new clinically relevant clones in this species. In this review we discuss the population genetics of E. faecium, E. faecalis, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. aureus. Knowledge of the population structure of these pathogens is not only highly relevant for (molecular) epidemiological research but also for identifying the genetic variation that underlies changes in clinical behaviour, to improve our understanding of the pathogenic behaviour of particular clones and to identify novel targets for vaccines or immunotherapy. PMID:21658083

  6. ?, a New Subunit of RNA Polymerase Found in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Andrew N.; Yang, Xiao; Wiedermannová, Jana; Delumeau, Olivier; Krásný, Libor

    2014-01-01

    RNA polymerase in bacteria is a multisubunit protein complex that is essential for gene expression. We have identified a new subunit of RNA polymerase present in the high-A+T Firmicutes phylum of Gram-positive bacteria and have named it ?. Previously ? had been identified as a small protein (?1) that copurified with RNA polymerase. We have solved the structure of ? by X-ray crystallography and show that it is not an ? subunit. Rather, ? bears remarkable similarity to the Gp2 family of phage proteins involved in the inhibition of host cell transcription following infection. Deletion of ? shows no phenotype and has no effect on the transcriptional profile of the cell. Determination of the location of ? within the assembly of RNA polymerase core by single-particle analysis suggests that it binds toward the downstream side of the DNA binding cleft. Due to the structural similarity of ? with Gp2 and the fact they bind similar regions of RNA polymerase, we hypothesize that ? may serve a role in protection from phage infection. PMID:25092033

  7. Linezolid in late-chronic prosthetic joint infection caused by gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Javier; Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Euba, Gorane; Jover-Sáenz, Alfredo; Palomino, Julián; del Toro, Ma Dolores; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Riera, Melchor; Ariza, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Linezolid may be an interesting alternative for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to its bioavailability and its antimicrobial spectrum. However, experience in this setting is scarce. The aim of the study was to assess linezolid's clinical and microbiological efficacy, and also its tolerance. This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, non-comparative study of 25 patients with late-chronic PJI caused by Gram-positive bacteria managed with a two-step exchange procedure plus 6 weeks of linezolid. Twenty-two (88%) patients tolerated linezolid without major adverse effects, although a global decrease in the platelet count was observed. Three patients were withdrawn because of major toxicity, which reversed after linezolid stoppage. Among patients who completed treatment, 19 (86%) demonstrated clinical and microbiological cure. Two patients presented with clinical and microbiological failure, and one showed clinical cure and microbiological failure. In conclusion, linezolid showed good results in chronic PJI managed with a two-step exchange procedure. Tolerance seems acceptable, though close surveillance is required. PMID:23541692

  8. Quorum-sensing regulators in Gram-positive bacteria: 'cherchez le peptide '.

    PubMed

    Monnet, V; Gardan, R

    2015-07-01

    Gram-positive bacteria can regulate gene expression at the population level via a mechanism known as quorum sensing. Oligopeptides serve as the signaling molecules; they are secreted and then are either detected at the bacterial surface by two-component systems or reinternalized via an oligopeptide transport system. In the latter case, imported peptides interact with cognate regulators (phosphatases or transcriptional regulators) that modulate the expression of target genes. These regulators help control crucial functions such as virulence, persistence, conjugation and competence and have been reported in bacilli, enterococci and streptococci. They form the rapidly growing RRNPP group. In this issue of Molecular?Microbiology, Hoover et?al. (2015) highlight the group's importance: they have identified a new family of regulators, Tprs (Transcription factor regulated by a Phr peptide), which work with internalized Phr-like peptides. The mechanisms underlying the expression of the genes that encode these internalized peptides are poorly documented. However, Hoover et?al. (2015) have provided a new insight: an environmental molecule, glucose, can inhibit expression of the Phr-like peptide gene via catabolic repression. This previously undescribed regulatory pathway, controlling the production of a bacteriocin, might influence Streptococcus pneumonia's fitness in the nasopharynx, where galactose is present. PMID:25988215

  9. Chitosan Augments Photodynamic Inactivation of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria?†

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsuimin; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Wang, Tze-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Tsan; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Chen, Chin-Tin

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) was shown to be a promising treatment modality for microbial infections. This study explores the effect of chitosan, a polycationic biopolymer, in increasing the PDI efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), as well as the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Chitosan at <0.1% was included in the antibacterial process either by coincubation with hematoporphyrin (Hp) and subjection to light exposure to induce the PDI effect or by addition after PDI and further incubation for 30 min. Under conditions in which Hp-PDI killed the microbe on a 2- to 4-log scale, treatment with chitosan at concentrations of as low as 0.025% for a further 30 min completely eradicated the bacteria (which were originally at ?108 CFU/ml). Similar results were also found with toluidine blue O (TBO)-mediated PDI in planktonic and biofilm cells. However, without PDI treatment, chitosan alone did not exert significant antimicrobial activity with 30 min of incubation, suggesting that the potentiated effect of chitosan worked after the bacterial damage induced by PDI. Further studies indicated that the potentiated PDI effect of chitosan was related to the level of PDI damage and the deacetylation level of the chitosan. These results indicate that the combination of PDI and chitosan is quite promising for eradicating microbial infections. PMID:21282440

  10. Cytokine profile in severe gram-positive and gram-negative abdominal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Surbatovic, Maja; Popovic, Nada; Vojvodic, Danilo; Milosevic, Ivan; Acimovic, Gordana; Stojicic, Milan; Veljovic, Milic; Jevdjic, Jasna; Djordjevic, Dragan; Radakovic, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a principal cause of death in critical care units worldwide and consumes considerable healthcare resources. The aim of our study was to determine whether the early cytokine profile can discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteraemia (GPB and GNB, respectively) and to assess the prognostic value regarding outcome in critically ill patients with severe abdominal sepsis. The outcome measure was hospital mortality. Blood samples were obtained from 165 adult patients with confirmed severe abdominal sepsis. Levels of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-?, IL-8, IL-12 and IFN-? and the anti-inflammatory mediators IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-?1 were determined and correlated with the nature of the bacteria isolated from the blood culture and outcome. The cytokine profile in our study indicated that the TNF-? levels were 2-fold, IL-8 were 3.3-fold, IFN-? were 13-fold, IL-1ra were 1.05-fold, IL-4 were 1.4-fold and IL-10 were 1.83-fold higher in the GNB group compared with the GPB group. The TNF-? levels were 4.7-fold, IL-8 were 4.6-fold, IL-1ra were 1.5-fold and IL-10 were 3.3-fold higher in the non-survivors compared with the survivors. PMID:26079127

  11. Isolation and structural elucidation of armeniaspirols?A-C: potent antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Cosima; Wink, Joachim; Kurz, Michael; Kogler, Herbert; Olivan, Helene; Sablé, Serge; Heyse, Winfried; Gerlitz, Martin; Toti, Luigi; Nußer, Antje; Rey, Astrid; Couturier, Cedric; Bauer, Armin; Brönstrup, Mark

    2012-12-01

    In an antibiotic lead discovery program, the known strain Streptomyces armeniacus DSM19369 has been found to produce three new natural products when cultivated on a malt-containing medium. The challenging structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was achieved by using three independent methods, that is, chemical degradation followed by NMR spectroscopy, a computer-assisted structure prediction algorithm, and X-ray crystallography. The compounds, named armeniaspirol?A-C (2-4), exhibit a compact, hitherto unprecedented chlorinated spiro[4.4]non-8-ene scaffold. Labeling experiments with [1-(13)C] acetate, [1,2-(13)C2] acetate, and [U-(13)C] proline suggest a biosynthesis through a rare two-chain mechanism. Armeniaspirols displayed moderate to high in vitro activities against gram-positive pathogens such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE). As analogue 2 was active in vivo in an MRSA sepsis model, and showed no development of resistance in a serial passaging experiment, it represents a new antibiotic lead structure. PMID:23143837

  12. Phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of selected resistance genes in gram-positive mastitis pathogens isolated from Wisconsin dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, P L; Oliveira, L; Jin, W; Okwumabua, O

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, few intramammary antimicrobials exist that are approved for treatment of bovine mastitis; thus, ensuring judicious use of these products is a priority. The objectives of this study were to determine phenotypic susceptibility and presence of selected antimicrobial resistance genes from staphylococci, streptococci, and streptococcal-like organisms recovered from cases of clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large Wisconsin farms. Staphylococcus aureus (n=35 from 19 herds), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=51 from 30 herds), Streptococcus spp. (n=78 from 36 herds), and streptococcal-like organisms (n=31 from 19 herds) were used in this study. All Staphylococcus spp. were susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalothin, and the combination of penicillin and novobiocin. Of all staphylococci, only a single Staphylococcus epidermidis exhibited phenotypic resistance to oxacillin. Phenotypic susceptibility to erythromycin was observed in only 8.6 and 15.7% of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, respectively. Approximately 20% of staphylococci and 13 to 22% of streptococci and streptococcal-like organisms exhibited phenotypic resistance to pirlimycin. All Streptococcus spp. exhibited phenotypic susceptibility to ceftiofur, cephalothin, and oxacillin. The proportion of isolates exhibiting phenotypic susceptibility to pirlimycin and sulfadimethoxine differed among Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. All streptococcal-like organisms exhibited phenotypic susceptibility to ceftiofur, cephalothin, oxacillin, penicillin, and the combination of penicillin and novobiocin. Of all organisms tested, 36.9% did not carry any of the resistance genes (ermC, blaZ, tetK, or tetM), 35.4% carried 1 gene, and 27.7% carried multiple genes (usually blaZ in combination with a tet gene). Eighteen (51.4%) Staph. aureus and 12 (48.0%) Staphylococcus chromogenes carried multiple resistance genes. Six (12.2%) Strep. dysgalactiae and no Strep. uberis carried multiple resistance genes. Results indicate that most gram-positive mastitis organisms were susceptible to most antimicrobials used for intramammary administration, but some resistance to drugs used for systemic treatment of mastitis was noted. The presence of selected resistance genes was not proportional to the occurrence of phenotypic resistance. PMID:25912858

  13. Opioid Exacerbation of Gram-positive sepsis, induced by Gut Microbial Modulation, is Rescued by IL-17A Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jingjing; Banerjee, Santanu; Li, Dan; Sindberg, Gregory M.; Wang, Fuyuan; Ma, Jing; Roy, Sabita

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is the predominant cause of mortality in ICUs, and opioids are the preferred analgesic in this setting. However, the role of opioids in sepsis progression has not been well characterized. The present study demonstrated that morphine alone altered the gut microbiome and selectively induced the translocation of Gram-positive gut bacteria in mice. Using a murine model of poly-microbial sepsis, we further demonstrated that morphine treatment led to predominantly Gram-positive bacterial dissemination. Activation of TLR2 by disseminated Gram-positive bacteria induced sustained up-regulation of IL-17A and IL-6. We subsequently showed that overexpression of IL-17A compromised intestinal epithelial barrier function, sustained bacterial dissemination and elevated systemic inflammation. IL-17A neutralization protected barrier integrity and improved survival in morphine-treated animals. We further demonstrated that TLR2 expressed on both dendritic cells and T cells play essential roles in IL-17A production. Additionally, intestinal sections from sepsis patients on opioids exhibit similar disruption in gut epithelial integrity, thus establishing the clinical relevance of this study. This is the first study to provide a mechanistic insight into the opioid exacerbation of sepsis and show that neutralization of IL-17A might be an effective therapeutic strategy to manage Gram-positive sepsis in patients on an opioid regimen. PMID:26039416

  14. Horizontal spread of mer operons among Gram-positive bacteria in natural environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Bogdanova; I. A. Bass; L. S. Minakhin; M. A. Petrova; S. Z. Mindlin; A. A. Volodin; E. S. Kalyaeva; J. M. Tiedje; J. L. Hobman; N. L. Brown; V. G. Nikiforov

    1998-01-01

    Horizontal dissemination of the genes responsible for resistance to toxic pollutants may play a key role in the adaptation of bacterial populations to environmental contaminants. However, the frequency and extent of gene dissemination in natural environments is not known. A natural horizontal spread of two distinct mercury resistance (mer) operon variants, which occurred amongst diverse Bacillus and related species over

  15. Tedizolid: a novel oxazolidinone with potent activity against multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, George G; Love, Riley; Adam, Heather; Golden, Alyssa; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Schweizer, Frank; Gorityala, Bala; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Rubinstein, Ethan; Walkty, Andrew; Gin, Alfred S; Gilmour, Matthew; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

    2015-02-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a novel oxazolidinone prodrug (converted to the active form tedizolid by phosphatases in vivo) that has been developed and recently approved (June 2014) by the United States FDA for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) caused by susceptible Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Tedizolid is an oxazolidinone, but differs from other oxazolidinones by possessing a modified side chain at the C-5 position of the oxazolidinone nucleus which confers activity against certain linezolid-resistant pathogens and has an optimized C- and D-ring system that improves potency through additional binding site interactions. The mechanism of action of tedizolid is similar to other oxazolidinones and occurs through inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the 50S subunit of the ribosome. As with other oxazolidinones, the spontaneous frequency of resistance development to tedizolid is low. Tedizolid is four- to eightfold more potent in vivo than linezolid against all species of staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci, including drug-resistant phenotypes such as MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and linezolid-resistant phenotypes. Importantly, tedizolid demonstrates activity against linezolid-resistant bacterial strains harboring the horizontally transmissible cfr gene, in the absence of certain ribosomal mutations conferring reduced oxazolidinone susceptibility. With its half-life of approximately 12 h, tedizolid is dosed once daily. It demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics, has a high oral bioavailability of approximately 90 %, and is primarily excreted by the liver as an inactive, non-circulating sulphate conjugate. Tedizolid does not require dosage adjustment in patients with any degree of renal dysfunction or hepatic dysfunction. Studies in animals have demonstrated that the pharmacodynamic parameter most closely associated with the efficacy of tedizolid is fAUC(0-24h)/MIC. In non-neutropenic animals, a dose-response enhancement was observed with tedizolid and lower exposures were required compared to neutropenic cohorts. Two Phase III clinical trials have demonstrated non-inferiority of a once-daily tedizolid 200 mg dose for 6-10 days versus twice-daily 600 mg linezolid for the treatment of ABSSSIs. Both trials used the primary endpoint of early clinical response at 48-72 h; however, one trial compared oral formulations while the other initiated therapy with the parenteral formulation and allowed oral sequential therapy following initial clinical response. Throughout its development, tedizolid has demonstrated that it is well tolerated and animal studies have shown a lower propensity for neuropathies with long-term use than its predecessor linezolid. Data from the two completed Phase III clinical trials demonstrated that the studied tedizolid regimen (200 mg once daily for 6 days) had significantly less impact on hematologic parameters as well as significantly less gastrointestinal treatment-emergent adverse effects (TEAEs) than its comparator linezolid. As with linezolid, tedizolid is a weak, reversible MAO inhibitor; however, a murine head twitch model validated to assess serotonergic activity reported no increase in the number of head twitches with tedizolid even at doses that exceeded the C max in humans by up to 25-fold. Tyramine and pseudoephedrine challenge studies in humans have also reported no meaningful MAO-related interactions with tedizolid. With its enhanced in vitro activity against a broad-spectrum of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria, convenient once-daily dosing, a short 6-day course of therapy, availability of both oral and intravenous routes of administration, and an adverse effect profile that appears to be more favorable than linezolid, tedizolid is an attractive agent for use in both the hospital and community settings. Tedizolid is currently undergoing additional Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia

  16. Multistep Resistance Development Studies of Ceftaroline in Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Catherine; McGhee, Pamela; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia

    2011-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and -negative isolates. This study evaluated the potential for ceftaroline and comparator antibiotics to select for clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis with elevated MICs. S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes isolates in the present study were highly susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC range, 0.004 to 0.25 ?g/ml). No streptococcal strains yielded ceftaroline clones with increased MICs (defined as an increase in MIC of >4-fold) after 50 daily passages. Ceftaroline MICs for H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 0.06 to 2 ?g/ml for four strains and 8 ?g/ml for a ?-lactamase-positive, efflux-positive H. influenzae with a mutation in L22. One H. influenzae clone with an increased ceftaroline MIC (quinolone-resistant, ?-lactamase-positive) was recovered after 20 days. The ceftaroline MIC for this isolate increased 16-fold, from 0.06 to 1 ?g/ml. MICs for S. aureus ranged from 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml. No S. aureus isolates tested with ceftaroline had clones with increased MIC (>4-fold) after 50 passages. Two E. faecalis isolates tested had ceftaroline MICs increased from 1 to 8 ?g/ml after 38 days and from 4 to 32 ?g/ml after 41 days, respectively. The parental ceftaroline MIC for the one K. pneumoniae extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-negative isolate tested was 0.5 ?g/ml and did not change after 50 daily passages. PMID:21343467

  17. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed Central

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

  18. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

  19. Quantification of Gram-positive bacteria: adaptation and evaluation of a preparation strategy using high amounts of clinical tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A preparation method for quantification of bacteria in tissues is obligatory to reduce tissue mass, concentrate the target, purify, remove inhibitory substances and to achieve constant target recovery rates. No preparation method has been available until now for a high mass of tissue applicable for routine use and analytical veterinary diagnostics. Results This study describes an easy-to-use tissue preparation protocol to quantify Gram-positive bacteria from a large volume of tissue matrix. A previously published sample preparation method (Matrix-Lysis) from food science was successfully adapted for clinical use on tissues from pigs, including cerebrum, spinal cord, lung, liver, ileum, colon, caecum, kidney and muscle tissue. This tissue preparation method now permits quantification of pathogens from 5 g of organic matrix, which is a 20–200 fold increase by weight compared to other methods. It is based on solubilization of the sample matrix with either a chaotrope plus detergent or divalent salts as solubilization agents. The method was designed as a modular system, offering the possibility to change lysis buffers, according to tissue solubilization characteristics and the intended detection method (molecular or culture). Using Listeria monocytogenes as model organism, viable cell quantification or DNA extraction and quantitative real-time PCR were performed after Matrix-Lysis to determine recovery rates and detection limit (LOD). The adapted Matrix-Lysis protocol resulted in high recovery rates (mean value: 76%?±?39%) for all tested organs, except kidney, and recovery was constant over 5 log scales for all tested buffer systems. The LOD for Matrix-Lysis with subsequent plate count method (PCM) was as low as 1 CFU/5 g, while for qPCR based detection the LOD was 102 bacterial cell equivalents (BCE)/5 g for two buffer systems. Conclusions This tissue preparation is inexpensive and can be easily used for routine and analytical veterinary diagnostics. Inoculation studies or hazard assessments can profit from this tissue preparation method and it is anticipated that this study will be a valuable source for further research on tissue preparation strategies. PMID:24589061

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis Laboratory Strains JH642 (AG174) and AG1839

    E-print Network

    Smith, Janet L.

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used for studies of cellular and molecular processes. We announce the complete genomic sequences of strain AG174, our stock of the commonly used strain JH642, and ...

  1. An overview of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of gram-positive bacteria from National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Thailand (NARST) program from 2000 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Mootsikapun, Piroon; Trakulsomboon, Suwanna; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Aswapokee, Nalinee; Suankratay, Chusana

    2009-08-01

    In this overview, the authors summarize the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of important Gram-positive bacteria from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Thailand (NARST) program between 2000 and 2005 as well as the clinical implications. This collaborative network program was funded by the World Health Organization, and involved 33 hospitals throughout Thailand. There are rising trends of drug-resistant S. pneumoniae (DRSP), ampicillin-resistant enterococci, but a constant occurrence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was noted during this period. The rates of penicillin and erythromycin resistances of S. pneumoniae were constantly high, ranging from 42.5% to 47.7% and 24.6% to 31.1%, respectively, whereas the rates of cefotaxime resistance were quite low, ranging from 2.1% to 8.4%. The rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. pneumoniae ranged from 14.8% to 34.3%. Of all S. aureus isolates, MRSA comprised 24% to 27%, and vancomycin resistance rates of these MRSA isolates ranged from 0.1% to 0.8%. The antimicrobial resistance rates of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates were very low. The rates of ampicillin and high-level gentamicin resistances of E. faecium from 2000 to 2005 have been significantly increasing from 52% to 84.1%, and from 46.9% to 75%, respectively, but vancomycin resistance was stable at the rates between 0.4% and 1.9%. In conclusions, antimicrobial resistance rates of important Gram-positive bacteria have been increasing in Thailand. All local, national, and international surveillance data will help to set the strategic plan for control and treatment of these resistant organisms. Appropriate and accurate microbiological procedures regarding the collection and transportation of clinical specimens as well as the identification of these emerging resistant organisms are urgently needed, in collaboration with other concerned sectors. PMID:21294504

  2. Genome-wide gene order distances support clustering the gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    House, Christopher H.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T.

    2015-01-01

    Initially using 143 genomes, we developed a method for calculating the pair-wise distance between prokaryotic genomes using a Monte Carlo method to estimate the conservation of gene order. The method was based on repeatedly selecting five or six non-adjacent random orthologs from each of two genomes and determining if the chosen orthologs were in the same order. The raw distances were then corrected for gene order convergence using an adaptation of the Jukes-Cantor model, as well as using the common distance correction D? = ?ln(1-D). First, we compared the distances found via the order of six orthologs to distances found based on ortholog gene content and small subunit rRNA sequences. The Jukes-Cantor gene order distances are reasonably well correlated with the divergence of rRNA (R2 = 0.24), especially at rRNA Jukes-Cantor distances of less than 0.2 (R2 = 0.52). Gene content is only weakly correlated with rRNA divergence (R2 = 0.04) over all distances, however, it is especially strongly correlated at rRNA Jukes-Cantor distances of less than 0.1 (R2 = 0.67). This initial work suggests that gene order may be useful in conjunction with other methods to help understand the relatedness of genomes. Using the gene order distances in 143 genomes, the relations of prokaryotes were studied using neighbor joining and agreement subtrees. We then repeated our study of the relations of prokaryotes using gene order in 172 complete genomes better representing a wider-diversity of prokaryotes. Consistently, our trees show the Actinobacteria as a sister group to the bulk of the Firmicutes. In fact, the robustness of gene order support was found to be considerably greater for uniting these two phyla than for uniting any of the proteobacterial classes together. The results are supportive of the idea that Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are closely related, which in turn implies a single origin for the gram-positive cell. PMID:25653643

  3. Bioreduction of Cr(VI) by alkaliphilic Bacillus subtilis and interaction of the membrane groups

    PubMed Central

    Mary Mangaiyarkarasi, M.S.; Vincent, S.; Janarthanan, S.; Subba Rao, T.; Tata, B.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Detoxification of Cr(VI) under alkaline pH requires attention due to the alkaline nature of many effluents. An alkaliphilic gram-positive Bacillus subtilis isolated from tannery effluent contaminated soil was found to grow and reduce Cr(VI) up to 100% at an alkaline pH 9. Decrease in pH to acidic range with growth of the bacterium signified the role played by metabolites (organic acids) in chromium resistance and reduction mechanism. The XPS and FT-IR spectra confirmed the reduction of Cr(VI) by bacteria into +3 oxidation state. Chromate reductase assay indicated that the reduction was mediated by constitutive membrane bound enzymes. The kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction activity derived using the monod equation proved (Ks = 0.00032) high affinity of the organism to the metal. This study thus helped to localize the reduction activity at subcellular level in a chromium resistant alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. PMID:23961119

  4. In Vitro Activities of Linezolid against Important Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogens Including Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Noskin, Gary A.; Siddiqui, Farida; Stosor, Valentina; Hacek, Donna; Peterson, Lance R.

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of resistance in gram-positive bacteria has necessitated a search for new antimicrobial agents. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone, a new class of antibacterial agents with enhanced activity against pathogens. We compared the activity of linezolid to those of other antimicrobial agents against 3,945 clinical isolates. Linezolid demonstrated potent activity against all isolates tested. For all vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci, the activity of linezolid was comparable to that of vancomycin. Against oxacillin-resistant staphylococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, linezolid was the most active agent tested. In summary, linezolid appears to be a promising new antimicrobial agent for the treatment of gram-positive infections. PMID:10428937

  5. Synergy of nitric oxide and silver sulfadiazine against gram-negative, gram-positive, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Privett, Benjamin J; Deupree, Susan M; Backlund, Christopher J; Rao, Kavitha S; Johnson, C Bryce; Coneski, Peter N; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2010-12-01

    The synergistic activity between nitric oxide (NO) released from diazeniumdiolate-modified proline (PROLI/NO) and silver(I) sulfadiazine (AgSD) was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using a modified broth microdilution technique and a checkerboard-type assay. The combination of NO and AgSD was defined as synergistic when the fractional bactericidal concentration (FBC) was calculated to be <0.5. Gram-negative species were generally more susceptible to the individual antimicrobial agents than the Gram-positive bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to combination therapy. The in vitro synergistic activity of AgSD and NO observed against a range of pathogens strongly supports future investigation of this therapeutic combination, particularly for its potential use in the treatment of burns and chronic wounds. PMID:20939612

  6. In vitro assessment of Ag2O nanoparticles toxicity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Negi, Harshita; Rathinavelu Saravanan, Palaniyandi; Agarwal, Tithi; Ghulam Haider Zaidi, Mohd; Goel, Reeta

    2013-01-01

    In view of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, the present study is to address the toxicity of Ag2O nanoparticles against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through in vitro assays. The preliminary screening by agar diffusion assay confirms the antibacterial activity of Ag2O nanoparticles against all the test bacteria. Comparative antibacterial activity of Ag2O nanoparticles and respective antibiotics reveals their broad range of activity and lower inhibitory dose against the used bacterial strains. Further, they can inhibit E. coli with an effective dose of 0.036 mg/ml within 1 h of exposure time as determined by luciferin based ATP assay. Moreover, the Ag2O nanoparticles exhibit higher antibacterial efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria, as revealed by their MIC & MBC values. Therefore, Ag2O nanoparticles pave the way for a new generation of antibacterial agents against the emerging multidrug resistant pathogens. PMID:23518522

  7. Novel imidazoline antimicrobial scaffold that inhibits DNA replication with activity against mycobacteria and drug resistant Gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kendra K; Fay, Allison; Yan, Han-Guang; Kunwar, Pratima; Socci, Nicholas D; Pottabathini, Narender; Juventhala, Ramakrishna R; Djaballah, Hakim; Glickman, Michael S

    2014-11-21

    Bacterial antimicrobial resistance is an escalating public health threat, yet the current antimicrobial pipeline remains alarmingly depleted, making the development of new antimicrobials an urgent need. Here, we identify a novel, potent, imidazoline antimicrobial compound, SKI-356313, with bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-positive cocci, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SKI-356313 is active in murine models of Streptococcus pneumoniae and MRSA infection and is potently bactericidal for both replicating and nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. Using a combination of genetics, whole genome sequencing, and a novel target ID approach using real time imaging of core macromolecular biosynthesis, we show that SKI-356313 inhibits DNA replication and displaces the replisome from the bacterial nucleoid. These results identify a new antimicrobial scaffold with a novel mechanism of action and potential therapeutic utility against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and antibiotic resistant Gram-positive cocci. PMID:25222597

  8. Evidence forNatural GeneTransfer from Gram-Positive Cocci toEscherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. BRISSON-NOEL; M. ARTHUR; P. COURVALIN

    (ermB). Thisgeneanditsregulatory region are located downstream fromthelast 37basepairs oftheright endofinsertion sequence ISIS; these 37basepairs arelocated downstream fromtheinsertion sequence IS). The23SrRNAmethylase encoded bypIP1527 differs bythree andsixaminoacids fromthose encoded byTn917andpAM77,respectively. Unlike thestreptococcal elements which confer theinducible MLSphenotype, theermBCgeneisexpressed constitutively inE.coli and Bacillus subtUis, duetoseveral mutations intheregulatory region. Transcription oftheermBCgenestarts from three different sites following three overlapping promoters whichfunction inbothE.coli andB.subtilis. Promoters P2andP3arelocated

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of a Natural Root Isolate, Bacillus subtilis UD1022, a Potential Plant Growth-Promoting Biocontrol Agent

    PubMed Central

    Bishnoi, Usha; Polson, Shawn W.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis, which belongs to the phylum Firmicutes, is the most widely studied Gram-positive model organism. It is found in a wide variety of environments and is particularly abundant in soils and in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the newly described B. subtilis strain UD1022. The UD1022 genome consists of a 4.025-Mbp chromosome, and other major findings from our analysis will provide insights into the genomic basis of it being a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol potential. PMID:26159522

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of a Natural Root Isolate, Bacillus subtilis UD1022, a Potential Plant Growth-Promoting Biocontrol Agent.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Usha; Polson, Shawn W; Sherrier, D Janine; Bais, Harsh P

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis, which belongs to the phylum Firmicutes, is the most widely studied Gram-positive model organism. It is found in a wide variety of environments and is particularly abundant in soils and in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the newly described B. subtilis strain UD1022. The UD1022 genome consists of a 4.025-Mbp chromosome, and other major findings from our analysis will provide insights into the genomic basis of it being a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol potential. PMID:26159522

  11. Thermal inactivation of antimicrobial-resistant Gram-positive cocci in chicken meat: D and Z value determinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Bertolatti; Steven J. Munyard; Warren B. Grubb; Colin W. Binns

    2001-01-01

    Antimicrobial-resistance in Gram-positive bacteria is reported with increasing frequency in strains isolated from food animals. Their isolation from commercial poultry carcasses and meat products constitute a potential risk that resistant strains or resistance genes might spread to humans via the food chain. As bacterial inactivation by thermal process is a critical control point in the safe preparation of many ready-to-eat

  12. Meso-substituted cationic porphyrins as efficient photosensitizers of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michčle Merchat; Giulio Bertolini; Paolo Giacomini; Angeles Villaneuva; Giulio Jori

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies on the photosensitization of bacterial cells with different neutral or negatively charged porphyrins and phthalocyanines have demonstrated that, although Gram-positive bacteria are efficiently photoinactivated, Gram-negatrive bacteria become photosensitive only after modification of the permeability of their outer membrane.The results described in this paper show that two meso-substituted cationic porphyrins, namely tetra(4N-methyl-pyridyl) porphine tetraiodide and the tetra(4N,N,N,-trimethyl-anilinium) porphine, efficiently

  13. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noelia Costa-Riu; Andreas Burkovski; Reinhard Kramer; Roland Benz

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant

  14. Efficacy of linezolid on gram-positive bacterial infection in elderly patients and the risk factors associated with thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Li-qing; Zhou, Jing; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Su-ming

    2013-01-01

    Objective : Linezolid is active against drug-resistant gram-positive bacteria. However, the efficacy and safety of linezolid in the treatment of the elderly have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of linezolid in the treatment of the elderly with gram-positive bacterial infection and to investigate the risk factors associated with the development of thrombocytopenia in these patients. Methodology: This was a retrospective analysis of 50 elderly patients who were treated with intravenous linezolid for gram-positive bacterial infection. Clinical data and bacteriological responses were assessed. Risk factors associated with thrombocytopenia in elderly patients were analyzed. Results: The overall clinical cure rate of linezolid was 74%, and the bacteriological eradication rate was 69%. Thrombocytopenia occurred in 24 patients, and thrombocytopenia was associated with both the duration of treatment (P = 0.005) and the baseline platelet count (P = 0.042). Based on a logistic regression analysis, the baseline platelet count <200×109/L (OR = 0.244; 95% CI = 0.068- 0.874; P = 0.030) was identified as the only significant risk factor for linezolid-associated thrombocytopenia in elderly patients. The mean platelet count decreased significantly from the 7th day of treatment, and decreased to the lowest value 1-2 days after the end of therapy. Conclusions : Linezolid is effective and safe for the elderly with gram-positive bacterial infections. Adverse effects such as thrombocytopenia are of greater concern. Platelet counts should be monitored in patients who are treated with linezolid and that measures should be taken in advance to avoid hemorrhagic tendencies. PMID:24353639

  15. In Vitro Activity of Ozenoxacin against Quinolone-Susceptible and Quinolone-Resistant Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    López, Y.; Tato, M.; Espinal, P.; Garcia-Alonso, F.; Gargallo-Viola, D.; Cantón, R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro activity of ozenoxacin, a novel nonfluorinated topical (L. D. Saravolatz and J. Leggett, Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:1210–1215, 2003) quinolone, was compared with the activities of other quinolones against well-characterized quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Ozenoxacin was 3-fold to 321-fold more active than other quinolones. Ozenoxacin could represent a first-in-class nonfluorinated quinolone for the topical treatment of a broad range of dermatological infections. PMID:24080666

  16. A Reaction Path Study of the Catalysis and Inhibition of the Bacillus anthracis CapD Glutamyl Transpeptidase

    E-print Network

    A Reaction Path Study of the Catalysis and Inhibition of the Bacillus anthracis CapD Glutamyl of Bacillus anthracis is a -glutamyl transpeptidase from the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily compared to pDGA. Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, sporulating bacterium that normally resides

  17. Gram-positive and gram-negative subcellular localization using rotation forest and physicochemical-based features

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The functioning of a protein relies on its location in the cell. Therefore, predicting protein subcellular localization is an important step towards protein function prediction. Recent studies have shown that relying on Gene Ontology (GO) for feature extraction can improve the prediction performance. However, for newly sequenced proteins, the GO is not available. Therefore, for these cases, the prediction performance of GO based methods degrade significantly. Results In this study, we develop a method to effectively employ physicochemical and evolutionary-based information in the protein sequence. To do this, we propose segmentation based feature extraction method to explore potential discriminatory information based on physicochemical properties of the amino acids to tackle Gram-positive and Gram-negative subcellular localization. We explore our proposed feature extraction techniques using 10 attributes that have been experimentally selected among a wide range of physicochemical attributes. Finally by applying the Rotation Forest classification technique to our extracted features, we enhance Gram-positive and Gram-negative subcellular localization accuracies up to 3.4% better than previous studies which used GO for feature extraction. Conclusion By proposing segmentation based feature extraction method to explore potential discriminatory information based on physicochemical properties of the amino acids as well as using Rotation Forest classification technique, we are able to enhance the Gram-positive and Gram-negative subcellular localization prediction accuracies, significantly. PMID:25734546

  18. Anti-Peptidoglycan Antibodies and Fc? Receptors Are the Key Mediators of Inflammation in Gram-Positive Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dawei; Raisley, Brent; Langer, Marybeth; Iyer, Janaki K.; Vedham, Vidya; Ballard, Jimmy L.; James, Judith A.; Metcalf, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are an important public health problem, but it is unclear how they cause systemic inflammation in sepsis. Our previous work showed that peptidoglycan (PGN) induced proinflammatory cytokines in human cells by binding to an unknown extracellular receptor, followed by phagocytosis leading to the generation of NOD ligands. In this study, we used flow cytometry to identify host factors that supported PGN binding to immune cells. PGN binding required plasma, and plasma from all tested healthy donors contained IgG recognizing PGN. Plasma depleted of IgG or of anti-PGN Abs did not support PGN binding or PGN-triggered cytokine production. Adding back intact but not F(ab?)2 IgG restored binding and cytokine production. Transfection of HEK293 cells with Fc?RIIA enabled PGN binding and phagocytosis. These data establish a key role for anti-PGN IgG and Fc?Rs in supporting inflammation to a major structural element of Gram-positive bacteria and suggest that anti-PGN IgG contributes to human pathology in Gram-positive sepsis. PMID:22815288

  19. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehron, M. J.; Davis, J. D.; Smith, G. A.; White, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  20. A novel beta-defensin structure: a potential strategy of big defensin for overcoming resistance by Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Takahide; Fujitani, Naoki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Osaki, Tsukasa; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Demura, Makoto; Nitta, Katsutoshi; Kawano, Keiichi

    2008-10-01

    Big defensin is a 79-residue peptide derived from hemocytes of the Japanese horseshoe crab. It has antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The amino acid sequence of big defensin can be divided into an N-terminal hydrophobic half and a C-terminal cationic half. Interestingly, the trypsin cleaves big defensin into two fragments, the N-terminal and C-terminal fragments, which are responsible for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, respectively. To explore the antimicrobial mechanism of big defensin, we determined the solution structure of mature big defensin and performed a titration experiment with DPC micelles. Big defensin has a novel defensin structure; the C-terminal domain adopts a beta-defensin structure, and the N-terminal domain forms a unique globular conformation. It is noteworthy that the hydrophobic N-terminal domain undergoes a conformational change in micelle solution, while the C-terminal domain remains unchanged. Here, we propose that the N-terminal domain achieves its antimicrobial activity in a novel fashion and explain that big defensin has developed a strategy different from those of other beta-defensins to suppress the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:18785751

  1. Evidence for Direct Electron Transfer by a Gram-Positive Bacterium Isolated from a Microbial Fuel Cell?†

    PubMed Central

    Wrighton, K. C.; Thrash, J. C.; Melnyk, R. A.; Bigi, J. P.; Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Remis, J. P.; Schichnes, D.; Auer, M.; Chang, C. J.; Coates, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance in iron redox cycles and bioenergy production, the underlying physiological, genetic, and biochemical mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer by Gram-positive bacteria remain insufficiently understood. In this work, we investigated respiration by Thermincola potens strain JR, a Gram-positive isolate obtained from the anode surface of a microbial fuel cell, using insoluble electron acceptors. We found no evidence that soluble redox-active components were secreted into the surrounding medium on the basis of physiological experiments and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Confocal microscopy revealed highly stratified biofilms in which cells contacting the electrode surface were disproportionately viable relative to the rest of the biofilm. Furthermore, there was no correlation between biofilm thickness and power production, suggesting that cells in contact with the electrode were primarily responsible for current generation. These data, along with cryo-electron microscopy experiments, support contact-dependent electron transfer by T. potens strain JR from the cell membrane across the 37-nm cell envelope to the cell surface. Furthermore, we present physiological and genomic evidence that c-type cytochromes play a role in charge transfer across the Gram-positive bacterial cell envelope during metal reduction. PMID:21908627

  2. Results of the surveillance of Tedizolid activity and resistance program: in vitro susceptibility of gram-positive pathogens collected in 2011 and 2012 from the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Daniel F; Deane, Jennifer; Bien, Paul A; Locke, Jeffrey B; Zuill, Douglas E; Shaw, Karen J; Bartizal, Ken F

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity and spectrum of tedizolid and comparators were analyzed against 6884 Gram-positive clinical isolates collected from multiple US and European sites as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance Program in 2011 and 2012. Organisms included 4499 Staphylococcus aureus, 537 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 873 enterococci, and 975 ?-hemolytic streptococci. The MIC values that inhibited 90% of the isolates within each group (MIC90) were 0.25 ?g/mL for Staphylococcus epidermidis and ?-hemolytic streptococci and 0.5 ?g/mL for S. aureus, other CoNS, and enterococci. Of 16 isolates with elevated tedizolid or linezolid MIC values (intermediate or resistant isolates), 10 had mutations in the genes encoding 23S rRNA (primarily G2576T), 5 had mutations in the genes encoding ribosomal proteins L3 or L4, and 5 carried the cfr multidrug resistance gene. Overall, tedizolid showed excellent activity against Gram-positive bacteria and was at least 4-fold more potent than linezolid against wild-type and linezolid-resistant isolates. Given the low overall frequency of isolates that would be resistant to tedizolid at the proposed break point of 0.5 ?g/mL (0.19%) and potent activity against contemporary US and European isolates, tedizolid has the potential to serve as a valuable therapeutic option in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25488274

  3. Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Mechanisms of Their Targeting to the Cell Wall Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, William Wiley; Schneewind, Olaf

    1999-01-01

    The cell wall envelope of gram-positive bacteria is a macromolecular, exoskeletal organelle that is assembled and turned over at designated sites. The cell wall also functions as a surface organelle that allows gram-positive pathogens to interact with their environment, in particular the tissues of the infected host. All of these functions require that surface proteins and enzymes be properly targeted to the cell wall envelope. Two basic mechanisms, cell wall sorting and targeting, have been identified. Cell well sorting is the covalent attachment of surface proteins to the peptidoglycan via a C-terminal sorting signal that contains a consensus LPXTG sequence. More than 100 proteins that possess cell wall-sorting signals, including the M proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes, protein A of Staphylococcus aureus, and several internalins of Listeria monocytogenes, have been identified. Cell wall targeting involves the noncovalent attachment of proteins to the cell surface via specialized binding domains. Several of these wall-binding domains appear to interact with secondary wall polymers that are associated with the peptidoglycan, for example teichoic acids and polysaccharides. Proteins that are targeted to the cell surface include muralytic enzymes such as autolysins, lysostaphin, and phage lytic enzymes. Other examples for targeted proteins are the surface S-layer proteins of bacilli and clostridia, as well as virulence factors required for the pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes (internalin B) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PspA) infections. In this review we describe the mechanisms for both sorting and targeting of proteins to the envelope of gram-positive bacteria and review the functions of known surface proteins. PMID:10066836

  4. Comparison of the D-glutamate-adding enzymes from selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A W; Falk, P J; Thanassi, J; Discotto, L; Pucci, M J; Ho, H T

    1999-09-01

    The biochemical properties of the D-glutamate-adding enzymes (MurD) from Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated to detect any differences in the activity of this enzyme between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The genes (murD) that encode these enzymes were cloned into pMAL-c2 fusion vector and overexpressed as maltose-binding protein-MurD fusion proteins. Each fusion protein was purified to homogeneity by affinity to amylose resin. Proteolytic treatments of the fusion proteins with factor Xa regenerated the individual MurD proteins. It was found that these fusion proteins retain D-glutamate-adding activity and have Km and Vmax values similar to those of the regenerated MurDs, except for the H. influenzae enzyme. Substrate inhibition by UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine, the acceptor substrate, was observed at concentrations greater than 15 and 30 microM for E. coli and H. influenzae MurD, respectively. Such substrate inhibition was not observed with the E. faecalis and S. aureus enzymes, up to a substrate concentration of 1 to 2 mM. In addition, the two MurDs of gram-negative origin were shown to require monocations such as NH4+ and/or K+, but not Na+, for optimal activity, while anions such as Cl- and SO4(2-) had no effect on the enzyme activities. The activities of the two MurDs of gram-positive origin, on the other hand, were not affected by any of the ions tested. All four enzymes required Mg2+ for the ligase activity and exhibited optimal activities around pH 8. These differences observed between the gram-positive and gram-negative MurDs indicated that the two gram-negative bacteria may apply a more stringent regulation of cell wall biosynthesis at the early stage of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway than do the two gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, the MurD-catalyzed reaction may constitute a fine-tuning step necessary for the gram-negative bacteria to optimally maintain its relatively thin yet essential cell wall structure during all stages of growth. PMID:10464212

  5. Combined Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure and Temperature for Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecile Clery-Barraud; Agnes Gaubert; Patrick Masson; Dominique Vidal

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming gram-positive bacillus that causes anthrax. This zoonosis mostly affects herbivores. Occasionally humans contract the disease via the cutaneous route or via inhalation of aerosolized spores. The risk of bio- logical warfare and bioterrorism is of increasing concern for governmental authorities, especially since the dissemination of spores through letters sent through the postal system. This caused

  6. Production of a bacteriocin by a poultry derived Campylobacter jejuni isolate with antimicrobial activity against Clostridium perfringens and other Gram positive bacteria.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have purified a bacteriocin peptide (termed CUV-3), produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni (strain CUV-3) with inhibitory activity against Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Listeria mon...

  7. Targeting agr- and agr-Like quorum sensing systems for development of common therapeutics to treat multiple gram-positive bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian; Hall, Pamela; Gresham, Hattie

    2013-01-01

    Invasive infection by the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by a four gene operon, agr that encodes a quorum sensing system for the regulation of virulence. While agr has been well studied in S. aureus, the contribution of agr homologues and analogues in other Gram-positive pathogens is just beginning to be understood. Intriguingly, other significant human pathogens, including Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis contain agr or analogues linked to virulence. Moreover, other significant human Gram-positive pathogens use peptide based quorum sensing systems to establish or maintain infection. The potential for commonality in aspects of these signaling systems across different species raises the prospect of identifying therapeutics that could target multiple pathogens. Here, we review the status of research into these agr homologues, analogues, and other peptide based quorum sensing systems in Gram-positive pathogens as well as the potential for identifying common pathways and signaling mechanisms for therapeutic discovery. PMID:23598501

  8. Targeting agr- and agr-Like Quorum Sensing Systems for Development of Common Therapeutics to Treat Multiple Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Brian; Hall, Pamela; Gresham, Hattie

    2013-01-01

    Invasive infection by the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by a four gene operon, agr that encodes a quorum sensing system for the regulation of virulence. While agr has been well studied in S. aureus, the contribution of agr homologues and analogues in other Gram-positive pathogens is just beginning to be understood. Intriguingly, other significant human pathogens, including Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis contain agr or analogues linked to virulence. Moreover, other significant human Gram-positive pathogens use peptide based quorum sensing systems to establish or maintain infection. The potential for commonality in aspects of these signaling systems across different species raises the prospect of identifying therapeutics that could target multiple pathogens. Here, we review the status of research into these agr homologues, analogues, and other peptide based quorum sensing systems in Gram-positive pathogens as well as the potential for identifying common pathways and signaling mechanisms for therapeutic discovery. PMID:23598501

  9. In Vitro Activity of Tedizolid Against Gram-Positive Bacteria in Patients With Skin and Skin Structure Infections and Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia: A Korean Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yangsoon; Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Sunghak; Im, Weonbin; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-09-01

    We compared the activities of tedizolid to those of linezolid and other commonly used antimicrobial agents against gram-positive cocci recovered from patients with skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in Korean hospitals. Gram-positive isolates were collected from 356 patients with SSSIs and 144 patients with HAP at eight hospitals in Korea from 2011 to 2014. SSSIs included impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas, furuncles, abscesses, and infected burns. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by using the CLSI agar dilution method. All of the gram-positive isolates were inhibited by ?1 ?g/mL tedizolid. The minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]?? of tedizolid was 0.5 ?g/mL for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which was 4-fold lower than that of linezolid. Tedizolid may become a useful option for the treatment of SSSIs and HAP caused by gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26206690

  10. Role for intracellular platelet-activating factor in the circulatory failure in a model of gram-positive shock.

    PubMed Central

    De Kimpe, S. J.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    1. This study investigates the effects of two structurally different antagonists of platelet-activating factor (PAF), BN52021 and WEB2086, on the circulatory and renal failure elicited by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus (an organism without endotoxin) in anaesthetized rats. 2. Administration of LTA (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline (1 microgram kg-1, i.v.) WEB2086 (5 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min before and 150 min after LTA) inhibited the delayed fall in mean arterial blood pressure (at 300 min: 99 +/- 6 mmHg vs. 75 +/- 6 mmHg, P < 0.01) and prevented the decrease in pressor response to noradrenaline (at 300 min: 36 +/- 5 mmHg min vs. 17 +/- 5 mmHg min, P < 0.01). Surprisingly, BN52021 (20 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min before and 150 min after LTA) neither prevented the hypotension (74 +/- 6 mmHg) nor the vascular hyporeactivity (21 +/- 5 mmHg min). However, BN52021 inhibited the hypotension to injections of PAF as well as the circulatory failure elicited by lipopolysaccharides (10 mg kg-1, i.v.). 3. LTA caused an increase in plasma concentration of creatinine from 39 +/- 5 microM (sham-operated) to 70 +/- 8 microM and urea from 4.7 +/- 0.1 to 13.1 +/- 1.6 mM. The renal failure elicited by LTA was significantly inhibited by WEB2086 (creatinine: 45 +/- 4 microM and urea: 5.7 +/- 0.7 mM), but not by BN52021. 4. The induction of nitric oxide synthase activity in lungs by LTA was attenuated by WEB2086 from 98 +/- 17 to 40 +/- 15 pmol L-citrulline 30 min-1 mg-1 protein (P < 0.01), but not by BN52021 (148 +/- 21 pmol L-citrulline 30 min-1 mg-1 protein). Similarly, WEB2086, but not BN52021, inhibited the increase in plasma nitrite concentration associated with the delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA. The release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after injection of LTA was not attenuated by WEB2086. 5. The induction of nitrite release by cultured macrophages activated with LTA (10 micrograms ml-1 for 24 h) was inhibited by 74 +/- 4% by WEB2086 (3 x 10(-4) M), but not by BN52021, indicating that only WEB2086 acts on intracellular PAF receptors. 6. Thus, the intracellular release of PAF contributes to the circulatory and renal failure and induction of nitric oxide synthase elicited by LTA in anaesthetized rats. The difference between the two structurally different PAF antagonists in our septic shock models using either LTA or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), shows the importance of models for Gram-positive sepsis in the elucidation of the pathophysiology of septic shock and for the evaluation of potential drugs. PMID:8719795

  11. Performances of VITEK 2 Colorimetric Cards for Identification of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wallet, Frédéric; Loďez, Caroline; Renaux, Emilie; Lemaitre, Nadine; Courcol, René J.

    2005-01-01

    Thepurpose of this study was to evaluate the new VITEK 2 identification cards that use colorimetric reading to identify gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (GP and GN cards, respectively) in comparison to fluorimetric cards (ID-GPC and ID-GNB, respectively). A total of 580 clinical isolates and stock collection strains belonging to 116 taxa were included in the study. Of the 249 gram-positive strains tested with both the ID-GPC and GP cards, 218 (87.5%) and 235 (94.4%) strains were correctly identified (to the genus and species level), respectively. Of the 331 gram-negative strains tested with the ID-GNB and GN cards, 295 (89.1%) and 321 (97%) strains were correctly identified, respectively. Another focus of the study was to apply the percentages of correct identifications obtained in this study to the list of bacteria isolated in our laboratory (32,739 isolates) in the year 2004. We obtained 97.9% correct identifications with the colorimetric cards and 93.9% with fluorescent cards. PMID:16145083

  12. Potential Role for Telavancin in Bacteremic Infections Due to Gram-Positive Pathogens: Focus on Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Corey, G. Ralph; Rubinstein, Ethan; Stryjewski, Martin E.; Bassetti, Matteo; Barriere, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is one of the most common serious bacterial infections and the most frequent invasive infection due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Treatment is challenging, particularly for MRSA, because of limited treatment options. Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide antibiotic that is active against a range of clinically relevant gram-positive pathogens including MRSA. In experimental animal models of sepsis telavancin was shown to be more effective than vancomycin. In clinically evaluable patients enrolled in a pilot study of uncomplicated SAB, cure rates were 88% for telavancin and 89% for standard therapy. Among patients with infection due to only gram-positive pathogens enrolled in the 2 phase 3 studies of telavancin for treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia, cure rates for those with bacteremic S. aureus pneumonia were 41% (9/22, telavancin) and 40% (10/25, vancomycin) with identical mortality rates. These data support further evaluation of telavancin in larger, prospective studies of SAB. PMID:25472944

  13. Assessment of the in vitro Efficacy of the Novel Antimicrobial Peptide CECT7121 against Human Gram-Positive Bacteria from Serious Infections Refractory to Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Sparo; D. G. Jones; S. F. Sánchez Bruni

    2009-01-01

    Background: Resistant Gram-positive bacteria are causing increasing concern in clinical practice. This work investigated theefficacy of AP-CECT7121 (an antimicrobial peptide isolated from an environmental strain of Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121) against various pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Methods: Strains were isolated from intensive care unit patients unresponsive to standard antibiotic treatments. Inhibitory activity of AP-CECT7121 was assessed using the agar-well diffusion method. The

  14. Prognostic Value of MIP1?, TGF-? 2, sELAM-1, and sVCAM-1 in Patients with Gram-Positive Sepsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Knapp; Florian Thalhammer; Gottfried J. Locker; Klaus Laczika; Ursula Hollenstein; Michael Frass; Stefan Winkler; Brigitte Stoiser; Astrid Wilfing; Heinz Burgmann

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential prognostic value of MIP-1?, TGF-?2, sELAM-1, and sVCAM-1 in patients with gram-positive sepsis. Twenty-eight patients with gram-positive sepsis were compared to 11 patients with gram-negative sepsis and 15 healthy volunteers. Sepsis was defined by the criteria of Boneet al.(Crit. Care Med.21, 5447–5463, 1993) and by isolation of at least

  15. Biosynthesis of Aliphatic Polyketides by Type III Polyketide Synthase and Methyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiaki Nakano; Hiroki Ozawa; Genki Akanuma; N. Funa; Sueharu Horinouchi

    2009-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) synthesize a variety of aromatic polyketides in plants, fungi, and bacteria. The bacterial genome projects predicted that probable type III PKS genes are distributed in a wide variety of gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The gram-positive model microorganism Bacillus subtilis contained the bcsA-ypbQ operon, which appeared to encode a type III PKS and a methyltransferase, respec-

  16. [Studies on siderophore exchange properties between staphylococci and various species of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Szarapi?ska-Kwaszewska, J; Mikucki, J

    1999-01-01

    The ability of iron utilizing by means of staphylococcal siderophores by bacteria belonging to genera: Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, Curtobacterium, Clavibacter, Bacillus and Mycobacterium was investigated. The staphylococcal donor strains (18 species) used in these experiments were characterized by the ability to utilize siderophores produced by various strains belonging to aforenamed genera. The utilization of staphylococcal siderophores was studied on agar media in which minimally effective concentrations of ethylenediaminedi-ortho-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDA) were used to inhibit indicator strains. Test colonies (staphylococcal) were applied to the surface of the media to determine whether the indicator organisms could obtain the required iron for growth by utilizing chelators from the test colony. The growth inhibition by EDDA of most strains from the Acinetobacter rods and from the coryneform-organisms (plant pathogen) genera, and strains from the species: B. subtilis, M. phlei, M. smegmatis, M. fortuitum was reversed by staphylococcal siderophores. None of the staphylococcal strains investigated, had the ability to exchange siderophores with strains from the species: C. pseudodiphtheriticum, Corynebacterium ANF group, B. megaterium, M. vaccae, M. chitae and M. parafortuitum. PMID:10803251

  17. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

    1991-02-01

    Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:2023428

  18. Protein(s) from the Gram-Positive Bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Induces a Hypersensitive Response in Plants.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, C; Castro, J; Muńoz, F; Arce-Johnson, P; Delgado, J

    1998-04-01

    ABSTRACT The gram-positive tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis induced a local necrotic response on four-o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. This necrosis response was characteristic of the hypersensitive response (HR). The cell-free culture supernatant from strain CMM623 also induced a necrosis that was phenotypically similar to that induced by the bacteria. Inhibitors of plant metabolism suppressed the necrotic reaction of both M. jalapa and tobacco. The HR-inducing activity present in the supernatant was heat stable, sensitive to proteases, and had an apparent molecular mass in the range of 35 to 50 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The properties observed for the necrosis-inducing activity resembled harpin and PopA described from gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria. PMID:18944953

  19. Long-term fertilization of organic manure led to the succession of Bacillus community in an alluvial-aquic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruirui; Lin, Xiangui; Feng, Youzhi; Hu, Junli; Wang, Ruirui

    2014-05-01

    Long-term fertilization inevitably influences soil physic-chemical and biological properties. Our previous studies with a long-term fertilization experiment on an alluvial-aquic have revealed that specific Bacillus spp. was observed in organic manure-fertilized soils. The current study investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on the succession of Bacillus community in soils and their functions. The experiment included three fertilizer treatments: organic manure (OM), mineral fertilizers (NPK) and the control (without fertilizers). The results showed that long-term application of chemical fertilizers didn't increase the quantity of soil microbial population as much as organic fertilizers did, but it played an important role in maintaining the diversity and community structure of indigenous Bacilli. Correspondingly, long-term application of organic manure significantly increased the quantity while significantly decreased the diversity of Bacilli community. The ratio of Bacilli/bacteria was more constant in OM treatment than NPK indicating the stability of the response to long-term organic fertilizers. PCR-DGGE and clone library revealed the succession of Bacillus community after long-term application of organic manure and the dominant Bacillus spp occurred in the treatmen OM was Bacillus asahii. Our results also proved that Bacillus asahii was not derived from exogenous organic manure, but one of indigenous bacteria in the soil. Bacillus asahii was induced by the substrate after the application of organic manure, and gradually evolved into dominant Bacillus after 4 to 5 years. With an enzyme assay test of pure species and a soil incubation experiment, we came to a preliminary judgment, that the dominant Bacillus asahii didn't significantly influence the decomposition rate of cellulose and protein in the soil, but it promoted the decomposition of lipids, and could also improve the transformation process from fresh organic matter to humus. Applied organic manure led to the succession of soil microbial community, as a response, the changed microbial community and their activities influenced the turnover of exogenous and native soil organic matter, as well as the residuals of decomposition and microbial metabolisms.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Type Strain ATCC 14581.

    PubMed

    Arya, Gitanjali; Petronella, Nicholas; Crosthwait, Jennifer; Carrillo, Catherine D; Shwed, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium of biotechnological importance. Here, we report a 5.7-Mbp draft genome sequence of B. megaterium ATCC 14581, which is the type strain of the species. PMID:25395629

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Myophage Moonbeam.

    PubMed

    Cadungog, Joshua N; Khatemi, Brontee E; Hernandez, Adriana C; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Moonbeam is a newly isolated myophage of Bacillus megaterium, a common Gram-positive bacterium that is routinely used for large-scale protein production. Bacteriophages have potential to be useful tools for industrial applications. Here, we describe the complete genome of Moonbeam and describe its features. PMID:25593264

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Type Strain ATCC 14581

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Gitanjali; Petronella, Nicholas; Crosthwait, Jennifer; Carrillo, Catherine D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium of biotechnological importance. Here, we report a 5.7-Mbp draft genome sequence of B. megaterium ATCC 14581, which is the type strain of the species. PMID:25395629

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Myophage Moonbeam

    PubMed Central

    Cadungog, Joshua N.; Khatemi, Brontee E.; Hernandez, Adriana C.

    2015-01-01

    Moonbeam is a newly isolated myophage of Bacillus megaterium, a common Gram-positive bacterium that is routinely used for large-scale protein production. Bacteriophages have potential to be useful tools for industrial applications. Here, we describe the complete genome of Moonbeam and describe its features. PMID:25593264

  4. Activity of a New Oral Streptogramin, XRP2868, against Gram-Positive Cocci Harboring Various Mechanisms of Resistance to Streptogramins

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Michel; Leclercq, Roland

    2006-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of XRP2868, a new oral streptogramin composed of a combination of RPR132552 (streptogramin A) and RPR202868 (streptogramin B), was evaluated against a collection of clinical gram-positive isolates with characterized phenotypes and genotypes of streptogramin resistance. The effects of genes for resistance to streptogramin A or B on the activity of XRP2868 and its components were also tested by cloning these genes individually or in various combinations in gram-positive recipient strains susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin. The species tested included Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and other species of streptococci. XRP2868 was generally fourfold more potent than quinupristin-dalfopristin against S. aureus, E. faecium, and streptococci and had activity against E. faecalis (MICs = 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml). XRP2868 appeared to be affected by the same mechanisms of resistance as those to quinupristin-dalfopristin. Nevertheless, the strong activity of factor A of the oral streptogramin enabled the combination to be very potent against streptogramin-susceptible staphylococci, streptococci, and E. faecium (MICs = 0.03 to 0.25 ?g/ml) and to retain low MICs against the strains harboring a mechanism of resistance to factor A or factor B of the streptogramin. However, the combination of mechanisms of resistance to factors A and B caused an increase in the MICs of XRP2868, which reached 1 to 4 ?g/ml. As with the other streptogramins, there was a reduction in the bactericidal effect of XRPR2868 when the staphylococcal strains acquired a constitutively expressed erm gene. PMID:16377692

  5. Size-dependent antimicrobial properties of CuO nanoparticles against Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Ameer; Ahmed, Arham S; Oves, M; Khan, MS; Memic, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Background CuO is one of the most important transition metal oxides due to its captivating properties. It is used in various technological applications such as high critical temperature superconductors, gas sensors, in photoconductive applications, and so on. Recently, it has been used as an antimicrobial agent against various bacterial species. Here we synthesized different sized CuO nanoparticles and explored the size-dependent antibacterial activity of each CuO nanoparticles preparation. Methods CuO nanoparticles were synthesized using a gel combustion method. In this approach, cupric nitrate trihydrate and citric acid were dissolved in distilled water with a molar ratio of 1:1. The resulting solution was stirred at 100°C, until gel was formed. The gel was allowed to burn at 200°C to obtain amorphous powder, which was further annealed at different temperatures to obtain different size CuO nanoparticles. We then tested the antibacterial properties using well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. Results XRD spectra confirmed the formation of single phase CuO nanoparticles. Crystallite size was found to increase with an increase in annealing temperature due to atomic diffusion. A minimum crystallite size of 20 nm was observed in the case of CuO nanoparticles annealed at 400°C. Transmission electron microscopy results corroborate well with XRD results. All CuO nanoparticles exhibited inhibitory effects against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The size of the particles was correlated with its antibacterial activity. Conclusion The antibacterial activity of CuO nanoparticles was found to be size-dependent. In addition, the highly stable minimum-sized monodispersed copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized during this study demonstrated a significant increase in antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains. PMID:22848176

  6. Purification and characterization of organic solvent and detergent tolerant lipase from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. RN2.

    PubMed

    Kanjanavas, Pornpimon; Khuchareontaworn, Sintawee; Khawsak, Paisarn; Pakpitcharoen, Arda; Pothivejkul, Khajeenart; Santiwatanakul, Somchai; Matsui, Kenji; Kajiwara, Tadahiko; Chansiri, Kosum

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the organic solvent and detergent tolerant properties of recombinant lipase isolated from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. RN2 (Lip-SBRN2). The isolation of the lipase-coding gene was achieved by the use of inverse and direct PCR. The complete DNA sequencing of the gene revealed that the lip-SBRN2 gene contains 576 nucleotides which corresponded to 192 deduced amino acids. The purified enzyme was homogeneous with the estimated molecular mass of 19 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The Lip-SBRN2 was stable in a pH range of 9-11 and temperature range of 45-60 °C. The enzyme was a non metallo-monomeric protein and was active against pNP-caprylate (C8) and pNP-laurate (C12) and coconut oil. The Lip-SBRN2 exhibited a high level of activity in the presence of 108% benzene, 102.4% diethylether and 112% SDS. It is anticipated that the organic solvent and detergent tolerant enzyme secreted by Bacillus sp. RN2 will be applicable as catalysts for reaction in the presence of organic solvents and detergents. PMID:21152301

  7. Gram-Positive Bacteria Are Potent Inducers of Monocytic Interleukin-12 (IL-12) while Gram-Negative Bacteria Preferentially Stimulate IL-10 Production

    PubMed Central

    Hessle, Christina; Andersson, Bengt; Wold, Agnes E.

    2000-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 are two cytokines secreted by monocytes/macrophages in response to bacterial products which have largely opposite effects on the immune system. IL-12 activates cytotoxicity and gamma interferon (IFN-?) secretion by T cells and NK cells, whereas IL-10 inhibits these functions. In the present study, the capacities of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria to induce IL-10 and IL-12 were compared. Monocytes from blood donors were stimulated with UV-killed bacteria from each of seven gram-positive and seven gram-negative bacterial species representing both aerobic and anaerobic commensals and pathogens. Gram-positive bacteria induced much more IL-12 than did gram-negative bacteria (median, 3,500 versus 120 pg/ml at an optimal dose of 25 bacteria/cell; P < 0.001), whereas gram-negative bacteria preferentially stimulated secretion of IL-10 (650 versus 200 pg/ml; P < 0.001). Gram-positive species also induced stronger major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted IFN-? production in unfractionated blood mononuclear cells than did gram-negative species (12,000 versus 3,600 pg/ml; P < 0.001). The poor IL-12-inducing capacity of gram-negative bacteria was not remediated by addition of blocking anti-IL-10 antibodies to the cultures. No isolated bacterial component could be identified that mimicked the potent induction of IL-12 by whole gram-positive bacteria, whereas purified LPS induced IL-10. The results suggest that gram-positive bacteria induce a cytokine pattern that promotes Th1 effector functions. PMID:10816515

  8. Display of proteins on Bacillus subtilis endospores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junehyung Kim; Wolfgang Schumann

    2009-01-01

    The targeting and anchoring of heterologous proteins and peptides to the outer surface of bacteriophages and cells is becoming\\u000a increasingly important, and has been employed as a tool for fundamental and applied research in microbiology, molecular biology,\\u000a vaccinology, and biotechnology. Less known are endospores or spores produced by some Gram-positive species. Spores of Bacillus subtilis are surrounded by a spore

  9. Antimicrobial activity of cationic gemini surfactant containing an oxycarbonyl group in the lipophilic portion against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Taiga; Imai, Yoshitane; Kawaguchi, Kakuhiro; Miyano, Naoko; Ikeda, Isao

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activities of a cationic Gemini surfactant, trans-1,4-bis[2-(alkanoyloxy)ethyldimethylammonio]-2-butene dichloride [II-m-2(t-butene)] and its derivatives against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The II-m-2(t-butene) compound was previously shown to have good surface activity and biodegradability. A dodecanoyloxy derivative (m = 12) of II-m-2(t-butene) showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive Streptococcus aureus [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 7.8 ?g/mL] and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC: 31.2 ?g/mL). PMID:24420061

  10. Use of Enzyme Tests in Characterization and Identification of Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

    PubMed Central

    Bascomb, Shoshana; Manafi, Mammad

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of enzyme tests to the accurate and rapid routine identification of gram-positive cocci is introduced. The current taxonomy of the genera of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cocci based on genotypic and phenotypic characterization is reviewed. The clinical and economic importance of members of these taxa is briefly summarized. Tables summarizing test schemes and kits available for the identification of staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci on the basis of general requirements, number of tests, number of taxa, test classes, and completion times are discussed. Enzyme tests included in each scheme are compared on the basis of their synthetic moiety. The current understanding of the activity of enzymes important for classification and identification of the major groups, methods of testing, and relevance to the ease and speed of identification are reviewed. Publications describing the use of different identification kits are listed, and overall identification successes and problems are discussed. The relationships between the results of conventional biochemical and rapid enzyme tests are described and considered. The use of synthetic substrates for the detection of glycosidases and peptidases is reviewed, and the advantages of fluorogenic synthetic moieties are discussed. The relevance of enzyme tests to accurate and meaningful rapid routine identification is discussed. PMID:9564566

  11. Cerium oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles abolish the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin against gram positive and gram negative biofilm bacteria.

    PubMed

    Masadeh, Majed M; Karasneh, Ghadah A; Al-Akhras, Mohammad A; Albiss, Borhan A; Aljarah, Khaled M; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Alzoubi, Karem H

    2015-05-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have been suggested as good candidates for the development of antibacterial agents. Cerium oxide (CeO2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been utilized in a number of biomedical applications. Here, the antibacterial activity of CeO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles were evaluated on a panel of gram positive and gram negative bacteria in both the planktonic and biofilm cultures. Additionally, the effect of combining CeO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the broad spectrum antibiotic ciprofloxacin on tested bacteria was investigated. Thus, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CeO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles that are required to inhibit bacterial planktonic growth and bacterial biofilm, were evaluated, and were compared to the MICs of the broad spectrum antibiotic ciprofloxacin alone or in the presence of CeO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Results of this study show that both CeO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles fail to inhibit bacterial growth and biofilm biomass for all the bacterial strains tested. Moreover, adding CeO2 or Fe2O3 nanoparticles to the broad spectrum antibiotic ciprofloxacin almost abolished its antibacterial activity. Results of this study suggest that CeO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles are not good candidates as antibacterial agents, and they could interfere with the activity of important antibiotics. PMID:24643389

  12. Antimicrobial photodynamic efficiency of novel cationic porphyrins towards periodontal Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, Chandra Sekhar; Karunakaran, Suneesh C; Paul, Albish K; Kussovski, Vesselin; Mantareva, Vanya; Ramaiah, Danaboyina; Selvaraj, Leslie; Angelov, Ivan; Avramov, Latchezar; Nandakumar, Krishnankutty; Subhash, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum are major causative agents of aggressive periodontal disease. Due to increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy (aPDT) seems to be a plausible alternative. In this work, photosensitization was performed on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in pure culture using new-age cationic porphyrins, namely mesoimidazolium-substituted porphyrin derivative (ImP) and pyridinium-substituted porphyrin derivative (PyP). The photophysical properties of both the sensitizers including absorption, fluorescence emission, quantum yields of the triplet excited states and singlet oxygen generation efficiencies were evaluated in the context of aPDT application. The studied porphyrins exhibited high ability to accumulate into bacterial cells with complete penetration into early stage biofilms. As compared with ImP, PyP was found to be more effective for photoinactivation of bacterial strains associated with periodontitis, without any signs of dark toxicity, owing to its high photocytotoxicity. PMID:24164211

  13. Sustained generation of electricity by the spore-forming, Gram-positive, Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain DCB2.

    PubMed

    Milliken, C E; May, H D

    2007-01-01

    Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain DCB2 generates electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) when humic acids or the humate analog anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) is added as an electron-carrying mediator. When utilizing formate as fuel, the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium generated up to 400 mW/m2 of cathode surface area in a single-chamber MFC with a platinum-containing air-fed cathode. Hydrogen, lactate, pyruvate, and ethanol supported electricity generation, but acetate, propionate, and butyrate did not. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that strain DCB2 colonized the surface of a current-generating anode but not of an unconnected electrode. The electricity was recovered fully within minutes after the exchange of the medium in the anode chamber and within a week after an exposure of a colonized anode to 90 degrees C for 20 min. Of the six strains of Desulfitobacteria tested, all of which would reduce AQDS, only D. hafniense strain DCB2 continued to reduce AQDS and generate electricity for more than 24 h, indicating that reduction of the humate analog alone is insufficient to sustain electrode reduction. PMID:17031638

  14. Novel tetrahydropyran-based bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors with potent anti-gram positive activity and improved safety profile.

    PubMed

    Surivet, Jean-Philippe; Zumbrunn, Cornelia; Rueedi, Georg; Bur, Daniel; Bruyčre, Thierry; Locher, Hans; Ritz, Daniel; Seiler, Peter; Kohl, Christopher; Ertel, Eric A; Hess, Patrick; Gauvin, Jean-Christophe; Mirre, Azely; Kaegi, Verena; Dos Santos, Marina; Kraemer, Stéphanie; Gaertner, Mika; Delers, Jonathan; Enderlin-Paput, Michel; Weiss, Maria; Sube, Romain; Hadana, Hakim; Keck, Wolfgang; Hubschwerlen, Christian

    2015-01-22

    Novel antibacterial drugs that are effective against infections caused by multidrug resistant pathogens are urgently needed. In a previous report, we have shown that tetrahydropyran-based inhibitors of bacterial type II topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) display potent antibacterial activity and exhibit no target-mediated cross-resistance with fluoroquinolones. During the course of our optimization program, lead compound 5 was deprioritized due to adverse findings in cardiovascular safety studies. In the effort of mitigating these findings and optimizing further the pharmacological profile of this class of compounds, we have identified a subseries of tetrahydropyran-based molecules that are potent DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV inhibitors and display excellent antibacterial activity against Gram positive pathogens, including clinically relevant resistant isolates. One representative of this class, compound 32d, elicited only weak inhibition of hERG K(+) channels and hNaV1.5 Na(+) channels, and no effects were observed on cardiovascular parameters in anesthetized guinea pigs. In vivo efficacy in animal infection models has been demonstrated against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. PMID:25494934

  15. Conserved Target for Group II Intron Insertion in Relaxase Genes of Conjugative Elements of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Staddon, Jack H.; Bryan, Edward M.; Manias, Dawn A.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2004-01-01

    The lactococcal group II intron Ll.ltrB interrupts the ltrB relaxase gene within a region that encodes a conserved functional domain. Nucleotides essential for the homing of Ll.ltrB into an intronless version of ltrB are found exclusively at positions required to encode amino acids broadly conserved in a family of relaxase proteins of gram-positive bacteria. Two of these relaxase genes, pcfG from the enterococcal plasmid pCF10 and the ORF4 gene in the streptococcal conjugative transposon Tn5252, were shown to support Ll.ltrB insertion into the conserved motif at precisely the site predicted by sequence homology with ltrB. Insertion occurred through a mechanism indistinguishable from retrohoming. Splicing and retention of conjugative function was demonstrated for pCF10 derivatives containing intron insertions. Ll.ltrB targeting of a conserved motif of a conjugative element suggests a mechanism for group II intron dispersal among bacteria. Additional support for this mechanism comes from sequence analysis of the insertion sites of the E.c.I4 family of bacterial group II introns. PMID:15060042

  16. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    PubMed

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds. PMID:22902190

  17. A light-up probe with aggregation-induced emission characteristics (AIE) for selective imaging, naked-eye detection and photodynamic killing of Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guangxue; Yuan, Youyong; Fang, Hu; Zhang, Ruoyu; Xing, Bengang; Zhang, Guanxin; Zhang, Deqing; Liu, Bin

    2015-07-21

    We report the design and synthesis of a red fluorescent AIE light-up probe for selective recognition, naked-eye detection, and image-guided photodynamic killing of Gram-positive bacteria, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains. PMID:26149530

  18. Rapid Method for Detection of Gram-Positive and Negative Bacteria in Milk from Cows with Moderate or Severe Clinical Mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIAMAK P. YAZDANKHAH; HENNING SŘRUM; HANS JŘRGEN S. LARSEN; GEIR GOGSTAD

    2001-01-01

    A rapid method for demonstration of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in milk is described. The technique is based on dilution of the sample in a medium, followed by filtration through a porous polysulfone membrane with a pore size retaining and concentrating bacteria from the sample. The bacteria concentrated on the surface of the membrane are stained with a cationic dye

  19. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  20. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid uptake and utilization by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): first characterization of a gram-positive bacterial system.

    PubMed

    Banchio, C; Gramajo, H C

    1997-07-01

    The first characterization of fatty acid uptake in a Gram-positive bacterium is reported. Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) utilizes fatty acids of different chain length (C4-C18) as sole carbon and energy sources. In vivo beta-oxidation studies and the assay of two enzymes of the beta-oxidation cycle proved that fatty acid degradation is constitutive in this micro-organism. Uptake of the medium-chain fatty acid octanoate showed the characteristics of simple diffusion, whereas the uptake of palmitate, a long-chain fatty acid, occurred by both simple diffusion and active transport. After correcting for non-mediated transport, palmitate uptake measured over a wide range of concentrations followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent Km for palmitate was 97.8 microM and the Vmax was 19.3 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1. Competition experiments showed specificity of the mediated transport component for long-chain fatty acids (> C10). Metabolic inhibitors such as oligomycin, NaF and vanadate, and the ionophores gramicidin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) inhibited palmitate uptake to different degrees, consistent with the existence of an active transport mechanism. Uptake rates measured at different pH values indicated that both the ionized and the unionized forms of octanoate crossed the cytoplasmic membrane by simple diffusion. Palmitate in its ionized form appears to be transported by an active mechanism, whereas the unionized molecule diffuses through the membrane. When present in the medium, glucose stimulated the degradation of long-chain fatty acids by increasing the rate of uptake and the level of acyl-CoA synthetase. PMID:9245824

  1. effect of fruit juices and pomace extracts on the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judit Krisch; László Galgóczy; Mónika Tölgyesi; Tamás Papp; Csaba Vágvölgyi

    Extracts and juices of cultivated and wild fruits belonging to the families Rosaceae, Grossulariaceae, Moraceae, Berberidaceae, Polygonaceae, Caprifoliaceae and Cornaceae were examined for their growth reducing activity on four bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus var. my- coides, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens). In vitro antibacterial activities were evaluated by microdilution plate assays. Black currant (Ribes nigrum), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

  2. Lessons from the modular organization of the transcriptional regulatory network of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is a fundamental process in prokaryotes. Among the different kind of mechanisms modulating gene transcription, the one based on DNA binding transcription factors, is the most extensively studied and the results, for a great number of model organisms, have been compiled making it possible the in silico construction of their corresponding transcriptional regulatory networks and the analysis of the biological relationships of the components of these intricate networks, that allows to elucidate the significant aspects of their organization and evolution. Results We present a thorough review of each regulatory element that constitutes the transcriptional regulatory network of Bacillus subtilis. For facilitating the discussion, we organized the network in topological modules. Our study highlight the importance of ? factors, some of them acting as master regulators which characterize modules by inter- or intra-connecting them and play a key role in the cascades that define relevant cellular processes in this organism. We discussed that some particular functions were distributed in more than one module and that some modules contained more than one related function. We confirm that the presence of paralogous proteins confers advantages to B. subtilis to adapt and select strategies to successfully face the extreme and changing environmental conditions in which it lives. Conclusions The intricate organization is the product of a non-random network evolution that primarily follows a hierarchical organization based on the presence of transcription and ? factor, which is reflected in the connections that exist within and between modules. PMID:24237659

  3. Thio Derivatives of 2(5H)-Furanone as Inhibitors against Bacillus subtilis Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Trizna, E. Yu.; Khakimullina, E. N.; Latypova, L. Z.; Kurbangalieva, A. R.; Sharafutdinov, I. S.; Evtyugin, V. G.; Babynin, E. V.; Bogachev, M. I.; Kayumov, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria cause a wide spectrum of infectious diseases, including nosocomial infections. While in the biofilm, bacteria exhibit increased resistance to antibiotics and the human immune system, causing difficulties in treatment. Thus, the development of biofilm formation inhibitors is a great challenge in pharmacology. The gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used as a model organism for studying biofilm formation. Here, we report on the effect of new synthesized 2(5H)-furanones on the biofilm formation by B.subtilis cells. Among 57 compounds tested, sulfur-containing derivatives of 2(5H)-furanone (F12, F15, and F94) repressed biofilm formation at a concentration of 10 ?g/ml. Derivatives F12 and F94 were found to inhibit the biosynthesis of GFP from the promoter of the eps operon encoding genes of the biofilm exopolysaccharide synthesis (EPS). Using the differential fluorescence staining of alive/dead cells, we demonstrated an increased bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics (kanamycin and chloramphenicol) in the presence of F12, F15, and F94, with F12 being the most efficient one. The derivative F15 was capable of disrupting an already formed biofilm and thereby increasing the efficiency of antibiotics.

  4. Trends and exceptions of physical properties on antibacterial activity for Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dean G; May-Dracka, Tricia L; Gagnon, Moriah M; Tommasi, Ruben

    2014-12-11

    To better understand the difficulties surrounding the identification of novel antibacterial compounds from corporate screening collections, physical properties of ?3200 antibacterial project compounds with whole cell activity against Gram-negative or Gram-positive pathogens were profiled and compared to actives found from high throughput (HTS) screens conducted on both biochemical and phenotypic bacterial targets. The output from 23 antibacterial HTS screens illustrated that when compared to the properties of the antibacterial project compounds, the HTS actives were significantly more hydrophobic than antibacterial project compounds (typically 2-4 log units higher), and furthermore, for 14/23 HTS screens, the average clogD was higher than the screening collection average (screening collection clogD = 2.45). It was found that the consequences of this were the following: (a) lead identification programs often further gained hydrophobic character with increased biochemical potency, making the separation even larger between the physicochemical properties of known antibacterial agents and the HTS active starting point, (b) the probability of plasma protein binding and cytotoxicity are often increased, and (c) cell-based activity in Gram-negative bacteria was severely limited or, if present, demonstrated significant efflux. Our analysis illustrated that compounds least susceptible to efflux were those which were highly polar and small in MW or very large and typically zwitterionic. Hydrophobicity was often the dominant driver for HTS actives but, more often than not, precluded whole cell antibacterial activity. However, simply designing polar compounds was not sufficient for antibacterial activity and pointed to a lack of understanding of complex and specific bacterial penetration mechanisms. PMID:25402200

  5. Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that AgNPs could be used as an adjuvant for the treatment of infectious diseases.

  6. [Intergenus natural genetic transformation between Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis at different growth phase].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Mei-Ju; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Shen, Ping

    2007-12-01

    The culture fluids of Escheriachia coli with shuttle plasmid and Bacillus subtilis strains were mixed and coincubated for 40 minutes after culturing respectively in LB and minimal media. The steadily plasmid transfer by natural genetic transformation between these two gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated by the methods of selective medium screening, DNase I sensitivity test and plasmid detection. In contrast to MM culture B. subtilis LB culture can be competent and has equivalent transformation frequency. Furthermore, the maximal transformation frequency was obtained when cells in exponential phase served as donors or recipients. It is suggested that B. subtilis solid transformation is different from liquid plasmid transformation including the whole process of DNA plasmid competence producing. Understanding the mechanisms of gene transfer between bacteria may aid in assessing the potential risk associated with the release of recombinant organisms into the environment. PMID:18271246

  7. Pyridine degradation and heterocyclic nitrification by Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Uma, B; Sandhya, S

    1997-06-01

    A gram-positive, pyridine-degrading microorganism identified as Bacillus coagulans has been isolated from contaminated soil by enrichment culture technique. Pyridine was used as sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Bacillus coagulans has a unique potential to reduce nitrogen from aromatic ring to ammonia and subsequently heterotrophically to nitrite and nitrate. The maximum degradation of pyridine was 94.1% within 72 h at 30 degrees C with a 7.57-h doubling time. The study suggests possible existence of aromatic degradation and heterotrophic nitrification in Bacillus coagulans. PMID:9289352

  8. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  9. Characterization of biphenyl catabolic genes of gram-positive polychlorinated biphenyl degrader rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1

    SciTech Connect

    Masai, Eiji; Hatta, Takashi; Kimbara, Kazuhide [Research Development Corporation of Japan, Shinsan (Japan)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1 is a gram-positive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader which can degrade 10 ppm of PCB-48 (equivalent to Aroclor 1248), including tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls, in a few days. We isolated the 7.6-kb EcoRI-BamHI fragment carrying the biphenyl catabolic genes of RHA1 and determined their nucleotide sequence. On the basis of deduced amino acid sequence homology, we identified six bph genes, bphA1A2A3A4, bphB, and bphC, that are responsible for the initial three steps of biphenyl degradation. The order of bph genes in RHA1 is bphA1A2A3A4-bphC-bphB. This gene order differs from that of other PCB degraders reported previously. The amino acid sequences deduced from the RHA1 bph genes have a higher degree of homology with the tod genes from Pseudomonas putida F1 (49 to 79%) than with the bph genes of Pseudomonas sp. strains KF707 and KKS102 (30-65%). FIn Escherichia coli, bphA gene activity was not observed even when expression vectors were used. The activities of bphB and bphC, however, were confirmed by observing the transformation of biphenyl to a meta-cleavage compound with the aid of benzene dioxygenase activity that complemented the bphA gene activity (S. Irie, S. Djoi, T. Yorifuji, M. Takagi, and K. Yano, J. Bacteriol. 169:5174-5179, 1987). The expected products of the cloned bph genes, except bphA3, were observed in E. coli in an in vitro transcription-translation system. Insertion mutations of bphA1 and bphC of Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1 were constructed by gene replacement with cloned gene fragments. The bphA1 and bphC insertion mutants lost the ability to grow on biphenyl, demonstrating that the cloned bph genes are essential for biphenyl catabolism in this strain. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia D457R Contains a Cluster of Genes from Gram-Positive Bacteria Involved in Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Ana; Sanchez, Patricia; Martínez, José L.

    2000-01-01

    A cluster of genes involved in antibiotic and heavy metal resistance has been characterized from a clinical isolate of the gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These genes include a macrolide phosphotransferase (mphBM) and a cadmium efflux determinant (cadA), together with the gene cadC coding for its transcriptional regulator. The cadC cadA region is flanked by a truncated IS257 sequence and a region coding for a bin3 invertase. Despite their presence in a gram-negative bacterium, these genetic elements share a common gram-positive origin. The possible origin of these determinants as a remnant composite transposon as well as the role of gene transfer between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria for the acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants in chronic, mixed infections is discussed. PMID:10858330

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Tigecycline (GAR936), Daptomycin, and Comparative Antimicrobial Agents against Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus and Other Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Petersen; Patricia A. Bradford; William J. Weiss; Timothy M. Murphy; P. E. Sum; Steven J. Projan

    2002-01-01

    Tigecycline (GAR-936) and daptomycin are potent antibacterial compounds in advanced stages of clinical trials. These novel agents target multiply resistant pathogenic bacteria. Daptomycin is principally active against gram-positive bacteria, while tigecycline has broad-spectrum activity. When tested by the standard protocols of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards in Mueller-Hinton broth II, tigecycline was more active than daptomycin (MICs at

  12. Lactobacillus plantarum gene clusters encoding putative cell-surface protein complexes for carbohydrate utilization are conserved in specific gram-positive bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Siezen; Jos Boekhorst; Lidia Muscariello; Douwe Molenaar; Bernadet Renckens; Michiel Kleerebezem

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomes of gram-positive bacteria encode many putative cell-surface proteins, of which the majority has no known function. From the rapidly increasing number of available genome sequences it has become apparent that many cell-surface proteins are conserved, and frequently encoded in gene clusters or operons, suggesting common functions, and interactions of multiple components. RESULTS: A novel gene cluster encoding exclusively

  13. Production and purification of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen from Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Laird; David Zukauskas; Kelly Johnson; Gavin C. Sampey; Henrik Olsen; Andy Garcia; Jeffrey D. Karwoski; Bridget A. Cooksey; Gil H. Choi; Janine Askins; Amos Tsai; Jennifer Pierre; William Gwinn

    2004-01-01

    Anthrax is caused by the gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Current vaccines against anthrax use PA as their primary component since it confers protective immunity. In this work, we expressed soluble, recombinant PA in relatively high amounts in the periplasm of E. coli from shake

  14. Tumor necrosis factor alpha mediates lethal activity of killed gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in D-galactosamine-treated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg, M A; Galanos, C

    1991-01-01

    Treatment with D-galactosamine increases sensitivity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responder mice to the lethal effects of LPS, while nonresponder mice remain resistant (M.A. Freudenberg, D. Keppler, and C. Galanos, Infect. Immun. 51:891-895, 1986). In the present study it is shown that, in contrast to LPS, killed gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella abortus equi and S. typhimurium) were highly toxic for D-galactosamine-treated LPS-responder (C57BL/10 ScSN and C3H/HeN) and -nonresponder (C57BL/10 ScCR and C3H/HeJ) mice, although to a higher extent in the former strains. Also, killed gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, and Mycobacterium phlei) exhibited toxicity for D-galactosamine-treated mice, LPS-responder and -nonresponder mice being equally susceptible. Evidently, bacterial components other than LPS may exhibit lethal effects in sensitized animals. In all cases, the lethality of LPS and of bacteria was inhibited by anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) serum. While LPS induced TNF-alpha in vitro only in macrophages from LPS-responder mice, gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria induced TNF-alpha also in macrophages from LPS-nonresponder mice. The data show that TNF-alpha is a common endogenous mediator of the lethal activity of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. PMID:2037372

  15. Synthesis of well–dispersed silver nanorods of different aspect ratios and their antimicrobial properties against gram positive and negative bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the present contribution, we describe the synthesis of highly dispersed silver nanorods (NRs) of different aspect ratios using a chemical route. The shape and size of the synthesized NRs were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. Longitudinal and transverse absorptions bands confirm the rod type structure. The experimentally recorded UV-visible spectra of NRs solutions were fitted by using an expression of the extinction coefficient for rod like nano structures under the dipole approximation. Simulated and experimentally observed UV-visible spectra were compared to determine the aspect ratios (R) of NRs. The average values of R for NR1, NR2 and NR3 solutions are estimated to be 3.0?±?0.1, 1.8?±?0.1 and 1.2?±?0.1, respectively. These values are in good agreement with those obtained by TEM micrographs. The silver NRs of known aspect ratios are used to study antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis (gram positive) and E. coli (gram negative) microbes. We observed that the NRs of intermediate aspect ratio (R?=?1.8) have greater antimicrobial effect against both, B. subtilis (gram positive) and E. coli (gram negative). The NRs of aspect ratio, R?=?3.0 has better antimicrobial activities against gram positive than on the gram negative. PMID:24358993

  16. Synthesis of well-dispersed silver nanorods of different aspect ratios and their antimicrobial properties against Gram positive and negative bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Animesh K; Forster, Stefan; Kumar, Sumeet; Vats, Siddharth; Negi, Sangeeta; Fischer, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    In the present contribution, we describe the synthesis of highly dispersed silver nanorods (NRs) of different aspect ratios using a chemical route. The shape and size of the synthesized NRs were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. Longitudinal and transverse absorptions bands confirm the rod type structure. The experimentally recorded UV-visible spectra of NRs solutions were fitted by using an expression of the extinction coefficient for rod like nano structures under the dipole approximation. Simulated and experimentally observed UV-visible spectra were compared to determine the aspect ratios (R) of NRs. The average values of R for NR1, NR2 and NR3 solutions are estimated to be 3.0 ± 0.1, 1.8 ± 0.1 and 1.2 ± 0.1, respectively. These values are in good agreement with those obtained by TEM micrographs. The silver NRs of known aspect ratios are used to study antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis (gram positive) and E. coli (gram negative) microbes. We observed that the NRs of intermediate aspect ratio (R = 1.8) have greater antimicrobial effect against both, B. subtilis (gram positive) and E. coli (gram negative). The NRs of aspect ratio, R = 3.0 has better antimicrobial activities against gram positive than on the gram negative. PMID:24358993

  17. Solvent tolerant marine bacterium Bacillus aquimaris secreting organic solvent stable alkaline cellulase.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Nitin; Gupta, Vishal; Kumar, Manoj; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-04-01

    The organic solvent tolerant bacteria with their physiological abilities to decontaminate the organic pollutants have potentials to secrete extracellular enzymes of commercial importance. Of the 19 marine bacterial isolates examined for their solvent tolerance at 10vol.% concentration, one had the significant tolerance and showed a relative growth yield of 86% for acetone, 71% for methanol, 52% for benzene, 35% for heptane, 24% for toluene and 19% for ethylacetate. The phylogenetic analysis of this strain using 16S rDNA sequence revealed 99% homology with Bacillus aquimaris. The cellulase enzyme secreted by this strain under normal conditions showed an optimum activity at pH 11 and 45°C. The enzyme did show functional stability even at higher pH (12) and temperature (75°C) with residual activity of 85% and 95% respectively. The enzyme activity in the presence of different additives were in the following order: Co(+2)>Fe(+2)>NaOCl(2)>CuSO(4)>KCl>NaCl. The enzyme stability in the presence of solvents at 20vol.% concentration was highest in benzene with 122% followed by methanol (85%), acetone (75%), toluene (73%) and heptane (42%). The pre-incubation of enzyme in ionic liquids such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide increased its activity to 150% and 155% respectively. The change in fatty acid profile with different solvents further elucidated the physiological adaptations of the strain to tolerate such extreme conditions. PMID:21388656

  18. A Bacillus subtilis fusion protein system to produce soybean Bowman–Birk protease inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Vogtentanz; Katherine D. Collier; Michael Bodo; Judy H. Chang; Anthony G. Day; David A. Estell; Brandy C. Falcon; Grant Ganshaw; Alisha S. Jarnagin; James T. Kellis Jr.; Marc A. B. Kolkman; Cindy S. Lai; Renato Meneses; Jeffrey V. Miller; Hans de Nobel; Scott Power; Walter Weyler; David L. Wong; Brian F. Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    A fusion protein based expression system was developed in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis to produce the soybean Bowman–Birk protease inhibitor (sBBI). The N-terminus of the mature sBBI was fused to the C-terminus of the 1st cellulose binding domain linker (CBD linker) of the BCE103 cellulase (from an alkalophilic Bacillus sp.). The strong aprE promoter was used to drive the

  19. Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from Bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment.

    PubMed

    Compaoré, Clarisse S; Nielsen, Dennis S; Ouoba, Labia I I; Berner, Torben S; Nielsen, Kristian F; Sawadogo-Lingani, Hagrétou; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Jakobsen, Mogens; Thorsen, Line

    2013-04-01

    Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditional Bikalga were examined for their antimicrobial activity against a panel of 36 indicator organisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. The Bacillus spp. isolates showed variable inhibitory abilities depending on the method used. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were inhibited in the agar spot assay while only Gram-positive pathogens were inhibited in the agar well diffusion assay. Cell free supernatants (CFS) of pure cultures of 3 B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (G2, H4 and F1) strains inhibited growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, while CFS of 2 B. licheniformis (E3 and F9) strains only inhibited M. luteus. The antimicrobial substance(s) produced by B. subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 was further characterized. The antimicrobial substance(s) produced by H4 was detected from mid-exponential growth phase. The activity was sensitive to protease and trypsin, but resistant to the proteolytic action of proteinase K and papain. Treatment with ?-amylase and lipase II resulted in a complete loss of antimicrobial effect, indicating that a sugar moiety and lipid moiety are necessary for the activity. Treatment with mercapto-ethanol resulted in a significant loss, indicative of the presence of disulfide bridges. The antimicrobial activity of H4 was heat resistant and active at pH3-10. PCR detection of yiwB, sboA, spoX, albA and spaS, etnS genes and genes coding for surfactins and plipastatins (fengycins) indicated a potential for subtilosin, subtilin and lipopeptide production, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out and a single band of approximately 4kDa had antimicrobial activity. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOFMS) analysis of the 4kDa band allowed identification of surfactin and a protein with a monoisotopic mass of 3346.59Da, which is dissimilar in size to subtilosin and subtilin. Surfactin is a cyclic lipoheptapeptide, which contains a ?-hydroxy fatty acid, but no di-sulfide bridges or sugar residues. The complete loss of activity upon amylase treatment indicates that surfactin was not responsible for the observed antimicrobial effect. However, it cannot completely be ruled out that surfactin acts synergistically with the detected protein, though further investigations are needed to confirm this. PMID:23466466

  20. Enzymatic Synthesis of Isopropyl Acetate by Immobilized Bacillus cereus Lipase in Organic Medium

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Madan Lal; Azmi, Wamik; Kanwar, Shamsher Singh

    2011-01-01

    Selective production of fragrance fatty acid ester from isopropanol and acetic acid has been achieved using silica-immobilized lipase of Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372. A purified thermoalkalophilic extracellular lipase was immobilized by adsorption onto the silica. The effects of various parameters like molar ratio of substrates (isopropanol and acetic acid; 25 to 100?mM), concentration of biocatalyst (25–125?mg/mL), reaction time, reaction temperature, organic solvents, molecular sieves, and initial water activity were studied for optimal ester synthesis. Under optimized conditions, 66.0?mM of isopropyl acetate was produced when isopropanol and acetic acid were used at 100?mM: 75?mM in 9?h at 55°C in n-heptane under continuous shaking (160?rpm) using bound lipase (25?mg). Addition of molecular sieves (3?Ĺ ×?1.5?mm) resulted in a marked increase in ester synthesis (73.0?mM). Ester synthesis was enhanced by water activity associated with pre-equilibrated saturated salt solution of LiCl. The immobilized lipase retained more than 50% of its activity after the 6th cycle of reuse. PMID:21603222

  1. Comparative physiological and transcriptional analysis of weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Ter Beek, Alexander; Wijman, Janneke G E; Zakrzewska, Anna; Orij, Rick; Smits, Gertien J; Brul, Stanley

    2015-02-01

    The advent of 'omics' techniques bears significant potential for the assessment of the microbiological stability of foods. This requires the integration of molecular data with their implication for cellular physiology. Here we performed a comparative physiological and transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis stressed with three different weak organic acids: the commonly used food preservatives sorbic- and acetic-acid, plus the well-known uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP). The concentration of each compound needed to cause a similar reduction of the growth rate negatively correlated with their membrane solubility, and positively with the concentration of undissociated acid. Intracellular acidification was demonstrated by expressing a pH-sensitive GFP derivative. The largest drop in intracellular pH was observed in CCCP-stressed cells and was accompanied by the transcriptional induction of the general stress response (GSR) and SigM regulon, responses known to be induced by acidification. The GSR was induced by acetate, but not by sorbate in mildly-stressed cells. Microarray analysis further revealed that all three acids activate transcriptional programs normally seen upon nutrient limitation and cause diverse responses indicative of an adaptation of the cell envelope. Based on the responses observed and the utilized pH measurements, the inhibitory effect of sorbic acid seems to be more focused on the cell membrane than that of acetic acid or CCCP. PMID:25481064

  2. Genetic Diversity in the Protective Antigen Gene of Bacillus anthracis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LANCE B. PRICE; MARTIN HUGH-JONES; PAUL J. JACKSON; PAUL KEIM

    1999-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes the disease anthrax. The anthrax toxin contains three components, including the protective antigen (PA), which binds to eucaryotic cell surface receptors and mediates the transport of toxins into the cell. In this study, the entire 2,294-nucleotide protective antigen gene (pag) was sequenced from 26 of the most diverse B. anthracis strains

  3. Sequence organization and regulation of the Bacillus subtilis menBE operon.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, J R; Taber, H W

    1992-01-01

    Menaquinone (MK) plays a central role in the respiratory chain of Bacillus subtilis. The biosynthesis of MK requires the formation of a naphthoquinone ring via a series of specific reactions branching from the shikimate pathway. "Early" MK-specific reactions catalyze the formation of o-succinylbenzoate (OSB) from isochorismate, and "late" reactions convert OSB to dihydroxynaphthoate, by utilizing an OSB-coenzyme A intermediate. We have cloned and sequenced the B. subtilis menE and menB genes encoding, respectively, OSB-coenzyme A synthase and dihydroxynaphthoate synthase. The MenB open reading frame encodes a potential polypeptide of 261 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 28.5 kDa, while the MenE open reading frame could encode a 24.4-kDa polypeptide of 220 amino acid residues. Probable promoter sequences were identified by high-resolution primer extension assays. Organization of these genes and regulatory regions was found to be menBp menB menEp menE. Expression of menE was dependent on both menEp and menBp, indicating an operonlike organization. A region of dyad symmetry capable of forming a stable RNA secondary structure was found between menB and menE. Culture cycle-dependent expression of menB and menE was measured by steady-state transcript accumulation. For both genes, maximal accumulation was found to occur within an hour after the end of exponential growth. The menBp and menEp promoters have sequences compatible with recognition by the major vegetative form of B. subtilis RNA polymerase, E sigma A. Both promoter regions also were found to contain homologies to a sequence motif previously identified in the menCDp region and in promoters for several B. subtilis tricarboxylic acid cycle genes. Images PMID:1629163

  4. Complex Organization and Dynamic Regulation of the pks Gene Cluster in Bacillus subtilis

    E-print Network

    Vargas Bautista, Carol M

    2014-08-27

    The pks genes are the largest antibiotic- encoding gene cluster in Bacillus subtilis and encode the Pks enzymatic complex that produces bacillaene. Bacillaene plays important roles in the fitness of B. subtilis during competition with other...

  5. The Bacillus BioBrick Box: generation and evaluation of essential genetic building blocks for standardized work with Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Standardized and well-characterized genetic building blocks are a prerequisite for the convenient and reproducible assembly of novel genetic modules and devices. While numerous standardized parts exist for Escherichia coli, such tools are still missing for the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. The goal of this study was to develop and thoroughly evaluate such a genetic toolbox. Results We developed five BioBrick-compatible integrative B. subtilis vectors by deleting unnecessary parts and removing forbidden restriction sites to allow cloning in BioBrick (RFC10) standard. Three empty backbone vectors with compatible resistance markers and integration sites were generated, allowing the stable chromosomal integration and combination of up to three different devices in one strain. In addition, two integrative reporter vectors, based on the lacZ and luxABCDE cassettes, were BioBrick-adjusted, to enable ?-galactosidase and luciferase reporter assays, respectively. Four constitutive and two inducible promoters were thoroughly characterized by quantitative, time-resolved measurements. Together, these promoters cover a range of more than three orders of magnitude in promoter strength, thereby allowing a fine-tuned adjustment of cellular protein amounts. Finally, the Bacillus BioBrick Box also provides five widely used epitope tags (FLAG, His10, cMyc, HA, StrepII), which can be translationally fused N- or C-terminally to any protein of choice. Conclusion Our genetic toolbox contains three compatible empty integration vectors, two reporter vectors and a set of six promoters, two of them inducible. Furthermore, five different epitope tags offer convenient protein handling and detection. All parts adhere to the BioBrick standard and hence enable standardized work with B. subtilis. We believe that our well-documented and carefully evaluated Bacillus BioBrick Box represents a very useful genetic tool kit, not only for the iGEM competition but any other BioBrick-based project in B. subtilis. PMID:24295448

  6. Rapid identification of Gram-positive pathogens and their resistance genes from positive blood culture broth using a multiplex tandem RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Hazelton, Briony J; Thomas, Lee C; Unver, Tuba; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2013-02-01

    The early initiation of targeted antibiotic therapy in patients with bacteraemia and septic shock impacts favourably on outcomes. Rapid methods are therefore increasingly employed for bacterial identification directly from positive blood culture bottles, but with variable success. We evaluated the performance of the Gram Positive 12 multiplex tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay (AusDiagnostics; catalogue no. 6202, version 07) containing targets for the identification of staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci including Streptococcus pneumoniae, enterococci including Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and their common antibiotic resistance genes (mecA, vanA, vanB). A total of 673 aerobic and anaerobic blood culture broths demonstrating Gram-positive cocci on microscopy were analysed in parallel with traditional phenotypic methods. Amplification of the internal control was inhibited in 79/673 (11.7?%) samples; however, MT-PCR identification was in concordance with phenotypic identification to the genus level in 96.6?% (537/556) of the remaining monomicrobial specimens and to the species level, where applicable, in 100?% (172/172) of samples. MT-PCR identification for 94.7?% (36/38) of polymicrobial samples matched traditional phenotypic identification. Meticillin and vancomycin susceptibility results determined by MT-PCR in blood culture broths demonstrated complete agreement with those determined by phenotypic methods in all 143 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and eight E. faecium isolates, respectively. Gram-positive pathogens and their key antibiotic resistance markers were reliably identified with the MT-PCR assay within 3 h of a positive blood culture result. PMID:23139396

  7. rRNA (rrn) Operon-Engineered Bacillus subtilis as a Feasible Test Organism for Antibiotic Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yukinori; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Yano, Koichi; Kakugawa, Koji; Kawamura, Fujio

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains 10 rRNA (rrn) operons. We found that rRNA operon-engineered B. subtilis strain RIK543, with only the rrnO operon, is specifically hypersensitive to RNA polymerase inhibitors such as rifamycin SV and rifampin (80-fold and 20-fold, respectively). In pilot screening experiments, we found actinomycete isolates successfully at an incidence of 1.9% (18/945) that produced antibacterials that were detectable only with RIK543 as the test organism. Strain RIK543 may be a feasible test organism for the discovery of novel RNA polymerase inhibitors. PMID:23335737

  8. Discovery of a New Class of Non-?-lactam Inhibitors of Penicillin-Binding Proteins with Gram-Positive Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by hard-to-treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a serious global public-health concern, as MRSA has become broadly resistant to many classes of antibiotics. We disclose herein the discovery of a new class of non-?-lactam antibiotics, the oxadiazoles, which inhibit penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) of MRSA. The oxadiazoles show bactericidal activity against vancomycin- and linezolid-resistant MRSA and other Gram-positive bacterial strains, in vivo efficacy in a mouse model of infection, and have 100% oral bioavailability. PMID:24517363

  9. Physico-Chemical-Managed Killing of Penicillin-Resistant Static and Growing Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Vegetative Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert Chaffee (Inventor); Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Farris, III, Alex F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for the use of compounds from the Hofmeister series coupled with specific pH and temperature to provide rapid physico-chemical-managed killing of penicillin-resistant static and growing Gram-positive and Gram-negative vegetative bacteria. The systems and methods represent the more general physico-chemical enhancement of susceptibility for a wide range of pathological macromolecular targets to clinical management by establishing the reactivity of those targets to topically applied drugs or anti-toxins.

  10. In vivo metabolism of 2,2 prime -diaminopimelic acid from gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells by ruminal microorganisms and ruminants and its use as a marker of bacterial biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Masson, H.A.; Denholm, A.M.; Ling, J.R. (Univ. College of Wales (United Kingdom))

    1991-06-01

    Cells of Bacillus megaterium GW1 and Escherichia coli W7-M5 were specifically radiolabeled with 2,2{prime}-diamino (G-{sup 3}H) pimelic acid (({sup 3}H)DAP) as models of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Two experiments were conducted to study the in vivo metabolism of 2,2{prime}-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) in sheep. In experiment 1, cells of ({sup 3}H)DAP-labeled B. megaterium GW1 were infused into the rumen of one sheep and the radiolabel was traced within microbial samples, digesta, and the whole animal. Bacterially bound ({sup 3}H)DAP was extensively metabolized, primarily (up to 70% after 8 h) via decarboxylation to ({sup 3}H)lysine by both ruminal protozoa and ruminal bacteria. Recovery of infused radiolabel in urine and feces was low (42% after 96 h) and perhaps indicative of further metabolism by the host animal. In experiment 2, ({sup 3}H)DAP-labeled B. megaterium GW1 was infused into the rumens of three sheep and ({sup 3}H)DAP-labeled E. coli W7-W5 was infused into the rumen of another sheep. The radioactivity contents of these mutant bacteria were insufficient to use as tracers, but the metabolism of DAP was monitored in the total, free, and peptidyl forms. Free DAP, as a proportion of total DPA in duodenal digesta, varied from 0 to 9.5%, whereas peptidyl DAP accounted for 8.3 to 99.2%.

  11. Gram-positive and Gram-negative protein subcellular localization by incorporating evolutionary-based descriptors into Chou?s general PseAAC.

    PubMed

    Dehzangi, Abdollah; Heffernan, Rhys; Sharma, Alok; Lyons, James; Paliwal, Kuldip; Sattar, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization is defined as predicting the functioning location of a given protein in the cell. It is considered an important step towards protein function prediction and drug design. Recent studies have shown that relying on Gene Ontology (GO) for feature extraction can improve protein subcellular localization prediction performance. However, relying solely on GO, this problem remains unsolved. At the same time, the impact of other sources of features especially evolutionary-based features has not been explored adequately for this task. In this study, we aim to extract discriminative evolutionary features to tackle this problem. To do this, we propose two segmentation based feature extraction methods to explore potential local evolutionary-based information for Gram-positive and Gram-negative subcellular localizations. We will show that by applying a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to our extracted features, we are able to enhance Gram-positive and Gram-negative subcellular localization prediction accuracies by up to 6.4% better than previous studies including the studies that used GO for feature extraction. PMID:25264267

  12. Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. (Bowling Green State Univ., OH (USA)); Hartman, P.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

  13. Comparison of in vitro susceptibilities of Gram-positive cocci isolated from ocular infections against the second and fourth generation quinolones at a tertiary eye care centre in South India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A K Reddy; P Garg; M R Alam; U Gopinathan; S Sharma; S Krishnaiah

    2010-01-01

    PurposeTo compare the in vitroantimicrobial susceptibilities of Gram-positive cocci isolated from the ocular infections to the second and fourth generation fluoroquinolones at a tertiary eye care centre in south India.MethodsA retrospective review of microbiology records at LV Prasad eye institute, Hyderabad, India, identified 787 Gram-positive cocci isolated from different ocular infections between January 2005 to May 2008.The isolates were identified

  14. Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth–promoting bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Hua Chen; Alexandra Koumoutsi; Romy Scholz; Andreas Eisenreich; Kathrin Schneider; Isabelle Heinemeyer; Burkhard Morgenstern; Björn Voss; Wolfgang R Hess; Oleg Reva; Helmut Junge; Birgit Voigt; Peter R Jungblut; Joachim Vater; Roderich Süssmuth; Heiko Liesegang; Axel Strittmatter; Gerhard Gottschalk; Rainer Borriss

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a Gram-positive, plant-associated bacterium, which stimulates plant growth and produces secondary metabolites that suppress soil-borne plant pathogens. Its 3,918-kb genome, containing an estimated 3,693 protein-coding sequences, lacks extended phage insertions, which occur ubiquitously in the closely related Bacillus subtilis 168 genome. The B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 genome reveals an unexpected potential to produce secondary metabolites, including the

  15. Transcriptional Organization and Posttranscriptional Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis Branched-Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Mäder, Ulrike; Hennig, Susanne; Hecker, Michael; Homuth, Georg

    2004-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, the genes of the branched-chain amino acids biosynthetic pathway are organized in three genetic loci: the ilvBHC-leuABCD (ilv-leu) operon, ilvA, and ilvD. These genes, as well as ybgE, encoding a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase, were recently demonstrated to represent direct targets of the global transcriptional regulator CodY. In the present study, the transcriptional organization and posttranscriptional regulation of these genes were analyzed. Whereas ybgE and ilvD are transcribed monocistronically, the ilvA gene forms a bicistronic operon with the downstream located ypmP gene, encoding a protein of unknown function. The ypmP gene is also directly preceded by a promoter sharing the regulatory pattern of the ilvA promoter. The ilv-leu operon revealed complex posttranscriptional regulation: three mRNA species of 8.5, 5.8, and 1.2 kb were detected. Among them, the 8.5-kb full-length primary transcript exhibits the shortest half-life (1.2 min). Endoribonucleolytic cleavage of this transcript generates the 5.8-kb mRNA, which lacks the coding sequences of the first two genes of the operon and is predicted to carry a stem-loop structure at its 5? end. This processing product has a significantly longer half-life (3 min) than the full-length precursor. The most stable transcript (half-life, 7.6 min) is the 1.2-kb mRNA generated by the processing event and exonucleolytic degradation of the large transcripts or partial transcriptional termination. This mRNA, which encompasses exclusively the ilvC coding sequence, is predicted to carry a further stable stem-loop structure at its 3? end. The very different steady-state amounts of mRNA resulting from their different stabilities are also reflected at the protein level: proteome studies revealed that the cellular amount of IlvC protein is 10-fold greater than that of the other proteins encoded by the ilv-leu operon. Therefore, differential segmental stability resulting from mRNA processing ensures the fine-tuning of the expression of the individual genes of the operon. PMID:15060025

  16. Assessing the interactions of a natural antibacterial clay with model Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londono, S. C.; Williams, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and increasing accumulations of antibiotics in reclaimed water, drive the quest for new natural antimicrobials. We are studying the antibacterial mechanism(s) of clays that have shown an ability to destroy bacteria or significantly inhibit their growth. One possible mode of action is from soluble transition metal species, particularly reduced Fe, capable of generating deleterious oxygen radical species. Yet another possibility is related to membrane damage as a consequence of physical or electrostatic interaction between clay and bacteria. Both mechanisms could combine to produce cell death. This study addresses a natural antibacterial clay from the NW Amazon basin, South America (AMZ clay). Clay mineralogy is composed of disordered kaolinite (28.9%), halloysite (17.8%) illite (12%) and smectite (16.7%). Mean particle size is 1.6?m and total and specific surface area 278.82 and 51.23 m2/g respectively. The pH of a suspension (200mg/ml) is 4.1 and its Eh is 361mV after 24h of equilibration. The ionic strength of the water in equilibrium with the clay after 24 h. is 6 x10-4M. These conditions, affect the element solubility, speciation, and interactions between clay and bacteria. Standard microbiological methods were used to assess the viability of two model bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) after incubation with clay at 37 degC for 24 hrs. A threefold reduction in bacterial viability was observed upon treatment with AMZ clay. We separated the cells from the clay using Nycodenz gradient media and observed the mounts under the TEM and SEM. Results showed several membrane anomalies and structural changes that were not observed in the control cells. Additionally, clay minerals appeared in some places attached to cell walls. Experiments showed that exchanging AMZ clay with KCl caused loss of antibacterial property. Among the exchangeable -and potentially toxic- ions we measured Al+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Ba+2 and Co+2. Besides being toxic at high concentrations, these species affect the electrophoretic interactions between clay and bacteria surfaces. Additionally, the cation exchange neutralizes the clay surface charge thus modifying further the behavior of particles in suspension. Therefore, we evaluated the clay and bacteria zeta potential (?) as an index for possible electrostatic forces and modeled the total interactions using DLVO theory. We suspended the particles in water equilibrated with clay (leachate). Results show that at pH 4, the ? of clays is -14 mV while it is -3mV for bacteria. The divalent ions and trivalent Aluminum, present in the AMZ leachate, compress the thickness of the double layer (hydration shell) thus decreasing electrostatic repulsion and allowing particles to come closer. The proximity of particles increases the probability of attractive forces to bind clays and cells. In summary, results indicate that a process other than simple chemical transfer from clay to bacteria is operating. The electrostatic attraction and physical proximity may enhance the toxic action of metals and interfere with the membrane properties or processes.

  17. The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramarao, Nalini; Sanchis, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group contains diverse Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal diseases and severe eye infections in humans. They have also been incriminated in a multitude of other severe, and frequently fatal, clinical infections, such as osteomyelitis, septicaemia, pneumonia, liver abscess and meningitis, particularly in immuno-compromised patients and preterm neonates. The pathogenic properties of this organism are mediated by the synergistic effects of a number of virulence products that promote intestinal cell destruction and/or resistance to the host immune system. This review focuses on the pore-forming haemolysins produced by B. cereus: haemolysin I (cereolysin O), haemolysin II, haemolysin III and haemolysin IV (CytK). Haemolysin I belongs to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family whose best known members are listeriolysin O and perfringolysin O, produced by L. monocytogenes and C. perfringens respectively. HlyII and CytK are oligomeric ß-barrel pore-forming toxins related to the ?-toxin of S. aureus or the ß-toxin of C. perfringens. The structure of haemolysin III, the least characterized haemolytic toxin from the B. cereus, group has not yet been determined. PMID:23748204

  18. Lactococcus lactis TrxD represents a subgroup of thioredoxins prevalent in Gram-positive bacteria containing WCXDC active site motifs.

    PubMed

    Björnberg, Olof; Efler, Petr; Ebong, Epie Denis; Svensson, Birte; Hägglund, Per

    2014-12-15

    Three protein disulfide reductases of the thioredoxin superfamily from the industrially important Gram-positive Lactococcus lactis (LlTrxA, LlTrxD and LlNrdH) are compared to the "classical" thioredoxin from Escherichia coli (EcTrx1). LlTrxA resembles EcTrx1 with a WCGPC active site motif and other key residues conserved. By contrast, LlTrxD is more distantly related and contains a WCGDC motif. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that LlTrxD represents a subgroup of thioredoxins from Gram-positive bacteria. LlNrdH is a glutaredoxin-like electron donor for ribonucleotide reductase class Ib. Based on protein-protein equilibria LlTrxA (E°'=-259mV) and LlNrdH (E°'=-238mV) show approximately 10mV higher standard state redox potentials than the corresponding E. coli homologues, while E°' of LlTrxD is -243mV, more similar to glutaredoxin than "classical" thioredoxin. EcTrx1 and LlTrxA have high capacity to reduce insulin disulfides and their exposed active site thiol is alkylated at a similar rate at pH 7.0. LlTrxD on the other hand, is alkylated by iodoacetamide at almost 100 fold higher rate and shows no activity towards insulin disulfides. LlTrxA, LlTrxD and LlNrdH are all efficiently reduced by NADPH dependent thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from L. lactis and good cross-reactivity towards E. coli TrxR was observed with LlTrxD as the notable exception. PMID:25255970

  19. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants. PMID:22720735

  20. Differentiated pellicle organization and lipopeptide production in standing culture of Bacillus subtilis strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlčne Chollet-Imbert; Frédérique Gancel; Christian Slomianny; Philippe Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Pellicle formation and lipopeptide production was analysed in standing cultures of different Bacillus subtilis strains producing two or three families of lipopeptides. Despite its ability to produce surfactin, B. Subtilis ATCC 6633 was unable to form stable pellicle at air–water interface. For the ATTC 21332 and ATCC 9943 strains, it was shown\\u000a for the first time that the lipopeptides were

  1. Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2, xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a?=?b?=?9.435 Ĺ, c?=?6.876 Ĺ for xAg?=?0.05, a?=?b?=?9.443 Ĺ, c?=?6.875 Ĺ for xAg?=?0.2, and a?=?b?=?9.445 Ĺ, c?=?6.877 Ĺ for xAg?=?0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a?=?b?=?9.418 Ĺ, c?=?6.884 Ĺ (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples (xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of xAg in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth (P. stuartii). PMID:22721352

  2. Pathogenomic sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Han, Cliff S; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F; Altherr, Michael R; Bhotika, Smriti S; Brown, Nancy; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S; Campbell, Mary L; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A; Fawcett, John J; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A; Green, Lance D; Hill, Karen K; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J; Misra, Monica; Moseman, Bernice L; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A Christine; Okinaka, Richard T; Parson-Quintana, B; Reilly, Lee Philip; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, Donna L; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O; Wills, Patti L; Brettin, Thomas S; Gilna, Paul

    2006-05-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian serotype H34, isolated from a necrotic human wound, and B. cereus E33L, which was isolated from a swab of a zebra carcass in Namibia. These two strains, when analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism within a collection of over 300 of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis isolates, appear closely related to B. anthracis. The B. cereus E33L isolate appears to be the nearest relative to B. anthracis identified thus far. Whole-genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 97-27and B. cereus E33L was undertaken to identify shared and unique genes among these isolates in comparison to the genomes of pathogenic strains B. anthracis Ames and B. cereus G9241 and nonpathogenic strains B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Comparison of these genomes revealed differences in terms of virulence, metabolic competence, structural components, and regulatory mechanisms. PMID:16621833

  3. Studies On Commercially Important Alkaline Protease From Bacillus Lichniformis N-2 Isolated From Decaying Organic Soil (Çürümekte Olan Organik Topraktan ?zole Edilen, Bacillus Lichniformis N- 2 Tarafindan Sentezlenen ve Ticari Önem Ta?iyan Alkalen Proteaz Üzerine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Nadeem; Javed Iqbal Qazi; Shahjahan Baig; Qurat-ul-ain Syed

    Eighty bacterial strains were isolated from upper layer (0-5 cm) of decaying organic soil sample. Thirty eight isolates (47.50 %) exhibited the prominent zones of clear- ance on skim milk agar medium at pH 10. These isolates were then characterized and identified. Thirty two (40 %) of the alkalophylic isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. Maximum enzyme activity (123.29 ±

  4. Purification and characterization of a thermo- and organic solvent-tolerant alkaline protease from Bacillus sp. JER02.

    PubMed

    Badoei-Dalfard, Arastoo; Karami, Zahra; Ravan, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus sp. JER02 is a bacterial strain that can be grown in a medium containing organic solvents and produce a protease enzyme. JER02 protease was purified with a yield of 31.9% of total protein and 328.83-fold purification. Km and Vmax of this protease were established as 0.826 µM and 7.18 µmol/min, respectively. JER02 protease stability was stimulated about 80% by cyclohexane. It exhibited optimum temperature activity at 70°C. Furthermore, this enzyme was active in a wide range of pH (4-12) and showed maximum activity at pH 9.0. The nonionic detergents Tween-20 and Triton X-100 improved the protease activity by 30 and 20%, respectively. In addition, this enzyme was shown to be very stable in the presence of strong anionic surfactants and oxidizing agents, since it retained 77%, 93%, and 98% of its initial activity, after 1 hr of incubation at room temperature with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium perborate (1%, v/v) and H2O2 (1%, v/v), respectively. Overall, the unique properties of the Bacillus sp. JER02 protease suggested that this thermo- and detergent-stable, solvent-tolerant protease has great potential for industrial applications. PMID:24845261

  5. Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, R C

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation anthrax. In addition, treatment and vaccination strategies will be reviewed. PMID:12610093

  6. Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Liz

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At ?20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load. PMID:24082400

  7. Efficacy of 5-day parenteral versus intramammary benzylpenicillin for treatment of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kalmus, P; Simojoki, H; Orro, T; Taponen, S; Mustonen, K; Holopainen, J; Pyörälä, S

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of parenteral (intramuscular) or intramammary (IMM) benzylpenicillin treatment for clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro was investigated. Cows with clinical mastitis in 1 udder quarter were randomly placed into 2 treatment groups. The preliminary bacteriological diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI) was based on on-farm culturing, and the bacteriological diagnoses were later confirmed by a quantitative PCR assay. Clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to benzylpenicillin was treated with penicillin via either the parenteral route (20mg/kg) or IMM route (600mg) once per day for 5d. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated 3 to 4wk after the onset of the treatment. The affected quarter was examined to assess the clinical cure, and milk samples were collected from the affected quarter to determine the bacteriological cure and milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity. The survival and the composite milk somatic cell counts of the treated cows were followed up for 6 and 3mo after treatment, respectively. A total of 140 cows with clinical mastitis were included in the study, 61 being treated with benzylpenicillin parenterally and 79 via the IMM route. From all quarters treated, 108 of 140 (77.1%) were cured clinically and 77 of 140 (55.0%) were cured bacteriologically. The route of treatment did not significantly affect the outcome of the treatment; 80.3% of the quarters with parenteral treatment and 74.7% of the quarters with IMM treatment showed a clinical cure, and 54.1 and 55.7% a bacteriological cure, respectively. The milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity was significantly lower in the quarters with a clinical or bacteriological cure than in the quarters with no cure. The 6-mo survival and the proportion of cows with composite milk somatic cell counts <200,000/mL among the treated cows during the 3-mo follow-up period did not significantly differ between the treatment groups. In conclusion, the outcome of either parenteral or IMM benzylpenicillin treatment of clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible bacteria was similar. PMID:24485692

  8. Enthalpies of proton adsorption onto Bacillus licheniformis at 25, 37, 50, and 75 °C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drew Gorman-Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Understanding bacterial surface reactivity requires many different lines of investigation. Toward this end, we used isothermal titration calorimetry to measure heats of proton adsorption onto a Gram positive thermophile Bacillus licheniformis at 25, 37, 50, and 75°C. Proton adsorption under all conditions exhibited exothermic heat production. Below pH 4.5, exothermic heats decreased as temperature increased above 37°C; above pH 4.5,

  9. Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis: new insights into regulatory strategies and assembly mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Lynne S; Hobley, Laura; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a social behaviour that generates favourable conditions for sustained survival in the natural environment. For the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis the process involves the differentiation of cell fate within an isogenic population and the production of communal goods that form the biofilm matrix. Here we review recent progress in understanding the regulatory pathways that control biofilm formation and highlight developments in understanding the composition, function and structure of the biofilm matrix. PMID:24988880

  10. Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacterial Biofilms by Bioluminescence Imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Núńez, Silvia C.; Azambuja, Nilton; Fregnani, Eduardo R.; Rodriguez, Helena M.H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Suzuki, Hideo; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to test photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an alternative approach to biofilm disruption on dental hard tissue, We evaluated the effect of methylene blue and a 660?nm diode laser on the viability and architecture of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial biofilms. Materials and methods: Ten human teeth were inoculated with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterococcus faecalis to form 3 day biofilms in prepared root canals. Bioluminescence imaging was used to serially quantify and evaluate the bacterial viability, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging was used to assess architecture and morphology of bacterial biofilm before and after PDT employing methylene blue and 40?mW, 660?nm diode laser light delivered into the root canal via a 300??m fiber for 240?sec, resulting in a total energy of 9.6?J. The data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. Results: The bacterial reduction showed a dose dependence; as the light energy increased, the bioluminescence decreased in both planktonic suspension and in biofilms. The SEM analysis showed a significant reduction of biofilm on the surface. PDT promoted disruption of the biofilm and the number of adherent bacteria was reduced. Conclusions: The photodynamic effect seems to disrupt the biofilm by acting both on bacterial cells and on the extracellular matrix. PMID:23822168

  11. Enhancement of Antibacterial Activity of Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Combination with Antibiotics, on Model Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Rastogi, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The nanoparticles used in this study were prepared from AgNO3 using NaBH4 in the presence of capping agents such as citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The formed nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of yellow colour and an absorption maximum between 399 and 404?nm. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and polydisperse. For citrate, SDS, and PVP capped nanoparticles, the average particle sizes were 38.3 ± 13.5, 19.3 ± 6.0, and 16.0 ± 4.8?nm, respectively. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles in FCC structure is confirmed from the SAED and XRD patterns. Also, the combined antibacterial activity of these differently capped nanoparticles with selected antibiotics (streptomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) was evaluated on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, employing disc diffusion assay. The activity of the tested antibiotics was enhanced in combination with all the stabilized nanoparticles, against both the Gram classes of bacteria. The combined effects of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics were more prominent with PVP capped nanoparticles as compared to citrate and SDS capped ones. The results of this study demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics. PMID:23970844

  12. Two recombinant peptides, SpStrongylocins 1 and 2, from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, show antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Smith, L Courtney; Karp, Matti T; Stensvĺg, Klara

    2010-03-01

    The cysteine-rich strongylocins were the first antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) discovered from the sea urchin species, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Homologous putative proteins (called SpStrongylocin) were found in the sister species, S. purpuratus. To demonstrate that they exhibit the same antibacterial activity as strongylocins, cDNAs encoding the 'mature' peptides (SpStrongylocins 1 and 2) were cloned into a direct expression system fusing a protease cleavage site and two purification tags to the recombinant peptide. Both recombinant fusion peptides were expressed in a soluble form in an Escherichia coli strain tolerant to toxic proteins. Enterokinase was used to remove the fusion tags and purified recombinant SpStrongylocins 1 and 2 showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The results of membrane integrity assays against cytoplasmic membranes of E. coli suggest that both recombinant SpStrongylocins 1 and 2 conduct their antibacterial activity by intracellular killing mechanisms because no increase in membrane permeability was detected. PMID:19852980

  13. Effect of CL 184,005, a platelet-activating factor antagonist in a murine model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced gram-positive sepsis.

    PubMed

    DeJoy, S Q; Jeyaseelan, R; Torley, L W; Pickett, W C; Wissner, A; Wick, M M; Oronsky, A L; Kerwar, S S

    1994-01-01

    Experiments using a murine model of heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus-induced gram-positive bacterial sepsis indicate that the lethal bacterial effects can be prevented if mice are pretreated with CL 184,005, a platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist. CL 184,005 was ineffective when administered after bacterial challenge. Plasma of mice pretreated with CL 184,005 contained significantly less tumor necrosis factor (TNF), suggesting that CL 184,005 interferes with TNF synthesis induced by S. aureus. Spleen-associated TNF protein was also decreased by pretreatment with CL 184,005. Although TNF levels were significantly decreased in mice treated with CL 184,005, interleukin-6 levels in serum were significantly increased. Athymic mice were also susceptible to the lethal effects of S. aureus, suggesting that T cells were not involved. When rats rendered hypotensive with S. aureus were treated with CL 184,005, their blood pressure was normalized. Mice treated with enterotoxin B were not protected if they were pretreated with CL 184,005; however, TNF levels in these mice were significantly lower, suggesting that mediators other than PAF and TNF may contribute to the lethal effects of enterotoxin. PMID:8277176

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility in gram-positive chronic joint arthroplasty infections: increased aminoglycoside resistance rate in patients with prior aminoglycoside-impregnated cement spacer use.

    PubMed

    Corona, Pablo S; Espinal, Laia; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Pigrau, Carles; Larrosa, Nieves; Flores, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    Two-stage revision using aminoglycoside-cement spacers (A-CSs) is widely used to manage chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, aminoglycoside-resistance in gram-positive cocci (GPC) seems to be increasing. Moreover, the contribution of these A-CSs to select resistant mutants is a matter of concern. We study the antibiotic susceptibility profile of GPC after 113 chronic hip and knee PJIs. Aminoglycoside susceptibility-profiles were compared between cases where A-CSs had previously been used (n: 52), and cases of primary infection (n: 61). 32% of isolates were resistant to gentamicin and 40.6% to tobramycin. Gentamicin resistance after previous A-CS use was significantly higher (49.2% [30/61] vs. 19.3% [16/83]; P: 0.0001) as well as with tobramycin (52.7% [29/55] vs. 30.9% [21/66]; P: 0.014). A high rate of gentamicin-tobramycin resistance exists among the most common bacteria involved in chronic-PJI. The risk of selection for aminoglycoside-resistant mutants in cases of infection relapse is a concern following A-CS use. PMID:24798194

  15. Amino acid modified xanthone derivatives: novel, highly promising membrane-active antimicrobials for multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jun-Jie; Lin, Shuimu; Aung, Thet Tun; Lim, Fanghui; Zou, Hanxun; Bai, Yang; Li, Jianguo; Lin, Huifen; Pang, Li Mei; Koh, Wee Luan; Salleh, Shuhaida Mohamed; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Zhou, Lei; Qiu, Shengxiang; Pervushin, Konstantin; Verma, Chandra; Tan, Donald T H; Cao, Derong; Liu, Shouping; Beuerman, Roger W

    2015-01-22

    Antibiotic resistance is a critical global health care crisis requiring urgent action to develop more effective antibiotics. Utilizing the hydrophobic scaffold of xanthone, we identified three components that mimicked the action of an antimicrobial cationic peptide to produce membrane-targeting antimicrobials. Compounds 5c and 6, which contain a hydrophobic xanthone core, lipophilic chains, and cationic amino acids, displayed very promising antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA and VRE, rapid time-kill, avoidance of antibiotic resistance, and low toxicity. The bacterial membrane selectivity of these molecules was comparable to that of several membrane-targeting antibiotics in clinical trials. 5c and 6 were effective in a mouse model of corneal infection by S. aureus and MRSA. Evidence is presented indicating that 5c and 6 target the negatively charged bacterial membrane via a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These results suggest that 5c and 6 have significant promise for combating life-threatening infections. PMID:25474410

  16. Structural and Functional Conversion of Molecular Chaperone ClpB from the Gram-Positive Halophilic Lactic Acid Bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus Mediated by ATP and Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Tsuruno, Keigo; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we report the purification, initial structural characterization, and functional analysis of the molecular chaperone ClpB from the gram-positive, halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus. A recombinant T. halophilus ClpB (ClpBTha) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography, hydroxyapatite chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. As demonstrated by gel filtration chromatography, chemical cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, and electron microscopy, ClpBTha forms a homohexameric single-ring structure in the presence of ATP under nonstress conditions. However, under stress conditions, such as high-temperature (>45°C) and high-salt concentrations (>1 M KCl), it dissociated into dimers and monomers, regardless of the presence of ATP. The hexameric ClpBTha reactivated heat-aggregated proteins dependent upon the DnaK system from T. halophilus (KJETha) and ATP. Interestingly, the mixture of dimer and monomer ClpBTha, which was formed under stress conditions, protected substrate proteins from thermal inactivation and aggregation in a manner similar to those of general molecular chaperones. From these results, we hypothesize that ClpBTha forms dimers and monomers to function as a holding chaperone under stress conditions, whereas it forms a hexamer ring to function as a disaggregating chaperone in cooperation with KJETha and ATP under poststress conditions. PMID:16997952

  17. Antimicrobial Effect of the Triterpene 3?,6?,16?-Trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms from Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; dos Santos, Hélcio Silva; Bandeira, Paulo Nogueira; Ávila, Fábio do Nascimento; da Silva, Bruno Rocha; Vasconcelos, Ariana Azevedo; Rabelo, Érica de Menezes; Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 3?,6?,16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (CLF1), a triterpene isolated from Combretum leprosum Mart., in inhibiting the planktonic growth and biofilms of Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans and S. mitis. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antibiofilm potential was determined by quantifying total biomass and enumerating biofilm-entrapped viable bacteria. In addition, the acute toxicity of CLF1 on Artemia sp. nauplii was also determined. The results showed that CLF1 was able in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and S. mitis with MIC and MBC of 7.8??g/mL and 15.6??g/mL, respectively. CLF1 was highly effective on biofilms of both bacteria. Only 7.8??g/mL CLF1 was enough to inhibit by 97% and 90% biomass production of S. mutans and S. mitis, respectively. On the other hand, such effects were not evident on Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca. The toxicity tests showed that the LC50 of CLF1 was 98.19??g/mL. Therefore, CLF1 isolated from C. leprosum may constitute an important natural agent for the development of new therapies for caries and other infectious diseases caused by S. mutans and S. mitis. PMID:25093179

  18. Site-specific mutagenesis and functional analysis of active sites of sulfur oxygenase reductase from Gram-positive moderate thermophile Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijun; Guo, Wenbin; Xu, Changan; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Xinhua

    2013-12-14

    Sequence alignments revealed that the conserved motifs of SORSa which formed an independent branch between archaea and Gram-negative bacteria SORs according to the phylogenetic relationship were similar with the archaea and Gram-negative bacteria SORs. In order to investigate the active sites of SORSa, cysteines 31, 101 and 104 (C31, C101, C104), histidines 86 and 90 (H86 and H90) and glutamate 114 (E114) of SORSa were chosen as the target amino acid residues for site-specific mutagenesis. The wild type and six mutant SORs were expressed in E. coli BL21, purified and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. Enzyme activity determination revealed that the active sites of SORSa were identical with the archaea and Gram-negative bacteria SORs reported. Replacement of any cysteine residues reduced SOR activity by 53-100%, while the mutants of H86A, H90A and E114A lost their enzyme activities largely, only remaining 20%, 19% and 32% activity of the wild type SOR respectively. This study will enrich our awareness for active sites of SOR in a Gram-positive bacterium. PMID:23726793

  19. Evaluation of the BinaxNOW Staphylococcus aureus test for rapid identification of Gram-positive cocci from VersaTREK blood culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Neelam; Trienski, Tamara L; DiPersio, Linda P; DiPersio, Joseph R

    2013-09-01

    The ability of the rapid BinaxNOW Staphylococcus aureus (BNSA) immunochromatographic test (Alere Scarborough, Inc., ME) to accurately differentiate S. aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and other Gram-positive cocci (GPC) directly from VersaTREK blood culture bottles was evaluated. A total of 319 positive patient blood culture bottles with GPC seen in clusters with Gram staining were tested using the BNSA test and a direct tube coagulase test (DTCT). The BNSA test was accurate for the detection and differentiation of S. aureus from CoNS and other GPC within 30 min from the time of blood culture positivity and demonstrated a test sensitivity and specificity of 95.8% and 99.6%, respectively. BNSA test results were faxed to the antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist by noon each day in order to evaluate empirical antimicrobial therapy and facilitate more rapid changes or modifications if necessary. Same-day reporting of BNSA test results in conjunction with an antimicrobial stewardship program was more impactful in improving treatment for inpatients with documented S. aureus bacteremia than in reducing empirical vancomycin use in inpatients with CoNS during the first 24 h following reporting. PMID:23804393

  20. Evaluation of the BinaxNOW Staphylococcus aureus Test for Rapid Identification of Gram-Positive Cocci from VersaTREK Blood Culture Bottles

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Neelam; Trienski, Tamara L.; DiPersio, Linda P.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of the rapid BinaxNOW Staphylococcus aureus (BNSA) immunochromatographic test (Alere Scarborough, Inc., ME) to accurately differentiate S. aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and other Gram-positive cocci (GPC) directly from VersaTREK blood culture bottles was evaluated. A total of 319 positive patient blood culture bottles with GPC seen in clusters with Gram staining were tested using the BNSA test and a direct tube coagulase test (DTCT). The BNSA test was accurate for the detection and differentiation of S. aureus from CoNS and other GPC within 30 min from the time of blood culture positivity and demonstrated a test sensitivity and specificity of 95.8% and 99.6%, respectively. BNSA test results were faxed to the antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist by noon each day in order to evaluate empirical antimicrobial therapy and facilitate more rapid changes or modifications if necessary. Same-day reporting of BNSA test results in conjunction with an antimicrobial stewardship program was more impactful in improving treatment for inpatients with documented S. aureus bacteremia than in reducing empirical vancomycin use in inpatients with CoNS during the first 24 h following reporting. PMID:23804393

  1. Bacillus sphaericus as a mosquito pathogen: properties of the organism and its toxins.

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, P; Clark, M A; Baumann, L; Broadwell, A H

    1991-01-01

    In the course of sporulation, Bacillus sphaericus produces an inclusion body which is toxic to a variety of mosquito larvae. In this review we discuss the general biology of this species and concentrate on the genetics and physiology of toxin production and its processing in the midgut of the larval host. The larvicide of B. sphaericus is unique in that it consists of two proteins of 51 and 42 kDa, both of which are required for toxicity to mosquito larvae. There is a low level of sequence similarity between these two proteins, which differ in their sequences from all the other known insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Within the midgut the 51- and 42-kDa proteins are processed to proteins of 43 and 39 kDa, respectively. The conversion of the 42-kDa protein to a 39-kDa protein results in a major increase in toxicity; the significance of the processing of the 51-kDa protein is not known. In contrast to the results with mosquito larvae, the 39-kDa protein is alone toxic for mosquito-derived tissue culture-grown cells, and this toxicity is not affected by the 51-kDa protein or its derivative, the 43-kDa protein. Comparisons of larvae from species which differ in their susceptibility to the B. sphaericus toxin indicate that the probable difference resides in the nature of the target sites of the epithelial midgut cells and not in uptake or processing of the toxin. A similar conclusion is derived from experiments involving tissue culture-grown cells from mosquito species which differ in their susceptibility to the B. sphaericus toxin. Images PMID:1682792

  2. Anthrax pathogen evades the mammalian immune system through stealth siderophore Strong, B. Rowe Byers, and Kenneth N. Raymond

    E-print Network

    Strong, Roland K.

    anthrax, caused by inhalation or ingestion of Bacillus anthracis spores, is characterized by rapid strategies targeting siderophore synthesis and uptake. bacillibactin Bacillus anthracis petrobactin siderocalin Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a Gram- positive, spore-forming organism

  3. Bacillus anthracis physiology and genetics.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Theresa M

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a member of the Bacillus cereus group species (also known as the "group 1 bacilli"), a collection of Gram-positive spore-forming soil bacteria that are non-fastidious facultative anaerobes with very similar growth characteristics and natural genetic exchange systems. Despite their close physiology and genetics, the B. cereus group species exhibit certain species-specific phenotypes, some of which are related to pathogenicity. B. anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax. Vegetative cells of B. anthracis produce anthrax toxin proteins and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule during infection of mammalian hosts and when cultured in conditions considered to mimic the host environment. The genes associated with toxin and capsule synthesis are located on the B. anthracis plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, respectively. Although plasmid content is considered a defining feature of the species, pXO1- and pXO2-like plasmids have been identified in strains that more closely resemble other members of the B. cereus group. The developmental nature of B. anthracis and its pathogenic (mammalian host) and environmental (soil) lifestyles of make it an interesting model for study of niche-specific bacterial gene expression and physiology. PMID:19654018

  4. Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    PubMed

    La Duc, Myron T; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2004-01-01

    A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming eubacterium. Ultrathin sections of the spores showed the presence of an exosporium, spore coat, cortex and core. 16S rDNA sequence similarities between this strain, Bacillus fusiformis and Bacillus silvestris were approximately 96% and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these two bacilli were 23 and 17%, respectively. Spores of the novel species were resistant to desiccation, H2O2 and UV and gamma radiation. Of all strains tested, the spores of this strain were the most consistently resistant and survived all of the challenges posed, i.e. exposure to conditions of desiccation (100% survival), H2O2 (26% survival), UV radiation (10% survival at 660 J m(-2)) and gamma radiation (0.4% survival). The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov.; the type strain is 34hs-1T (=ATCC PTA-4993T=NRRL B-30641T=NBRC 100172T). PMID:14742480

  5. Treatment of Amaranthus cruentus with chemical and biological inducers of resistance has contrasting effects on fitness and protection against compatible Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Casarrubias-Castillo, Kena; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A; Délano-Frier, John P

    2014-07-01

    Amaranthus cruentus (Ac) plants were treated with the synthetic systemic acquired resistance (SAR) inducer benzothiadiazole (BTH), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and the incompatible pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss), under greenhouse conditions. The treatments induced a set of marker genes in the absence of pathogen infection: BTH and Pss similarly induced genes coding for pathogenesis-related and antioxidant proteins, whereas MeJA induced the arginase, LOX2 and amarandin 1 genes. BTH and Pss were effective when tested against the Gram negative pathogen Ps pv. tabaci (Pst), which was found to have a compatible interaction with grain amaranth. The resistance response appeared to be salicylic acid-independent. However, resistance against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), a Gram positive tomato pathogen also found to infect Ac, was only conferred by Pss, while BTH increased susceptibility. Conversely, MeJA was ineffective against both pathogens. Induced resistance against Pst correlated with the rapid and sustained stimulation of the above genes, including the AhPAL2 gene, which were expressed both locally and distally. The lack of protection against Cmm provided by BTH, coincided with a generalized down-regulation of defense gene expression and chitinase activity. On the other hand, Pss-treated Ac plants showed augmented expression levels of an anti-microbial peptide gene and, surprisingly, of AhACCO, an ethylene biosynthetic gene associated with susceptibility to Cmm in tomato, its main host. Pss treatment had no effect on productivity, but compromised growth, whereas MeJA reduced yield and harvest index. Conversely, BTH treatments led to smaller plants, but produced significantly increased yields. These results suggest essential differences in the mechanisms employed by biological and chemical agents to induce SAR in Ac against bacterial pathogens having different infection strategies. This may determine the outcome of a particular plant-pathogen interaction, leading to resistance or susceptibility, as in Cmm-challenged Ac plants previously induced with Pss or BTH, respectively. PMID:24913050

  6. Adsorption and Fenton regeneration of SBA-15 for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate leached from PVC sheets by Gram-positive strains LHM1 and LHM2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, S.; Latorre, I.; Caban, M.; Soto, B.; Montalvo-Rodríguez, R.; Hernández-Maldonado, A.

    2012-12-01

    Bioleaching of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from PVC sheets was studied with newly isolated, Gram-positive strains LHM1 and LHM2 capable of growing on DEHP as the sole carbon source. According to 16S rRNA gene analysis, strains LHM1 and LHM2 were closely related (more than 97% similarity) to Chryseomicrobium imtechense MW 10(T) and Lysinibacillus fusiformis NBRC 15717(T), respectively. The biodeteriorated PVC sheets by the strains LHM1 and LHM2 had thicker biofilm development. Despite their metabolic capability of degrading DEHP as the sole carbon source, the strains LHM1 and LHM2 did not metabolize all DEHP leached out of the PVC sheets. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the biodeterioration by strains LHM1 and LHM2 resulted in less amount of and weakly bonded DEHP present in PVC sheets, in comparison to the virgin PVC sheet. Therefore, PVC biodeterioration by strains LHM1 and LHM2 might play an important role in stability of PVC sheets and fate and effect of leached DEHP on the environmental receptors. In response to this, an advanced adsorption with SBA-15 was assessed as a potential alternative DEHP remediation with arsenic as a co-contaminant. SBA-15 had an excellent arsenic adsorption showing >90% arsenic removal when arsenic was present as a singular contaminant. Adsorption effectiveness was irrelevant to the solid/liquid (S/L) ratio. However, when arsenic was present together with DEHP, arsenic adsorption to bare SBA-15 was reduced by 10 - 40%, with lesser S/L ratio having greater arsenic removal. On the contrary, bare SBA-15 only adsorbed ~30% of DEHP on average. When DEHP was present as a co-solute with arsenic, DEHP adsorption to bare SBA-15 was increased. For SBA-15 regeneration, adsorbed arsenic was recovered with EDTA elution, whereas adsorbed DEHP was destructed with Fenton oxidation.

  7. Production of the Novel Two-Peptide Lantibiotic Lichenicidin by Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13

    PubMed Central

    Dischinger, Jasmin; Josten, Michaele; Szekat, Christiane; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Bierbaum, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Background Lantibiotics are small microbial peptide antibiotics that are characterized by the presence of the thioether amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. Lantibiotics possess structural genes which encode inactive prepeptides. During maturation, the prepeptide undergoes posttranslational modifications including the introduction of rare amino acids as lanthionine and methyllanthione as well as the proteolytic removal of the leader. The structural gene (lanA) as well as the other genes which are involved in lantibiotic modification (lanM, lanB, lanC, lanP), regulation (lanR, lanK), export (lanT(P)) and immunity (lanEFG) are organized in biosynthetic gene clusters. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence comparisons in the NCBI database showed that Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 harbours a putative lantibiotic gene cluster which comprises two structural genes (licA1, licA2) and two modification enzymes (licM1, licM2) in addition to 10 ORFs that show sequence similarities to proteins involved in lantibiotic production. A heat labile antimicrobial activity was detected in the culture supernatant and a heat stabile activity was present in the isopropanol cell wash extract of this strain. In agar well diffusion assays both fractions exhibited slightly different activity spectra against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to demonstrate the connection between the lantibiotic gene cluster and one of the antibacterial activities, two Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 mutant strains harbouring insertions in the structural genes of the modification enzymes licM1 and licM2 were constructed. These strains were characterized by a loss of activity in the isopropanol extract and substractive MALDI-TOF predicted masses of 3020.6 Da and 3250.6 Da for the active peptides. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, B. licheniformis DSM 13 produces an antimicrobial substance that represents the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin and that shows activity against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. PMID:19707558

  8. Mutational Analysis of Active Site Residues Essential for Sensing of Organic Hydroperoxides by Bacillus subtilis OhrR?

    PubMed Central

    Soonsanga, Sumarin; Fuangthong, Mayuree; Helmann, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis OhrR is the prototype for the one-Cys family of organic peroxide-sensing regulatory proteins. Mutational analyses indicate that the high sensitivity of the active site cysteine (C15) to peroxidation requires three Tyr residues. Y29 and Y40 from the opposing subunit of the functional dimer hydrogen bond with the reactive Cys thiolate, and substitutions at these positions reduce or eliminate the ability of OhrR to respond to organic peroxides. Y19 is also critical for peroxide sensing, and the Ala substitution mutant (OhrR Y19A) is less susceptible to oxidation at the active site C15 in vivo. The Y19A protein also displays decreased sensitivity to peroxide-mediated oxidation in vitro. Y19 is in van der Waals contact with two residues critical for protein function, F16 and R23. The latter residue makes critical contact with the DNA backbone in the OhrR-operator complex. These results indicate that the high sensitivity of the OhrR C15 residue to oxidation requires interactions with the opposed Tyr residues. Oxidative modification of C15 likely disrupts the C15-Y29?-Y40? hydrogen bond network and thereby initiates conformational changes that reduce the ability of OhrR to bind to its operator site. PMID:17660290

  9. Emergence of Carbapenem resistant Gram negative and vancomycin resistant Gram positive organisms in bacteremic isolates of febrile neutropenic patients: A descriptive study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema Irfan; Faiza Idrees; Vikram Mehraj; Faizah Habib; Salman Adil; Rumina Hasan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate drug resistance amongst bacteremic isolates of febrile neutropenic patients with particular emphasis on emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram negative bacteria and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus species. METHODS: A descriptive study was performed by reviewing the blood culture reports from febrile neutropenic patients during the two study periods i.e., 1999–00 and 2001–06. Blood cultures were

  10. Structural and genetic organization of IS232, a new insertion sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed Central

    Menou, G; Mahillon, J; Lecadet, M M; Lereclus, D

    1990-01-01

    In the Bacillus thuringiensis strains toxic for the lepidopteran larvae, the delta-endotoxin genes cryIA are frequently found within a composite transposonlike structure flanked by two inverted repeat sequences. We report that these elements are true insertion sequences and designate them IS232. IS232 is a 2,184-bp element and is delimited by two imperfect inverted repeats (28 of 37 bp are identical). Two adjacent open reading frames, overlapping for three codons, span almost the entire sequence of IS232. The potential encoded polypeptides of 50 and 30-kDa are homologous to the IstA and IstB proteins of the gram-negative insertion sequence IS21. The N-terminal part of the 50-kDa polypeptide contains a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. The junctions at the insertion sites of three IS232 elements were analyzed. Each case was different, with 0, 4, or 6 bp of the target DNA being duplicated. Transposition of IS232 in Escherichia coli was demonstrated by using a genetic marker inserted upstream of the two open reading frames. PMID:2174857

  11. Bacillus spp. among hospitalized patients with haematological malignancies: clinical features, epidemics and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ozkocaman, V; Ozcelik, T; Ali, R; Ozkalemkas, F; Ozkan, A; Ozakin, C; Akalin, H; Ursavas, A; Coskun, F; Ener, B; Tunali, A

    2006-10-01

    Between April 2000 and May 2005, 350 bacteraemic episodes occurred among patients treated in our haematology unit. Two hundred and twenty-eight of these episodes were caused by Gram-positive pathogens, most commonly coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus. One hundred and twenty-two episodes were due to Gram-negative pathogens, with a predominance of Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacillus bacteraemias constituted 12 of these episodes occurring in 12 patients, and accounted for 3.4% of all bacteraemic episodes. Of the 12 strains evaluated, seven were Bacillus licheniformis, three were Bacillus cereus and two were Bacillus pumilus. Seven episodes presented with bloodstream infection, three with pneumonia, one with severe abdominal pain and deterioration of liver function, and one with a catheter-related bloodstream infection. B. licheniformis was isolated from five patients who had been hospitalized at the same time. This outbreak was related to non-sterile cotton wool used during skin disinfection. B. cereus and B. licheniformis isolates were susceptible to cefepime, carbapenems, aminoglycosides and vancomycin, but B. pumilus isolates were resistant to all antibiotics except for quinolones and vancomycin. Two deaths were observed. In conclusion, Bacillus spp. may cause serious infections, diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas, and high morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies. Both B. cereus and B. licheniformis may be among the 'new' Gram-positive pathogens to cause serious infection in patients with neutropenia. PMID:16891037

  12. Enzymatic Manganese(II) Oxidation by Metabolically Dormant Spores of Diverse Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Chris A.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial spores are renowned for their longevity, ubiquity, and resistance to environmental insults, but virtually nothing is known regarding whether these metabolically dormant structures impact their surrounding chemical environments. In the present study, a number of spore-forming bacteria that produce dormant spores which enzymatically oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble Mn(IV) oxides were isolated from coastal marine sediments. The highly charged and reactive surfaces of biogenic metal oxides dramatically influence the oxidation and sorption of both trace metals and organics in the environment. Prior to this study, the only known Mn(II)-oxidizing sporeformer was the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1, an extensively studied bacterium in which Mn(II) oxidation is believed to be catalyzed by a multicopper oxidase, MnxG. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and mnxG sequences obtained from 15 different Mn(II)-oxidizing sporeformers (including SG-1) revealed extensive diversity within the genus Bacillus, with organisms falling into several distinct clusters and lineages. In addition, active Mn(II)-oxidizing proteins of various sizes, as observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels, were recovered from the outer layers of purified dormant spores of the isolates. These are the first active Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes identified in spores or gram-positive bacteria. Although extremely resistant to denaturation, the activities of these enzymes were inhibited by azide and o-phenanthroline, consistent with the involvement of multicopper oxidases. Overall, these studies suggest that the commonly held view that bacterial spores are merely inactive structures in the environment should be revised. PMID:11823231

  13. Significance of postgrowth processing of ZnO nanostructures on antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Shahid; Rehman, Malik A; Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra; Bhatti, Arshad S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we highlighted the effect of surface modifications of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures (NSs) grown by the vapor–solid mechanism on their antibacterial activity. Two sets of ZnO NSs were modified separately – one set was modified by annealing in an Ar environment, and the second set was modified in O2 plasma. Annealing in Ar below 800°C resulted in a compressed lattice, which was due to removal of Zn interstitials and increased O vacancies. Annealing above 1,000°C caused the formation of a new prominent phase, Zn2SiO4. Plasma oxidation of the ZnO NSs caused an expansion in the lattice due to the removal of O vacancies and incorporation of excess O. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed for the quantification of defects associated with Zn and O in the as-grown and processed ZnO NS. Two distinct bands were observed, one in the ultraviolet (UV) region, due to interband transitions, and other in the visible region, due to defects associated with Zn and O. PL confirmed the surface modification of ZnO NS, as substantial decrease in intensities of visible band was observed. Antibacterial activity of the modified ZnO NSs demonstrated that the surface modifications by Ar annealing limited the antibacterial characteristics of ZnO NS against Staphylococcus aureus. However, ZnO NSs annealed at 1,000°C or higher showed a remarkable antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. O2 plasma–treated NS showed appreciable antibacterial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus. The minimum inhibition concentration was determined to be 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL for Ar-annealed and plasma-oxidized ZnO NS, respectively. It was thus proved that the O content at the surface of the ZnO NS was crucial to tune the antibacterial activity against both selected gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive (S. aureus) bacterial species.

  14. Bacillus manliponensis sp. nov., a new member of the Bacillus cereus group isolated from foreshore tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Jung, Min Young; Kim, Joong-Su; Paek, Woon Kee; Lim, Jeongheui; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, Pyoung Il; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Wonyong; Chang, Young-Hyo

    2011-12-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, new Bacillus species, strain BL4-6(T), was isolated from tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea. Strain BL4-6(T) is a straight rod, with motility by peritrichate flagella. The cell wall contains meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the major respiratory quinone is menaquinone-7. The major fatty acids are iso-C(15:0) and summed feature 3 (containing C(16:1) ?7c/iso-C(15:0) 2OH, and/or iso-C(15:0) 2OH/C(16:1) ?7c). Cells are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 38.0 mol%. Based on a comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate belongs to the genus Bacillus, forms a clade with the Bacillus cereus group, and is closely related to Bacillus mycoides (98.5%), Bacillus cereus (98.5%), Bacillus anthracis (98.4%), Bacillus thuringiensis (98.4%), Bacillus weihenstephanensis (98.1%), and Bacillus pseudomycoides (97.5%). The isolate showed less than 85% similarity of the gyrA gene sequence and below 95% similarity of the rpoB gene sequence to the members of this group. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain BL4-6(T) and B. cereus group was found to be in a range of 22.8-42.3%, and thus BL4-6(T) represents a unique species. On the basis of these studies, strain BL4-6(T) (=KCTC 13319(T) =JCM 15802(T)) is proposed to represent the type strain of a novel species, Bacillus manliponensis sp. nov. PMID:22203569

  15. Characterization of Bacillus Probiotics Available for Human Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Duc; Huynh A. Hong; Teresa M. Barbosa; Adriano O. Henriques

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immuno- stimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms

  16. Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. Results In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37°C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40–60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Conclusions Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells. PMID:25027643

  17. Comparison of the Vitek Gram-Positive Susceptibility 106 Card and the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test for Determining Oxacillin Resistance in Clinical Bloodstream Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamazumi; S. A. Marshall; W. W. Wilke; D. J. Diekema; M. A. Pfaller; R. N. Jones

    2001-01-01

    The Vitek automated susceptibility testing system with a modified Gram-Positive Susceptibility (GPS) 106 Card (bioMerieux Vitek, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) and a rapid slide latex agglutination test (MRSA-Screen; Denka Seiken Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) were evaluated for their ability to detect oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The oxacillin-salt agar screen (OS) test, the reference broth microdilution method, and the detection of

  18. Comparison of the Vitek Gram-Positive Susceptibility 106 Card, the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test, and mecA Analysis for Detecting Oxacillin Resistance in a Geographically Diverse Collection of Clinical Isolates of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamazumi; I. Furuta; D. J. Diekema; M. A. Pfaller; R. N. Jones

    2001-01-01

    The Vitek automated susceptibility testing system with a modified gram-positive susceptibility (GPS) 106 card (bioMerieux Vitek, Inc., Hazelwood. Mo.) and a rapid slide latex agglutination test (MRSA-Screen test; Denka Seiken Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) were evaluated for their abilities to detect oxacillin resistance in co- agulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). The reference broth microdilution method and the detection of the mecA gene

  19. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces not only gram-negative but also gram-positive infection-associated proinflammatory cytokine release by interaction between Kupffer cells and leukocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Busch; G. A. Wanner; M. D. Menger; B. Vollmar

    2004-01-01

    Objective and Design:An important principle for the beneficial effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a central mediator in the endogenous host response, is the reduction of systemic cytokine levels in various gram-negative models of sepsis and septic shock. There is debate, however, on whether G-CSF is protective also in gram-positive sepsis and acts directly or indirectly on macrophages and hepatic

  20. [New antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis strains].

    PubMed

    Malanicheva, I A; Kozlov, D G; Efimenko, T A; Zenkova, V A; Kastrukha, G S; Reznikova, M I; Korolev, A M; Borshchevskaia, L N; Tarasova, O D; Sineoki?, S P; Efremenkova, O V

    2014-01-01

    Two Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus Pholiota squarrosa exhibited a broad range of antibacterial activity, including those against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus INA 00761 (MRSA) and Leuconostoc mes6nteroides VKPM B-4177 resistant to glycopep-> tide antibiotics, as well as antifungal activity. The strains were identified as belonging to the "B. subtilis" com- plex based on their morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both strains (INA 01085 and INA 01086) produced insignificant amounts of polyene antibiotics (hexaen and pentaen, respectively). Strain INA 01086 produced also a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic containing Asp, Gly, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Thr, Trp, and Phe, while the antibiotic of strain INA 01085 contained, apart from these, two unidentified nonproteinaceous amino acids. Both polypeptide antibiotics were new compounds efficient against gram-positive bacteria and able to override the natural bacterial antibiotic resistance. PMID:25844455

  1. Characterization of a cryptic plasmid from a Greenland ice core Arthrobacter isolate and construction of a shuttle vector that replicates in psychrophilic high G+C Gram-positive recipients.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Vanya; Lantz, Sarah; Brenchley, Jean

    2008-05-01

    Over 60 Greenland glacial isolates were screened for plasmids and antibiotic resistance/sensitivity as the first step in establishing a genetic system. Sequence analysis of a small, cryptic, 1,950 bp plasmid, p54, from isolate GIC54, related to Arthrobacter agilis, showed a region similar to that found in theta replicating Rhodococcus plasmids. A 6,002 bp shuttle vector, pSVJ21, was constructed by ligating p54 and pUC18 and inserting a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) cassette conferring chloramphenicol resistance. Candidate Gram-positive recipients were chosen among glacial isolates based on phylogenetic relatedness, relatively short doubling times at low temperatures, sensitivity to antibiotics, and absence of indigenous plasmids. We developed an electroporation protocol and transformed seven isolates related to members of the Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium, and Rhodoglobus genera with pSVJ21. Plasmid stability was demonstrated by successive transformation into Escherichia coli and four Gram-positive isolates, growth without antibiotic, and plasmid re-isolation. This shuttle vector and our transformation protocol provide the basis for genetic experiments with different high G+C Gram-positive hosts to study cold adaptation and expression of cold-active enzymes at low temperatures. PMID:18335166

  2. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits virulence factor production in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Sara M; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2005-04-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, has been brought to the public's attention because of the 2001 bioterrorism attacks. However, anthrax is a disease that poses agricultural threats in the United States as well as human populations in Europe, China, Africa, and Australia. Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a compound that has been shown to inhibit exotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus and other gram-positive bacteria. Here, we study the effects of GML on growth and toxin production in B. anthracis. The Sterne strain of B. anthracis was grown to post-exponential phase with 0-, 10-, 15-, or 20-microg/ml concentrations of GML and then assayed quantitatively for protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF). After 8 h, GML at concentrations greater than 20 microg/ml was bacteriostatic to growth of the organism. However, a 10-microg/ml concentration of GML was not growth inhibitory, but amounts of PA and LF made were greatly reduced. This effect was not global for all proteins when total secreted protein from culture fluids was examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Through quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays, this toxin-inhibitory effect was shown to occur at the transcriptional level, since amounts of mRNA for pagA (PA), lef (LF), and cya (edema factor) were reduced. Surprisingly, mRNA levels of atxA, a regulator of exotoxin gene expression, rose in the presence of GML. These data will be useful in developing therapeutic tools to treat anthrax disease, whether in animals or humans. These results also suggest that mechanisms of virulence regulation exist independent of atxA. PMID:15793101

  3. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits Virulence Factor Production in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Sara M.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2005-01-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, has been brought to the public's attention because of the 2001 bioterrorism attacks. However, anthrax is a disease that poses agricultural threats in the United States as well as human populations in Europe, China, Africa, and Australia. Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a compound that has been shown to inhibit exotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus and other gram-positive bacteria. Here, we study the effects of GML on growth and toxin production in B. anthracis. The Sterne strain of B. anthracis was grown to post-exponential phase with 0-, 10-, 15-, or 20-?g/ml concentrations of GML and then assayed quantitatively for protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF). After 8 h, GML at concentrations greater than 20 ?g/ml was bacteriostatic to growth of the organism. However, a 10-?g/ml concentration of GML was not growth inhibitory, but amounts of PA and LF made were greatly reduced. This effect was not global for all proteins when total secreted protein from culture fluids was examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Through quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays, this toxin-inhibitory effect was shown to occur at the transcriptional level, since amounts of mRNA for pagA (PA), lef (LF), and cya (edema factor) were reduced. Surprisingly, mRNA levels of atxA, a regulator of exotoxin gene expression, rose in the presence of GML. These data will be useful in developing therapeutic tools to treat anthrax disease, whether in animals or humans. These results also suggest that mechanisms of virulence regulation exist independent of atxA. PMID:15793101

  4. Combined Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis infection in a patient with oesophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, You La; Yang, John Jeongseok; Kim, Min Jin; Lim, Gayoung; Cho, Sun Young; Park, Tae Sung; Suh, Jin-Tae; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Soo Cheol; Lee, Hee Joo

    2012-12-01

    Species of the genus Bacillus are a common laboratory contaminant, therefore, isolation of these organisms from blood cultures does not always indicate infection. In fact, except for Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, most species of the genus Bacillus are not considered human pathogens, especially in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report an unusual presentation of bacteraemia and mediastinitis due to co-infection with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, which were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing, in a patient with an oesophageal perforation. PMID:22918867

  5. Cloning and enhancing production of a detergent- and organic-solvent-resistant nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis VTCC-DVN-12-01 by using an eight-protease-gene-deficient Bacillus subtilis WB800

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nattokinases/Subtilisins (EC 3.4.21.62) belong to the second large family of serine proteases, which gain significant attention and play important role in many biotechnology processes. Thus, a number of nattokinases/subtilisins from various Bacillus species, especially from B. subtilis strains, extensively have been investigated to understand their biochemical and physical properties as well as to improve the production for industrial application. The purpose of this study was to clone a nattokinase gene from Bacillus subtilis strain VTCC-DVN-12-01, enhance its production in B. subtilis WB800, which is deficient in eight extracellular proteases and characterize its physicochemical properties for potential application in organic synthesis and detergent production. Results A gene coding for the nattokinase (Nk) from B. subtilis strain VTCC-DVN-12-01 consisted of an ORF of 1146 nucleotides, encoding a pre-pro-protein enzyme (30-aa pre-signal peptide, 76-aa pro-peptide and 275-aa mature protein with a predicted molecular mass of 27.7 kDa and pI 6.6). The nattokinase showed 98-99% identity with other nattokinases/subtilisins from B. subtilis strains in GenBank. Nk was expressed in B. subtilis WB800 under the control of acoA promoter at a high level of 600 mg protein per liter culture medium which is highest yield of proteins expressed in any extracellular-protease-deficient B. subtilis system till date. Nk was purified to homogeneity with 3.25 fold purification, a specific activity of 12.7 U/mg, and a recovery of 54.17%. The purified Nk was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry through three peptides, which showed 100% identity to corresponding peptides of the B. subtilis nattokinase (CAC41625). An optimal activity for Nk was observed at 65°C and pH 9. The nattokinase was stable at temperature up to 50°C and in pH range of 5–11 and retained more than 85% of its initial activity after incubation for 1 h. Mg2+ activated Nk up to 162% of its activity. The addition of Triton X-100, Tween 20, and Tween 80 showed an activation of Nk up to 141% of its initial activity but SDS strongly inhibited. The enzyme was highly resistant to organic solvents. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that an eight-protease-gene-deficient Bacillus subtilis WB800 could overproduce the nattokinase from B. subtilis VTCC-DVN-12-01. Due to high resistance to detergents and organic solvents of this nattokinase, it could be potentially applied in organic synthesis and detergent production. PMID:24021098

  6. Divergence of protein-coding capacity and regulation in the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group contains ubiquitous facultative anaerobic soil-borne Gram-positive spore-forming bacilli. Molecular phylogeny and comparative genome sequencing have suggested that these organisms should be classified as a single species. While clonal in nature, there do not appear to be species-specific clonal lineages, excepting B. anthracis, in spite of the wide array of phenotypes displayed by these organisms. Results We compared the protein-coding content of 201 B. cereus sensu lato genomes to characterize differences and understand the consequences of these differences on biological function. From this larger group we selected a subset consisting of 25 whole genomes for deeper analysis. Cluster analysis of orthologous proteins grouped these genomes into five distinct clades. Each clade could be characterized by unique genes shared among the group, with consequences for the phenotype of each clade. Surprisingly, this population structure recapitulates our recent observations on the divergence of the generalized stress response (SigB) regulons in these organisms. Divergence of the SigB regulon among these organisms is primarily due to the placement of SigB-dependent promoters that bring genes from a common gene pool into/out of the SigB regulon. Conclusions Collectively, our observations suggest the hypothesis that the evolution of these closely related bacteria is a consequence of two distinct processes. Horizontal gene transfer, gene duplication/divergence and deletion dictate the underlying coding capacity in these genomes. Regulatory divergence overlays this protein coding reservoir and shapes the expression of both the unique and shared coding capacity of these organisms, resulting in phenotypic divergence. Data from other organisms suggests that this is likely a common pattern in prokaryotic evolution. PMID:25350501

  7. Binary Bacterial Toxins: Biochemistry, Biology, and Applications of Common Clostridium and Bacillus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Holger; Aktories, Klaus; Popoff, Michel R.; Stiles, Bradley G.

    2004-01-01

    Certain pathogenic species of Bacillus and Clostridium have developed unique methods for intoxicating cells that employ the classic enzymatic “A-B” paradigm for protein toxins. The binary toxins produced by B. anthracis, B. cereus, C. botulinum, C. difficile, C. perfringens, and C. spiroforme consist of components not physically associated in solution that are linked to various diseases in humans, animals, or insects. The “B” components are synthesized as precursors that are subsequently activated by serine-type proteases on the targeted cell surface and/or in solution. Following release of a 20-kDa N-terminal peptide, the activated “B” components form homoheptameric rings that subsequently dock with an “A” component(s) on the cell surface. By following an acidified endosomal route and translocation into the cytosol, “A” molecules disable a cell (and host organism) via disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, increasing intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, or inactivation of signaling pathways linked to mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. Recently, B. anthracis has gleaned much notoriety as a biowarfare/bioterrorism agent, and of primary interest has been the edema and lethal toxins, their role in anthrax, as well as the development of efficacious vaccines and therapeutics targeting these virulence factors and ultimately B. anthracis. This review comprehensively surveys the literature and discusses the similarities, as well as distinct differences, between each Clostridium and Bacillus binary toxin in terms of their biochemistry, biology, genetics, structure, and applications in science and medicine. The information may foster future studies that aid novel vaccine and drug development, as well as a better understanding of a conserved intoxication process utilized by various gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria. PMID:15353562

  8. A community-curated consensual annotation that is continuously updated: the Bacillus subtilis centred wiki SubtiWiki

    PubMed Central

    Flórez, Lope A.; Roppel, Sebastian F.; Schmeisky, Arne G.; Lammers, Christoph R.; Stülke, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the model organism for Gram-positive bacteria, with a large amount of publications on all aspects of its biology. To facilitate genome annotation and the collection of comprehensive information on B. subtilis, we created SubtiWiki as a community-oriented annotation tool for information retrieval and continuous maintenance. The wiki is focused on the needs and requirements of scientists doing experimental work. This has implications for the design of the interface and for the layout of the individual pages. The pages can be accessed primarily by the gene designations. All pages have a similar flexible structure and provide links to related gene pages in SubtiWiki or to information in the World Wide Web. Each page gives comprehensive information on the gene, the encoded protein or RNA as well as information related to the current investigation of the gene/protein. The wiki has been seeded with information from key publications and from the most relevant general and B. subtilis-specific databases. We think that SubtiWiki might serve as an example for other scientific wikis that are devoted to the genes and proteins of one organism. Database URL: The wiki can be accessed at http://subtiwiki.uni-goettingen.de/ PMID:20157485

  9. The role of Caenorhabditis elegans insulin-like signaling in the behavioral avoidance of pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Hasshoff, Martin; Böhnisch, Claudia; Tonn, Daniela; Hasert, Barbara; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2007-06-01

    Pathogens cause damage, and their elimination requires activation of the costly immune response. A highly economic defense strategy should thus be the behavioral avoidance of pathogens, as manifested in humans by all aspects of hygiene or revulsion at pathogen-rich material. Despite its potential importance, behavioral defenses have as yet received only little attention in biomedical research--in stark contrast to the physiological immune system. In the present study, the genetics of such behavioral defenses are elucidated in a simple model organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We show for the first time that mutations in the insulin-like receptor (ILR) pathway lead to two distinct behavioral responses against pathogenic strains of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), including the physical evasion of pathogens and their reduced oral uptake. Since this pathway also contributes to nematode stress resistance, the results surprisingly reveal a genetic link between physiological and behavioral defenses. Considering that many signaling pathways have conserved their functions across evolution, including the ILR pathway, this signaling cascade may represent an interesting candidate regulator for behavioral defenses in more complex organisms, including humans. PMID:17314144

  10. Serious infections from Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Tuazon, C U; Murray, H W; Levy, C; Solny, M N; Curtin, J A; Sheagren, J N

    1979-03-16

    Serious infections caused by organisms of the genus Bacillus developed in seven patients. Five drug abusers had either endocarditis or osteomyelitis, one leukemic patient had necrotizing fasciitis, and one patient had a ventriculoatrial shunt infection with recurrent bacteremia. All patients recovered. Experience with these cases reemphasizes the importance of not dismissing Bacillus organisms as culture contaminants, especially when isolated from blood, body fluids, or closed-space infections. PMID:105158

  11. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kobayashi; S. D. Ehrlichb; A. Albertini; G. Amati; K. Asaig Arnaudf; M. Arnaud; K. Asai; S. Ashikaga; S. Aymerich; P. Bessieres; F. Boland; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; K. Bunai; J. Chapuis; L. C. Christiansen; A. Danchin; M. Débarbouillé; E. Dervyn; E. Deuerling; K. Devine; S. K. Devine; O. Dreesen; J. Errington; S. Fillinger; S. J. Foster; Y. Fujita; A. Galizzi; R. Gardan; C. Eschevins; T. Fukushima; K. Haga; C. R. Harwood; M. Hecker; D. Hosoya; M. F. Hullo; H. Kakeshita; D. Karamata; Y. Kasahara; F. Kawamura; K. Koga; P. Koski; R. Kuwana; D. Imamura; M. Ishimaru; S. Ishikawa; I. Ishio; D. Le Coq; A. Masson; C. Mauël; R. Meima; R. P. Mellado; A. Moir; S. Moriya; E. Nagakawa; H. Nanamiya; S. Nakai; P. Nygaard; M. Ogura; T. Ohanan; M. O'Reilly; M. O'Rourke; Z. Pragai; H. M. Pooley; G. Rapoport; J. P. Rawlins; L. A. Rivas; C. Rivolta; A. Sadaie; Y. Sadaie; M. Sarvas; T. Sato; H. H. Saxild; E. Scanlan; W. Schumann; J. F. Seegers; J. Sekiguchi; A. Sekowska; S. J. Seror; M. Simon; P. Stragier; R. Studer; H. Takamatsu; T. Tanaka; M. Takeuchi; H. B. Thomaides; V. Vagner; J. M. van Dijl; K. Watabe; A. Wipat; H. Yamamoto; M. Yamamoto; Y. Yamamoto; K. Yamane; K. Yata; K. Yoshida; H. Yoshikawa; U. Zuber; N. Ogasawara

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively

  12. Cold Plasma Inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) Spores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danil Dobrynin; Gregory Fridman; Yurii V. Mukhin; Meghan A. Wynosky-Dolfi; Judy Rieger; Richard F. Rest; Alexander F. Gutsol; Alexander Fridman

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus spores represent one of the most resistant organisms to conventional sterilization methods. This paper is focused on the inactivation of the spores of two Bacillus species, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, using atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma. Spores treated in liquid or air-dried on a solid surface were effectively inactivated within 1 min of DBD plasma treatment at a discharge

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles for bacterial inhibition: synthesis and characterization of doped and undoped ONPs with Ag/Au NPs.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Carlos Alberto Huerta; Jiménez, Adriana Berenice Pérez; Silva, Antonio Romero; Kaur, Navneet; Thangarasu, Pandiyan; Ramos, Jorge Manuel Vázquez; Singh, Narinder

    2015-01-01

    Organic nanoparticles (ONPs) of lipoic acid and its doped derivatives ONPs/Ag and ONPs/Au were prepared and characterized by UV-Visible, EDS, and TEM analysis. The antibacterial properties of the ONPs ONPs/Ag and ONPs/Au were tested against bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi). Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and bacterial growth inhibition tests show that ONPs/Ag are more effective in limiting bacterial growth than other NPs, particularly, for Gram positive than for Gram-negative ones. The order of bacterial cell growth inhibition was ONPs/Ag > ONPs > ONPs/Au. The morphology of the cell membrane for the treated bacteria was analyzed by SEM. The nature of bond formation of LA with Ag or Au was analyzed by molecular orbital and density of state (DOS) using DFT. PMID:25853317

  14. In vitro activity and microbiological efficacy of tedizolid (TR-700) against Gram-positive clinical isolates from a phase 2 study of oral tedizolid phosphate (TR-701) in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Prokocimer, Philippe; Bien, Paul; Deanda, Carisa; Pillar, Chris M; Bartizal, Ken

    2012-09-01

    Tedizolid (TR-700, formerly torezolid) is the active moiety of the prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), a next-generation oxazolidinone, with high potency against Gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A recently completed randomized, double-blind phase 2 trial evaluated 200, 300, or 400 mg of oral tedizolid phosphate once daily for 5 to 7 days in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections. This report examines the in vitro activity of tedizolid and Zyvox (linezolid) against Gram-positive pathogens isolated at baseline and describes the microbiological and clinical efficacy of tedizolid. Of 196 isolates tested, 81.6% were S. aureus, and of these, 76% were MRSA. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) of tedizolid against both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA were 0.25 ?g/ml, compared with a MIC(50) of 1 ?g/ml and MIC(90) of 2 ?g/ml for linezolid. For coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 7), viridans group streptococci (n = 15), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (n = 3), the MICs ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 ?g/ml for tedizolid and from 0.12 to 1 ?g/ml for linezolid. The microbiological eradication rates at the test-of-cure visit (7 to 14 days posttreatment) in the microbiologically evaluable population (n = 133) were similar in all treatment groups, with overall eradication rates of 97.7% for all pathogens, 97.9% for MRSA, and 95.7% for MSSA. The clinical cure rates for MRSA and MSSA infections were 96.9% and 95.7%, respectively, across all dose groups. This study confirms the potent in vitro activity of tedizolid against pathogenic Gram-positive cocci, including MRSA, and its 4-fold-greater potency in comparison with linezolid. All dosages of tedizolid phosphate showed excellent microbiological and clinical efficacy against MRSA and MSSA. PMID:22687509

  15. In Vitro Activity and Microbiological Efficacy of Tedizolid (TR-700) against Gram-Positive Clinical Isolates from a Phase 2 Study of Oral Tedizolid Phosphate (TR-701) in Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    PubMed Central

    Prokocimer, Philippe; Bien, Paul; DeAnda, Carisa; Pillar, Chris M.

    2012-01-01

    Tedizolid (TR-700, formerly torezolid) is the active moiety of the prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), a next-generation oxazolidinone, with high potency against Gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A recently completed randomized, double-blind phase 2 trial evaluated 200, 300, or 400 mg of oral tedizolid phosphate once daily for 5 to 7 days in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections. This report examines the in vitro activity of tedizolid and Zyvox (linezolid) against Gram-positive pathogens isolated at baseline and describes the microbiological and clinical efficacy of tedizolid. Of 196 isolates tested, 81.6% were S. aureus, and of these, 76% were MRSA. The MIC50 and MIC90 of tedizolid against both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA were 0.25 ?g/ml, compared with a MIC50 of 1 ?g/ml and MIC90 of 2 ?g/ml for linezolid. For coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 7), viridans group streptococci (n = 15), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (n = 3), the MICs ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 ?g/ml for tedizolid and from 0.12 to 1 ?g/ml for linezolid. The microbiological eradication rates at the test-of-cure visit (7 to 14 days posttreatment) in the microbiologically evaluable population (n = 133) were similar in all treatment groups, with overall eradication rates of 97.7% for all pathogens, 97.9% for MRSA, and 95.7% for MSSA. The clinical cure rates for MRSA and MSSA infections were 96.9% and 95.7%, respectively, across all dose groups. This study confirms the potent in vitro activity of tedizolid against pathogenic Gram-positive cocci, including MRSA, and its 4-fold-greater potency in comparison with linezolid. All dosages of tedizolid phosphate showed excellent microbiological and clinical efficacy against MRSA and MSSA. PMID:22687509

  16. Effects of Bacillus subtilis var. natto and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented liquid feed on growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal microflora, and organ antioxidant status in Landes geese.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Zhu, X Z; Wang, J P; Wang, Z X; Huang, Y Q

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis var. natto N21 (BAC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y10 (SAC) fermented liquid feed (FLF) during different incubation times on the growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal microflora, and organ antioxidative status in Landes geese. Two hundred forty male Landes geese (10 wk old) with the BW of 4.163 ± 0.108 kg were selected for a 3-wk trial and randomly allotted to 3 treatments according to their BW (10 replicates/treatment and 8 geese/replicate). The treatments included 1) CON, dry basal feed (corn-soybean basal diet mixed with water) before feeding (2:1 wt/wt), 2) FLF24, 24 h FLF, and 3) FLF48, 48 h FLF. The FLF diet was prepared by storing basal diet with 10(9) cfu/g feed of each BAC and SAC and water (2:1 wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20°C fermented for 24 or 48 h. The BW gain and feed intake of geese fed FLF24 and FLF48 was greater (P < 0.05) than CON treatment. Feeding geese with FLF24 and FLF48 feeds increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of leg muscle whereas the liver was heavier (P < 0.05) in FLF48 treatment than CON and FLF24 treatments. The FLF24 and FLF48 increased (P < 0.05) the Lactobacillus population and depressed (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli population in small and large intestine. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was greatest (P < 0.05) in FLF48 whereas the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was less (P < 0.05) in FLF24 and FLF48 treatments than CON. Geese fed FLF48 diet had greater glutathione peroxidase activity and less malondialdehyde content in heart and liver than those fed CON diet. In breast muscle, the superoxide dismutase activity were increased (P < 0.05) by FLF24 and FLF48 treatments than CON diet. In conclusion, the results indicated that feeding geese with BAC and SAC mix FLF can improve growth and feed intake, modulate the intestine ecology, and decrease the blood cholesterol concentrations; it also can improve the antioxidative status of organs and breast muscle. PMID:23307840

  17. Bioemulsifier production by a halothermophilic Bacillus strain with potential applications in microbially enhanced oil recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. M. Dastgheib; M. A. Amoozegar; E. Elahi; S. Asad; I. M. Banat

    2008-01-01

    A halothermotolerant Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium was isolated from petroleum reservoirs in Iran and identified as\\u000a Bacillus licheniformis sp. strain ACO1 by phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA analysis. It showed a high capacity for bioemulsifier production\\u000a and grew up to 60°C with NaCl at 180 g l?1. The optimum NaCl concentration, pH and temperature for bioemulsifier production were 4% (w\\/v), 8.0, and

  18. Aerobic Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria Exhibit Differential Sensitivity to and Transformation of 2,4,6Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Fuller

    1997-01-01

    .   A systematic evaluation of the ability of different bacterial genera to transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and grow in\\u000a its presence, was conducted. Aerobic Gram-negative organisms degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites\\u000a when cultured in molasses medium. Some Gram-negative isolates transformed all the initial TNT to undetectable metabolites,\\u000a with no adsorption of TNT or metabolites to cells. Growth

  19. In vitro Synergistic Activity of Some Chinolinic Compounds Combined with ?-Lactam Antibiotics against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Clinical Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giampietro Ravagnan; Raffaele Piccolomini; Anna Maria Speciale; Giovanni Russo; Giulio Renzini

    1985-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of nalidixic acid-cephalexin (ratio 1:1) and cinoxacin-cefadroxil (ratio 1:2) combinations have been evaluated against 396 clinical isolates; many of them were nalidixic acid- or cinoxacin-resistant organisms (MIC > 100 ?g\\/ml). We have also tested the nalidixic acid-amoxicillin combination (ratio 1:1) against 225 amoxicillin-resistant bacterial strains (MIC > 800 ?g\\/ml). Synergy was found for 62–70% of the Enterobacteriaceae

  20. The membrane-associated monooxygenase in the butane-oxidizing Gram-positive bacterium Nocardioides sp. strain CF8 is a novel member of the AMO/PMO family.

    PubMed

    Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Hamamura, Natsuko; Liu, Chih-Wen; Kimbrel, Jeffrey A; Chang, Jeff H; Arp, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Nocardioides sp. strain CF8 uses a membrane-associated monooxygenase (pBMO) to grow on butane. The nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding this novel monooxygenase were revealed through analysis of a de novo assembled draft genome sequence determined by high-throughput sequencing of the whole genome. The pBMO genes were in a similar arrangement to the genes for ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) from the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and for particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from the methane-oxidizing bacteria. The pBMO genes likely constitute an operon in the order bmoC, bmoA and bmoB. The nucleotide sequence was less than 50% similar to the genes for AMO and pMMO. The operon for pBMO was confirmed to be a single copy in the genome by Southern and computational analyses. In an incubation on butane the increase of transcriptional activity of the pBmoA gene was congruent with the increase of pBMO activity and suggested correspondence between gene expression and the utilization of butane. Phylogenetic comparison revealed distant but significant similarity of all three pBMO subunits to homologous members of the AMO/pMMO family and indicated that the pBMO represents a deeply branching third lineage of this group of particulate monooxygenases. No other bmoCAB-like genes were found to cluster with pBMO lineage in phylogenetic analysis by database searches including genomic and metagenomic sequence databases. pBMO is the first example of the AMO/pMMO-like monooxygenase from Gram-positive bacteria showing similarities to proteobacterial pMMO and AMO sequences. PMID:23761285

  1. Non-Aqueous Glycerol Monolaurate Gel Exhibits Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Elizabeth A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin and surgical infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are causes of patient morbidity and increased healthcare costs. These organisms grow planktonically and as biofilms, and many strains exhibit antibiotic resistance. This study examines the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of glycerol monolaurate (GML), as solubilized in a non-aqueous vehicle (5% GML Gel), as a novel, broadly-active topical antimicrobial. The FDA has designated GML as generally recognized as safe for human use, and the compound is commonly used in the cosmetic and food industries. Methods In vitro, bacterial strains in broths and biofilms were exposed to GML Gel, and effects on bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs) were assessed. In vivo,subcutaneous incisions were made in New Zealand white rabbits; the incisions were closed with four sutures. Bacterial strains were painted onto the incision sites, and then GML Gel or placebo was liberally applied to cover the sites completely. Rabbits were allowed to awaken and were examined for CFUs as a function of exposure time. Results In vitro, GML Gel was bactericidal for all broth culture and biofilm organisms in <1 hour and <4 hour, respectively; no CFUs were detected after the entire 24 h test period. In vivo, GML Gel inhibited bacterial growth in the surgical incision sites, compared to no growth inhibition in controls. GML Gel significantly reduced inflammation, as viewed by lack of redness in and below the incision sites. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 5% GML Gel is useful as a potent topical antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent for prevention of infections. PMID:25799455

  2. Loss of Catabolite Repression Function of HPr, the Phosphocarrier Protein of the Bacterial Phosphotransferase System, Affects Expression of the cry4A Toxin Gene in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharik R. Khan; Nirupama Banerjee-Bhatnagar

    2002-01-01

    HPr, the phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, mediates catabolite repression of a number of operons in gram-positive bacteria. In order to participate in the regulatory process, HPr is activated by phosphorylation of a conserved serine-46 residue. To study the potential role of HPr in the regulation of Cry4A protoxin synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, we produced a

  3. Draft Genome Sequence Analysis of a Pseudomonas putida W15Oct28 Strain with Antagonistic Activity to Gram-Positive and Pseudomonas sp. Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lumeng; Hildebrand, Falk; Dingemans, Jozef; Ballet, Steven; Laus, George; Matthijs, Sandra; Berendsen, Roeland; Cornelis, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a member of the fluorescent pseudomonads known to produce the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdine siderophore. P. putida W15Oct28, isolated from a stream in Brussels, was found to produce compound(s) with antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, an unusual characteristic for P. putida. The active compound production only occurred in media with low iron content and without organic nitrogen sources. Transposon mutants which lost their antimicrobial activity had the majority of insertions in genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine, although purified pyoverdine was not responsible for the antagonism. Separation of compounds present in culture supernatants revealed the presence of two fractions containing highly hydrophobic molecules active against P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed the presence of putisolvin biosynthesis genes and the corresponding lipopeptides were found to contribute to the antimicrobial activity. One cluster of ten genes was detected, comprising a NAD-dependent epimerase, an acetylornithine aminotransferase, an acyl CoA dehydrogenase, a short chain dehydrogenase, a fatty acid desaturase and three genes for a RND efflux pump. P. putida W15Oct28 genome also contains 56 genes encoding TonB-dependent receptors, conferring a high capacity to utilize pyoverdines from other pseudomonads. One unique feature of W15Oct28 is also the presence of different secretion systems including a full set of genes for type IV secretion, and several genes for type VI secretion and their VgrG effectors. PMID:25369289

  4. Quorum quenching Bacillus sonorensis isolated from soya sauce fermentation brine.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wai-Fong; Tung, Hun-Jiat; Sam, Choon-Kook; Koh, Chong-Lek; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v). L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation. PMID:22666018

  5. Systems Biology of Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Bunk, Boyke; Fürch, Tobias; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter

    Over the last two decades the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was systematically developed to a useful alternative protein production host. Multiple vector systems for high yield intra- and extracellular protein production were constructed. Strong inducible promoters were combined with DNA sequences for optimised ribosome binding sites, various leader peptides for protein export and N- as well as C-terminal affinity tags for affinity chromatographic purification of the desired protein. High cell density cultivation and recombinant protein production were successfully tested. For further system biology based control and optimisation of the production process the genomes of two B. megaterium strains were completely elucidated, DNA arrays designed, proteome, fluxome and metabolome analyses performed and all data integrated using the bioinformatics platform MEGABAC. Now, solid theoretical and experimental bases for primary modeling attempts of the production process are available.

  6. High-Salinity Growth Conditions Promote Tat-Independent Secretion of Tat Substrates in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    van der Ploeg, René; Monteferrante, Carmine G.; Piersma, Sjouke; Barnett, James P.; Kouwen, Thijs R. H. M.; Robinson, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis contains two Tat translocases, which can facilitate transport of folded proteins across the plasma membrane. Previous research has shown that Tat-dependent protein secretion in B. subtilis is a highly selective process and that heterologous proteins, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP), are poor Tat substrates in this organism. Nevertheless, when expressed in Escherichia coli, both B. subtilis Tat translocases facilitated exclusively Tat-dependent export of folded GFP when the twin-arginine (RR) signal peptides of the E. coli AmiA, DmsA, or MdoD proteins were attached. Therefore, the present studies were aimed at determining whether the same RR signal peptide-GFP precursors would also be exported Tat dependently in B. subtilis. In addition, we investigated the secretion of GFP fused to the full-length YwbN protein, a strict Tat substrate in B. subtilis. Several investigated GFP fusion proteins were indeed secreted in B. subtilis, but this secretion was shown to be completely Tat independent. At high-salinity growth conditions, the Tat-independent secretion of GFP as directed by the RR signal peptides from the E. coli AmiA, DmsA, or MdoD proteins was significantly enhanced, and this effect was strongest in strains lacking the TatAy-TatCy translocase. This implies that high environmental salinity has a negative influence on the avoidance of Tat-independent secretion of AmiA-GFP, DmsA-GFP, and MdoD-GFP. We conclude that as-yet-unidentified control mechanisms reject the investigated GFP fusion proteins for translocation by the B. subtilis Tat machinery and, at the same time, set limits to their Tat-independent secretion, presumably via the Sec pathway. PMID:22923407

  7. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-04-24

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

  8. Cerecidins, novel lantibiotics from Bacillus cereus with potent antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Li; Teng, Kunling; Sun, Shutao; Sun, Zhizeng; Zhong, Jin

    2014-04-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified antimicrobial peptides that are widely produced by Gram-positive bacteria, including many species of the Bacillus group. In the present study, one novel gene cluster coding lantibiotic cerecidins was unveiled in Bacillus cereus strain As 1.1846 through genomic mining and PCR screening. The designated cer locus is different from that of conventional class II lantibiotics in that it included seven tandem precursor cerA genes, one modification gene (cerM), two processing genes (cerT and cerP), one orphan regulator gene (cerR), and two immunity genes (cerF and cerE). In addition, one unprecedented quorum sensing component, comQXPA, was inserted between cerM and cerR. The expression of cerecidins was not detected in this strain of B. cereus, which might be due to repressed transcription of cerM. We constitutively coexpressed cerA genes and cerM in Escherichia coli, and purified precerecidins were proteolytically processed with the endoproteinase GluC and a truncated version of putative serine protease CerP. Thus, two natural variants of cerecidins A1 and A7 were obtained which contained two terminal nonoverlapping thioether rings rarely found in lantibiotics. Both cerecidins A1 and A7 were active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria. Cerecidin A7, especially its mutant Dhb13A, showed remarkable efficacy against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), and even Streptomyces. PMID:24532070

  9. The genome of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Charles R.; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Cresawn, Steven G.; Houtz, Jennifer M.; Smith, Alexis L.; Ford, Michael E.; Peebles, Craig L.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Huang, Wai Mun; Pedulla, Marisa L.

    2009-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis phage SPO1. The unique genome sequence is 132,562 bp, and DNA packaged in the virion (the chromosome) has a 13,185 bp terminal redundancy, giving a total of 145,747 bp. We predict 204 protein coding genes and five tRNA genes, and we correlate these findings with the extensive body of investigations of SPO1, including studies of the functions of the 61 previously defined genes and studies of the virion structure. 69% of the encoded proteins show no similarity to any previously known protein. We identify 107 probable transcription promoters; most are members of the promoter classes identified in earlier studies, but we also see a new class that has the same sequence as the host sigma K promoters. We find three genes encoding potential new transcription factors, one of which is a distant homologue of the host sigma factor K. We also identify 75 probable transcription terminator structures. Promoters and terminators are generally located between genes and together with earlier data give what appears to be a rather complete picture of how phage transcription is regulated. There are complete genome sequences available for five additional phages of Gram-positive hosts that are similar to SPO1 in genome size and in composition and organization of genes. Comparative analysis of SPO1 in the context of these other phages yields insights about both SPO1 and the other phages that would not be apparent from the analysis of any one phage alone. These include assigning identities and probable functions for several specific genes, and inferring evolutionary events in the phages’ histories. The comparative analysis also allows us to put SPO1 into a phylogenetic context. We see a pattern similar to what has been noted in phage T4 and its relatives, in which there is minimal successful horizontal exchange of genes among a “core” set of genes that includes most of the virion structural genes and some genes of DNA metabolism, but there is extensive horizontal transfer of genes over the remainder of the genome. There is a correlation between genes in rapid evolutionary flux through these genomes and genes that are small. PMID:19285085

  10. Amylocyclicin, a Novel Circular Bacteriocin Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Romy; Vater, Joachim; Budiharjo, Anto; Wang, Zhiyuan; He, Yueqiu; Dietel, Kristin; Schwecke, Torsten; Herfort, Stefanie; Lasch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a Gram-positive plant growth-promoting bacterium with an impressive capacity to synthesize nonribosomal secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity. Here we report on a novel circular bacteriocin which is ribosomally synthesized by FZB42. The compound displayed high antibacterial activity against closely related Gram-positive bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and subsequent site-specific mutagenesis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectroscopy revealed that a cluster of six genes covering 4,490 bp was responsible for the production, modification, and export of and immunity to an antibacterial compound, here designated amylocyclicin, with a molecular mass of 6,381 Da. Peptide sequencing of the fragments obtained after tryptic digestion of the purified peptide revealed posttranslational cleavage of an N-terminal extension and head-to-tail circularization of the novel bacteriocin. Homology to other putative circular bacteriocins in related bacteria let us assume that this type of peptide is widespread among the Bacillus/Paenibacillus taxon. PMID:24610713

  11. Vancomycin resistance in gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed

    Courvalin, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    The first vancomycin-resistant clinical isolates of Enterococcus species were reported in Europe in 1988. Similar strains were later detected in hospitals on the East Coast of the United States. Since then, vancomycin-resistant enterococci have spread with unexpected rapidity and are now encountered in hospitals in most countries. This article reviews the mode of action and the mechanism of bacterial resistance to glycopeptides, as exemplified by the VanA type, which is mediated by transposon Tn1546 and is widely spread in enterococci. The diversity, regulation, evolution, and recent dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are then discussed. PMID:16323116

  12. Effect of malachite green toxicity on non target soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Gopinathan, R; Kanhere, J; Banerjee, J

    2015-02-01

    Although malachite green (MG), is banned in Europe and US for its carcinogenic and teratogenic effect, the dye being cheap, is persistently used in various countries for fish farming, silk, dye, leather and textile industries. Current research, however, fails to elucidate adequate knowledge concerning the effects of MG in our ecosystem. In the present investigation, for the first time, an attempt has been made to study the effects of MG on soil biota by testing Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium roqueforti, Eisenia fetida and seeds of three crop plants of different families. Various tests were conducted for determining cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, acute toxicity, morphological and germination effect. Our data confirmed MG toxicity on fungi and bacteria (gram positive and gram negative organisms) showing elevated level of ROS. Genotoxicity caused in the microorganisms was detected by DNA polymorphism and fragmentation. Also, scanning electron microscopy data suggests that the inhibitory effect of MG to these beneficial microbes in the ecosystem might be due to pore formation in the cell and its eventual disruption. Filter paper and artificial soil test conducted on earthworms demonstrated a LC 50 of 2.6 mg cm(-2) and 1.45 mg kg(-1) respectively with severe morphological damage. However, seed germination of Mung bean, Wheat and Mustard was found to be unaffected in presence of MG up to 100 mL(-1) concentration. Thus, understanding MG toxicity in non target soil organisms and emphasis on its toxicological effects would potentially explicate its role as an environmental contaminant. PMID:25462308

  13. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli. PMID:25639850

  14. Characterization of Amylolysin, a Novel Lantibiotic from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1

    PubMed Central

    Arguelles Arias, Anthony; Ongena, Marc; Devreese, Bart; Terrak, Mohammed; Joris, Bernard; Fickers, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background Lantibiotics are heat-stable peptides characterized by the presence of thioether amino acid lanthionine and methyllanthionine. They are capable to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus, the causative agents of food-borne diseases or nosocomial infections. Lantibiotic biosynthetic machinery is encoded by gene cluster composed by a structural gene that codes for a pre-lantibiotic peptide and other genes involved in pre-lantibiotic modifications, regulation, export and immunity. Methodology/Findings Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1 was found to produce an antimicrobial peptide, named amylolysin, active on an array of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant S. aureus. Genome characterization led to the identification of a putative lantibiotic gene cluster that comprises a structural gene (amlA) and genes involved in modification (amlM), transport (amlT), regulation (amlKR) and immunity (amlFE). Disruption of amlA led to loss of biological activity, confirming thus that the identified gene cluster is related to amylolysin synthesis. MALDI-TOF and LC-MS analysis on purified amylolysin demonstrated that this latter corresponds to a novel lantibiotic not described to date. The ability of amylolysin to interact in vitro with the lipid II, the carrier of peptidoglycan monomers across the cytoplasmic membrane and the presence of a unique modification gene suggest that the identified peptide belongs to the group B lantibiotic. Amylolysin immunity seems to be driven by only two AmlF and AmlE proteins, which is uncommon within the Bacillus genus. Conclusion/Significance Apart from mersacidin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains Y2 and HIL Y-85,544728, reports on the synthesis of type B-lantibiotic in this species are scarce. This study reports on a genetic and structural characterization of another representative of the type B lantibiotic in B. amyloliquefaciens. PMID:24349428

  15. Bacillus canaveralius sp. nov., an alkali-tolerant bacterium isolated from a spacecraft assembly facility.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, David; Dekas, Anne; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2009-08-01

    Two Gram-positive, rod-shaped, alkali-tolerant (pH 10.5), endospore-forming bacteria (strains KSC SF8bT and KSC SF10a) were isolated from surfaces within the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, where robotic spacecraft are assembled and tested before launch, at the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, these strains were shown to belong to the family Bacillaceae and the genus Bacillus. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was approximately 97.5%, observed between the novel strains and Bacillus selenatarsenatis SF-1T. Several phenotypic characteristics, such as growth with 10% NaCl and assimilation of melibiose and lactose, were useful in the discrimination of this novel species from the closely related alkali-tolerant species Bacillus firmus and B. selenatarsenatis. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed reassociation values of less than 45% between strain KSC SF8bT and its closest genotypic neighbours. The combination of unique phenotypic and genotypic characteristics allowed the differentiation of these alkali- and halotolerant spore-forming strains from related Bacillus species, and a novel species, Bacillus canaveralius sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is KSC SF8bT (=ATCC BAA-1493T=MTCC 8908T). PMID:19567559

  16. Peptidoglycan transformations during Bacillus subtilis sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Tocheva, Elitza I.; López-Garrido, Javier; Hughes, H. Velocity; Fredlund, Jennifer; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Brun, Yves V.; Pogliano, Kit; Jensen, Grant J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary While vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells and mature spores are both surrounded by a thick layer of peptidoglycan (PG, a polymer of glycan strands cross-linked by peptide bridges), it has remained unclear whether PG surrounds prespores during engulfment. To clarify this issue, we generated a slender ?ponA mutant that enabled high-resolution electron cryotomographic imaging. Three-dimensional reconstructions of whole cells in near-native states revealed a thin PG-like layer extending from the lateral cell wall around the prespore throughout engulfment. Cryotomography of purified sacculi and fluorescent labelling of PG in live cells confirmed that PG surrounds the prespore. The presence of PG throughout engulfment suggests new roles for PG in sporulation, including a new model for how PG synthesis might drive engulfment, and obviates the need to synthesize a PG layer de novo during cortex formation. In addition, it reveals that B. subtilis can synthesize thin, Gram-negative-like PG layers as well as its thick, archetypal Gram-positive cell wall. The continuous transformations from thick to thin and back to thick during sporulation suggest that both forms of PG have the same basic architecture (circumferential). Endopeptidase activity may be the main switch that governs whether a thin or a thick PG layer is assembled. PMID:23531131

  17. Bacillus cereus, a Volatile Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Bottone, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent ?-lactamase conferring marked resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. PMID:20375358

  18. Peptidoglycan transformations during Bacillus subtilis sporulation.

    PubMed

    Tocheva, Elitza I; López-Garrido, Javier; Hughes, H Velocity; Fredlund, Jennifer; Kuru, Erkin; Vannieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Pogliano, Kit; Jensen, Grant J

    2013-05-01

    While vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells and mature spores are both surrounded by a thick layer of peptidoglycan (PG, a polymer of glycan strands cross-linked by peptide bridges), it has remained unclear whether PG surrounds prespores during engulfment. To clarify this issue, we generated a slender ?ponA mutant that enabled high-resolution electron cryotomographic imaging. Three-dimensional reconstructions of whole cells in near-native states revealed a thin PG-like layer extending from the lateral cell wall around the prespore throughout engulfment. Cryotomography of purified sacculi and fluorescent labelling of PG in live cells confirmed that PG surrounds the prespore. The presence of PG throughout engulfment suggests new roles for PG in sporulation, including a new model for how PG synthesis might drive engulfment, and obviates the need to synthesize a PG layer de novo during cortex formation. In addition, it reveals that B. subtilis can synthesize thin, Gram-negative-like PG layers as well as its thick, archetypal Gram-positive cell wall. The continuous transformations from thick to thin and back to thick during sporulation suggest that both forms of PG have the same basic architecture (circumferential). Endopeptidase activity may be the main switch that governs whether a thin or a thick PG layer is assembled. PMID:23531131

  19. Bacillus cereus, a volatile human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bottone, Edward J

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent beta-lactamase conferring marked resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. PMID:20375358

  20. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, Pascale B.; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant. PMID:23569226

  1. Expression of the avian-specific toll-like receptor 15 in chicken heterophils is mediated by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, but not TLR agonists.

    PubMed

    Nerren, Jessica R; He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth; Kogut, Michael H

    2010-07-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the innate immune response of mammalian and avian species. While most mammalian TLRs have been well characterized, the chicken-specific TLR15 has not been extensively studied. We recently demonstrated that TLR15 is differentially expressed between Salmonella-susceptible-and-resistant chickens, indicating a potential role in the innate immune response to infection with Salmonella. The aim of the present study was to gain better insight into the nature of the ligand for TLR15 by characterizing gene expression patterns of TLR15 by heterophils in response to numerous bacterial-derived TLR agonists LPS, flagellin, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, lipotechoic acid (LTA), peptidoglycan (PGN), and Pam3CSK4 (PAM), stimulation with live Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE-used as a positive control), chicken isolates of Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococcus gallinarum (EG), the equine-specific pathogen Rhodococcus equi, and stimulation with heat-killed, and formalin-killed SE, EC, and EG. TLR15 expression increased significantly in response to stimulation with live, heat-killed and formalin-killed SE, EC, and EG, but was unaffected by stimulation with known TLR agonists and R. equi. Overall, these observations demonstrate that the individual TLR agonists are not the ligand for TLR15, and that TLR15 recognizes a unique, non-secreted, heat-stabile component of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in and/or capable of causing disease in chickens. PMID:20303182

  2. Crystal structure of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from a Gram-positive bacterium, Streptococcus pyogenes at 2.19 Ĺ resolution shows the closed structure of the substrate-binding cleft

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Avinash; Gautam, Lovely; Sinha, Mau; Bhushan, Asha; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) catalyses the release of tRNA and peptide components from peptidyl-tRNA molecules. Pth from a Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (SpPth) was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallised. Three-dimensional structure of SpPth was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.19 Ĺ resolution. Structure determination showed that the asymmetric unit of the unit cell contained two crystallographically independent molecules, designated A and B. The superimposition of C? traces of molecules A and B showed an r.m.s. shift of 0.4 Ĺ, indicating that the structures of two crystallographically independent molecules were identical. The polypeptide chain of SpPth adopted an overall ?/? conformation. The substrate-binding cleft in SpPth is formed with three loops: the gate loop, Ile91–Leu102; the base loop, Gly108–Gly115; and the lid loop, Gly136–Gly150. Unlike in the structures of Pth from Gram-negative bacteria, the entry to the cleft in the structure of SpPth appeared to be virtually closed. However, the conformations of the active site residues were found to be similar. PMID:25389518

  3. BacillusRegNet: a transcriptional regulation database and analysis platform for Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard; Baumbach, Jan; Wipat, Anil

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular interactions. There is a need to develop new platform technologies that can be applied to the investigation of whole-genome datasets in an efficient and cost-effective manner. One such approach is the transfer of existing knowledge from well-studied organisms to closely-related organisms. In this paper, we describe a system, BacillusRegNet, for the use of a model organism, Bacillus subtilis, to infer genome-wide regulatory networks in less well-studied close relatives. The putative transcription factors, their binding sequences and predicted promoter sequences along with annotations are available from the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk). PMID:25001169

  4. Comparison of Direct Colony Method versus Extraction Method for Identification of Gram-Positive Cocci by Use of Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry ?

    PubMed Central

    Alatoom, Adnan A.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Ihde, Sherry M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Patel, Robin

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated Bruker Biotyper (version 2.0) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of 305 clinical isolates of staphylococci, streptococci, and related genera by comparing direct colony testing with preparatory extraction. Isolates were previously identified by use of phenotypic testing and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Manufacturer-specified score cutoffs for genus- and species-level identification were used. After excluding 7 isolates not present in the Biotyper library, the Biotyper correctly identified 284 (95%) and 207 (69%) isolates to the genus and species levels, respectively, using extraction. By using direct colony testing, the Biotyper identified 168 (56%) and 60 (20%) isolates to the genus and species levels, respectively. Overall, more isolates were identified to the genus and species levels with preparatory extraction than with direct colony testing (P < 0.0001). The analysis was repeated after dividing the isolates into two subgroups, staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci (n = 217) and “related genera” (n = 81). For the former subgroup, the extraction method resulted in the identification of 213 (98%) and 171 (79%) isolates to the genus and species levels, respectively, whereas the direct colony method identified 136 (63%) and 56 (26%) isolates to the genus and species levels, respectively. In contrast, for the subgroup of related genera, the extraction method identified 71 (88%) and 36 (44%) isolates to the genus and species levels, respectively, while the direct colony method identified 32 (40%) and 4 (5%) isolates to the genus and species levels, respectively. For both subgroups, preparatory extraction was superior to direct colony testing for the identification of isolates to the genus and species levels (P < 0.0001). Preparatory extraction is needed for the identification of a substantial proportion of Gram-positive cocci using the Biotyper method according to manufacturer-specified score cutoffs. PMID:21613431

  5. Bacillus invictae sp. nov., isolated from a health product.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Raquel; Sousa, Clara; Osório, Hugo; Meirinhos-Soares, Luís; Lopes, Joăo; Carriço, Joăo A; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Klein, Günter; Kämpfer, Peter; Pintado, Manuela E; Peixe, Luísa V

    2014-11-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming Bacillus isolate, Bi.(FFUP1) (T), recovered in Portugal from a health product was subjected to a polyphasic study and compared with the type strains of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus safensis, Bacillus altitudinis and Bacillus xiamenensis, the phenotypically and genotypically most closely related species. Acid production from cellobiose, D-glucose and D-mannose and absence of acid production from D-arabinose, erythritol, inositol, maltose, mannitol, raffinose, rhamnose, sorbitol, starch and L-tryptophan discriminated this new isolate from the type strains of the most closely related species. Additionally, a significant different protein and carbohydrate signature was evidenced by spectroscopic techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance. Using a chemometric approach, the score plot generated by principal component analysis clearly delineated the isolate as a separate cluster. The quinone system for strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) comprised predominantly menaquinone MK-7 and major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. Strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) showed ? 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to B. safensis FO-036b(T), B. pumilus (7061(T) and SAFR-032), B. altitudinis 41KF2b(T) and B. xiamenensis HYC-10(T). Differences in strain Bi.FFUP1 (T) gyrB and rpoB sequences in comparison with the most closely related species and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with Bi.FFUP1 (T) and B. pumilus ATCC 7061(T), B. safensis FO-036b(T), B. altitudinis 41KF2b(T) and B. xiamenensis HYC-10(T) gave relatedness values of 39.6% (reciprocal 38.0%), 49.9% (reciprocal 42.9%), 61.9% (reciprocal 52.2%) and 61.7% (reciprocal 49.2%), respectively, supported the delineation of strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus invictae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) (?=DSM 26896(T)?=CCUG 64113(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25171924

  6. Impact of Hfq on the Bacillus subtilis Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hämmerle, Hermann; Amman, Fabian; Ve?erek, Branislav; Stülke, Jörg; Hofacker, Ivo; Bläsi, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The RNA chaperone Hfq acts as a central player in post-transcriptional gene regulation in several Gram-negative Bacteria, whereas comparatively little is known about its role in Gram-positive Bacteria. Here, we studied the function of Hfq in Bacillus subtilis, and show that it confers a survival advantage. A comparative transcriptome analysis revealed mRNAs with a differential abundance that are governed by the ResD-ResE system required for aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Expression of resD was found to be up-regulated in the hfq? strain. Furthermore, several genes of the GerE and ComK regulons were de-regulated in the hfq? background. Surprisingly, only six out of >100 known and predicted small RNAs (sRNAs) showed altered abundance in the absence of Hfq. Moreover, Hfq positively affected the transcript abundance of genes encoding type I toxin-antitoxin systems. Taken the moderate effect on sRNA levels and mRNAs together, it seems rather unlikely that Hfq plays a central role in RNA transactions in Bacillus subtilis. PMID:24932523

  7. Functional Annotation Analytics of Bacillus Genomes Reveals Stress Responsive Acetate Utilization and Sulfate Uptake in the Biotechnologically Relevant Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Baraka S.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Mbah, Andreas N.; Hollman, Antoinesha L.; Bernard, Christina O.; Simmons, Shaneka S.; Ayensu, Wellington K.; Garner, Bianca L.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus species form an heterogeneous group of Gram-positive bacteria that include members that are disease-causing, biotechnologically-relevant, and can serve as biological research tools. A common feature of Bacillus species is their ability to survive in harsh environmental conditions by formation of resistant endospores. Genes encoding the universal stress protein (USP) domain confer cellular and organismal survival during unfavorable conditions such as nutrient depletion. As of February 2012, the genome sequences and a variety of functional annotations for at least 123 Bacillus isolates including 45 Bacillus cereus isolates were available in public domain bioinformatics resources. Additionally, the genome sequencing status of 10 of the B. cereus isolates were annotated as finished with each genome encoded 3 USP genes. The conservation of gene neighborhood of the 140 aa universal stress protein in the B. cereus genomes led to the identification of a predicted plasmid-encoded transcriptional unit that includes a USP gene and a sulfate uptake gene in the soil-inhabiting Bacillus megaterium. Gene neighborhood analysis combined with visual analytics of chemical ligand binding sites data provided knowledge-building biological insights on possible cellular functions of B. megaterium universal stress proteins. These functions include sulfate and potassium uptake, acid extrusion, cellular energy-level sensing, survival in high oxygen conditions and acetate utilization. Of particular interest was a two-gene transcriptional unit that consisted of genes for a universal stress protein and a sirtuin Sir2 (deacetylase enzyme for NAD+-dependent acetate utilization). The predicted transcriptional units for stress responsive inorganic sulfate uptake and acetate utilization could explain biological mechanisms for survival of soil-inhabiting Bacillus species in sulfate and acetate limiting conditions. Considering the key role of sirtuins in mammalian physiology additional research on the USP-Sir2 transcriptional unit of B. megaterium could help explain mammalian acetate metabolism in glucose-limiting conditions such as caloric restriction. Finally, the deep-rooted position of B. megaterium in the phylogeny of Bacillus species makes the investigation of the functional coupling acetate utilization and stress response compelling. PMID:23226010

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya; Junker, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a unique bacterium in that it shares a common place with a number of chemical compounds which are used commercially to control insects important to agriculture and public health. Although other bacteria, including B. popilliae and B. sphaericus, are used as microbial insecticides, their spectrum of insecticidal activity is quite limited compared to Bt. Importantly, Bt is safe for humans and is the most widely used environmentally compatible biopesticide worldwide. Furthermore, insecticidal Bt genes have been incorporated into several major crops, rendering them insect resistant, and thus providing a model for genetic engineering in agriculture. This review highlights what the authors consider the most relevant issues and topics pertaining to the genomics and proteomics of Bt. At least one of the authors (L.A.B.) has spent most of his professional life studying different aspects of this bacterium with the goal in mind of determining the mechanism(s) by which it kills insects. The other authors have a much shorter experience with Bt but their intellect and personal insight have greatly enriched our understanding of what makes Bt distinctive in the microbial world. Obviously, there is personal interest and bias reflected in this article notwithstanding oversight of a number of published studies. This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010. PMID:21327125

  9. Engineering a reagentless biosensor for single-stranded DNA to measure real-time helicase activity in Bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Green, Matthew; Gilhooly, Neville S.; Abedeen, Shahriar; Scott, David J.; Dillingham, Mark S.; Soultanas, Panos

    2014-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) is a well characterized ubiquitous and essential bacterial protein involved in almost all aspects of DNA metabolism. Using the Bacillus subtilis SSB we have generated a reagentless SSB biosensor that can be used as a helicase probe in B. subtilis and closely related gram positive bacteria. We have demonstrated the utility of the probe in a DNA unwinding reaction using a helicase from Bacillus and for the first time, characterized the B. subtilis SSB's DNA binding mode switching and stoichiometry. The importance of SSB in DNA metabolism is not limited to simply binding and protecting ssDNA during DNA replication, as previously thought. It interacts with an array of partner proteins to coordinate many different aspects of DNA metabolism. In most cases its interactions with partner proteins is species-specific and for this reason, knowing how to produce and use cognate reagentless SSB biosensors in different bacteria is critical. Here we explain how to produce a B. subtilis SSB probe that exhibits 9-fold fluorescence increase upon binding to single stranded DNA and can be used in all related gram positive firmicutes which employ drastically different DNA replication and repair systems than the widely studied Escherichia coli. The materials to produce the B. subtilis SSB probe are commercially available, so the methodology described here is widely available unlike previously published methods for the E. coli SSB. PMID:24953846

  10. Insights into polymer versus oligosaccharide synthesis: mutagenesis and mechanistic studies of a novel levansucrase from Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Homann, Arne; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Götze, Sven; Jahn, Dieter; Seibel, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A novel levansucrase was identified in the supernatant of a cell culture of Bacillus megaterium DSM319. In order to test for the contribution of specific amino acid residues to levansucrase catalysis, the wild-type enzyme along with 16 variants based on sequence alignments and structural information were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes were characterized kinetically and the product spectrum of each variant was determined. Comparison of the X-ray structures of the levansucrases from Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in conjunction with the corresponding product spectra identified crucial amino acid residues responsible for product specificity and catalysis. Highly conserved regions such as the previously described RDP and DXXER motifs were identified as being important. Two crucial structural differences localized at amino acid residues Arg370 and Asn252 were of high relevance in polymer compared with oligosaccharide synthesis. PMID:17608626

  11. Insights into polymer versus oligosaccharide synthesis: mutagenesis and mechanistic studies of a novel levansucrase from Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Homann, Arne; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Götze, Sven; Jahn, Dieter; Seibel, Jürgen

    2007-10-15

    A novel levansucrase was identified in the supernatant of a cell culture of Bacillus megaterium DSM319. In order to test for the contribution of specific amino acid residues to levansucrase catalysis, the wild-type enzyme along with 16 variants based on sequence alignments and structural information were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes were characterized kinetically and the product spectrum of each variant was determined. Comparison of the X-ray structures of the levansucrases from Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in conjunction with the corresponding product spectra identified crucial amino acid residues responsible for product specificity and catalysis. Highly conserved regions such as the previously described RDP and DXXER motifs were identified as being important. Two crucial structural differences localized at amino acid residues Arg370 and Asn252 were of high relevance in polymer compared with oligosaccharide synthesis. PMID:17608626

  12. Adherence of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Ruminococcus albus to Cellulose and Identification of a Novel Form of Cellulose-Binding Protein Which Belongs to the Pil Family of Proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Pegden, Randall S.; Larson, Marilynn A.; Grant, Richard J.; Morrison, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The adherence of Ruminococcus albus 8 to crystalline cellulose was studied, and an affinity-based assay was also used to identify candidate cellulose-binding protein(s). Bacterial adherence in cellulose-binding assays was significantly increased by the inclusion of either ruminal fluid or micromolar concentrations of both phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids in the growth medium, and the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to assays decreased the adherence of the bacterium to cellulose. A cellulose-binding protein with an estimated molecular mass following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ?21 kDa, designated CbpC, was present in both cellobiose- and cellulose-grown cultures, and the relative abundance of this protein increased in response to growth on cellulose. Addition of 0.1% (wt/vol) CMC to the binding assays had an inhibitory effect on CbpC binding to cellulose, consistent with the notion that CbpC plays a role in bacterial attachment to cellulose. The nucleotide sequence of the cbpC gene was determined by a combination of reverse genetics and genomic walking procedures. The cbpC gene encodes a protein of 169 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 17,655 Da. The amino-terminal third of the CbpC protein possesses the motif characteristic of the Pil family of proteins, which are most commonly involved with the formation of type 4 fimbriae and other surface-associated protein complexes in gram-negative, pathogenic bacteria. The remainder of the predicted CbpC sequence was found to have significant identity with 72- and 75-amino-acid motifs tandemly repeated in the 190-kDa surface antigen protein of Rickettsia spp., as well as one of the major capsid glycoproteins of the Chlorella virus PBCV-1. Northern blot analysis showed that phenylpropionic acid and ruminal fluid increase cbpC mRNA abundance in cellobiose-grown cells. These results suggest that CbpC is a novel cellulose-binding protein that may be involved in adherence of R. albus to substrate and extends understanding of the distribution of the Pil family of proteins in gram-positive bacteria. PMID:9811650

  13. Bacillus cereus endocarditis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Block, C S; Levy, M L; Fritz, V U

    1978-04-01

    Bacillus cereus may cause infective problems in compromised patients. No previous record of infective endocarditis due to this organism could be found. A 51-year-old White woman with B. cereus endocarditis after prosthetic mitral valve replacement is described. The problems of interpreting the significance of B. cereus bacteraemia, delayed diagnosis, and the inherent resistance of the organism are discussed. PMID:97794

  14. Electrical detection of germination of viable model Bacillus anthracis spores in microfluidic biochips{{

    E-print Network

    Bashir, Rashid

    Electrical detection of germination of viable model Bacillus anthracis spores in microfluidic microfluidic biochips. We used Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores as the model organism. During germination in microfluidic and BioMEMS devices. Introduction Bacillus anthracis has long been identified as the causative

  15. An engineered mutant, L307V of phenylalanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus sphaericus: high activity and stability in organic-aqueous solvent mixtures and utility for synthesis of non-natural l-amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sihong Chen; Paul C. Engel

    2007-01-01

    A study of an engineered phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH) mutant, L307V, from Bacillus sphaericus, catalysing the oxidation of l-phenylalanine (Phe) and five non-natural p-substituted derivatives (4-F\\/Cl\\/CH3\\/OCH3\\/NO2-l-Phe) in water-miscible organic solvents, methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile, is reported. Results showed that the enzyme still had high activity with 0.2mM 4-CH3\\/OCH3\\/NO2-l-Phe in 10% methanol. The kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined with three

  16. Structure of the Bacillus subtilis 70S ribosome reveals the basis for species-specific stalling

    PubMed Central

    Sohmen, Daniel; Chiba, Shinobu; Shimokawa-Chiba, Naomi; Innis, C. Axel; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland; Ito, Koreaki; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal stalling is used to regulate gene expression and can occur in a species-specific manner. Stalling during translation of the MifM leader peptide regulates expression of the downstream membrane protein biogenesis factor YidC2 (YqjG) in Bacillus subtilis, but not in Escherichia coli. In the absence of structures of Gram-positive bacterial ribosomes, a molecular basis for species-specific stalling has remained unclear. Here we present the structure of a Gram-positive B. subtilis MifM-stalled 70S ribosome at 3.5–3.9?Ĺ, revealing a network of interactions between MifM and the ribosomal tunnel, which stabilize a non-productive conformation of the PTC that prevents aminoacyl-tRNA accommodation and thereby induces translational arrest. Complementary genetic analyses identify a single amino acid within ribosomal protein L22 that dictates the species specificity of the stalling event. Such insights expand our understanding of how the synergism between the ribosome and the nascent chain is utilized to modulate the translatome in a species-specific manner. PMID:25903689

  17. Resistance trends and in vitro activity of tigecycline and 17 other antimicrobial agents against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kresken; K. Becker; H. Seifert; E. Leitner; B. Körber-Irrgang; C. von Eiff; P.-A. Löschmann

    To document the development of resistance to tigecycline in comparison with 17 other antimicrobials, the susceptibilities\\u000a of 2,741 isolates comprising 16 bacterial species recovered from hospitalised patients in 15 German centres in 2009 were assessed.\\u000a The results were compared with those of previous trials (German Tigecycline Evaluation Surveillance Trial, G-TEST I and II,\\u000a performed in 2005 and 2007, respectively) conducted

  18. Bacillus salexigens sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Garabito, M J; Arahal, D R; Mellado, E; Márquez, M C; Ventosa, A

    1997-07-01

    Bacillus salexigens sp. nov. is proposed based on the characteristics of six moderately halophilic, grampositive, rod-shaped strains isolated from salterns and hypersaline soils located in different geographical areas of Spain. These strains were motile, formed endospores, were strictly aerobic, were catalase and oxidase positive, and contained peptidoglycan of the meso-diamlnopimelic acid type in their vegetative cell walls. The DNA base compositions of these strains ranged from 36.3 to 39.5 mol%, and these organisms constitute a homology group with levels of DNA-DNA homology ranging from 73 to 100%. The 16S rRNA sequence of strain C-20MoT, which was used as the representative strain of these isolates, groups with the 16S rRNA sequences of members of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of similarity is 95.4%. The type strain is strain C-20Mo (= ATCC 700290 = DSM 11483 = CCM 4646). PMID:9226905

  19. Screening of Various Organic Substrates and the Development of a Suitable Low-Cost Fermentation Medium for the Production of a-Amylase by Bacillus subtilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadin Özdemir; Kemal Güven; Zübeyde Baysal; Fikret Uyar

    Summary The production of extracellular amylase by Bacillus subtilis has been studied in solid- -state fermentation (SSF). In a sequential order, various process parameters were optimized for maximum amylase production. The tested process parameters were different solid sub- strates such as banana husk (BH), water melon husk (WMH), lentil bran (LB), wheat bran (WB), melon husk (MH) and maize oil

  20. Osteomyelitis due to Bacillus cereus in an adolescent: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Schricker, M E; Thompson, G H; Schreiber, J R

    1994-06-01

    Non-anthracis Bacillus species associated with clinical infections are usually dismissed as contaminants or nonpathogens. As opportunists, however, Bacillus organisms can cause significant systemic infections including bacteremia, endophthalmitis, and pneumonia. Osteomyelitis with non-anthracis Bacillus organisms has been described in adults, although to our knowledge it has been described only once in a child. We report a case of chronic osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus and superinfection with Bacillus cereus in a 13-year-old adolescent. A Bacillus isolate should be considered a true pathogen in children with chronic osteomyelitis who have a poor clinical response to antistaphylococcal therapy. PMID:8086544

  1. MICs of Selected Antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides from a Range of Clinical and Environmental Sources as Determined by the Etest

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Peter C. B.; Sirianni, Nicky M.; LeBron, Carlos I.; Samaan, Marian N.; Sutton, Felicia N.; Reyes, Anatalio E.; Peruski, Jr., Leonard F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Etest determinations of MICs of selected antimicrobial agents for 76 isolates of Bacillus anthracis chosen for their diverse histories and 67, 12, and 4 cultures, respectively, of its close relatives B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides derived from a range of clinical and environmental sources. NCCLS breakpoints are now available for B. anthracis and ciprofloxacin, penicillin, and tetracycline; based on these breakpoints, the B. anthracis isolates were all fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, and all except four cultures, three of which had a known history of penicillin resistance and were thought to originate from the same original parent, were susceptible to penicillin. Based on NCCLS interpretive standards for gram-positive and/or aerobic bacteria, all cultures were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and gentamicin and 99% (one with intermediate sensitivity) of cultures were susceptible to vancomycin. No group trends were apparent among the different categories of B. cereus (isolates from food poisoning incidents and nongastrointestinal infections and food and environmental specimens not associated with illness). Differences between B. anthracis and the other species were as expected for amoxicillin and penicillin, with all B. anthracis cultures, apart from the four referred to above, being susceptible versus high proportions of resistant isolates for the other three species. Four of the B. cereus and one of the B. thuringiensis cultures were resistant to tetracycline and a further six B. cereus and one B. thuringiensis cultures fell into the intermediate category. There was a slightly higher resistance to azithromycin among the B. anthracis strains than for the other species. The proportion of B. anthracis strains fully susceptible to erythromycin was also substantially lower than for the other species, although just a single B. cereus strain was fully resistant. The Etest compared favorably with agar dilution in a subsidiary test set up to test the readings, and it compared with other published studies utilizing a variety of test methods. PMID:15297508

  2. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of a Cellulolytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain SS35 from Rhinoceros Dung

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shuchi; Moholkar, Vijayanand S.; Goyal, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose hydrolyzing bacteria were isolated from rhinoceros dung and tested for clear zone formation around the colonies on the agar plates containing the medium amended with carboxymethylcellulose as a sole carbon source. Isolates were further screened on the basis of carboxymethylcellulase production in liquid medium. Out of 36 isolates, isolate no. 35 exhibited maximum enzyme activity of 0.079?U/mL and was selected for further identification by using conventional biochemical tests and phylogenetic analyses. This was a Gram-positive, spore forming bacterium with rod-shaped cells. The isolate was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SS35 based on nucleotide homology and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA and gyrase A gene sequences. PMID:23762763

  3. Cytolytic peptide fragments of Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Nisnevitch, Marina; Nikonov, Svetlana; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2013-03-01

    Cyt1Aa is the major and most active component of the parasporal crystal of the Gram-positive soil entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The Cyt1Aa protoxin exhibits some hemolytic and cytolytic activity. However, highly active 22-25 kDa toxins are obtained after proteolysis of Cyt1Aa from both the N- and the C-termini. As shown in this study, preliminary binding of the protoxin to polylamellary liposomes or partial denaturation of Cyt1Aa and further processing by several exogenous proteases yielded short 4.9-11.5 kDa cytolytic peptide fragments of Cyt1Aa. The shortest 51 amino acid peptide was obtained after pre-incubation of Cyt1Aa with SDS and proteolysis with proteinase K. This peptide was purified, identified as the Ile87-Asp137 fragment of Cyt1Aa and was shown to exhibit more than 30 % hemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes. PMID:22875467

  4. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic characterization of FlhF from Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Bange, Gert; Petzold, Georg; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard

    2007-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis contains three proteins belonging to the signal recognition particle (SRP) type GTPase family. The well characterized signal sequence-binding protein SRP54 and the SRP receptor protein FtsY are universally conserved components of the SRP system of protein transport. The third member, FlhF, has been implicated in the placement and assembly of polar flagella. This article describes the overexpression and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of an FlhF fragment that corresponds to the well characterized GTPase domains in SRP54 and FtsY. Three crystal forms are reported with either GDP or GMPPNP and diffract to a resolution of about 3?Ĺ. PMID:17565194

  5. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic characterization of FlhF from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Bange, Gert; Petzold, Georg; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard

    2007-05-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis contains three proteins belonging to the signal recognition particle (SRP) type GTPase family. The well characterized signal sequence-binding protein SRP54 and the SRP receptor protein FtsY are universally conserved components of the SRP system of protein transport. The third member, FlhF, has been implicated in the placement and assembly of polar flagella. This article describes the overexpression and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of an FlhF fragment that corresponds to the well characterized GTPase domains in SRP54 and FtsY. Three crystal forms are reported with either GDP or GMPPNP and diffract to a resolution of about 3 A. PMID:17565194

  6. Characterization of Bacillus strains from apple and pear trees in South Africa antagonistic to Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Jock, Susanne; Völksch, Beate; Mansvelt, Lucienne; Geider, Klaus

    2002-06-01

    In order to find reasons for the absence of fire blight in most countries of the Southern hemisphere, bark samples from apple and pear trees in orchards of the Western Cape region in South Africa were extracted for bacteria which could be antagonistic to Erwinia amylovora. Screening was done in the late growth season and mainly Gram-positive bacteria were isolated. Approximately half of them produced growth inhibition zones on a lawn of E. amylovora. Most isolates were classified as Bacillus megaterium by microbiological assays and in API 50 test systems. They were visualized in the light microscope as non-motile large rods. These strains may not be responsible for the absence of fire blight in orchards, but they may indicate unfavourable climatic conditions for Gram-negative bacteria including E. amylovora. They may reduce the ability of E. amylovora to establish fire blight and could also be useful for application in biological disease control. PMID:12076820

  7. Surface adhesion and confinement variation of Bacillus subtilis on SAM surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiger, Lauren; Pasquale, Rose; Calabrese, Joseph; Senevirathne, Indrajith

    2012-02-01

    Controlled surface adhesion of non - pathogenic gram positive strain, Bacillus subtilis is interesting as a model system due to possible development of respective biosensors for prevention and detection of the pathogenic variants B. anthracis and B. cereus. Further as a study for bio-machine interfacing systems. Self Assembled Monolayers (SAM) with engineered surfaces of linear thiols on Au(111) were used as the substrate. Sub cultured B. subtilis were used for the analysis. The SAM layered surfaces were dipped in 2 -- 5 Log/ml B. subtilis solution. Subsequent surface adhesion at different bacterial dilutions on surfaces will be discussed, and correlated with quantitative and qualitative adhesion properties of bacteria on the engineered SAM surfaces. The bacteria adhered SAM surfaces were investigated using intermittent contact, noncontact, lateral force and contact modes of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).

  8. Clostridium and Bacillus Binary Enterotoxins: Bad for the Bowels, and Eukaryotic Being

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Bradley G.; Pradhan, Kisha; Fleming, Jodie M.; Samy, Ramar Perumal; Barth, Holger; Popoff, Michel R.

    2014-01-01

    Some pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, animals, and humans. These Gram-positive bacteria and their toxins include Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin), Clostridium difficile (C. difficile toxin or CDT), Clostridium perfringens (?-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC), Clostridium spiroforme (C. spiroforme toxin or CST), as well as Bacillus cereus (vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP). These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A) and cell-binding (B) components that intoxicate cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. Once inside the cytosol, the A components inhibit normal cell functions by mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin, which induces cytoskeletal disarray and death. Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the disease process involving the biochemistry and modes of action for each toxin. PMID:25198129

  9. NMR resonance assignment of the autoimmunity protein SpaI from Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

    PubMed

    Christ, Nina Alexandra; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Düsterhus, Stefanie; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Wöhnert, Jens

    2012-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 produces the lipid II targeting lantibiotic subtilin. For self-protection these gram-positive bacteria express a cluster of four self-immunity proteins named SpaIFEG. SpaI is a 16.8 kDa lipoprotein which is attached to the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane via a covalently linked diacylglycerol anchor. Together with the ABC-transporter SpaFEG, SpaI protects the membrane from subtilin insertion and there is evidence for a direct interaction of SpaI with subtilin. As a prerequisite for further structural studies of SpaI and the SpaI/subtilin complex we report here the full (1)H, (15)N, (13)C chemical shift assignment for a stable 14.9 kDa C-terminal fragment of SpaI. PMID:21643970

  10. Production and purification of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Laird, Michael W; Zukauskas, David; Johnson, Kelly; Sampey, Gavin C; Olsen, Henrik; Garcia, Andy; Karwoski, Jeffrey D; Cooksey, Bridget A; Choi, Gil H; Askins, Janine; Tsai, Amos; Pierre, Jennifer; Gwinn, William

    2004-11-01

    Anthrax is caused by the gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Current vaccines against anthrax use PA as their primary component since it confers protective immunity. In this work, we expressed soluble, recombinant PA in relatively high amounts in the periplasm of E. coli from shake flasks and bioreactors. The PA protein was purified using Q-Sepharose-HP and hydroxyapatite chromatography, and routinely found to be 96-98% pure. Yields of purified PA varied depending on the method of production; however, medium cell density fermentations resulted in approximately 370 mg/L of highly pure biologically active PA protein. These results exhibit the ability to generate gram quantities of PA from E. coli. PMID:15477093

  11. Effect of chemical fixatives on accurate preservation of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis structure in cells prepared by freeze-substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, L.L.; Beveridge, T.J. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-04-01

    Five chemical fixatives were evaluated for their ability to accurately preserve bacterial ultrastructure during freeze-substitution of select Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains. Radioisotopes were specifically incorporated into the peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, and nucleic acids of E. coli SFK11 and W7 and into the peptidoglycan and RNA of B. subtilis 168 and W23. The ease of extraction of radiolabels, as assessed by liquid scintillation counting during all stages of processing for freeze-substitution, was used as an indicator of cell structural integrity and retention of cellular chemical composition. Subsequent visual examination by electron microscopy was used to confirm ultrastructural conformation. The fixatives used were: 2% (wt/vol) osmium tetroxide and 2% (wt/vol) uranyl acetate; 2% (vol/vol) glutaraldehyde and 2% (wt/vol) uranyl acetate; 2% (vol/vol) acrolein and 2% (wt/vol) uranyl acetate; 2% (wt/vol) gallic acid; and 2% (wt/vol) uranyl acetate. All fixatives were prepared in a substitution solvent of anhydrous acetone. Extraction of cellular constituents depended on the chemical fixative used. A combination of 2% osmium tetroxide-2% uranyl acetate or 2% gallic acid alone resulted in optimum fixation as ascertained by least extraction of radiolabels. In both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, high levels of radiolabel were detected in the processing fluids in which 2% acrolein-2% uranyl acetate, 2% glutaraldehyde-2% uranyl acetate, or 2% uranyl acetate alone were used as fixatives. Ultrastructural variations were observed in cells freeze-substituted in the presence of different chemical fixatives. We recommend the use of osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate in acetone for routine freeze-substitution of eubacteria, while gallic acid is recommended for use when microanalytical processing necessitates the omission of osmium.

  12. Comprehensive Absolute Quantification of the Cytosolic Proteome of Bacillus subtilis by Data Independent, Parallel Fragmentation in Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MSE)*

    PubMed Central

    Muntel, Jan; Fromion, Vincent; Goelzer, Anne; Maa?, Sandra; Mäder, Ulrike; Büttner, Knut; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2014-01-01

    In the growing field of systems biology, the knowledge of protein concentrations is highly required to truly understand metabolic and adaptational networks within the cells. Therefore we established a workflow relying on long chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric analysis by data independent, parallel fragmentation of all precursor ions at the same time (LC/MSE). By prevention of discrimination of co-eluting low and high abundant peptides a high average sequence coverage of 40% could be achieved, resulting in identification of almost half of the predicted cytosolic proteome of the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis (>1,050 proteins). Absolute quantification was achieved by correlation of average MS signal intensities of the three most intense peptides of a protein to the signal intensity of a spiked standard protein digest. Comparative analysis with heavily labeled peptides (AQUA approach) showed the use of only one standard digest is sufficient for global quantification. The quantification results covered almost four orders of magnitude, ranging roughly from 10 to 150,000 copies per cell. To prove this method for its biological relevance selected physiological aspects of B. subtilis cells grown under conditions requiring either amino acid synthesis or alternatively amino acid degradation were analyzed. This allowed both in particular the validation of the adjustment of protein levels by known regulatory events and in general a perspective of new insights into bacterial physiology. Within new findings the analysis of “protein costs” of cellular processes is extremely important. Such a comprehensive and detailed characterization of cellular protein concentrations based on data independent, parallel fragmentation in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MSE) data has been performed for the first time and should pave the way for future comprehensive quantitative characterization of microorganisms as physiological entities. PMID:24696501

  13. Biosynthesis of aliphatic polyketides by type III polyketide synthase and methyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chiaki; Ozawa, Hiroki; Akanuma, Genki; Funa, Nobutaka; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2009-08-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) synthesize a variety of aromatic polyketides in plants, fungi, and bacteria. The bacterial genome projects predicted that probable type III PKS genes are distributed in a wide variety of gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The gram-positive model microorganism Bacillus subtilis contained the bcsA-ypbQ operon, which appeared to encode a type III PKS and a methyltransferase, respectively. Here, we report the characterization of bcsA (renamed bpsA, for Bacillus pyrone synthase, on the basis of its function) and ypbQ, which are involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic polyketides. In vivo analysis demonstrated that BpsA was a type III PKS catalyzing the synthesis of triketide pyrones from long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters as starter substrates and malonyl-CoA as an extender substrate, and YpbQ was a methyltransferase acting on the triketide pyrones to yield alkylpyrone methyl ethers. YpbQ thus was named BpsB because of its functional relatedness to BpsA. In vitro analysis with histidine-tagged BpsA revealed that it used broad starter substrates and produced not only triketide pyrones but also tetraketide pyrones and alkylresorcinols. Although the aliphatic polyketides were expected to localize in the membrane and play some role in modulating the rigidity and properties of the membrane, no detectable phenotypic changes were observed for a B. subtilis mutant containing a whole deletion of the bpsA-bpsB operon. PMID:19465653

  14. Characteristics and antimicrobial activity of Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Sevdalina; Kozhuharova, Lubka

    2010-07-01

    Antagonistic Bacillus strains were isolated from soil and analyzed for the purpose of determining whether they could be used as natural biological agents. Primary in vitro screening for antagonism of the isolates was performed against five phytopathogenic mould fungi. Strains TS 01 and ZR 02 exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory effects. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis on the basis of their morphological, cultural and physiology-biochemical properties as well as their hierarchical cluster analysis conducted by means of computer program SPSS. The antimicrobial activity of the strains from cultural medium and sterile filtrate were determined in vitro against a great number of predominantly phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. TS 01 and ZR 02 strains exhibited very broad and at the same time degree varying antibiotic spectra of activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Many of them were tested against sensitivity to the antimicrobial action of B. subtilis for the very first time. B. subtilis TS 01 and ZR 02 showed highest antifungal activity (sterile zone in diameter over 37 mm) against Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Monilia linhartiana 869, Phytophthora cryptogea 759/1 and Rhizoctonia sp. The most sensitive bacterial species were found to be Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Ro and Xanthomonas campestris with sterile zones 48.0 and 50.0 mm in diameter, respectively. The latter draws a conclusion that the isolated and identified Bacillus subtilis strains are promising natural biocontrol agents and should be further studied and tested for control of numerous plant diseases. PMID:24026925

  15. Assessing the Sporicidal Activity of Oligo-p-phenylene Ethynylenes and Their Role as Bacillus Germinants.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Harry C; Lovchik, Julie A; Whitten, David G

    2015-04-21

    A wide range of oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes has been shown to exhibit good biocidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. While cell death may occur in the dark, these biocidal compounds are far more effective in the light as a result of their ability to sensitize the production of cell-damaging reactive oxygen species. In these studies, the interactions of a specific cationic oligo-p-phenylene ethynylene with spore-forming Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus anthracis Sterne have been investigated. Flow cytometry assays are used to rapidly monitor cell death as well as spore germination. This compound effectively killed Bacillus anthracis Sterne vegetative cells (over 4 log reduction), presumably by severe perturbations of the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane, while also acting as an effective spore germinant in the dark. While 2 log reduction of B. anthracis Sterne spores was observed, it is hypothesized that further killing could be achieved through enhanced germination. PMID:25822668

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895

    PubMed Central

    Melnikov, Vyacheslav G.; Chistyakov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain B-1895. Comparison with the genome of a reference strain demonstrated similar overall organization, as well as differences involving large gene clusters. PMID:24948774

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895.

    PubMed

    Karlyshev, Andrey V; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G; Chistyakov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain B-1895. Comparison with the genome of a reference strain demonstrated similar overall organization, as well as differences involving large gene clusters. PMID:24948774

  18. Bacillus nealsonii sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft-assembly facility, whose spores are gamma-radiation resistant.

    PubMed

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Kempf, Michael; Chen, Fei; Satomi, Masataka; Nicholson, Wayne; Kern, Roger

    2003-01-01

    One of the spore-formers isolated from a spacecraft-assembly facility, belonging to the genus Bacillus, is described on the basis of phenotypic characterization, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization studies. It is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped eubacterium that produces endospores. The spores of this novel bacterial species exhibited resistance to UV, gamma-radiation, H2O2 and desiccation. The 18S rDNA sequence analysis revealed a clear affiliation between this strain and members of the low G+C Firmicutes. High 16S rDNA sequence similarity values were found with members of the genus Bacillus and this was supported by fatty acid profiles. The 16S rDNA sequence similarity between strain FO-92T and Bacillus benzoevorans DSM 5391T was very high. However, molecular characterizations employing small-subunit 16S rDNA sequences were at the limits of resolution for the differentiation of species in this genus, but DNA-DNA hybridization data support the proposal of FO-92T as Bacillus nealsonii sp. nov. (type strain is FO-92T =ATCC BAAM-519T =DSM 15077T). PMID:12656168

  19. Bacillus patagoniensis sp. nov., a novel alkalitolerant bacterium from the rhizosphere of Atriplex lampa in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Nelda; Sińeriz, Faustino; Breccia, Javier D

    2005-01-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium (PAT 05T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of the perennial shrub Atriplex lampa in north-eastern Patagonia, Argentina. Its overall biochemical and physiological characteristics indicated that this strain should be placed in the alkaliphilic Bacillus group. Strain PAT 05T grew at pH 7-10 (optimum pH 8), but not at pH 6. Its DNA G+C content was 39.7 mol%. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of PAT 05T revealed the closest match (99.6 % similarity) with Bacillus sp. DSM 8714. The highest level of DNA-DNA relatedness (88.6 %) was also found with this strain. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain PAT 05T is related at the species level to Bacillus sp. DSM 8714, a member of a group referred as phenon 4a by Nielsen et al. [Nielsen, P., Fritze, D. & Priest, F. G. (1995). Microbiology 141, 1745-1761], which still lacks taxonomic standing. These results support the proposal of strain PAT 05T (=DSM 16117T=ATCC BAA-965T) as the type strain of Bacillus patagoniensis sp. nov. PMID:15653916

  20. Bacillus arsenicus sp. nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium isolated from a siderite concretion in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, S; Suresh, K; Chaturvedi, Preeti; Dube, Smita; Sengupta, S

    2005-05-01

    Strain Con a/3(T) is a Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped and arsenic-resistant bacterium, which was isolated from a concretion of arsenic ore obtained from a bore-hole. The bacterium grew in the presence of 20 mM arsenate and 0.5 mM arsenite. Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell wall peptidoglycan, MK-7 was the major menaquinone, and iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 1)(delta7cis) were the major fatty acids. Based on its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain Con a/3(T) was identified as a member of the genus Bacillus. It exhibited maximum similarity (97 %) at the 16S rRNA gene level with Bacillus barbaricus (DSM 14730(T)); however, the DNA-DNA relatedness value with B. barbaricus was 60 %. Strain Con a/3(T) also exhibited a number of phenotypic differences from B. barbaricus (DSM 14730(T)). Strain Con a/3(T) was therefore identified as representing a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus arsenicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Con a/3(T) (= MTCC 4380(T) = DSM 15822(T) = JCM 12167(T)). PMID:15879243

  1. Bacillus safensis sp. nov., isolated from spacecraft and assembly-facility surfaces.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; La Duc, Myron T; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2006-08-01

    Thirteen strains of a novel spore-forming, Gram-positive, mesophilic heterotrophic bacterium were isolated from spacecraft surfaces (Mars Odyssey Orbiter) and assembly-facility surfaces at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California and the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has placed these novel isolates within the genus Bacillus, the greatest sequence similarity (99.9 %) being found with Bacillus pumilus. However, these isolates share a mere 91.2 % gyrB sequence similarity with Bacillus pumilus, rendering their 16S rRNA gene-derived relatedness suspect. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization showed only 54-66 % DNA relatedness between the novel isolates and strains of B. pumilus. rep-PCR fingerprinting and previously reported matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry protein profiling clearly distinguished these isolates from B. pumilus. Phenotypic analyses also showed some differentiation between the two genotypic groups, although the fatty acid compositions were almost identical. The polyphasic taxonomic studies revealed distinct clustering of the tested strains into two distinct species. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and the results of phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, repetitive element primer-PCR fingerprinting and DNA-DNA hybridization, the 13 isolates represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus safensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FO-36b(T) (=ATCC BAA-1126(T)=NBRC 100820(T)). PMID:16902000

  2. A functional homing endonuclease in the Bacillus anthracis nrdE group I intron.

    PubMed

    Nord, David; Torrents, Eduard; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie

    2007-07-01

    The essential Bacillus anthracis nrdE gene carries a self-splicing group I intron with a putative homing endonuclease belonging to the GIY-YIG family. Here, we show that the nrdE pre-mRNA is spliced and that the homing endonuclease cleaves an intronless nrdE gene 5 nucleotides (nt) upstream of the intron insertion site, producing 2-nt 3' extensions. We also show that the sequence required for efficient cleavage spans at least 4 bp upstream and 31 bp downstream of the cleaved coding strand. The position of the recognition sequence in relation to the cleavage position is as expected for a GIY-YIG homing endonuclease. Interestingly, nrdE genes from several other Bacillaceae were also susceptible to cleavage, with those of Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis (nrdE1), B. anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar konkukian being better substrates than those of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus lichenformis, and S. epidermidis (nrdE2). On the other hand, nrdE genes from Lactococcus lactis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Corynebacterium ammoniagenes were not cleaved. Intervening sequences (IVSs) residing in protein-coding genes are often found in enzymes involved in DNA metabolism, and the ribonucleotide reductase nrdE gene is a frequent target for self-splicing IVSs. A comparison of nrdE genes from seven gram-positive low-G+C bacteria, two bacteriophages, and Nocardia farcinica showed five different insertion sites for self-splicing IVSs within the coding region of the nrdE gene. PMID:17496101

  3. Bacillus iranensis sp. nov., a moderate halophile from a hypersaline lake.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, M; Didari, M; Amoozegar, M A; Schumann, P; Sánchez-Porro, C; Mehrshad, M; Ventosa, A

    2012-04-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic rod, designated X5BT, was isolated from saline mud of the hypersaline lake Aran-Bidgol in Iran. Strain X5BT was a strictly aerobic, motile bacterium that produced ellipsoidal endospores at a central-subterminal position in non-swollen sporangia. The isolate grew at pH 7.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.5), at 25-45 °C (optimum 35 °C) and with 2.5-15?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5-7.5?%). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain X5BT belonged to the genus Bacillus and showed highest similarity with Bacillus persepolensis HS136T (95.6?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Bacillus salarius BH169T (95.5?%). The DNA G+C content was 42.4 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0 and the polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, three phospholipids and two glycolipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the isoprenoid quinones were MK-7 (92?%), MK-6 (6?%) and MK-5 (2?%). On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, a novel species of the genus Bacillus is proposed, with the name Bacillus iranensis sp. nov. The type strain is X5BT (=IBRC 10446T=DSM 23995T). PMID:21571930

  4. Isolation and characterization of a thermophilic Bacillus shackletonii K5 from a biotrickling filter for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Huang, Shaobin; Zhang, Yongqing; Xu, Fuqian

    2014-07-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are aliphatic polyesters accumulated intracellularly by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. However, compared to the PHAs of Gram-negative bacteria, few endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS), which would be co-purified with PHAs and cause immunogenic reactions, are found in the PHAs produced by Gram-positive bacteria. A thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium K5, which exhibited good growth and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-accumulating ability, has been isolated and characterized from a biotrickling filter designed for the removal of NOx from flue gas in a coal-fired power plant in China. Based on the biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence (Genbank accession no. JX437933), the strain K5 has been identified as Bacillus shackletonii, which has rarely been reported in the literature, and this report is the first time that B. shackletonii has been found to accumulate PHB. The strain K5 was able to utilize glucose as carbon source to synthesize PHB at a broad range of temperatures (from 35 to 50°C), and the ideal temperature was 45°C. The strain K5 could effectively yield PHB of up to 69.9% of its cell dry weight (CDW) (2.28 g/L) in flask experiments employing glucose as carbon source at 45°C, followed by 56.8% and 52.3% of its CDW when using sodium succinate and glycerol as carbon source, respectively. For batch cultivation, the strain K5 was able to produce PHB of up to 72.6% of its cell dry weight (9.76 g/L) employing glucose as carbon source at 45°C and pH7.0. PMID:25079994

  5. Complete Genome of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pascal.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Jeffery D; Vega Gonzalez, Alexander E; Maroun, Justin W; Hernandez, Adriana C; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Podophage Pascal infects Bacillus megaterium, a commonly used model organism in biochemical research and an important industrial-scale protein production system. Here, we report the sequenced and annotated genome of Pascal and describe its prominent features. Bacteriophages such as Pascal may be valuable tools for research and industry. PMID:25635028

  6. Complete Genome of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pascal

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jeffery D.; Gonzalez, Alexander E. Vega; Maroun, Justin W.; Hernandez, Adriana C.

    2015-01-01

    Podophage Pascal infects Bacillus megaterium, a commonly used model organism in biochemical research and an important industrial-scale protein production system. Here, we report the sequenced and annotated genome of Pascal and describe its prominent features. Bacteriophages such as Pascal may be valuable tools for research and industry. PMID:25635028

  7. Identification of three merB genes and characterization of a broad-spectrum mercury resistance module encoded by a class II transposon of Bacillus megaterium strain MB1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chieh-Chen Huang; Masaru Narita; Takeshi Yamagata; Ginro Endo

    1999-01-01

    The complete structure of a broad-spectrum mercury resistance module was shown by sequencing the Gram-positive bacterial transposon TnMERI1 of Bacillus megaterium MB1. The regions encoding organomercury resistance were identified. Upstream of a previously identified organomercurial lyase merB (merB1) region of TnMERI1, a second merR (merR2) and a second merB gene (merB2) were found. These genes constitute a second operon (mer

  8. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J; Schelonka, Robert L; Waites, Ken B

    2003-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers of infant infections proven to be due to this organism that have been described previously are reviewed. PMID:12843116

  9. Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis---One Species on the Basis of Genetic Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERLENDUR HELGASON; O. A. Okstad; DOMINIQUE A. CAUGANT; HENNING A. JOHANSEN; AGNES FOUET; MICHELE MOCK; IDA HEGNA; A.-B. Kolsto

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are members of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, demonstrating widely different phenotypes and pathological effects. B. anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax and is a potential biological weapon due to its high toxicity. B. thuringiensis produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most

  10. Crystallization and crystallographic analysis of Bacillus subtilis xylanase C

    PubMed Central

    St John, Franz J.; Godwin, David K.; Preston, James F.; Pozharski, Edwin; Hurlbert, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent biochemical characterization of the xylanases of glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH 5) has identified a distinctive endo mode of action, hydrolyzing the ?-1,4 xylan chain at a specific site directed by the position of an ?-1,2-linked glucuronate moiety. Xylanase C (XynC), the GH 5 xylanase from Bacillus subtilis 168, has been cloned, overexpressed and crystallized. Initial data collection was performed and a preliminary model has been built into a low-quality 2.7?Ĺ resolution density map. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P21. Further screening identified an additive that resulted in large reproducible crystals. This larger more robust crystal form belonged to space group P21212 and a resulting data set has been processed to 1.64?Ĺ resolution. This will be the second structure to be solved from this unique xylanase family and the first from a Gram-positive bacterium. This work may help to identify the structural determinants that allow the exceptional specificity of this enzyme and the role it plays in the biological depolymerization and processing of glucuronoxylan. PMID:19407387

  11. Serious infections caused by Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Sliman, R; Rehm, S; Shlaes, D M

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-eight patients with serious infections caused by organisms belonging to the genus Bacillus are described. Our experience, and that reported in the literature, indicates that, in most cases, isolated Bacillus bacteremia is not a particularly serious disease. Therefore, under most circumstances, empiric antibiotic therapy designed specifically for treatment of Bacillus is probably not necessary. Endocarditis can occur, but apparently follows bacteremia only infrequently. When these bacteria cause localized infection such as pneumonia, pan-ophthalmitis, visceral abscess, or musculoskeletal infections, tissue necrosis and profound morbidity are the rule. The frequency of these complications following bacteremia appears to be low but cannot be estimated from our experience or that reported in the literature reviewed. The role of intravascular devices and trauma as predisposing factors is emphasized. Immunocompromised hosts and intravenous drug abusers appear predisposed, but intravascular devices in the former group may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Bacillus infections. Antibiotics which appear especially useful in the treatment of Bacillus infections are clindamycin and vancomycin, to which the vast majority of strains are susceptible in vitro. Beta-lactam antibiotics, including the new cephalosporins and penicillins, are of little value in this setting. PMID:3106749

  12. Effects of Methanol Extract of Wedelia chinensis Osbeck (Asteraceae) Leaves against Pathogenic Bacteria with Emphasise on Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Darah, I.; Lim, S. H.; Nithianantham, K.

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Wedelia chinensis leave was studied and tested against three pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Stapylococcus aureus) and three pathogenic Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus rettgeri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by the disk diffusion assay and broth dilution methods. The extract exhibited favourable antibacterial activity against the bacterial cells but was more potent against Gram positive bacteria with the minimum inhibition concentration of 3.12 to 6.25 mg/ml compared to the Gram negative bacteria which had minimum inhibition concentration values of 25 mg/ml. The time-kill study suggested that the extract possessed bactericidal properties at higher concentrations and eradicated the growth of bacterial cells. The major abnormalities occurred to the bacterial cells after exposed to the extract were complete alterations in their morphology and collapsed of the cells beyond repair. The methanol extract of W. chinensis may be an effective antibacterial agent to treat bacterial infections. PMID:24403653

  13. Effects of Methanol Extract of Wedelia chinensis Osbeck (Asteraceae) Leaves against Pathogenic Bacteria with Emphasise on Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Darah, I; Lim, S H; Nithianantham, K

    2013-09-01

    The antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Wedelia chinensis leave was studied and tested against three pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Stapylococcus aureus) and three pathogenic Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus rettgeri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by the disk diffusion assay and broth dilution methods. The extract exhibited favourable antibacterial activity against the bacterial cells but was more potent against Gram positive bacteria with the minimum inhibition concentration of 3.12 to 6.25 mg/ml compared to the Gram negative bacteria which had minimum inhibition concentration values of 25 mg/ml. The time-kill study suggested that the extract possessed bactericidal properties at higher concentrations and eradicated the growth of bacterial cells. The major abnormalities occurred to the bacterial cells after exposed to the extract were complete alterations in their morphology and collapsed of the cells beyond repair. The methanol extract of W. chinensis may be an effective antibacterial agent to treat bacterial infections. PMID:24403653

  14. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Ehrlich, S D; Albertini, A; Amati, G; Andersen, K K; Arnaud, M; Asai, K; Ashikaga, S; Aymerich, S; Bessieres, P; Boland, F; Brignell, S C; Bron, S; Bunai, K; Chapuis, J; Christiansen, L C; Danchin, A; Débarbouille, M; Dervyn, E; Deuerling, E; Devine, K; Devine, S K; Dreesen, O; Errington, J; Fillinger, S; Foster, S J; Fujita, Y; Galizzi, A; Gardan, R; Eschevins, C; Fukushima, T; Haga, K; Harwood, C R; Hecker, M; Hosoya, D; Hullo, M F; Kakeshita, H; Karamata, D; Kasahara, Y; Kawamura, F; Koga, K; Koski, P; Kuwana, R; Imamura, D; Ishimaru, M; Ishikawa, S; Ishio, I; Le Coq, D; Masson, A; Mauël, C; Meima, R; Mellado, R P; Moir, A; Moriya, S; Nagakawa, E; Nanamiya, H; Nakai, S; Nygaard, P; Ogura, M; Ohanan, T; O'Reilly, M; O'Rourke, M; Pragai, Z; Pooley, H M; Rapoport, G; Rawlins, J P; Rivas, L A; Rivolta, C; Sadaie, A; Sadaie, Y; Sarvas, M; Sato, T; Saxild, H H; Scanlan, E; Schumann, W; Seegers, J F M L; Sekiguchi, J; Sekowska, A; Séror, S J; Simon, M; Stragier, P; Studer, R; Takamatsu, H; Tanaka, T; Takeuchi, M; Thomaides, H B; Vagner, V; van Dijl, J M; Watabe, K; Wipat, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, Y; Yamane, K; Yata, K; Yoshida, K; Yoshikawa, H; Zuber, U; Ogasawara, N

    2003-04-15

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway are essential. Identification of unknown and unexpected essential genes opens research avenues to better understanding of processes that sustain bacterial life. PMID:12682299

  15. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S. D.; Albertini, A.; Amati, G.; Andersen, K. K.; Arnaud, M.; Asai, K.; Ashikaga, S.; Aymerich, S.; Bessieres, P.; Boland, F.; Brignell, S. C.; Bron, S.; Bunai, K.; Chapuis, J.; Christiansen, L. C.; Danchin, A.; Débarbouillé, M.; Dervyn, E.; Deuerling, E.; Devine, K.; Devine, S. K.; Dreesen, O.; Errington, J.; Fillinger, S.; Foster, S. J.; Fujita, Y.; Galizzi, A.; Gardan, R.; Eschevins, C.; Fukushima, T.; Haga, K.; Harwood, C. R.; Hecker, M.; Hosoya, D.; Hullo, M. F.; Kakeshita, H.; Karamata, D.; Kasahara, Y.; Kawamura, F.; Koga, K.; Koski, P.; Kuwana, R.; Imamura, D.; Ishimaru, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Ishio, I.; Le Coq, D.; Masson, A.; Mauël, C.; Meima, R.; Mellado, R. P.; Moir, A.; Moriya, S.; Nagakawa, E.; Nanamiya, H.; Nakai, S.; Nygaard, P.; Ogura, M.; Ohanan, T.; O'Reilly, M.; O'Rourke, M.; Pragai, Z.; Pooley, H. M.; Rapoport, G.; Rawlins, J. P.; Rivas, L. A.; Rivolta, C.; Sadaie, A.; Sadaie, Y.; Sarvas, M.; Sato, T.; Saxild, H. H.; Scanlan, E.; Schumann, W.; Seegers, J. F. M. L.; Sekiguchi, J.; Sekowska, A.; Séror, S. J.; Simon, M.; Stragier, P.; Studer, R.; Takamatsu, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Thomaides, H. B.; Vagner, V.; van Dijl, J. M.; Watabe, K.; Wipat, A.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamane, K.; Yata, K.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Zuber, U.; Ogasawara, N.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among ?4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway are essential. Identification of unknown and unexpected essential genes opens research avenues to better understanding of processes that sustain bacterial life. PMID:12682299

  16. Bacillus huizhouensis sp. nov., isolated from a paddy field soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibing; Yang, Guiqin; Wu, Min; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Shungui

    2014-08-01

    A Gram-stain positive, facultative aerobic bacterium, designated as strain GSS03(T), was isolated from a paddy field soil. The cells were observed to be endospore forming, rod-shaped and motile with flagella. The organism was found to grow optimally at 35 °C at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 1 % NaCl. The strain was classified as a novel taxon within the genus Bacillus on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The closest phylogenetic relatives were identified as Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus DSM 6(T) (97.61 %), Bacillus muralis DSM 16288(T) (97.55 %), Bacillus asahii JCM 12112(T) (97.48 %), Bacillus simplex DSM 1321(T) (97.48 %) and "Bacillus frigoritolerans" DSM 8801(T) (97.38 %). The menaquinone was identified as MK-7, the major cellular fatty acid was identified as anteiso-C15:0 and the major cellular polar lipids as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and three unknown polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 40.2 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness with the closest relatives was below 48 %. Therefore, on the basis of all the results, strain GSS03(T) is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus huizhouensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GSS03(T) (=KCTC 33172(T) =CCTCC AB 2013237(T)). PMID:24903955

  17. Determination of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate production by Bacillus spp. isolated from the intestines of various fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinar Kaynar; Yavuz Beyatli

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 30 strains of the genus Bacillus were isolated from various fresh fishes obtained from fish markets in Ankara, Turkey. They were identified as Bacillus pasteurii, Bacillus badius, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus lentus, and Bacillus pumilus. When poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by these strains

  18. Bacillus anthracis (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes disease in humans and animals. The bacteria is found in two forms cutaneous anthrax and inhalation anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is an infection ...

  19. Characterization ofCharacterization of Bacillus anthracisBacillus anthracis andand Bacillus cereusBacillus cereus Spore Germination:Spore Germination: INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Characterization ofCharacterization of Bacillus anthracisBacillus anthracis andand Bacillus cereusBacillus cereus Spore Germination:Spore Germination: INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Historically, Bacillus anthracis-Santos, E. 2007. Identification of an in Vivo inhibitor of Bacillus anthracis spore germination. The Journal

  20. Loss of Homogentisate 1,2-Dioxygenase Activity in Bacillus anthracis Results in Accumulation of Protective Pigment

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hesong; Iakovenko, Liudmyla; Wilson, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Melanin production is important to the pathogenicity and survival of some bacterial pathogens. In Bacillus anthracis, loss of hmgA, encoding homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, results in accumulation of a melanin-like pigment called pyomelanin. Pyomelanin is produced in the mutant as a byproduct of disrupted catabolism of L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. Accumulation of pyomelanin protects B. anthracis cells from UV damage but not from oxidative damage. Neither loss of hmgA nor accumulation of pyomelanin alter virulence gene expression, sporulation or germination. This is the first investigation of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activity in the Gram-positive bacteria, and these results provide insight into a conserved aspect of bacterial physiology. PMID:26047497

  1. Benchmarking Various Green Fluorescent Protein Variants in Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Lactococcus lactis for Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Overkamp, Wout; Beilharz, Katrin; Detert Oude Weme, Ruud; Solopova, Ana; Karsens, Harma; Kovács, Ákos T.; Kok, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) offers efficient ways of visualizing promoter activity and protein localization in vivo, and many different variants are currently available to study bacterial cell biology. Which of these variants is best suited for a certain bacterial strain, goal, or experimental condition is not clear. Here, we have designed and constructed two “superfolder” GFPs with codon adaptation specifically for Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae and have benchmarked them against five other previously available variants of GFP in B. subtilis, S. pneumoniae, and Lactococcus lactis, using promoter-gfp fusions. Surprisingly, the best-performing GFP under our experimental conditions in B. subtilis was the one codon optimized for S. pneumoniae and vice versa. The data and tools described in this study will be useful for cell biology studies in low-GC-rich Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23956387

  2. Management of Bacillus bacteremia: the need for catheter removal.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Rawan; Hachem, Ray; Jiang, Ying; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Raad, Issam

    2009-09-01

    Bacillus species are biofilm-forming organisms that are associated with Bacillus catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). The optimal treatment of Bacillus CRBSIs is not known. Therefore, in the current study, we determined the role of long-term central venous catheter (CVC) removal and treatment with vancomycin compared with other agents in Bacillus CRBSIs by retrospectively reviewing the medical records of cancer patients with Bacillus bacteremia who had been treated at our institution from December 1990 to March 2008. True bacteremia was defined as a positive blood culture (>15 colony-forming units/mL) with signs and symptoms of infection (such as fever and chills). Bacillus CRBSI was defined in accordance with the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines as probable or definite. There were 94 Bacillus bacteremia episodes, 93 of which (99%) were Bacillus CRBSIs (28% definite and 71% probable). Neutropenia during bacteremia occurred in 29%. Almost all bacteremia patients (99%) had been treated with antibiotics; 63% had received vancomycin. Sepsis with hypotension occurred in 6%, and endocarditis in 1%. Bacillus isolates were susceptible to linezolid (100%), vancomycin (98%), tetracycline (77%), and rifampin (67%). All 4 recurrences occurred in patients in whom the CVC had not been removed (12%), whereas no recurrences occurred in patients whose CVC had been removed (p = 0.028). Patient outcome, in terms of fever and hospitalization duration after the infection, was similar in patients who had received < or =10 days of systemic antibiotics compared with patients who had received >10 days. In conclusion, catheter retention in patients with Bacillus CRBSIs is associated with a significantly higher recurrence rate. If the CVC is retained, treatment with non-vancomycin antibiotics is associated with significantly shorter hospitalization duration after the infection, which may be because glycopeptide antibiotics have poor activity against bacilli embedded in biofilm. PMID:19745686

  3. Bacillus salitolerans sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a salt mine in Xinjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Yan; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2015-08-01

    A novel aerobic bacterium, KC1(T), was isolated from a salt mine in Kuche county, Xinjiang province, China. Cells were observed to be Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile with flagella. Strain KC1(T) was found to grow at 25-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum 8.0) and NaCl 0-10 % (v/v) (optimum 4 %). The major fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was found to be the predominant isoprenoid quinone. The cell-wall diamino acid was found to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol and a glycolipid. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KC1(T) showed low similarity (<96 %) to other validly named species. The phylogenetic trees showed that strain KC1(T) is closely related to Bacillus azotoformans DSM 1046(T) and Bacillus methanolicus DSM 16454(T). Both these type strains showed 95.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to strain KC1(T). The DNA G+C content of strain KC1(T) was determined to be 39.0 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, strain KC1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus salitolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC1(T) (=JCM 19760(T) = CGMCC 1.12810(T)). PMID:26076748

  4. Optimized Production and Purification of Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen H. Leppla

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is a 90-kDa zinc metalloprotease that plays an important role in the virulence of the organism. LF has previously been purified from Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis. The yields and purities of these preparations were inadequate for crystal structure determination. In this study, the genes encoding wild-type LF and a mutated, inactive LF (LF-E687C) were

  5. Bacillus persicus sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium from a hypersaline lake.

    PubMed

    Didari, Maryam; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Bagheri, Maryam; Mehrshad, Maliheh; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    A novel gram-positive, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated strain B48(T), was isolated from soil around the hypersaline lake Aran-Bidgol in Iran and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain B48(T) were non-motile rods and produced ellipsoidal endospores at a central or subterminal position in swollen sporangia. Strain B48(T) was a strictly aerobic bacterium, catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-10.0?% (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 2.5?% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 35 °C and pH 7.5-8.0, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain B48(T) was shown to belong to the genus Bacillus within the phylum Firmicutes and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity to the species Bacillus foraminis CV53(T) (97.4?%) and Bacillus purgationiresistens DS22(T) (96.9?%). The DNA G+C content of this new isolate was 40.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain B48(T) were iso-C15?:?0 and anteiso-C15?:?0, and its polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an aminophospholipid and two unknown phospholipids. The only quinone present was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. All these features confirm the placement of isolate B48(T) within the genus Bacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a low level of relatedness between strain B48(T) and Bacillus foraminis IBRC-M 10625(T) (8.1?%). On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, a new species of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus persicus sp. nov., is proposed, with strain B48(T) (?=?IBRC-M 10115(T)?=?DSM 25386(T)?=?CECT 8001(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22771682

  6. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the Bacillus subtilis lon gene.

    PubMed Central

    Riethdorf, S; Völker, U; Gerth, U; Winkler, A; Engelmann, S; Hecker, M

    1994-01-01

    The lon gene of Escherichia coli encodes the ATP-dependent serine protease La and belongs to the family of sigma 32-dependent heat shock genes. In this paper, we report the cloning and characterization of the lon gene from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The nucleotide sequence of the lon locus, which is localized upstream of the hemAXCDBL operon, was determined. The lon gene codes for an 87-kDa protein consisting of 774 amino acid residues. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with previously described lon gene products from E. coli, Bacillus brevis, and Myxococcus xanthus revealed strong homologies among all known bacterial Lon proteins. Like the E. coli lon gene, the B. subtilis lon gene is induced by heat shock. Furthermore, the amount of lon-specific mRNA is increased after salt, ethanol, and oxidative stress as well as after treatment with puromycin. The potential promoter region does not show similarities to promoters recognized by sigma 32 of E. coli but contains sequences which resemble promoters recognized by the vegetative RNA polymerase E sigma A of B. subtilis. A second gene designated orfX is suggested to be transcribed together with lon and encodes a protein with 195 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular weight of 22,000. Images PMID:7961402

  7. High yield recombinant thermostable ?-amylase production using an improved Bacillus licheniformis system

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Dandan; Zuo, Zhirui; Shi, Gui-Yang; Wang, Zheng-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Some strains of Bacillus licheniformis have been improved by target-directed screening as well as by classical genetic manipulation and used in commercial thermostable ?-amylase and alkaline protease production for over 40 years. Further improvements in production of these enzymes are desirable. Results A new strain of B. licheniformis CBBD302 carrying a recombinant plasmid pHY-amyL for Bacillus licheniformis ?-amylase (BLA) production was constructed. The combination of target-directed screening and genetic recombination led to an approximately 26-fold improvement of BLA production and export in B. licheniformis. Furthermore, a low-cost fermentation medium containing soybean meal and cottonseed meal for BLA production in shake-flasks and in a 15 liter bioreactor was developed and a BLA concentration of up to 17.6 mg per ml growth medium was attained. Conclusion This production level of BLA by B. licheniformis CBBD302(pHY-amyL) is amongst the highest levels in Gram-positive bacteria reported so far. PMID:19878591

  8. Diversity of a chlorine-resistant Bacillus population isolated from a wastewater treatment station.

    PubMed

    Paes, Fernanda A; Hissa, Denise C; Angelim, Alysson L; Pinto, Natasha W; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Melo, Vânia M M

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a Gram-positive, aerobic bacterial population isolated from the chlorine tank of a wastewater treatment plant. A total of 12 sporeforming, rod-shaped isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. Pairwise genetic comparisons revealed the identity among sequences obtained from isolates varied from 92.6 to 100%. Similarity searches on GenBank showed that five strains were closely related (99 to 100% identity) to Bacillus subtilis and two were almost identical (99%) to B. megaterium and B. licheniformis. Because the five remaining strains were either closely related (97 to 99% identity) or identical to B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis, they were classified as belonging to the B. cereus group. Apart from one strain, all clades in the phylogenetic tree were identical to clusters formed in the dendrogram based on biochemical tests results. According to the biochemical profiles, all isolates were characterized as different strains. In addition to chlorine resistance, all isolates were found to be resistant to at least one of five antibiotics tested. These results identify the potential risk of spreading antibiotic resistance genes in the environment by chlorine-resistant strains of Bacillus. PMID:22755495

  9. Meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus. A case report and a review of Bacillus infections.

    PubMed

    Siegman-Igra, Y; Lavochkin, J; Schwartz, D; Konforti, N

    1983-06-01

    A patient with meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus is described. The patient had transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for chromophobe adenoma, complicated by rhinorrhea, which was corrected by subarachnoid drainage. Three weeks after removal of the drain, the patient presented with meningitis and died the following day. The causative organism was identified as B. cereus. The literature on Bacillus infections is reviewed with special attention to severe infections. A modified classification is proposed, dividing infections into superficial, closed-space and systemic ones. Sixty-one previously reported cases of systemic Bacillus infections are reviewed according to type of infection (endocarditis, meningitis or pulmonary infection), and the underlying conditions, ways of acquiring the infection, clinical picture and mortality are discussed. PMID:6408023

  10. Bacillus trypoxylicola sp. nov., xylanase-producing alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from the guts of Japanese horned beetle larvae (Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis).

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Tomoko; Urai, Makoto; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Sunairi, Michio

    2010-01-01

    Three xylanase-producing alkaliphilic strains, SU1(T), 36AC4 and 36AC6, were isolated from the guts of larvae of the Japanese horned beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis). The isolates stained Gram-positive and were aerobic, spore-forming, non-motile and rod-shaped and grew optimally at 30 degrees C and pH 9. They contained MK-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone and iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 0) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C contents of the strains were 37.4-37.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the genus Bacillus. Although their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of the alkaliphilic species Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus and B. alcalophilus was 97 %, the novel isolates formed a distinct group in the phylogenetic trees and DNA-DNA relatedness values to the type strains of these species were less than 30 %. Results of physiological and biochemical tests, including salt preference, enabled these strains to be differentiated phenotypically from described Bacillus species. Therefore, strains SU1(T), 36AC4 and 36AC6 represent a novel species for which the name Bacillus trypoxylicola sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is SU1(T) (=NBRC 102646(T) =KCTC 13244(T)). PMID:19648346

  11. Bacillus cihuensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of a plant in the Cihu area of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Sengonca, Cetin; Schumann, Peter; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Tang, Jian-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chun

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halotolerant, rod-shaped, spore forming bacterium, designated strain FJAT-14515(T) was isolated from a soil sample in Cihu area, Taoyuan County, Taiwan. The strain grew at 10-35 °C (optimum at 30 °C), pH 5.7-9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 1 % w/v). The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan of the isolated strain was meso-diaminopimelic acid and major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (40.6 %), iso-C15:0 (20.7 %) and the DNA G+C content of strain FJAT-14515(T) was 37.1 mol %. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain FJAT-14515(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, and was most closely related to the reference strains of Bacillus muralis DSM 16288(T) (97.6 %) and Bacillus simplex DSM 1321(T) (97.5 %). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain FJAT-14515(T) and the reference strains of B. muralis DSM 16288(T) and B. simplex DSM 1321(T) were 27.9 % ± 3.32 and 44.1 % ± 0.57, respectively. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties, strain FJAT-14515(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cihuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-14515(T) (=DSM 25969(T) = CGMCC 1.12697(T)). PMID:25256951

  12. Detection of Anthrax Simulants with Microcalorimetric Spectroscopy: Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus Spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Edward T.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Datskos, Panos G.

    2003-04-01

    Recent advances in the development of ultrasensitive micromechanical thermal detectors have led to the advent of novel subfemtojoule microcalorimetric spectroscopy (CalSpec). On the basis of principles of photothermal IR spectroscopy combined with efficient thermomechanical transduction, CalSpec provides acquisition of vibrational spectra of microscopic samples and absorbates. We use CalSpec as a method of identifying nanogram quantities of biological micro-organisms. Our studies focus on Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus spores as simulants for Bacillus anthracis spores. Using CalSpec, we measured IR spectra of B. subtilis and B. cereus spores present on surfaces in nanogram quantities (approximately 100 -1000 spores). The spectra acquired in the wavelength range of 690 -4000 cm-1 (2.5 -14.5 ?m) contain information-rich vibrational signatures that reflect the different ratios of biochemical makeup of the micro-organisms. The distinctive features in the spectra obtained for the two types of micro-organism can be used to distinguish between the spores of the Bacillus family. As compared with conventional IR and Fourier-transform IR microscopic spectroscopy techniques, the advantages of the present technique include significantly improved sensitivity (at least a full order of magnitude), absence of expensive IR detectors, and excellent potential for miniaturization.

  13. Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen K. Hill; Lawrence O. Ticknor; Richard T. Okinaka; Michelle Asay; Heather Blair; Katherine A. Bliss; Mariam Laker; Paige E. Pardington; Amber P. Richardson; Melinda Tonks; Douglas J. Beecher; John D. Kemp; A.-B. Kolsto; Amy C. Lee Wong; Paul Keim; Paul J. Jackson

    2004-01-01

    DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates

  14. Strategy for Identification of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Daffonchio; Noura Raddadi; Maya Merabishvili; Ameur Cherif; Lorenzo Carmagnola; Lorenzo Brusetti; Aurora Rizzi; Nina Chanishvili; Paolo Visca; Richard Sharp; Sara Borin

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are rather important microorganisms that interfere with or are related to human activities. B. anthracis is the active agent of anthrax disease (41), B. cereus causes food-borne disease syn- dromes associated with enterotoxin and emetic toxin (17, 27), and B. thuringiensis is an insect pathogen (39) currently used for the biological control of

  15. Evaluation of Petrifilms(TM) as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gitau, George K; Bundi, Royford M; Vanleeuwen, John; Mulei, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    The study purpose was to validate Petrifilms(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and Petrifilms(TM) (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count -3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and Petrifilm(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (?) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the Petrifilms(TM) had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. Petrifilms(TM) should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected. PMID:23108587

  16. Rate of Growth of Bacillus cereus Between Divisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Collins; M. H. Richmond

    1962-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacillus cereus organisms growing exponentially have a stable length distribution. This length distribution can be analysed by the method described to give the mean rate of increase in length of organisms at any given length. The validity of the method was confirmed by observing the growth of clones of B. cereus in the culture chamber. Both methods showed that

  17. Probing the fractal pattern and organization of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria colonies growing under different conditions using quantitative spectral light scattering polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Paromita; Soni, Jalpa; Purwar, Harsh; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Sengupta, Tapas K

    2013-03-01

    Development of methods for quantification of cellular association and patterns in growing bacterial colony is of considerable current interest, not only to help understand multicellular behavior of a bacterial species but also to facilitate detection and identification of a bacterial species in a given space and under a given set of condition(s). We have explored quantitative spectral light scattering polarimetry for probing the morphological and structural changes taking place during colony formations of growing Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria under different conditions (in normal nutrient agar representing favorable growth environment, in the presence of 1% glucose as an additional nutrient, and 3 mM sodium arsenate as toxic material). The method is based on the measurement of spectral 3×3 Mueller matrices (which involves linear polarization measurements alone) and its subsequent analysis via polar decomposition to extract the intrinsic polarization parameters. Moreover, the fractal micro-optical parameter, namely, the Hurst exponent H, is determined via fractal-Born approximation-based inverse analysis of the polarization-preserving component of the light scattering spectra. Interesting differences are noted in the derived values for the H parameter and the intrinsic polarization parameters (linear diattenuation d, linear retardance ?, and linear depolarization ? coefficients) of the growing bacterial colonies under different conditions. The bacterial colony growing in presence of 1% glucose exhibit the strongest fractality (lowest value of H), whereas that growing in presence of 3 mM sodium arsenate showed the weakest fractality. Moreover, the values for ? and d parameters are found to be considerably higher for the colony growing in presence of glucose, indicating more structured growth pattern. These findings are corroborated further with optical microscopic studies conducted on the same samples. PMID:23462968

  18. Choice of an optimal diluent for intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin administration.

    PubMed

    Hudson, M A; Catalona, W J; Ritchey, J K; Aslanzadeh, J; Brown, E J; Ratliff, T L

    1989-12-01

    The physical conditions, including diluent pH, salt concentration and duration of bacillus Calmette-Guerin attachment, were determined in in vitro binding assays for soluble and matrix fibronectin. Since soluble fibronectin may block attachment of bacillus Calmette-Guerin to matrix fibronectin in the bladder, the optimal conditions were determined under which matrix fibronectin-bacillus Calmette-Guerin binding was maximal and soluble fibronectin-bacillus Calmette-Guerin binding was minimal. These conditions, which were confirmed in vivo in the murine bladder model, included use of normal saline, pH 7 as diluent for bacillus Calmette-Guerin organisms, with retention of the bacillus Calmette-Guerin suspension for 2 hours. PMID:2585615

  19. Degradation of diesel oil in a polluted soil using Bacillus subtilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Nwaogu; G. O. C. Onyeze; R. N. Nwabueze

    2008-01-01

    Diesel oil, left standing in a laboratory for six months, was used as source for the isolation of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Trichoderma harzanium and Trichothercium roseum. These organisms were found to be hydrocarbon degraders. On further testing, it was found that B. subtilis had higher potential to utilize diesel oil as carbon source. Soil samples were polluted with diesel

  20. Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C and Sphingomyelinase Activities in Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Pomerantsev; K. V. Kalnin; M. Osorio; S. H. Leppla

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is nonhemolytic, even though it is closely related to the highly hemolytic Bacillus cereus. Hemolysis by B. cereus results largely from the action of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC- PLC) and sphingomyelinase (SPH), encoded by the plc and sph genes, respectively. In B. cereus, these genes are organized in an operon regulated by the global regulator PlcR. B. anthracis

  1. Coimmobilization of Azospirillum lipoferum and Bacillus megaterium for Successful Phosphorus and Nitrogen Nutrition of Wheat Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hesham M. A. El-Komy

    Summary The efficacy of strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus megaterium and Azospirillum spp. in in vitro solubilization of Ca3PO4 was studied. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus megaterium strains were the most powerful phosphate solubilizers on Pikovskaya (PVK) plates and liquid medium. Azospirillum lipoferum strains showed weak zones of solubili- zation on the PVK plates. Phosphate solubilization by the tested organisms was

  2. Global Transcriptional Analysis of Bacillus licheniformis Reveals an Overlap between Heat Shock and Iron Limitation Stimulon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan K. Nielsen; Anne Breüner; Marcin Krzystanek; Jens T. Andersen; Thomas A. Poulsen; Peter B. Olsen; Ivan Mijakovic; Michael D. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the heat shock stimulon of the important industrial microorganism Bacillus licheniformis using DNA microarrays. While sharing a high degree of homology with the closely related model organism Bacillus subtilis, the heat shock stimulon of B. licheniformis exhibited several novel and unexpected features. Most notably, heat shock in B. licheniformis resulted in decreased amounts of mRNA

  3. Bacillus cereus meningitis and bacteremia associated with an Ommaya reservoir in a patient with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Garcia, I; Fainstein, V; McLaughlin, P

    1984-07-01

    After placement of an Ommaya reservoir, meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus occurred in a patient with stage IV lymphoblastic lymphoma and meningeal involvement. Bacillus species have been implicated as meningeal pathogens after lumbar punctures. These organisms have become an important cause of severe infection, especially in immunologically compromised patients. PMID:6429866

  4. Antimicrobial activity of foodborne Paenibacillus and Bacillus spp. against Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Girardin, Hélčne; Albagnac, Christine; Dargaignaratz, Claire; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric

    2002-05-01

    The saprophytic Paenibacillus and Bacillus spp. found in cooked chilled foods may have an effect on the growth of Clostridium botulinum, a major microbiological hazard, especially for pasteurized vacuum-packaged products. Culture supernatants of 200 strains of Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains isolated from commercial cooked chilled foods containing vegetables were screened for activity against C. botulinum type A, proteolytic type B, and type E strains in a well diffusion assay. Nineteen strains were positive against C. botulinum. Among those, seven Paenibacillus polymyxa strains showed the highest antibotulinal activity and the largest antimicrobial spectrum against C. botulinum strains. The antibotulinal activity was evaluated throughout the growth of a representative strain of the positive P. polymyxa strains. The antimicrobial activity was detected in the culture supernatant from late-log/early stationary phase of the bacteria, which occurred after 7 to 10 days of incubation at 10 degrees C and after 2 to 3 days at 20 degrees C in nutrient broth and in vegetable purées under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. In co-cultures with the positive strain of P. polymyxa in nutrient broth and vegetable purées, a C. botulinum type E strain was inhibited whenever P. polymyxa reached stationary phase and produced its antimicrobial activity before C. botulinum began its exponential growth phase. The antimicrobial activity of P. polymyxa against C. botulinum was attributed to the production of antimicrobial peptides resistant to high temperature and acidity. Other gram-positive and -negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus subtilis) were also sensitive to these antimicrobial peptides. PMID:12030292

  5. Structure of the detoxification catalyst mercuric ion reductase from Bacillus sp. strain RC607

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiering, N.; Kabsch, W.; Moore, M. J.; Distefano, M. D.; Walsh, C. T.; Pai, E. F.

    1991-07-01

    SEVERAL hundred million tons of toxic mercurials are dispersed in the biosphere1. Microbes can detoxify organo-mercurials and mercury salts through sequential action of two enzymes, organomercury lyase2 and mercuric ion reductase (MerA) 3-5. The latter, a homodimer with homology to the FAD-dependent disulphide oxidoreductases6, catalyses the reaction NADPH + Hg(II) --> NADP+ + H+Hg(0), one of the very rare enzymic reactions with metal substrates. Human glutathione reductase7,8 serves as a reference molecule for FAD-dependent disulphide reductases and between its primary structure9 and that of MerA from Tn501 (Pseudomonas), Tn21 (Shigella), pI258 (Staphylococcus) and Bacillus, 25-30% of the residues have been conserved10,11. All MerAs have a C-terminal extension about 15 residues long but have very varied N termini. Although the enzyme from Streptomyces lividans has no addition, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Tn5Ol and Bacillus sp. strain RC607 it has one and two copies respectively of a domain of 80-85 residues, highly homologous to MerP, the periplasmic component of proteins encoded by the mer operon11. These domains can be proteolytically cleaved off without changing the catalytic efficiency3. We report here the crystal structure of MerA from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus sp. strain RC607. Analysis of its complexes with nicotinamide dinucleotide substrates and the inhibitor Cd(II) reveals how limited structural changes enable an enzyme to accept as substrate what used to be a dangerous inhibitor. Knowledge of the mode of mercury ligation is a prerequisite for understanding this unique detoxification mechanism.

  6. The Eukaryotic-Like Ser/Thr Kinase PrkC Regulates the Essential WalRK Two-Component System in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Most bacteria contain both eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinases (eSTKs) and eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr phosphatases (eSTPs). Their role in bacterial physiology is not currently well understood in large part because the conditions where the eSTKs are active are generally not known. However, all sequenced Gram-positive bacteria have a highly conserved eSTK with extracellular PASTA repeats that bind cell wall derived muropeptides. Here, we report that in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the PASTA-containing eSTK PrkC and its cognate eSTP PrpC converge with the essential WalRK two-component system to regulate WalR regulon genes involved in cell wall metabolism. By continuously monitoring gene expression throughout growth, we consistently find a large PrkC-dependent effect on expression of several different WalR regulon genes in early stationary phase, including both those that are activated by WalR (yocH) as well as those that are repressed (iseA, pdaC). We demonstrate that PrkC phosphorylates WalR in vitro and in vivo on a single Thr residue located in the receiver domain. Although the phosphorylated region of the receiver domain is highly conserved among several B. subtilis response regulators, PrkC displays specificity for WalR in vitro. Consistently, strains expressing a nonphosphorylatable WalR point mutant strongly reduce both PrkC dependent activation and repression of yocH, iseA, and pdaC. This suggests a model where the eSTK PrkC regulates the essential WalRK two-component signaling system by direct phosphorylation of WalR Thr101, resulting in the regulation of WalR regulon genes involved in cell wall metabolism in stationary phase. As both the eSTK PrkC and the essential WalRK two-component system are highly conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, these results may be applicable to further understanding the role of eSTKs in Gram-positive physiology and cell wall metabolism. PMID:26102633

  7. Characterization of DinR, the Bacillus subtilis SOS repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Winterling, K W; Levine, A S; Yasbin, R E; Woodgate, R

    1997-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, exposure to DNA damage and the development of natural competence lead to the induction of the SOS regulon. It has been hypothesized that the DinR protein is the cellular repressor of the B. subtilis SOS system due to its homology to the Escherichia coli LexA transcriptional repressor. Indeed, comparison of DinR and its homologs from gram-negative and -positive bacteria revealed conserved structural motifs within the carboxyl-terminal domain that are believed to be important for autocatalysis of the protein. In contrast, regions within the DNA binding domain were conserved only within gram-negative or -positive genera, which possibly explains the differences in the sequence specificities between gram-negative and gram-positive SOS boxes. The hypothesis that DinR is the repressor of the SOS regulon in B. subtilis has been tested through overexpression, purification, and characterization of the DinR protein. Like E. coli LexA, B. subtilis DinR undergoes an autocatalytic reaction at alkaline pH at a siscile Ala91-Gly92 bond. The cleavage reaction can also be mediated in vitro under more physiological conditions by the E. coli RecA protein. By using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that DinR interacts with the previously characterized SOS box of the B. subtilis recA gene, but not with sequences containing single base pair mutations within the SOS box. Together, these observations strongly suggest that DinR is the repressor of the SOS regulon in B. subtilis. PMID:9045831

  8. Selective Heterogeneity in Exoprotease Production by Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Fordyce A.; Seon-Yi, Chung; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria have elaborate signalling mechanisms to ensure a behavioural response that is most likely to enhance survival in a changing environment. It is becoming increasingly apparent that as part of this response, bacteria are capable of cell differentiation and can generate multiple, mutually exclusive co-existing cell states. These cell states are often associated with multicellular processes that bring benefit to the community as a whole but which may be, paradoxically, disadvantageous to an individual subpopulation. How this process of cell differentiation is controlled is intriguing and remains a largely open question. In this paper, we consider an important aspect of cell differentiation that is known to occur in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis: we investigate the role of two master regulators DegU and Spo0A in the control of extra-cellular protease production. Recent work in this area focussed the on role of DegU in this process and suggested that transient effects in protein production were the drivers of cell-response heterogeneity. Here, using a combination of mathematical modelling, analysis and stochastic simulations, we provide a complementary analysis of this regulatory system that investigates the roles of both DegU and Spo0A in extra-cellular protease production. In doing so, we present a mechanism for bimodality, or system heterogeneity, without the need for a bistable switch in the underlying regulatory network. Moreover, our analysis leads us to conclude that this heterogeneity is in fact a persistent, stable feature. Our results suggest that system response is divided into three zones: low and high signal levels induce a unimodal or undifferentiated response from the cell population with all cells OFF and ON, respectively for exoprotease production. However, for intermediate levels of signal, a heterogeneous response is predicted with a spread of activity levels, representing typical “bet-hedging” behaviour. PMID:22745669

  9. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Huisung; Singh, Atul K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Bae, Euiwon

    2014-01-01

    Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (Bacterial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS) patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 to 900 ?m, average speckles area decreased two-fold and the number of small speckles increased seven-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony. PMID:25352840

  10. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Huisung; Singh, Atul K; Bhunia, Arun K; Bae, Euiwon

    2014-01-01

    Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (Bacterial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS) patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 to 900 ?m, average speckles area decreased two-fold and the number of small speckles increased seven-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony. PMID:25352840

  11. Crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis SPP1 phage gp22 shares fold similarity with a domain of lactococcal phage p2 RBP

    PubMed Central

    Veesler, David; Blangy, Stéphanie; Spinelli, Silvia; Tavares, Paulo; Campanacci, Valérie; Cambillau, Christian

    2010-01-01

    SPP1 is a siphophage infecting the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. It is constituted by an icosahedric head and a long non-contractile tail formed by gene products (gp) 17–21. A group of 5 small genes (gp 22–24.1) follows in the genome those coding for the main tail components. However, the belonging of the corresponding gp to the tail or to other parts of the phage is not documented. Among these, gp22 lacks sequence identity to any known protein. We report here the gp22 structure solved by X-ray crystallography at 2.35 Ĺ resolution. We found that gp22 is a monomer in solution and possesses a significant structural similarity with lactococcal phage p2 ORF 18 N-terminal “shoulder” domain. PMID:20506290

  12. Characterization of lipoteichoic acid structures from three probiotic Bacillus strains: involvement of D-alanine in their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Villéger, Romain; Saad, Naima; Grenier, Karine; Falourd, Xavier; Foucat, Loďc; Urdaci, Maria C; Bressollier, Philippe; Ouk, Tan-Sothea

    2014-10-01

    Probiotics represent a potential strategy to influence the host's immune system thereby modulating immune response. Lipoteichoic Acid (LTA) is a major immune-stimulating component of Gram-positive cell envelopes. This amphiphilic polymer, anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane by means of its glycolipid component, typically consists of a poly (glycerol-phosphate) chain with D-alanine and/or glycosyl substitutions. LTA is known to stimulate macrophages in vitro, leading to secretion of inflammatory mediators such as Nitric Oxide (NO). This study investigates the structure-activity relationship of purified LTA from three probiotic Bacillus strains (Bacillus cereus CH, Bacillus subtilis CU1 and Bacillus clausii O/C). LTAs were extracted from bacterial cultures and purified. Chemical modification by means of hydrolysis at pH 8.5 was performed to remove D-alanine. The molecular structure of native and modified LTAs was determined by (1)H NMR and GC-MS, and their inflammatory potential investigated by measuring NO production by RAW 264.7 macrophages. Structural analysis revealed several differences between the newly characterized LTAs, mainly relating to their D-alanylation rates and poly (glycerol-phosphate) chain length. We observed induction of NO production by LTAs from B. subtilis and B. clausii, whereas weaker NO production was observed with B. cereus. LTA dealanylation abrogated NO production independently of the glycolipid component, suggesting that immunomodulatory potential depends on D-alanine substitutions. D-alanine may control the spatial configuration of LTAs and their recognition by cell receptors. Knowledge of molecular mechanisms behind the immunomodulatory abilities of probiotics is essential to optimize their use. PMID:25090957

  13. Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Shanmugam; L. O. Ingram; J. A. Maupin-Furlow; J. F. Preston; H. C. Aldrich

    2003-01-01

    Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to

  14. Electromechanical interactions in cell walls of gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed

    Ou, L T; Marquis, R E

    1970-01-01

    Isolated cell walls of Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus were found to expand and contract in response to changes in environmental pH and ionic strength. These volume changes, which could amount to as much as a doubling of wall dextran-impermeable volume, were related to changes in electrostatic interactions among fixed, ionized groups in wall polymers, including peptidoglycans. S. aureus walls were structurally more compact in the hydrated state and had a higher maximum charge density than M. lysodeikticus walls. However, they were less responsive to changes in electrostatic interactions, apparently because of less mechanical compliance. In media of nearly neutral pH, S. aureus walls had a net positive charge whereas M. lysodeikticus walls had a net negative charge. These charge differences were reflected in Donnan distributions of mobile ions between wall phases and bulk medium phases. Cell walls of unfractionated cocci also could be made to swell and contract, and wall tonus in intact cells appeared to be set partly by electrostatic interactions and partly by mechanical tension in the elastic structures due to cell turgor pressure. The experimental results led to the conclusions that bacterial cell walls have many of the properties of polyelectrolyte gels and that peptidoglycans are flexible polymers. A reasonable mechanical model for peptidoglycan structure might be a sort of three-dimensional rope ladder with relatively rigid, polysaccharide rungs and relatively flexible polypeptide ropes. Thus, the peptidoglycan network surrounding cocci appeared to be predominantly an elastic restraining structure rather than a rigid shell. PMID:5411760

  15. Spirochaetes Hyperthermophilic bacteriaCyanobacteriaLow-GC Gram-positives

    E-print Network

    Hillis, David

    Gnetophytes Ginkgo Cycads Ferns Horsetails Whiskferns Clubmossesandrelatives Hornworts Mosses Liverworts Parabasalids Diplomonads ForaminiferansCercozoansRadiolarians Amoebozoans Club Fungi Sac Fungi Arbuscular

  16. Gram-positive ventilator-associated pneumonia: impact on mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. DE GAUDIO; S. Rinaldi

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as an infection of the lung parenchyma developing during mechanical ventilation,\\u000a usually after at least 2 days of positive-pressure ventilation delivered via an endotracheal tube [1, 2]. This time criterion aims to exclude pneumonias caused by infectious agents already present or incubating before mechanical\\u000a ventilation is started [1]. The diagnosis of VAP is usually based

  17. [Interpretive reading of the antibiogram in gram positive cocci].

    PubMed

    Torres, Carmen; Cercenado, Emilia

    2010-10-01

    Resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus is related to the expression of the mecA gene, and involves resistance to all beta-lactams, with the exception of the new cephalosporins, ceftobiprole and ceftaroline. Breakpoints for interpretation of this mechanism differ in S. aureus and in coagulase-negative species. For macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramins B, (MLS(B)) the most frequent mechanism among resistant strains is expression of methylases (erm genes). Topoisomerase changes caused by point mutations and expression of the efflux pump NorA determine resistance to quinolones, but there are great differences in the activity of different compounds, which makes interpretative reading difficult. Strains of S. aureus with intermediate susceptibility to glycopeptides (GISA strains) have been described, as well as highly-vancomycin-resistant isolates (vanA isolates). In Spain, there is a high percentage of S. pneumoniae strains intermediate or resistant to penicillin, and a low percentage of strains intermediate or resistant to third generation cephalosporins, due to mutations in genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins. The most frequent phenotype of resistance to MLS(B) in this species is caused by methylase production. Resistance to quinolones is still uncommon, and is mainly related to mutations in parC/parE (low level) and in gyrA. It is important to detect low level resistance due to its clinical implications. No strains of S. pyogenes resistant to penicillin have yet been described. In Spain the most common phenotype of resistance to macrolides in S. pyogenes is determined by efflux pumps (mef genes), affecting 14- and 15-membered macrolides. E. faecalis is usually susceptible to ampicillin, in contrast to E. faecium. Enterococci show intrinsic low-level resistance to aminoglycosides, but still remain susceptible to the combination of these antimicrobials and cell-wall active agents. Strains expressing different aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (high-level resistance) became resistant to the combination. Glycopeptide-resistant strains of enterococci are uncommon in Spain, but nosocomial outbreaks due to vanA enterococci and case reports due to vanB2 enterococci have been recently reported. PMID:20400208

  18. Enhanced Control of Cucumber Wilt Disease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by Altering the Regulation of Its DegU Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhihui; Zhang, Ruifu; Wang, Dandan; Qiu, Meihua; Feng, Haichao; Zhang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion through efficient root colonization. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus, the response regulator DegU regulates genetic competence, swarming motility, biofilm formation, complex colony architecture, and protease production. In this study, we report that stepwise phosphorylation of DegU in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can influence biocontrol activity by coordinating multicellular behavior and regulating the synthesis of antibiotics. Results from in vitro and in situ experiments and quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies demonstrate the following: (i) that the lowest level of phosphorylated DegU (DegU?P) (the degQ mutation) impairs complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, and biocontrol efficiency of Fusarium wilt disease but increases the production of macrolactin and bacillaene, and (ii) that increasing the level of DegU?P by degQ and degSU overexpression significantly improves complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, production of the antibiotics bacillomycin D and difficidin, and efficiency of biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease. The results offer a new strategy to enhance the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9. PMID:24584252

  19. Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis XF-1 reveals mechanisms for biological control and multiple beneficial properties in plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shengye; Li, Xingyu; He, Pengfei; Ho, Honhing; Wu, Yixin; He, Yueqiu

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis XF-1 is a gram-positive, plant-associated bacterium that stimulates plant growth and produces secondary metabolites that suppress soil-borne plant pathogens. In particular, it is especially highly efficient at controlling the clubroot disease of cruciferous crops. Its 4,061,186-bp genome contains an estimated 3853 protein-coding sequences and the 1155 genes of XF-1 are present in most genome-sequenced Bacillus strains: 3757 genes in B. subtilis 168, and 1164 in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Analysis using the Cluster of Orthologous Groups database of proteins shows that 60 genes control bacterial mobility, 221 genes are related to cell wall and membrane biosynthesis, and more than 112 are genes associated with secondary metabolites. In addition, the genes contributed to the strain's plant colonization, bio-control and stimulation of plant growth. Sequencing of the genome is a fundamental step for developing a desired strain to serve as an efficient biological control agent and plant growth stimulator. Similar to other members of the taxon, XF-1 has a genome that contains giant gene clusters for the non-ribosomal synthesis of antifungal lipopeptides (surfactin and fengycin), the polyketides (macrolactin and bacillaene), the siderophore bacillibactin, and the dipeptide bacilysin. There are two synthesis pathways for volatile growth-promoting compounds. The expression of biosynthesized antibiotic peptides in XF-1 was revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. PMID:25860123

  20. Ultrastructural characterisation of Bacillus subtilis TatA complexes suggests they are too small to form homooligomeric translocation pores

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Daniel; Vasisht, Nishi; Baglieri, Jacopo; Monteferrante, Carmine G.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Robinson, Colin; Smith, Corinne J.

    2013-01-01

    Tat-dependent protein transport permits the traffic of fully folded proteins across membranes in bacteria and chloroplasts. The mechanism by which this occurs is not understood. Current theories propose that a key step requires the coalescence of a substrate-binding TatC-containing complex with a TatA complex, which forms pores of varying sizes that could accommodate different substrates. We have studied the structure of the TatAd complex from Bacillus subtilis using electron microscopy to generate the first 3D model of a TatA complex from a Gram-positive bacterium. We observe that TatAd does not exhibit the remarkable heterogeneity of Escherichia coli TatA complexes but instead forms ring-shaped complexes of 7.5–9 nm diameter with potential pores of 2.5–3 nm diameter that are occluded at one end. Such structures are consistent with those seen for E. coli TatE complexes. Furthermore, the small diameter of the TatAd pore, and the homogeneous nature of the complexes, suggest that TatAd cannot form the translocation channel by itself. Biochemical data indicate that another B. subtilis TatA complex, TatAc, has similar properties, suggesting a common theme for TatA-type complexes from Bacillus. PMID:23567937

  1. Use of Two Selective Media and a Broth Motility Test Can Aid in Identification or Exclusion of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Vicki A.; Peak, K. Kealy; Veguilla, William O.; Reeves, Frank; Heberlein-Larson, Lea; Cannons, Andrew C.; Amuso, Phil; Cattani, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    During the anthrax attack of 2001, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) Bureau of Laboratories in Tampa received hundreds of isolates suspected of being Bacillus anthracis. None were confirmed to be B. anthracis since most isolates were motile and not even in the Bacillus cereus group. Although the sentinel laboratories now send fewer isolates to FDOH laboratories, should another attack occur the number of isolates submitted would likely increase dramatically, and this upsurge would seriously challenge personnel who are expected to be busy examining an increased number of environmental samples. We examined two selective and differential growth media and alternative motility methods that could be used to streamline the processing of suspicious isolates. Of 60 isolates previously sent to the FDOH laboratory, 56 were endospore-forming gram-positive rods and only 7 grew on mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin B agar and/or the Anthracis chromogenic agar. Microscopic observation of early-log-phase growth (2 to 3 h) in a shaking broth was the best method to detect motility in 40 isolates that appeared nonmotile in the motility media investigated. One of these growth media and microscopic examination of shaken broth cultures can be used to show that an isolate is not B. anthracis before expensive molecular and antibody-based tests are performed. By doing so, costs could be reduced and analysis time shortened. PMID:16145074

  2. Quorum sensing in Bacillus thuringiensis is required for completion of a full infectious cycle in the insect.

    PubMed

    Slamti, Leyla; Perchat, Stéphane; Huillet, Eugénie; Lereclus, Didier

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial cell-cell communication or quorum sensing (QS) is a biological process commonly described as allowing bacteria belonging to a same pherotype to coordinate gene expression to cell density. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication mainly relies on cytoplasmic sensors regulated by secreted and re-imported signaling peptides. The Bacillus quorum sensors Rap, NprR, and PlcR were previously identified as the first members of a new protein family called RNPP. Except for the Rap proteins, these RNPP regulators are transcription factors that directly regulate gene expression. QS regulates important biological functions in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. PlcR was first characterized as the main regulator of virulence in B. thuringiensis and B. cereus. More recently, the PlcR-like regulator PlcRa was characterized for its role in cysteine metabolism and in resistance to oxidative stress. The NprR regulator controls the necrotrophic properties allowing the bacteria to survive in the infected host. The Rap proteins negatively affect sporulation via their interaction with a phosphorelay protein involved in the activation of Spo0A, the master regulator of this differentiation pathway. In this review we aim at providing a complete picture of the QS systems that are sequentially activated during the lifecycle of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in an insect model of infection. PMID:25089349

  3. Diagnostic Oligonucleotide Microarray Fingerprinting of Bacillus Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Alferov, Oleg; Chernov, Boris; Daly, Don S.; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander N.; Protic, Miroslava; Robison, Richard; Shipma, Matthew; White, Amanda M.; Willse, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic, genome-independent microbial fingerprinting method using DNA oligonucleotide microarrays was used for high-resolution differentiation between closely related Bacillus strains, including two strains of Bacillus anthracis that are monomorphic (indistinguishable) via amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting techniques. Replicated hybridizations on 391-probe nonamer arrays were used to construct a prototype fingerprint library for quantitative comparisons. Descriptive analysis of the fingerprints, including phylogenetic reconstruction, is consistent with previous taxonomic organization of the genus. Newly developed statistical analysis methods were used to quantitatively compare and objectively confirm apparent differences in microarray fingerprints with the statistical rigor required for microbial forensics and clinical diagnostics. These data suggest that a relatively simple fingerprinting microarray and statistical analysis method can differentiate between species in the Bacillus cereus complex, and between strains of B. anthracis. A synthetic DNA standard was used to understand underlying microarray and process-level variability, leading to specific recommendations for the development of a standard operating procedure and/or continued technology enhancements for microbial forensics and diagnostics.

  4. The First Structure of a Lantibiotic Immunity Protein, SpaI from Bacillus subtilis, Reveals a Novel Fold*

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Nina A.; Bochmann, Sophie; Gottstein, Daniel; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Hellmich, Ute A.; Düsterhus, Stefanie; Kötter, Peter; Güntert, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Wöhnert, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Lantibiotics are peptide-derived antibiotics that inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria via interactions with lipid II and lipid II-dependent pore formation in the bacterial membrane. Due to their general mode of action the Gram-positive producer strains need to express immunity proteins (LanI proteins) for protection against their own lantibiotics. Little is known about the immunity mechanism protecting the producer strain against its own lantibiotic on the molecular level. So far, no structures have been reported for any LanI protein. We solved the structure of SpaI, a LanI protein from the subtilin producing strain Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. SpaI is a 16.8-kDa lipoprotein that is attached to the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane via a covalent diacylglycerol anchor. SpaI together with the ABC transporter SpaFEG protects the B. subtilis membrane from subtilin insertion. The solution-NMR structure of a 15-kDa biologically active C-terminal fragment reveals a novel fold. We also demonstrate that the first 20 N-terminal amino acids not present in this C-terminal fragment are unstructured in solution and are required for interactions with lipid membranes. Additionally, growth tests reveal that these 20 N-terminal residues are important for the immunity mediated by SpaI but most likely are not part of a possible subtilin binding site. Our findings are the first step on the way of understanding the immunity mechanism of B. subtilis in particular and of other lantibiotic producing strains in general. PMID:22904324

  5. INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS GLOBIGII BY CHLORINATION: A HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent events where spores of Bacillus anthracis have been used as a bioterrorist weapon have prompted interest in determining the resistance of this organism to commonly used disinfectants, such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone. This work was undertaken to study ...

  6. MICROBIOLOGY OF POLLEN AND BEE BREAD : THE GENUS BACILLUS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    placed on hives of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in the almond orchard; and from pollen stored in the comb pellets removed from the bees' legs by traps placed on hives of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in the orchard organisms associated with pollen and bee bread. Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped bacteria

  7. Microbial biomass as a significant source of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltner, Anja; Kindler, Reimo; Schweigert, Michael; Achtenhagen, Jan; Bombach, Petra; Fester, Thomas; Kästner, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role for soil fertility and in the global carbon cycle. SOM management should be based on knowledge about the chemical composition as well as the spatial distribution of SOM and its individual components in soils. Both parameters strongly depend on the direct precursors of SOM. In the past, microbial biomass has been neglected as a potential source of SOM, mainly because of its small pool size. Recent studies, however, show that a substantial portion of SOM is derived from microbial biomass residues. We therefore investigated the fate of microbial biomass residues in soils by means of incubation experiments with 13C-labelled microbial biomass. For our studies, we selected model organisms representing the three types of soil microorganisms and their characteristic cell wall structures: Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium), Bacillus subtilis (a Gram-positive bacterium) and Laccaria bicolor (an ectomycorrhizal fungus). We labelled the organisms by growing them on 13C glucose and incubated them in soil. During incubation, we followed the mineralisation of the labelled C, its incorporation into microbial biomass, and its transformation to non-living SOM. We found that 50-65% of the microbial biomass C remained in the soil during incubation. However, only a small part remained in the microbial biomass, the majority was transformed to SOM. In particular, proteins seemed to be rather stable in our experiments. In addition, we used scanning electron microscopy to identify microbial residues in soils and, for comparison, in artificial groundwater microcosms. Scanning electron micrographs showed a low number of intact cells, but mainly fragments of about 200-500 nm size. Similar fragments were found in artificial groundwater microcosms where the only possible origin was microbial biomass residues. Based on the results obtained, we provide a mechanistic model which explains how microbial biomass residues are formed and stabilized in soils. This model also explains a number of chemical and physical properties of SOM such as the abundance and stability of microbial biomolecules, the low C/N ratio and the water repellency of SOM.

  8. The SLH-domain protein BslO is a determinant of Bacillus anthracis chain length

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Valerie J.; Kern, Justin W.; McCool, Justin W.; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis grows in characteristic chains of individual, rod-shaped cells. Here, we report the cell-separating activity of BslO, a putative N-acetylglucosaminidase bearing three N-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) domains for association with the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP). Mutants with an insertional lesion in the bslO gene exhibit exaggerated chain lengths, though individual cell dimensions are unchanged. Purified BslO complements this phenotype in trans, effectively dispersing chains of bslO-deficient bacilli without lysis and localizing to the septa of vegetative cells. Compared to the extremely long chain lengths of csaB bacilli, which are incapable of binding proteins with SLH-domains to SCWP, bslO mutants demonstrate an chaining phenotype that is intermediate between wild-type and csaB. Computational simulation suggests that BslO effects a non-random distribution of B. anthracis chain lengths, implying that all septa are not equal candidates for separation. PMID:21585566

  9. Methylglyoxal resistance in Bacillus subtilis: Contributions of bacillithiol-dependent and independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chandrangsu, Pete; Dusi, Renata; Hamilton, Chris J.; Helmann, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Methylglyoxal (MG) is a toxic byproduct of glycolysis that damages DNA and proteins ultimately leading to cell death. Protection from MG is often conferred by a glutathione-dependent glyoxalase pathway. However, glutathione is absent from the low-GC Gram-positive Firmicutes, such as Bacillus subtilis. The identification of bacillithiol (BSH) as the major low molecular weight thiol in the Firmicutes raises the possibility that BSH is involved in MG detoxification. Here, we demonstrate that MG can rapidly and specifically deplete BSH in cells, and we identify both BSH-dependent and BSH-independent MG resistance pathways. The BSH-dependent pathway utilizes glyoxalase I (GlxA, formerly YwbC) and glyoxalase II (GlxB, formerly YurT) to convert MG to D-lactate. The critical step in this pathway is the activation of the KhtSTU K+ efflux pump by the S-lactoyl-BSH intermediate, which leads to cytoplasmic acidification. We show that cytoplasmic acidification is both necessary and sufficient for maximal protection from MG. Two additional MG detoxification pathways operate independent of BSH. The first involves three enzymes (YdeA, YraA and YfkM) which are predicted to be homologues of glyoxalase III that converts MG to D-lactate, and the second involves YhdN, previously shown to be a broad specificity aldo-keto reductase that converts MG to acetol. PMID:24330391

  10. Bacillus anthracis HssRS signaling to HrtAB regulates heme resistance during infection

    PubMed Central

    Stauff, Devin L.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis proliferates to high levels within vertebrate tissues during the pathogenesis of anthrax. This growth is facilitated by the acquisition of nutrient iron from host heme. However, heme acquisition can lead to the accumulation of toxic amounts of heme within B. anthracis. Here, we show that B. anthracis resists heme toxicity by sensing heme through the HssRS two-component system, which regulates expression of the heme-detoxifying transporter HrtAB. In addition, we demonstrate that B. anthracis exhibits elevated HssRS function compared to its evolutionary relative S. aureus. Elevated heme sensing is likely required by B. anthracis due to the significant heme sensitivity exhibited by members of the genus Bacilli. We also demonstrate that B. anthracis depends on conserved residues within the previously uncharacterized sensing domain of the histidine kinase HssS for HssS function. Finally, we show that the heme- and HssRS-regulated hrtAB promoter is activated in a murine model of anthrax. These results demonstrate the evolutionary conservation of heme sensing among multiple Gram-positive bacteria and begin to provide a mechanistic explanation for the heme resistance of B. anthracis. Further, these data suggest that heme stress is experienced by bacterial pathogens during infection. PMID:19400785

  11. Towards the development of Bacillus subtilis as a cell factory for membrane proteins and protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zweers, Jessica C; Barák, Imrich; Becher, Dörte; Driessen, Arnold JM; Hecker, Michael; Kontinen, Vesa P; Saller, Manfred J; Vavrová, L'udmila; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Background The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is an important producer of high quality industrial enzymes and a few eukaryotic proteins. Most of these proteins are secreted into the growth medium, but successful examples of cytoplasmic protein production are also known. Therefore, one may anticipate that the high protein production potential of B. subtilis can be exploited for protein complexes and membrane proteins to facilitate their functional and structural analysis. The high quality of proteins produced with B. subtilis results from the action of cellular quality control systems that efficiently remove misfolded or incompletely synthesized proteins. Paradoxically, cellular quality control systems also represent bottlenecks for the production of various heterologous proteins at significant concentrations. Conclusion While inactivation of quality control systems has the potential to improve protein production yields, this could be achieved at the expense of product quality. Mechanisms underlying degradation of secretory proteins are nowadays well understood and often controllable. It will therefore be a major challenge for future research to identify and modulate quality control systems of B. subtilis that limit the production of high quality protein complexes and membrane proteins, and to enhance those systems that facilitate assembly of these proteins. PMID:18394159

  12. Bacillus subtilis: from soil bacterium to super-secreting cell factory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry has become a key element in modern societies. Within this industry, the production of recombinant enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins is of major importance. The global markets for such recombinant proteins are growing rapidly and, accordingly, there is a continuous need for new production platforms that can deliver protein products in greater yields, with higher quality and at lower costs. This calls for the development of next-generation super-secreting cell factories. One of the microbial cell factories that can meet these challenges is the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, an inhabitant of the upper layers of the soil that has the capacity to secrete proteins in the gram per litre range. The engineering of B. subtilis into a next-generation super-secreting cell factory requires combined Systems and Synthetic Biology approaches. In this way, the bacterial protein secretion machinery can be optimized from the single molecule to the network level while, at the same time, taking into account the balanced use of cellular resources. Although highly ambitious, this is an achievable objective due to recent advances in functional genomics and Systems- and Synthetic Biological analyses of B. subtilis cells. PMID:23311580

  13. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K.; Allred, Benjamin E.; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated that B. cereus ATCC 14579 takes up 55Fe radiolabeled ferric citrate and that a protein, BC_3466 [renamed FctC (ferric citrate-binding protein C)], binds ferric citrate. The dissociation constant (Kd) of FctC at pH 7.4 with ferric citrate (molar ratio 1:50) is 2.6 nM. This is the tightest binding observed of any B. cereus siderophore-binding protein. Nano electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (nano ESI-MS) analysis of FctC and ferric citrate complexes or citrate alone show that FctC binds diferric di-citrate, and triferric tricitrate, but does not bind ferric di-citrate, ferric monocitrate, or citrate alone. Significantly, the protein selectively binds triferric tricitrate even though this species is naturally present at very low equilibrium concentrations. PMID:23027976

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis Metalloproteinase Bmp1 Functions as a Nematicidal Virulence Factor

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoxia; Chen, Ling; Huang, Qiong; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhou, Wei; Peng, Donghai; Ruan, Lifang

    2013-01-01

    Some Bacillus thuringiensis strains have high toxicity to nematodes. Nematicidal activity has been found in several families of crystal proteins, such as Cry5, Cry6, and Cry55. The B. thuringiensis strain YBT-1518 has three cry genes that have high nematicidal activity. The whole genome sequence of this strain contains multiple potential virulence factors. To evaluate the pathogenic potential of virulence factors, we focused on a metalloproteinase called Bmp1. It encompasses a consecutive N-terminal signal peptide, an FTP superfamily domain, an M4 neutral protease GluZincin superfamily, two Big-3 superfamily motifs, and a Gram-positive anchor superfamily motif as a C-terminal domain. Here, we showed that purified Bmp1 protein showed metalloproteinase activity and toxicity against Caenorhabditis elegans (the 50% lethal concentration is 610 ± 9.37 ?g/ml). In addition, mixing Cry5Ba with Bmp1 protein enhanced the toxicity 7.9-fold (the expected toxicity of the two proteins calculated from their separate toxicities) against C. elegans. Confocal microscopic observation revealed that Bmp1 protein was detected from around the mouth and esophagus to the intestine. Striking microscopic images revealed that Bmp1 degrades intestine tissues, and the Cry5Ba causes intestinal shrinkage from the body wall. Thus, the B. thuringiensis Bmp1 metalloproteinase is a nematicidal virulence factor. These findings give a new insight into the relationship between B. thuringiensis and its host nematodes. PMID:23124228

  15. Two Putative Polysaccharide Deacetylases Are Required for Osmotic Stability and Cell Shape Maintenance in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Arnaouteli, Sofia; Giastas, Petros; Andreou, Athina; Tzanodaskalaki, Mary; Aldridge, Christine; Tzartos, Socrates J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Eliopoulos, Elias; Bouriotis, Vassilis

    2015-05-22

    Membrane-anchored lipoproteins have a broad range of functions and play key roles in several cellular processes in Gram-positive bacteria. BA0330 and BA0331 are the only lipoproteins among the 11 known or putative polysaccharide deacetylases of Bacillus anthracis. We found that both lipoproteins exhibit unique characteristics. BA0330 and BA0331 interact with peptidoglycan, and BA0330 is important for the adaptation of the bacterium to grow in the presence of a high concentration of salt, whereas BA0331 contributes to the maintenance of a uniform cell shape. They appear not to alter the peptidoglycan structure and do not contribute to lysozyme resistance. The high resolution x-ray structure of BA0330 revealed a C-terminal domain with the typical fold of a carbohydrate esterase 4 and an N-terminal domain unique for this family, composed of a two-layered (4 + 3) ?-sandwich with structural similarity to fibronectin type 3 domains. Our data suggest that BA0330 and BA0331 have a structural role in stabilizing the cell wall of B. anthracis. PMID:25825488

  16. Gene Conservation among Endospore-Forming Bacteria Reveals Additional Sporulation Genes in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Traag, Bjorn A.; Pugliese, Antonia; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to form endospores is unique to certain members of the low-G+C group of Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes) and requires signature sporulation genes that are highly conserved across members of distantly related genera, such as Clostridium and Bacillus. Using gene conservation among endospore-forming bacteria, we identified eight previously uncharacterized genes that are enriched among endospore-forming species. The expression of five of these genes was dependent on sporulation-specific transcription factors. Mutants of none of the genes exhibited a conspicuous defect in sporulation, but mutants of two, ylxY and ylyA, were outcompeted by a wild-type strain under sporulation-inducing conditions, but not during growth. In contrast, a ylmC mutant displayed a slight competitive advantage over the wild type specific to sporulation-inducing conditions. The phenotype of a ylyA mutant was ascribed to a defect in spore germination efficiency. This work demonstrates the power of combining phylogenetic profiling with reverse genetics and gene-regulatory studies to identify unrecognized genes that contribute to a conserved developmental process. PMID:23123912

  17. Replication and segregational stability of Bacillus plasmid pBAA1.

    PubMed Central

    Devine, K M; Hogan, S T; Higgins, D G; McConnell, D J

    1989-01-01

    A cryptic plasmid, pBAA1, was identified in an industrial Bacillus strain. The plasmid is 6.8 kilobases in size and is present in cells at a copy number of approximately 5 per chromosome equivalent. The plasmid has been maintained under industrial fermentation conditions without apparent selective pressure and so is assumed to be partition proficient. The minimal replicon was localized to a 1.4-kilobase fragment which also contains the functions required for copy number control. The very low level of segregational instability of the minimal replicon suggests that it also contains functions involved in plasmid maintenance. Comparison with other plasmids indicates that pBAA1 belongs to the group of small gram-positive plasmids which replicate by a rolling cycle-type mechanism. A sequence was identified which is required for the efficient conversion of the single plus strand to the double-stranded form during plasmid replication. Deletion of this sequence resulted in a low level of segregational plasmid instability. Images PMID:2492507

  18. Role of luxS in Bacillus anthracis growth and virulence factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Scott N; Benn, Rosslyn; Braisted, John C; Jarrahi, Behnam; Shatzkes, Kenneth; Ren, Dacheng; Wood, Thomas K; Blaser, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS), the regulation of bacterial gene expression in response to changes in cell density, involves pathways that synthesize signaling molecules (auto-inducers). The luxS/AI-2-mediated QS system has been identified in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, possesses genes involved in luxS/AI-2-mediated QS, and deletion of luxS in B. anthracis Sterne strain 34F2 results in inhibition of AI-2 synthesis and a growth defect. In the present study, we created a ?luxS B. anthracis strain complemented in trans by insertion of a cassette, including luxS and a gene encoding erythromycin resistance, into the truncated plcR regulator locus. The complemented ?luxS strain has restored AI-2 synthesis and wild-type growth. A B. anthracis microarray study revealed consistent differential gene expression between the wild-type and ?luxS strain, including downregulation of the B. anthracis S-layer protein gene EA1 and pXO1 virulence genes. These data indicate that B. anthracis may use luxS/AI-2-mediated QS to regulate growth, density-dependent gene expression and virulence factor expression. PMID:21178420

  19. Highly precise quantification of protein molecules per cell during stress and starvation responses in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Maa?, Sandra; Wachlin, Gerhild; Bernhardt, Jörg; Eymann, Christine; Fromion, Vincent; Riedel, Katharina; Becher, Dörte; Hecker, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Systems biology based on high quality absolute quantification data, which are mandatory for the simulation of biological processes, successively becomes important for life sciences. We provide protein concentrations on the level of molecules per cell for more than 700 cytosolic proteins of the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis during adaptation to changing growth conditions. As glucose starvation and heat stress are typical challenges in B. subtilis' natural environment and induce both, specific and general stress and starvation proteins, these conditions were selected as models for starvation and stress responses. Analyzing samples from numerous time points along the bacterial growth curve yielded reliable and physiologically relevant data suitable for modeling of cellular regulation under altered growth conditions. The analysis of the adaptational processes based on protein molecules per cell revealed stress-specific modulation of general adaptive responses in terms of protein amount and proteome composition. Furthermore, analysis of protein repartition during glucose starvation showed that biomass seems to be redistributed from proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis to enzymes of the central carbon metabolism. In contrast, during heat stress most resources of the cell, namely those from amino acid synthetic pathways, are used to increase the amount of chaperones and proteases. Analysis of dynamical aspects of protein synthesis during heat stress adaptation revealed, that these proteins make up almost 30% of the protein mass accumulated during early phases of this stress. PMID:24878497

  20. Production of biologically active Bacillus anthracis edema factor in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, Bridget A; Sampey, Gavin C; Pierre, Jennifer L; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Karwoski, Jeffrey D; Choi, Gil H; Laird, Michael W

    2004-01-01

    Anthrax is caused by the gram-positive spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). PA facilitates the translocation of LF and EF into the cytosol of mammalian cells. LF is thought to be a zinc-dependent metalloprotease that results in death. EF is a calmodulin- and calcium-dependent adenylate cyclase that causes edema upon entrance into the cytosol by elevating the cAMP levels in cells. Previous efforts to produce recombinant EF (rEF) in Escherichia coli yielded only 2.5 mg of rEF per liter of culture. In this work, we produced soluble rEF in large quantities in both the periplasm and cytoplasm of E. coli from shake flasks and fermentors. The rEF protein was purified by standard chromatography and yielded >97% pure, biologically active rEF. Yields of purified rEF from medium cell density fermentations resulted in up to 2.38 g/L of highly pure, biologically active rEF protein. These results exhibit the ability to generate gram quantities of active rEF from E. coli. PMID:15575695

  1. PrpE, a PPP protein phosphatase from Bacillus subtilis with unusual substrate specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Iwanicki, Adam; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna; Pierechod, Marcin; Séror, Simone J; Obuchowski, Micha?

    2002-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium with a relatively large number of protein phosphatases. Previous studies have shown that some Ser/Thr phosphatases play an important role in the life cycle of this bacterium [Losick and Stragier (1992) Nature (London) 355, 601-604; Yang, Kang, Brody and Price (1996) Genes Dev. 10, 2265-2275]. In this paper, we report the biochemical properties of a putative, previously uncharacterized phosphatase, PrpE, belonging to the PPP family. This enzyme shares homology with other PPP phosphatases as well as with symmetrical diadenosine tetraphosphatases related to ApaH (symmetrical Ap(4)A hydrolase) from Escherichia coli. A His-tagged recombinant PrpE was purified from E. coli and shown to have Ni(2+)-dependent and okadaic acid-resistant phosphatase activity against a synthetic phosphorylated peptide and hydrolase activity against diadenosine 5',5"'-tetraphosphate. Unexpectedly, PrpE was able to remove phosphate from phosphotyrosine, but not from phosphothreonine or phosphoserine. PMID:12059787

  2. Two Putative Polysaccharide Deacetylases Are Required for Osmotic Stability and Cell Shape Maintenance in Bacillus anthracis*

    PubMed Central

    Arnaouteli, Sofia; Giastas, Petros; Andreou, Athina; Tzanodaskalaki, Mary; Aldridge, Christine; Tzartos, Socrates J.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Eliopoulos, Elias; Bouriotis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Membrane-anchored lipoproteins have a broad range of functions and play key roles in several cellular processes in Gram-positive bacteria. BA0330 and BA0331 are the only lipoproteins among the 11 known or putative polysaccharide deacetylases of Bacillus anthracis. We found that both lipoproteins exhibit unique characteristics. BA0330 and BA0331 interact with peptidoglycan, and BA0330 is important for the adaptation of the bacterium to grow in the presence of a high concentration of salt, whereas BA0331 contributes to the maintenance of a uniform cell shape. They appear not to alter the peptidoglycan structure and do not contribute to lysozyme resistance. The high resolution x-ray structure of BA0330 revealed a C-terminal domain with the typical fold of a carbohydrate esterase 4 and an N-terminal domain unique for this family, composed of a two-layered (4 + 3) ?-sandwich with structural similarity to fibronectin type 3 domains. Our data suggest that BA0330 and BA0331 have a structural role in stabilizing the cell wall of B. anthracis. PMID:25825488

  3. Genotyping of Bacillus cereus Strains by Microarray-Based Resequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zwick, Michael E.; Kiley, Maureen P.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Mateczun, Alfred; Read, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to distinguish microbial pathogens from closely related but nonpathogenic strains is key to understanding the population biology of these organisms. In this regard, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax, is of interest because it is closely related and often difficult to distinguish from other members of the B. cereus group that can cause diverse diseases. We employed custom-designed resequencing arrays (RAs) based on the genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis to generate 422 kb of genomic sequence from a panel of 41 Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains. Here we show that RAs represent a “one reaction” genotyping technology with the ability to discriminate between highly similar B. anthracis isolates and more divergent strains of the B. cereus s.l. Clade 1. Our data show that RAs can be an efficient genotyping technology for pre-screening the genetic diversity of large strain collections to selected the best candidates for whole genome sequencing. PMID:18596941

  4. Recombinant expression and purification of a tumor-targeted toxin in Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Bachran, Christopher; Abdelazim, Suzanne; Fattah, Rasem J.; Liu, Shihui [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Leppla, Stephen H., E-mail: sleppla@niaid.nih.gov [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-infectious and protease-deficient Bacillus anthracis protein expression system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful expression and purification of a tumor-targeted fusion protein drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very low endotoxin contamination of purified protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient protein secretion simplifies purification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional anti-tumor fusion protein purified. -- Abstract: Many recombinant therapeutic proteins are purified from Escherichia coli. While expression in E. coli is easily achieved, some disadvantages such as protein aggregation, formation of inclusion bodies, and contamination of purified proteins with the lipopolysaccharides arise. Lipopolysaccharides have to be removed to prevent inflammatory responses in patients. Use of the Gram-positive Bacillus anthracis as an expression host offers a solution to circumvent these problems. Using the multiple protease-deficient strain BH460, we expressed a fusion of the N-terminal 254 amino acids of anthrax lethal factor (LFn), the N-terminal 389 amino acids of diphtheria toxin (DT389) and human transforming growth factor alpha (TGF{alpha}). The resulting fusion protein was constitutively expressed and successfully secreted by B. anthracis into the culture supernatant. Purification was achieved by anion exchange chromatography and proteolytic cleavage removed LFn from the desired fusion protein (DT389 fused to TGF{alpha}). The fusion protein showed the intended specific cytotoxicity to epidermal growth factor receptor-expressing human head and neck cancer cells. Final analyses showed low levels of lipopolysaccharides, originating most likely from contamination during the purification process. Thus, the fusion to LFn for protein secretion and expression in B. anthracis BH460 provides an elegant tool to obtain high levels of lipopolysaccharide-free recombinant protein.

  5. Bacteriocin (BAC-IB17): screening, isolation and production from Bacillus subtilis KIBGE IB-17.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Asma; Aman, Afsheen; Siddiqui, Nadir Naveed; Iqbal, Samina; Ali ul Qader, Shah

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins are peptides produced by a variety of different microbes and have antimicrobial activity against closely related species. These antimicrobial agents are gaining more and more attention as an alternative therapeutics not only in pharmaceutical but also as a preservative in food industries. In this study several bacterial strains were isolated from soil and screened for bacteriocin production. Among them, one strain identified as Bacillus subtilis KIBGE IB-17 on the basis of taxonomic studies and confirmed by 16S rDNA analysis. This newly isolated strain showed antibacterial activity against several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Different concentrations of tryptone, yeast extract and NaCl and physiochemical factors such as temperature, pH and incubation period were selected as variables for maximum production of bacteriocin by using agar well diffusion method and significant effects of variables were observed on the production of Bac-IB17. A newly designed modified TY medium showed maximum bacteriocin production containing 1.0% tryptone, 0.5% yeast extract and 0.5% NaCl. Maximum Bac-IB17 production was observed at 37° after 24 hours with initial medium pH 7.0. Bacillus subtilis KIBGE IB-17 is capable of producing a bacteriocin at a wide range of pH and temperature that makes it an ideal strain that can be used for the production of bacteriocin on industrial scale level. The identification and production of such bacteriocin like compound against a wide spectrum of microbial species is very important for food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:22186330

  6. Cloning of a fibrinolytic enzyme (subtilisin) gene from Bacillus subtilis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Younes; Dabbagh, Fatemeh; Ghasemian, Abdollah

    2012-09-01

    Several investigations are being pursued to enhance the efficacy and specificity of fibrinolytic therapy. In this regard, microbial fibrinolytic enzymes attracted much more medical interests during these decades. Subtilisin, a member of subtilases (the superfamily of subtilisin-like serine proteases) and also a fibrinolytic enzyme is quite common in Gram-positive bacteria, and Bacillus species stand out in particular, as many extracellular and even intracellular variants have been identified. In the present work, the subtilisin gene from Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023 was cloned into the vector pET-15b and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Total genomic DNA were isolated and used for PCR amplification of the subtilisin gene by means of the specific primers. SDS-PAGE and enzyme assay were done for characterizing the expressed protein. A ~1,100 bp of the structural subtilisin gene was amplified. The DNA and amino acid sequence alignments resulting from the BLAST search of subtilisin showed high sequence identity with the other strains of B. subtilis, whereas significantly lower identity was observed with other bacterial subtilisins. The recombinant enzyme had the same molecular weight as other reported subtilisins and the E. coli transformants showed high subtilisin activity. This study provides evidence that subtilisin can be actively expressed in E. coli. The commercial availability of subtilisin is of great importance for industrial applications and also pharmaceutical purposes as thrombolytic agent. Thus, the characterization of new recombinant subtilisin and the development of rapid, simple, and effective production methods are not only of academic interest, but also of practical importance. PMID:22069026

  7. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

    PubMed Central

    Peak, K. Kealy; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra S.; McCarthy, Peter J.; Cannons, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA) analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S) for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9–13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition. PMID:22046187

  8. Genome sequence and analysis of a broad-host range lytic bacteriophage that infects the Bacillus cereus group

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparatively little information is available on members of the Myoviridae infecting low G+C content, Gram-positive host bacteria of the family Firmicutes. While numerous Bacillus phages have been isolated up till now only very few Bacillus cereus phages have been characterized in detail. Results Here we present data on the large, virulent, broad-host-range B. cereus phage vB_BceM_Bc431v3 (Bc431v3). Bc431v3 features a 158,618 bp dsDNA genome, encompassing 239 putative open reading frames (ORFs) and, 20 tRNA genes encoding 17 different amino acids. Since pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that the genome of this phage has a mass of 155-158 kb Bc431v3 DNA appears not to contain long terminal repeats that are found in the genome of Bacillus phage SPO1. Conclusions Bc431v3 displays significant sequence similarity, at the protein level, to B. cereus phage BCP78, Listeria phage A511 and Enterococcus phage ŘEF24C and other morphologically related phages infecting Firmicutes such as Staphylococcus phage K and Lactobacillus phage LP65. Based on these data we suggest that Bc431v3 should be included as a member of the Spounavirinae; however, because of all the diverse taxonomical information has been addressed recently, it is difficult to determine the genus. The Bc431v3 phage contains some highly unusual genes such as gp143 encoding putative tRNAHis guanylyltransferase. In addition, it carries some genes that appear to be related to the host sporulation regulators. These are: gp098, which encodes a putative segregation protein related to FstK/SpoIIIE DNA transporters; gp105, a putative segregation protein; gp108, RNA polymerase sigma factor F/B; and, gp109 encoding RNA polymerase sigma factor G. PMID:23388049

  9. Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov., a halophilic, alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from saline-sodic soil in Daqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Sun, Lei; Wei, Dan; Zhou, Baoku; Zhang, Junzheng; Gu, Xuejia; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ying; Li, Yidan; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Shuang; Pan, Yaqing; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-07-01

    An alkaliphilic, moderately halophilic, bacterium, designated strain X10-1(T), was isolated from saline-alkaline soil in Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, China. Strain X10-1(T) was determined to be a Gram-positive aerobe with rod-shaped cells. The isolate was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile, and capable of growth at salinities of 0-16% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3%). The pH range for growth was 7.5-11.0 (optimum, pH 10.0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. Its major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and its cellular fatty acid profile mainly consisted of anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, C16:0, and iso-C16:0. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that X10-1(T) is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to B. saliphilus DSM15402(T) (97.8% similarity) and B. agaradhaerens DSM 8721(T) (96.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of these species was less than 40%. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical data, strain X10-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X10-1(T) (=NBRC 109404(T) = CGMCC 1.12295(T)). PMID:24879344

  10. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ENDOSPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of a bioterrorism event resulting in the release of Bacillus anthracis endospores into a drinking water distribution system necessitates research into means by which these endospores can be inactivated. This study was designed to determine the chlorine resistance...

  11. The Insect Pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt is a widespread toxic bacterium of many groups of insects. Some are more specific than others. This page discusses the varieties and target insects, use, and mode of action.

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  13. Class IV polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases and PHA-producing Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Takeharu; Hyakutake, Manami; Mizuno, Kouhei

    2015-08-01

    This review highlights the recent investigations of class IV polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases, the newest classification of PHA synthases. Class IV synthases are prevalent in organisms of the Bacillus genus and are composed of a catalytic subunit PhaC (approximately 40 kDa), which has a PhaC box sequence ([GS]-X-C-X-[GA]-G) at the active site, and a second subunit PhaR (approximately 20 kDa). The representative PHA-producing Bacillus strains are Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus; the nucleotide sequence of phaC and the genetic organization of the PHA biosynthesis gene locus are somewhat different between these two strains. It is generally considered that class IV synthases favor short-chain-length monomers such as 3-hydroxybutyrate (C4) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (C5) for polymerization, but can polymerize some unusual monomers as minor components. In Escherichia coli expressing PhaRC from B. cereus YB-4, the biosynthesized PHA undergoes synthase-catalyzed alcoholytic cleavage using endogenous and exogenous alcohols. This alcoholysis is thought to be shared among class IV synthases, and this reaction is useful not only for the regulation of PHA molecular weight but also for the modification of the PHA carboxy terminus. The novel properties of class IV synthases will open up the possibility for the design of new PHA materials. PMID:26135986

  14. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Other Bacillus cereus Group Bacteria with the PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. HENDERSON; C. J. DUGGLEBY; P. C. B. TURNBULLl

    1994-01-01

    DNA homology studies (11, 24) have shown that Bacillus anthracis is closely related to Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides. These species have almost identical G+C contents (31 to 34 mol%) (15), and ribosomal DNA sequence data have revealed only minor differences among them (1, 2). In the laboratory, confirma- tion of suspect isolates as B. anthracis is generally

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N.; Van Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J.; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and other natural settings, and the evolution of resistance mechanisms in target pests. Armed with this knowledge base and with the tools of modern biotechnology, researchers are now reporting promising results in engineering more-useful toxins and formulations, in creating transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, and in constructing integrated management strategies to insure that these products are utilized with maximum efficiency and benefit. PMID:9729609

  16. Organic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

  17. The Bacillus megaterium comE locus encodes a functional DNA uptake protein.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Michael; Nahrstedt, Hannes; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2004-01-01

    From Bacillus megaterium, a genomic region was isolated and structurally characterized which strongly resembles the Bacillus subtilis competence locus comE encoding proteins involved in DNA uptake. Functionality of the B. megaterium comEA gene was proven by complementing a DNA-receptor mutant of B. subtilis. This finding provides first evidence for a latent ability of B. megaterium to develop natural competence, although such physiological state has not as yet been identified in this organism. PMID:15558816

  18. Bacillus weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is a new psychrotolerant species of the Bacillus cereus group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Lechner; R. MAYR; Kevin P. Francis; B. M. PRUss; Thomas Kaplan; E. WIEssNER-GUNKEL; G. S. A. B. STEWART; S. SCHERER

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group comprises the four valid species Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus fhuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Some isolates of B. cereus are known to be psychrotolerant (growth at 7 OC or below). Here, specific sequence differences are described between the 165 rDNA, the 235 rDNA, the 165-235 rDNA spacer region and the genes of the major cold-shock protein

  19. Nitrogen gas flushing can be bactericidal: the temperature-dependent destiny of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 under a pure N2 atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Alatossava, Tapani

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative Pseudomonas and Gram-positive Bacillus are the most common spoilage bacteria in raw and pasteurized milk, respectively. In previous studies, nitrogen (N2) gas flushing treatments of raw and pasteurized milk at cold chain-temperatures inhibited bacterial spoilage and highlighted different susceptibilities to the N2 treatment with the exclusion of certain bacterial types. Here, we investigated the effects of pure N2 gas flushing on representative strains of these genera grown in mono- or co-cultures at 15 and 25°C. Bacillus weihenstephanensis, a frequent inhabitant of fluid dairy products, is represented by the genome-sequenced KBAB4 strain. Among Pseudomonas, P. tolaasii LMG 2342(T) and strain C1, a raw milk psychrotroph, were selected. The N2 gas flushing treatment revealed: (1) temperature-dependent responses; (2) inhibition of the growth of both pseudomonads; (3) emergence of small colony variants (SCVs) for B. weihenstephanensis strain KBAB4 at 15°C induced by the N2 treatment or when grown in co-culture with Pseudomonas strains; (4) N2 gas flushing modulates (suppressed or stimulated) bacterial antagonistic reactions in co-cultures; (5) most importantly, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed that at 25°C the majority of the KBAB4 cells were killed by pure N2 gas flushing. This observation constitutes the first evidence that N2 gas flushing has bactericidal effects. PMID:25452751

  20. Nitrogen gas flushing can be bactericidal: the temperature-dependent destiny of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 under a pure N2 atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Alatossava, Tapani

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative Pseudomonas and Gram-positive Bacillus are the most common spoilage bacteria in raw and pasteurized milk, respectively. In previous studies, nitrogen (N2) gas flushing treatments of raw and pasteurized milk at cold chain-temperatures inhibited bacterial spoilage and highlighted different susceptibilities to the N2 treatment with the exclusion of certain bacterial types. Here, we investigated the effects of pure N2 gas flushing on representative strains of these genera grown in mono- or co-cultures at 15 and 25°C. Bacillus weihenstephanensis, a frequent inhabitant of fluid dairy products, is represented by the genome-sequenced KBAB4 strain. Among Pseudomonas, P. tolaasii LMG 2342T and strain C1, a raw milk psychrotroph, were selected. The N2 gas flushing treatment revealed: (1) temperature-dependent responses; (2) inhibition of the growth of both pseudomonads; (3) emergence of small colony variants (SCVs) for B. weihenstephanensis strain KBAB4 at 15°C induced by the N2 treatment or when grown in co-culture with Pseudomonas strains; (4) N2 gas flushing modulates (suppressed or stimulated) bacterial antagonistic reactions in co-cultures; (5) most importantly, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed that at 25°C the majority of the KBAB4 cells were killed by pure N2 gas flushing. This observation constitutes the first evidence that N2 gas flushing has bactericidal effects. PMID:25452751