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1

The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large

F. Kunst; N. Ogasawara; I. Moszer; A. M. Albertini; G. Alloni; V. Azevedo; M. G. Bertero; P. Bessières; A. Bolotin; S. Borchert; R. Borriss; L. Boursier; A. Brans; M. Braun; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; S. Brouillet; C. V. Bruschi; B. Caldwell; V. Capuano; N. M. Carter; S.-K. Choi; J.-J. Codani; I. F. Connerton; A. Danchin

1997-01-01

2

Extracellular vesicles produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis are disrupted by the lipopeptide surfactin.  

PubMed

Previously, extracellular vesicle production in Gram-positive bacteria was dismissed due to the absence of an outer membrane, where Gram-negative vesicles originate, and the difficulty in envisioning how such a process could occur through the cell wall. However, recent work has shown that Gram-positive bacteria produce extracellular vesicles and that the vesicles are biologically active. In this study, we show that Bacillus subtilis produces extracellular vesicles similar in size and morphology to other bacteria, characterized vesicles using a variety of techniques, provide evidence that these vesicles are actively produced by cells, show differences in vesicle production between strains, and identified a mechanism for such differences based on vesicle disruption. We found that in wild strains of B. subtilis, surfactin disrupted vesicles while in laboratory strains harbouring a mutation in the gene sfp, vesicles accumulated in the culture supernatant. Surfactin not only lysed B. subtilis vesicles, but also vesicles from Bacillus anthracis, indicating a mechanism that crossed species boundaries. To our knowledge, this is the first time a gene and a mechanism has been identified in the active disruption of extracellular vesicles and subsequent release of vesicular cargo in Gram-positive bacteria. We also identify a new mechanism of action for surfactin. PMID:24826903

Brown, Lisa; Kessler, Anne; Cabezas-Sanchez, Pablo; Luque-Garcia, Jose L; Casadevall, Arturo

2014-07-01

3

Control of the spread of multi-resistant Gram-positive organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have always restricted the use of antibiotics, but in recent years such organisms have caused increasing concern as the development of new classes of antimicrobial has slowed, whilst the ability of bacteria to become resistant has not. Multiple antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive organisms represent a microbiological problem quite different from their Gram-negative counterparts. In the case of the Gram-negative bacteria,

S. P. Barrett

1999-01-01

4

In vitro activity of telavancin compared with vancomycin and linezolid against Gram-positive organisms isolated from cancer patients.  

PubMed

Telavancin is a dual action, bactericidal lipoglycopeptide. Its in vitro activity was compared with vancomycin and linezolid against 392 Gram-positive isolates from cancer patients. MIC90 values (?g ml(-1)) for telavancin, vancomycin and linezolid were determined for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible (MS), methicillin-resistant (MR), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), viridans group streptococci (VGS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus species, Corynebacterium species and Micrococcus species. Telavancin had potent activity against ?-hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Whereas 100% of MRSA and 98% of MSSA had vancomycin MICs ? 1.0 ?g ml(-1) (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at which poor clinical responses have been reported), the highest telavancin MIC was 0.38 ?g ml(-1). For CoNS, 95% of MS and 100% of MR isolates had vancomycin MICs ? 1.0 ?g ml(-1), whereas the highest telavancin MIC was 0.38 ?g ml(-1). Furthermore, 48% of VGS had vancomycin MICs ? 1.0 ?g ml(-1), whereas the highest telavancin MIC was 0.064 ?g ml(-1). A similar pattern was noticed for S. lugdunensis, Bacillus species, Corynebacterium species and ?-hemolytic streptococci. These data suggest that telavancin and linezolid have potent activity against most Gram-positive organisms that cause infections in cancer patients. Consequently, they may be considered as alternatives to vancomycin, especially in institutions wherein a substantial proportion of infections are caused by organisms with vancomycin MICs ? 1.0 ?g ml(-1). PMID:24824818

Rolston, Kenneth; Wang, Weiqun; Nesher, Lior; Coyle, Elizabeth; Shelburne, Samuel; Prince, Randall A

2014-07-01

5

Postantibiotic Effect of DX-619 against 16 Gram-Positive Organisms  

PubMed Central

The in vitro postantibiotic effects (PAEs), the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA-SMEs), and the sub-MIC effects (SMEs) of DX-619 were determined for 16 gram-positive organisms. DX-619 pneumococcal, staphylococcal, and enterococcal PAE ranges were 1.7 to 5.0 h, 0.7 to 1.8 h, and 1.2 to 6.5 h, respectively. The PA-SME ranges (0.4× MIC) for pneumococci, staphylococci, and enterococci were 5.2 to >8.6 h, 2.1 to 8.3 h, and 4.9 to >10.0 h, respectively. PMID:16127083

Pankuch, G. A.; Appelbaum, P. C.

2005-01-01

6

Proteomics of arsenic stress in the gram-positive organism Exiguobacterium sp. PS NCIM 5463.  

PubMed

The general responses of microorganisms to environmental onslaughts are modulated by altering the gene expression pattern to reduce damage in the cell and produce compensating stress responses. The present study attempts to unravel the response of the Gram-positive Exiguobacterium sp. PS NCIM 5463 in the presence of [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] using comparative proteomics via two-dimension gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with identification of proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI-TOF/MALDI-TOF/TOF). Out of 926 Coomassie-stained proteins, 45 were differentially expressed (p?organisms, the present study identified new proteins under arsenic stress in a Gram-positive organism, Exiguobacterium sp. PS NCIM 5463, which could elucidate the physiology of organisms under arsenic stress. PMID:24931308

Sacheti, Poonam; Patil, Rajendra; Dube, Ankita; Bhonsle, Hemangi; Thombre, Dipalee; Marathe, Sayali; Vidhate, Ravindra; Wagh, Priyanka; Kulkarni, Mahesh; Rapole, Srikanth; Gade, Wasudev

2014-08-01

7

Modeling of rare earth element sorption to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis bacteria surface.  

PubMed

In this study, rare earth element (REE) binding constants and site concentration on the Gram+ bacteria surfaces were quantified using a multi-site Langmuir isotherm model, along with a linear programming regression method (LPM), applied to fit experimental REE sorption data. This approach found one discrete REE binding site on the Gram+ Bacillus subtilis surface for the pH range of 2.5-4.5. Average log10 REE binding constants for a site j on these bacteria ranged from 1.08±0.04 to 1.40±0.04 for the light REE (LREE: La to Eu), and from 1.36±0.03 to 2.18±0.14 for the heavy REE (HREE: Gd to Lu) at the highest biomass concentration of 1.3 g/L of B. subtilis bacteria. Similar values were obtained for bacteria concentrations of 0.39 and 0.67 g/L indicating the independence of REE sorption constants on biomass concentration. Within the experimental pH range in this study, B. subtilis was shown to have a lower affinity for LREE (e.g. La, Ce, Pr, Nd) and a higher affinity for HREE (e.g. Tm, Yb, Lu) suggesting an enrichment of HREE on the surface of Gram+ bacteria. Total surface binding site concentrations of 6.73±0.06 to 5.67±0.06 and 5.53±0.07 to 4.54±0.03 mol/g of bacteria were observed for LREE and HREE respectively, with the exception of Y, which showed a total site concentration of 9.53±0.03, and a log K(REE,j) of 1.46±0.02 for a biomass content of 1.3 g/L. The difference in these values (e.g. a lower affinity and increased binding site concentration for LREE, and the contrary for the HREE) suggests a distinction between the LREE and HREE binding modes to the Gram+ bacteria reactive surface at low pH. This further implies that HREE may bind more than one monoprotic reactive group on the cell surface. A multisite Langmuir isotherm approach along with the LPM regression method, not requiring prior knowledge of the number or concentration of cell surface REE complexation sites, were able to distinguish between the sorption constant and binding site concentration patterns of LREE and HREE on the Gram+ B. subtilis surface. This approach quantified the enrichment of Tm, Yb and Lu on the bacteria surface and it has therefore proven to be a useful tool for the study of natural reactive sorbent materials controlling REE partitioning in the natural environment. PMID:24183437

Martinez, Raul E; Pourret, Olivier; Takahashi, Yoshio

2014-01-01

8

A Green Nonsulfur Bacterium, Dehalococcoides ethenogenes, with the LexA-binding sequence found in Gram-positive organisms  

SciTech Connect

Dehalococcoides ethenogenes is a member of the physiologically diverse division of green nonsulfur bacteria. Using a TBLASTN search, the D. ethenogenes lexA gene has been identified, cloned, and expressed and its protein has been purified. Mobility shift assays revealed that the D. ethenogenes LexA protein specifically binds to both its own promoter and that of the uvrA gene, but not to the recA promoter. Our results demonstrate that the D. ethenogenes LexA binding site is GAACNNNNGTTC, which is identical to that found in gram-positive bacteria. In agreement with this fact, the Bacillus subtilis DinR protein binds specifically to the D. ethenogenes LexA operator. This constitutes the first non-gram-positive bacterium exhibiting a LexA binding site identical to that of B. subtilis.

de Henestrosa, Antonio R. (Barcelona, University of); Cune, Jordi (Barcelona, University of); Erill, Ivan (Barcelona, University of); Magnuson, Jon K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Barbe, Jordi (Barcelona, University of)

2002-12-01

9

A novel compound from the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus S6-15 inhibits biofilm formation in Gram-positive and Gram-negative species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation is a critical problem in nosocomial infections and in the aquaculture industries and biofilms show high resistance to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to reveal a novel anti-biofilm compound from marine bacteria against antibiotic resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms. The bacterial extract (50 ?g ml) of S6-01 (Bacillus indicus = MTCC 5559) showed 80–90% biofilm inhibition against Escherichia

Chari Nithya; Muthu Gokila Devi; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2011-01-01

10

Expanding the Use of a Fluorogenic Method to Determine Activity and Mode of Action of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriocins Against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Previously we described a rapid fluorogenic method to measure the activity of five bacteriocins produced by Mexican strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against B. cereus 183. Here we standardize this method to efficiently determine the activity of bacteriocins against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was determined that the crucial parameter required to obtain reproducible results was the number of cells used in the assay, that is, ~4?×?108?cell/mL and ~7?×?108?cell/mL, respectively, for target Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Comparative analyses of the fluorogenic and traditional well-diffusion assays showed correlation coefficients of 0.88 to 0.99 and 0.83 to 0.99, respectively, for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluorogenic method demonstrated that the five bacteriocins of B. thuringiensis have bacteriolytic and bacteriostatic activities against all microorganisms tested, including clinically significant bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Shigella flexneri reported previously to be resistant to the antimicrobials as determined using the well-diffusion protocol. These results demonstrate that the fluorogenic assay is a more sensitive, reliable, and rapid method when compared with the well-diffusion method and can easily be adapted in screening protocols for bacteriocin production by other microorganisms. PMID:22919330

de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M.; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Espino Monzon, A. N.; Pacheco Cano, R. D.; Balagurusamy, N.; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Salcedo-Hernandez, Ruben

2012-01-01

11

Coping with the cold: the cold shock response in the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

All organisms examined to date, respond to a sudden change in environmental temperature with a specific cascade of adaptation reactions that, in some cases, have been identified and monitored at the molecular level. According to the type of temperature change, this response has been termed heat shock response (HSR) or cold shock response (CSR). During the HSR, a specialized sigma factor has been shown to play a central regulatory role in controlling expression of genes predominantly required to cope with heat-induced alteration of protein conformation. In contrast, after cold shock, nucleic acid structure and proteins interacting with the biological information molecules DNA and RNA appear to play a major cellular role. Currently, no cold-specific sigma factor has been identified. Therefore, unlike the HSR, the CSR appears to be organized as a complex stimulon rather than resembling a regulon. This review has been designed to draw a refined picture of our current understanding of the CSR in Bacillus subtilis. Important processes such as temperature sensing, membrane adaptation, modification of the translation apparatus, as well as nucleoid reorganization and some metabolic aspects, are discussed in brief. Special emphasis is placed on recent findings concerning the nucleic acid binding cold shock proteins, which play a fundamental role, not only during cold shock adaptation but also under optimal growth conditions. PMID:12171653

Weber, Michael H W; Marahiel, Mohamed A

2002-07-29

12

Fastidiosipila sanguinis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new Gram-positive, coccus-shaped organism from human blood.  

PubMed

Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on two strains of an unidentified Gram-positive, fastidious, non-spore-forming, coccus-shaped bacterium recovered from human blood. The organism was catalase-negative and grew under strictly anaerobic conditions and in the presence of 2 and 6 % O(2). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the unidentified bacterium was, phylogenetically, far removed from peptostreptococci and related Gram-positive coccus-shaped organisms, but exhibited a phylogenetic association with Clostridium rRNA cluster III [as defined by Collins et al., Int J Syst Bacteriol 44 (1994), 812-826]. Sequence divergence values of 15 % or more were observed between the unidentified bacterium and all other recognized species within this and related rRNA clostridial clusters. Treeing analysis showed that the unknown bacterium formed a deep line branching at the periphery of rRNA cluster III and represents a hitherto unknown genus within this supra-generic grouping. On the basis of both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium from blood be classified in a new genus, Fastidiosipila gen. nov., as Fastidiosipila sanguinis sp. nov. The type strain of Fastidiosipila sanguinis is CCUG 47711(T) (=CIP 108292(T)). PMID:15774674

Falsen, Enevold; Collins, Matthew D; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Song, Yuli; Finegold, Sydney M; Lawson, Paul A

2005-03-01

13

An unusual hemoprotein capable of reversible binding of nitric oxide from the gram-positive Bacillus halodenitrificans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A green protein from the soluble extract of anaerobically grown Bacillus halodenitrificans cells was purified and determined by non-denaturing procedures or SDS-PAGE to have a molecular mass of 64 kDa. The pyridine hemochromogen was shown to be that of a b-type cytochrome prosthetic group that was soluble in ether. The protein contained 6.2mol protoheme per mol protein-1. Photoreduction of the

Gerard Denariaz; Paul A. Ketchum; William J. Payne; Ming-Yih Liu; Jean LeGall; Isabel Moura; Jose J. Moura

1994-01-01

14

Discovery of Novel Cell Wall-Active Compounds Using PywaC, a Sensitive Reporter of Cell Wall Stress, in the Model Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

The emergence of antibiotic resistance in recent years has radically reduced the clinical efficacy of many antibacterial treatments and now poses a significant threat to public health. One of the earliest studied well-validated targets for antimicrobial discovery is the bacterial cell wall. The essential nature of this pathway, its conservation among bacterial pathogens, and its absence in human biology have made cell wall synthesis an attractive pathway for new antibiotic drug discovery. Herein, we describe a highly sensitive screening methodology for identifying chemical agents that perturb cell wall synthesis, using the model of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We report on a cell-based pilot screen of 26,000 small molecules to look for cell wall-active chemicals in real time using an autonomous luminescence gene cluster driven by the promoter of ywaC, which encodes a guanosine tetra(penta)phosphate synthetase that is expressed under cell wall stress. The promoter-reporter system was generally much more sensitive than growth inhibition testing and responded almost exclusively to cell wall-active antibiotics. Follow-up testing of the compounds from the pilot screen with secondary assays to verify the mechanism of action led to the discovery of 9 novel cell wall-active compounds. PMID:24687489

Czarny, T. L.; Perri, A. L.; French, S.

2014-01-01

15

Susceptibility of Fibronectin to Degradation by Various Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Oral Micro-Organisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The degradative effects on tritiated human plasma fibronectin (FN) of proteases associated with twenty-five Gram-negative (GN) and fifteen Gram-positive (GP) oral microbial isolates were examined. Ninety-two percent of the GN and 20% of the GP isolates de...

E. D. Pederson, B. L. Lamberts, I. L. Shklair

1988-01-01

16

Activity of Linezolid against 3,251 Strains of Uncommonly Isolated Gram-Positive Organisms: Report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linezolid was tested against 32 species of uncommonly isolated gram-positive organisms (3,251 strains) by reference MIC methods and found to be highly active (MIC50 range, 0.25 to 2 g\\/ml; MIC90 range, 0.25 to 2 g\\/ml). Only one isolate (viridans group streptococcus; 0.03% of tested strains) was resistant to linezolid.

Ronald N. Jones; Matthew G. Stilwell; Patricia A. Hogan; Daniel J. Sheehan

2007-01-01

17

Evaluation of a Microarray-Based Assay for Rapid Identification of Gram-Positive Organisms and Resistance Markers in Positive Blood Cultures  

PubMed Central

Rapid identification of pathogens directly from positive blood cultures can play a major role in reducing patient mortality rates. We evaluated the performance of the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP) assay (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL) for detection of commonly isolated Gram-positive organisms as well as associated resistance markers from positive blood cultures. Positive blood cultures (VersaTREK; Trek Diagnostic Systems, Independence, OH) from 203 patients with Gram-positive organism infections were analyzed using the BC-GP assay within 12 h for the detection of 12 different organisms, including staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, as well as for the presence of 3 resistance markers (mecA, vanA, and vanB). Results were compared to those of routine laboratory methods for identification and susceptibility testing. For identification of organisms and detection of resistance markers in 178 monomicrobial positive blood cultures, the BC-GP assay showed 94% and 97% concordance, respectively, with routine methods. After 25 polymicrobial cultures were included, the results showed 92% and 96% agreement for identification and resistance markers, respectively, for a total of 203 positive cultures. In 6/25 polymicrobial cultures, at least 1 isolate was not detected. Concordance levels for detection of major pathogens such Staphylococcus aureus (n = 45) and enterococci (n = 19) were 98% and 95%, respectively. Agreement levels for detection of resistance markers such as mecA and vanA/B were 92% and 100%, respectively. The BC-GP assay is capable of providing rapid identification of Gram-positive cocci as well as detection of resistance markers directly from positive blood cultures at least 24 to 48 h earlier than conventional methods. PMID:23363838

Tibbetts, Robert J.; Agotesku, Adam; Fey, Margaret; Hensley, Rhonda; Meier, Frederick A.

2013-01-01

18

Optimizing Identification of Clinically Relevant Gram-Positive Organisms by Use of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System  

PubMed Central

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used as a method for the rapid identification of microorganisms. This study evaluated the Bruker Biotyper (MALDI-TOF MS) system for the identification of clinically relevant Gram-positive organisms. We tested 239 aerobic Gram-positive organisms isolated from clinical specimens. We evaluated 4 direct-smear methods, including “heavy” (H) and “light” (L) smears, with and without a 1-?l direct formic acid (FA) overlay. The quality measure assigned to a MALDI-TOF MS identification is a numerical value or “score.” We found that a heavy smear with a formic acid overlay (H+FA) produced optimal MALDI-TOF MS identification scores and the highest percentage of correctly identified organisms. Using a score of ?2.0, we identified 183 of the 239 isolates (76.6%) to the genus level, and of the 181 isolates resolved to the species level, 141 isolates (77.9%) were correctly identified. To maximize the number of correct identifications while minimizing misidentifications, the data were analyzed using a score of ?1.7 for genus- and species-level identification. Using this score, 220 of the 239 isolates (92.1%) were identified to the genus level, and of the 181 isolates resolved to the species level, 167 isolates (92.2%) could be assigned an accurate species identification. We also evaluated a subset of isolates for preanalytic factors that might influence MALDI-TOF MS identification. Frequent subcultures increased the number of unidentified isolates. Incubation temperatures and subcultures of the media did not alter the rate of identification. These data define the ideal bacterial preparation, identification score, and medium conditions for optimal identification of Gram-positive bacteria by use of MALDI-TOF MS. PMID:23426925

McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Shuey, Sunni; Winkler, David W.; Butler, Meghan A.

2013-01-01

19

Current Concepts in Antimicrobial Therapy Against Select Gram-Positive Organisms: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococci, and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive bacteria cause a broad spectrum of disease in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Despite increasing knowledge about resistance transmission patterns and new antibiotics, these organisms continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the health care setting. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus poses major problems worldwide as a cause of nosocomial infection and has emerged as a cause of community-acquired infections. This change in epidemiology affects choices of empirical antibiotics for skin and skin-structure infections and community-acquired pneumonia in many settings. Throughout the world, the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae has been complicated by resistance to ?-lactam and macrolide antibacterial drugs. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are a major cause of infection in the hospital setting and remain resistant to treatment with most standard antibiotics. Treatment of diseases caused by resistant gram-positive bacteria requires appropriate use of available antibiotics and stewardship to prolong their effectiveness. In addition, appropriate and aggressive infection control efforts are vital to help prevent the spread of resistant pathogens. PMID:22134942

Rivera, Ana Maria; Boucher, Helen W.

2011-01-01

20

Dermabacter hominis: a usually daptomycin-resistant gram-positive organism infrequently isolated from human clinical samples.  

PubMed

During a 12-year period, Dermabacter hominis was isolated from 21 clinical samples belonging to 14 patients attending a tertiary hospital in León, Spain. Samples included blood cultures (14), peritoneal dialysis catheter exit sites (three), cutaneous abscesses (two), an infected vascular catheter (one) and a wound swab (one). Identification was made by API Coryne™ V2.0, Biolog™ GP2 and 16S rRNA gene amplification. Six febrile patients had positive blood cultures (one, two or three sets) and all of them were treated with teicoplanin (two patients), vancomycin, ampicillin plus gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin (one each). An additional patient with a single positive blood culture was not treated, the finding being considered non-significant. In the remaining seven patients the organism was isolated from a single specimen and three of them received antimicrobial treatment (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone plus vancomycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). At least ten patients had several underlying diseases and conditions, and no direct mortality was observed in relation to the isolated organism. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, rifampin and linezolid. Resistance to other antibiotics varied: erythromycin (100%), clindamycin (78.5%), ciprofloxacin (21.4%) and gentamicin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, benzylpenicillin and imipenem 7.1% each. Thirteen isolates were highly resistant to daptomycin with MICs ranging from 8 to 48 (MIC90 = 32 mg/L); only one was daptomycin-sensitive (MIC = 0.19 mg/L). PMID:25356327

Fernández-Natal, I; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Medina-Pascual, M J; Albersmeier, A; Valdezate, S; Guerra-Laso, J M; Rodríguez, H; Marrodán, T; Parras, T; Tauch, A; Soriano, F

2013-12-01

21

Dermabacter hominis: a usually daptomycin-resistant gram-positive organism infrequently isolated from human clinical samples  

PubMed Central

During a 12-year period, Dermabacter hominis was isolated from 21 clinical samples belonging to 14 patients attending a tertiary hospital in León, Spain. Samples included blood cultures (14), peritoneal dialysis catheter exit sites (three), cutaneous abscesses (two), an infected vascular catheter (one) and a wound swab (one). Identification was made by API Coryne™ V2.0, Biolog™ GP2 and 16S rRNA gene amplification. Six febrile patients had positive blood cultures (one, two or three sets) and all of them were treated with teicoplanin (two patients), vancomycin, ampicillin plus gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin (one each). An additional patient with a single positive blood culture was not treated, the finding being considered non-significant. In the remaining seven patients the organism was isolated from a single specimen and three of them received antimicrobial treatment (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone plus vancomycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). At least ten patients had several underlying diseases and conditions, and no direct mortality was observed in relation to the isolated organism. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, rifampin and linezolid. Resistance to other antibiotics varied: erythromycin (100%), clindamycin (78.5%), ciprofloxacin (21.4%) and gentamicin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, benzylpenicillin and imipenem 7.1% each. Thirteen isolates were highly resistant to daptomycin with MICs ranging from 8 to 48 (MIC90 = 32 mg/L); only one was daptomycin-sensitive (MIC = 0.19 mg/L).

Fernandez-Natal, I; Saez-Nieto, J A; Medina-Pascual, M J; Albersmeier, A; Valdezate, S; Guerra-Laso, J M; Rodriguez, H; Marrodan, T; Parras, T; Tauch, A; Soriano, F

2013-01-01

22

Antimicrobial Activity of the Investigational Pleuromutilin Compound BC-3781 Tested against Gram-Positive Organisms Commonly Associated with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections  

PubMed Central

BC-3781 is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antimicrobial agent developed as an intravenous and oral therapy for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and respiratory tract infections (RTI). BC-3781 and comparator agents were tested by the broth microdilution method against 1,893 clinical Gram-positive organisms predominantly causing ABSSSI. BC-3781 exhibited potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 ?g/ml), coagulase-negative staphylococci (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 ?g/ml), ?-hemolytic streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 ?g/ml), viridans group streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.5 ?g/ml), and Enterococcus faecium (including vancomycin-nonsusceptible strains) (MIC50/90, 0.12/2 ?g/ml). Compared with other antibiotics in use for the treatment of ABSSSI, BC-3781 displayed the lowest MICs and only a minimal potential for cross-resistance with other antimicrobial classes. PMID:22232289

Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Paukner, Susanne; Ivezic-Schoenfeld, Zrinka; Jones, Ronald N.

2012-01-01

23

Is Mycobacterium tuberculosis a closer relative to Gram-positive or Gram–negative bacterial pathogens?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic position of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relative to other bacteria is controversial. Its cell wall has characteristics of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the standard reference of bacterial phylogeny based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequence comparison, M. tuberculosis belongs to the high G+C Gram-positive bacteria that form a monophyletic group with the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus

L. M Fu; C. S Fu-Liu

2002-01-01

24

Streptococcus mutans: a new Gram-positive paradigm?  

PubMed Central

Despite the enormous contributions of the bacterial paradigms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to basic and applied research, it is well known that no single organism can be a perfect representative of all other species. However, given that some bacteria are difficult, or virtually impossible, to cultivate in the laboratory, that some are recalcitrant to genetic and molecular manipulation, and that others can be extremely dangerous to manipulate, the use of model organisms will continue to play an important role in the development of basic research. In particular, model organisms are very useful for providing a better understanding of the biology of closely related species. Here, we discuss how the lifestyle, the availability of suitable in vitro and in vivo systems, and a thorough understanding of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans have greatly advanced our understanding of important areas in the field of bacteriology such as interspecies biofilms, competence development and stress responses. In this article, we provide an argument that places S. mutans, an organism that evolved in close association with the human host, as a novel Gram-positive model organism. PMID:23393147

Quivey, Robert G.; Koo, Hyun; Abranches, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

25

Streptococcus mutans: a new Gram-positive paradigm?  

PubMed

Despite the enormous contributions of the bacterial paradigms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to basic and applied research, it is well known that no single organism can be a perfect representative of all other species. However, given that some bacteria are difficult, or virtually impossible, to cultivate in the laboratory, that some are recalcitrant to genetic and molecular manipulation, and that others can be extremely dangerous to manipulate, the use of model organisms will continue to play an important role in the development of basic research. In particular, model organisms are very useful for providing a better understanding of the biology of closely related species. Here, we discuss how the lifestyle, the availability of suitable in vitro and in vivo systems, and a thorough understanding of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans have greatly advanced our understanding of important areas in the field of bacteriology such as interspecies biofilms, competence development and stress responses. In this article, we provide an argument that places S. mutans, an organism that evolved in close association with the human host, as a novel Gram-positive model organism. PMID:23393147

Lemos, José A; Quivey, Robert G; Koo, Hyun; Abranches, Jacqueline

2013-03-01

26

Architecture and assembly of the Gram-positive cell wall  

PubMed Central

The bacterial cell wall is a mesh polymer of peptidoglycan – linear glycan strands crosslinked by flexible peptides – that determines cell shape and provides physical protection. While the glycan strands in thin “Gram-negative” peptidoglycan are known to run circumferentially around the cell, the architecture of the thicker “Gram-positive” form remains unclear. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that Bacillus subtilis peptidoglycan is a uniformly dense layer with a textured surface. We further show it rips circumferentially, curls and thickens at free edges, and extends longitudinally when denatured. Molecular dynamics simulations show that only atomic models based on the circumferential topology recapitulate the observed curling and thickening, in support of an “inside-to-outside” assembly process. We conclude that instead of being perpendicular to the cell surface or wrapped in coiled cables (two alternative models), the glycan strands in Gram-positive cell walls run circumferentially around the cell just as they do in Gram-negative cells. Together with providing insights into the architecture of the ultimate determinant of cell shape, this study is important because Gram-positive peptidoglycan is an important antibiotic target crucial to the viability of several important rod-shaped pathogens including Bacillus anthracis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Clostridium difficile. PMID:23600697

Beeby, Morgan; Gumbart, James C.; Roux, Benoit; Jensen, Grant J.

2013-01-01

27

Widespread Abundance of Functional Bacterial Amyloid in Mycolata and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Until recently, extracellular functional bacterial amyloid (FuBA) has been detected and characterized in only a few bacterial species, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and the gram-positive organism Streptomyces coelicolor. Here we probed gram-positive bacteria with conformationally specific antibodies and revealed the existence of FuBA in 12 of 14 examined mycolata species, as well as six other distantly related species examined belonging to the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Most of the bacteria produced extracellular fimbriae, sometimes copious amounts of them, and in two cases large extracellular fibrils were also produced. In three cases, FuBA was revealed only after extensive removal of extracellular material by saponification, indicating that there is integrated attachment within the cellular envelope. Spores of species in the genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, and Nocardia were all coated with amyloids. FuBA was purified from Gordonia amarae (from the cell envelope) and Geodermatophilus obscurus, and they had the morphology, tinctorial properties, and ?-rich structure typical of amyloid. The presence of approximately 9-nm-wide amyloids in the cell envelope of G. amarae was visualized by transmission electron microscopy analysis. We conclude that amyloid is widespread among gram-positive bacteria and may in many species constitute a hitherto overlooked integral part of the spore and the cellular envelope. PMID:19395568

Jordal, Peter Bruun; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Larsen, Poul; Petersen, Steen Vang; Enghild, Jan Johannes; Christiansen, Gunna; Højrup, Peter; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Otzen, Daniel Erik

2009-01-01

28

Crystallography of Gram-Positive Bacterial Adhesins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens display a multitude of proteins and protein assemblies (pili or fimbriae) on\\u000a their cell surfaces, which are often used for adherence and initiate colonization and pathogenesis. Adhesive proteins known\\u000a as MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), anchored by a specific enzyme called sortase\\u000a in Gram-positive bacteria, target the host’s extracellular matrix proteins (ECM)

Vengadesan Krishnan; Sthanam V. L. Narayana

29

Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacteria are common causes of bloodstream and other infections in hospitalized patients in the United States, and the percentage of nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria is increasing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are of particular concern. In the United States, approximately 60% of staphylococcal infections in the intensive care unit are now caused

Louis B. Rice

2006-01-01

30

Effects of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and other organisms on the probability of conception in New York State Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of different types of clinical mastitis (CM) on the probability of conception in New York State Holstein cows. Data were available on 55,372 artificial inseminations (AI) in 23,695 lactations from 14,148 cows in 7 herds. We used generalized linear mixed models to model whether or not a cow conceived after a particular AI. Independent variables included AI number (first, second, third, fourth), parity, season when AI occurred, farm, type of CM (due to gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, or other organisms) in the 6 wk before and after an AI, and occurrence of other diseases. Older cows were less likely to conceive. Inseminations occurring in the summer were least likely to be successful. Retained placenta decreased the probability of conception. Conception was also less likely with each successive AI. The probability of conception associated with the first AI was 0.29. The probability of conception decreased to 0.26, 0.25, and 0.24 for the second, third, and fourth AI, respectively. Clinical mastitis occurring any time between 14 d before until 35 d after an AI was associated with a lower probability of conception; the greatest effect was an 80% reduction associated with gram-negative CM occurring in the week after AI. In general, CM due to gram-negative bacteria had a more detrimental effect on probability of conception than did CM caused by gram-positive bacteria or other organisms. Furthermore, CM had more effect on probability of conception immediately around the time of AI. Additional information about CM (i.e., its timing with respect to AI, and whether the causative agent is gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, or other organisms) is valuable to dairy personnel in determining why some cows are unable to conceive in a timely manner. These findings are also beneficial for the management of mastitic cows (especially those with gram-negative CM) when mastitis occurs close to AI. PMID:20338432

Hertl, J A; Gröhn, Y T; Leach, J D G; Bar, D; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Rauch, B J; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Schukken, Y H

2010-04-01

31

Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides, or AMPs, play a significant role in many environments as a tool to remove competing organisms. In response, many bacteria have evolved mechanisms to resist these peptides and prevent AMP-mediated killing. The development of AMP resistance mechanisms is driven by direct competition between bacterial species, as well as host and pathogen interactions. Akin to the number of different AMPs found in nature, resistance mechanisms that have evolved are just as varied and may confer broad-range resistance or specific resistance to AMPs. Specific mechanisms of AMP resistance prevent AMP-mediated killing against a single type of AMP, while broad resistance mechanisms often lead to a global change in the bacterial cell surface and protect the bacterium from a large group of AMPs that have similar characteristics. AMP resistance mechanisms can be found in many species of bacteria and can provide a competitive edge against other bacterial species or a host immune response. Gram-positive bacteria are one of the largest AMP producing groups, but characterization of Gram-positive AMP resistance mechanisms lags behind that of Gram-negative species. In this review we present a summary of the AMP resistance mechanisms that have been identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria. Understanding the mechanisms of AMP resistance in Gram-positive species can provide guidelines in developing and applying AMPs as therapeutics, and offer insight into the role of resistance in bacterial pathogenesis.

McBride, Shonna M.

2014-01-01

32

Accentuate the (Gram) positive Victor Nizet  

E-print Network

, resisting local mucosal immune responses, or allowing SPN to outcom- pete other members of the local flora of the leading Gram-positive bacterial pathogens and their interactions with the human immune system. Many new colonizes the human host without causing symptoms (carrier state) or generates milder, self- limited mucosal

Nizet, Victor

33

Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes  

DOEpatents

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

1996-01-09

34

Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes  

DOEpatents

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

1996-01-01

35

Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes  

DOEpatents

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

1999-06-29

36

Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes  

DOEpatents

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01

37

Mechanical consequences of cell-wall turnover in the elongation of a Gram-positive bacterium.  

PubMed

A common feature of walled organisms is their exposure to osmotic forces that challenge the mechanical integrity of cells while driving elongation. Most bacteria rely on their cell wall to bear osmotic stress and determine cell shape. Wall thickness can vary greatly among species, with Gram-positive bacteria having a thicker wall than Gram-negative bacteria. How wall dimensions and mechanical properties are regulated and how they affect growth have not yet been elucidated. To investigate the regulation of wall thickness in the rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, we analyzed exponentially growing cells in different media. Using transmission electron and epifluorescence microscopy, we found that wall thickness and strain were maintained even between media that yielded a threefold change in growth rate. To probe mechanisms of elongation, we developed a biophysical model of the Gram-positive wall that balances the mechanical effects of synthesis of new material and removal of old material through hydrolysis. Our results suggest that cells can vary their growth rate without changing wall thickness or strain by maintaining a constant ratio of synthesis and hydrolysis rates. Our model also indicates that steady growth requires wall turnover on the same timescale as elongation, which can be driven primarily by hydrolysis rather than insertion. This perspective of turnover-driven elongation provides mechanistic insight into previous experiments involving mutants whose growth rate was accelerated by the addition of lysozyme or autolysin. Our approach provides a general framework for deconstructing shape maintenance in cells with thick walls by integrating wall mechanics with the kinetics and regulation of synthesis and turnover. PMID:23746506

Misra, Gaurav; Rojas, Enrique R; Gopinathan, Ajay; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

2013-06-01

38

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of PD 0305970 and PD 0326448, New Bacterial Gyrase/Topoisomerase Inhibitors with Potent Antibacterial Activities versus Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive and Fastidious Organism Groups?  

PubMed Central

PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 are new bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase inhibitors (quinazoline-2,4-diones) that possess outstanding in vitro and in vivo activities against a wide spectrum of bacterial species including quinolone- and multidrug-resistant gram-positive and fastidious organism groups. The respective MICs (?g/ml) for PD 0305970 capable of inhibiting ?90% of bacterial strains tested ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 versus staphylococci, 0.03 to 0.06 versus streptococci, 0.25 to 2 versus enterococci, and 0.25 to 0.5 versus Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria spp. PD 0326448 MIC90s were generally twofold higher versus these same organism groups. Comparative quinolone MIC90 values were 4- to 512-fold higher than those of PD 0305970. In testing for frequency of resistance, PD 0305970 and levofloxacin showed low levels of development of spontaneous resistant mutants versus both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unlike quinolones, which target primarily gyrA and parC, analysis of resistant mutants in S. pneumoniae indicates that the likely targets of PD 0305970 are gyrB and parE. PD 0305970 demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity by in vitro time-kill testing versus streptococci. This bactericidal activity carried over to in vivo testing, where PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 displayed outstanding Streptococcus pyogenes 50% protective doses (PD50s) (oral dosing) of 0.7 and 3.6 mg/kg, respectively (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin PD50s were >100 and 17.7 mg/kg, respectively). PD 0305970 was also potent in a pneumococcal pneumonia mouse infection model (PD50 = 3.2 mg/kg) and was 22-fold more potent than levofloxacin. PMID:17261623

Huband, Michael D.; Cohen, Michael A.; Zurack, Margaret; Hanna, Debra L.; Skerlos, Laura A.; Sulavik, Mark C.; Gibson, Glenn W.; Gage, Jeffrey W.; Ellsworth, Edmund; Stier, Michael A.; Gracheck, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

39

Sortase enzymes in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary In Gram-positive bacteria proteins are displayed on the cell surface using sortase enzymes. These cysteine transpeptidases join proteins bearing an appropriate sorting signal to strategically positioned amino groups on the cell surface. Working alone, or in concert with other enzymes, sortases either attach proteins to the cross-bridge peptide of the cell wall or they link proteins together to form pili. Because surface proteins play a fundamental role in microbial physiology and are frequently virulence factors, sortase enzymes have been intensely studied since their discovery a little more than a decade ago. Based on their primary sequences and functions sortases can be partitioned into distinct families called class A to F enzymes. Most bacteria elaborate their surfaces using more than one type of sortase that function non-redundantly by recognizing unique sorting signals within their protein substrates. Here we review what is known about the functions of these enzymes and the molecular basis of catalysis. Particular emphasis is placed on ‘pilin’ specific class C sortases that construct structurally complex pili. Exciting new data have revealed that these enzymes are amazingly promiscuous in the substrates that they can employ and that there is a startling degree of diversity in their mechanism of action. We also review recent data that suggest that sortases are targeted to specific sites on the cell surface where they work with other sortases and accessory factors to properly function. PMID:22026821

Spirig, Thomas; Weiner, Ethan M.; Clubb, Robert T.

2013-01-01

40

Widespread Abundance of Functional Bacterial Amyloid in Mycolata and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, extracellular functional bacterial amyloid (FuBA) has been detected and characterized in only a few bacterial species, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and the gram-positive organism Streptomyces coelicolor. Here we probed gram-positive bacteria with conformationally specific antibodies and revealed the existence of FuBA in 12 of 14 examined mycolata species, as well as six other distantly related species examined belonging

Peter Bruun Jordal; Morten Simonsen Dueholm; Poul Larsen; Steen Vang Petersen; Jan Johannes Enghild; Gunna Christiansen; P. Hojrup; Per Halkjær Nielsen; Daniel Erik Otzen

2009-01-01

41

The effect of recurrent episodes of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and other organisms on mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of recurrent episodes of different types of clinical mastitis (CM) caused by gram-positive (Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp.) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas) bacteria, and other organisms (Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Corynebacterium bovis, yeast, miscellaneous) on the probability of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. Data from 30,233 lactations in cows of 7 dairy farms in New York State were analyzed. Cows were followed for the first 10 mo in lactation, or until death or culling occurred, or until the end of our study period. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of recurrent cases of the different types of CM and several other factors (herd, parity, month of lactation, current year and season, profitability, net replacement cost, other diseases) on cows' probability of death (model 1) or being culled (model 2). Primiparous and multiparous cows were modeled separately because they had different risks of mortality and culling and potentially different CM effects on mortality and culling. Approximately 30% of multiparous cows had at least one case of CM in lactation compared with 16.6% of primiparous cows. Multipara also had higher lactational incidence risks of second (10.7%) and third (4.4%) cases than primipara (3.7% and 1.1%, respectively). For primipara, CM increased the probability of death, with each successive case occurring in a month being increasingly lethal. In multipara, gram-negative CM increased the probability of death, especially when the gram-negative case was the first or second CM case in lactation. Primiparous cows with CM were more likely to be culled after CM than if they did not have CM, particularly after a second or third case. In multipara, any type of CM increased the probability of being culled. Gram-negative CM cases were associated with the numerically highest risk of culling. PMID:21943738

Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Bar, D; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Rauch, B J; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

2011-10-01

42

Type IV Pili in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Type IV pili (T4P) are surface-exposed fibers that mediate many functions in bacteria, including locomotion, adherence to host cells, DNA uptake (competence), and protein secretion and that can act as nanowires carrying electric current. T4P are composed of a polymerized protein, pilin, and their assembly apparatuses share protein homologs with type II secretion systems in eubacteria and the flagella of archaea. T4P are found throughout Gram-negative bacterial families and have been studied most extensively in certain model Gram-negative species. Recently, it was discovered that T4P systems are also widespread among Gram-positive species, in particular the clostridia. Since Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have many differences in cell wall architecture and other features, it is remarkable how similar the T4P core proteins are between these organisms, yet there are many key and interesting differences to be found as well. In this review, we compare the two T4P systems and identify and discuss the features they have in common and where they differ to provide a very broad-based view of T4P systems across all eubacterial species. PMID:24006467

Craig, Lisa

2013-01-01

43

Different subcellular locations of secretome components of Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacteria contain different types of secretion systems for the transport of proteins into or across the cytoplasmic membrane. Recent studies on subcellular localization of specific components of these secretion systems and their substrates have shown that they can be present at various locations in the cell. The translocons of the general Sec secretion system in the rod-shaped bacterium Bacillus

Girbe Buist; Anja N. J. A. Ridder; Jan Kok; Oscar P. Kuipers

2006-01-01

44

Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Results: We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of

Michael W Rey; Preethi Ramaiya; Beth A Nelson; Shari D Brody-Karpin; Elizabeth J Zaretsky; Maria Tang; Alfredo Lopez de Leon; Henry Xiang; Veronica Gusti; Ib Groth Clausen; Peter B Olsen; Michael D Rasmussen; Jens T Andersen; Per L Jørgensen; Thomas S Larsen; Alexei Sorokin; Alexander Bolotin; Alla Lapidus; Nathalie Galleron; S Dusko Ehrlich; Randy M Berka

2004-01-01

45

Microbe forensics: Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in Bacillus subtilis cells and spores  

E-print Network

Microbe forensics: Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in Bacillus subtilis cells and spores September 30, 2002) Bacillus subtilis, a Gram-positive, endospore-forming soil bacte- rium, was grown identical organisms cultured in different geographic regions. We used the growth of Bacillus subtilis

Ehleringer, Jim

46

Nutritional factors affecting organic solvent-tolerant alkaline protease production by a new Bacillus cereus strain 146  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organic solvent-tolerant bacterium designated as 146 capable of producing an organic solvent-stable alkaline protease was\\u000a isolated from contaminated soil of a wood factory. The strain was a Gram-positive, spore-forming, nitrate-positive, rod-shaped\\u000a organism capable of hydrolysing gelatine, starch, skim milk and identified asBacillus cereus. Activity of the protease was drastically increased in the presence of 1–decanol, isooctane, n-dodecane and n-tetradecane,

Norazizah Shafee; Chin-Chin Tan; Shalihah Mahamad; Raja Noor Zaliha Abd Rahman; Mahiran Basri; Abu Bakar Salleh

2006-01-01

47

Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci. PMID:6490866

Gunn, B A

1984-01-01

48

Postantibiotic Leukocyte Enhancement of Meropenem against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacodynamic aspects of antimicrobial drugs, such as the postantibiotic effect (PAE), have been extensively stud- ied in the last 15 years with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in order to analyze their possible influence on antibi- otic dosage regimens (3). Bacterial susceptibility to leukocyte phagocytosis and killing is usually enhanced when organisms are in the PAE phase (11, 12, 19,

ANDREA NOVELLI; STEFANIA FALLANI; MARIA IRIS CASSETTA; SILVIA CONTI; TERESITA MAZZEI

2000-01-01

49

Glycopeptide Resistance in Gram-Positive Cocci: A Review  

PubMed Central

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens in the past two decades all over the world and have seriously limited the choices available to clinicians for treating infections caused by these agents. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, perhaps the most notorious among the nosocomial pathogens, was till recently susceptible to vancomycin and the other glycopeptides. Emergence of vancomycin nonsusceptible strains of S. aureus has led to a worrisome scenario where the options available for treating serious infections due to these organisms are very limited and not well evaluated. Vancomycin resistance in clinically significant isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci is also on the rise in many setups. This paper aims to highlight the genetic basis of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species and S. aureus. It also focuses on important considerations in detection of vancomycin resistance in these gram-positive bacteria. The problem of glycopeptide resistance in clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci and the phenomenon of vancomycin tolerance seen in some strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae has also been discussed. Finally, therapeutic options available and being developed against these pathogens have also found a mention. PMID:22778729

Sujatha, S.; Praharaj, Ira

2012-01-01

50

The Role of rpoE in Stationary Phase Mutagenesis in Bacillus Subtilis Turquoise C. Alexander1 and Eduardo A. Robleto2  

E-print Network

The Role of rpoE in Stationary Phase Mutagenesis in Bacillus Subtilis Turquoise C. Alexander1 to understand how these mutations arise, we use Bacillus subtilis, a Gram positive rod- shaped model organism µL 100 µL His- X 5 Leu- X 5 Met- X 5 Bacillus test culture grown to T90 A) Count revertants for 9

Walker, Lawrence R.

51

An identification scheme for rapidly and aerobically growing gram-positive rods.  

PubMed

An identification scheme for aerobically growing Gram-positive rods (genera Actinomyces, Arcanobacterium, Aureobacterium, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Cellulomonas, Corynebacterium, Dermabacter, Erysipelothrix, Gardnerella, Lactobacillus, Listeria, Microbacterium, Oerskovia, Propionibacterium, Rhodococcus, Rothia, Turicella, as well as unnamed CDC groups, Clostridium tertium, and Mycobacterium fortuitum/chelonae) is presented. It is derived from the Hollis-Weaver scheme and uses catalase, oxidative/fermentative carbohydrate metabolism and motility as primary reactions. Tests for lipophilism, nitrate reduction, urease, esculin hydrolysis, the CAMP reaction, acid formation from five carbohydrates, as well as for some facultative reactions should lead to a correct diagnosis based on information available at the end of 1995. PMID:8837385

von Graevenitz, A; Funke, G

1996-07-01

52

Aerobic Respiration in the Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group of Gram-positive bacteria is a major phylum of prokaryotes, including several typical saprophytic aerobes. Their\\u000a respiratory chains are apparently similar to those of eukaryotic mitochondria, but in several points are different from them.\\u000a The respiratory chain of Gram-positives, like many bacteria, contains branched electron transfer pathways, usually 1-3 heme-Cu\\u000a oxidases, but SoxB-type cytochrome c oxidases (cytochrome b(a\\/o)3) are

Nobhuito Sone; Cecilia Hagerhall; Junshi Sakamoto

53

Wall Teichoic Acids of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The peptidoglycan layers of many gram-positive bacteria are densely functionalized with anionic glycopolymers called wall teichoic acids (WTAs). These polymers play crucial roles in cell shape determination, regulation of cell division, and other fundamental aspects of gram-positive bacterial physiology. Additionally, WTAs are important in pathogenesis and play key roles in antibiotic resistance. We provide an overview of WTA structure and biosynthesis, review recent studies on the biological roles of these polymers, and highlight remaining questions. We also discuss prospects for exploiting WTA biosynthesis as a target for new therapies to overcome resistant infections. PMID:24024634

Brown, Stephanie; Santa Maria, John P.; Walker, Suzanne

2013-01-01

54

Screening genomes of Gram-positive bacteria for  

E-print Network

Screening genomes of Gram-positive bacteria for double-glycine-motif- containing peptides Secreted-positive bacteria, the double-glycine (GG) motif plays a key role in many peptide secretion systems involved Microbiology Comment #12;peptides and class II bacteriocins, produced by streptococci and lactic acid bacteria

55

Protein secretion and surface display in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

The cell wall peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria functions as a surface organelle for the transport and assembly of proteins that interact with the environment, in particular, the tissues of an infected host. Signal peptide-bearing precursor proteins are secreted across the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. Some precursors carry C-terminal sorting signals with unique sequence motifs that are cleaved by sortase enzymes and linked to the cell wall peptidoglycan of vegetative forms or spores. The sorting signals of pilin precursors are cleaved by pilus-specific sortases, which generate covalent bonds between proteins leading to the assembly of fimbrial structures. Other precursors harbour surface (S)-layer homology domains (SLH), which fold into a three-pronged spindle structure and bind secondary cell wall polysaccharides, thereby associating with the surface of specific Gram-positive microbes. Type VII secretion is a non-canonical secretion pathway for WXG100 family proteins in mycobacteria. Gram-positive bacteria also secrete WXG100 proteins and carry unique genes that either contribute to discrete steps in secretion or represent distinctive substrates for protein transport reactions. PMID:22411983

Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique M.

2012-01-01

56

Genomics of the Bacillus cereus group of organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Bacillus cereus group of organisms include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis. Collectively, these organisms represent microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Given this significance, this group contains the highest number of closely related fully sequenced genomes, giving the unique opportunity for thorough comparative genomic analyses. Much of the disease and host specificity of

David A. Rasko; Michael R. Altherr; Cliff S. Han; Jacques Ravel

2005-01-01

57

Anaerobic, gram-positive, pleomorphic rods in human gingival crevice.  

PubMed

Sixty-two strains of anaerobic, gram-positive, pleomorphic rods were isolated from the gingival crevice of individuals clinically free from peridontal disease, and examined for biochemical characteristics, cellular and colonial morphology, and acid end-products from glucose fermentation. None of them produced indole, hydrogen sulfide, or catalase, but all hydrolysed esculin. Seven, 10 and 45 of 62 strains were identified as Bifidobacterium, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Actinomyces israelii, respectively, on the basis of biochemical characteristics. PMID:6928807

Maeda, N

1980-03-01

58

Rapid identification of obligately anaerobic gram-positive cocci using high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed Central

High-performance liquid chromatography was evaluated as a rapid means of identifying obligately anaerobic gram-positive cocci of medical interest. Isolates were inoculated into a defined chemical medium consisting primarily of amino acids and were incubated aerobically for 1 h at 35 degrees C. After removal of organisms, the supernatant fluids were derivatized for 1 min at room temperature by the addition of o-phthalaldehyde. The total time required to run a chromatogram was approximately 50 min. Standardized peak heights for each medium component and any new peaks formed were calculated for each isolate and compared with those for uninoculated control medium. Multiple isolates of various species of anaerobic gram-positive cocci gave consistent patterns of medium utilization that could be used for identification purposes. This method can easily be adapted for laboratory use and has the potential for automated microbial identification. PMID:3597760

Harpold, D J; Wasilauskas, B L

1987-01-01

59

In vitro metabolism of 2,2'-diaminopimelic acid from gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells by ruminal protozoa and bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus megaterium GW1 and Escherichia coli W7-M5 were specifically radiolabeled with 2,2'-diamino[G-3H]pimelic acid [( 3H]DAP) as models of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These radiolabeled bacterial mutants were incubated alone (control) and with mixed ruminal bacteria or protozoa, and the metabolic processes, rates, and patterns of radiolabeled products released from them were studied. Control incubations revealed an inherent difference between the two substrates; gram-positive supernatants consistently contained 5% radioactivity, whereas even at 0 h, those from the gram-negative mutant released 22%. Incubations with ruminal microorganisms showed that the two mutants were metabolized differently and that protozoa were the major effectors of their metabolism. Protozoa exhibited differential rates of engulfment (150 B. megaterium GW1 and 4,290 E. coli W7-M5 organisms per protozoan per h), and they extensively degraded [3H]DAP-labeled B. megaterium GW1 at rates up to nine times greater than those of ruminal bacteria. By contrast, [3H]DAP-labeled E. coli W7-M5 degradation by either ruminal bacteria or ruminal protozoa was more limited. These fundamental differences in the metabolism of the two mutants, especially by ruminal protozoa, were reflected in the patterns and rates of radiolabeled metabolites produced; many were rapidly released from [3H]DAP-labeled B. megaterium GW1, whereas few were slowly released from [3H]DAP-labeled E. coli W7-M5. Most radiolabeled products derived from [3H]DAP-labeled B. megaterium GW1 were peptides of bacterial peptidoglycan origin. The ruminal metabolism of DAP-containing gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, even with the same peptidoglycan chemotype, is thus likely to be profoundly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2495759

Denholm, A M; Ling, J R

1989-01-01

60

Recognition of U-rich RNA by Hfq from the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Hfq is a post-transcriptional regulator that binds U- and A-rich regions of sRNAs and their target mRNAs to stimulate their annealing in order to effect translation regulation and, often, to alter their stability. The functional importance of Hfq and its RNA-binding properties are relatively well understood in Gram-negative bacteria, whereas less is known about the RNA-binding properties of this riboregulator in Gram-positive species. Here, we describe the structure of Hfq from the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in its RNA-free form and in complex with a U6 oligoribonucleotide. As expected, the protein takes the canonical hexameric toroidal shape of all other known Hfq structures. The U6 RNA binds on the “proximal face” in a pocket formed by conserved residues Q9, N42, F43, and K58. Additionally residues G5 and Q6 are involved in protein-nucleic and inter-subunit contacts that promote uracil specificity. Unlike Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) Hfq, Lm Hfq requires magnesium to bind U6 with high affinity. In contrast, the longer oligo-uridine, U16, binds Lm Hfq tightly in the presence or absence of magnesium, thereby suggesting the importance of additional residues on the proximal face and possibly the lateral rim in RNA interaction. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quenching (TFQ) studies reveal, surprisingly, that Lm Hfq can bind (GU)3G and U6 on its proximal and distal faces, indicating a less stringent adenine-nucleotide specificity site on the distal face as compared to the Gram-positive Hfq proteins from Sa and Bacillus subtilis and suggesting as yet uncharacterized RNA-binding modes on both faces. PMID:25150227

Kovach, Alexander R.; Hoff, Kirsten E.; Canty, John T.; Orans, Jillian

2014-01-01

61

Speciation of Gram-positive bacteria in fresh and ambient-stored sub-tropical marine fish.  

PubMed

This study identified Gram-positive bacteria in three sub-tropical marine fish species; Pseudocaranx dentex (silver trevally), Pagrus auratus (snapper) and Mugil cephalus (sea mullet). It further elucidated the role played by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage on the composition of the Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 266 isolates of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by conventional biochemical methods, VITEK, PCR using genus- and species-specific primers and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolates were found to fall into 13 genera and 30 species. In fresh fish, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus were the most frequent isolates. After ambient storage, S. epidermidis, S. xylosus and Bacillus megaterium were no longer present whereas S. warneri, B. sphaericus, Brevibacillus borstelensis, Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus uberis increased in frequency. Micrococcus luteus and S. warneri were the most prevalent isolates from P. dentex, while E. faecium and Strep. uberis were the most frequent isolates from P. auratus and M. cephalus. With respect to different parts of the fish body, E. faecium, Strep. uberis and B. sphaericus were the most frequent isolates from the muscles, E. faecium, Strep. uberis from the gills and M. luteus from the gut. This study showed a diversity of Gram-positive bacteria in sub-tropical marine fish; however, their abundance was affected by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage. PMID:20110133

Al Bulushi, Ismail M; Poole, Susan E; Barlow, Robert; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

2010-03-31

62

Gram-positive marine bacteria as a potential resource for the discovery of quorum sensing inhibitors.  

PubMed

Inhibitors of bacterial quorum sensing have been proposed as potentially novel therapeutics for the treatment of certain bacterial diseases. We recently reported a marine Halobacillus salinus isolate that secretes secondary metabolites capable of quenching quorum sensing phenotypes in several Gram-negative reporter strains. To investigate how widespread the production of such compounds may be in the marine bacterial environment, 332 Gram-positive isolates from diverse habitats were tested for their ability to interfere with Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence, a cell signaling-regulated phenotype. Rapid assay methods were employed where environmental isolates were propagated alongside the reporter strain. "Actives" were defined as bacteria that interfered with bioluminescence without visible cell-killing effects (antibiotic activity). A total of 49 bacterial isolates interfered with bioluminescence production in the assays. Metabolite extracts were generated from cultures of the active isolates, and 28 reproduced the bioluminescence inhibition against V. harveyi. Of those 28, five extracts additionally inhibited violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum. Chemical investigations revealed that phenethylamides and a cyclic dipeptide are two types of secondary metabolites responsible for the observed activities. The active bacterial isolates belonged primarily to either the genus Bacillus or Halobacillus. The results suggest that Gram-positive marine bacteria are worthy of further investigation for the discovery of quorum sensing antagonists. PMID:21152942

Teasdale, Margaret E; Donovan, Kellye A; Forschner-Dancause, Stephanie R; Rowley, David C

2011-08-01

63

Synthetic Teichoic Acid Conjugate Vaccine against Nosocomial Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are amphiphilic polymers that are important constituents of the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria. The chemical structures of LTA vary among organisms, albeit in the majority of Gram-positive bacteria the LTAs feature a common poly-1,3-(glycerolphosphate) backbone. Previously, the specificity of opsonic antibodies for this backbone present in some Gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated, suggesting that this minimal structure may be sufficient for vaccine development. In the present work, we studied a well-defined synthetic LTA-fragment, which is able to inhibit opsonic killing of polyclonal rabbit sera raised against native LTA from Enterococcus faecalis 12030. This promising compound was conjugated with BSA and used to raise rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the opsonic activity of this serum was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay and specificity was confirmed by an opsonophagocytic inhibition assay. The conjugated LTA-fragment was able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediate killing of the clinical strains E. faecalis 12030, Enterococcus faecium E1162, and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2 (USA400). Prophylactic immunization with the teichoic acid conjugate and with the rabbit serum raised against this compound was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies in mice, and in an enterococcal endocarditis rat model. In all animal models, a statistically significant reduction of colony counts was observed indicating that the novel synthetic LTA-fragment conjugate is a promising vaccine candidate for active or passive immunotherapy against E. faecalis and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25333799

Laverde, Diana; Wobser, Dominique; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Hogendorf, Wouter; van der Marel, Gijsbert; Berthold, Martin; Kropec, Andrea; Codee, Jeroen; Huebner, Johannes

2014-01-01

64

High benzene concentrations can favour Gram-positive bacteria in groundwaters from a contaminated aquifer.  

PubMed

Exposure to pollution exerts strong selective pressure on microbial communities, which may affect their potential to adapt to current or future environmental challenges. In this microcosm study, we used DNA fingerprinting based on 16S rRNA genes to document the impact of high concentrations of benzene on two bacterial communities from a benzene-contaminated aquifer situated below a petrochemical plant (SIReN, UK). The two groundwaters harboured distinct aerobic benzene-degrading communities able to metabolize benzene to below detection levels (1 microg L(-1)). A benzene concentration of 100 mg L(-1) caused a major shift from Betaproteobacteria to Actinobacteria, in particular Arthrobacter spp. A similar shift from Betaproteobacteria to Arthrobacter spp. and Rhodococcus erythropolis was observed in minimal medium (MM) inoculated with a third groundwater. These Gram-positive-dominated communities were able to grow on benzene at concentrations up to 600 mg L(-1) in groundwater and up to 1000 mg L(-1) in MM, concentrations that cause significant solvent stress to cellular systems. Therefore, Gram-positive bacteria were better competitors than Gram-negative organisms under experimental conditions of high benzene loads, which suggests that solvent-tolerant Gram-positive bacteria can play a role in the natural attenuation of benzene or the remediation of contaminated sites. PMID:18540887

Fahy, Anne; Ball, Andrew S; Lethbridge, Gordon; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N

2008-09-01

65

Biological counterstrike: antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed

The development of antibiotic resistance by bacteria is an evolutionary inevitability, a convincing demonstration of their ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. Since the emergence of penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus in the 1940s, staphylococci, enterococci and streptococci have proved themselves adept at developing or acquiring mechanisms that confer resistance to all clinically available antibacterial classes. The increasing problems of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRSA and MRCoNS), glycopeptide-resistant enterococci and penicillin-resistant pneumococci in the 1980s, and recognition of glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus in the 1990s and, most recently, of fully vancomycin-resistant isolates of S. aureus have emphasised our need for new anti-Gram-positive agents. Antibiotic resistance is one of the major public health concerns for the beginning of the 21st century. The pharmaceutical industry has responded with the development of oxazolidinones, lipopeptides, injectable streptogramins, ketolides, glycylcyclines, second-generation glycopeptides and novel fluoroquinolones. However, clinical use of these novel agents will cause new selective pressures and will continue to drive the development of resistance. This review describes the various antibiotic resistance mechanisms identified in isolates of staphylococci, enterococci and streptococci, including mechanisms of resistance to recently introduced anti-Gram-positive agents. PMID:15811020

Woodford, N

2005-05-01

66

Teicoplanin in the treatment of gram-positive-bacterial endocarditis.  

PubMed Central

Intravenous teicoplanin has been used to treat 23 cases of gram-positive-bacterial endocarditis, usually with 3 to 7 mg/kg every 12 h on the first day, followed by 3 to 7 mg/kg every 24 h. For some cases (staphylococcal and enterococcal endocarditis), the dosage was 8 to 14.4 mg/kg per day and/or other antibiotics were given. The mean duration was 48.2 days (range, 23 to 130 days). Of 23 patients, 21 (91.3%) had negative cultures or were cured. A total of 18 patients were treated with teicoplanin alone; of these, 4 had surgery, and all (except 2 who relapsed) were cured. Teicoplanin was combined with one or more antibiotics in five cases; in all cases appropriate cultures were negative, but three patients died during therapy or follow-up. Mild renal impairment was seen in two patients; both were receiving teicoplanin in combination with an aminoglycoside. We conclude that intravenous teicoplanin administered once a day at doses of 7 to 14 mg/kg per day is well tolerated, easy to administer, and may represent an efficacious therapy for gram-positive-bacterial endocarditis. PMID:2529815

Martino, P; Venditti, M; Micozzi, A; Brandimarte, C; Gentile, G; Santini, C; Serra, P

1989-01-01

67

Acquired inducible antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

A major contributor to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is the expansion of acquired, inducible genetic elements. Although acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance is not new, the interest in its molecular basis has been accelerated by the widening distribution and often ‘silent’ spread of the elements responsible, the diagnostic challenges of such resistance and the mounting limitations of available agents to treat Gram-positive infections. Acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance elements belong to the accessory genome of a species and are horizontally acquired by transformation/recombination or through the transfer of mobile DNA elements. The two key, but mechanistically very different, induction mechanisms are: ribosome-sensed induction, characteristic of the macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B antibiotics and tetracycline resistance, leading to ribosomal modifications or efflux pump activation; and resistance by cell surface-associated sensing of ?-lactams (e.g., oxacillin), glycopeptides (e.g., vancomycin) and the polypeptide bacitracin, leading to drug inactivation or resistance due to cell wall alterations. PMID:22913355

Chancey, Scott T; Zahner, Dorothea; Stephens, David S

2012-01-01

68

Acyl-sulfamates target the essential glycerol-phosphate acyltransferase (PlsY) in Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

PlsY is the essential first step in membrane phospholipid synthesis of Gram-positive pathogens. PlsY catalyzes the transfer of the fatty acid from acyl-phosphate to the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the first intermediate in membrane biogenesis. A series of non-metabolizable, acyl-sulfamate analogs of the acyl-phosphate PlsY substrate were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus PlsY and for their Gram-positive antibacterial activities. From this series phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate had the best overall profile, selectively inhibiting S. aureus phospholipid biosynthesis and causing the accumulation of both long-chain fatty acids and acyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates demonstrating that PlsY was the primary cellular target. Bacillus anthracis was unique in being more potently inhibited by long chain acyl-sulfamates than other bacterial species. However, it is shown that Bacillus anthracis PlsY is not more sensitive to the acyl-sulfamates than S. aureus PlsY. Metabolic profiling showed that B. anthracis growth inhibition by the acyl-sulfamates was not specific for lipid synthesis illustrating that the amphipathic acyl-sulfamates can also have off-target effects in Gram-positive bacteria. Nonetheless, this study further advances PlsY as a druggable target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics, through the discovery and validation of the probe compound phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate as a S. aureus PlsY inhibitor. PMID:22795901

Cherian, Philip T; Yao, Jiangwei; Leonardi, Roberta; Maddox, Marcus M; Luna, Vicki A; Rock, Charles O; Lee, Richard E

2012-08-15

69

Acyl-sulfamates Target the Essential Glycerol-Phosphate Acyltransferase (PlsY) in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

PlsY is the essential first step in membrane phospholipid synthesis of Gram-positive pathogens. PlsY catalyzes the transfer of the fatty acid from acyl-phosphate to the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the first intermediate in membrane biogenesis. A series of non-metabolizable, acyl-sulfamate analogs of the acyl-phosphate PlsY substrate were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus PlsY and for their Gram-positive antibacterial activities. From this series phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate had the best overall profile, selectively inhibiting S. aureus phospholipid biosynthesis and causing the accumulation of both long-chain fatty acids and acyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates demonstrating that PlsY was the primary cellular target. Bacillus anthracis was unique in being more potently inhibited by long chain acyl-sulfamates than other bacterial species. However, it is shown that Bacillus anthracis PlsY is not more sensitive to the acyl-sulfamates than S. aureus PlsY. Metabolic profiling showed that B. anthracis growth inhibition by the acyl-sulfamates was not specific for lipid synthesis illustrating that the amphipathic acyl-sulfamates can also have off-target effects in Gram-positive bacteria. Nonetheless, this study further advances PlsY as a druggable target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics, through the discovery and validation of the probe compound phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate as a S. aureus PlsY inhibitor. PMID:22795901

Cherian, Philip; Yao, Jiangwei; Leonardi, Roberta; Maddox, Marcus M.; Luna, Vicki A.; Rock, Charles O.; Lee, Richard E.

2012-01-01

70

Fate study of water-borne gram positive vegetative bacterial cells with Raman microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an initial bacterial fate study of Gram positive vegetative cells suspended in water and stored at ambient room temperature via Raman spectroscopy monitoring. Two types of cells were considered for this study: vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis which contain the polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHBA) as an energy storage compound and Bacillus subtlilis cells which do not. The cells were cultured specifically for this project. Immediately following the culturing phase, the bacteria were extracted, cleaned and at the onset of the study were suspended in de-ionized water and stored at room temperature. Aliquots of suspensions were deposited onto aluminum slides at different times and allowed to dry for Raman analysis. Spectra from multiple regions of each dried spot and each deposit time were acquired along with the bright-field and fluorescence images. Results were examined to investigate the effect of suspension time on the spectral signatures as well as the fate behavior of the three types of cells investigated. The cells were monitored daily for over a 14 period during which time the onset of starvation induced sporulation was observed.

Guicheteau, Jason; Tripathi, Ashish; Minter, Jennifer; Wilcox, Phillip; Christesen, Steven

2010-04-01

71

Disinfection of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria using DynaJets® hydrodynamic cavitating jets.  

PubMed

Cavitating jet technologies (DynaJets®) were investigated as a means of disinfection of gram-negative Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Pseudomonas syringae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. The hydrodynamic cavitating jets were found to be very effective in reducing the concentrations of all of these species. In general, the observed rates of disinfection of gram-negative species were higher than for gram-positive species. However, different gram-negative species also showed significant differences (P. syringae 6-log(10) reduction, P. aeruginosa 2-log(10) reduction) under the same conditions. Disinfection of E. coli repeatedly showed five orders of magnitude reduction in concentration within 45-60-min at low nozzle pressure (2.1 bar). Optimization of nozzle design and operating pressures increased disinfection rates per input energy by several orders of magnitude. The power efficiencies of the hydrodynamic cavitating jets were found to be 10-100 times greater than comparable ultrasonic systems. PMID:22079473

Loraine, Gregory; Chahine, Georges; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Aley, Patrick

2012-05-01

72

Isolation and characterization of four novel Gram-positive bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of two endemorelict plants capable of degrading a broad range of aromatic substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new Gram-positive, phenol-degrading strains were isolated from the rhizospheres of endemorelict plants Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae known to exude high amounts of phenolics in the soil. Isolates were designated Bacillus sp. PS1, Bacillus sp. PS11, Streptomyces sp. PS12, and Streptomyces sp. PN1 based on 16S rDNA sequence and biochemical analysis. In addition to their ability to tolerate and

Lidija Djokic; Tanja Narancic; Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic; Miloje Savic; Branka Vasiljevic

2011-01-01

73

Tandem affinity purification vectors for use in gram positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Tandem affinity purification has become a valuable tool for the isolation of protein complexes. Here we describe the construction and use of a series of plasmid vectors for Gram positive bacteria. The vectors utilize the SPA tag as well as variants containing a 3C rather than the TEV protease site as 3C protease has been shown to work efficiently at the low temperatures (4 degrees C) used to isolate protein complexes. In addition, a further vector incorporates a GST moiety in place of the 3xFLAG of the SPA tag which provides an additional tagging option for situations where SPA binding may be inefficient. The vectors are all compatible with previously constructed fluorescent protein fusion vectors enabling construction of a suite of affinity and fluorescently tagged genes using a single PCR product. PMID:18093654

Yang, Xiao; Doherty, Geoff P; Lewis, Peter J

2008-01-01

74

SubtiWiki-a database for the model organism Bacillus subtilis that links pathway, interaction and expression information  

PubMed Central

Genome annotation and access to information from large-scale experimental approaches at the genome level are essential to improve our understanding of living cells and organisms. This is even more the case for model organisms that are the basis to study pathogens and technologically important species. We have generated SubtiWiki, a database for the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis (http://subtiwiki.uni-goettingen.de/). In addition to the established companion modules of SubtiWiki, SubtiPathways and SubtInteract, we have now created SubtiExpress, a third module, to visualize genome scale transcription data that are of unprecedented quality and density. Today, SubtiWiki is one of the most complete collections of knowledge on a living organism in one single resource. PMID:24178028

Michna, Raphael H.; Commichau, Fabian M.; Todter, Dominik; Zschiedrich, Christopher P.; Stulke, Jorg

2014-01-01

75

Lactobacillus plantarum gene clusters encoding putative cell-surface protein complexes for carbohydrate utilization are conserved in specific gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Genomes of gram-positive bacteria encode many putative cell-surface proteins, of which the majority has no known function. From the rapidly increasing number of available genome sequences it has become apparent that many cell-surface proteins are conserved, and frequently encoded in gene clusters or operons, suggesting common functions, and interactions of multiple components. Results A novel gene cluster encoding exclusively cell-surface proteins was identified, which is conserved in a subgroup of gram-positive bacteria. Each gene cluster generally has one copy of four new gene families called cscA, cscB, cscC and cscD. Clusters encoding these cell-surface proteins were found only in complete genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis and Bacillus cereus and in incomplete genomes of L. lactis ssp cremoris, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillius brevis, Oenococcus oeni, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus thuringiensis. These genes are neither present in the genomes of streptococci, staphylococci and clostridia, nor in the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, suggesting a niche-specific distribution, possibly relating to association with plants. All encoded proteins have a signal peptide for secretion by the Sec-dependent pathway, while some have cell-surface anchors, novel WxL domains, and putative domains for sugar binding and degradation. Transcriptome analysis in L. plantarum shows that the cscA-D genes are co-expressed, supporting their operon organization. Many gene clusters are significantly up-regulated in a glucose-grown, ccpA-mutant derivative of L. plantarum, suggesting catabolite control. This is supported by the presence of predicted CRE-sites upstream or inside the up-regulated cscA-D gene clusters. Conclusion We propose that the CscA, CscB, CscC and CscD proteins form cell-surface protein complexes and play a role in carbon source acquisition. Primary occurrence in plant-associated gram-positive bacteria suggests a possible role in degradation and utilization of plant oligo- or poly-saccharides. PMID:16723015

Siezen, Roland; Boekhorst, Jos; Muscariello, Lidia; Molenaar, Douwe; Renckens, Bernadet; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2006-01-01

76

Desulfotomaculum spp. and related gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria in deep subsurface environments  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate reducers and particularly members of the genus Desulfotomaculum are commonly found in the subsurface biosphere by culture based and molecular approaches. Due to their metabolic versatility and their ability to persist as endospores. Desulfotomaculum spp. are well-adapted for colonizing environments through a slow sedimentation process. Because of their ability to grow autotrophically (H2/CO2) and produce sulfide or acetate, these microorganisms may play key roles in deep lithoautotrophic microbial communities. Available data about Desulfotomaculum spp. and related species from studies carried out from deep freshwater lakes, marine sediments, oligotrophic and organic rich deep geological settings are discussed in this review. PMID:24348471

Aullo, Thomas; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Ollivier, Bernard; Magot, Michel

2013-01-01

77

Understanding the organization of the metabolism in Bacillus subtilis  

E-print Network

Understanding the organization of the metabolism in Bacillus subtilis Background information: Bacillus subtilis is the major model organism of the prokaryotic kingdom beside Escherichia coli. A wealth of information is available of physiology, metabolism and signaling pathways in that organism. B. subtilis

Rostock, Universität

78

Understanding the organization of metabolism in Bacillus subtilis  

E-print Network

Understanding the organization of metabolism in Bacillus subtilis Background information: Bacillus subtilis is the major model organism of the prokaryotic kingdom beside Escherichia coli. A wealth of information is available of physiology, metabolism and signaling pathways in that organism. B. subtilis

Rostock, Universität

79

Relevance of GC content to the conservation of DNA polymerase III/mismatch repair system in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of DNA replication is one of the driving forces of genome evolution. Bacterial DNA polymerase III, the primary complex of DNA replication, consists of PolC and DnaE. PolC is conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in the Firmicutes with low GC content, whereas DnaE is widely conserved in most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PolC contains two domains, the 3?-5?exonuclease domain and the polymerase domain, while DnaE only possesses the polymerase domain. Accordingly, DnaE does not have the proofreading function; in Escherichia coli, another enzyme DnaQ performs this function. In most bacteria, the fidelity of DNA replication is maintained by 3?-5? exonuclease and a mismatch repair (MMR) system. However, we found that most Actinobacteria (a group of Gram-positive bacteria with high GC content) appear to have lost the MMR system and chromosomes may be replicated by DnaE-type DNA polymerase III with DnaQ-like 3?-5? exonuclease. We tested the mutation bias of Bacillus subtilis, which belongs to the Firmicutes and found that the wild type strain is AT-biased while the mutS-deletant strain is remarkably GC-biased. If we presume that DnaE tends to make mistakes that increase GC content, these results can be explained by the mutS deletion (i.e., deletion of the MMR system). Thus, we propose that GC content is regulated by DNA polymerase and MMR system, and the absence of polC genes, which participate in the MMR system, may be the reason for the increase of GC content in Gram-positive bacteria such as Actinobacteria. PMID:24062730

Akashi, Motohiro; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

80

Novel Bacterial Lipoprotein Structures Conserved in Low-GC Content Gram-positive Bacteria Are Recognized by Toll-like Receptor 2*  

PubMed Central

Bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides inducing host innate immune responses are sensed by mammalian Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). These bacterial lipoproteins are structurally divided into two groups, diacylated or triacylated lipoproteins, by the absence or presence of an amide-linked fatty acid. The presence of diacylated lipoproteins has been predicted in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas based on the absence of one modification enzyme in their genomes; however, we recently determined triacylated structures in low-GC Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, raising questions about the actual lipoprotein structure in other low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria. Here, through intensive MS analyses, we identified a novel and unique bacterial lipoprotein structure containing an N-acyl-S-monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine (named the lyso structure) from low-GC Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Two of the purified native lyso-form lipoproteins induced proinflammatory cytokine production from mice macrophages in a TLR2-dependent and TLR1-independent manner but with a different dependence on TLR6. Additionally, two other new lipoprotein structures were identified. One is the “N-acetyl” lipoprotein structure containing N-acetyl-S-diacyl-glyceryl-cysteine, which was found in five Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis. The N-acetyl lipoproteins induced the proinflammatory cytokines through the TLR2/6 heterodimer. The other was identified in a mycoplasma strain and is an unusual diacyl lipoprotein structure containing two amino acids before the lipid-modified cysteine residue. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of novel TLR2-stimulating lyso and N-acetyl forms of lipoproteins that are conserved in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and provide clear evidence for the presence of yet to be identified key enzymes involved in the bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis. PMID:22303020

Kurokawa, Kenji; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Ichikawa, Rie; Masuda, Akiko; Kim, Min-Su; Lee, Hanna; Chae, Jun-Ho; Shimizu, Takashi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Koichi; Akira, Shizuo; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Lee, Bok Luel

2012-01-01

81

Characterization of a pyridine-degrading branched Gram-positive bacterium isolated from the anoxic zone of an oil shale column  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the anoxic zone of an oil shale leachate column three pyridine-degrading bacterial strains were isolated. Two strains were Gram-negative facultative anaerobic rods and one strain was a branched Gram-positive bacterium. The branched Gram-positive strain had the best pyridine-degrading ability. This organism was aerobic, non-motile, catalase positive, oxidase negative, and had no flagellum. The G+C content of the DNA was

Sung-Taik Lee; Seung-Bong Lee; Yong-Ha Park

1991-01-01

82

Transcriptional profiling of murine organ genes in response to infection with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis is the Gram-positive, spore-forming etiological agent of anthrax, an affliction studied because of its importance as a potential bioweapon. Although in vitro transcriptional responses of macrophages to either spore or anthrax toxins have been previously reported, little is known regarding the impact of infection on gene expression in host tissues. We infected Swiss-Webster mice intranasally with 5 LD50

Scott T. Moen; Linsey A. Yeager; William S. Lawrence; Cindy Ponce; Cristi L. Galindo; Harold R. Garner; Wallace B. Baze; Giovanni Suarez; Johnny W. Peterson; Ashok K. Chopra

2008-01-01

83

Bacillus subtilis as cell factory for pharmaceutical proteins: a biotechnological approach to optimize the host organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive soil bacterium that secretes numerous enzymes to degrade a variety of substrates, enabling the bacterium to survive in a continuously changing environment. These enzymes are produced commercially and this production represents about 60% of the industrial-enzyme market. Unfortunately, the secretion of heterologous proteins, originating from Gram-negative bacteria or from eukaryotes, is often severely hampered.

Lidia Westers; Helga Westers; Wim J. Quax

2004-01-01

84

Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals. Extracellular cellulases produced by fungi are commercially developed for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation by appropriate biocatalysts in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial biocatalysts, SSF of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity leading to higher than required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial biocatalysts whose growth and fermentation requirements match the optimum conditions for commercial fungal cellulase activity (pH 5.0 and 50 deg. C). These isolates fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to L(+)-lactic acid. Xylose was metabolized through the pentose-phosphate pathway by these organisms as evidenced by the fermentation profile and analysis of the fermentation products of 13C1-xylose by NMR. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, 13C-lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products. All three strains fermented crystalline cellulose to lactic acid with the addition of fungal cellulase (Spezyme CE) (SSF) at an optimum of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. These isolates also fermented cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate simultaneously. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these isolates cluster with Bacillus coagulans although B. coagulans type strain, ATCC 7050, failed to utilize xylose as a carbon source. For successful production of ethanol from pyruvate, both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AHD) need to be produced at optimal levels in these biocatalysts. A plasmid containing the S. ventriculi pdc gene and the adh gene from geobacillus stearothermophilus was constructed using plasmid pWH1520 that was successfully used for expression of pdc in B. megaterium. The resulting portable ethanol (PET) plasmid, pJAM423, was transformed into B. megaterium. After xylose induction, a significant fraction of cell cytoplasm was composed of the S. ventriculi PDC and G. stearothermophilus ADH proteins. In preliminary experiments, the amount of ethanol produced by b. megaterium with plasmid pJAM423 was about twice (20 mM) of the bacterium without the plasmid. These results show that the PET operon is functional in B. megaterium but high level ethanol production needs further genetic and metabolic engineering. A genetic transfer system for the second generation biocatalysts needs to be developed for transferring the plasmid pJAM423 and its derivatives for engineering these organisms for ethanol production from biomass derived sugars and cellulose to ethanol. One of the new biocatalysts, strain P4-102B was found to be transformable with plasmids and the method for introducing plasmid pJAM423 into this strain and expression of the encoded DNA is being optimized. These new second generation biocatalysts have the potential to reduce the cost of SSF by minimizing the amount of fungal cellulases, a significant cost component in the use of biomass as a renewable resource for production of fuels and chemicals.

Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

2003-12-01

85

The laboratory identification of gram-positive anaerobic cocci.  

PubMed

A collection of 256 clinical strains and 40 reference strains of gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) was studied, to characterise the recognised species more fully and to define groups of strains which might correspond to previously undescribed species. The methods used were: gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) for the detection of volatile fatty acids (VFAs); determination of the pre-formed enzyme profile with a commercially available kit, ATB 32A; microscopic appearance; colonial morphology; and antibiotic sensitivity tests. Strains were placed in one of five VFA groups according to their GLC profile; 96% of strains were further assigned to 12 groups by their enzyme profile. There was less than 99% agreement between the two methods. Of 111 clinical strains in the VFA-negative group, 110 gave one of three distinct enzyme profiles corresponding to Peptostreptococcus magnus, P. micros and P. heliotrinreducens. The assignment of strains to groups based on their microscopic appearance and colonial morphology agreed well with groupings according to enzyme profile. Identification of butyrate-producing GPAC was unsatisfactory because it relied heavily on the enzyme profile; testing for indole production was of limited discriminative value. Most strains of P. asaccharolyticus and P. indolicus were very similar in enzyme profile, microscopic appearance and colonial morphology, but a sub-group of P. asaccharolyticus could be distinguished. A further indole-positive group corresponding to Hare group III was also noted. Strains of P. prevotii and P. tetradius were very similar, but easily distinguished from other butyrate-producing GPAC. However, 45% of the butyrate-producing cocci could not be assigned to recognised species; most of these were assigned to one of two new groups, the ADH group and the bGAL group, by their enzyme profile, microscopic appearance and smell. Four strains that produced a terminal VFA peak of isovaleric acid formed a new group designated 'ivoricus'. Reliable features for the identification of P. anaerobius were GLC (all GPAC that produced isocaproic acid were identified as P. anaerobius), enzyme profile and sensitivity to SPS. Two clinical strains that produced caproci acid were identified as Hare group VIII; they were distinguished from Peptococcus niger by their enzyme profile and colonial morphology. A phenotypic classification based on GLC and enzyme profile is presented, with a method for the identification of most strains of GPAC within 48 h of primary isolation. PMID:2030504

Murdoch, D A; Mitchelmore, I J

1991-05-01

86

Gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial toxins in sepsis: a brief review.  

PubMed

Bacterial sepsis is a major cause of fatality worldwide. Sepsis is a multi-step process that involves an uncontrolled inflammatory response by the host cells that may result in multi organ failure and death. Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria play a major role in causing sepsis. These bacteria produce a range of virulence factors that enable them to escape the immune defenses and disseminate to remote organs, and toxins that interact with host cells via specific receptors on the cell surface and trigger a dysregulated immune response. Over the past decade, our understanding of toxins has markedly improved, allowing for new therapeutic strategies to be developed. This review summarizes some of these toxins and their role in sepsis. PMID:24193365

Ramachandran, Girish

2014-01-01

87

MyD88Dependent Signaling Contributes to Protection following Bacillus anthracis Spore Challenge of Mice: Implications for Toll-Like Receptor Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, gram-positive organism that is the causative agent of the disease anthrax. Recognition of Bacillus anthracis by the host innate immune system likely plays a key protective role following infection. In the present study, we examined the role of TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 in the response to B. anthracis. Heat-killed Bacillus anthracis stimulated TLR2, but not

Molly A. Hughes; Candace S. Green; Lisa Lowchyj; Gloria M. Lee; Vanessa K. Grippe; Michael F. Smith; L.-Y. Huang; E. T. Harvill; T. J. Merkel

2005-01-01

88

Systems-wide temporal proteomic profiling in glucose-starved Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional genomics of the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis reveals valuable insights into basic concepts of cell physiology. In this study, we monitor temporal changes in the proteome, transcriptome and extracellular metabolome of B. subtilis caused by glucose starvation. For proteomic profiling, a combination of in vivo metabolic labelling and shotgun mass spectrometric analysis was carried out for five different

Andreas Otto; Jörg Bernhardt; Hanna Meyer; Marc Schaffer; Florian-A. Herbst; Juliane Siebourg; Ulrike Mäder; Michael Lalk; Michael Hecker; Dörte Becher

2010-01-01

89

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus bombysepticus, a Pathogen Leading to Bombyx mori Black Chest Septicemia  

PubMed Central

Bacillus bombysepticus is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium. Here, we announce the first complete genome sequence of this organism isolated from the cadavers of silkworm larvae that had been sick. The genome contains a single circular chromosome and a circular plasmid. Analyses of the B. bombysepticus genome will provide insights into its pathomechanisms and biology. PMID:24831136

Cheng, Tingcai; Lin, Ping; Jin, Shengkai; Wu, Yuqian; Fu, Bohua; Long, Renwen; Liu, Duolian; Guo, Youbing; Peng, Li

2014-01-01

90

[Isolation of Gram-positive bacteria from raw milk with antimicrobial residues].  

PubMed

Two hundred samples of raw milk were collected at the receiving plants located in three areas of high milk production in Zulia state, Venezuela. The CTT test and trial disk were used in order to detect the presence of antimicrobials. The positive samples were inoculated in tripticase soy broth, human blood agar and manitol salt agar in order to isolate Gram-positive bacteria. The identification of species was performed through biochemical tests. It was found that 45 samples (22.5%) of analyzed milk contained antimicrobials, and bacterial growth was obtained in 35 of them. 100 strains were isolated namely: 44 Staphylococcus, 19 Streptococcus, 17 Enterococcus, 9 Bacillus, 4 Micrococcus, 4 Corynebacterium and 3 Lactococcus. The most frequently isolated specie was S. aureus, the main producing agent of bovine mastitis in Zulia state, a microorganism frequently associated in the country to food-borne intoxications, associated to cheese processed from raw milk. It is recommended to apply control programs for the use of antibiotics. PMID:12214550

Faría Reyes, José; García Urdaneta, Aleida; Izquierdo Corser, Pedro; Allara Cagnasso, María; Valero Leal, Kutchynskaya

2002-03-01

91

Genetic features of circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

This review highlights the main genetic features of circular bacteriocins, which require the co-ordinated expression of several genetic determinants. In general terms, it has been demonstrated that the expression of such structural genes must be combined with the activity of proteins involved in maturation (cleavage/circularization) and secretion outside the cell via different transporter systems, as well as multifaceted immunity mechanisms essential to ensuring the bacteria's self-protection against such strong inhibitors. Several circular antibacterial peptides produced by Gram-positive bacteria have been described to date, including enterocin AS-48, from Enterococcus faecalis S-48 (the first one characterized), gassericin A, from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, and a similar one, reutericin 6, from Lactobacillus reuteri LA6, butyrivibriocin AR10, from the ruminal anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens AR10, uberolysin, from Streptococcus uberis, circularin A, from Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC 25752, and subtilosin A, from Bacillus subtilis. We summarize here the progress made in the understanding of their principal genetic features over the last few years, during which the functional roles of circular proteins with wide biological activity have become clearer. PMID:18034824

Maqueda, Mercedes; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Fernández, Matilde; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

2008-01-01

92

Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi. PMID:23095488

Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

2014-10-01

93

Homologs of the Rml Enzymes from Salmonella enterica Are Responsible for dTDP -L-Rhamnose Biosynthesis in the Gram-Positive Thermophile Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus DSM 10155  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycan chains of the surface layer (S-layer) glycoprotein from the gram-positive, thermophilic bacterium Aneurinibacillus (formerly Bacillus) thermoaerophilus strain DSM 10155 are composed of L-rhamnose- and D-glycero-D-manno-heptose-containing disaccharide repeating units which are linked to the S-layer polypeptide via core structures that have variable lengths and novel O-glycosidic linkages. In this work we investigated the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of

Michael Graninger; Bernd Kneidinger; Katharina Bruno; Andrea Scheberl; Paul Messner

2002-01-01

94

Antibiotics for gram-positive bacterial infection: vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, oxazolidinones, daptomycin, telavancin, and ceftaroline.  

PubMed

An overview of the mechanism of action, dosing, clinical indications, and toxicities of the glycopeptide vancomycin is provided. The emerging gram-positive bacterial resistance to antimicrobials and its mechanisms are reviewed. Strategies to control this emergence of resistance are expected to be proposed. Newer antimicrobial agents that have activity against vancomycin-resistant organisms are now available and play a critical role in the treatment of life-threatening infections. PMID:21679789

Nailor, Michael D; Sobel, Jack D

2011-07-01

95

Comparative in vitro activities of L-695,256, a novel carbapenem, against gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of a prototype 2-aryl carbapenem, L-695,256, against gram-positive bacteria was examined. All streptococci and oxacillin-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci were inhibited at concentrations of < or = 0.125, < or = 0.125, and 4 micrograms/ml, respectively. The activity of L-695,256 was superior to that of imipenem against other organisms intrinsically resistant to beta-lactams. PMID:7786011

Malanoski, G; Collins, L; Eliopoulos, C T; Moellering, R C; Eliopoulos, G M

1995-01-01

96

Distribution of multi-resistant Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteria in the hospital inanimate environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively studied the difference in detection rates of multi-resistant Gram-positive and multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in the inanimate environment of patients harbouring these organisms. Up to 20 different locations around 190 patients were surveyed. Fifty-four patients were infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and 136 with multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The environmental detection rate for

S. W Lemmen; H Häfner; D Zolldann; S Stanzel; R Lütticken

2004-01-01

97

Aspects of eukaryotic-like signaling in Gram-positive cocci: a focus on virulence  

PubMed Central

Living organisms adapt to the dynamic external environment for their survival. Environmental adaptation in prokaryotes is thought to be primarily accomplished by signaling events mediated by two-component systems, consisting of histidine kinases and response regulators. However, eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases (STKs) have recently been described to regulate growth, antibiotic resistance and virulence of pathogenic bacteria. This article summarizes the role of STKs and their cognate phosphatases (STPs) in Gram-positive cocci that cause invasive infections in humans. Given that a large number of inhibitors to eukaryotic STKs are approved for use in humans, understanding how serine/threonine phosphorylation regulates virulence and antibiotic resistance will be beneficial for the development of novel therapeutic strategies against bacterial infections. PMID:21797690

Burnside, Kellie; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

2011-01-01

98

Clinical experience with linezolid in the treatment of resistant gram-positive infections.  

PubMed Central

This study presents our clinical experience with linezolid in 19 patients with serious resistant gram-positive infections enrolled as part of the compassionate study. In this prospective, non-randomized, noncomparative study, 19 patients were enrolled as part of the National Compassionate Study Protocol conducted by Pharmacia-Upjohn. At the time of this writing, these patients had not been published in the literature. All of the patients had to have documented evidence of serious gram-positive infections in normally sterile sites and should have been unable to tolerate available antimicrobial therapy or be unresponsive to available drugs. Clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were obtained. Patients were followed both short-term and long-term after completion of therapy. Nineteen patients were enrolled: 13 females and 6 males. The average age was 63 years. The average length of therapy with linezolid was 22 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was treated in eight patients, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) in two patients, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in eight patients, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in two patients. Co-infecting organisms include Enterococcus species colonization in six patients, Pseudomonas species in one patient, Serratia marcenens in one patient, and Candida albicans in one patient. Sterile sites that were infected included bone and joint (wounds and septic joints) in six patients, gastrointestinal system (hepatobiliary, liver abscess, Crohn's) in five patients, genitourinary (kidney and urine) in two patients, blood in five patients, respiratory in one patient, and aortic valve in 1 patient. Linezolid was given at 600 mg IV every 12 hours with a mean length of therapy of 22 days. Surgical drainage was used in combination with linezolid in 11 of the patients. Seventy nine percent of these patients achieved clinical and microbiologic cure, and none of the deaths reported in this series were related to the drug. Adverse events included skin rash in one patient, mild bone marrow suppression in two patients, and mild elevation in liver function tests in two patients. No life-threatening adverse events were noted. It appears that linezolid, along with surgical intervention (when necessary), appears to be an effective treatment option for resistant gram-positive infections. Long-term studies evaluating the possible resistance rates are necessary. PMID:11688919

Antony, S. J.; Diaz-Vasquez, E.; Stratton, C.

2001-01-01

99

Mechanism of Action of Recombinant Acc-Royalisin from Royal Jelly of Asian Honeybee against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of royalisin, an antimicrobial peptide from the royal jelly produced by honeybees, has been addressed extensively. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a recombinant royalisin, RAcc-royalisin from the royal jelly of Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana, was expressed by fusing with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli BL21, isolated and purified. The agar dilution assays with inhibition zone showed that RAcc-royalisin, similar to nisin, inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin was associated with its concentration, and was weakened by heat treatment ranging from 55°C to 85°C for 15 min. Both RAcc-royalisin and nisin exhibited the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 62.5 µg/ml, 125 µg/ml, and 250 µg/ml against Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus flavus and Staphyloccocus aureus in the microplate assay, respectively. However, RAcc-royalisin did not show antimicrobial activity against tested Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin agrees well with the decrease in bacterial cell hydrophobicity, the leakage of 260-nm absorbing materials, and the observation by transmission electron microscopy, all indicating that RAcc-royalisin induced the disruption and dysfunction of cell walls and membranes. This is the first report detailing the antibacterial mechanism of royalisin against Gram-positive bacteria, and provides insight into the application of recombinant royalisin in food and pharmaceutical industries as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:23056609

Shen, Lirong; Liu, Dandan; Li, Meilu; Jin, Feng; Din, Meihui; Parnell, Laurence D.; Lai, Chao-Qiang

2012-01-01

100

Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods and results Nanosized particles of three metal oxides (ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3) were synthesized by a sol–gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. The particle sizes were observed to be 18, 22, and 28 nm for ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3, respectively. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Conclusion Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. The order of antibacterial activity was demonstrated to be the following: ZnO > CuO > Fe2O3. PMID:23233805

Azam, Ameer; Ahmed, Arham S; Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad S; Habib, Sami S; Memic, Adnan

2012-01-01

101

Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50??L leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3?mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0?mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Yadav, Anand

2013-01-01

102

Caenorhabditis elegans Immune Conditioning with the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain NCFM Enhances Gram-Positive Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

Although the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to microbial infections is well established, very little is known about the effects of health-promoting probiotic bacteria on evolutionarily conserved C. elegans host responses. We found that the probiotic Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is not harmful to C. elegans and that L. acidophilus NCFM is unable to colonize the C. elegans intestine. Conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM significantly decreased the burden of a subsequent Enterococcus faecalis infection in the nematode intestine and prolonged the survival of nematodes exposed to pathogenic strains of E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Preexposure of nematodes to Bacillus subtilis did not provide any beneficial effects. Importantly, L. acidophilus NCFM activates key immune signaling pathways involved in C. elegans defenses against Gram-positive bacteria, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (via TIR-1 and PMK-1) and the ?-catenin signaling pathway (via BAR-1). Interestingly, conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM had a minimal effect on Gram-negative infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and had no or a negative effect on defense genes associated with Gram-negative pathogens or general stress. In conclusion, we describe a new system for the study of probiotic immune agents and our findings demonstrate that probiotic conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM modulates specific C. elegans immunity traits. PMID:22585961

2012-01-01

103

Low-Molecular-Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases of Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In gram-negative organisms, enzymes belonging to the low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP) family are involved in the regulation of important physiological functions, including stress resistance and synthesis of the polysaccharide capsule. LMPTPs have been identified also in gram-positive bacteria, but their functions in these organisms are presently unknown. We cloned two putative LMPTPs from Bacillus subtilis, YfkJ and YwlE, which

Lucia Musumeci; Cristina Bongiorni; Lutz Tautz; Robert A. Edwards; Andrei Osterman; Marta Perego; Tomas Mustelin; Nunzio Bottini

2005-01-01

104

Allofustis seminis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from pig semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of a routine examination of porcine semen specimens submitted by private artificial insemina- tion centres for bacteriological analysis, an unusual Gram- positive, rod-shaped organism was isolated. Most of the semen specimens from the artificial insemination centres contain bacterial species, the majority of which are environmental organisms such as Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. However, from

Matthew D. Collins; Robert Higgins; Serge Messier; Madeleine Fortin; Roger A. Hutson; Paul A. Lawson; Enevold Falsen

2003-01-01

105

Efficacy of telavancin, a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, in experimental models of Gram-positive infection.  

PubMed

Telavancin is a parenteral lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with a dual mechanism of action contributing to bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. It has been approved for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections due to susceptible Gram-positive bacteria and hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus when other alternatives are unsuitable. Telavancin has been demonstrated to be efficacious in multiple animal models of soft tissue, cardiac, systemic, lung, bone, brain and device-associated infections involving clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus, heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and daptomycin non-susceptible methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The AUC0-24h/MIC ratio is the primary pharmacodynamically-linked pharmacokinetic parameter. The preclinical data for telavancin supports further investigative clinical evaluation of its efficacy in additional serious infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25382700

Hegde, Sharath S; Janc, James W

2014-12-01

106

Granular Layer in the Periplasmic Space of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Fine Structures of Enterococcus gallinarum and Streptococcus gordonii Septa Revealed by Cryo-Electron Microscopy of Vitreous Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution structural information on optimally preserved bacterial cells can be obtained with cryo- electron microscopy of vitreous sections. With the help of this technique, the existence of a periplasmic space between the plasma membrane and the thick peptidoglycan layer of the gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus was recently shown. This raises questions about the mode of polymerization of

B. Zuber; M. Haenni; T. Ribeiro; K. Minnig; F. Lopes; P. Moreillon; J. Dubochet

2006-01-01

107

A Comparative Genome Analysis Identifies Distinct Sorting Pathways in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface proteins in gram-positive bacteria are frequently required for virulence, and many are attached to the cell wall by sortase enzymes. Bacteria frequently encode more than one sortase enzyme and an even larger number of potential sortase substrates that possess an LPXTG-type cell wall sorting signal. In order to elucidate the sorting pathways present in gram-positive bacteria, we performed a

David Comfort; Robert T. Clubb

2004-01-01

108

Antibiotic-Resistant Gram-Positive Cocci: Implications for Surgical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Gram-positive infections are causing more serious infections than ever before in surgical patients, who are increasingly\\u000a aged, ill, and debilitated. Invasive procedures disrupt natural barriers to bacterial invasion, and indwelling catheters may\\u000a act as conduits for infection. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics selects for the emergence of resistant pathogens. Potential\\u000a sites of nosocomial gram-positive infections include the urinary tract,

Philip S. Barie

1998-01-01

109

In vitro activity of biapenem against clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of biapenem, a new carbapenem previously designated L-627, was compared with those of imipenem and several other antimicrobial agents against 771 clinical bacterial isolates. Against gram-positive organisms, biapenem was found to be approximately as active as imipenem, inhibiting 90% of isolates of most species at concentrations within one dilution of the MIC of imipenem for 90% of the isolates. Against gram-negative organisms and Bacteroides fragilis, biapenem was at least as active as and often more active than imipenem, with MICs for 90% of the isolates two- to eightfold lower than those of imipenem. PMID:8239623

Malanoski, G J; Collins, L; Wennersten, C; Moellering, R C; Eliopoulos, G M

1993-01-01

110

Transport Capabilities of Eleven Gram-positive Bacteria: Comparative Genomic Analyses  

PubMed Central

The genomes of eleven Gram-positive bacteria that are important for human health and the food industry, nine low G+C lactic acid bacteria and two high G+C Gram-positive organisms, were analyzed for their complement of genes encoding transport proteins. Thirteen to eighteen percent of their genes encode transport proteins, larger percentages than observed for most other bacteria. All of these bacteria possess channel proteins, some of which probably function to relieve osmotic stress. Amino acid uptake systems predominate over sugar and peptide cation symporters, and of the sugar uptake porters, those specific for oligosaccharides and glycosides often outnumber those for free sugars. About 10% of the total transport proteins are constituents of putative multidrug efflux pumps with Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS)-type pumps (55%) being more prevalent than ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type pumps (33%), which, however, usually greatly outnumber all other types. An exception to this generalization is Streptococcus thermophilus with 54% of its drug efflux pumps belonging to the ABC superfamily and 23% belonging each to the Multidrug/Oligosaccharide/Polysaccharide (MOP) superfamily and the MFS. These bacteria also display peptide efflux pumps that may function in intercellular signalling, and macromolecular efflux pumps, many of predictable specificities. Most of the bacteria analyzed have no pmf-coupled or transmembrane flow electron carriers. The one exception is Brevibacterium linens, which in addition to these carriers, also has transporters of several families not represented in the other ten bacteria examined. Comparisons with the genomes of organisms from other bacterial kingdoms revealed that lactic acid bacteria possess distinctive proportions of recognized transporter types (e.g., more porters specific for glycosides than reducing sugars). Some homologues of transporters identified had previously been identified only in Gram-negative bacteria or in eukaryotes. Our studies reveal unique characteristics of the lactic acid bacteria such as the universal presence of genes encoding mechanosensitive channels, competence systems and large numbers of sugar transporters of the phosphotransferase system. The analyses lead to important physiological predictions regarding the preferred signalling and metabolic activities of these industrially important bacteria. PMID:17490609

Lorca, Graciela L.; Barabote, Ravi D.; Zlotopolski, Vladimir; Tran, Can; Winnen, Brit; Hvorup, Rikki N.; Stonestrom, Aaron J.; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Huang, Li-Wen; Kim, David S.; Saier, Milton H.

2007-01-01

111

Genomics of Bacillus Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

112

Transformation of the gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis by electroporation with plasmids from the IncP incompatibility group.  

PubMed Central

We report the transformation of a gram-positive bacterium, Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis, with several plasmids in the IncP incompatibility group from gram-negative bacteria. Our results suggest that IncP plasmids may be transferable to other gram-positive organisms. After optimizing electroporation parameters, we obtained a maximum of 2 x 10(5) transformants per microgram of DNA. The availability of a transformation system for this bacteria will facilitate its use in indirectly expressing beneficial traits in plants. PMID:1624442

Metzler, M C; Zhang, Y P; Chen, T A

1992-01-01

113

Development of a Flow Chart for Identification of Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci in the Clinical Laboratory?  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms that are isolated from clinical specimens more often than any group of anaerobic bacteria except Bacteroides species, yet many strains are still difficult or impossible to identify in the diagnostic laboratory. In this study, a total of 124 strains, including 13 reference strains of GPAC species and 111 isolates that had been recovered from clinical specimens previously and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were subjected to biochemical characterization. Based on the results, a short biochemical scheme that involves the minimum essential biochemical tests for accurate identification of clinically important GPAC was developed. PMID:17135439

Song, Yuli; Liu, Chengxu; Finegold, Sydney M.

2007-01-01

114

Gram Positive Bacterial Superantigen Outside-In Signaling Causes Toxic Shock Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci) are gram-positive pathogens capable of producing a variety of bacterial exotoxins known as superantigens. Superantigens interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells to induce T cell proliferation and massive cytokine production, which leads to fever, rash, capillary leak, and subsequent hypotension, the major symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Both S. aureus and group A streptococci colonize mucosal surfaces, including the anterior nares and vagina for S. aureus, and the oropharynx and less commonly the vagina for group A streptococci. However, due to their abilities to secrete a variety of virulence factors, the organisms can also cause illnesses from the mucosa. This review provides an updated discussion of the biochemical and structural features of one group of secreted virulence factors, the staphylococcal and group A streptococcal superantigens, and their abilities to cause toxic shock syndrome from a mucosal surface. The main focus of this review, however, is the abilities of superantigens to induce cytokines and chemokines from epithelial cells, which has been linked to a dodecapeptide region that is relatively conserved among all superantigens and is distinct from the binding sites required for interactions with APCs and T cells. This phenomenon, termed outside-in signaling, acts to recruit adaptive immune cells to the submucosa, where the superantigens can then interact with those cells to initiate the final cytokine cascades that lead to toxic shock syndrome. PMID:21535475

Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

2011-01-01

115

Rose Bengal-decorated silica nanoparticles as photosensitizers for inactivation of gram-positive bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of photosensitizer, made from Rose Bengal (RB)-decorated silica (SiO2-NH2-RB) nanoparticles, was developed to inactivate gram-positive bacteria, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with high efficiency through photodynamic action. The nanoparticles were characterized microscopically and spectroscopically to confirm their structures. The characterization of singlet oxygen generated by RB, both free and immobilized on a nanoparticle surface, was performed in the presence of anthracene-9,10-dipropionic acid. The capability of SiO2-NH2-RB nanoparticles to inactivate bacteria was tested in vitro on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that RB-decorated silica nanoparticles can inactivate MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (both gram-positive) very effectively (up to eight-orders-of-magnitude reduction). Photosensitizers of such design should have good potential as antibacterial agents through a photodynamic mechanism.

Guo, Yanyan; Rogelj, Snezna; Zhang, Peng

2010-02-01

116

Turicibacter sanguinis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium.  

PubMed

An unknown, strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium (strain MOL361T) was isolated from a blood culture of a febrile patient with acute appendicitis and characterized using phenotypic and molecular methods. Fatty acid analysis and biochemical examination indicated that the isolate most closely resembles members of the Gram-positive bacteria with low DNA G+C content. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed a relatively high overall similarity (97%) to an uncultured bacterium, but these two strains both exhibit low (<87%) 16S rDNA similarity to other bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis with different treeing methods showed that this strain forms a novel line of descent within the Gram-positive bacteria with low G+C content. Strain MOL361T is described as the type strain of a novel species within a new genus, Turicibacter sanguinis gen. nov., sp. nov. PMID:12148638

Bosshard, Philipp P; Zbinden, Reinhard; Altwegg, Martin

2002-07-01

117

Quorum sensing in gram-positive bacteria: assay protocols for staphylococcal agr and enterococcal fsr systems.  

PubMed

A thiolactone/lactone peptide-mediated quorum sensing (QS) system is commonly employed in gram-positive bacteria to control the expression of a variety of phenotypes, including the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation. Here, we describe assay protocols for the well-studied QS systems (agr and fsr) of two representative gram-positive pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. These convenient assay systems are useful for the screening of QS inhibitors as well as for basic research to address the mechanism of these QS systems. PMID:24664824

Shojima, Akane; Nakayama, Jiro

2014-01-01

118

Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis are micro organisms found in soil. Normally, only their spores are found in soil. We  

E-print Network

Abstract Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis are micro organisms found in soil. Normally, only their spores are found in soil. We recently showed that, B. anthracis and B. cereus do not germinate in soil. Thus, how does B. cereus and B. anthracis continue their life cycle if they can not replicate in soil

Walker, Lawrence R.

119

Novel antibiotics targeting respiratory ATP synthesis in Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Emergence of drug-resistant bacteria represents a high, unmet medical need, and discovery of new antibacterials acting on new bacterial targets is strongly needed. ATP synthase has been validated as an antibacterial target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where its activity can be specifically blocked by the diarylquinoline TMC207. However, potency of TMC207 is restricted to mycobacteria with little or no effect on the growth of other Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we identify diarylquinolines with activity against key Gram-positive pathogens, significantly extending the antibacterial spectrum of the diarylquinoline class of drugs. These compounds inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus in planktonic state as well as in metabolically resting bacteria grown in a biofilm culture. Furthermore, time-kill experiments showed that the selected hits are rapidly bactericidal. Drug-resistant mutations were mapped to the ATP synthase enzyme, and biochemical analysis as well as drug-target interaction studies reveal ATP synthase as a target for these compounds. Moreover, knockdown of the ATP synthase expression strongly suppressed growth of S. aureus, revealing a crucial role of this target in bacterial growth and metabolism. Our data represent a proof of principle for using the diarylquinoline class of antibacterials in key Gram-positive pathogens. Our results suggest that broadening the antibacterial spectrum for this chemical class is possible without drifting off from the target. Development of the diarylquinolines class may represent a promising strategy for combating Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:22615276

Balemans, Wendy; Vranckx, Luc; Lounis, Nacer; Pop, Ovidiu; Guillemont, Jérôme; Vergauwen, Karen; Mol, Selena; Gilissen, Ron; Motte, Magali; Lançois, David; De Bolle, Miguel; Bonroy, Kristien; Lill, Holger; Andries, Koen; Bald, Dirk; Koul, Anil

2012-08-01

120

Small molecule inhibitor of lipoteichoic acid synthesis is an antibiotic for Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

The current epidemic of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria requires the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new therapeutics. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall polymer of Gram-positive bacteria, consists of 1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid. LTA synthase (LtaS) polymerizes polyglycerol-phosphate from phosphatidylglycerol, a reaction that is essential for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. We screened small molecule libraries for compounds inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus but not of Gram-negative bacteria. Compound 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] blocked phosphatidylglycerol binding to LtaS and inhibited LTA synthesis in S. aureus and in Escherichia coli expressing ltaS. Compound 1771 inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria and prolonged the survival of mice with lethal S. aureus challenge, validating LtaS as a target for the development of antibiotics. PMID:23401520

Richter, Stefan G.; Elli, Derek; Kim, Hwan Keun; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Sorg, Joseph A.; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

2013-01-01

121

Microarray-Based Detection of 90 Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disposable microarray was developed for detection of up to 90 antibiotic resistance genes in gram-positive bacteria by hybridization. Each antibiotic resistance gene is represented by two specific oligonucleotides chosen from consensus sequences of gene families, except for nine genes for which only one specific oligonucleotide could be developed. A total of 137 oligonucleotides (26 to 33 nucleotides in length

Vincent Perreten; Lorianne Vorlet-Fawer; Peter Slickers; Ralf Ehricht; Peter Kuhnert; Joachim Frey

2005-01-01

122

STUDIES ON RIFAMYCIN SV : IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GRAM-POSITIVE PATHOGENS  

E-print Network

characteristics on agar containing4p. 100 sheep red blood cells, by their CAMP reaction and by their inabilitySTUDIES ON RIFAMYCIN SV : IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GRAM-POSITIVE PATHOGENS OF BOVINE UDDER ORIGIN ; TIMBAI&dquo; PAI,I,ANZA and CARNITI, I96I). Studies using this anti- biotic in the treatment of bovine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Pyrrolidine bis-cyclic guanidines with antimicrobial activity against drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens  

E-print Network

and bactericidal activities against the important human pathogen methicillin-resis- tant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), and two Gram-negative bacterial species. At least 20 in the preeminent Gram-positive bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which is increasingly unresponsive

Nizet, Victor

124

Identification of Surprisingly Diverse Type IV Pili, across a Broad Range of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background In Gram-negative bacteria, type IV pili (TFP) have long been known to play important roles in such diverse biological phenomena as surface adhesion, motility, and DNA transfer, with significant consequences for pathogenicity. More recently it became apparent that Gram-positive bacteria also express type IV pili; however, little is known about the diversity and abundance of these structures in Gram-positives. Computational tools for automated identification of type IV pilins are not currently available. Results To assess TFP diversity in Gram-positive bacteria and facilitate pilin identification, we compiled a comprehensive list of putative Gram-positive pilins encoded by operons containing highly conserved pilus biosynthetic genes (pilB, pilC). A surprisingly large number of species were found to contain multiple TFP operons (pil, com and/or tad). The N-terminal sequences of predicted pilins were exploited to develop PilFind, a rule-based algorithm for genome-wide identification of otherwise poorly conserved type IV pilins in any species, regardless of their association with TFP biosynthetic operons (http://signalfind.org). Using PilFind to scan 53 Gram-positive genomes (encoding >187,000 proteins), we identified 286 candidate pilins, including 214 in operons containing TFP biosynthetic genes (TBG+ operons). Although trained on Gram-positive pilins, PilFind identified 55 of 58 manually curated Gram-negative pilins in TBG+ operons, as well as 53 additional pilin candidates in operons lacking biosynthetic genes in ten species (>38,000 proteins), including 27 of 29 experimentally verified pilins. False positive rates appear to be low, as PilFind predicted only four pilin candidates in eleven bacterial species (>13,000 proteins) lacking TFP biosynthetic genes. Conclusions We have shown that Gram-positive bacteria contain a highly diverse set of type IV pili. PilFind can be an invaluable tool to study bacterial cellular processes known to involve type IV pilus-like structures. Its use in combination with other currently available computational tools should improve the accuracy of predicting the subcellular localization of bacterial proteins. PMID:22216142

Roos, David S.; Pohlschroder, Mechthild

2011-01-01

125

ZAAPS International Surveillance Program (2007) for linezolid resistance: results from 5591 Gram-positive clinical isolates in 23 countries.  

PubMed

The 2007 ZAAPS Program reports the results from the 6th year of oxazolidinone (linezolid) resistance surveillance among Gram-positive pathogens from 23 nations. For 2007, a total of 5591 organisms were systematically sampled from Asia, Australia, Canada, Europe, and Latin America including Staphylococcus aureus (3000 isolates, 38.2% methicillin resistant), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, 716 isolates), enterococci (906 isolates), Streptococcus pneumoniae (452 isolates), viridans group streptococci (155 isolates), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (362 isolates). The overall linezolid MIC distribution (MIC(50) and MIC(90) at 1 and 2 microg/mL, respectively) was unchanged since 2002. At published linezolid breakpoints (, or = 2 microg/mL), all streptococci were susceptible; however, resistance was observed very rarely among S. aureus (0.03%), CoNS (0.28%), and the enterococci (0.11%, 0.55% intermediate). These oxazolidinone-nonsusceptible isolates occurred in Ireland, Italy, China, and Brazil (9 strains), and the rate was not increased since 2006. The detected mechanism of resistance was G2576 target mutations; no cfr-mediated patterns were observed. Clonal outbreaks with patient-to-patient dissemination were documented in 1 Italian site. Linezolid appears to retain excellent activity against monitored Gram-positive pathogens at a level of >99.8%. PMID:19500528

Jones, Ronald N; Kohno, Shigeru; Ono, Yasuo; Ross, James E; Yanagihara, Katsunori

2009-06-01

126

Reduction of Cr(VI) and bioaccumulation of chromium by gram positive and gram negative microorganisms not previously exposed to Cr-stress.  

PubMed

Resistance to Cr(VI) is usually associated with its cellular exclusion, precluding enrichment techniques for the isolation of organisms accumulating Cr(VI) via bioreduction to insoluble Cr(III). A technique was developed to screen for potential Cr(VI) reduction in approx. 2000 isolates from a coastal environment, based on the non-specific reduction of selenite and tellurite to Se0 and Te0, and reduction of tetrazolium blue to insoluble blue formazan. The most promising strains were further screened in liquid culture, giving three, which were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum and Pseudomonas synxantha, all of which reduced 100 microM Cr(VI) anaerobically, without growth. The respective removal of Cr(VI) was 90% and 80% by B. pumilus and E. aurantiacum after 48 h and 80% and by P. synxantha after 192 h. With the gram positive strains Cr(VI) promoted loss of flagella and, in the case of B. pumilus, lysis of some cells, but Cr was deposited as an exocellular precipitate which was identified as containing Cr and P using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDAX). This prompted the testing of Citrobacter sp. N14 (subsequently re-assigned by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and biochemical studies as a strain of Serratia) which bioprecipitates metal cation phosphates via enzymatically-liberated phosphate. This strain reduced Cr(VI) at a rate comparable to that of P. synxantha but Cr(III) was not bioprecipitated where La(III) was removed as LaPO4, even though a similar amount of phosphate was produced in the presence of Cr(III). Since B. pumilus removed most of the Cr(VI), with the formation of cell-bound CrPO4 implicated, this suggests that this strain could have future bioprocess potential. PMID:12164635

Pattanapipitpaisal, P; Mabbett, A N; Finlay, J A; Beswick, A J; Paterson-Beedle, M; Essa, A; Wright, J; Tolley, M R; Badar, U; Ahmed, N; Hobman, J L; Brown, N L; Macaskie, L E

2002-07-01

127

Alternating electric fields combined with activated carbon for disinfection of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in fluidized bed electrode system.  

PubMed

Strong electric fields for disinfection of wastewaters have been employed already for several decades. An innovative approach combining low strength (7 V/cm) alternating electric fields with a granular activated carbon fluidized bed electrode (FBE) for disinfection was presented recently. For disinfection performance of FBE several pure microbial cultures were tested: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis as representatives from Gram positive bacteria and Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas luteola, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli YMc10 as representatives from Gram negative bacteria. The alternating electric field amplitude and shape were kept constant. Only the effect of alternating electric field frequency on disinfection performance was investigated. From the bacteria tested, the Gram negative strains were more susceptible and the Gram positive microorganisms were more resistant to FBE disinfection. The collected data indicate that the efficiency of disinfection is frequency and strain dependent. During 6 h of disinfection, the decrease above 2 Log units was achieved with P. luteola and E. coli at 10 kHz and at dual frequency shift keying (FSK) modulated signal with frequencies of 10 kHz and 140 kHz. FBE technology appears to offer a new way for selective bacterial disinfection, however further optimizations are needed on treatment duration, and energy input, to improve effectiveness. PMID:24012021

Racyte, Justina; Bernard, Séverine; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H; Yntema, Doekle R; Bruning, Harry; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

2013-10-15

128

Effects of repeated gram-positive and gram-negative clinical mastitis episodes on milk yield loss in Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of recurrent episodes of gram-positive and gram-negative cases of clinical mastitis (CM) on milk production in Holstein dairy cows. We were interested in the severity of repeated cases in general, but also in the severity of the host response as judged by milk production loss when a previous case was caused by a similar or different microorganism. The results were based on data from 7,721 primiparous lactations and 13,566 multiparous lactations in 7 large dairy herds in New York State. The distribution of organisms in the CM cases showed 28.5% gram-positive cases, 31.8% gram-negative cases, 15.0% others, and 24.8% with no organism identified. Mixed models, with a random herd effect and an autoregressive covariance structure to account for repeated measurements, were used to quantify the effect of repeated CM and several other control variables (parity, week of lactation, other diseases) on milk yield. Our data indicated that repeated CM cases showed a very similar milk loss compared with the first case. No reduction of severity was present with increasing count of the CM case. Gram-negative cases had more severe milk loss compared with gram-positive and other cases irrespective of the count of the case in lactation. Milk loss in multipara (primipara) due to gram-negative CM was approximately 304 kg (228 kg) in the 50 d following CM. This loss was approximately 128 kg (133 kg) for gram-positive cases and 92 kg (112 kg) for other cases. The severity of a second case of gram-negative CM was not reduced by previous cases of gram-negative CM in multipara and only slightly less severe in a similar scenario in primipara cows. Similarly, a previous gram-positive case did not reduce severity of a second or third gram-positive case. Hence, our data do not support that immunological memory of previous exposure to an organism in the same generic class provides protection for a next case of CM with an organism in the same class. PMID:19528587

Schukken, Y H; Hertl, J; Bar, D; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Rauch, B J; Santisteban, C; Schulte, H F; Tauer, L; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

2009-07-01

129

Silver-doped manganese dioxide and trioxide nanoparticles inhibit both gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Palladium, ruthenium and silver-doped MnO2 and silver doped Mn2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation technique. SEM-TEM analysis revealed the nano-size of these synthesized samples. XPS data illustrates that Mn is present in 4+ and 3+ oxidation states in MnO2 and Mn2O3 respectively. Thermal analysis gave significant evidence for the phase changes with increasing temperature. Antibacterial activity of these synthesized nanoparticles on three Gram positive bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Streptococcus epidermis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and three Gram negative cultures (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella abony NCTC 6017 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 1003) was investigated using a disc diffusion method and live/dead assay. Only Ag-doped MnO2 and Ag-doped Mn2O3 nanoparticles showed antibacterial property against all six-test bacteria but Ag-doped MnO2 was found to be more effective than Ag-doped Mn2O3. PMID:24140741

Kunkalekar, R K; Prabhu, M S; Naik, M M; Salker, A V

2014-01-01

130

Efficient enzymatic systems for synthesis of novel ?-mangostin glycosides exhibiting antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Two enzymatic systems were developed for the efficient synthesis of glycoside products of ?-mangostin, a natural xanthonoid exhibiting anti-oxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In these systems, one-pot reactions for the synthesis of UDP-?-D-glucose and UDP-?-D-2-deoxyglucose were modified and combined with a glycosyltransferase (GT) from Bacillus licheniformis DSM-13 to afford C-3 and C-6 position modified glucose and 2-deoxyglucose conjugated novel ?-mangostin derivatives. ?-Mangostin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 6-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 3,6-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 3-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside, ?-mangostin 6-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside, and ?-mangostin 3,6-di-O-?-D-2-deoxyglucopyranoside were successfully produced in practical quantities and characterized by high-resolution quadruple time-of-flight electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-QTOF ESI/MS), (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses. In excess of the substrate, the maximum productions of three ?-mangostin glucopyranosides (4.8 mg/mL, 86.5 % overall conversion of ?-mangostin) and three ?-mangostin 2-deoxyglucopyronosides (4.0 mg/mL, 79 % overall conversion of ?-mangostin) were achieved at 4-h incubation period. All the ?-mangostin glycosides exhibited improved water solubility, and their antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus was drastically enhanced by the glucosylation at C-3 position. In this study, diverse glycosylated ?-mangostin were produced in significant quantities by using inexpensive starting materials and recycling co-factors within a reaction vessel without use of expensive NDP-sugars in the glycosylation reactions. PMID:25038930

Le, Tuoi Thi; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Gurung, Rit Bahadur; Dhakal, Dipesh; Sohng, Jae Kyung

2014-10-01

131

Susceptibilities of 428 gram-positive and -negative anaerobic bacteria to Bay y3118 compared with their susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoxitin.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of 428 gram-negative and gram-positive anaerobes (including selected cefoxitin-resistant strains) to Bay y3118 (a new fluoroquinolone), ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin, piperacillin, and piperacillin-tazobactam were tested. Organisms comprised 115 Bacteroides fragilis group, 116 non-B. fragilis Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp., 40 fusobacteria, 58 peptostreptococci, 48 gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, and 51 clostridia. beta-Lactamase production was demonstrated in 87% of the gram-negative rods but in none of the gram-positive organisms. Overall, Bay y3118 was the most active agent, with all organisms inhibited at an MIC of < or = 2.0 micrograms/ml (MICs for 50% [MIC50] and 90% [MIC90] of strains tested, 0.125 and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively). By contrast, ciprofloxacin was much less active, with only 42% of strains susceptible at a breakpoint of 2.0 micrograms/ml (MIC50, 4.0 micrograms/ml; MIC90, 16.0 micrograms/ml). Metronidazole was active against all gram-negative rods, but 7% of peptostreptococci, 83% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, and 4% of non-Clostridium perfringens, non-Clostridium difficile clostridia were resistant to this agent (MICs, > 16.0 micrograms/ml). Clindamycin was active against 94% of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp., 91% of peptostreptococci, and 100% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, but was active against only 70% of fusobacteria and 53% of clostridia. Cefoxitin was active against > or = 90% of all groups except the B. fragilis group and non-Propionibacterium acnes gram-positive non-spore-forming rods (both 85%) and C. difficile (20%). Significant enhancement of piperacillin by tazobactam was seen in all beta-lactamase-positive strains (99% susceptible; MIC90, 8.0 micrograms/ml), and all beta-lactamase-negative strains were susceptible to piperacillin (MIC90, 8.0 micrograms/ml). Clinical studies are required to delineate the role of Bay y3118 in the treatment of anaerobic infections. PMID:8215278

Pankuch, G A; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

1993-01-01

132

Atmospheric growth requirements for Alloiococcus species and related gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed

The growth of Alloiococcus otitis under different atmospheres and nutritional conditions was studied. The growth rates of 25 strains of gram-positive cocci representing five genera on heart infusion agar plates containing 5% rabbit blood and on brucella agar plates with and without sheep blood under aerobic, increased CO2, and anaerobic atmospheres were compared. Eight strains of alloiococci plated on heart infusion agar with rabbit blood and on brucella sheep blood agar grew under aerobic and candle jar atmospheres. Two of these strains showed poor anaerobic growth after 7 days. Strains of Aerococcus viridans, Aerococcus urinae, Helcococci kunzi, Dolosigranulum pigrum, Gemella haemolysans, and Gemella morbillorum grew well under all three atmospheres and on the three types of media and in thioglycolate broth. These results confirm all the aerobic atmospheric requirements for Alloiococcus strains and show that aerobic growth characteristics help distinguish the alloiococci from the other gram-positive cocci that are facultatively anaerobic. PMID:8815077

Miller, P H; Facklam, R R; Miller, J M

1996-04-01

133

Atmospheric growth requirements for Alloiococcus species and related gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

The growth of Alloiococcus otitis under different atmospheres and nutritional conditions was studied. The growth rates of 25 strains of gram-positive cocci representing five genera on heart infusion agar plates containing 5% rabbit blood and on brucella agar plates with and without sheep blood under aerobic, increased CO2, and anaerobic atmospheres were compared. Eight strains of alloiococci plated on heart infusion agar with rabbit blood and on brucella sheep blood agar grew under aerobic and candle jar atmospheres. Two of these strains showed poor anaerobic growth after 7 days. Strains of Aerococcus viridans, Aerococcus urinae, Helcococci kunzi, Dolosigranulum pigrum, Gemella haemolysans, and Gemella morbillorum grew well under all three atmospheres and on the three types of media and in thioglycolate broth. These results confirm all the aerobic atmospheric requirements for Alloiococcus strains and show that aerobic growth characteristics help distinguish the alloiococci from the other gram-positive cocci that are facultatively anaerobic. PMID:8815077

Miller, P H; Facklam, R R; Miller, J M

1996-01-01

134

Protein transport across the cell wall of monoderm Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary In monoderm (single membrane) Gram-positive bacteria, the majority of secreted proteins are first translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane into the inner wall zone. For a subset of these proteins, final destination is within the cell envelope either as membrane-anchored or cell wall-anchored proteins, whereas another subset of proteins is destined to be transported across the cell wall into the extracellular milieu. Although the cell wall is a porous structure, there is evidence that, for some proteins, transport is a regulated process. This review aims at describing what is known about the mechanisms that regulate the transport of proteins across the cell wall of monoderm Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:22471582

Forster, Brian M.; Marquis, Helene

2012-01-01

135

Survival of gram positive anaerobic cocci on swabs and their isolation from the mouth and vagina.  

PubMed Central

The survival of Gram positive anaerobic cocci on plain cotton wool and albumin coated swabs held in various transport media was investigated. Results suggested that in most cases Amies', Stuart's and VMGII media do not offer any more protection to the bacteria than storing swabs dry in their containers. A technique was developed for the isolation and identification of Gram positive anaerobic cocci from the mouth and vagina, incorporating bicozamycin in the medium as a selective agent. Few strains were recovered from the oral cavity, but larger numbers were isolated from the vagina. Using a minimum number of antibiotic sensitivity and biochemical tests, including analysis of end products by gas-liquid chromatography, most isolates were identified to species level. PMID:3950035

Smith, G L; Cumming, C G; Ross, P W

1986-01-01

136

In Vitro Activity of Telavancin against Resistant Gram-Positive Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of telavancin was tested against 743 predominantly antimicrobial-resistant, gram-positive isolates. Telavancin was highly active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MIC90, 0.5 to 1 ?g/ml), streptococci (all MICs, ?0.12 ?g/ml), and VanB-type enterococci (all MICs, ?2 ?g/ml). Time-kill studies demonstrated the potent bactericidal activity of telavancin. PMID:18443122

Krause, Kevin M.; Renelli, Marika; Difuntorum, Stacey; Wu, Terry X.; Debabov, Dmitri V.; Benton, Bret M.

2008-01-01

137

Genome Sequence of the Diazotrophic Gram-Positive Rhizobacterium Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5T  

PubMed Central

Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5T, a nitrogen-fixing Gram-positive rhizobacterium isolated from a wheat field in the south of Brazil, has a great potential for agricultural applications due to its plant growth promotion effects. Here we present the draft genome sequence of P. riograndensis SBR5T. Its 7.37-Mb genome encodes determinants of the diazotrophic lifestyle and plant growth promotion, such as nitrogen fixation, antibiotic resistance, nitrate utilization, and iron uptake. PMID:22038959

Beneduzi, Anelise; Campos, Samanta; Ambrosini, Adriana; de Souza, Rocheli; Granada, Camille; Costa, Pedro; Arruda, Leticia; Moreira, Fernanda; Vargas, Luciano K.; Weiss, Vinicius; Tieppo, Eduardo; Faoro, Helisson; de Souza, Emanuel M.; Pedrosa, Fabio O.; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

2011-01-01

138

Susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria from ICU patients in UK hospitals to antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiologists in 25 sentinel laboratories were each asked to refer up to 100 clinically-significant Gram-positive bacteria isolated from consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A total of 1595 isolates were collected from patients in 23 hospitals; these included Staphylococcus aureus (47.6%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (30.6%), enterococci (14.3%), pneumococci (2.8%) and other streptococci (3.5%). A few coryneforms, other bacilli and a

A. P Johnson; C Henwood; S Mushtaq; D James; M Warner; D. M Livermore

2003-01-01

139

Teichoic acids and related cell-wall glycopolymers in Gram-positive physiology and host interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract | Most Gram-positive bacteria incorporate membrane- or peptidoglycan-attached carbohydrate-based polymers into their cell envelopes. Such cell-wall glycopolymers (CWGs) often have highly variable structures and have crucial roles in protecting, connecting and controlling the major envelope constituents. Further important roles of CWGs in host-cell adhesion, inflammation and immune activation have also been described in recent years. Identifying and harnessing highly

Christopher Weidenmaier; Andreas Peschel

2008-01-01

140

Isolation and Characterization of Four Gram-Positive Nickel-Tolerant Microorganisms from Contaminated Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial communities from riparian sediments contaminated with high levels of Ni and U were examined for metal-tolerant microorganisms.\\u000a Isolation of four aerobic Ni-tolerant, Gram-positive heterotrophic bacteria indicated selection pressure from Ni. These isolates\\u000a were identified as Arthrobacter oxydans NR-1, Streptomyces galbus NR-2, Streptomyces aureofaciens NR-3, and Kitasatospora cystarginea NR-4 based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. A functional gene microarray containing

Joy D. Van Nostrand; Tatiana V. Khijniak; Terry J. Gentry; Michelle T. Novak; Andrew G. Sowder; Jizhong Z. Zhou; Paul M. Bertsch; Pamela J. Morris

2007-01-01

141

Rose Bengal-decorated silica nanoparticles as photosensitizers for inactivation of gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of photosensitizer, made from Rose Bengal (RB)-decorated silica (SiO2-NH2-RB) nanoparticles, was developed to inactivate gram-positive bacteria, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with high efficiency through photodynamic action. The nanoparticles were characterized microscopically and spectroscopically to confirm their structures. The characterization of singlet oxygen generated by RB, both free and immobilized on a nanoparticle surface, was performed in

Yanyan Guo; Snezna Rogelj; Peng Zhang

2010-01-01

142

Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli by Use of Vitek MS  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of Vitek MS mass spectrometric identifications was assessed for 206 clinically significant isolates of aerobic Gram-positive bacilli representing 20 genera and 38 species. The Vitek MS identifications were correct for 85% of the isolates (56.3% to the species level, 28.6% limited to the genus level), with misidentifications occurring for 7.3% of the isolates. PMID:24501030

Navas, Maria; Pincus, David H.; Wilkey, Kathy; Sercia, Linda; LaSalvia, Margaret; Wilson, Deborah; Procop, Gary W.

2014-01-01

143

Gram-Positive Marine Bacteria as a Potential Resource for the Discovery of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitors of bacterial quorum sensing have been proposed as potentially novel therapeutics for the treatment of certain bacterial\\u000a diseases. We recently reported a marine Halobacillus salinus isolate that secretes secondary metabolites capable of quenching quorum sensing phenotypes in several Gram-negative reporter\\u000a strains. To investigate how widespread the production of such compounds may be in the marine bacterial environment, 332 Gram-positive

Margaret E. Teasdale; Kellye A. Donovan; Stephanie R. Forschner-Dancause; David C. Rowley

144

Functional Expression of Enterobacterial O-Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Enzymes in Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of heterologous bacterial glycosyltransferases is of interest for potential application in the emerging field of carbohydrate engineering in gram-positive organisms. To assess the feasibility of using enzymes from gram-negative bacteria, the functional expression of the genes wbaP (formerly rfbP), wecA (formerly rfe), and wbbO (formerly rfbF) from enterobacterial lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide biosynthe- sis pathways was examined in Bacillus subtilis.

Christina Schaffer; Thomas Wugeditsch; Paul Messner; Chris Whitfield

2002-01-01

145

A Comparative Genome Analysis Identifies Distinct Sorting Pathways in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Surface proteins in gram-positive bacteria are frequently required for virulence, and many are attached to the cell wall by sortase enzymes. Bacteria frequently encode more than one sortase enzyme and an even larger number of potential sortase substrates that possess an LPXTG-type cell wall sorting signal. In order to elucidate the sorting pathways present in gram-positive bacteria, we performed a comparative analysis of 72 sequenced microbial genomes. We show that sortase enzymes can be partitioned into five distinct subfamilies based upon their primary sequences and that most of their substrates can be predicted by making a few conservative assumptions. Most bacteria encode sortases from two or more subfamilies, which are predicted to function nonredundantly in sorting proteins to the cell surface. Only ?20% of sortase-related proteins are most closely related to the well-characterized Staphylococcus aureus SrtA protein, but nonetheless, these proteins are responsible for anchoring the majority of surface proteins in gram-positive bacteria. In contrast, most sortase-like proteins are predicted to play a more specialized role, with each anchoring far fewer proteins that contain unusual sequence motifs. The functional sortase-substrate linkage predictions are available online (http://www.doe-mbi.ucla.edu/Services/Sortase/) in a searchable database. PMID:15102780

Comfort, David; Clubb, Robert T.

2004-01-01

146

On-Probe Sample Pretreatment for Direct Analysis of Lipids in Gram-Positive Bacterial Cells by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-probe sample pretreatment using trifluoroacetic acid as an additional reagent enabled the direct detection of phospholipids in whole bacteria by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for not only gram-negative organisms but also gram-positive ones with a thicker peptidoglycan layer. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrome- try (MALDI-MS) has become a powerful method to charac- terize lipid components

Yasuyuki Ishida; Kuniyuki Kitagawa; Akihito Nakayama; Hajime Ohtani

2005-01-01

147

Isolation and Characterization of Microsphaera multipartita gen. nov., sp. nov., a Polysaccharide-Accumulating Gram-Positive Bacterium from Activated Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new gram-positive bacterium was isolated from activated sludge acclimated with sugar-containing syn- thetic wastewater. This organism, designated strain Y-104T (T = type strain), was a coccus-shaped, aerobic chemoorganotroph that had a strictly respiratory type of metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. This strain accumulates large amounts of polysaccharide in its cells. Strain Y-104T has the following chemotaxonomic

YUKIHIKO YOSHIM; AURA HIRAISHI; KAZUNORI NAKAMUFU

148

Innate immune defense of the sponge Suberites domuncula against gram-positive bacteria: induction of lysozyme and AdaPTin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponges are filter feeders that are exposed to large amounts of bacteria present in their surrounding aqueous milieu. The characteristic cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan (PPG), was used as a model molecule to study the responsiveness of cells from the marine demosponge Suberites domuncula toward gram-positive bacteria. The sponge lysozyme, which hydrolyzes PPG, was isolated from the living

N. L. Thakur; S. Perovi?-Ottstadt; R. Batel; M. Korzhev; B. Diehl-Seifert; I. M. Müller; W. E. G. Müller

2005-01-01

149

Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring cellulases and other biomass-degrading enzymes to Bcell itself and in anchoring proteins other Gram-positive organisms. PMID:23593409

Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

2013-01-01

150

Fighting infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens.  

PubMed

Growing bacterial resistance in Gram-positive pathogens means that what were once effective and inexpensive treatments for infections caused by these bacteria are now being seriously questioned, including penicillin and macrolides for use against pneumococcal infections and-in hospitals-oxacillin for use against staphylococcal infections. As a whole, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive pathogens are rapidly becoming an urgent and sometimes unmanageable clinical problem. Nevertheless, and despite decades of research into the effects of antibiotics, the actual risk posed to human health by antibiotic resistance has been poorly defined; the lack of reliable data concerning the outcomes resulting from antimicrobial resistance stems, in part, from problems with study designs and the methods used in resistence determination. Surprisingly little is known, too, about the actual effectiveness of the many types of intervention aimed at controlling antibiotic resistance. New antibiotics active against MDR Gram-positive pathogens have been recently introduced into clinical practice, and the antibiotic pipeline contains additional compounds at an advanced stage of development, including new glycopeptides, new anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) beta-lactams, and new diaminopyrimidines. Many novel antimicrobial agents are likely to be niche products, endowed with narrow antibacterial spectra and/or targeted at specific clinical problems. Therefore, an important educational goal will be to change the current, long-lasting attitudes of both physicians and customers towards broad-spectrum and multipurpose compounds. Scientific societies, such as the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), must play a leading role in this process. PMID:19335367

Cornaglia, G

2009-03-01

151

Sequence characterization of 5S ribosomal RNA from eight gram positive procaryotes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complete nucleotide sequences are presented for 5S rRNA from Bacillus subtilis, B. firmus, B. pasteurii, B. brevis, Lactobacillus brevis, and Streptococcus faecalis, and 5S rRNA oligonucleotide catalogs and partial sequence data are given for B. cereus and Sporosarcina ureae. These data demonstrate a striking consistency of 5S rRNA primary and secondary structure within a given bacterial grouping. An exception is B. brevis, in which the 5S rRNA sequence varies significantly from that of other bacilli in the tuned helix and the procaryotic loop. The localization of these variations suggests that B. brevis occupies an ecological niche that selects such changes. It is noted that this organism produces antibiotics which affect ribosome function.

Woese, C. R.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Pribula, C. D.; Fox, G. E.

1976-01-01

152

[Obtaining and characterization of DNA-containing micromummies of yeasts and gram-positive bacteria with enhanced cell wall permeability: application in PCR].  

PubMed

The procedure of obtaining DNA-containing cell envelopes ("micromummies") of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi using chaotropic salts has been developed previously and the possibility of their direct application in PCR has been demonstrated. The fine structure of micromummies has been studied by electron microscopic methods. This work has demonstrated that additional treatment of micromummies of yeasts and gram-positive bacteria with proteinase K results in hydrolytic degradation of cell proteins and drastic enhancement of cell wall permeability for macromolecules (DNA). Thus, the efficiency of PCR ex situ using resultant micromummies after washing off the products of protein hydrolysis and proteinase K can be increased. The results of electron microscopic study of ultrathin sections of yeasts (Pichia pastoris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Arthrobacter globiformis, Bacillus subtilis) support the biochemical data that treatment with chaotropic salts and proteinase K results in the loosening of microbial cell walls and in a decrease in the intracellular protein content. At the same time, cell walls generally maintain their integrity (continuity) and initial spherical or rodlike shape. The optimal modes of treatment of the cells of different microbial species with chaotropic salts and proteinase K have been selected to obtain permeabilized cell envelopes containing denatured or native DNA. PMID:17410877

Danilevich, V N; Duda, V I; Suzina, N E; Grishin, E V

2007-01-01

153

Structure-Activity Relationships of 3,3?-Phenylmethylene-bis-4-hydroxycoumarins: Selective and Potent Inhibitors of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Dicoumarols and coumarin derivatives have shown a variety of pharmaceutical activities and have been found to be potent inhibitor for the NAD(P)H-dependent flavoproteins. In this report, dicoumarol and its derivatives containing the substituted benzene ring at the methylenebis position were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. The results showed that the synthesized dicoumarols affect cell growth but are selective against gram-positive over gram-negative bacterial cells. However, for most derivatives, the substitution of steric bulky benzene group on the methylenebis position appears to decrease in the efficacy of antibacterial effect. This finding is roughly described by the predicted poorer docked structure of the derivatives to a homology model of S. aureus flavoprotein. 3D-QSAR study highlighted structural features around the substituted benzene ring of dicoumarols as the antibacterial activity. CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps support the idea that steric repulsion at the para position could diminish the antibacterial activity. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the molecular basis for the antibacterial activity of dicoumarols. PMID:24459419

Chavasiri, Warinthorn

2013-01-01

154

Homologous Recombination in Low dC + dG Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homologous recombination is a process involved in the maintenance of chromosome integrity,\\u000a in shaping the evolution of pathogens, in the resistance to antibiotic treatment, and profoundly affecting\\u000a evolution. In low dC + dG Gram-positive bacteria genetic recombination of a non-replicative\\u000a \\u000a homologous DNA, which enters into the cell via transduction or conjugation, proceeds mainly by the\\u000a double-strand break repair machinery, and this process

Humberto Sanchez; Begoña Carrasco; Silvia Ayora; Juan C. Alonso

155

Identification and Characterization of a Novel-type Ferric Siderophore Reductase from a Gram-positive Extremophile*  

PubMed Central

Iron limitation is one major constraint of microbial life, and a plethora of microbes use siderophores for high affinity iron acquisition. Because specific enzymes for reductive iron release in Gram-positives are not known, we searched Firmicute genomes and found a novel association pattern of putative ferric siderophore reductases and uptake genes. The reductase from the schizokinen-producing alkaliphile Bacillus halodurans was found to cluster with a ferric citrate-hydroxamate uptake system and to catalyze iron release efficiently from Fe[III]-dicitrate, Fe[III]-schizokinen, Fe[III]-aerobactin, and ferrichrome. The gene was hence named fchR for ferric citrate and hydroxamate reductase. The tightly bound [2Fe-2S] cofactor of FchR was identified by UV-visible, EPR, CD spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. Iron release kinetics were determined with several substrates by using ferredoxin as electron donor. Catalytic efficiencies were strongly enhanced in the presence of an iron-sulfur scaffold protein scavenging the released ferrous iron. Competitive inhibition of FchR was observed with Ga(III)-charged siderophores with Ki values in the micromolar range. The principal catalytic mechanism was found to couple increasing Km and KD values of substrate binding with increasing kcat values, resulting in high catalytic efficiencies over a wide redox range. Physiologically, a chromosomal fchR deletion led to strongly impaired growth during iron limitation even in the presence of ferric siderophores. Inductively coupled plasma-MS analysis of ?fchR revealed intracellular iron accumulation, indicating that the ferric substrates were not efficiently metabolized. We further show that FchR can be efficiently inhibited by redox-inert siderophore mimics in vivo, suggesting that substrate-specific ferric siderophore reductases may present future targets for microbial pathogen control. PMID:21051545

Miethke, Marcus; Pierik, Antonio J.; Peuckert, Florian; Seubert, Andreas; Marahiel, Mohamed A.

2011-01-01

156

Protein secretion biotechnology in Gram-positive bacteria with special emphasis on Streptomyces lividans.  

PubMed

Proteins secreted by Gram-positive bacteria are released into the culture medium with the obvious benefit that they usually retain their native conformation. This property makes these host cells potentially interesting for the production of recombinant proteins, as one can take full profit of established protocols for the purification of active proteins. Several state-of-the-art strategies to increase the yield of the secreted proteins will be discussed, using Streptomyces lividans as an example and compared with approaches used in some other host cells. It will be shown that approaches such as increasing expression and translation levels, choice of secretion pathway and modulation of proteins thereof, avoiding stress responses by changing expression levels of specific (stress) proteins, can be helpful to boost production yield. In addition, the potential of multi-omics approaches as a tool to understand the genetic background and metabolic fluxes in the host cell and to seek for new targets for strain and protein secretion improvement is discussed. It will be shown that S. lividans, along with other Gram-positive host cells, certainly plays a role as a production host for recombinant proteins in an economically viable way. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. PMID:24412306

Anné, Jozef; Vrancken, Kristof; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Van Impe, Jan; Bernaerts, Kristel

2014-08-01

157

Bioengineered Nisin A Derivatives with Enhanced Activity against Both Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G), with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E) with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. PMID:23056510

Field, Des; Begley, Maire; O'Connor, Paula M.; Daly, Karen M.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

2012-01-01

158

Rapid analysis of Gram-positive bacteria in water via membrane filtration coupled with nanoprobe-based MALDI-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is challenging when it is directly applied to identify\\u000a bacteria in water. This study demonstrates a rapid, sensitive, and selective technique for detection of Gram-positive bacteria\\u000a in water. It involves a combination of membrane filtration (MF) and vancomycin-conjugated magnetite nanoparticles (VNPs) to\\u000a selectively separate and concentrate Gram-positive bacteria in tap water and reservoir

Shuping Li; Zhongxian Guo; Hui-Fen Wu; Ying Liu; Zhaoguang Yang; Chee Hoe Woo

2010-01-01

159

In Vitro Activities of RWJ-54428 (MC-02,479) against Multiresistant Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

RWJ-54428 (MC-02,479) is a new cephalosporin with a high level of activity against gram-positive bacteria. In a broth microdilution susceptibility test against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), RWJ-54428 was as active as vancomycin, with an MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) of 2 ?g/ml. For coagulase-negative staphylococci, RWJ-54428 was 32 times more active than imipenem, with an MIC90 of 2 ?g/ml. RWJ-54428 was active against S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides (RWJ-54428 MIC range, ?0.0625 to 1 ?g/ml). RWJ-54428 was eight times more potent than methicillin and cefotaxime against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml). For ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (including vancomycin-resistant and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant strains), RWJ-54428 had an MIC90 of 0.125 ?g/ml. RWJ-54428 was also active against Enterococcus faecium, including vancomycin-, gentamicin-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. The potency against enterococci correlated with ampicillin susceptibility; RWJ-54428 MICs ranged between ?0.0625 and 1 ?g/ml for ampicillin-susceptible strains and 0.125 and 8 ?g/ml for ampicillin-resistant strains. RWJ-54428 was more active than penicillin G and cefotaxime against penicillin-resistant, -intermediate, and -susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90s, 0.25, 0.125, and ?0.0625 ?g/ml, respectively). RWJ-54428 was only marginally active against most gram-negative bacteria; however, significant activity was observed against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90s, 0.25 and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively). This survey of the susceptibilities of more than 1,000 multidrug-resistant gram-positive isolates to RWJ-54428 indicates that this new cephalosporin has the potential to be useful in the treatment of infections due to gram-positive bacteria, including strains resistant to currently available antimicrobials. PMID:11302805

Chamberland, Suzanne; Blais, Johanne; Hoang, Monica; Dinh, Cynthia; Cotter, Dylan; Bond, Emmett; Gannon, Carla; Park, Craig; Malouin, Francois; Dudley, Michael N.

2001-01-01

160

[Retrospective analysis of the Gram-positive bacteria-infected cases in the Department of Hematology].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin for the treatment of patients infected by Gram-positive bacteria in the Department of Hematology by retrospective analysis. The patients with fever in our department from January to December in 2011 were selected for blood culture with Gram-positive bacteria and treated with linezolid, vancomycin or teicoplanin alone.Various parameters were recorded before and after treatment, such as fever time, respiratory symptoms, physical signs, radiographic changes, blood and biochemical routine, and adverse reactions. The efficacy and safety of linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin were compared according to the fever abating time, bacterial clearance rate, clinical efficiencies and adverse events. The patients were divided into linezolid group (15 patients), vancomycin group (17 patients) and teicoplanin group (20 patients). The results showed that the mean time of fever abating in linezolid group was (4.43 ± 3.15)d, bacterial clearance rate and clinical efficiency in linezolid group were 55.56% and 86.67%, respectively. The above three data in vancomycin group were (6.83 ± 4.67)d, 54.54% and 76.47% respectively, and were (5.57 ± 4.16)d, 41.67% and 80.00% in teicoplanin group respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between three groups (P > 0.05). There were one case of diarrhea and two cases of thrombocytopenia in the linezolid group, and one case of nausea and two cases of creatinine increase in the vancomycin group. There were three cases of thrombocytopenia in the teicoplanin group. The thrombocytopenia in five cases and the hemogram drop in patients with leukemia after treatment were overlapped, their drug treatment did not stop, but their thrombocytopoiesis recovered to normal-level, thus the drug treatment were considered as no relation with thrombocytopenia. It is concluded that the treatment efficacy between linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin for Gram-positive bacterial infections is not statistically different, but linezolid maybe have advantage over vancomycin and teicoplanin in fever abating time, bacterial clearance rate and clinical efficiency. PMID:24156452

Jing, Yu; Bo, Jian; Zhao, Yu; Li, Hong-Hua; Wang, Shu-Hong; Huang, Wen-Rong; Wang, Quan-Shun

2013-10-01

161

Di-alkylated paromomycin derivatives: targeting the membranes of gram positive pathogens that cause skin infections.  

PubMed

A collection of paromomycin-based di-alkylated cationic amphiphiles differing in the lengths of their aliphatic chain residues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated against 14 Gram positive pathogens that are known to cause skin infections. Paromomycin derivatives that were di-alkylated with C7 and C8 linear aliphatic chains had improved antimicrobial activities relative to the parent aminoglycoside as well as to the clinically used membrane-targeting antibiotic gramicidin D; several novel derivatives were at least 16-fold more potent than the parent aminoglycoside paromomycin. Comparison between a di-alkylated and a mono-alkylated paromomycin indicated that the di-alkylation strategy leads to both an improvement in antimicrobial activity and to a dramatic reduction in undesired red blood cell hemolysis caused by many aminoglycoside-based cationic amphiphiles. Scanning electron microscopy provided evidence for cell surface damage by the reported di-alkylated paromomycins. PMID:23602621

Berkov-Zrihen, Yifat; Herzog, Ido M; Feldman, Mark; Sonn-Segev, Adar; Roichman, Yael; Fridman, Micha

2013-06-15

162

Thinking About Bacillus subtilis as a Multicellular Organism  

PubMed Central

Summary Initial attempts to use colony morphogenesis as a tool to investigate bacterial multicellularity were limited by the fact that laboratory strains often have lost many of their developmental properties. Recent advances in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying colony morphogenesis have been made possible through the use of undomesticated strains. In particular, Bacillus subtilis has proven to be a remarkable model system to study colony morphogenesis because of it well-characterized developmental features. Genetic screens that analyze mutants defective in colony morphology have led to the discovery of an intricate regulatory network that controls the production of an extracellular matrix. This matrix is essential for the development of complex colony architecture characterized by aerial projections that serve as preferential sites for sporulation. While much progress has been made, the challenge for future studies will be to determine the underlying mechanisms that regulate development such that differentiation occurs in a spatially and temporally organized manner. PMID:17977783

Aguilar, Claudio; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

2007-01-01

163

Raman Spectroscopy of Xylitol Uptake and Metabolism in Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the uptake and metabolism of the five-carbon sugar alcohol xylitol by Gram-positive viridans group streptococcus and the two extensively used strains of Gram-negative Escherichia coli, E. coli C and E. coli K-12. E. coli C, but not E. coli K-12, contains a complete xylitol operon, and the viridans group streptococcus contains an incomplete xylitol operon used to metabolize the xylitol. Raman spectra from xylitol-exposed viridans group streptococcus exhibited significant changes that persisted even in progeny grown from the xylitol-exposed mother cells in a xylitol-free medium for 24 h. This behavior was not observed in the E. coli K-12. In both viridans group streptococcus and the E. coli C derivative HF4714, the metabolic intermediates are stably formed to create an anomaly in bacterial normal survival. The uptake of xylitol by Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens occurs even in the presence of other high-calorie sugars, and its stable integration within the bacterial cell wall may discontinue bacterial multiplication. This could be a contributing factor for the known efficacy of xylitol when taken as a prophylactic measure to prevent or reduce occurrences of persistent infection. Specifically, these bacteria are causative agents for several important diseases of children such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and dental caries. If properly explored, such an inexpensive and harmless sugar-alcohol, alone or used in conjunction with fluoride, would pave the way to an alternative preventive therapy for these childhood diseases when the causative pathogens have become resistant to modern medicines such as antibiotics and vaccine immunotherapy. PMID:21037297

Palchaudhuri, Sunil; Rehse, Steven J.; Hamasha, Khozima; Syed, Talha; Kurtovic, Eldar; Kurtovic, Emir; Stenger, James

2011-01-01

164

DNA Repair and Genome Maintenance in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Summary: From microbes to multicellular eukaryotic organisms, all cells contain pathways responsible for genome maintenance. DNA replication allows for the faithful duplication of the genome, whereas DNA repair pathways preserve DNA integrity in response to damage originating from endogenous and exogenous sources. The basic pathways important for DNA replication and repair are often conserved throughout biology. In bacteria, high-fidelity repair is balanced with low-fidelity repair and mutagenesis. Such a balance is important for maintaining viability while providing an opportunity for the advantageous selection of mutations when faced with a changing environment. Over the last decade, studies of DNA repair pathways in bacteria have demonstrated considerable differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Here we review and discuss the DNA repair, genome maintenance, and DNA damage checkpoint pathways of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We present their molecular mechanisms and compare the functions and regulation of several pathways with known information on other organisms. We also discuss DNA repair during different growth phases and the developmental program of sporulation. In summary, we present a review of the function, regulation, and molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria, with a strong emphasis on B. subtilis. PMID:22933559

Lenhart, Justin S.; Schroeder, Jeremy W.; Walsh, Brian W.

2012-01-01

165

Atopococcus tabaci gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped bacterium isolated from tobacco.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-positive, aerobic, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism originating from tobacco was characterized using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The organism contained a cell wall murein based on L-lysine (variation A4alpha, type L-lysine-L-glutamic acid), synthesized long-chain cellular fatty acids of the straight-chain saturated and monounsaturated types (with C(16:1)omega9, C(16:0) and C(18:1)omega9 predominating) and possessed a DNA G+C content of 46 mol%. Based on morphological, biochemical and chemical characteristics, the coccus-shaped organism did not conform to any presently recognized taxon. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the distinctiveness of the unknown coccus, with the bacterium displaying sequence divergence values of greater than 7% with other recognized Gram-positive taxa. Treeing analysis reinforced its distinctiveness, with the unidentified organism forming a relatively long subline branching at the periphery of an rRNA gene sequence cluster which encompasses the genera Alloiococcus, Allofustis, Alkalibacterium, Atopostipes, Dolosigranulum and Marinilactibacillus. Based on phenotypic and molecular phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown organism from tobacco be classified as a new genus and species, Atopococcus tabaci gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Atopococcus tabaci is CCUG 48253(T) (=CIP 108502(T)). PMID:16014503

Collins, Matthew D; Wiernik, Anna; Falsen, Enevold; Lawson, Paul A

2005-07-01

166

Crystal Structure of Bacillus subtilis Signal Peptide Peptidase A  

E-print Network

Crystal Structure of Bacillus subtilis Signal Peptide Peptidase A Sung-Eun Nam, Apollos C. Kim Bacillus subtilis SppA (SppABS). *Corresponding author. E-mail address: mpaetzel@sfu.ca. Abbreviations used the first crystal structure of a Gram-positive bacterial SppA. The 2.4-Ã?- resolution structure of Bacillus

Paetzel, Mark

167

Bioelectricity generation by a Gram-positive Corynebacterium sp. strain MFC03 under alkaline condition in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

This work studied an alkalophilic Gram-positive bacterium, Corynebacterium sp. strain MFC03, for its ability to produce electricity in the absence of an exogenous mediator under alkaline pH in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The experimental results demonstrated that the strain MFC03 was capable of utilizing organic acids, sugars and alcohols as electron donors to generate electricity under above desired conditions. At an optimal pH of 9.0, the glucose-fed MFC achieved a maximum power density of 7.3 mW/m(2) and a Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 5.9%. In the presence of 0.1mM anthroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), the maximum power density was enhanced to 41.8 mW/m(2) and CE was increased to 18.4%. The cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that the electron transfer mechanism in the strain MFC03-based MFC was mainly via the excreted redox compounds in the medium solution. PMID:19879132

Liu, Min; Yuan, Yong; Zhang, Li-xia; Zhuang, Li; Zhou, Shun-gui; Ni, Jin-ren

2010-03-01

168

Draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HB-26.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HB-26, a Gram-positive bacterium was isolated from soil in China. SDS-PAGE analysis showed this strain secreted six major protein bands of 65, 60, 55, 34, 25 and 20 kDa. A bioassay of this strain reveals that it shows specific activity against P. brassicae and nematode. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The 3,989,358 bp long genome (39 contigs) contains 4,001 protein-coding genes and 80 RNA genes. PMID:25197462

Liu, Xiao-Yan; Min, Yong; Wang, Kai-Mei; Wan, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Cao, Chun-Xia; Zhou, Rong-Hua; Jiang, Ai-Bing; Liu, Cui-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Yang; Cheng, Xian-Liang; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zi-Wen

2014-06-15

169

Isolation and characterization of four novel Gram-positive bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of two endemorelict plants capable of degrading a broad range of aromatic substrates.  

PubMed

Four new Gram-positive, phenol-degrading strains were isolated from the rhizospheres of endemorelict plants Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae known to exude high amounts of phenolics in the soil. Isolates were designated Bacillus sp. PS1, Bacillus sp. PS11, Streptomyces sp. PS12, and Streptomyces sp. PN1 based on 16S rDNA sequence and biochemical analysis. In addition to their ability to tolerate and utilize high amounts of phenol of either up to 800 or up to 1,400 mg l(-1) without apparent inhibition in growth, all four strains were also able to degrade a broad range of aromatic substrates including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, halogenated benzenes, and naphthalene. Isolates were able to grow in pure culture and in defined mixed culture on phenol and on the mixture of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds as a sole source of carbon and energy. Pure culture of Bacillus sp. PS11 yielded 1.5-fold higher biomass amounts in comparison to mixed culture, under all conditions. Strains successfully degraded phenol in the soil model system (2 g kg(-1)) within 6 days. Activities of phenol hydroxylase, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase were detected and analyzed from the crude cell extract of the isolates. While all four strains use ortho degradation pathway, enzyme indicative of meta degradation pathway (catechol 2,3-dioxygenase) was also detected in Bacillus sp. PS11 and Streptomyces sp. PN1. Phenol degradation activities were induced 2 h after supplementation by phenol, but not by catechol. Catechol slightly inhibited activity of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase in strains PS11 and PN1. PMID:21706169

Djokic, Lidija; Narancic, Tanja; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Savic, Miloje; Vasiljevic, Branka

2011-08-01

170

Modelling the influence of pH and organic acid types on thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores.  

E-print Network

1 Modelling the influence of pH and organic acid types on thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus resistance of Bacillus cereus spores. In addition to the conventional z value, the effect of p and the zpH value. Keywords : Organic acids, pH, heat resistance, Bacillus cereus hal-00654542,version1-22Dec

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

Lysis of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by antibacterial porous polymeric monolith formed in microfluidic biochips for sample preparation.  

PubMed

Bacterial cell lysis is demonstrated using polymeric microfluidic biochips operating via a hybrid mechanical shearing/contact killing mechanism. These biochips are fabricated from a cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (X-PMMA) substrate by well-controlled, high-throughput laser micromachining. The unreacted double bonds at the surface of X-PMMA provide covalent bonding for the formation of a porous polymeric monolith (PPM), thus contributing to the mechanical stability of the biochip and eliminating the need for surface treatment. The lysis efficiency of these biochips was tested for gram-positive (Enterococcus saccharolyticus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and confirmed by off-chip PCR without further purification. The influence of the flow rate when pumping the bacterial suspension through the PPM, and of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance on the cell lysis efficiency was investigated at a cell concentration of 10(5) CFU/mL. It was shown that the contribution of contact killing to cell lysis was more important than that of mechanical shearing in the PPM. The biochip showed better lysis efficiency than the off-chip chemical, mechanical, and thermal lysis techniques used in this work. The biochip also acts as a filter that isolates cell debris and allows PCR-amplifiable DNA to pass through. The system performs more efficient lysis for gram-negative than for gram-positive bacteria. The biochip does not require chemical/enzymatic reagents, power consumption, or complicated design and fabrication processes, which makes it an attractive on-chip lysis device that can be used in sample preparation for genetics and point-of-care diagnostics. The biochips were reused for 20 lysis cycles without any evidence of physical damage to the PPM, significant performance degradation, or DNA carryover when they were back-flushed between cycles. The biochips efficiently lysed both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in about 35 min per lysis and PPM regeneration cycle. PMID:25059724

Aly, Mohamed Aly Saad; Gauthier, Mario; Yeow, John

2014-09-01

172

High-Throughput System for the Presentation of Secreted and Surface-Exposed Proteins from Gram-Positive Bacteria in Functional Metagenomics Studies  

PubMed Central

Complex microbial ecosystems are increasingly studied through the use of metagenomics approaches. Overwhelming amounts of DNA sequence data are generated to describe the ecosystems, and allow to search for correlations between gene occurrence and clinical (e.g. in studies of the gut microbiota), physico-chemical (e.g. in studies of soil or water environments), or other parameters. Observed correlations can then be used to formulate hypotheses concerning microbial gene functions in relation to the ecosystem studied. In this context, functional metagenomics studies aim to validate these hypotheses and to explore the mechanisms involved. One possible approach is to PCR amplify or chemically synthesize genes of interest and to express them in a suitable host in order to study their function. For bacterial genes, Escherichia coli is often used as the expression host but, depending on the origin and nature of the genes of interest and the test system used to evaluate their putative function, other expression systems may be preferable. In this study, we developed a system to evaluate the role of secreted and surface-exposed proteins from Gram-positive bacteria in the human gut microbiota in immune modulation. We chose to use a Gram-positive host bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, and modified it to provide an expression background that behaves neutral in a cell-based immune modulation assay, in vitro. We also adapted an E. coli – B. subtilis shuttle expression vector for use with the Gateway high-throughput cloning system. Finally, we demonstrate the functionality of this host-vector system through the cloning and expression of a flagellin-coding sequence, and show that the expression-clone elicits an inflammatory response in a human intestinal epithelial cell line. The expression host can easily be adapted to assure neutrality in other assay systems, allowing the use of the presented presentation system in functional metagenomics of the gut and other ecosystems. PMID:23799065

Dobrijevic, Dragana; Di Liberto, Gaetana; Tanaka, Kosei; de Wouters, Tomas; Dervyn, Rozenn; Boudebbouze, Samira; Binesse, Johan; Blottiere, Herve M.; Jamet, Alexandre; Maguin, Emmanuelle; van de Guchte, Maarten

2013-01-01

173

Homologs of the Rml enzymes from Salmonella enterica are responsible for dTDP-beta-L-rhamnose biosynthesis in the gram-positive thermophile Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus DSM 10155.  

PubMed

The glycan chains of the surface layer (S-layer) glycoprotein from the gram-positive, thermophilic bacterium Aneurinibacillus (formerly Bacillus) thermoaerophilus strain DSM 10155 are composed of L-rhamnose- and D-glycero-D-manno-heptose-containing disaccharide repeating units which are linked to the S-layer polypeptide via core structures that have variable lengths and novel O-glycosidic linkages. In this work we investigated the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thymidine diphospho-L-rhamnose (dTDP-L-rhamnose) and their specific properties. Comparable to lipopolysaccharide O-antigen biosynthesis in gram-negative bacteria, dTDP-L-rhamnose is synthesized in a four-step reaction sequence from dTTP and glucose 1-phosphate by the enzymes glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA), dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB), dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC), and dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The rhamnose biosynthesis operon from A. thermoaerophilus DSM 10155 was sequenced, and the genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Compared to purified enterobacterial Rml enzymes, the enzymes from the gram-positive strain show remarkably increased thermostability, a property which is particularly interesting for high-throughput screening and enzymatic synthesis. The closely related strain A. thermoaerophilus L420-91(T) produces D-rhamnose- and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-D-galactose-containing S-layer glycan chains. Comparison of the enzyme activity patterns in A. thermoaerophilus strains DSM 10155 and L420-91(T) for L-rhamnose and D-rhamnose biosynthesis indicated that the enzymes are differentially expressed during S-layer glycan biosynthesis and that A. thermoaerophilus L420-91(T) is not able to synthesize dTDP-L-rhamnose. These findings confirm that in each strain the enzymes act specifically on S-layer glycoprotein glycan formation. PMID:12147463

Graninger, Michael; Kneidinger, Bernd; Bruno, Katharina; Scheberl, Andrea; Messner, Paul

2002-08-01

174

Homologs of the Rml Enzymes from Salmonella enterica Are Responsible for dTDP-?-l-Rhamnose Biosynthesis in the Gram-Positive Thermophile Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus DSM 10155  

PubMed Central

The glycan chains of the surface layer (S-layer) glycoprotein from the gram-positive, thermophilic bacterium Aneurinibacillus (formerly Bacillus) thermoaerophilus strain DSM 10155 are composed of l-rhamnose- and d-glycero-d-manno-heptose-containing disaccharide repeating units which are linked to the S-layer polypeptide via core structures that have variable lengths and novel O-glycosidic linkages. In this work we investigated the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thymidine diphospho-l-rhamnose (dTDP-l-rhamnose) and their specific properties. Comparable to lipopolysaccharide O-antigen biosynthesis in gram-negative bacteria, dTDP-l-rhamnose is synthesized in a four-step reaction sequence from dTTP and glucose 1-phosphate by the enzymes glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA), dTDP-d-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB), dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC), and dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The rhamnose biosynthesis operon from A. thermoaerophilus DSM 10155 was sequenced, and the genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Compared to purified enterobacterial Rml enzymes, the enzymes from the gram-positive strain show remarkably increased thermostability, a property which is particularly interesting for high-throughput screening and enzymatic synthesis. The closely related strain A. thermoaerophilus L420-91T produces d-rhamnose- and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose-containing S-layer glycan chains. Comparison of the enzyme activity patterns in A. thermoaerophilus strains DSM 10155 and L420-91T for l-rhamnose and d-rhamnose biosynthesis indicated that the enzymes are differentially expressed during S-layer glycan biosynthesis and that A. thermoaerophilus L420-91T is not able to synthesize dTDP-l-rhamnose. These findings confirm that in each strain the enzymes act specifically on S-layer glycoprotein glycan formation. PMID:12147463

Graninger, Michael; Kneidinger, Bernd; Bruno, Katharina; Scheberl, Andrea; Messner, Paul

2002-01-01

175

Global mRNA decay analysis at single nucleotide resolution reveals segmental and positional degradation patterns in a Gram-positive bacterium  

PubMed Central

Background Recent years have shown a marked increase in the use of next-generation sequencing technologies for quantification of gene expression (RNA sequencing, RNA-Seq). The expression level of a gene is a function of both its rate of transcription and RNA decay, and the influence of mRNA decay rates on gene expression in genome-wide studies of Gram-positive bacteria is under-investigated. Results In this work, we employed RNA-Seq in a genome-wide determination of mRNA half-lives in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus cereus. By utilizing a newly developed normalization protocol, RNA-Seq was used successfully to determine global mRNA decay rates at the single nucleotide level. The analysis revealed positional degradation patterns, with mRNAs being degraded from both ends of the molecule, indicating that both 5' to 3' and 3' to 5' directions of RNA decay are present in B. cereus. Other operons showed segmental degradation patterns where specific ORFs within polycistrons were degraded at variable rates, underlining the importance of RNA processing in gene regulation. We determined the half-lives for more than 2,700 ORFs in B. cereus ATCC 10987, ranging from less than one minute to more than fifteen minutes, and showed that mRNA decay rate correlates globally with mRNA expression level, GC content, and functional class of the ORF. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study presents the first global analysis of mRNA decay in a bacterium at single nucleotide resolution. We provide a proof of principle for using RNA-Seq in bacterial mRNA decay analysis, revealing RNA processing patterns at the single nucleotide level. PMID:22537947

2012-01-01

176

A Complex Genetic Switch Involving Overlapping Divergent Promoters and DNA Looping Regulates Expression of Conjugation Genes of a Gram-positive Plasmid  

PubMed Central

Plasmid conjugation plays a significant role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants. Understanding how conjugation is regulated is important to gain insights into these features. Little is known about regulation of conjugation systems present on plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria. pLS20 is a native conjugative plasmid from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Recently the key players that repress and activate pLS20 conjugation have been identified. Here we studied in detail the molecular mechanism regulating the pLS20 conjugation genes using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Our results show that conjugation is subject to the control of a complex genetic switch where at least three levels of regulation are integrated. The first of the three layers involves overlapping divergent promoters of different strengths regulating expression of the conjugation genes and the key transcriptional regulator RcoLS20. The second layer involves a triple function of RcoLS20 being a repressor of the main conjugation promoter and an activator and repressor of its own promoter at low and high concentrations, respectively. The third level of regulation concerns formation of a DNA loop mediated by simultaneous binding of tetrameric RcoLS20 to two operators, one of which overlaps with the divergent promoters. The combination of these three layers of regulation in the same switch allows the main conjugation promoter to be tightly repressed during conditions unfavorable to conjugation while maintaining the sensitivity to accurately switch on the conjugation genes when appropriate conditions occur. The implications of the regulatory switch and comparison with other genetic switches involving DNA looping are discussed. PMID:25340403

Ramachandran, Gayetri; Singh, Praveen K.; Luque-Ortega, Juan Roman; Yuste, Luis; Alfonso, Carlos; Rojo, Fernando; Wu, Ling J.; Meijer, Wilfried J. J.

2014-01-01

177

Fructose Utilization in Lactococcus lactis as a Model for Low-GC Gram-Positive Bacteria: Its Regulator, Signal, and DNA-Binding Site  

PubMed Central

In addition to its role as carbon and energy source, fructose metabolism was reported to affect other cellular processes, such as biofilm formation by streptococci and bacterial pathogenicity in plants. Fructose genes encoding a 1-phosphofructokinase and a phosphotransferase system (PTS) fructose-specific enzyme IIABC component reside commonly in a gene cluster with a DeoR family regulator in various gram-positive bacteria. We present a comprehensive study of fructose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis, including a systematic study of fru mutants, global messenger analysis, and a molecular characterization of its regulation. The fru operon is regulated at the transcriptional level by both FruR and CcpA and at the metabolic level by inducer exclusion. The FruR effector is fructose-1-phosphate (F1P), as shown by combined analysis of transcription and measurements of the intracellular F1P pools in mutants either unable to produce this metabolite or accumulating it. The regulation of the fru operon by FruR requires four adjacent 10-bp direct repeats. The well-conserved organization of the fru promoter region in various low-GC gram-positive bacteria, including CRE boxes as well as the newly defined FruR motif, suggests that the regulation scheme defined in L. lactis could be applied to these bacteria. Transcriptome profiling of fruR and fruC mutants revealed that the effect of F1P and FruR regulation is limited to the fru operon in L. lactis. This result is enforced by the fact that no other targets for FruR were found in the available low-GC gram-positive bacteria genomes, suggesting that additional phenotypical effects due to fructose metabolism do not rely directly on FruR control, but rather on metabolism. PMID:15901699

Barriere, Charlotte; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Pons, Nicolas; Guedon, Eric; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Ehrlich, Dusko S.; Renault, Pierre

2005-01-01

178

Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesized silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.  

PubMed

The development of eco-friendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology. In this study, an extracellular enzyme system of a newly isolated microorganism, Exiguobacterium sp. KNU1, was used for the reduction of AgNO? solutions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNPs were approximately 30 nm (range 5-50 nm) in size, well-dispersed and spherical. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on different gram negative and gram positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Reasonable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. The morphological changes occurred in all the microorganisms tested. In particular, E. coli exhibited DNA fragmentation after being treated with the AgNPs. Finally, the mechanism for their bactericidal activity was proposed according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and single cell gel electrophoresis. PMID:23867968

Tamboli, Dhawal P; Lee, Dae Sung

2013-09-15

179

Emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones among gram positive and gram negative clinical isolates.  

PubMed

Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are considered as first line drugs to treat infectious diseases. In order to find out useful fluoroquinolones, the antibiotic resistance of fluoroquinolones, namely, ofloxacin (OFL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NRF), enoxacin (ENX), pefloxacin (PFL) and levofloxacin (LVF) was investigated against ninety five clinical isolates that includes Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. In vitro activity of these isolates was carried out by agar dilution method. All Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to OFL at 2 ?g/ml. About 6% isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were found to be resistance to LVF and ENX, 6% to CIP, OFL and PFL and none of the isolates were resistant to LVF and ENX. Percentage resistance of P. aeruginosa was found to be 4.35% to CIP, 7% to OFL and 2.2% to NRF, whereas 8.69% to ENX, 0% to PFL and 17.4% to LVF, respectively. The present study provides the data about the emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones among gram positive and gram negative bacteria and strongly recommends the rational and appropriate use of these antibiotics. PMID:23010009

Nesar, Shagufta; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Rahim, Najia; Rehman, Rabia

2012-10-01

180

[Resistance to "last resort" antibiotics in Gram-positive cocci: The post-vancomycin era].  

PubMed

New therapeutic alternatives have been developed in the last years for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections. Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are considered a therapeutic challenge due to failures and lack of reliable antimicrobial options. Despite concerns related to the use of vancomycin in the treatment of severe MRSA infections in specific clinical scenarios, there is a paucity of solid clinical evidence that support the use of alternative agents (when compared to vancomycin). Linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline are antibiotics approved in the last decade and newer cephalosporins (such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and novel glycopeptides (dalvavancin, telavancin and oritavancin) have reached clinical approval or are in the late stages of clinical development. This review focuses on discussing these newer antibiotics used in the "post-vancomycin" era with emphasis on relevant chemical characteristics, spectrum of antimicrobial activity, mechanisms of action and resistance, as well as their clinical utility. PMID:24968051

Rincón, Sandra; Panesso, Diana; Díaz, Lorena; Carvajal, Lina P; Reyes, Jinnethe; Munita, José M; Arias, César A

2014-04-01

181

16S Ribosomal DNA Sequence-Based Analysis of Clinically Significant Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci  

PubMed Central

Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene represents a highly accurate and versatile method for bacterial classification and identification, even when the species in question is notoriously difficult to identify by phenotypic means. However, its use for identification based on public sequence databases is not without limitation due to the presence of ambiguous data in the databases. In this study, we evaluated the utility of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as a means of identifying clinically important gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) by sequencing 13 type strains of established GPAC species and 156 clinical isolates that had been studied only by phenotypic tests. Among the 13 type strains of GPAC species we tested, only 4 gave a “perfect” match with their corresponding sequences in GenBank, whereas the other 9 had lower sequence similarities (<98%). This indicates that data in the public database may be inaccurate at times. Based on the sequences of the 13 type strains obtained in this study, 84% (131 of 156) of the clinical isolates were accurately identified to species level, with the remaining 25 clinical strains revealing nine unique sequences that may represent eight novel species. This finding is in contrast to the phenotypic identification results, by which only 56% of isolates were correctly identified to species level. PMID:12682115

Song, Yuli; Liu, Chengxu; McTeague, Maureen; Finegold, Sydney M.

2003-01-01

182

Revised mechanism of d-alanine incorporation into cell wall polymers in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Teichoic acids (TAs) are important for growth, biofilm formation, adhesion and virulence of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. The chemical structures of the TAs vary between bacteria, though they typically consist of zwitterionic polymers that are anchored to either the peptidoglycan layer as in the case of wall teichoic acid (WTA) or the cell membrane and named lipoteichoic acid (LTA). The polymers are modified with d-alanines and a lack of this decoration leads to increased susceptibility to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Four proteins, DltA–D, are essential for the incorporation of d-alanines into cell wall polymers and it has been established that DltA transfers d-alanines in the cytoplasm of the cell onto the carrier protein DltC. However, two conflicting models have been proposed for the remainder of the mechanism. Using a cellular protein localization and membrane topology analysis, we show here that DltC does not traverse the membrane and that DltD is anchored to the outside of the cell. These data are in agreement with the originally proposed model for d-alanine incorporation through a process that has been proposed to proceed via a d-alanine undecaprenyl phosphate membrane intermediate. Furthermore, we found that WTA isolated from a Staphylococcus aureus strain lacking LTA contains only a small amount of d-alanine, indicating that LTA has a role, either direct or indirect, in the efficient d-alanine incorporation into WTA in living cells. PMID:23858088

Reichmann, Nathalie T.; Cassona, Carolina Picarra

2013-01-01

183

Genome sequence of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2, a Gram-positive anaerobe capable of dehalogenation and metal reduction  

PubMed Central

Background The genome of the Gram-positive, metal-reducing, dehalorespiring Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2 was sequenced in order to gain insights into its metabolic capacities, adaptive physiology, and regulatory machineries, and to compare with that of Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51, the phylogenetically closest strain among the species with a sequenced genome. Results The genome of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2 is composed of a 5,279,134-bp circular chromosome with 5,042 predicted genes. Genome content and parallel physiological studies support the cell's ability to fix N2 and CO2, form spores and biofilms, reduce metals, and use a variety of electron acceptors in respiration, including halogenated organic compounds. The genome contained seven reductive dehalogenase genes and four nitrogenase gene homologs but lacked the Nar respiratory nitrate reductase system. The D. hafniense DCB-2 genome contained genes for 43 RNA polymerase sigma factors including 27 sigma-24 subunits, 59 two-component signal transduction systems, and about 730 transporter proteins. In addition, it contained genes for 53 molybdopterin-binding oxidoreductases, 19 flavoprotein paralogs of the fumarate reductase, and many other FAD/FMN-binding oxidoreductases, proving the cell's versatility in both adaptive and reductive capacities. Together with the ability to form spores, the presence of the CO2-fixing Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and the genes associated with oxygen tolerance add flexibility to the cell's options for survival under stress. Conclusions D. hafniense DCB-2's genome contains genes consistent with its abilities for dehalogenation, metal reduction, N2 and CO2 fixation, anaerobic respiration, oxygen tolerance, spore formation, and biofilm formation which make this organism a potential candidate for bioremediation at contaminated sites. PMID:22316246

2012-01-01

184

Allofustis seminis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from pig semen.  

PubMed

An unknown Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium originating from semen of a pig was characterized using phenotypic, molecular chemical and molecular phylogenetic methods. Chemical studies revealed the presence of a directly cross-linked cell wall murein based on L-lysine and a DNA G + C content of 39 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the unidentified rod-shaped organism formed a hitherto unknown subline related, albeit loosely, to Alkalibacterium olivapovliticus, Alloiococcus otitis, Dolosigranulum pigrum and related organisms, in the low-G + C-content Gram-positive bacteria. However, sequence divergence values of > 11% from these recognized taxa clearly indicated that the novel bacterium represents a separate genus. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic considerations, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium from pig semen be classified as a new genus and species, Allofustis seminis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is strain 01-570-1(T) (= CCUG 45438(T) = CIP 107425(T)). PMID:12807205

Collins, Matthew D; Higgins, Robert; Messier, Serge; Fortin, Madeleine; Hutson, Roger A; Lawson, Paul A; Falsen, Enevold

2003-05-01

185

Restart of DNA replication in Gram-positive bacteria: functional characterisation of the Bacillus subtilis PriA initiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PriA protein was identified in Escherichia coli as a factor involved in the replication of extrachromo- somal elements such as bacteriophage ?X174 and plasmid pBR322. Recent data show that PriA plays an important role in chromosomal replication, by promoting reassembly of the replication machinery during reinitiation of inactivated forks. A gene encoding a product 32% identical to the E.coli

Patrice Polard; Stéphanie Marsin; Stephen McGovern; Marion Velten; Dale B. Wigley; S. Dusko; Claude Bruand

186

A STUDY OF BACILLUS PYOGENES  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pyogenes is probably quite common in this country, as it is known to be in Europe. A careful study of twelve strains from cattle and one from a hog has disclosed the following characteristics which have not been reported or have been in dispute. Bacillus pyogenes is Gram-positive and pleomorphic, producing forms ranging from short chains of streptococcoid elements to branching filaments. It is hemolytic, producing the beta type of hemolysis in blood agar. It is not hemoglobinophilic, though its growth is greatly favored by some higher protein material such as egg albumin, serum, or blood. It ferments xylose in addition to the substances previously reported. The coagulation of milk by Bacillus pyogenes is primarily an enzyme coagulation and the subsequent digestion of the curd takes place in an acid medium. The intravenous injection of rabbits was invariably fatal. The lesions most commonly developed were those of the bones. Paralysis was frequently produced, and in each case was caused by lesions in the vertebrae exerting pressure against the ventral columns of the spinal cord. Muscle abscesses were also frequently produced. The authors regard the organism as belonging to the Corynebacteria rather than to the influenza group. PMID:19868442

Brown, J. Howard; Orcutt, Marion L.

1920-01-01

187

Multistep Resistance Development Studies of Ceftaroline in Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Ceftaroline, the active component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and -negative isolates. This study evaluated the potential for ceftaroline and comparator antibiotics to select for clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis with elevated MICs. S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes isolates in the present study were highly susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC range, 0.004 to 0.25 ?g/ml). No streptococcal strains yielded ceftaroline clones with increased MICs (defined as an increase in MIC of >4-fold) after 50 daily passages. Ceftaroline MICs for H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 0.06 to 2 ?g/ml for four strains and 8 ?g/ml for a ?-lactamase-positive, efflux-positive H. influenzae with a mutation in L22. One H. influenzae clone with an increased ceftaroline MIC (quinolone-resistant, ?-lactamase-positive) was recovered after 20 days. The ceftaroline MIC for this isolate increased 16-fold, from 0.06 to 1 ?g/ml. MICs for S. aureus ranged from 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml. No S. aureus isolates tested with ceftaroline had clones with increased MIC (>4-fold) after 50 passages. Two E. faecalis isolates tested had ceftaroline MICs increased from 1 to 8 ?g/ml after 38 days and from 4 to 32 ?g/ml after 41 days, respectively. The parental ceftaroline MIC for the one K. pneumoniae extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-negative isolate tested was 0.5 ?g/ml and did not change after 50 daily passages. PMID:21343467

Clark, Catherine; McGhee, Pamela; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia

2011-01-01

188

Primers for overlooked nirK, qnorB, and nosZ genes of thermophilic Gram-positive denitrifiers.  

PubMed

Although efforts have been made the past few years, knowledge on genomic and phenotypic diversity and occurrence of the denitrification ability in Gram-positive bacteria are still fragmentary. Many environmental monitoring approaches have used nir, nor, and nos genes as marker genes for detection of denitrification or denitrifying bacteria. However, primers used in these methods often fail to detect the genes in specific bacterial taxa, such as Gram-positive denitrifiers. In this study, novel primer sets specifically targeting nirK, qnorB, and nosZ genes of the Firmicute genus Geobacillus were developed by genomic mining and tested in parallel with commonly used primers on a set of phylogenetically closely related denitrifying geobacilli. Novel nirK and qnorB sequences were recovered from all strains tested, whereas nosZ was detected in part of the strain set, which was in agreement with observed phenotypes. Interspecies and modest intraspecies variations in amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns were observed, verifying presence of genomic variation within the strain set. Our study shows that closely related Gram-positive denitrifiers may differ in denitrification phenotype and genotype. But foremost, novel primers targeting very divergent nirK, qnorB, and nosZ gene sequences of Gram-positive denitrifiers, are now available for cultivation-independent environmental surveys. PMID:24784780

Verbaendert, Ines; Hoefman, Sven; Boeckx, Pascal; Boon, Nico; De Vos, Paul

2014-07-01

189

Antibacterial activity of cyclodextrins against Bacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of alkaliphilic Bacillus halodurans C-125 both on agar plates and in liquid culture was inhibited by methyl-?-cyclodextrin (CD). Furthermore, resting cells of\\u000a the strain were lysed by contact with methyl-?-CD higher than 10 mM. ?-CD also showed lysis activity against Bacillus and related strains. The activity was not observed with Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria except for Bacillus strains. Fluorescence staining

Hui-Min Zhang; Zhijun Li; Katsuyuki Uematsu; Tohru Kobayashi; Koki Horikoshi

2008-01-01

190

Clinical cure and survival in Gram-positive ventilator-associated pneumonia: retrospective analysis of two double-blind studies comparing linezolid with vancomycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the effect of baseline variables, including treatment, on clinical cure and survival rates in patients with Gram-positive, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Design Retrospective analysis of two randomized, double-blind studies. Setting Multinational study with 134 sites. Patients 544 patients with suspected Gram-positive VAP, including 264 with documented Gram-positive VAP and 91 with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) VAP. Interventions Linezolid

Marin H. Kollef; Jordi Rello; Sue K. Cammarata; Rodney V. Croos-Dabrera; Richard G. Wunderink

2004-01-01

191

Bacillus marcorestinctum sp. nov., a Novel Soil Acylhomoserine Lactone Quorum-Sensing Signal Quenching Bacterium  

PubMed Central

A Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from soil samples and designated strain LQQ. This organism strongly quenches the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal. The LQQ strain exhibits phenotypic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Bacillus. It is positive in catalase and no special growth factor is needed. It uses glucose as sole carbon source. The DNA G + C content is 39.8 mol %. The closest relatives based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence are Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Brevibacillus brevis (syn. Bacillus brevis) with the similarity of 96.5%. The DNA–DNA hybridization data indicates a low level of genomic relatedness with the relative type strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (6.1%), Bacillus anthracis (10.5%) and Brevibacillus brevis (8.7%). On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data together with the genomic distinctiveness, the LQQ strain represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus marcorestinctum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LQQT. PMID:20386651

Han, Yan; Chen, Fang; Li, Nuo; Zhu, Bo; Li, Xianzhen

2010-01-01

192

Evaluation of the Andromas Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Aerobically Growing Gram-Positive Bacilli  

PubMed Central

Matrix-associated laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid and simple microbial identification method. Previous reports using the Biotyper system suggested that this technique requires a preliminary extraction step to identify Gram-positive rods (GPRs), a technical issue that may limit the routine use of this technique to identify pathogenic GPRs in the clinical setting. We tested the accuracy of the MALDI-TOF MS Andromas strategy to identify a set of 659 GPR isolates representing 16 bacterial genera and 72 species by the direct colony method. This bacterial collection included 40 C. diphtheriae, 13 C. pseudotuberculosis, 19 C. ulcerans, and 270 other Corynebacterium isolates, 32 L. monocytogenes and 24 other Listeria isolates, 46 Nocardia, 75 Actinomyces, 18 Actinobaculum, 11 Propionibacterium acnes, 18 Propionibacterium avidum, 30 Lactobacillus, 21 Bacillus, 2 Rhodococcus equi, 2 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and 38 other GPR isolates, all identified by reference techniques. Totals of 98.5% and 1.2% of non-Listeria GPR isolates were identified to the species or genus level, respectively. Except for L. grayi isolates that were identified to the species level, all other Listeria isolates were identified to the genus level because of highly similar spectra. These data demonstrate that rapid identification of pathogenic GPRs can be obtained without an extraction step by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. PMID:22692743

Farfour, E.; Leto, J.; Barritault, M.; Barberis, C.; Meyer, J.; Dauphin, B.; Le Guern, A.-S.; Lefleche, A.; Badell, E.; Guiso, N.; Leclercq, A.; Le Monnier, A.; Lecuit, M.; Rodriguez-Nava, V.; Bergeron, E.; Raymond, J.; Vimont, S.; Bille, E.; Carbonnelle, E.; Guet-Revillet, H.; Lecuyer, H.; Beretti, J.-L.; Vay, C.; Berche, P.; Ferroni, A.; Nassif, X.

2012-01-01

193

Development of a sequence-based molecular subtyping method for Bacillus cereus dairy isolatse.  

E-print Network

??Recent research has suggested Gram-positive spore-forming microorganisms including Bacillus cereus are the predominant microorganisms in pasteurized milk during refrigerated storage. The presence of B. cereus… (more)

Miller, Donna

2008-01-01

194

Comparative in vitro activity of DU-6859a, a new fluoroquinolone agent, against gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of DU-6859a (DU), a new fluoroquinolone agent, was evaluated against 233 gram-positive cocci and was compared with those of ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, nafcillin, and ampicillin. The MICs of DU for 90% of the staphylococci tested were < or = 0.06 microgram/ml. All of the groups A and B and viridans group streptococci were inhibited by < or = 0.125 microgram of DU per ml, which was 32-fold more active than ciprofloxacin. On the basis of MICs for 90% of the strains tested, DU was 32- and 16-fold more active than ciprofloxacin against Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. The bactericidal activity of DU was demonstrated by time-kill techniques against all ciprofloxacin-susceptible enterococci. DU shows promise for the treatment of infections with gram-positive cocci and warrants further evaluation by in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:8203863

Korten, V; Tomayko, J F; Murray, B E

1994-01-01

195

Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus massiliosenegalensis sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus massiliosenegalensis strain JC6T sp. nov. is the type strain of Bacillus massiliosenegalensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bacillus. This strain was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy Senegalese patient. B. massiliosenegalensis is an aerobic Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,981,278-bp long genome comprises a 4,957,301-bp chromosome and a 23,977-bp plasmid. The chromosome contains 4,925 protein-coding and 72 RNA genes, including 4 rRNA genes. The plasmid contains 29 protein-coding genes. PMID:23991258

Ramasamy, Dhamodharan; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Gorlas, Aurore; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

196

Dustborne and airborne Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in high versus low ERMI homes.  

PubMed

The study aimed at investigating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in moldy and non-moldy homes, as defined by the home's Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value. The ERMI values were determined from floor dust samples in 2010 and 2011 and homes were classified into low (<5) and high (>5) ERMI groups based on the average ERMI values as well as 2011 ERMI values. Dust and air samples were collected from the homes in 2011 and all samples were analyzed for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using QPCR assays, endotoxin by the LAL assay, and N-acetyl-muramic acid using HPLC. In addition, air samples were analyzed for culturable bacteria. When average ERMI values were considered, the concentration and load of Gram-positive bacteria determined with QPCR in house dust, but not air, were significantly greater in high ERMI homes than in low ERMI homes. Furthermore, the concentration of endotoxin, but not muramic acid, in the dust was significantly greater in high ERMI than in low ERMI homes. In contrast, when ERMI values of 2011 were considered, Gram-negative bacteria determined with QPCR in air, endotoxin in air, and muramic acid in dust were significantly greater in high ERMI homes. The results suggest that both short-term and long-term mold contamination in homes could be linked with the bacterial concentrations in house dust, however, only the current mold status was associated with bacterial concentrations in air. Although correlations were found between endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria as well as between muramic acid and Gram-positive bacteria in the entire data set, diverging associations were observed between the different measures of bacteria and the home moldiness. It is likely that concentrations of cells obtained by QPCR and concentrations of cell wall components are not equivalent and represent too broad categories to understand the bacterial composition and sources of the home microbiota. PMID:24642096

Adhikari, Atin; Kettleson, Eric M; Vesper, Stephen; Kumar, Sudhir; Popham, David L; Schaffer, Christopher; Indugula, Reshmi; Chatterjee, Kanistha; Allam, Karteek K; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Reponen, Tiina

2014-06-01

197

In Vitro Activities of Linezolid against Important Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogens Including Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of resistance in gram-positive bacteria has necessitated a search for new antimicrobial agents. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone, a new class of antibacterial agents with enhanced activity against pathogens. We compared the activity of linezolid to those of other antimicrobial agents against 3,945 clinical isolates. Linezolid demonstrated potent activity against all isolates tested. For all vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, staphylococci, and

GARY A. NOSKIN; FARIDA SIDDIQUI; VALENTINA STOSOR; DONNA HACEK; LANCE R. PETERSON

1999-01-01

198

Amplifiable DNA from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by a low strength pulsed electric field method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient electric field-based procedure for cell disruption and DNA isolation is described. Isoosmotic suspensions of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were treated with pulsed electric fields of <60 V\\/cm. Pulses had an exponential decay waveform with a time constant of 3.4 µs. DNA yield was linearly dependent on time or pulse number, with several thousand pulses needed. Electrochemical side-effects and

Frank Vitzthum; Georg Geiger; Hans Bisswanger; Bentsian Elkine; Herwig Brunner; Jürgen Bernhagen

2000-01-01

199

pH Dependent Charging Behavior of Isolated Cell Walls of a Gram-Positive Soil Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria are highly porous structures. Peptidoglycan, the main component of these cell walls, contains many acidic groups, leading to a pH- and salt-dependent charge. This charge is involved in many processes, such as the attachment to surfaces and the binding of metal ions. Acid-base titrations are performed on cell wall material from Rhodococcus erythropolis AI77,

Alexandra C. C. Plette; Willem H. van Riemsdijk; Marc F. Benedetti; Albert van der Wal

1995-01-01

200

Hexavalent chromium reduction by a dichromate-resistant gram-positive bacterium isolated from effluents of tanneries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gram-positive, chromium (Cr)-resistant bacterial strain (ATCC 700729) was isolated from effluent of tanneries. It was grown\\u000a in media containing potassium dichromate concentration up to 80?mg?ml?1 of the medium. The dichromate reducing capability of the bacterium was checked by estimating the amount of Cr VI in the medium\\u000a before and after introduction of bacterial culture. The influence of factors like

A. R. Shakoori; M. Makhdoom; R. U. Haq

2000-01-01

201

A Type Ib ParB Protein Involved in Plasmid Partitioning in a Gram-Positive Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our current understanding of segregation of prokaryotic plasmids has been derived mainly from the study of the gram-negative bacterial plasmids. We previously reported a replicon of the cryptic plasmid from a gram-positive bacterium, Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis. The replicon contains a putative plasmid partition cassette including a Walker-type ATPase followed by open reading frame 4 without sequence homologue. Here we

Ping Yin; Tai-Yuan Li; Mao-Hua Xie; Lina Jiang; Yi Zhang

2006-01-01

202

Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

Gehron, M. J.; Davis, J. D.; Smith, G. A.; White, D. C.

1984-01-01

203

A novel beta-defensin structure: a potential strategy of big defensin for overcoming resistance by Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Big defensin is a 79-residue peptide derived from hemocytes of the Japanese horseshoe crab. It has antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The amino acid sequence of big defensin can be divided into an N-terminal hydrophobic half and a C-terminal cationic half. Interestingly, the trypsin cleaves big defensin into two fragments, the N-terminal and C-terminal fragments, which are responsible for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, respectively. To explore the antimicrobial mechanism of big defensin, we determined the solution structure of mature big defensin and performed a titration experiment with DPC micelles. Big defensin has a novel defensin structure; the C-terminal domain adopts a beta-defensin structure, and the N-terminal domain forms a unique globular conformation. It is noteworthy that the hydrophobic N-terminal domain undergoes a conformational change in micelle solution, while the C-terminal domain remains unchanged. Here, we propose that the N-terminal domain achieves its antimicrobial activity in a novel fashion and explain that big defensin has developed a strategy different from those of other beta-defensins to suppress the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:18785751

Kouno, Takahide; Fujitani, Naoki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Osaki, Tsukasa; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Demura, Makoto; Nitta, Katsutoshi; Kawano, Keiichi

2008-10-01

204

RNA-mediated regulation in Gram-positive pathogens: an overview punctuated with examples from the group A Streptococcus.  

PubMed

RNA-based mechanisms of regulation represent a ubiquitous class of regulators that are associated with diverse processes including nutrient sensing, stress response, modulation of horizontal gene transfer, and virulence factor expression. While better studied in Gram-negative bacteria, the literature is replete with examples of the importance of RNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms to the virulence and fitness of Gram-positives. Regulatory RNAs are classified as cis-acting, e.g. riboswitches, which modulate the transcription, translation, or stability of co-transcribed RNA, or trans-acting, e.g. small regulatory RNAs, which target separate mRNAs or proteins. The group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen from which several regulatory RNA mechanisms have been characterized. The study of RNA-mediated regulation in GAS has uncovered novel concepts with respect to how small regulatory RNAs may positively regulate target mRNA stability, and to how CRISPR RNAs are processed from longer precursors. This review provides an overview of RNA-mediated regulation in Gram-positive bacteria, and is highlighted with specific examples from GAS research. The key roles that these systems play in regulating bacterial virulence are discussed and future perspectives outlined. PMID:25091277

Miller, Eric W; Cao, Tram N; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J; Sumby, Paul

2014-10-01

205

Surface multiheme c-type cytochromes from Thermincola potens: Implications for dissimilatory metal reduction by Gram-positive bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost nothing is known about the mechanisms of dissimilatory metal reduction by Gram-positive bacteria, although they have been shown to be the dominant species in some environments. Thermincola potens strain JR was isolated from the anode of a microbial fuel cell inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge and operated at 55 °C. Preliminary characterization revealed that T. potens coupled acetate oxidation to the reduction of hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) or the humic substances analog, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). The genome of T. potens was recently sequenced, and the abundance of multiheme c-type cytochromes (MHCs) is unusual for a Gram-positive bacterium. We present evidence from trypsin shaving LC-MS/MS experiments and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) that indicates the expression of a number of MHCs during T. potens growth on either HFO or AQDS and that several MHCs are localized to the cell wall or cell surface of T. potens. Furthermore, one of the MHCs can be extracted from cells with low pH or denaturants suggesting a loose association with the cell wall or cell surface. Electron microscopy does not reveal an S-layer, and the precipitation of silver metal on the cell surface is inhibited by cyanide, supporting the involvement of surface-localized redox-active heme proteins in dissimilatory metal reduction. These results are the first direct evidence for cell-wall associated cytochromes and MHC involvement in conducting electrons across the cell envelope of a Gram-positive bacterium.

Carlson, H. K.; Iavarone, A. T.; Gorur, A.; Yeo, B. S.; Tran, R.; Melnyk, R. A.; Mathies, R. A.; Auer, M.; Coates, J. D.

2011-12-01

206

BslA is a self-assembling bacterial hydrophobin that coats the Bacillus subtilis biofilm  

E-print Network

BslA is a self-assembling bacterial hydrophobin that coats the Bacillus subtilis biofilm Laura the predominant mode of microbial growth in the natural environment. Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous Gram. In this environment bacteria can be either pathogenic or symbiotic (17). The Gram-positive soil bac- terium Bacillus

van Aalten, Daan

207

Influence of Bacillus subtilis Cell Walls and EDTA on Calcite  

E-print Network

Influence of Bacillus subtilis Cell Walls and EDTA on Calcite Dissolution Rates and Crystal Surface and the Gram-positive cell walls of Bacillus subtilis on the dissolution rates and development of morphological that the presence of metabolically inactive B. subtilis does not affect the dissolution rates significantly

Long, Bernard

208

Bacillus insecticides are not acutely harmful to corals and sponges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces crystalline endotoxins and is widely considered an environmentally safe insecticide to control mosquitoes and a number of agriculture pests. Bacteria closely related to B. thuringiensis have recently been discovered in association with diseased sponges, which has raised concerns that Bacillus insecticides may be harm- ful to tropical marine invertebrates. We exposed coral

Andrew P. Negri; Rochelle M. Soo; Florita Flores; Nicole S. Webster

2009-01-01

209

Bacillus cereus and related species.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

Drobniewski, F A

1993-01-01

210

In vitro activities of daptomycin, vancomycin, quinupristin- dalfopristin, linezolid, and five other antimicrobials against 307 gram-positive anaerobic and 31 Corynebacterium clinical isolates.  

PubMed

The activities of daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide, and eight other agents were determined against 338 strains of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and corynebacteria by the NCCLS reference agar dilution method with supplemented brucella agar for the anaerobes and Mueller-Hinton agar for the corynebacteria. The daptomycin MICs determined on Ca(2+)-supplemented (50 mg/liter) brucella agar plates were one- to fourfold lower than those determined in unsupplemented media. Daptomycin was highly active (MICs, 8 microg/ml were inhibited by <1 microg of daptomycin per ml. Daptomycin MICs were >or=4 microg/ml for most strains of Clostridium clostridioforme, Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium tertium, and Clostridium ramosum; the isolates were generally more resistant to other antimicrobials. Daptomycin was two- to fourfold less active against Actinomyces spp. than vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or linezolid. Twenty-nine of 31 strains of Corynebacterium spp., including Corynebacterium jeikeium, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, were inhibited by gram-positive organisms including vancomycin-resistant C. innocuum and lactobacillus strains and quinupristin-dalfopristin- and linezolid-resistant C. difficile strains. PMID:12499210

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Warren, Yumi A; Tyrrell, Kerrin L; Fernandez, Helen T

2003-01-01

211

In Vitro Activities of Daptomycin, Vancomycin, Quinupristin- Dalfopristin, Linezolid, and Five Other Antimicrobials against 307 Gram-Positive Anaerobic and 31 Corynebacterium Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

The activities of daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide, and eight other agents were determined against 338 strains of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and corynebacteria by the NCCLS reference agar dilution method with supplemented brucella agar for the anaerobes and Mueller-Hinton agar for the corynebacteria. The daptomycin MICs determined on Ca2+-supplemented (50 mg/liter) brucella agar plates were one- to fourfold lower than those determined in unsupplemented media. Daptomycin was highly active (MICs, ?2 ?g/ml) against many strains including 36 of 37 peptostreptococci, 37 of 48 isolates of the Eubacterium group, and all strains of Propionibacterium spp., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, and other Clostridium spp. It was fourfold or greater more active than vancomycin against Clostridium innocuum and 16 of 34 strains of vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli. Three strains of C. difficile for which quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid MICs were >8 ?g/ml were inhibited by <1 ?g of daptomycin per ml. Daptomycin MICs were ?4 ?g/ml for most strains of Clostridium clostridioforme, Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium tertium, and Clostridium ramosum; the isolates were generally more resistant to other antimicrobials. Daptomycin was two- to fourfold less active against Actinomyces spp. than vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or linezolid. Twenty-nine of 31 strains of Corynebacterium spp., including Corynebacterium jeikeium, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, were inhibited by ?0.25 ?g of daptomycin per ml. For two strains of “Corynebacterium aquaticum,” 8 ?g of daptomycin per ml was required for inhibition. Daptomycin demonstrated very good activities against a broad range of gram-positive organisms including vancomycin-resistant C. innocuum and lactobacillus strains and quinupristin-dalfopristin- and linezolid-resistant C. difficile strains. PMID:12499210

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerrin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

2003-01-01

212

Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Mechanisms of Their Targeting to the Cell Wall Envelope  

PubMed Central

The cell wall envelope of gram-positive bacteria is a macromolecular, exoskeletal organelle that is assembled and turned over at designated sites. The cell wall also functions as a surface organelle that allows gram-positive pathogens to interact with their environment, in particular the tissues of the infected host. All of these functions require that surface proteins and enzymes be properly targeted to the cell wall envelope. Two basic mechanisms, cell wall sorting and targeting, have been identified. Cell well sorting is the covalent attachment of surface proteins to the peptidoglycan via a C-terminal sorting signal that contains a consensus LPXTG sequence. More than 100 proteins that possess cell wall-sorting signals, including the M proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes, protein A of Staphylococcus aureus, and several internalins of Listeria monocytogenes, have been identified. Cell wall targeting involves the noncovalent attachment of proteins to the cell surface via specialized binding domains. Several of these wall-binding domains appear to interact with secondary wall polymers that are associated with the peptidoglycan, for example teichoic acids and polysaccharides. Proteins that are targeted to the cell surface include muralytic enzymes such as autolysins, lysostaphin, and phage lytic enzymes. Other examples for targeted proteins are the surface S-layer proteins of bacilli and clostridia, as well as virulence factors required for the pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes (internalin B) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PspA) infections. In this review we describe the mechanisms for both sorting and targeting of proteins to the envelope of gram-positive bacteria and review the functions of known surface proteins. PMID:10066836

Navarre, William Wiley; Schneewind, Olaf

1999-01-01

213

Complete Genome of Bacillus pumilus Siphophage Glittering.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely used in agriculture both as an antifungal and as a growth-promoting symbiont. B. pumilus is rarely infectious but has recently been shown to infect humans. Here, we present the complete genome of B. pumilus phage Glittering, a potential biocontrol agent for B. pumilus. PMID:24309725

Matthew, Solomon P; Decker, Skyelar L; Chamakura, Karthik R; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

2013-01-01

214

Complete Genome of Bacillus pumilus Siphophage Glittering  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely used in agriculture both as an antifungal and as a growth-promoting symbiont. B. pumilus is rarely infectious but has recently been shown to infect humans. Here, we present the complete genome of B. pumilus phage Glittering, a potential biocontrol agent for B. pumilus. PMID:24309725

Matthew, Solomon P.; Decker, Skyelar L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.

2013-01-01

215

In vitro activities of ramoplanin, selected glycopeptides, fluoroquinolones, and other antibiotics against clinical bloodstream isolates of gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of 316 gram-positive bacteremic isolates to ramoplanin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin and seven other antibiotics were tested. Ramoplanin demonstrated MICs of < or = 0.25 microgram/ml for at least 99% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 100% of coagulase-negative staphylococci tested. For both oxacillin-susceptible and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, the activity of ramoplanin surpassed those of both vancomycin and teicoplanin. Ramoplanin and teicoplanin had comparable activities against enterococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae and were superior to vancomycin. PMID:8494388

Lawrence, T; Rotstein, C; Beam, T R; Gorzynski, E A; Amsterdam, D

1993-01-01

216

Identification, classification, and clinical relevance of catalase-negative, gram-positive cocci, excluding the streptococci and enterococci.  

PubMed Central

Several new genera and species of gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci that can cause infections in humans have been described. Although these bacteria were isolated in the clinical laboratory, they were considered nonpathogenic culture contaminants and were not thought to be the cause of any diseases. Isolation of pure cultures of these bacteria from normally sterile sites has led to the conclusion that these bacteria can be an infrequent cause of infection. This review describes the new bacteria and the procedures useful for clinical laboratories to aid in their identification. The clinical relevance and our experience with the various genera and species are reviewed and discussed. PMID:8665466

Facklam, R; Elliott, J A

1995-01-01

217

Molecular modeling of Gram-positive bacteria peptidoglycan layer, selected glycopeptide antibiotics and vancomycin derivatives modified with sugar moieties.  

PubMed

Proper understanding of the mechanisms of binding to Gram-positive bacteria cell wall layers-especially to the peptidoglycan (PG) layer, seems to be crucial for proper development of new drug candidates which are effective against these bacteria. In this work we have constructed two different models of the Gram-positive bacteria PG layer: the layered and the scaffold models. PG conformational changes during geometry optimization, models relaxation, and molecular dynamics were described and discussed. We have found that the border surface of both PG layer models differs from the surface located away from the edge of models and the chains formed by disaccharide units prefer helix-like conformation. This curling of PG chains significantly affects the shape of antibiotic-accessible surface and the process is thus crucial for new drug development. Glycopeptide antibiotics effective against Gram-positive bacteria, such as vancomycin and its semisynthetic derivatives-oritavancin and telavancin, bind to d-alanyl-d-alanine stem termini on the peptidoglycan precursors of the cell wall. This binding inhibits cross-linking between the peptides and subsequently prevents cell wall synthesis. In this study some of the aspects of conformational freedom of vancomycin and restrictions from the modifications of vancomycin structure introduced into oritavancin and telavancin and five other vancomycin derivatives (with addition of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-galactopyranosylamine, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranosylamine, 1-amine-1-deoxy-d-glucitol, 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-galactitol, or 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucitol to the C-terminal amino acid group in the vancomycin) are presented and discussed. The resulting molecular dynamics trajectories, root mean square deviation changes of aglycon and saccharide moieties as well as a comparative study of possible interactions with cyclic and chain forms of modified groups have been carried out, measured, and analyzed. Energetically advantageous conformations show close similarity to the structures known from the experimental data, but the diversity of others suggest very high conformational freedom of all modeled antibiotics and vancomycin derivatives. Alditol derivatives move closer to the peptidoglycan chain more easily but they also form intramolecular interactions more frequently than their homologous cyclic forms. One of the proposed derivatives seems to be a promising agent which is efficient in treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24685455

?lusarz, Rafa?; Szulc, Monika; Madaj, Janusz

2014-05-01

218

Antibiotic management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacterial infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive cocci, in particular Staphylococcus aureus, account for as much as one-third of all cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia, and treatment has become increasingly complex\\u000a as the proportion of resistant isolates has increased. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is of particular concern because this pathogen is now associated with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, community-acquired,\\u000a and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia is challenging because

M. H. Kollef

2005-01-01

219

Complete Genome Sequences of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis Laboratory Strains JH642 (AG174) and AG1839  

E-print Network

The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used for studies of cellular and molecular processes. We announce the complete genomic sequences of strain AG174, our stock of the commonly used strain JH642, and ...

Smith, Janet L.

220

Role for intracellular platelet-activating factor in the circulatory failure in a model of gram-positive shock.  

PubMed Central

1. This study investigates the effects of two structurally different antagonists of platelet-activating factor (PAF), BN52021 and WEB2086, on the circulatory and renal failure elicited by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus (an organism without endotoxin) in anaesthetized rats. 2. Administration of LTA (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline (1 microgram kg-1, i.v.) WEB2086 (5 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min before and 150 min after LTA) inhibited the delayed fall in mean arterial blood pressure (at 300 min: 99 +/- 6 mmHg vs. 75 +/- 6 mmHg, P < 0.01) and prevented the decrease in pressor response to noradrenaline (at 300 min: 36 +/- 5 mmHg min vs. 17 +/- 5 mmHg min, P < 0.01). Surprisingly, BN52021 (20 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min before and 150 min after LTA) neither prevented the hypotension (74 +/- 6 mmHg) nor the vascular hyporeactivity (21 +/- 5 mmHg min). However, BN52021 inhibited the hypotension to injections of PAF as well as the circulatory failure elicited by lipopolysaccharides (10 mg kg-1, i.v.). 3. LTA caused an increase in plasma concentration of creatinine from 39 +/- 5 microM (sham-operated) to 70 +/- 8 microM and urea from 4.7 +/- 0.1 to 13.1 +/- 1.6 mM. The renal failure elicited by LTA was significantly inhibited by WEB2086 (creatinine: 45 +/- 4 microM and urea: 5.7 +/- 0.7 mM), but not by BN52021. 4. The induction of nitric oxide synthase activity in lungs by LTA was attenuated by WEB2086 from 98 +/- 17 to 40 +/- 15 pmol L-citrulline 30 min-1 mg-1 protein (P < 0.01), but not by BN52021 (148 +/- 21 pmol L-citrulline 30 min-1 mg-1 protein). Similarly, WEB2086, but not BN52021, inhibited the increase in plasma nitrite concentration associated with the delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA. The release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after injection of LTA was not attenuated by WEB2086. 5. The induction of nitrite release by cultured macrophages activated with LTA (10 micrograms ml-1 for 24 h) was inhibited by 74 +/- 4% by WEB2086 (3 x 10(-4) M), but not by BN52021, indicating that only WEB2086 acts on intracellular PAF receptors. 6. Thus, the intracellular release of PAF contributes to the circulatory and renal failure and induction of nitric oxide synthase elicited by LTA in anaesthetized rats. The difference between the two structurally different PAF antagonists in our septic shock models using either LTA or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), shows the importance of models for Gram-positive sepsis in the elucidation of the pathophysiology of septic shock and for the evaluation of potential drugs. PMID:8719795

De Kimpe, S. J.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.

1995-01-01

221

A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Mas, Maria Angeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Inigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penades, Jose R.

2013-01-01

222

In vitro antibacterial activities of PD 138312 and PD 140248, new fluoronaphthyridines with outstanding gram-positive potency.  

PubMed Central

PD 138312 and PD 140248 are new quinolones with high in vitro activities against a wide spectrum of bacterial species, notably including gram-positive isolates. The respective MICs (in micrograms per milliliter) of PD 138312 and PD 140248 capable of inhibiting > or = 90% of the strains were < or = 0.06 and < or = 0.06 for oxacillin-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci, streptococci (including Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and viridans group streptococci), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 0.125 and 0.03 for Legionella pneumophila; 0.25 and 0.125 for Listeria monocytogenes; 0.25 and 0.25 for Enterococcus faecalis; 0.5 and 0.06 for anaerobic gram-positive cocci; 0.5 and 0.25 for Acinetobacter spp.; 0.5 and 0.5 for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (excluding Serratia marcescens); 2 and 0.5 for Bacteroides fragilis; 2 and 2 for Serratia marcescens and ciprofloxacin-resistant staphylococci; and 8 and 4 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:8109918

Huband, M D; Cohen, M A; Meservey, M A; Roland, G E; Yoder, S L; Dazer, M E; Domagala, J M

1993-01-01

223

Performances of VITEK 2 Colorimetric Cards for Identification of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Thepurpose of this study was to evaluate the new VITEK 2 identification cards that use colorimetric reading to identify gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (GP and GN cards, respectively) in comparison to fluorimetric cards (ID-GPC and ID-GNB, respectively). A total of 580 clinical isolates and stock collection strains belonging to 116 taxa were included in the study. Of the 249 gram-positive strains tested with both the ID-GPC and GP cards, 218 (87.5%) and 235 (94.4%) strains were correctly identified (to the genus and species level), respectively. Of the 331 gram-negative strains tested with the ID-GNB and GN cards, 295 (89.1%) and 321 (97%) strains were correctly identified, respectively. Another focus of the study was to apply the percentages of correct identifications obtained in this study to the list of bacteria isolated in our laboratory (32,739 isolates) in the year 2004. We obtained 97.9% correct identifications with the colorimetric cards and 93.9% with fluorescent cards. PMID:16145083

Wallet, Frederic; Loiez, Caroline; Renaux, Emilie; Lemaitre, Nadine; Courcol, Rene J.

2005-01-01

224

A Type Ib ParB Protein Involved in Plasmid Partitioning in a Gram-Positive Bacterium?  

PubMed Central

Our current understanding of segregation of prokaryotic plasmids has been derived mainly from the study of the gram-negative bacterial plasmids. We previously reported a replicon of the cryptic plasmid from a gram-positive bacterium, Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis. The replicon contains a putative plasmid partition cassette including a Walker-type ATPase followed by open reading frame 4 without sequence homologue. Here we reported that the orf4 gene was essential for maintaining the plasmid stability in L. xyli subsp. cynodontis. Furthermore, the purified orf4 protein specifically and cooperatively bound to direct repeat sequences located upstream of the parA gene in vitro, indicating that orf4 is a parB gene and that the direct repeat DNA sequences constitute a partition site, parS. The location of parS and the features of ParA and ParB proteins suggest that this plasmid partition cassette belongs to type Ib, representing the first type Ib cassette identified from a gram-positive bacterial plasmid. PMID:16997970

Yin, Ping; Li, Tai-Yuan; Xie, Mao-Hua; Jiang, Lina; Zhang, Yi

2006-01-01

225

Relationship Between Antimicrobial Drug Usage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Gram-Positive Mastitis Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze relation- ships between usage of antimicrobial drugs on dairy farmsandresults ofantimicrobialsusceptibilitytesting of mastitis pathogens. Exposure to selected antimicro- bial drugs (n = 10) was standardized by calculation of the number of defined daily doses used per cow. Farms (n = 40) were categorizedbased on amount of antimicro- bial exposure: organic (no usage);

M. Pol; P. L. Ruegg

2007-01-01

226

Phosphorylation of the Response Regulator CheV Is Required for Adaptation to Attractants during Bacillus subtilis Chemotaxis*  

E-print Network

Bacillus subtilis Chemotaxis* Received for publication, May 30, 2001, and in revised form, September 11 of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 In the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis kinase CheA (5, 6). In Bacillus subti- lis, the autophosphorylating activity of CheA is up

Ordal, George W.

227

Antimicrobial activity of daptomycin tested against gram-positive strains collected in European hospitals: results from 7 years of resistance surveillance (2003-2009).  

PubMed

Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide approved by the European medicines Agency (EMEA) for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI) and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis. We evaluated the in vitro activity of daptomycin and comparators tested against clinical isolates from european hospitals over a 7-year period (2003-2009). A total of 36,769 consecutive isolates were collected in 34 medical centers located in 13 European countries, Turkey and Israel. the collection included S. aureus (18,352; 27.2% oxacillin-resistant [MRSA]); coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 6,874), Enterococcus spp. (7,241; 9.4% vancomycin-resistant), ?-hemolytic (3,009), viridans group streptococci (1,176), and Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus (107). The organisms were isolated mainly from patients with bloodstream infection (56%) or cSSTI (23%). Daptomycin was very active against S. aureus and CoNS (MIC(50/90), 0.25/0.5 mg/l for both organisms), and its activity was not adversely influenced by oxacillin resistance. All Enterococcus faecalis strains were susceptible to daptomycin (MIC(50/90), 1/1 mg/l). Daptomycin (MIC(50/90), 2/2 mg/l; 100.0% susceptible) and linezolid (MIC(50/90), 1/2 mg/l; 99.7% susceptible) were the most active agents tested against vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. Vancomycin- resistant and -susceptible enterococcal strains were equally susceptible to daptomycin. Daptomycin was also active against ?-hemolytic streptococci (MIC(50/90), 0.06/0.25 mg/l; 100.0% susceptible), viridans group streptococci (MIC(50/90), 0.25/0.5 mg/l; 99.8% susceptible) and S. bovis (MIC(50/90), 0.06/0.12 mg/l; 100.0% susceptible).In summary, daptomycin was very potent against this large collection (36,769) of Gram-positive organisms isolated in european hospitals, and its activity remained stable across the 7-year period evaluated (2003-2009), using reference methods and interpretive criteria. Decreases in daptomycin potency were not observed since EMEA approval and widespread clinical use, and emerging resistance to other compounds did not adversely influence daptomycin activity against contemporary Gram-positive species. PMID:21803696

Sader, H S; Farrell, D J; Jones, R N

2011-08-01

228

A Nonsynonymous Polymorphism of IRAK4 Associated with Increased Prevalence of Gram-Positive Infection and Decreased Response to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in IRAK4 have been associated with recurrent Gram-positive infections in children. Given the central role of IRAK4 in innate immunity signaling, we hypothesized that common genetic variants of IRAK4 may be associated with prevalence of Gram-positive infection in critically ill adults. Haplotype clade tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IRAK4 gene were selected and genotyped in a cohort

Ainsley M. Sutherland; Keith R. Walley; Taka-aki Nakada; Andy H. P. Sham; Mark M. Wurfel; James A. Russell

2011-01-01

229

In vitro antimicrobial activity of GAR936 tested against antibiotic-resistant gram-positive blood stream infection isolates and strains producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases  

Microsoft Academic Search

GAR-936, a new, semisynthetic glycylcycline, has shown good antibacterial activity against a wide range of clinically important Gram-positive and –negative aerobic bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae,Hemophilus influenzae,Moraxella catarrhalis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, most Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of GAR-936 against a range of Gram-positive and –negative bloodstream isolates including many strains producing

Douglas J Biedenbach; Mondell L Beach; Ronald N Jones

2001-01-01

230

Bacillus anthracis genome organization in light of whole transcriptome sequencing  

SciTech Connect

Emerging knowledge of whole prokaryotic transcriptomes could validate a number of theoretical concepts introduced in the early days of genomics. What are the rules connecting gene expression levels with sequence determinants such as quantitative scores of promoters and terminators? Are translation efficiency measures, e.g. codon adaptation index and RBS score related to gene expression? We used the whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of a bacterial pathogen Bacillus anthracis to assess correlation of gene expression level with promoter, terminator and RBS scores, codon adaptation index, as well as with a new measure of gene translational efficiency, average translation speed. We compared computational predictions of operon topologies with the transcript borders inferred from RNA-Seq reads. Transcriptome mapping may also improve existing gene annotation. Upon assessment of accuracy of current annotation of protein-coding genes in the B. anthracis genome we have shown that the transcriptome data indicate existence of more than a hundred genes missing in the annotation though predicted by an ab initio gene finder. Interestingly, we observed that many pseudogenes possess not only a sequence with detectable coding potential but also promoters that maintain transcriptional activity.

Martin, Jeffrey; Zhu, Wenhan; Passalacqua, Karla D.; Bergman, Nicholas; Borodovsky, Mark

2010-03-22

231

Bacillus anthracis genome organization in light of whole transcriptome sequencing  

PubMed Central

Emerging knowledge of whole prokaryotic transcriptomes could validate a number of theoretical concepts introduced in the early days of genomics. What are the rules connecting gene expression levels with sequence determinants such as quantitative scores of promoters and terminators? Are translation efficiency measures, e.g. codon adaptation index and RBS score related to gene expression? We used the whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of a bacterial pathogen Bacillus anthracis to assess correlation of gene expression level with promoter, terminator and RBS scores, codon adaptation index, as well as with a new measure of gene translational efficiency, average translation speed. We compared computational predictions of operon topologies with the transcript borders inferred from RNA-Seq reads. Transcriptome mapping may also improve existing gene annotation. Upon assessment of accuracy of current annotation of protein-coding genes in the B. anthracis genome we have shown that the transcriptome data indicate existence of more than a hundred genes missing in the annotation though predicted by an ab initio gene finder. Interestingly, we observed that many pseudogenes possess not only a sequence with detectable coding potential but also promoters that maintain transcriptional activity. PMID:20438648

2010-01-01

232

Evaluation of the VITEK 2 System for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Medically Relevant Gram-Positive Cocci  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted to evaluate the new VITEK 2 system (bioMérieux) for identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of gram-positive cocci. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n = 100), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (n = 100), Enterococcus spp. (n = 89), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 29), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 66) were examined with the ID-GPC identification card and with the AST-P515 (for staphylococci), AST-P516 (for enterococci and S. agalactiae) and AST-P506 (for pneumococci) susceptibility cards. The identification comparison methods were the API Staph for staphylococci and the API 20 Strep for streptococci and enterococci; for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, the agar dilution method according to the procedure of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) was used. The VITEK 2 system correctly identified to the species level (only one choice or after simple supplementary tests) 99% of S. aureus, 96.5% of S. agalactiae, 96.9% of S. pneumoniae, 92.7% of Enterococcus faecalis, 91.3% of Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and 88% of Staphylococcus epidermidis but was least able to identify Enterococcus faecium (71.4% correct). More than 90% of gram-positive cocci were identified within 3 h. According to the NCCLS breakpoints, antimicrobial susceptibility testing with the VITEK 2 system gave 96% correct category agreement, 0.82% very major errors, 0.17% major errors, and 2.7% minor errors. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed category agreement from 94 to 100% for S. aureus, from 90 to 100% for CNS, from 91 to 100% for enterococci, from 96 to 100% for S. agalactiae, and from 91 to 100% for S. pneumoniae. Microorganism-antibiotic combinations that gave very major errors were CNS-erythromycin, CNS-oxacillin, enterococci-teicoplanin, and enterococci-high-concentration gentamicin. Major errors were observed for CNS-oxacillin and S. agalactiae-tetracycline combinations. In conclusion the results of this study indicate that the VITEK 2 system represents an accurate and acceptable means for performing identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests with medically relevant gram-positive cocci. PMID:11980942

Ligozzi, Marco; Bernini, Cinzia; Bonora, Maria Grazia; de Fatima, Maria; Zuliani, Jessica; Fontana, Roberta

2002-01-01

233

Isolation and Characterization of Four Gram-PositiveNickel-Tolerant Microorganisms from Contaminated Riparian Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities from riparian sediments contaminatedwith high levels of Ni and U were examined for metal-tolerantmicroorganisms. Isolation of four aerobic Ni-tolerant, Gram-positiveheterotrophic bacteria indicated selection pressure from Ni. Theseisolates were identified as Arthrobacter oxydans NR-1, Streptomycesgalbus NR-2, Streptomyces aureofaciens NR-3, and Kitasatosporacystarginea NR-4 based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. A functional genemicroarray containing gene probes for functions associated withbiogeochemical cycling, metal homeostasis, and organic contaminantdegradation showed little overlap among the four isolates. Fifteen of thegenes were detected in all four isolates with only two of these relatedto metal resistance, specifically to tellurium. Each of the four isolatesalso displayed resistance to at least one of six antibiotics tested, withresistance to kanamycin, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin observed in atleast two of the isolates. Further characterization of S. aureofaciensNR-3 and K. cystarginea NR-4 demonstrated that both isolates expressed Nitolerance constitutively. In addition, both were able to grow in higherconcentrations of Ni at pH 6 as compared to pH 7 (42.6 and 8.5 mM Ni atpH 6 and 7, respectively). Tolerance to Cd, Co, and Zn was also examinedin these two isolates; a similar pH-dependent metal tolerance wasobserved when grown with Co and Zn. Neither isolate was tolerant to Cd.These findings suggest that Ni is exerting a selection pressure at thissite for metal-resistant actinomycetes.

Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Khijniak, Tatiana V.; Gentry, Terry J.; Novak, Michelle T.; Sowder, Andrew G.; Zhou, Jizhong Z.; Bertsch, PaulM.; Morris, Pamela J.

2006-08-30

234

A role for the Bacillus subtilis Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (BsSMC) protein in chromosome organization and compaction  

E-print Network

All cells must compact their chromosomes in order for the DNA to fit inside the cell or nucleus. In Bacillus subtilis, and other bacteria, replication occurs simultaneously with the organization, compaction and segregation ...

Lindow, Janet C. (Janet Christine), 1974-

2002-01-01

235

Amplifiable DNA from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by a low strength pulsed electric field method.  

PubMed

An efficient electric field-based procedure for cell disruption and DNA isolation is described. Isoosmotic suspensions of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were treated with pulsed electric fields of <60 V/cm. Pulses had an exponential decay waveform with a time constant of 3.4 micros. DNA yield was linearly dependent on time or pulse number, with several thousand pulses needed. Electrochemical side-effects and electrophoresis were minimal. The lysates contained non-fragmented DNA which was readily amplifiable by PCR. As the method was not limited to samples of high specific resistance, it should be applicable to physiological fluids and be useful for genomic and DNA diagnostic applications. PMID:10734214

Vitzthum, F; Geiger, G; Bisswanger, H; Elkine, B; Brunner, H; Bernhagen, J

2000-04-15

236

Gram-positive bacteria are a major reservoir of Class 1 antibiotic resistance integrons in poultry litter  

PubMed Central

Reversing the spread of antibiotic multiresistant bacteria is hampered by ignorance of the natural history of resistance genes, the mobile elements carrying them, and the bacterial hosts harboring them. Using traditional cultivation and cultivation-independent molecular techniques, we quantified antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements called integrons in poultry house litter from commercial poultry farms. Unexpectedly, the major reservoir for Class 1 integrons in poultry litter is not their previously identified hosts, Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli. Rather, integrons and associated resistance genes abound in several genera of Gram-positive bacteria that constitute >85% of the litter community compared with Enterobacteriaceae that comprise <2% of this ecosystem. This finding warrants reexamination of our assumptions about the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:15107498

Nandi, Sobhan; Maurer, John J.; Hofacre, Charles; Summers, Anne O.

2004-01-01

237

Evidence for high affinity binding-protein dependent transport systems in gram-positive bacteria and in Mycoplasma.  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by two membranes. In these bacteria, a class of high affinity transport systems for concentrating substrates from the medium into the cell, involves a binding protein located between the outer and inner membranes, in the periplasmic region. These 'periplasmic binding-proteins' are thought to bind the substrate in the vicinity of the inner membrane, and to transfer it to a complex of inner membrane proteins for concentration into the cytoplasm. We report evidence leading us to propose that a Gram-positive bacterium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and a mycoplasma, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, which are surrounded by a single membrane and have therefore no periplasmic region, possess an equivalent to the high affinity periplasmic binding-protein dependent transport systems, i.e. extra-cytoplasmic binding lipoprotein dependent transport systems. The 'binding lipoproteins' would be maintained at proximity of the inner membrane by insertion of their N-terminal glyceride-cysteine into this membrane. Images PMID:3208757

Gilson, E; Alloing, G; Schmidt, T; Claverys, J P; Dudler, R; Hofnung, M

1988-01-01

238

Genome Sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, Antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus Group, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented-Soybean Food  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens. PMID:22207744

Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun

2012-01-01

239

In vitro activity of cephalosporin RWJ-54428 (MC-02479) against multidrug-resistant gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed

RWJ-54428 (MC-02479) is a novel cephalosporin that binds to penicillin-binding protein (PBP) PBP 2' (PBP 2a) of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Its in vitro activity was assessed against 472 gram-positive cocci, largely selected as epidemiologically unrelated isolates with multidrug resistance. The MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(50)) and MIC(90) of RWJ-54428 for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were 1 and 2 microg/ml, respectively, whereas they were 0.5 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively, for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) were 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively, for methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), whereas they were 0.25 and 1 microg/ml, respectively, for methicillin-susceptible isolates. The highest MICs for MRSA and MRCoNS isolates were 2 and 4 microg/ml, respectively. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) of RWJ-54428 for Enterococcus faecalis were 0.5 and 1 microg/ml, respectively, but they were 4 and 8 microg/ml, respectively, for Enterococcus faecium. For penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant pneumococci, the MIC(90)s of RWJ-54428 were 0.03, 0.25, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively, with the highest MIC for a pneumococcus being 1 microg/ml, recorded for a strain for which penicillin and cefotaxime MICs were 8 and 4 microg/ml. MICs for Lancefield group A, B, C, and G streptococci were < or =0.008 microg/ml; those for viridans group streptococci, including isolates not susceptible to penicillin, were from 0.015 to 0.5 microg/ml. RWJ-54428 did not select resistant mutants of MRSA or enterococci in challenge experiments and has the potential to be useful for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive cocci. PMID:11796337

Johnson, Alan P; Warner, Marina; Carter, Michael; Livermore, David M

2002-02-01

240

In Vitro Activity of Cephalosporin RWJ-54428 (MC-02479) against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive Cocci  

PubMed Central

RWJ-54428 (MC-02479) is a novel cephalosporin that binds to penicillin-binding protein (PBP) PBP 2? (PBP 2a) of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Its in vitro activity was assessed against 472 gram-positive cocci, largely selected as epidemiologically unrelated isolates with multidrug resistance. The MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50) and MIC90 of RWJ-54428 for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were 1 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively, whereas they were 0.5 and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively, for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. The MIC50 and MIC90 were 1 and 4 ?g/ml, respectively, for methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), whereas they were 0.25 and 1 ?g/ml, respectively, for methicillin-susceptible isolates. The highest MICs for MRSA and MRCoNS isolates were 2 and 4 ?g/ml, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of RWJ-54428 for Enterococcus faecalis were 0.5 and 1 ?g/ml, respectively, but they were 4 and 8 ?g/ml, respectively, for Enterococcus faecium. For penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant pneumococci, the MIC90s of RWJ-54428 were 0.03, 0.25, and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively, with the highest MIC for a pneumococcus being 1 ?g/ml, recorded for a strain for which penicillin and cefotaxime MICs were 8 and 4 ?g/ml. MICs for Lancefield group A, B, C, and G streptococci were ?0.008 ?g/ml; those for viridans group streptococci, including isolates not susceptible to penicillin, were from 0.015 to 0.5 ?g/ml. RWJ-54428 did not select resistant mutants of MRSA or enterococci in challenge experiments and has the potential to be useful for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive cocci. PMID:11796337

Johnson, Alan P.; Warner, Marina; Carter, Michael; Livermore, David M.

2002-01-01

241

A high frequency of MDSCs in sepsis patients, with the granulocytic subtype dominating in gram-positive cases.  

PubMed

The causative microorganisms dictate the type of MDSC generated in sepsis patients, and a large proportion of PMN-MDSCs in gram-positive sepsis includes immunosuppressive myeloid blasts. MDSCs constitute a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that potently suppress immune responses. They were identified originally in cancer patients and have since been reported to occur also in chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, and even bacterial infections. Human MDSCs are commonly divided into Mo-MDSCs and granulocytic (PMN-MDSCs) subtypes. To what extent the bona fide cancer MDSCs are representative of the proposed MDSCs found in other diseases is not well known. PMN-MDSCs have been found previously to be enriched among LDGs in density gradient-centrifuged blood. In this study, we analyzed potential MDSCs in sepsis patients with different causative microorganisms, using total peripheral blood compared with density gradient-centrifuged blood. We found a high frequency of typical CD14(+)HLA-DR(low) Mo-MDSCs in all sepsis patients, whereas the typical PMN-MDSCs, as well as a prominent CD14(low) PMN-MDSC-like population, appeared preferentially in gram-positive cases. The CD14(low) PMN-MDSC variant was demonstrated to suppress T cell proliferation in vitro via a ROS-dependent mechanism, to display an increased IL-10:TNF-? ratio, and to present with signs of immaturity: blast morphology and low cytokine levels. We conclude that a spectrum of cells with MDSC features is enriched in sepsis and that the microbial origin of sepsis contributes to the substantial interindividual patient variation in the MDSC pattern. PMID:24929004

Janols, Helena; Bergenfelz, Caroline; Allaoui, Roni; Larsson, Anna-Maria; Rydén, Lisa; Björnsson, Sven; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Wullt, Marlene; Bredberg, Anders; Leandersson, Karin

2014-11-01

242

Heterogeneity within the gram-positive anaerobic cocci demonstrated by analysis of 16S-23S intergenic ribosomal RNA polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Peptostreptococci are gram-positive, strictly anaerobic bacteria which, although regarded as members of the commensal human microflora, are also frequently isolated from sites of clinical infection. The study of this diverse group of opportunist pathogens has been hindered by an inadequate taxonomy and the lack of a valid identification scheme. Recent re-classification of the Peptostreptococcus family into five distinct genus groups has helped to clarify the situation. However, this has been on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence determinations, which are both time-consuming and expensive. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA spacer polymorphisms for the rapid differentiation of the currently recognised taxa within the group of anaerobic gram-positive cocci. A collection comprising 19 reference strains with representatives of each of the 15 species, two close relatives and two of the well-characterised groups, together with 38 test strains was studied. All strains were identified to species group level by phenotypic means. Amplification of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (ISR) with universal primers produced distinct banding patterns for all the 19 reference strains and the patterns could be differentiated easily visually. However, of the 38 test strains, less than half could be speciated from ISR analysis alone. Only five groups produced correlating banding patterns for all members tested (Peptoniphilus lacrimalis, P. ivorii, Anaerococcus octavius, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Micromonas micros). For other species, either the type strain differed significantly from other species members (e.g., A. hydrogenalis) or there appeared to be considerable intra-species variation (e.g., A. vaginalis). Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences for the 'trisimilis' and 'betaGAL' groups showed that both are most closely related to the Anaerococcus group. This work highlights the heterogeneous nature of a number of Peptostreptococcus species and hence the need for still further revision of the taxonomy of this important group of pathogens. PMID:12448679

Hill, K E; Davies, C E; Wilson, M J; Stephens, P; Lewis, M A O; Hall, V; Brazier, J; Thomas, D W

2002-11-01

243

Selective adsorption of heterophile polyglycerophosphate antigen from antigen extracts of Streptococcus mutans and other gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Hot saline extracts of Streptococcus mutans have been shown to contain antigenic substances which occasionally react nonspecifically with some antisera against whole cells of various serological groups and types of streptococci. Chromatography of the extract of S. mutans strain MT703 (serotype e) on a diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 column gave two principal antigens. One antigen was eluted without adsorption to the resin and was identified as the serotype-specific polysaccharide. The other antigen, which contained a large quantity of phosphorus, was absorbed to and released from the resin by gradient elution. It was reactive against the antisera specific for polyglycerophosphate (PGP) from group A Streptococcus pyogenes and/or S. mutans strain Ingbritt (type c). The PGP antigen was further purified by gel filtration with Sephadex G-75. Two peaks, PGP-1, and PGP-2, were obtained. Each possessed the same antigenic specificity to anti-PGP serum as shown by immunodiffusion. Chemical analyses revealed that the molar ratio of phosphorus to glycerol in both was about 1:1, although the protein content between the two was significantly different. PGP antigen was found to be widely distributed in hot saline extracts from various gram-positive bacteria, with a few exceptions. However, all gram-negative bacteria examined were free of PGP. The PGP in the hot saline extracts of various gram-positive bacteria possessed an essentially identical antigenic specificity. The addition of diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 resin to hot saline extracts successfully removed the cross-reacting PGP antigen. After adsorption of the extract from S. mutans, the supernatant contained only type-specific polysaccharide antigen, except type b, in which both type b-specific polysaccharide and PGP antigens were absorbed with the resin. This simple procedure should be useful for the removal of the PGP-type teichoic acid from antigen extracts of bacteria that contain uncharged polysaccharides. Images PMID:825468

Hamada, S; Tai, S; Slade, H D

1976-01-01

244

Size-dependent antimicrobial properties of CuO nanoparticles against Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

Background CuO is one of the most important transition metal oxides due to its captivating properties. It is used in various technological applications such as high critical temperature superconductors, gas sensors, in photoconductive applications, and so on. Recently, it has been used as an antimicrobial agent against various bacterial species. Here we synthesized different sized CuO nanoparticles and explored the size-dependent antibacterial activity of each CuO nanoparticles preparation. Methods CuO nanoparticles were synthesized using a gel combustion method. In this approach, cupric nitrate trihydrate and citric acid were dissolved in distilled water with a molar ratio of 1:1. The resulting solution was stirred at 100°C, until gel was formed. The gel was allowed to burn at 200°C to obtain amorphous powder, which was further annealed at different temperatures to obtain different size CuO nanoparticles. We then tested the antibacterial properties using well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. Results XRD spectra confirmed the formation of single phase CuO nanoparticles. Crystallite size was found to increase with an increase in annealing temperature due to atomic diffusion. A minimum crystallite size of 20 nm was observed in the case of CuO nanoparticles annealed at 400°C. Transmission electron microscopy results corroborate well with XRD results. All CuO nanoparticles exhibited inhibitory effects against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The size of the particles was correlated with its antibacterial activity. Conclusion The antibacterial activity of CuO nanoparticles was found to be size-dependent. In addition, the highly stable minimum-sized monodispersed copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized during this study demonstrated a significant increase in antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains. PMID:22848176

Azam, Ameer; Ahmed, Arham S; Oves, M; Khan, MS; Memic, Adnan

2012-01-01

245

Molecular, technological and safety characterization of Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from slightly fermented sausages.  

PubMed

The population of Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from slightly fermented sausages was characterized at species and strain level by molecular techniques and some technological and hygienic aspects were also considered. Staphylococcus xylosus was the predominant species (80.8%) followed by Staphylococcus warneri (8.3%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.8%) Staphylococcus carnosus (4.6%), and Kocuria varians (0.4%). Proteolytic activity was observed in 23% of the isolates. The species with the highest percentage of proteolytic strains was S. warneri. Lipolytic activity was found in 45.8% of the isolates and S. xylosus was the species with the highest percentage of lipolytic isolates. Biogenic amine production was not widely distributed (only 14.6% of the isolates). Tyramine was the most intense amine produced, although by only 4.6% of the isolates. Phenylethylamine was more frequently detected (10.8% of isolates) but at lower levels. Some strains also produced putrescine (3.3%), cadaverine (2.9%), histamine (1.3%) and tryptamine (0.4%). All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and vancomicin and over 70% were resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin and sulphonamides. Most of the mecA+ strains (only 4.6% of isolates) also displayed resistance to multiple antibiotics. A reduced enterotoxigenic potential was found. Only 3.3% of isolates showed staphylococcal enterotoxins genes, all identified as entC gene. The combination of RAPD-PCR and plasmid profiling allowed the discrimination of 208 different profiles among the 240 Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci characterized, indicating a great genetic variability. PMID:16297478

Martín, B; Garriga, M; Hugas, M; Bover-Cid, S; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Aymerich, T

2006-03-15

246

YabA of Bacillus subtilis controls DnaA-mediated replication initiation but not the transcriptional response to replication stress  

E-print Network

yabA encodes a negative regulator of replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis and homologues are found in many other Gram-positive species. YabA interacts with the ?-processivity clamp (DnaN) of DNA polymerase and with ...

Grossman, Alan D.

247

Induction of nitric oxide production by polyosides from the cell walls of Streptococcus mutans OMZ 175, a gram-positive bacterium, in the rat aorta.  

PubMed Central

The cardiovascular dysfunctions associated with septic shock induced by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria (gram-positive or gram-negative septic shock) are comparable. In gram-negative septic shock, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces nitric oxide (NO) synthase, which contributes to the vascular hypotension and hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors. The role of NO in gram-positive septic shock and the nature of the bacterial wall components responsible for the vascular effects of gram-positive bacteria are not well known. This study investigated the vascular effects of cell wall serotype polyosides, rhamnose glucose polymers (RGPs), from Streptococcus mutans, in comparison with lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus, on the induction of NO synthase activity in the rat aorta. We show that 10 microg of both RGPs and LTA per ml induced hyporeactivity to noradrenaline, L-arginine-induced relaxation, increases of 2.2- and 7.8-fold, respectively, of cyclic GMP production, and increases of 7- and 12-fold in nitrite release. All of these effects appeared after several hours of incubation and were inhibited by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping experiments demonstrated directly that RGPs and LTA induced NO overproduction (four- to eightfold, respectively) in rat aortic rings; this production was inhibited by L-NAME and prevented by dexamethasone. These results demonstrate directly the induction of NO production in vascular tissue by LTA and show that another, chemically different component of gram-positive bacteria can also have these properties. This result suggests that different components of the gram-positive bacterial wall could be implicated in the genesis of cardiovascular dysfunctions observed in gram-positive septic shock. PMID:9169734

Martin, V; Kleschyov, A L; Klein, J P; Beretz, A

1997-01-01

248

Identification of a Ligand on the Wip1 Bacteriophage Highly Specific for a Receptor on Bacillus anthracis  

PubMed Central

Tectiviridae is a family of tailless bacteriophages with Gram-negative and Gram-positive hosts. The family model PRD1 and its close relatives all infect a broad range of enterobacteria by recognizing a plasmid-encoded conjugal transfer complex as a receptor. In contrast, tectiviruses with Gram-positive hosts are highly specific to only a few hosts within the same bacterial species. The cellular determinants that account for the observed specificity remain unknown. Here we present the genome sequence of Wip1, a tectivirus that infects the pathogen Bacillus anthracis. The Wip1 genome is related to other tectiviruses with Gram-positive hosts, notably, AP50, but displays some interesting differences in its genome organization. We identified Wip1 candidate genes for the viral spike complex, the structure located at the capsid vertices and involved in host receptor binding. Phage adsorption and inhibition tests were combined with immunofluorescence microscopy to show that the Wip1 gene product p23 is a receptor binding protein. His-p23 also formed a stable complex with p24, a Wip1 protein of unknown function, suggesting that the latter is involved with p23 in host cell recognition. The narrow host range of phage Wip1 and the identification of p23 as a receptor binding protein offer a new range of suitable tools for the rapid identification of B. anthracis. PMID:23893110

Kan, Sherry; Fornelos, Nadine; Schuch, Raymond

2013-01-01

249

Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies  

SciTech Connect

The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

1996-07-30

250

Minimal antibiotic concentrations of aminoglycosides and beta-lactam antibiotics for some gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed

The minimal antibiotic concentration (MAC) is the lowest concentration of an antibacterial agent that produces a decrease of 1 log in the number of organisms/ml as compared with a control culture in drug-free medium. Various gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci were grown in the presence of amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, and cefamandole at concentrations varying from eight times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to 1/128 of the MIC. Colony forming units (cfu) were counted, the MIC was determined, and the MIC:MAC ratio, which indicates the magnitude of the effective range, was calculated. The MIC:MAC ratio appears to be characteristic for a given species and antibiotic. There is no relation between the MICs and the MIC:MAC ratios. The highest ratios were given by Proteus mirabilis with aminoglycosides (MIC:MAC mean, 29.2 with tobramycin), and the lowest ratios were given with beta-lactam antibiotics by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus faecalis (MIC:MAC means, 2.1 with carbenicillin and cefamandole, respectively). PMID:108345

Lorian, V; De Freitas, C C

1979-05-01

251

Molecular and structural basis of glutathione import in Gram-positive bacteria via GshT and the cystine ABC importer TcyBC of Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH) protects cells against oxidative injury and maintains a range of vital functions across all branches of life. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the transport mechanisms responsible for maintaining the spatiotemporal homeostasis of GSH and its conjugates in eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, the molecular and structural basis of GSH import into Gram-positive bacteria has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we employ genetic, biochemical and structural studies to investigate a possible glutathione import axis in Streptococcus mutans, an organism that has hitherto served as a model system. We show that GshT, a type 3 solute binding protein, displays physiologically relevant affinity for GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG). The crystal structure of GshT in complex with GSSG reveals a collapsed structure whereby the GS-I-leg of GSSG is accommodated tightly via extensive interactions contributed by the N- and C-terminal lobes of GshT, while the GS-II leg extends to the solvent. This can explain the ligand promiscuity of GshT in terms of binding glutathione analogues with substitutions at the cysteine-sulfur or the glycine-carboxylate. Finally, we show that GshT primes glutathione import via the L-cystine ABC transporter TcyBC, a membrane permease, which had previously exclusively been associated with the transport of L-cystine. PMID:23701283

Vergauwen, Bjorn; Verstraete, Kenneth; Senadheera, Dilani B; Dansercoer, Ann; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G; Guédon, Eric; Savvides, Savvas N

2013-07-01

252

Granular Layer in the Periplasmic Space of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Fine Structures of Enterococcus gallinarum and Streptococcus gordonii Septa Revealed by Cryo-Electron Microscopy of Vitreous Sections  

PubMed Central

High-resolution structural information on optimally preserved bacterial cells can be obtained with cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections. With the help of this technique, the existence of a periplasmic space between the plasma membrane and the thick peptidoglycan layer of the gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus was recently shown. This raises questions about the mode of polymerization of peptidoglycan. In the present study, we report the structure of the cell envelope of three gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis, Streptococcus gordonii, and Enterococcus gallinarum). In the three cases, a previously undescribed granular layer adjacent to the plasma membrane is found in the periplasmic space. In order to better understand how nascent peptidoglycan is incorporated into the mature peptidoglycan, we investigated cellular regions known to represent the sites of cell wall production. Each of these sites possesses a specific structure. We propose a hypothetic model of peptidoglycan polymerization that accommodates these differences: peptidoglycan precursors could be exported from the cytoplasm to the periplasmic space, where they could diffuse until they would interact with the interface between the granular layer and the thick peptidoglycan layer. They could then polymerize with mature peptidoglycan. We report cytoplasmic structures at the E. gallinarum septum that could be interpreted as cytoskeletal elements driving cell division (FtsZ ring). Although immunoelectron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy studies have demonstrated the septal and cytoplasmic localization of FtsZ, direct visualization of in situ FtsZ filaments has not been obtained in any electron microscopy study of fixed and dehydrated bacteria. PMID:16952957

Zuber, Benoit; Haenni, Marisa; Ribeiro, Tania; Minnig, Kathrin; Lopes, Fatima; Moreillon, Philippe; Dubochet, Jacques

2006-01-01

253

Granular layer in the periplasmic space of gram-positive bacteria and fine structures of Enterococcus gallinarum and Streptococcus gordonii septa revealed by cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections.  

PubMed

High-resolution structural information on optimally preserved bacterial cells can be obtained with cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections. With the help of this technique, the existence of a periplasmic space between the plasma membrane and the thick peptidoglycan layer of the gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus was recently shown. This raises questions about the mode of polymerization of peptidoglycan. In the present study, we report the structure of the cell envelope of three gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis, Streptococcus gordonii, and Enterococcus gallinarum). In the three cases, a previously undescribed granular layer adjacent to the plasma membrane is found in the periplasmic space. In order to better understand how nascent peptidoglycan is incorporated into the mature peptidoglycan, we investigated cellular regions known to represent the sites of cell wall production. Each of these sites possesses a specific structure. We propose a hypothetic model of peptidoglycan polymerization that accommodates these differences: peptidoglycan precursors could be exported from the cytoplasm to the periplasmic space, where they could diffuse until they would interact with the interface between the granular layer and the thick peptidoglycan layer. They could then polymerize with mature peptidoglycan. We report cytoplasmic structures at the E. gallinarum septum that could be interpreted as cytoskeletal elements driving cell division (FtsZ ring). Although immunoelectron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy studies have demonstrated the septal and cytoplasmic localization of FtsZ, direct visualization of in situ FtsZ filaments has not been obtained in any electron microscopy study of fixed and dehydrated bacteria. PMID:16952957

Zuber, Benoît; Haenni, Marisa; Ribeiro, Tânia; Minnig, Kathrin; Lopes, Fátima; Moreillon, Philippe; Dubochet, Jacques

2006-09-01

254

Antimicrobial photodynamic efficiency of novel cationic porphyrins towards periodontal Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum are major causative agents of aggressive periodontal disease. Due to increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy (aPDT) seems to be a plausible alternative. In this work, photosensitization was performed on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in pure culture using new-age cationic porphyrins, namely mesoimidazolium-substituted porphyrin derivative (ImP) and pyridinium-substituted porphyrin derivative (PyP). The photophysical properties of both the sensitizers including absorption, fluorescence emission, quantum yields of the triplet excited states and singlet oxygen generation efficiencies were evaluated in the context of aPDT application. The studied porphyrins exhibited high ability to accumulate into bacterial cells with complete penetration into early stage biofilms. As compared with ImP, PyP was found to be more effective for photoinactivation of bacterial strains associated with periodontitis, without any signs of dark toxicity, owing to its high photocytotoxicity. PMID:24164211

Prasanth, Chandra Sekhar; Karunakaran, Suneesh C; Paul, Albish K; Kussovski, Vesselin; Mantareva, Vanya; Ramaiah, Danaboyina; Selvaraj, Leslie; Angelov, Ivan; Avramov, Latchezar; Nandakumar, Krishnankutty; Subhash, Narayanan

2014-01-01

255

Transcriptional profiling of Gram-positive Arthrobacter in the phyllosphere: induction of pollutant degradation genes by natural plant phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus?A6 is a Gram-positive, 4-chlorophenol-degrading soil bacterium that was recently shown to be an effective colonizer of plant leaf surfaces. The genetic basis for this phyllosphere competency is unknown. In this paper, we describe the genome-wide expression profile of A.chlorophenolicus on leaves of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) compared with growth on agar surfaces. In phyllosphere-grown cells, we found elevated expression of several genes known to contribute to epiphytic fitness, for example those involved in nutrient acquisition, attachment, stress response and horizontal gene transfer. A surprising result was the leaf-induced expression of a subset of the so-called cph genes for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol. This subset encodes the conversion of the phenolic compound hydroquinone to 3-oxoadipate, and was shown to be induced not only by 4-chlorophenol but also hydroquinone, its glycosylated derivative arbutin, and phenol. Small amounts of hydroquinone, but not arbutin or phenol, were detected in leaf surface washes of P.vulgaris by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our findings illustrate the utility of genomics approaches for exploration and improved understanding of a microbial habitat. Also, they highlight the potential for phyllosphere-based priming of bacteria to stimulate pollutant degradation, which holds promise for the application of phylloremediation. PMID:24373130

Scheublin, Tanja R; Deusch, Simon; Moreno-Forero, Silvia K; Müller, Jochen A; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Leveau, Johan H J

2014-07-01

256

Use of Enzyme Tests in Characterization and Identification of Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci  

PubMed Central

The contribution of enzyme tests to the accurate and rapid routine identification of gram-positive cocci is introduced. The current taxonomy of the genera of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cocci based on genotypic and phenotypic characterization is reviewed. The clinical and economic importance of members of these taxa is briefly summarized. Tables summarizing test schemes and kits available for the identification of staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci on the basis of general requirements, number of tests, number of taxa, test classes, and completion times are discussed. Enzyme tests included in each scheme are compared on the basis of their synthetic moiety. The current understanding of the activity of enzymes important for classification and identification of the major groups, methods of testing, and relevance to the ease and speed of identification are reviewed. Publications describing the use of different identification kits are listed, and overall identification successes and problems are discussed. The relationships between the results of conventional biochemical and rapid enzyme tests are described and considered. The use of synthetic substrates for the detection of glycosidases and peptidases is reviewed, and the advantages of fluorogenic synthetic moieties are discussed. The relevance of enzyme tests to accurate and meaningful rapid routine identification is discussed. PMID:9564566

Bascomb, Shoshana; Manafi, Mammad

1998-01-01

257

Sustained generation of electricity by the spore-forming, Gram-positive, Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain DCB2.  

PubMed

Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain DCB2 generates electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) when humic acids or the humate analog anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) is added as an electron-carrying mediator. When utilizing formate as fuel, the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium generated up to 400 mW/m2 of cathode surface area in a single-chamber MFC with a platinum-containing air-fed cathode. Hydrogen, lactate, pyruvate, and ethanol supported electricity generation, but acetate, propionate, and butyrate did not. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that strain DCB2 colonized the surface of a current-generating anode but not of an unconnected electrode. The electricity was recovered fully within minutes after the exchange of the medium in the anode chamber and within a week after an exposure of a colonized anode to 90 degrees C for 20 min. Of the six strains of Desulfitobacteria tested, all of which would reduce AQDS, only D. hafniense strain DCB2 continued to reduce AQDS and generate electricity for more than 24 h, indicating that reduction of the humate analog alone is insufficient to sustain electrode reduction. PMID:17031638

Milliken, C E; May, H D

2007-01-01

258

Usefulness of the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system for identification of anaerobic Gram positive bacilli isolated from blood cultures  

PubMed Central

Using full 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing as the gold standard, 20 non?duplicating anaerobic Gram positive bacilli isolated from blood cultures were analysed by the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system. The MicroSeq system successfully identified 13 of the 20 isolates. Four and three isolates were misidentified at the genus and species level, respectively. Although the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system is better than three commercially available identification systems also evaluated, its database needs to be expanded for accurate identification of anaerobic Gram positive bacilli. PMID:16443743

Lau, S K P; Ng, K H L; Woo, P C Y; Yip, K-t; Fung, A M Y; Woo, G K S; Chan, K-m; Que, T-l

2006-01-01

259

Rapid Discrimination of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria in Liquid Samples by Using NaOH-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solution and Flow Cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background For precise diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI), and selection of the appropriate prescriptions for their treatment, we explored a simple and rapid method of discriminating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed the NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution conventionally used for plasmid extraction from Escherichia coli and the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation) for our novel method. The NaOH-SDS solution was used to determine differences in the cell wall structures between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, since the tolerance to such chemicals reflects the thickness and structural differences of bacterial cell walls. The UF-1000i instrument was used as a quantitative bacterial counter. We found that gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, in liquid culture could easily be lysed by direct addition of equal volumes of NaOH-SDS solution. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, which is a gram-positive bacterium, could not be completely lysed by the solution. We then optimized the reaction time of the NaOH-SDS treatment at room temperature by using 3 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial strains and determined that the optimum reaction time was 5 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the generalizability of this method, we treated 8 gram-positive strains and 8 gram-negative strains, or 4 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative strains incubated in voluntary urine from healthy volunteers in the same way and demonstrated that all the gram-positive bacteria were discriminated quantitatively from gram negative bacteria using this method. Conclusions/Significance Using our new method, we could easily discriminate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid culture media within 10 min. This simple and rapid method may be useful for determining the treatment course of patients with UTIs, especially for those without a prior history of UTIs. The method may be easily applied in order to obtain additional information for clinical prescriptions from bacteriuria. PMID:23077549

Wada, Atsushi; Kono, Mari; Kawauchi, Sawako; Takagi, Yuri; Morikawa, Takashi; Funakoshi, Kunihiro

2012-01-01

260

Conjugative plasmid pAW63 brings new insights into the genesis of the Bacillus anthracis virulence plasmid pXO2 and of the Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid pBT9727  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis belong to the genetically close-knit Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, a family of rod-shaped Gram-positive bacteria. pAW63 is the first conjugative plasmid from the B. cereus group to be completely sequenced. RESULTS: The 71,777 bp nucleotide sequence of pAW63 reveals a modular structure, including a 42 kb tra region encoding homologs of

Géraldine A Van der Auwera; Lars Andrup; Jacques Mahillon

2005-01-01

261

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Type Strain ATCC 14581.  

PubMed

Bacillus megaterium is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium of biotechnological importance. Here, we report a 5.7-Mbp draft genome sequence of B. megaterium ATCC 14581, which is the type strain of the species. PMID:25395629

Arya, Gitanjali; Petronella, Nicholas; Crosthwait, Jennifer; Carrillo, Catherine D; Shwed, Philip S

2014-01-01

262

Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus MTCC B6033.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium isolated from the soil. B. pumilus strain B6033 was originally selected as a biocatalyst for the stereospecific oxidation of ?-lactams. Here, we present a 3.8-Mb assembly of its genome, which is the second fully assembled genome of a B. pumilus strain. PMID:24744340

Villanueva, Jacylyn; Switala, Jack; Ivancich, Anabella; Loewen, Peter C

2014-01-01

263

Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus MTCC B6033  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium isolated from the soil. B. pumilus strain B6033 was originally selected as a biocatalyst for the stereospecific oxidation of ?-lactams. Here, we present a 3.8-Mb assembly of its genome, which is the second fully assembled genome of a B. pumilus strain. PMID:24744340

Villanueva, Jacylyn; Switala, Jack; Ivancich, Anabella

2014-01-01

264

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Type Strain ATCC 14581  

PubMed Central

Bacillus megaterium is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium of biotechnological importance. Here, we report a 5.7-Mbp draft genome sequence of B. megaterium ATCC 14581, which is the type strain of the species. PMID:25395629

Arya, Gitanjali; Petronella, Nicholas; Crosthwait, Jennifer; Carrillo, Catherine D.

2014-01-01

265

The PECACE domain: a new family of enzymes with potential peptidoglycan cleavage activity in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background The metabolism of bacterial peptidoglycan is a dynamic process, synthases and cleavage enzymes are functionally coordinated. Lytic Transglycosylase enzymes (LT) are part of multienzyme complexes which regulate bacterial division and elongation. LTs are also involved in peptidoglycan turnover and in macromolecular transport systems. Despite their central importance, no LTs have been identified in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We report the identification of the first putative LT enzyme in S. pneumoniae and discuss its role in pneumococcal peptidoglycan metabolism. Results Homology searches of the pneumococcal genome allowed the identification of a new domain putatively involved in peptidoglycan cleavage (PECACE, PEptidoglycan CArbohydrate Cleavage Enzyme). This sequence has been found exclusively in Gram-positive bacteria and gene clusters containing pecace are conserved among Streptococcal species. The PECACE domain is, in some instances, found in association with other domains known to catalyze peptidoglycan hydrolysis. Conclusions A new domain, PECACE, putatively involved in peptidoglycan hydrolysis has been identified in S. pneumoniae. The probable enzymatic activity deduced from the detailed analysis of the amino acid sequence suggests that the PECACE domain may proceed through a LT-type or goose lyzosyme-type cleavage mechanism. The PECACE function may differ largely from the other hydrolases already identified in the pneumococcus: LytA, LytB, LytC, CBPD and PcsB. The multimodular architecture of proteins containing the PECACE domain is another example of the many activities harbored by peptidoglycan hydrolases, which is probably required for the regulation of peptidoglycan metabolism. The release of new bacterial genomes sequences will probably add new members to the five groups identified so far in this work, and new groups could also emerge. Conversely, the functional characterization of the unknown domains mentioned in this work can now become easier, since bacterial peptidoglycan is proposed to be the substrate. PMID:15717932

Pagliero, Estelle; Dideberg, Otto; Vernet, Thierry; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie

2005-01-01

266

Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that AgNPs could be used as an adjuvant for the treatment of infectious diseases.

Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2014-07-01

267

Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that AgNPs could be used as an adjuvant for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:25136281

2014-01-01

268

Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that AgNPs could be used as an adjuvant for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:25136281

Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2014-01-01

269

The ESAT-6 gene cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other high G+C Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv has five copies of a cluster of genes known as the ESAT-6 loci. These clusters contain members of the CFP-10 (lhp) and ESAT-6 (esat-6) gene families (encoding secreted T-cell antigens that lack detectable secretion signals) as well as genes encoding secreted, cell-wall-associated subtilisin-like serine proteases, putative ABC transporters, ATP-binding proteins and other membrane-associated proteins. These membrane-associated and energy-providing proteins may function to secrete members of the ESAT-6 and CFP-10 protein families, and the proteases may be involved in processing the secreted peptide. Results Finished and unfinished genome sequencing data of 98 publicly available microbial genomes has been analyzed for the presence of orthologs of the ESAT-6 loci. The multiple duplicates of the ESAT-6 gene cluster found in the genome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv are also conserved in the genomes of other mycobacteria, for example M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis 210, M. bovis, M. leprae, M. avium, and the avirulent strain M. smegmatis. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting sequences have established the duplication order of the gene clusters and demonstrated that the gene cluster known as region 4 (Rv3444c-3450c) is ancestral. Region 4 is also the only region for which an ortholog could be found in the genomes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Streptomyces coelicolor. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the presence of the ESAT-6 gene cluster is a feature of some high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria. Multiple duplications of this cluster have occurred and are maintained only within the genomes of members of the genus Mycobacterium. PMID:11597336

Gey van Pittius, Nico C; Gamieldien, Junaid; Hide, Winston; Brown, Gordon D; Siezen, Roland J; Beyers, Albert D

2001-01-01

270

Real-Time PCR quantification of PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD ?) genes from Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in soil and sediment samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-Time PCR based assays were developed to quantify Gram positive (GP) and Gram negative (GN) bacterial populations that are capable of degrading the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil and sediment samples with contrasting contamination levels. These specific and sensitive Real-Time PCR assays were based on the quantification of the copy number of the gene that encodes the alpha subunit

Aurélie Cébron; Marie-Paule Norini; Thierry Beguiristain; Corinne Leyval

2008-01-01

271

Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp.: Potential PGPR for Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Gram-positive aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) belonging to the genus Bacillus and Paenibacillus are essentially ubiquitous and occur abundantly in most rhizospheric soils. In the rhizosphere, species of these two genera\\u000a are involved in atmospheric nitrogen fixation, solubilization of soil phosphorus and uptake of micronutrients, and production\\u000a of phytohormones and antimicrobial metabolites. Multiple species of Bacillus and Paenibacillus affect the

Venkadasamy Govindasamy; Murugesan Senthilkumar; Vellaichamy Magheshwaran; Upendra Kumar; Pranita Bose; Vikas Sharma; Kannepalli Annapurna

272

Rapid identification of Gram-positive anaerobic coccal species originally classified in the genus Peptostreptococcus by multiplex PCR assays using genus- and species-specific primers.  

PubMed

Here, a rapid and reliable two-step multiplex PCR assay for identifying 14 Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) species originally classified in the genus Peptostreptococcus (Anaerococcus hydrogenalis, Anaerococcus lactolyticus, Anaerococcus octavius, Anaerococcus prevotii, Anaerococcus tetradius, Anaerococcus vaginalis, Finegoldia magna, Micromonas micros, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, Peptoniphilus harei, Peptoniphilus indolicus, Peptoniphilus ivorii and Peptoniphilus lacrimalis) is reported. Fourteen type strains representing 14 GPAC species were first identified to the genus level by multiplex PCR (multiplex PCR-G). Since three of these genera (Finegoldia, Micromonas and Peptostreptococcus) contain only a single species, F. magna, M. micros and P. anaerobius, respectively, these organisms were identified to the species level directly by using the multiplex PCR-G. Then six species of the genus Anaerococcus (A. hydrogenalis, A. lactolyticus, A. octavius, A. prevotii, A. vaginalis and A. tetradius) were further identified to the species level using multiplex PCR assays (multiplex PCR-Ia and multiplex PCR-Ib). Similarly, five species of the genus Peptoniphilus (Pn. asaccharolyticus, Pn. harei, Pn. indolicus, Pn. ivorii and Pn. lacrimalis) were identified to the species level using multiplex PCR-IIa and multiplex PCR-IIb. The established two-step multiplex PCR identification scheme was applied to the identification of 190 clinical isolates of GPAC species that had been identified previously to the species level by 16S rRNA sequencing and phenotypic tests. The identification obtained from multiplex PCR assays showed 100 % agreement with 16S rDNA sequencing identification, but only 65 % (123/190) agreement with the identification obtained by phenotypic tests. The multiplex PCR scheme established in this study is a simple, rapid and reliable method for the identification of GPAC species. It will permit a more accurate assessment of the role of various GPAC species in infection and of the degree of antimicrobial resistance in each of the group members. PMID:12855723

Song, Yuli; Liu, Chengxu; McTeague, Maureen; Vu, Ann; Liu, Jia Yia; Finegold, Sydney M

2003-07-01

273

???????Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet C (UVC), direct and filtered through transparent plastic, on gram-positive cocci: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The prevalence of wound infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is increasing along with concern about widespread use of antibiotics. In vitro studies have shown that ultraviolet radiation, especially UVC, is both an effective bactericidal and antifungal. However, evidence about its bactericidal effect on wounds covered with transparent dressings remains inconclusive. Transparent dressings are used to retain moisture over the wound as part of an intermittent negative pressure dressing-the Limited Access Dressing (LAD) technique. Because this dressing is designed to remain in place for a number of days, an in vitro study was conducted to explore the bactericidal effect of direct and indirect UVR through a transparent 0.15-mm thick transparent polythene sheet on Gram-positive cocci. Six bacterial strains were inoculated to sheep blood agar (SBA) plates and exposed to direct and filtered UVC (254 nm) for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 seconds with one media serving as a control (no UVC exposure). Plates were subsequently incubated for 24 hours and bacterial growth observed. Each set of experiment was repeated three times. Direct UVC was shown to have good bactericidal effect (100% eradication of organisms inoculated) at durations ranging from a minimum of 5 seconds (methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Streptococcus pyogenes) to a maximum of 15 seconds (methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci species). No bactericidal effect was observed when UVC was filtered through a 0.15-mm thick transparent polythene sheet. The results confirm the bactericidal effect of UVC in vitro and suggest that this effect can be achieved after a very short period of time. At the same time, film dressings appear to filter UVC. This may help protect skin from exposure to UVC but also limits its utility for use with the LAD technique. In vivo studies to evaluate the shortest effective UVC treatment duration and follow-up clinical studies to ascertain treatment efficacy and effectiveness are needed. PMID:21904015

Rao, Bhamini K; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Sugandhi; Gurung, Bimala

2011-07-01

274

Overcoming function annotation errors in the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus suis by a proteomics-driven approach  

PubMed Central

Background Annotation of protein-coding genes is a key step in sequencing projects. Protein functions are mainly assigned on the basis of the amino acid sequence alone by searching of homologous proteins. However, fully automated annotation processes often lead to wrong prediction of protein functions, and therefore time-intensive manual curation is often essential. Here we describe a fast and reliable way to correct function annotation in sequencing projects, focusing on surface proteomes. We use a proteomics approach, previously proven to be very powerful for identifying new vaccine candidates against Gram-positive pathogens. It consists of shaving the surface of intact cells with two proteases, the specific cleavage-site trypsin and the unspecific proteinase K, followed by LC/MS/MS analysis of the resulting peptides. The identified proteins are contrasted by computational analysis and their sequences are inspected to correct possible errors in function prediction. Results When applied to the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis, of which two strains have been recently sequenced and annotated, we identified a set of surface proteins without cytoplasmic contamination: all the proteins identified had exporting or retention signals towards the outside and/or the cell surface, and viability of protease-treated cells was not affected. The combination of both experimental evidences and computational methods allowed us to determine that two of these proteins are putative extracellular new adhesins that had been previously attributed a wrong cytoplasmic function. One of them is a putative component of the pilus of this bacterium. Conclusion We illustrate the complementary nature of laboratory-based and computational methods to examine in concert the localization of a set of proteins in the cell, and demonstrate the utility of this proteomics-based strategy to experimentally correct function annotation errors in sequencing projects. This approach also contributes to provide strong experimental evidences that can be used to annotate those proteins for which a Gene Ontology (GO) term has not been assigned so far. Function annotation correction would then improve the identification of surface-associated proteins in bacterial pathogens, thus accelerating the discovery of new vaccines in infectious disease research. PMID:19061494

Rodriguez-Ortega, Manuel J; Luque, Inmaculada; Tarradas, Carmen; Barcena, Jose A

2008-01-01

275

Lessons from the modular organization of the transcriptional regulatory network of Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Background The regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is a fundamental process in prokaryotes. Among the different kind of mechanisms modulating gene transcription, the one based on DNA binding transcription factors, is the most extensively studied and the results, for a great number of model organisms, have been compiled making it possible the in silico construction of their corresponding transcriptional regulatory networks and the analysis of the biological relationships of the components of these intricate networks, that allows to elucidate the significant aspects of their organization and evolution. Results We present a thorough review of each regulatory element that constitutes the transcriptional regulatory network of Bacillus subtilis. For facilitating the discussion, we organized the network in topological modules. Our study highlight the importance of ? factors, some of them acting as master regulators which characterize modules by inter- or intra-connecting them and play a key role in the cascades that define relevant cellular processes in this organism. We discussed that some particular functions were distributed in more than one module and that some modules contained more than one related function. We confirm that the presence of paralogous proteins confers advantages to B. subtilis to adapt and select strategies to successfully face the extreme and changing environmental conditions in which it lives. Conclusions The intricate organization is the product of a non-random network evolution that primarily follows a hierarchical organization based on the presence of transcription and ? factor, which is reflected in the connections that exist within and between modules. PMID:24237659

2013-01-01

276

Type I and Type II mechanisms of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: An in vitro study on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) employs a nontoxic photosensitizer (PS) and visible light, which in the presence of oxygen produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2, produced via Type II mechanism) and hydroxyl radical (HO•, produced via Type I mechanism). This study examined the relative contributions of 1O2 and HO• to APDT killing of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Study Design/Materials and Methods Fluorescence probes, 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorescein (HPF) and singlet oxygen sensor green reagent (SOSG) were used to determine HO• and 1O2 produced by illumination of two PS: tris-cationic-buckminsterfullerene (BB6) and a conjugate between polyethylenimine and chlorin(e6) (PEI–ce6). Dimethylthiourea is a HO• scavenger, while sodium azide (NaN3) is a quencher of 1O2. Both APDT and killing by Fenton reaction (chemical generation of HO•) were carried out on Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enteroccoccus fecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results Conjugate PEI-ce6 mainly produced 1O2 (quenched by NaN3), while BB6 produced HO• in addition to 1O2 when NaN3 potentiated probe activation. NaN3 also potentiated HPF activation by Fenton reagent. All bacteria were killed by Fenton reagent but Gram-positive bacteria needed a higher concentration than Gram-negatives. NaN3 potentiated Fenton-mediated killing of all bacteria. The ratio of APDT killing between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was 2 or 4:1 for BB6 and 25:1 for conjugate PEI-ce6. There was a NaN3 dose dependent inhibition of APDT killing using both PEI-ce6 and BB6 against Gram-negative bacteria while NaN3 almost failed to inhibit killing of Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusion Azidyl radicals may be formed from NaN3 and HO•. It may be that Gram-negative bacteria are more susceptible to HO• while Gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible to 1O2. The differences in NaN3 inhibition may reflect differences in the extent of PS binding to bacteria (microenvironment) or differences in penetration of NaN3 into cell walls of bacteria. PMID:22760848

Huang, Liyi; Xuan, Yi; Koide, Yuichiro; Zhiyentayev, Timur; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Hamblin, Michael R.

2012-01-01

277

THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN ORGANIC SUBSTANCES ON THE GROWTH OF THE TUBERCLE BACILLUS  

PubMed Central

The power of a large number of aniline dyes to restrain the growth of Bacillus tuberculosis and Bacillus typhosus has been determined. Many substances have been found with especial restraining power for the tubercle bacillus under the conditions of the test. This capacity to restrain growth in the case of the tubercle bacillus apparently bears no simple relation to true disinfectant action. Opinion as to whether the active substances exert a truly specific activity against the tubercle bacillus or whether the activity is determined by the peculiar conditions imposed by the growth of this bacterium as a surface membrane are left for future consideration. PMID:19868100

Lewis, Paul A.

1917-01-01

278

Examine the characterization of biofilm formation and inhibition by targeting SrtA mechanism in Bacillus subtilis: a combined experimental and theoretical study.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis is one of the well-known biofilm-forming organisms associated with plants, animals, and also used as a model organism for all Bacillus sp. In B. subtilis, SrtA enzyme plays the imperative roles in mechanism of signaling pathway and microbial adherence toward the host. SrtA is highly considered as a universal drug target for all Gram positive pathogens. Because of unresolved 3D structure of SrtA in Gram positive bacteria including B. subtilis, we developed a homology model protein using structural alignments of similar SrtA from B. anthracis. While the structural model of SrtA is analyzed because of its significance in biofilm formation by screening the suitable active site based compounds and analyzing the ability of bacterial biofilm inhibition. Druggability site based screening able to retrieve the active compounds against SrtA and checked the activity of the screened compounds through experimental biochemical assays and in situ microscopic analysis. Here in this study we concluded the computationally screened SrtA inhibitors showed high level of biofilm inhibition despite difficulties in bacterial membrane rigidification. Hence this study leads a way to the new compounds that may be useful to treat the bacterial infections. PMID:25038633

Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Singh, Poonam; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

2014-08-01

279

In Vitro Activities of Daptomycin, Vancomycin, Quinupristin- Dalfopristin, Linezolid, and Five Other Antimicrobials against 307 Gram-Positive Anaerobic and 31 Corynebacterium Clinical Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide, and eight other agents were determined against 338 strains of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and corynebacteria by the NCCLS reference agar dilution method with supplemented brucella agar for the anaerobes and Mueller-Hinton agar for the corynebacteria. The dapto- mycin MICs determined on Ca2-supplemented (50 mg\\/liter) brucella agar plates were one- to fourfold lower than

Ellie J. C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; C. Vreni Merriam; Yumi A. Warren; Kerrin L. Tyrrell; Helen T. Fernandez

2003-01-01

280

Obtaining and characterization of DNA-containing micromummies of yeasts and gram-positive bacteria with enhanced cell wall permeability: Application in PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedure of obtaining DNA-containing cell envelopes (“micromummies”) of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi using chaotropic\\u000a salts has been developed previously and the possibility of their direct application in PCR has been demonstrated. The fine\\u000a structure of micromummies has been studied by electron microscopic methods. This work has demonstrated that additional treatment\\u000a of micromummies of yeasts and gram-positive bacteria with proteinase

V. N. Danilevich; V. I. Duda; N. E. Suzina; E. V. Grishin

2007-01-01

281

The status of antimicrobial resistance in Taiwan among Gram-positive pathogens: the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) programme, 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance programme, isolates were collected from 21 hospitals over a 3-month period in 2000 (TSAR II) and rates of resistance in Gram-positive pathogens were determined. Resistance rates were high including oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (60%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (80%), high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) in Enterococcus faecalis (60%) and penicillin non-susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae

L. Clifford McDonald; Tsai-Ling Lauderdale; Yih-Ru Shiau; Pei-Chen Chen; Jui-Fen Lai; Hui-Ying Wang; Monto Ho

2004-01-01

282

Kineococcus aurantiacus gen. nov., sp. nov., a New Aerobic, Gram-Positive, Motile Coccus with rneso-Diaminopimelic Acid and Arabinogalactan in the Cell Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new aerobic, gram-positive, motile coccus isolated from soil is described. Strain RA 333= (T = type strain) has the following characteristics: menaquinone MK-9(H2); G+C content of DNA of 73.9 mol%; meso- diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, and alanine in a molar ratio of ca. 1:1:2 (type Aly); and arabinose and galactose in the cell wall. The two sugars are contained

AKIRA YOKOTA; TOMOHIKO TAMURA; TADASHI NISHII; TORU HASEGAWA

283

In vitro Activity of Monoclonal and Recombinant Yeast Killer Toxin-like Antibodies Against Antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive Cocci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Monoclonal (mAbKT) and recom- binant single-chain (scFvKT) anti-idiotypic anti- bodies were produced to represent the internal image of a yeast killer toxin (KT) characterized by a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity, including Gram-positive cocci. Pathogenic eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms, such as Candida albi- cans, Pneumocystis carinii, and a multidrug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, presenting spe- cific, although yet undefined,

S. Conti; W. Magliani; S. Arseni; E. Dieci; A. Salati; P. E. Varaldo; L. Polonelli

2000-01-01

284

Differential Roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in Recognition of Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacterial Cell Wall Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 are implicated in the recognition of various bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate in vivo roles of TLR2, we generated TLR2-deficient mice. In contrast to LPS unresponsiveness in TLR4-deficient mice, TLR2-deficient mice responded to LPS to the same extent as wild-type mice. TLR2-deficient macrophages were hyporesponsive to several Gram-positive bacterial

Osamu Takeuchi; Katsuaki Hoshino; Taro Kawai; Hideki Sanjo; Haruhiko Takada; Tomohiko Ogawa; Kiyoshi Takeda; Shizuo Akira

1999-01-01

285

Detection of heavy metal ion resistance genes in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from a lead-contaminated site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to a range of heavy metal ions wasdetermined for lead-resistant and other bacteria whichhad been isolated from a battery-manufacturing sitecontaminated with high concentrations of lead. Several Gram-positive (belonging to the genera Arthrobacter and Corynebacterium) andGram-negative (Alcaligenes species) isolateswere resistant to lead, mercury, cadmium, cobalt,zinc and copper, although the levels of resistance tothe different metal ions were specific for eachisolate.

Suzana Trajanovska; Margaret L. Britz; Mrinal Bhave

1997-01-01

286

In vitro Activity of Cefdinir (FK482) and Ten Other Antibiotics against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Adult and Pediatric Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of cefdinir, an oral aminothiazolyl hy-droxyimino cephalosporin was compared with that of cefixime, cefpodoxime, cefaclor, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, oxacillin, ampicillin, vancomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against 279 gram-positive and gram-negative recent clinical isolates from adult and pediatric patients. Cefdinir was the most active drug among the cephalosporins against oxacil-lin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes,

Tanveer Sultan; Aldona L. Baltch; Raymond P. Smith; William Ritz

1994-01-01

287

Synthesis of well-dispersed silver nanorods of different aspect ratios and their antimicrobial properties against Gram positive and negative bacterial strains.  

PubMed

In the present contribution, we describe the synthesis of highly dispersed silver nanorods (NRs) of different aspect ratios using a chemical route. The shape and size of the synthesized NRs were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. Longitudinal and transverse absorptions bands confirm the rod type structure. The experimentally recorded UV-visible spectra of NRs solutions were fitted by using an expression of the extinction coefficient for rod like nano structures under the dipole approximation. Simulated and experimentally observed UV-visible spectra were compared to determine the aspect ratios (R) of NRs. The average values of R for NR1, NR2 and NR3 solutions are estimated to be 3.0 ± 0.1, 1.8 ± 0.1 and 1.2 ± 0.1, respectively. These values are in good agreement with those obtained by TEM micrographs. The silver NRs of known aspect ratios are used to study antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis (gram positive) and E. coli (gram negative) microbes. We observed that the NRs of intermediate aspect ratio (R = 1.8) have greater antimicrobial effect against both, B. subtilis (gram positive) and E. coli (gram negative). The NRs of aspect ratio, R = 3.0 has better antimicrobial activities against gram positive than on the gram negative. PMID:24358993

Ojha, Animesh K; Forster, Stefan; Kumar, Sumeet; Vats, Siddharth; Negi, Sangeeta; Fischer, Ingo

2013-01-01

288

Global impact of protein arginine phosphorylation on the physiology of Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Reversible protein phosphorylation is an important and ubiquitous protein modification in all living cells. Here we report that protein phosphorylation on arginine residues plays a physiologically significant role. We detected 121 arginine phosphorylation sites in 87 proteins in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis in vivo. Moreover, we provide evidence that protein arginine phosphorylation has a functional role and is involved in the regulation of many critical cellular processes, such as protein degradation, motility, competence, and stringent and stress responses. Our results suggest that in B. subtilis the combined activity of a protein arginine kinase and phosphatase allows a rapid and reversible regulation of protein activity and that protein arginine phosphorylation can play a physiologically important and regulatory role in bacteria. PMID:22517742

Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Turgay, Kursad; Michalik, Stephan; Hessling, Bernd; Gronau, Katrin; Oertel, Dan; Mader, Ulrike; Bernhardt, Jorg; Becher, Dorte; Hecker, Michael; Gerth, Ulf

2012-01-01

289

The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: Intestinal symbionts of animals  

PubMed Central

In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named “Arthromitus” in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225–233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death’s head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats. PMID:9448315

Margulis, Lynn; Jorgensen, Jeremy Z.; Dolan, Sona; Kolchinsky, Rita; Rainey, Frederick A.; Lo, Shyh-Ching

1998-01-01

290

The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals.  

PubMed

In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats. PMID:9448315

Margulis, L; Jorgensen, J Z; Dolan, S; Kolchinsky, R; Rainey, F A; Lo, S C

1998-02-01

291

Organization and Evolution of the cotG and cotH Genes of Bacillus subtilis?†  

PubMed Central

The cotG and cotH genes of Bacillus subtilis encode two previously characterized spore coat proteins. The two genes are adjacent on the chromosome and divergently transcribed by ?K, a sporulation-specific ? factor of the RNA polymerase. We report evidence that the cotH promoter maps 812 bp upstream of the beginning of its coding region and that the divergent cotG gene is entirely contained between the promoter and the coding part of cotH. A bioinformatic analysis of all entirely sequenced prokaryotic genomes showed that such chromosomal organization is not common in spore-forming bacilli. Indeed, CotG is present only in B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. atrophaeus and in two Geobacillus strains. When present, cotG always encodes a modular protein composed of tandem repeats and is always close to but divergently transcribed with respect to cotH. Bioinformatic and phylogenic data suggest that such genomic organizations have a common evolutionary origin and that the modular structure of the extant cotG genes is the outcome of multiple rounds of gene elongation events of an ancestral minigene. PMID:21984783

Giglio, Rosa; Fani, Renato; Isticato, Rachele; De Felice, Maurilio; Ricca, Ezio; Baccigalupi, Loredana

2011-01-01

292

Solvent tolerant marine bacterium Bacillus aquimaris secreting organic solvent stable alkaline cellulase.  

PubMed

The organic solvent tolerant bacteria with their physiological abilities to decontaminate the organic pollutants have potentials to secrete extracellular enzymes of commercial importance. Of the 19 marine bacterial isolates examined for their solvent tolerance at 10vol.% concentration, one had the significant tolerance and showed a relative growth yield of 86% for acetone, 71% for methanol, 52% for benzene, 35% for heptane, 24% for toluene and 19% for ethylacetate. The phylogenetic analysis of this strain using 16S rDNA sequence revealed 99% homology with Bacillus aquimaris. The cellulase enzyme secreted by this strain under normal conditions showed an optimum activity at pH 11 and 45°C. The enzyme did show functional stability even at higher pH (12) and temperature (75°C) with residual activity of 85% and 95% respectively. The enzyme activity in the presence of different additives were in the following order: Co(+2)>Fe(+2)>NaOCl(2)>CuSO(4)>KCl>NaCl. The enzyme stability in the presence of solvents at 20vol.% concentration was highest in benzene with 122% followed by methanol (85%), acetone (75%), toluene (73%) and heptane (42%). The pre-incubation of enzyme in ionic liquids such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide increased its activity to 150% and 155% respectively. The change in fatty acid profile with different solvents further elucidated the physiological adaptations of the strain to tolerate such extreme conditions. PMID:21388656

Trivedi, Nitin; Gupta, Vishal; Kumar, Manoj; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

2011-04-01

293

Organization and evolution of the cotG and cotH genes of Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

The cotG and cotH genes of Bacillus subtilis encode two previously characterized spore coat proteins. The two genes are adjacent on the chromosome and divergently transcribed by ?(K), a sporulation-specific ? factor of the RNA polymerase. We report evidence that the cotH promoter maps 812 bp upstream of the beginning of its coding region and that the divergent cotG gene is entirely contained between the promoter and the coding part of cotH. A bioinformatic analysis of all entirely sequenced prokaryotic genomes showed that such chromosomal organization is not common in spore-forming bacilli. Indeed, CotG is present only in B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. atrophaeus and in two Geobacillus strains. When present, cotG always encodes a modular protein composed of tandem repeats and is always close to but divergently transcribed with respect to cotH. Bioinformatic and phylogenic data suggest that such genomic organizations have a common evolutionary origin and that the modular structure of the extant cotG genes is the outcome of multiple rounds of gene elongation events of an ancestral minigene. PMID:21984783

Giglio, Rosa; Fani, Renato; Isticato, Rachele; De Felice, Maurilio; Ricca, Ezio; Baccigalupi, Loredana

2011-12-01

294

Comparison of three commercial rapid identification systems for the unusual gram-positive cocci Dolosigranulum pigrum, Ignavigranum ruoffiae, and Facklamia species.  

PubMed

We evaluated three rapid identification systems-The Biomerieux rapid ID 32 STREP (ID32), the BBL Crystal rapid gram-positive identification (Crystal), and the Remel IDS RapID STR (IDS) systems-for their ability to identify 7 strains of Alloiococcus otitidis, 27 strains of Dolosigranulum pigrum, 3 strains of Ignavigranum ruoffiae, and 18 strains of 4 different Facklamia species. Since none of these six species of gram-positive cocci are included in the identification databases for these systems, the correct identification for the strains tested should be "unacceptable ID" for the ID32 and Crystal systems or "no choice" for the IDS system. The ID32 system identified all 27 strains of D. pigrum, 6 of 18 Facklamia species, and 2 of 3 cultures of I. ruoffiae as "unacceptable ID." The Crystal system identified 10 of 27 D. pigrum, 2 of 18 Facklamia species, and 2 of 3 I. ruoffiae strains as "unacceptable ID." The IDS system identified only 1 culture of D. pigrum as "no choice," but it also identified 2 cultures of D. pigrum as a "questionable microcode" and 19 cultures of D. pigrum as an "inadequate ID, E. faecalis 90%, S. intermedius 9%." A total of 2 of the 18 cultures of Facklamia and all 3 of the I. ruoffiae cultures were correctly identified as "no choice." The most common misidentifications of Facklamia species by the ID32 and IDS systems were as various Streptococcus species and as Gemella species. In the Crystal system, the most common erroneous identification was Micrococcus luteus. These data indicate the need for the commercial manufacturers of these products to update their databases to include newly described species of gram-positive cocci. PMID:10834950

LaClaire, L L; Facklam, R R

2000-06-01

295

Comparison of Three Commercial Rapid Identification Systems for the Unusual Gram-Positive Cocci Dolosigranulum pigrum, Ignavigranum ruoffiae, and Facklamia Species  

PubMed Central

We evaluated three rapid identification systems—The Biomerieux rapid ID 32 STREP (ID32), the BBL Crystal rapid gram-positive identification (Crystal), and the Remel IDS RapID STR (IDS) systems—for their ability to identify 7 strains of Alloiococcus otitidis, 27 strains of Dolosigranulum pigrum, 3 strains of Ignavigranum ruoffiae, and 18 strains of 4 different Facklamia species. Since none of these six species of gram-positive cocci are included in the identification databases for these systems, the correct identification for the strains tested should be “unacceptable ID” for the ID32 and Crystal systems or “no choice” for the IDS system. The ID32 system identified all 27 strains of D. pigrum, 6 of 18 Facklamia species, and 2 of 3 cultures of I. ruoffiae as “unacceptable ID.” The Crystal system identified 10 of 27 D. pigrum, 2 of 18 Facklamia species, and 2 of 3 I. ruoffiae strains as “unacceptable ID.” The IDS system identified only 1 culture of D. pigrum as “no choice,” but it also identified 2 cultures of D. pigrum as a “questionable microcode” and 19 cultures of D. pigrum as an “inadequate ID, E. faecalis 90%, S. intermedius 9%.” A total of 2 of the 18 cultures of Facklamia and all 3 of the I. ruoffiae cultures were correctly identified as “no choice.” The most common misidentifications of Facklamia species by the ID32 and IDS systems were as various Streptococcus species and as Gemella species. In the Crystal system, the most common erroneous identification was Micrococcus luteus. These data indicate the need for the commercial manufacturers of these products to update their databases to include newly described species of gram-positive cocci. PMID:10834950

LaClaire, Leslye L.; Facklam, Richard R.

2000-01-01

296

Systematic Review of Membrane Components of Gram-Positive Bacteria Responsible as Pyrogens for Inducing Human Monocyte/Macrophage Cytokine Release  

PubMed Central

Fifty years after the elucidation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) as the principal structure of Gram-negative bacteria activating the human immune system, its Gram-positive counterpart is still under debate. Pyrogen tests based on the human monocyte activation have been validated for LPS detection as an alternative to the rabbit test and, increasingly, the limulus amebocyte lysate test. For full replacement, international validations with non-endotoxin pyrogens are in preparation. Following evidence-based medicine approaches, a systematic review of existing evidence as to the structural nature of the Gram-positive pyrogen was undertaken. For the three major constituents suggested, i.e., peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acids (LTA), and bacterial lipoproteins (LP), the questions to be answered and a search strategy for relevant literature was developed, starting in MedLine. The evaluation was based on the Koch–Dale criteria for a mediator of an effect. A total of 380 articles for peptidoglycan, 391 for LP, and 285 for LTA were retrieved of which 12, 8, and 24, respectively, fulfilled inclusion criteria. The compiled data suggest that for peptidoglycan two Koch–Dale criteria are fulfilled, four for LTA, and two for bacterial LP. In conclusion, based on the best currently available evidence, LTA is the only substance that fulfills all criteria. LTA has been isolated from a large number of bacteria, results in cytokine release patterns inducible also with synthetic LTA. Reduction in bacterial cytokine induction with an inhibitor for LTA was shown. However, this systematic review cannot exclude the possibility that other stimulatory compounds complement or substitute for LTA in being the counterpart to LPS in some Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:22529809

Rockel, Christoph; Hartung, Thomas

2012-01-01

297

Silver nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation: as a potent antibacterial agent for human enteropathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Present investigation deals with the study, to quantify the antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles (SNPs), synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in aqueous media, on some human enteropathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. Antibacterial property was studied by measuring the zone of inhibition using agar cup double-diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration by serial dilution method, and growth curve for 24 h. The results clearly show the potency of antibacterial property of PLA-synthesized SNPs and suggest that it can be used as an effective growth inhibitor against various pathogenic bacterial strains in various medical devices and antibacterial control systems. PMID:24801405

Pandey, Jitendra Kumar; Swarnkar, R K; Soumya, K K; Dwivedi, Priyanka; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sundaram, Shanthy; Gopal, R

2014-10-01

298

Physico-Chemical-Managed Killing of Penicillin-Resistant Static and Growing Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Vegetative Bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems and methods for the use of compounds from the Hofmeister series coupled with specific pH and temperature to provide rapid physico-chemical-managed killing of penicillin-resistant static and growing Gram-positive and Gram-negative vegetative bacteria. The systems and methods represent the more general physico-chemical enhancement of susceptibility for a wide range of pathological macromolecular targets to clinical management by establishing the reactivity of those targets to topically applied drugs or anti-toxins.

Richmond, Robert Chaffee (Inventor); Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Farris, III, Alex F. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

299

The status of antimicrobial resistance in Taiwan among Gram-positive pathogens: the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) programme, 2000.  

PubMed

In the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance programme, isolates were collected from 21 hospitals over a 3-month period in 2000 (TSAR II) and rates of resistance in Gram-positive pathogens were determined. Resistance rates were high including oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (60%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (80%), high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) in Enterococcus faecalis (60%) and penicillin non-susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae (69%). Oxacillin resistance had increased from 1998 (TSAR I) and may be spreading into outpatient settings. In contrast, less than 2% enterococci were vancomycin-resistant. No linezolid resistance was found in either staphylococci or enterococci. PMID:15081085

McDonald, L Clifford; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Chen, Pei-Chen; Lai, Jui-Fen; Wang, Hui-Ying; Ho, Monto

2004-04-01

300

Localization and Interactions of Teichoic Acid Synthetic Enzymes in Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thick wall of gram-positive bacteria is a polymer meshwork composed predominantly of peptidoglycan (PG) and teichoic acids, both of which have a critical function in maintenance of the structural integrity and the shape of the cell. In Bacillus subtilis 168 the major teichoic acid is covalently coupled to PG and is known as wall teichoic acid (WTA). Recently, PG

Rut Carballido-López; Alex Formstone; Dirk-Jan Scheffers; Philippe Noirot; Jeffery Errington

2008-01-01

301

Inhibition of biofilm formation and swarming of Bacillus subtilis by (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-  

E-print Network

Inhibition of biofilm formation and swarming of Bacillus subtilis by (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene. In addition, as shown by confocal scanning laser microscopy, furanone inhibited the biofilm formation of B be advantageous to have additional Gram-positive antimicrobials. Swarming and biofilm formation are strongly

Wood, Thomas K.

302

The anaerobic life of Bacillus subtilis: Cloning of the genes encoding the respiratory nitrate reductase system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, generally regarded as an aerobe, grows under strict anaerobic conditions using nitrate as an electron acceptor and should be designated as a facultative anaerobe. Growth experiments demonstrated a lag phase of 24 to 36 hours after the shift from aerobic, to the onset of anaerobic respiratory growth. Anaerobically adapted cells grew without further lag

Tamara Hoffmann; Barbara Troup; Alexandra Szabo; Christoph Hungerer; Dieter Jahn

1995-01-01

303

Effect of Organic Complex Compounds on Bacillus thermoamylovorans Growth and Glucose Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The effect of the concentration of a mixture (1/1 [wt/wt]) of yeast extract and bioTrypcase (YE+bT) on the growth and physiology of a new species, Bacillus thermoamylovorans, a moderately thermophilic, non-spore-forming, lactic acid-producing bacterium isolated from palm wine, was studied. At an initial glucose concentration of 100 mM, B. thermoamylovorans growth was limited when the concentration of YE+bT was lower than 5.0 g liter?1; under these conditions, cellular yield reached a maximum value of 0.4 g of cells per g of YE+bT. Growth limitation due to deficiency in growth factors led to a significant shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production. Lactate constituted 27.5 and 76% of the end products of glucose fermentation in media containing YE+bT at 20.0 and 1.0 g liter?1, respectively. This result markedly differed from published data for lactic bacteria, which indicated that fermentative metabolism remained homolactic regardless of the concentration of YE. Our results showed that the ratio between cellular synthesis and energy production increased with the concentration of YE+bT in the culture medium. They indicate that the industrial production of lactic acid through glucose fermentation by B. thermoamylovorans can be optimized by using a medium where glucose is present in excess and the organic additives are limiting. PMID:10508092

Combet-Blanc, Y.; Dieng, M. C.; Kergoat, P. Y.

1999-01-01

304

Risk assessment and ecological effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis crops on non-target organisms.  

PubMed

The application of recombinant DNA technology has resulted in many insect-resistant varieties by genetic engineering (GE). Crops expressing Cry toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been planted worldwide, and are an effective tool for pest control. However, one ecological concern regarding the potential effects of insect-resistant GE plants on non-target organisms (NTOs) has been continually debated. In the present study, we briefly summarize the data regarding the development and commercial use of transgenic Bt varieties, elaborate on the procedure and methods for assessing the non-target effects of insect-resistant GE plants, and synthetically analyze the related research results, mostly those published between 2005 and 2010. A mass of laboratory and field studies have shown that the currently available Bt crops have no direct detrimental effects on NTOs due to their narrow spectrum of activity, and Bt crops are increasing the abundance of some beneficial insects and improving the natural control of specific pests. The use of Bt crops, such as Bt maize and Bt cotton, results in significant reductions of insecticide application and clear benefits on the environment and farmer health. Consequently, Bt crops can be a useful component of integrated pest management systems to protect the crop from targeted pests. PMID:21564541

Yu, Hui-Lin; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Kong-Ming

2011-07-01

305

In vivo metabolism of 2,2 prime -diaminopimelic acid from gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells by ruminal microorganisms and ruminants and its use as a marker of bacterial biomass  

SciTech Connect

Cells of Bacillus megaterium GW1 and Escherichia coli W7-M5 were specifically radiolabeled with 2,2{prime}-diamino (G-{sup 3}H) pimelic acid (({sup 3}H)DAP) as models of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Two experiments were conducted to study the in vivo metabolism of 2,2{prime}-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) in sheep. In experiment 1, cells of ({sup 3}H)DAP-labeled B. megaterium GW1 were infused into the rumen of one sheep and the radiolabel was traced within microbial samples, digesta, and the whole animal. Bacterially bound ({sup 3}H)DAP was extensively metabolized, primarily (up to 70% after 8 h) via decarboxylation to ({sup 3}H)lysine by both ruminal protozoa and ruminal bacteria. Recovery of infused radiolabel in urine and feces was low (42% after 96 h) and perhaps indicative of further metabolism by the host animal. In experiment 2, ({sup 3}H)DAP-labeled B. megaterium GW1 was infused into the rumens of three sheep and ({sup 3}H)DAP-labeled E. coli W7-W5 was infused into the rumen of another sheep. The radioactivity contents of these mutant bacteria were insufficient to use as tracers, but the metabolism of DAP was monitored in the total, free, and peptidyl forms. Free DAP, as a proportion of total DPA in duodenal digesta, varied from 0 to 9.5%, whereas peptidyl DAP accounted for 8.3 to 99.2%.

Masson, H.A.; Denholm, A.M.; Ling, J.R. (Univ. College of Wales (United Kingdom))

1991-06-01

306

Assessing the interactions of a natural antibacterial clay with model Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and increasing accumulations of antibiotics in reclaimed water, drive the quest for new natural antimicrobials. We are studying the antibacterial mechanism(s) of clays that have shown an ability to destroy bacteria or significantly inhibit their growth. One possible mode of action is from soluble transition metal species, particularly reduced Fe, capable of generating deleterious oxygen radical species. Yet another possibility is related to membrane damage as a consequence of physical or electrostatic interaction between clay and bacteria. Both mechanisms could combine to produce cell death. This study addresses a natural antibacterial clay from the NW Amazon basin, South America (AMZ clay). Clay mineralogy is composed of disordered kaolinite (28.9%), halloysite (17.8%) illite (12%) and smectite (16.7%). Mean particle size is 1.6?m and total and specific surface area 278.82 and 51.23 m2/g respectively. The pH of a suspension (200mg/ml) is 4.1 and its Eh is 361mV after 24h of equilibration. The ionic strength of the water in equilibrium with the clay after 24 h. is 6 x10-4M. These conditions, affect the element solubility, speciation, and interactions between clay and bacteria. Standard microbiological methods were used to assess the viability of two model bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) after incubation with clay at 37 degC for 24 hrs. A threefold reduction in bacterial viability was observed upon treatment with AMZ clay. We separated the cells from the clay using Nycodenz gradient media and observed the mounts under the TEM and SEM. Results showed several membrane anomalies and structural changes that were not observed in the control cells. Additionally, clay minerals appeared in some places attached to cell walls. Experiments showed that exchanging AMZ clay with KCl caused loss of antibacterial property. Among the exchangeable -and potentially toxic- ions we measured Al+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Ba+2 and Co+2. Besides being toxic at high concentrations, these species affect the electrophoretic interactions between clay and bacteria surfaces. Additionally, the cation exchange neutralizes the clay surface charge thus modifying further the behavior of particles in suspension. Therefore, we evaluated the clay and bacteria zeta potential (?) as an index for possible electrostatic forces and modeled the total interactions using DLVO theory. We suspended the particles in water equilibrated with clay (leachate). Results show that at pH 4, the ? of clays is -14 mV while it is -3mV for bacteria. The divalent ions and trivalent Aluminum, present in the AMZ leachate, compress the thickness of the double layer (hydration shell) thus decreasing electrostatic repulsion and allowing particles to come closer. The proximity of particles increases the probability of attractive forces to bind clays and cells. In summary, results indicate that a process other than simple chemical transfer from clay to bacteria is operating. The electrostatic attraction and physical proximity may enhance the toxic action of metals and interfere with the membrane properties or processes.

Londono, S. C.; Williams, L. B.

2013-12-01

307

Potentiation of photoinactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria mediated by six phenothiazinium dyes by addition of azide ion.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) using phenothiazinium dyes is mediated by reactive oxygen species consisting of a combination of singlet oxygen (quenched by azide), hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. We recently showed that addition of sodium azide paradoxically potentiated APDI of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using methylene blue as the photosensitizer, and this was due to electron transfer to the dye triplet state from azide anion, producing azidyl radical. Here we compare this effect using six different homologous phenothiazinium dyes: methylene blue, toluidine blue O, new methylene blue, dimethylmethylene blue, azure A, and azure B. We found both significant potentiation (up to 2 logs) and also significant inhibition (>3 logs) of killing by adding 10 mM azide depending on Gram classification, washing the dye from the cells, and dye structure. Killing of E. coli was potentiated with all 6 dyes after a wash, while S. aureus killing was only potentiated by MB and TBO with a wash and DMMB with no wash. More lipophilic dyes (higher log P value, such as DMMB) were more likely to show potentiation. We conclude that the Type I photochemical mechanism (potentiation with azide) likely depends on the microenvironment, i.e. higher binding of dye to bacteria. Bacterial dye-binding is thought to be higher with Gram-negative compared to Gram-positive bacteria, when unbound dye has been washed away, and with more lipophilic dyes. PMID:25177833

Kasimova, Kamola R; Sadasivam, Magesh; Landi, Giacomo; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R

2014-10-15

308

Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis  

SciTech Connect

Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. (Bowling Green State Univ., OH (USA)); Hartman, P.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

1989-04-01

309

The complete genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13, an organism with great industrial potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 consists of a single chromosome that has a size of 4,222,748 base pairs. The average G+C ratio is 46.2%. 4,286 open reading frames, 72 tRNA genes, 7 rRNA operons and 20 transposase genes were identified. The genome shows a marked co-linearity with Bacillus subtilis but contains defined inserted regions that can be identified at

Birgit Veith; Christina Herzberg; Silke Steckel; Jörg Feesche; Karl Heinz Maurer; Petra Ehrenreich; S. Baumer; Anke Henne; Heiko Liesegang; Rainer Merkl; Armin Ehrenreich; Gerhard Gottschalk

2004-01-01

310

Bactericidal Action of Nalidixic Acid on Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Cook, Thomas M. (Sterling-Winthrop Research Institute, Rensselaer, N.Y.), Karen G. Brown, James V. Boyle, and William A. Goss. Bactericidal action of nalidixic acid on Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1510–1514. 1966.—Nalidixic acid at moderate concentrations exerts a bactericidal action upon the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in B. subtilis is selectively inhibited by nalidixic acid at concentrations approximating the minimal growth inhibitory concentration. Higher concentrations (25 ?g/ml) result in a 30 to 35% degradation of DNA. After extended exposure to nalidixic acid, protein synthesis is also depressed. Cells of B. subtilis treated with nalidixic acid exhibit characteristic morphological abnormalities including cell elongation and development of gram-negative areas. From the results presented, it can be concluded that the mode of action of nalidixic acid upon susceptible bacteria is similar for both gram-positive and gram-negative species. Images PMID:4958883

Cook, Thomas M.; Brown, Karen G.; Boyle, James V.; Goss, William A.

1966-01-01

311

rRNA (rrn) Operon-Engineered Bacillus subtilis as a Feasible Test Organism for Antibiotic Discovery  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis contains 10 rRNA (rrn) operons. We found that rRNA operon-engineered B. subtilis strain RIK543, with only the rrnO operon, is specifically hypersensitive to RNA polymerase inhibitors such as rifamycin SV and rifampin (80-fold and 20-fold, respectively). In pilot screening experiments, we found actinomycete isolates successfully at an incidence of 1.9% (18/945) that produced antibacterials that were detectable only with RIK543 as the test organism. Strain RIK543 may be a feasible test organism for the discovery of novel RNA polymerase inhibitors. PMID:23335737

Tanaka, Yukinori; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Yano, Koichi; Kakugawa, Koji; Kawamura, Fujio

2013-01-01

312

Comparison of in vitro susceptibilities of Gram-positive cocci isolated from ocular infections against the second and fourth generation quinolones at a tertiary eye care centre in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo compare the in vitroantimicrobial susceptibilities of Gram-positive cocci isolated from the ocular infections to the second and fourth generation fluoroquinolones at a tertiary eye care centre in south India.MethodsA retrospective review of microbiology records at LV Prasad eye institute, Hyderabad, India, identified 787 Gram-positive cocci isolated from different ocular infections between January 2005 to May 2008.The isolates were identified

A K Reddy; P Garg; M R Alam; U Gopinathan; S Sharma; S Krishnaiah

2010-01-01

313

Genome analysis of Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae strain Groll(T) a highly versatile Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacterium.  

PubMed

Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae is a mesophilic member of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum within the family Peptococcaceae. This bacterium was isolated from a freshwater ditch and is of interest because it can grow with a large variety of organic substrates, in particular several aromatic compounds, short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids, which are degraded completely to carbon dioxide coupled to the reduction of sulfate. It can grow autotrophically with H2 + CO2 and sulfate and slowly acetogenically with H2 + CO2, formate or methoxylated aromatic compounds in the absence of sulfate. It does not require any vitamins for growth. Here, we describe the features of D. gibsoniae strain Groll(T) together with the genome sequence and annotation. The chromosome has 4,855,529 bp organized in one circular contig and is the largest genome of all sequenced Desulfotomaculum spp. to date. A total of 4,666 candidate protein-encoding genes and 96 RNA genes were identified. Genes of the acetyl-CoA pathway, possibly involved in heterotrophic growth and in CO2 fixation during autotrophic growth, are present. The genome contains a large set of genes for the anaerobic transformation and degradation of aromatic compounds, which are lacking in the other sequenced Desulfotomaculum genomes. PMID:25197466

Kuever, Jan; Visser, Michael; Loeffler, Claudia; Boll, Matthias; Worm, Petra; Sousa, Diana Z; Plugge, Caroline M; Schaap, Peter J; Muyzer, Gerard; Pereira, Ines A C; Parshina, Sofiya N; Goodwin, Lynne A; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Detter, Janine; Woyke, Tanja; Chain, Patrick; Davenport, Karen W; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Stams, Alfons J M

2014-06-15

314

Conversion and degradation of crude oil by Bacillus SP3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to demonstrate the basic characteristics of Bacillus SP3 and evaluate its effect on different crude oils. Strain SP3 is a motile, gram-positive, spore-producing rod that was\\u000a isolated from a reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. The cells of strain SP3 grew at high temperatures up to\\u000a 58°C at the pH range

Ruixia Hao; Anhuai Lu

2007-01-01

315

Defensive strategies of Bacillus anthracis that promote a fatal disease  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes anthrax. Bacterial spores that enter the host germinate into metabolically active bacilli that disseminate throughout the body and replicate to high numbers. Two virulence factors are essential for this unrestrained growth. The first is a weakly immunogenic poly ?-D-glutamic acid capsule that surrounds the bacilli and confers resistance to phagocytosis. The second virulence factor, anthrax toxin, disrupts multiple host functions to diminish the immune response. PMID:19081825

Mogridge, Jeremy

2008-01-01

316

Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from Bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment.  

PubMed

Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditional Bikalga were examined for their antimicrobial activity against a panel of 36 indicator organisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. The Bacillus spp. isolates showed variable inhibitory abilities depending on the method used. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were inhibited in the agar spot assay while only Gram-positive pathogens were inhibited in the agar well diffusion assay. Cell free supernatants (CFS) of pure cultures of 3 B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (G2, H4 and F1) strains inhibited growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, while CFS of 2 B. licheniformis (E3 and F9) strains only inhibited M. luteus. The antimicrobial substance(s) produced by B. subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 was further characterized. The antimicrobial substance(s) produced by H4 was detected from mid-exponential growth phase. The activity was sensitive to protease and trypsin, but resistant to the proteolytic action of proteinase K and papain. Treatment with ?-amylase and lipase II resulted in a complete loss of antimicrobial effect, indicating that a sugar moiety and lipid moiety are necessary for the activity. Treatment with mercapto-ethanol resulted in a significant loss, indicative of the presence of disulfide bridges. The antimicrobial activity of H4 was heat resistant and active at pH3-10. PCR detection of yiwB, sboA, spoX, albA and spaS, etnS genes and genes coding for surfactins and plipastatins (fengycins) indicated a potential for subtilosin, subtilin and lipopeptide production, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out and a single band of approximately 4kDa had antimicrobial activity. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOFMS) analysis of the 4kDa band allowed identification of surfactin and a protein with a monoisotopic mass of 3346.59Da, which is dissimilar in size to subtilosin and subtilin. Surfactin is a cyclic lipoheptapeptide, which contains a ?-hydroxy fatty acid, but no di-sulfide bridges or sugar residues. The complete loss of activity upon amylase treatment indicates that surfactin was not responsible for the observed antimicrobial effect. However, it cannot completely be ruled out that surfactin acts synergistically with the detected protein, though further investigations are needed to confirm this. PMID:23466466

Compaoré, Clarisse S; Nielsen, Dennis S; Ouoba, Labia I I; Berner, Torben S; Nielsen, Kristian F; Sawadogo-Lingani, Hagrétou; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Jakobsen, Mogens; Thorsen, Line

2013-04-01

317

The Bacillus BioBrick Box: generation and evaluation of essential genetic building blocks for standardized work with Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Background Standardized and well-characterized genetic building blocks are a prerequisite for the convenient and reproducible assembly of novel genetic modules and devices. While numerous standardized parts exist for Escherichia coli, such tools are still missing for the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. The goal of this study was to develop and thoroughly evaluate such a genetic toolbox. Results We developed five BioBrick-compatible integrative B. subtilis vectors by deleting unnecessary parts and removing forbidden restriction sites to allow cloning in BioBrick (RFC10) standard. Three empty backbone vectors with compatible resistance markers and integration sites were generated, allowing the stable chromosomal integration and combination of up to three different devices in one strain. In addition, two integrative reporter vectors, based on the lacZ and luxABCDE cassettes, were BioBrick-adjusted, to enable ?-galactosidase and luciferase reporter assays, respectively. Four constitutive and two inducible promoters were thoroughly characterized by quantitative, time-resolved measurements. Together, these promoters cover a range of more than three orders of magnitude in promoter strength, thereby allowing a fine-tuned adjustment of cellular protein amounts. Finally, the Bacillus BioBrick Box also provides five widely used epitope tags (FLAG, His10, cMyc, HA, StrepII), which can be translationally fused N- or C-terminally to any protein of choice. Conclusion Our genetic toolbox contains three compatible empty integration vectors, two reporter vectors and a set of six promoters, two of them inducible. Furthermore, five different epitope tags offer convenient protein handling and detection. All parts adhere to the BioBrick standard and hence enable standardized work with B. subtilis. We believe that our well-documented and carefully evaluated Bacillus BioBrick Box represents a very useful genetic tool kit, not only for the iGEM competition but any other BioBrick-based project in B. subtilis. PMID:24295448

2013-01-01

318

Crystallization and first data collection of the putative transfer protein TraN from the Gram-positive conjugative plasmid pIP501  

PubMed Central

Conjugative plasmid transfer is the most important route for the spread of resistance and virulence genes among bacteria. Consequently, bacteria carrying conjugative plasmids are a substantial threat to human health, especially hospitalized patients. Whilst detailed information about the process has been obtained for Gram-negative type-4 secretion systems, little is known about the corresponding mechanisms in Gram-positive (G+) bacteria. The successful purification and crystallization of the putative transfer protein TraN from the G+ conjugative model plasmid pIP501 of Enterococcus faecalis are presented. Native crystals diffracted to 1.8?Å resolution on a synchrotron beamline. The crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 32.88, b = 54.94, c = 57.71?Å, ? = 91.89° and two molecules per asymmetric unit. PMID:23143259

Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Fercher, Christian; Abajy, Mohammad Yaser; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter

2012-01-01

319

A new hybrid bacteriocin, Ent35–MccV, displays antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

Bacteriocins and microcins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are usually active against phylogenetically related bacteria. Thus, bacteriocins are active against Gram-positive while microcins are active against Gram-negative bacteria. The narrow spectrum of action generally displayed by bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria represents an important limitation for the application of these peptides as clinical drugs or as food biopreservatives. The present study describes the design and expression of a novel recombinant hybrid peptide combining enterocin CRL35 and microcin V named Ent35–MccV. The chimerical bacteriocin displayed antimicrobial activity against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes clinical isolates, among other pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, Ent35–MccV may find important applications in food or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23650575

Acuña, Leonardo; Picariello, Gianluca; Sesma, Fernando; Morero, Roberto D.; Bellomio, Augusto

2012-01-01

320

Modulation of Connexin Expression and Gap Junction Communication in Astrocytes by the Gram-Positive Bacterium S. aureus  

PubMed Central

Gap junctions establish direct intercellular conduits between adjacent cells and are formed by the hexameric organization of protein subunits called connexins (Cx). It is unknown whether the proinflammatory milieu that ensues during CNS infection with S. aureus, one of the main etiologic agents of brain abscess in humans, is capable of eliciting regional changes in astrocyte homocellular gap junction communication (GJC) and, by extension, influencing neuron homeostasis at sites distant from the primary focus of infection. Here we investigated the effects of S. aureus and its cell wall product peptidoglycan (PGN) on Cx43, Cx30, and Cx26 expression, the main Cx isoforms found in astrocytes. Both bacterial stimuli led to a time-dependent decrease in Cx43 and Cx30 expression; however, Cx26 levels were elevated following bacterial exposure. Functional examination of dye coupling, as revealed by single-cell microinjections of Lucifer yellow, demonstrated that both S. aureus and PGN inhibited astrocyte GJC. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cyclohexamide (CHX) revealed that S. aureus directly modulates, in part, Cx43 and Cx30 expression, whereas Cx26 levels appear to be regulated by a factor(s) that requires de novo protein production; however, CHX did not alter the inhibitory effects of S. aureus on astrocyte GJC. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 was capable of partially restoring the S. aureus-mediated decrease in astrocyte GJC to that of unstimulated cells, suggesting the involvement of p38 MAPK-dependent pathway(s). These findings could have important implications for limiting the long-term detrimental effects of abscess formation in the brain which may include seizures and cognitive deficits. PMID:17029244

ESEN, NILUFER; SHUFFIELD, DEBBIE; MOHSIN, MD. SYED; KIELIAN, TAMMY

2008-01-01

321

Toxin-Antitoxin Genes of the Gram-Positive Pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: So Few and Yet So Many  

PubMed Central

Summary: Pneumococcal infections cause up to 2 million deaths annually and raise a large economic burden and thus constitute an important threat to mankind. Because of the increase in the antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates, there is an urgent need to find new antimicrobial approaches to triumph over pneumococcal infections. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems (TAS), which are present in most living bacteria but not in eukaryotes, have been proposed as an effective strategy to combat bacterial infections. Type II TAS comprise a stable toxin and a labile antitoxin that form an innocuous TA complex under normal conditions. Under stress conditions, TA synthesis will be triggered, resulting in the degradation of the labile antitoxin and the release of the toxin protein, which would poison the host cells. The three functional chromosomal TAS from S. pneumoniae that have been studied as well as their molecular characteristics are discussed in detail in this review. Furthermore, a meticulous bioinformatics search has been performed for 48 pneumococcal genomes that are found in public databases, and more putative TAS, homologous to well-characterized ones, have been revealed. Strikingly, several unusual putative TAS, in terms of components and genetic organizations previously not envisaged, have been discovered and are further discussed. Previously, we reported a novel finding in which a unique pneumococcal DNA signature, the BOX element, affected the regulation of the pneumococcal yefM-yoeB TAS. This BOX element has also been found in some of the other pneumococcal TAS. In this review, we also discuss possible relationships between some of the pneumococcal TAS with pathogenicity, competence, biofilm formation, persistence, and an interesting phenomenon called bistability. PMID:23204366

Chan, Wai Ting; Moreno-Córdoba, Inma

2012-01-01

322

Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10- x Ag x (PO4)6(OH)2, x Ag = 0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a = b = 9.435 Å, c = 6.876 Å for x Ag = 0.05, a = b = 9.443 Å, c = 6.875 Å for x Ag = 0.2, and a = b = 9.445 Å, c = 6.877 Å for x Ag = 0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a = b = 9.418 Å, c = 6.884 Å (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples ( x Ag = 0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of x Ag in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth ( P. stuartii).

Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Le Coustumer, Phillippe; Constantin, Liliana Violeta; Predoi, Daniela

2012-06-01

323

Mass and density measurements of live and dead Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial populations.  

PubMed

Monitoring cell growth and measuring physical features of food-borne pathogenic bacteria are important for better understanding the conditions under which these organisms survive and proliferate. To address this challenge, buoyant masses of live and dead Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua were measured using Archimedes, a commercially available suspended microchannel resonator (SMR). Cell growth was monitored with Archimedes by observing increased cell concentration and buoyant mass values of live growing bacteria. These growth data were compared to optical density measurements obtained with a Bioscreen system. We observed buoyant mass measurements with Archimedes at cell concentrations between 10(5) and 10(8) cells/ml, while growth was not observed with optical density measurements until the concentration was 10(7) cells/ml. Buoyant mass measurements of live and dead cells with and without exposure to hydrogen peroxide stress were also compared; live cells generally had a larger buoyant mass than dead cells. Additionally, buoyant mass measurements were used to determine cell density and total mass for both live and dead cells. Dead E. coli cells were found to have a larger density and smaller total mass than live E. coli cells. In contrast, density was the same for both live and dead L. innocua cells, while the total mass was greater for live than for dead cells. These results contribute to the ongoing challenge to further develop existing technologies used to observe cell populations at low concentrations and to measure unique physical features of cells that may be useful for developing future diagnostics. PMID:24705320

Lewis, Christina L; Craig, Caelli C; Senecal, Andre G

2014-06-01

324

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Modithromycin, a Novel 6,11-Bridged Bicyclolide, against Respiratory Pathogens, Including Macrolide-Resistant Gram-Positive Cocci?  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of modithromycin against Gram-positive and -negative respiratory pathogens, including macrolide-resistant cocci with different resistance mechanisms, were compared with those of other macrolide and ketolide agents. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. All 595 test strains used in this study were isolated from Japanese medical facilities. The erm (ribosome methylase) and/or mef (efflux pump) gene, which correlated with resistance to erythromycin as well as clarithromycin and azithromycin, was found in 81.8%, 21.3%, and 23.2% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, respectively. Modithromycin showed MIC90s of 0.125 ?g/ml against these three cocci, including macrolide-resistant strains. In particular, the MIC of modithromycin against ermB-carrying S. pyogenes was ?32-fold lower than that of telithromycin. The activities of modithromycin as well as telithromycin were little affected by the presence of mefA or mefE in both streptococci. Against Gram-negative pathogens, modithromycin showed MIC90s of 0.5, 8, and 0.031 ?g/ml against Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella spp., respectively. The MICs of modithromycin against M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were higher than those of telithromycin and azithromycin. However, modithromycin showed the most potent anti-Legionella activity among the macrolide and ketolide agents tested. These results suggested that the bicyclolide agent modithromycin is a novel class of macrolides with improved antibacterial activity against Gram-positive cocci, including telithromycin-resistant streptococci and intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the Legionella species. PMID:21220534

Sato, Takafumi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Soichiro; Iwata, Morihiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2011-01-01

325

Loading dose required to achieve rapid therapeutic teicoplanin trough plasma concentration in patients with multidrug-resistant gram-positive infections.  

PubMed

Teicoplanin is an antibiotic drug prescribed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections. However, there is currently no consensus as to the optimal teicoplanin loading dose. The objective of this study was to compare plasma concentrations of teicoplanin in patients with multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections after the administration of two different loading doses. Two groups of patients were infused intravenously with four loading doses of 6 mg/kg body-weight (group A, n = 12) or 12 mg/kg body-weight (group B, n = 11). The first three loading doses were administered at 12-hr intervals, and the fourth was given 24 hr after the third dose. Maintenance doses of 6 mg/kg were administered every day, every other day or every third day depending on the individual's creatinine clearance, and teicoplanin trough plasma concentrations were monitored. Only samples obtained on the same day for both groups were compared statistically. A higher percentage of group B patients achieved the desired therapeutic concentration of teicoplanin (C(min.)  ? 10 mg/L) on days 2 and 3 (90.0% and 100%, respectively) compared with patients in group A (18.2% and 16.7%, respectively) (p < 0.001). In addition, more patients in group B achieved therapeutic concentrations from days 2 through 12. In conclusion, despite limitations in drawing definitive conclusions because of a relatively small sample size and variability in renal impairment among patients, our findings suggest that a teicoplanin loading dose of 12 mg/kg body-weight results in a safe and rapid attainment of therapeutic trough plasma concentrations. This regimen may enhance treatment efficacy. PMID:22309355

Wang, Jann-Tay; Liao, Hsin-I; Wu Lin, Fe-Lin; Chang, Shan-Chwen

2012-05-01

326

Next generation sequencing reveals the expression of a unique miRNA profile in response to a gram-positive bacterial infection.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and are proposed to play a key role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we report a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach profiling the expression of miRNAs in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEs) at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours post-infection with Streptococcus uberis, a causative agent of bovine mastitis. Analysing over 450 million sequencing reads, we found that 20% of the approximately 1,300 currently known bovine miRNAs are expressed in unchallenged BMEs. We also identified the expression of more than 20 potentially novel bovine miRNAs. There is, however, a significant dynamic range in the expression of known miRNAs. The top 10 highly expressed miRNAs account for >80% of all aligned reads, with the remaining miRNAs showing much lower expression. Twenty-one miRNAs were identified as significantly differentially expressed post-infection with S. uberis. Several of these miRNAs have characterised roles in the immune systems of other species. This miRNA response to the Gram-positive S. uberis is markedly different, however, to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced miRNA expression. Of 145 miRNAs identified in the literature as being LPS responsive, only 9 were also differentially expressed in response to S. uberis. Computational analysis has also revealed that the predicted target genes of miRNAs, which are down-regulated in BMEs following S. uberis infection, are statistically enriched for roles in innate immunity. This suggests that miRNAs, which potentially act as central regulators of gene expression responses to a Gram-positive bacterial infection, may significantly regulate the sentinel capacity of mammary epithelial cells to mobilise the innate immune system. PMID:23472090

Lawless, Nathan; Foroushani, Amir B K; McCabe, Matthew S; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Lynn, David J

2013-01-01

327

A Systems Biological Approach Reveals Multiple Crosstalk Mechanism between Gram-Positive and Negative Bacterial Infections: An Insight into Core Mechanism and Unique Molecular Signatures  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial infections remain a major threat and a leading cause of death worldwide. Most of the bacterial infections are caused by gram-positive and negative bacteria, which are recognized by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4, respectively. Activation of these TLRs initiates multiple pathways that subsequently lead to effective immune response. Although, both the TLRs share common signaling mechanism yet they may exhibit specificity as well, resulting in the release of diverse range of inflammatory mediators which could be used as candidate biomolecules for bacterial infections. Results We adopted systems biological approach to identify signaling pathways mediated by TLRs to determine candidate molecules associated with bacterial infections. We used bioinformatics concepts, including literature mining to construct protein-protein interaction network, prioritization of TLRs specific nodes using microarray data and pathway analysis. Our constructed PPI network for TLR 2 (nodes: 4091 and edges: 66068) and TLR 4 (node: 4076 and edges: 67898) showed 3207 common nodes, indicating that both the TLRs might share similar signaling events that are attributed to cell migration, MAPK pathway and several inflammatory cascades. Our results propose the potential collaboration between the shared signaling pathways of both the receptors may enhance the immune response against invading pathogens. Further, to identify candidate molecules, the TLRs specific nodes were prioritized using microarray differential expressed genes. Of the top prioritized TLR 2 molecules, 70% were co-expressed. A similar trend was also observed within TLR 4 nodes. Further, most of these molecules were preferentially found in blood plasma for feasible diagnosis. Conclusions The analysis reveals the common and unique mechanism regulated by both the TLRs that provide a broad perspective of signaling events in bacterial infections. Further, the identified candidate biomolecules could potentially aid future research efforts concerning the possibility in differential diagnosis of gram-positive and negative bacterial infections. PMID:24587173

Thangam, Berla; Ahmed, Shiek S. S. J.

2014-01-01

328

iLoc-Gpos: a multi-layer classifier for predicting the subcellular localization of singleplex and multiplex Gram-positive bacterial proteins.  

PubMed

By introducing the "multi-layer scale", as well as hybridizing the information of gene ontology and the sequential evolution information, a novel predictor, called iLoc-Gpos, has been developed for predicting the subcellular localization of Gram positive bacterial proteins with both single-location and multiple-location sites. For facilitating comparison, the same stringent benchmark dataset used to estimate the accuracy of Gpos-mPLoc was adopted to demonstrate the power of iLoc-Gpos. The dataset contains 519 Gram-positive bacterial proteins classified into the following four subcellular locations: (1) cell membrane, (2) cell wall, (3) cytoplasm, and (4) extracell; none of proteins included has ?25% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset (subcellular location). The overall success rate by jackknife test on such a stringent benchmark dataset by iLoc-Gpos was over 93%, which is about 11% higher than that by GposmPLoc. As a user-friendly web-server, iLoc-Gpos is freely accessible to the public at http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iLoc- Gpos or http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iLoc-Gpos. Meanwhile, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results. Furthermore, for the user ? s convenience, the iLoc-Gpos web-server also has the function to accept the batch job submission, which is not available in the existing version of Gpos-mPLoc web-server. PMID:21919865

Wu, Zhi-Cheng; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2012-01-01

329

Alterations in membrane phospholipid fatty acids of Gram-positive piezotolerant bacterium Sporosarcina sp. DSK25 in response to growth pressure.  

PubMed

Pressure is an important thermodynamic property of the ocean and the deep biosphere that affects microbial physiology and biochemistry. Here, we report on our investigation of the response of Gram-positive piezotolerant bacterium Sporosarcina sp. DSK25 to hydrostatic pressure. Strain DSK25 responded in an adaptive manner to upshifts of growth pressure and showed systematic changes in phospholipid fatty acids. As the pressure increased from 0.1 to 10 MPa (Megapascal), unsaturated fatty acids in DSK25 increased from 21.7 to 31.1% of total fatty acids, while the level of iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids remained unchanged. At higher pressures (30, 50, and 60 MPa), the amount of unsaturated fatty acids decreased, and that of anteiso-branched fatty acids increased from 34.4 to 49.9% at the expense of iso-branched fatty acids. For the first time, two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 18:2n-6 and 18:2n-x, with the latter having much higher abundance than the former, were identified in DSK25. The concentration of the PUFA increased with growth pressure. These results indicate the involvement of unsaturated and methyl-branched fatty acids in the modulation of bacteria membrane fluidity and function over environmentally relevant parameter (pressure). Piezotolerant bacterium Sporosarcina sp. DSK25 appears to utilize two regulatory mechanisms for adaptation to high pressure, a rapid-responding mechanism on transient scale, expressed as increased biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, and a long-term adaptation mechanism in increased synthesis of anteiso-branched and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our results further suggest that Gram-positive piezophilic bacteria respond differently than Gram-negative bacteria in adaptation to high pressure. PMID:24595512

Wang, Jiani; Li, Jiangtao; Dasgupta, Shamik; Zhang, Li; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Golovko, Svetlana A; Fang, Jiasong

2014-04-01

330

Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper for Identification of Gram-Positive Rods: Development of a Diagnostic Algorithm for the Clinical Laboratory  

PubMed Central

Reported matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification rates of Gram-positive rods (GPR) are low compared to identification rates of Gram-positive cocci. In this study, three sample preparation methods were compared for MALDI-TOF MS identification of 190 well-characterized GPR strains: direct transfer, direct transfer-formic acid preparation, and ethanol-formic acid extraction. Using the interpretation criteria recommended by the manufacturer, identification rates were significantly higher for direct transfer-formic acid preparation and ethanol-formic acid extraction than for direct transfer. Reducing the species cutoff from 2.0 to 1.7 significantly increased species identification rates. In a subsequent prospective study, 215 clinical GPR isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, and the results were compared to those for identification using conventional methods, with discrepancies being resolved by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene analysis. Using the direct transfer-formic acid preparation and a species cutoff of 1.7, congruencies on the genus and species levels of 87.4% and 79.1%, respectively, were achieved. In addition, the rate of nonidentified isolates dropped from 12.1% to 5.6% when using an extended database, i.e., the Bruker database amended by reference spectra of the 190 GPR of the retrospective study. Our data demonstrate three ways to improve GPR identification by the Bruker MALDI Biotyper, (i) optimize sample preparation using formic acid, (ii) reduce cutoff scores for species identification, and (iii) expand the database. Based on our results, we suggest an identification algorithm for the clinical laboratory combining MALDI-TOF MS with nucleic acid sequencing. PMID:24452159

Bloemberg, Guido V.; Zbinden, Reinhard; Bottger, Erik C.; Hombach, Michael

2014-01-01

331

Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2, xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a?=?b?=?9.435 Å, c?=?6.876 Å for xAg?=?0.05, a?=?b?=?9.443 Å, c?=?6.875 Å for xAg?=?0.2, and a?=?b?=?9.445 Å, c?=?6.877 Å for xAg?=?0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a?=?b?=?9.418 Å, c?=?6.884 Å (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples (xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of xAg in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth (P. stuartii). PMID:22721352

Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Le Coustumer, Phillippe; Constantin, Liliana Violeta; Predoi, Daniela

2012-01-01

332

Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2, xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a?=?b?=?9.435 Å, c?=?6.876 Å for xAg?=?0.05, a?=?b?=?9.443 Å, c?=?6.875 Å for xAg?=?0.2, and a?=?b?=?9.445 Å, c?=?6.877 Å for xAg?=?0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a?=?b?=?9.418 Å, c?=?6.884 Å (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples (xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of xAg in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth (P. stuartii). PMID:22721352

2012-01-01

333

Transmembrane Organization of the Bacillus subtilis Chemoreceptor McpB Deduced by Cysteine  

E-print Network

differences exist in the signaling mechanism between E. coli and Bacillus subtilis chemoreceptors. Although chemo- taxis receptors in both B. subtilis and E. coli are subject to methylation by Che Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: chemotaxis; chemoreceptor; crosslinking; structure; helix

Ordal, George W.

334

Complete Genome Sequences of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis Laboratory Strains JH642 (AG174) and AG1839  

PubMed Central

The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used for studies of cellular and molecular processes. We announce the complete genomic sequences of strain AG174, our stock of the commonly used strain JH642, and strain AG1839, a derivative that contains a mutation in the replication initiation gene dnaB and a linked Tn917. PMID:24994804

Smith, Janet L.; Goldberg, Jonathan M.

2014-01-01

335

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3, Which Exhibits Glutamic Acid-Independent Production of Poly-?-Glutamic Acid?  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is one of most prevalent Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming bacteria with the ability to synthesize polysaccharides and polypeptides. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens LL3, which was isolated from fermented food and presents the glutamic acid-independent production of poly-?-glutamic acid. PMID:21551302

Geng, Weitao; Cao, Mingfeng; Song, Cunjiang; Xie, Hui; Liu, Li; Yang, Chao; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Yinghong; Du, Yang; Wang, Shufang

2011-01-01

336

Isolation and characterization of a thermophilic bacillus strain, that degrades phenol and cresols as sole carbon source at 70?°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenol-degrading thermophilic bacterium, designated Bacillus sp. A2, was isolated from a water and mud sample from a hot spring in Iceland. The aerobic isolate grew optimally on phenol\\u000a at 65?C. At 70?C, 85% of the optimal growth rate was still observed. No growth was observed at 40?C and 75?C. Bacillus sp. A2 is a gram-positive spore-forming rod. According to

A. Mutzel; U. M. Reinscheid; G. Antranikian; R. Müller

1996-01-01

337

Isolation of a halophilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain NY-6 for organic contaminants removal in saline wastewater on ship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to examine if certain strains of Bacillus bacteria, could survive in dry powder products and if so, could the bacteria degrade organic contaminants in saline wastewater on a ship. As part of the study, we isolated 7 domesticated strains named NY1, NY2,..., and NY7, the strain NY6 showed to have the best performance for organic matter degradation and could survive in dry powder more than 3 months. NY6 was identified as Bacillus aerius, based on the morphological and physic-chemical properties. Its optimal growth conditions were as follows: salinity was 2%; temperature was 37°C; pH was in 6.5-7.0; best ratio of C: N: P was 100:5:1. The capability of its dry powder for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal was 800mg COD/g in synthesized marine wastewater with 2% salinity. The spores in the dry powder were 1.972×108 g -1.

Gao, Jie; Yu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Dan; Zhao, Fangbo

2013-06-01

338

Efficacy of 5-day parenteral versus intramammary benzylpenicillin for treatment of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro.  

PubMed

The efficacy of parenteral (intramuscular) or intramammary (IMM) benzylpenicillin treatment for clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro was investigated. Cows with clinical mastitis in 1 udder quarter were randomly placed into 2 treatment groups. The preliminary bacteriological diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI) was based on on-farm culturing, and the bacteriological diagnoses were later confirmed by a quantitative PCR assay. Clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to benzylpenicillin was treated with penicillin via either the parenteral route (20mg/kg) or IMM route (600mg) once per day for 5d. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated 3 to 4wk after the onset of the treatment. The affected quarter was examined to assess the clinical cure, and milk samples were collected from the affected quarter to determine the bacteriological cure and milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity. The survival and the composite milk somatic cell counts of the treated cows were followed up for 6 and 3mo after treatment, respectively. A total of 140 cows with clinical mastitis were included in the study, 61 being treated with benzylpenicillin parenterally and 79 via the IMM route. From all quarters treated, 108 of 140 (77.1%) were cured clinically and 77 of 140 (55.0%) were cured bacteriologically. The route of treatment did not significantly affect the outcome of the treatment; 80.3% of the quarters with parenteral treatment and 74.7% of the quarters with IMM treatment showed a clinical cure, and 54.1 and 55.7% a bacteriological cure, respectively. The milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity was significantly lower in the quarters with a clinical or bacteriological cure than in the quarters with no cure. The 6-mo survival and the proportion of cows with composite milk somatic cell counts <200,000/mL among the treated cows during the 3-mo follow-up period did not significantly differ between the treatment groups. In conclusion, the outcome of either parenteral or IMM benzylpenicillin treatment of clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible bacteria was similar. PMID:24485692

Kalmus, P; Simojoki, H; Orro, T; Taponen, S; Mustonen, K; Holopainen, J; Pyörälä, S

2014-04-01

339

A new organic solvent tolerant protease from Bacillus pumilus 115b  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five out of the nine benzene–toulene–ethylbenzene-xylene (BTEX) tolerant bacteria that demonstrated high protease activity\\u000a on skim milk agar were isolated. Among them, isolate 115b identified as Bacillus pumilus exhibited the highest protease production. The protease produced was stable in 25% (v\\/v) benzene and toluene and it was activated\\u000a 1.7 and 2.5- fold by n-dodecane and n-tetradecane, respectively. The gene encoding

Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman; Shalihah Mahamad; Abu Bakar Salleh; Mahiran Basri

2007-01-01

340

Communication of ? Phage Lysin plyG Enzymes Binding toward SrtA for Inhibition of Bacillus Anthracis: Protein-Protein Interaction and Molecular Dynamics Study.  

PubMed

Abstract Bacillus anthracis is a pathogenic, Gram-positive bacterium which chiefly affects the livestock of animals and humans through acute disease anthrax. All around the globe this bio-threat organism damages millions of lives in every year and also most of the drugs were not responding properly in inhibition against this diseased pathogen. In recent development, phage therapy is considered as alternative solution to treat this serious infectious disease. In this study, we elucidated the binding of ? phage lysin plyG enzymes toward the SrtA along with its activator peptide LPXTG. Through protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we showed the distinguished structure complementarity of SrtA and plyG complex. Especially, MD simulation relates strong and stable interaction occurs between the protein complex structures. These results suggest that additional experimental studies on our approach will lead to availability of better inhibitor against the SrtA. PMID:24978154

Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Bharathi Priya, Ramanathan; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

2014-10-01

341

Crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the transfer protein TraM from the Gram-positive conjugative plasmid pIP501  

PubMed Central

The major means of horizontal gene spread (e.g. of antibiotic resistance) is conjugative plasmid transfer. It presents a serious threat especially for hospitalized and immuno-suppressed patients, as it can lead to the accelerated spread of bacteria with multiple antibiotic resistances. Detailed information about the process is available only for bacteria of Gram-negative (G?) origin and little is known about the corresponding mechanisms in Gram-positive (G+) bacteria. Here we present the purification, biophysical characterization, crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the TraM C-terminal domain (TraM?, comprising residues 190–322 of the full-length protein), a putative transfer protein from the G+ conjugative model plasmid pIP501. The crystals diffracted to 2.5?Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.21, b = 54.98, c = 93.47?Å, ? = 89.91, ? = 86.44, ? = 78.63° and six molecules per asymmetric unit. The preliminary structure was solved by selenomethionine single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. PMID:23385763

Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Grumet, Lukas; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter

2013-01-01

342

Enhancement of Antibacterial Activity of Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Combination with Antibiotics, on Model Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The nanoparticles used in this study were prepared from AgNO3 using NaBH4 in the presence of capping agents such as citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The formed nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of yellow colour and an absorption maximum between 399 and 404?nm. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and polydisperse. For citrate, SDS, and PVP capped nanoparticles, the average particle sizes were 38.3 ± 13.5, 19.3 ± 6.0, and 16.0 ± 4.8?nm, respectively. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles in FCC structure is confirmed from the SAED and XRD patterns. Also, the combined antibacterial activity of these differently capped nanoparticles with selected antibiotics (streptomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) was evaluated on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, employing disc diffusion assay. The activity of the tested antibiotics was enhanced in combination with all the stabilized nanoparticles, against both the Gram classes of bacteria. The combined effects of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics were more prominent with PVP capped nanoparticles as compared to citrate and SDS capped ones. The results of this study demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics. PMID:23970844

Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Rastogi, Lori

2013-01-01

343

Antimicrobial effect of the triterpene 3?,6?,16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene on planktonic cells and biofilms from Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 3?,6?,16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (CLF1), a triterpene isolated from Combretum leprosum Mart., in inhibiting the planktonic growth and biofilms of Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans and S. mitis. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antibiofilm potential was determined by quantifying total biomass and enumerating biofilm-entrapped viable bacteria. In addition, the acute toxicity of CLF1 on Artemia sp. nauplii was also determined. The results showed that CLF1 was able in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and S. mitis with MIC and MBC of 7.8 ?g/mL and 15.6 ?g/mL, respectively. CLF1 was highly effective on biofilms of both bacteria. Only 7.8 ?g/mL CLF1 was enough to inhibit by 97% and 90% biomass production of S. mutans and S. mitis, respectively. On the other hand, such effects were not evident on Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca. The toxicity tests showed that the LC50 of CLF1 was 98.19 ?g/mL. Therefore, CLF1 isolated from C. leprosum may constitute an important natural agent for the development of new therapies for caries and other infectious diseases caused by S. mutans and S. mitis. PMID:25093179

Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R; dos Santos, Hélcio Silva; Bandeira, Paulo Nogueira; Avila, Fábio do Nascimento; da Silva, Bruno Rocha; Vasconcelos, Ariana Azevedo; Rabelo, Erica de Menezes; Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

2014-01-01

344

Antimicrobial Effect of the Triterpene 3?,6?,16?-Trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms from Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 3?,6?,16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (CLF1), a triterpene isolated from Combretum leprosum Mart., in inhibiting the planktonic growth and biofilms of Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans and S. mitis. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antibiofilm potential was determined by quantifying total biomass and enumerating biofilm-entrapped viable bacteria. In addition, the acute toxicity of CLF1 on Artemia sp. nauplii was also determined. The results showed that CLF1 was able in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and S. mitis with MIC and MBC of 7.8??g/mL and 15.6??g/mL, respectively. CLF1 was highly effective on biofilms of both bacteria. Only 7.8??g/mL CLF1 was enough to inhibit by 97% and 90% biomass production of S. mutans and S. mitis, respectively. On the other hand, such effects were not evident on Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca. The toxicity tests showed that the LC50 of CLF1 was 98.19??g/mL. Therefore, CLF1 isolated from C. leprosum may constitute an important natural agent for the development of new therapies for caries and other infectious diseases caused by S. mutans and S. mitis. PMID:25093179

Evaristo, Francisco Flavio Vasconcelos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; dos Santos, Helcio Silva; Bandeira, Paulo Nogueira; Avila, Fabio do Nascimento; da Silva, Bruno Rocha; Vasconcelos, Ariana Azevedo; Rabelo, Erica de Menezes; Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

2014-01-01

345

Evaluation of the BinaxNOW Staphylococcus aureus Test for Rapid Identification of Gram-Positive Cocci from VersaTREK Blood Culture Bottles  

PubMed Central

The ability of the rapid BinaxNOW Staphylococcus aureus (BNSA) immunochromatographic test (Alere Scarborough, Inc., ME) to accurately differentiate S. aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and other Gram-positive cocci (GPC) directly from VersaTREK blood culture bottles was evaluated. A total of 319 positive patient blood culture bottles with GPC seen in clusters with Gram staining were tested using the BNSA test and a direct tube coagulase test (DTCT). The BNSA test was accurate for the detection and differentiation of S. aureus from CoNS and other GPC within 30 min from the time of blood culture positivity and demonstrated a test sensitivity and specificity of 95.8% and 99.6%, respectively. BNSA test results were faxed to the antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist by noon each day in order to evaluate empirical antimicrobial therapy and facilitate more rapid changes or modifications if necessary. Same-day reporting of BNSA test results in conjunction with an antimicrobial stewardship program was more impactful in improving treatment for inpatients with documented S. aureus bacteremia than in reducing empirical vancomycin use in inpatients with CoNS during the first 24 h following reporting. PMID:23804393

Dhiman, Neelam; Trienski, Tamara L.; DiPersio, Linda P.

2013-01-01

346

Bacillus anthracis  

PubMed Central

The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation anthrax. In addition, treatment and vaccination strategies will be reviewed. PMID:12610093

Spencer, R C

2003-01-01

347

Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates  

PubMed Central

Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants. PMID:22720735

2012-01-01

348

Sequence and genetic organization of a Bacillus subtilis operon encoding 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate biosynthetic enzymes.  

PubMed

Under iron-limiting conditions, Bacillus subtilis (Bs) produces the siderophore 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB) to acquire extracellular iron. In Escherichia coli (Ec), DHB is a precursor of the siderophore enterobactin, which suggested that Bs may possess similar biosynthetic enzymes. The sequences of two overlapping Bs clones capable of complementing Ec enterobactin mutants [Grossman, T.H., Tuckman, M., Ellestad, S. and Osburne, M.S. (1993) Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis genes involved in siderophore biosynthesis: Relationship between B. subtilis sfpo and Escherichia coli entD genes. J. Bacteriol. 175, 6203-6211] were analyzed and five open reading frames were identified. These genes are located near 291 degrees on the Bs chromosome and have been termed dhbA, dhbC, dhbE, dhbB and dhbF, based on similarities to Ec ent homologs. Amino-acid identities between gene product homologs are: EntA and DhbA, 41%; EntC and DhbC, 35%; EntE and DhbE, 48%; EntB and DhbB, 54%; and EntF and DhbF, 29%. DhbC is also 35% identical to the Bs menaquinone-specific isochorismate synthase, MenF, illustrating an example of gene duplication. Operon disruption studies suggested that the dhb genes comprise an operon of at least four genes. PMID:8921902

Rowland, B M; Grossman, T H; Osburne, M S; Taber, H W

1996-10-31

349

Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At ?20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load. PMID:24082400

Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Liz

2013-01-01

350

Enzymes produced by halotolerant spore-forming gram-positive bacterial strains isolated from a resting habitat (restinga de jurubatiba) in rio de janeiro, Brazil: focus on proteases.  

PubMed

The screening for hydrolases-producing, halotolerant, and spore-forming gram-positive bacteria from the root, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soil of Blutaparon portulacoides, a plant found in the Restinga de Jurubatiba located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, resulted in the isolation of 22 strains. These strains were identified as Halobacillus blutaparonensis (n?=?2), Oceanobacillus picturae (n?=?5), and Oceanobacillus iheyensis (n?=?15), and all showed the ability to produce different extracellular enzymes. A total of 20 isolates (90.9 %) showed activity for protease, 5 (22.7 %) for phytase, 3 (13.6 %) for cellulase, and 2 (9.1 %) for amylase. Some bacterial strains were capable of producing three (13.6 %) or two (9.1 %) distinct hydrolytic enzymes. However, no bacterial strain with ability to produce esterase and DNase was observed. The isolate designated M9, belonging to the species H. blutaparonensis, was the best producer of protease and also yielded amylase and phytase. This strain was chosen for further studies regarding its protease activity. The M9 strain produced similar amounts of protease when grown either without or with different NaCl concentrations (from 0.5 to 10 %). A simple inspection of the cell-free culture supernatant by gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed the presence of three major alkaline proteases of 40, 50, and 70 kDa, which were fully inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (two classical serine protease inhibitors). The secreted proteases were detected in a wide range of temperature (from 4 to 45 °C) and their hydrolytic activities were stimulated by NaCl (up to 10 %). The serine proteases produced by the M9 strain cleaved gelatin, casein, albumin, and hemoglobin, however, in different extensions. Collectively, these results suggest the potential use of the M9 strain in biotechnological and/or industrial processes. PMID:25227686

D Santos, Anderson Fragoso; Pacheco, Clarissa Almeida; Valle, Roberta D Santos; Seldin, Lucy; D Santos, André Luis Souza

2014-12-01

351

Adsorption and Fenton regeneration of SBA-15 for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate leached from PVC sheets by Gram-positive strains LHM1 and LHM2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioleaching of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from PVC sheets was studied with newly isolated, Gram-positive strains LHM1 and LHM2 capable of growing on DEHP as the sole carbon source. According to 16S rRNA gene analysis, strains LHM1 and LHM2 were closely related (more than 97% similarity) to Chryseomicrobium imtechense MW 10(T) and Lysinibacillus fusiformis NBRC 15717(T), respectively. The biodeteriorated PVC sheets by the strains LHM1 and LHM2 had thicker biofilm development. Despite their metabolic capability of degrading DEHP as the sole carbon source, the strains LHM1 and LHM2 did not metabolize all DEHP leached out of the PVC sheets. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the biodeterioration by strains LHM1 and LHM2 resulted in less amount of and weakly bonded DEHP present in PVC sheets, in comparison to the virgin PVC sheet. Therefore, PVC biodeterioration by strains LHM1 and LHM2 might play an important role in stability of PVC sheets and fate and effect of leached DEHP on the environmental receptors. In response to this, an advanced adsorption with SBA-15 was assessed as a potential alternative DEHP remediation with arsenic as a co-contaminant. SBA-15 had an excellent arsenic adsorption showing >90% arsenic removal when arsenic was present as a singular contaminant. Adsorption effectiveness was irrelevant to the solid/liquid (S/L) ratio. However, when arsenic was present together with DEHP, arsenic adsorption to bare SBA-15 was reduced by 10 - 40%, with lesser S/L ratio having greater arsenic removal. On the contrary, bare SBA-15 only adsorbed ~30% of DEHP on average. When DEHP was present as a co-solute with arsenic, DEHP adsorption to bare SBA-15 was increased. For SBA-15 regeneration, adsorbed arsenic was recovered with EDTA elution, whereas adsorbed DEHP was destructed with Fenton oxidation.

Hwang, S.; Latorre, I.; Caban, M.; Soto, B.; Montalvo-Rodríguez, R.; Hernández-Maldonado, A.

2012-12-01

352

Streptomycin-Induced Expression in Bacillus subtilis of YtnP, a Lactonase-Homologous Protein That Inhibits Development and Streptomycin Production in Streptomyces griseus  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis induces expression of the gene ytnP in the presence of the antimicrobial streptomycin, produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces griseus. ytnP encodes a lactonase-homologous protein that is able to inhibit the signaling pathway required for the streptomycin production and development of aerial mycelium in S. griseus. PMID:22101040

Schneider, Johannes; Yepes, Ana; Garcia-Betancur, Juan C.; Westedt, Isa; Mielich, Benjamin

2012-01-01

353

A Feedback Loop Regulates the Switch from One Sigma Factor to the Next in the Cascade Controlling Bacillus subtilis Mother Cell Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporulation of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a model system for studying developmental gene regulation (8). In response to starvation, B. subtilis undergoes a series of morphological changes that culminate in the formation of an endospore. Early during sporulation, an asymmetrically posi- tioned septum partitions the developing cell into two unequal compartments, the mother cell and the forespore, each

BIN ZHANG; LEE KROOS

1997-01-01

354

Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis MB73/2, a Soil Isolate Inhibiting the Growth of Plant Pathogens Dickeya spp. and Rhizoctonia solani  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subilis MB73/2 is a Gram-positive bacterium isolated in Poland from a meadow soil sample. When tested in vitro, the strain shows strong antagonism toward plant pathogens—the soft rot-causing bacteria Dickeya spp. and the crown rot fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Here, we present the genome sequence of MB73/2. PMID:23682145

Krzyzanowska, Dorota M.; Iwanicki, Adam; Ossowicki, Adam; Obuchowski, Michal

2013-01-01

355

Secretory S complex of Bacillus subtilis forms a large, organized structure when released from ribosomes.  

PubMed Central

The S complex of Bacillus subtilis, a set of four proteins that appears to be involved in protein secretion, is shown to be attached to 70S ribosomes: antibody to its 64-kDa component can aggregate these ribosomes, and the complex can be chemically crosslinked to ribosomal proteins. Low Mg2+ or prolonged high-speed centrifugation in a sucrose gradient releases the S complex from the ribosomes, and it is recovered as an aggregate with an S value of 76. Electron microscopy shows that these aggregates have a regular structure, somewhat resembling clathrin cages, with a diameter of about 45 nm. If these aggregates are physiological, their function would differ significantly from that of the signal recognition particle of eukaryotes. Images PMID:3923486

Caulfield, M P; Furlong, D; Tai, P C; Davis, B D

1985-01-01

356

Diversity of Bacillus-like organisms isolated from deep-sea hypersaline anoxic sediments  

PubMed Central

Background The deep-sea, hypersaline anoxic brine lakes in the Mediterranean are among the most extreme environments on earth, and in one of them, the MgCl2-rich Discovery basin, the presence of active microbes is equivocal. However, thriving microbial communities have been detected especially in the chemocline between deep seawater and three NaCl-rich brine lakes, l'Atalante, Bannock and Urania. By contrast, the microbiota of these brine-lake sediments remains largely unexplored. Results Eighty nine isolates were obtained from the sediments of four deep-sea, hypersaline anoxic brine lakes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: l'Atalante, Bannock, Discovery and Urania basins. This culture collection was dominated by representatives of the genus Bacillus and close relatives (90% of all isolates) that were investigated further. Physiological characterization of representative strains revealed large versatility with respect to enzyme activities or substrate utilization. Two third of the isolates did not grow at in-situ salinities and were presumably present as endospores. This is supported by high numbers of endospores in Bannock, Discovery and Urania basins ranging from 3.8 × 105 to 1.2 × 106 g-1 dw sediment. However, the remaining isolates were highly halotolerant growing at salinities of up to 30% NaCl. Some of the novel isolates affiliating with the genus Pontibacillus grew well under anoxic conditions in sulfidic medium by fermentation or anaerobic respiration using dimethylsulfoxide or trimethylamine N-oxide as electron acceptor. Conclusion Some of the halophilic, facultatively anaerobic relatives of Bacillus appear well adapted to life in this hostile environment and suggest the presence of actively growing microbial communities in the NaCl-rich, deep-sea brine-lake sediments. PMID:18541011

Sass, Andrea M; McKew, Boyd A; Sass, Henrik; Fichtel, Jorg; Timmis, Kenneth N; McGenity, Terry J

2008-01-01

357

Bacillus coagulans  

MedlinePLUS

... Bacillus coagulans are marketed as Lactobacillus sporogenes or "spore-forming lactic acid bacterium." Unlike lactic acid bacteria ... or bifidobacteria, Bacillus coagulans forms reproductive structures called spores. Spores are actually an important factor in telling ...

358

Effect of organic solvents on the structure and activity of moderately halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9 protease.  

PubMed

Halophilic enzymes have been manifested for their stability and catalytic abilities under harsh operational conditions. These have been documented to withstand denaturation in presence of high temperature, pH, presence of organic solvents and chaotropic agents. The present study aims at understanding the stability and activity of a halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9 protease in organic solvents. The protease was uniquely stable in polar solvents. A clear correlation was evident between the protease function and conformational transitions, validated by CD and fluorescence spectral studies. The study affirms that preservation of protein structure, possibly due to charge screening of the protein surface by Ca(2+) and Na(+) ions provides stability against organic solvents and averts denaturation. Salt was also found to exert a protective effect on dialyzed protease against chaotropism of solvents. Presence of 1 % (w/v) NaCl restored the activity in the dialyzed protease and prevented denaturation in methanol, toluene and n-decane. The work will have further implication on discerning protein folding in saline as well as non-aqueous environments. PMID:25134948

Sinha, Rajeshwari; Khare, S K

2014-11-01

359

Prevalence of Bacillus anthracis-Like Organisms and Bacteriophages in the Intestinal Tract of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida? †  

PubMed Central

Stable infection of Bacillus anthracis laboratory strains with environmental bacteriophages confers survival phenotypes in soil and earthworm intestinal niches (R. Schuch and V. A. Fischetti, PLoS One 4:e6532, 2009). Here, the natural occurrence of two such B. anthracis-infective bacteriophages, Wip1 and Wip4, was examined in the intestines of Eisenia fetida earthworms as part of a 6-year longitudinal study at a Pennsylvania forest site. The Wip1 tectivirus was initially dominant before being supplanted by the Wip4 siphovirus, which was then dominant for the next 3 years. In a host range analysis of a wide-ranging group of Bacillus species and related organisms, Wip1 and Wip4 were both infective only toward B. anthracis and certain B. cereus strains. The natural host of Wip4 remained constant for 3 years and was a B. cereus strain that expressed a B. anthracis-like surface polysaccharide at septal positions on the cell surface. Next, a novel metagenomic approach was used to determine the extent to which such B. cereus- and B. anthracis-like strains are found in worms from two geographical locations. Three different enrichment strategies were used for metagenomic DNA isolation, based either on the ability of B. cereus sensu lato to form heat-resistant spores, the sensitivity of B. anthracis to the PlyG lysin, or the selective amplification of environmental phages cocultured with B. anthracis. Findings from this work indicate that B. cereus sensu lato and its phages are common inhabitants of earthworm intestines. PMID:20118353

Schuch, R.; Pelzek, A. J.; Kan, S.; Fischetti, V. A.

2010-01-01

360

Novel physico-chemical diagnostic tools for high throughput identification of bovine mastitis associated gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci  

PubMed Central

Background The routine diagnosis of Streptococcus spp. and other mastitis associated gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci is still based upon biochemical tests and serological methods, which frequently provide ambiguous identification results. We therefore aimed to establish an accurate identification system for differential diagnosis of mastitis associated Streptococcus spp. and related species using biophysical techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and MALDI – TOF/MS. Results Based on a panel of 210 isolates from cases of bovine mastitis, an unsupervised FTIR spectral reference library was established and an artificial neural network (ANN) - assisted identification system was developed. All bacterial isolates were previously identified by species-specific PCR and/or 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. An overall identification rate of 100% at species level for 173 strains unknown to the ANN and the library was achieved by combining ANN and the spectral database, thus demonstrating the suitability of our FTIR identification system for routine diagnosis. In addition, we investigated the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of mastitis associated Streptococcus spp. and related bacteria. Using the Microflex LT System, MALDI Biotyper software™ (V3.3) we achieved an accuracy rate of 95.2%. A blind study, including 21 clinical samples from dairy cows, revealed a 100% correct species identification rate for FTIR and 90.5% for MALDI-TOF MS, indicating that these techniques are valuable tools for diagnosis. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates that FTIR spectroscopy as well as MALDI-TOF MS can significantly improve and facilitate the identification and differentiation of mastitis associated Streptococcus spp. and related species. Although the FTIR identification system turned out being slightly superior to MALDI-TOF MS in terms of identification on species level, both methods offer interesting alternatives to conventional methods currently used in mastitis diagnosis as both of them provide high accuracy at low operating costs once the instrument is acquired. PMID:25015262

2014-01-01

361

Screening, Identification and Antibacterial Activities of Effective Thermotolerant Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Raw Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-one isolates of Bacillus species were isolated from raw milk, analyzed using the spot on lawn and agar diffusion method in terms of their general inhibition effects to test bacteria (Escherichia coli TISTR 887 and Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 517). The results demonstrated that most isolates are effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria whereas their extensive inhibition effect is particularly against

Kannikar SANTONG; Sumeth NAORUNGROTE; Phuwadol BANGRAK; Warangkana CHUNGLOK; Monthon LERTCANAWANICHAKUL

362

The Amino Terminus of Bacillus subtilis TagB Possesses Separable Localization and Functional Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function(s) of gram-positive wall teichoic acid is emerging with recent findings that it is an important virulence factor in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and that it is crucial to proper rod-shaped cell mor- phology of Bacillus subtilis. Despite its importance, our understanding of teichoic acid biosynthesis remains incomplete. The TagB protein has been implicated in the priming step of

Amit P. Bhavsar; Michael A. D'Elia; Tiffany D. Sahakian; Eric D. Brown

2007-01-01

363

Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis: new insights into regulatory strategies and assembly mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation is a social behaviour that generates favourable conditions for sustained survival in the natural environment. For the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis the process involves the differentiation of cell fate within an isogenic population and the production of communal goods that form the biofilm matrix. Here we review recent progress in understanding the regulatory pathways that control biofilm formation and highlight developments in understanding the composition, function and structure of the biofilm matrix. PMID:24988880

Cairns, Lynne S; Hobley, Laura; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

2014-01-01

364

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Inhibitors of Thymidine Monophosphate Kinase from Bacillus Anthracis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen lipophilic thymidine phosphate-mimicking compounds were designed and synthesized as potential inhibitors of thymidine monophosphate kinase of Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive bacterium that causes anthrax. These thymidine analogues were substituted at the 5?-postion with sulfonamide-, amide-, (thio)urea-, or triazole groups, which served as lipophilic surrogates for phosphate. Three of the tested compounds produced inhibition of B. anthracis Sterne growth and\\/or

Youngjoo Byun; Susan R. Vogel; Andrew J. Phipps; Cecilia Carnrot; Staffan Eriksson; Rohit Tiwari; Werner Tjarks

2008-01-01

365

Structural organization of a Bacillus subtilis operon encoding menaquinone biosynthetic enzymes.  

PubMed

Menaquinone (MK) is a non-protein component of the Bacillus subtilis (Bs) electron transport chain synthesized from chorismate through a series of MK-specific reactions. The genes encoding biosynthesis of the naphthoquinone ring of MK are clustered at 273 degrees on the Bs chromosome. A 3.9-kb region capable of rescuing men mutants blocked in the early stages of MK biosynthesis was sequenced and found to contain three major open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF (menF) has a predicted size of 51.8 kDa and 34% amino-acid identity with the isochorismate synthases of Escherichia coli (EntC) and Aeromonas hydrophila (AmoA), ORF2 (menD) a predicted size of 60.2 kDa and 21% identity with MenD of E. coli. ORF3 has a predicted size of 21.4 kDa and 29% identity to triacylglycerol lipase of Psychrobacter immobilis. No sequence corresponding to menC was identified. Plasmid integrational studies of the men gene cluster had suggested the presence of promoters secondary to the previously identified p1 men promoter. Sequence analysis revealed a putative promoter region upstream from ORF3. PMID:8566759

Rowland, B; Hill, K; Miller, P; Driscoll, J; Taber, H

1995-12-29

366

Mycosubtilin Overproduction by Bacillus subtilis BBG100 Enhances the Organism's Antagonistic and Biocontrol Activities  

PubMed Central

A Bacillus subtilis derivative was obtained from strain ATCC 6633 by replacement of the native promoter of the mycosubtilin operon by a constitutive promoter originating from the replication gene repU of the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pUB110. The recombinant strain, designated BBG100, produced up to 15-fold more mycosubtilin than the wild type produced. The overproducing phenotype was related to enhancement of the antagonistic activities against several yeasts and pathogenic fungi. Hemolytic activities were also clearly increased in the modified strain. Mass spectrometry analyses of enriched mycosubtilin extracts showed similar patterns of lipopeptides for BBG100 and the wild type. Interestingly, these analyses also revealed a new form of mycosubtilin which was more easily detected in the BBG100 sample. When tested for its biocontrol potential, wild-type strain ATCC 6633 was almost ineffective for reducing a Pythium infection of tomato seedlings. However, treatment of seeds with the BBG100 overproducing strain resulted in a marked increase in the germination rate of seeds. This protective effect afforded by mycosubtilin overproduction was also visualized by the significantly greater fresh weight of emerging seedlings treated with BBG100 compared to controls or seedlings inoculated with the wild-type strain. PMID:16085851

Leclere, Valerie; Bechet, Max; Adam, Akram; Guez, Jean-Sebastien; Wathelet, Bernard; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Gancel, Frederique; Chollet-Imbert, Marlene; Jacques, Philippe

2005-01-01

367

Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming eubacterium. Ultrathin sections of the spores showed the presence of an exosporium, spore coat, cortex and core. 16S rDNA sequence similarities between this strain, Bacillus fusiformis and Bacillus silvestris were approximately 96% and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these two bacilli were 23 and 17%, respectively. Spores of the novel species were resistant to desiccation, H2O2 and UV and gamma radiation. Of all strains tested, the spores of this strain were the most consistently resistant and survived all of the challenges posed, i.e. exposure to conditions of desiccation (100% survival), H2O2 (26% survival), UV radiation (10% survival at 660 J m(-2)) and gamma radiation (0.4% survival). The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov.; the type strain is 34hs-1T (=ATCC PTA-4993T=NRRL B-30641T=NBRC 100172T).

La Duc, Myron T.; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2004-01-01

368

Comparative In Vitro Activities of AC98-6446, a Novel Semisynthetic Glycopeptide Derivative of the Natural Product Mannopeptimycin  , and Other Antimicrobial Agents against Gram-Positive Clinical Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

AC98-6446 is a novel semisynthetic cyclic glycopeptide antibiotic related to the natural product mannopep- timycin (AC98-1). In the present study the activity of AC98-6446 was evaluated against a variety of recent clinical gram-positive pathogens including multiply resistant strains. AC98-6446 demonstrated similar potent activities against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant staphylococci and glycopeptide-intermediate staphylococcal isolates (MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited

Peter J. Petersen; T. Z. Wang; Russell G. Dushin; Patricia A. Bradford

2004-01-01

369

Synthesis and structure–activity relationship studies of 4-arylthiosemicarbazides as topoisomerase IV inhibitors with Gram-positive antibacterial activity. Search for molecular basis of antibacterial activity of thiosemicarbazides  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-(indol-2-carbonyl)-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-thiosemicarbazide was synthesized and antibacterial and type IIA topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) activity was evaluated. It was found that it shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria with MICs of 50 ?g\\/mL and inhibitory action against topoisomerase IV with an IC50 of 14 ?M. Although modification of its structure resulted in molecules with a lower biological profile, our observations strongly implicate that

Agata Siwek; Pawe? St?czek; Joanna Stefa?ska

370

Identification of Gram-Positive Cocci by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: Comparison of Different Preparation Methods and Implementation of a Practical Algorithm for Routine Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

This study compared three sample preparation methods (direct transfer, the direct transfer-formic acid method with on-target formic acid treatment, and ethanol-formic acid extraction) for the identification of Gram-positive cocci with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A total of 156 Gram-positive cocci representing the clinically most important genera, Aerococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as more rare genera, such as Gemella and Granulicatella, were analyzed using a Bruker MALDI Biotyper. The rate of correct genus-level identifications was approximately 99% for all three sample preparation methods. The species identification rate was significantly higher for the direct transfer-formic acid method and ethanol-formic acid extraction (both 77.6%) than for direct transfer (64.1%). Using direct transfer-formic acid compared to direct transfer, the total time to result was increased by 22.6%, 16.4%, and 8.5% analyzing 12, 48, and 96 samples per run, respectively. In a subsequent prospective study, 1,619 clinical isolates of Gram-positive cocci were analyzed under routine conditions by MALDI-TOF MS, using the direct transfer-formic acid preparation, and by conventional biochemical methods. For 95.6% of the isolates, a congruence between conventional and MALDI-TOF MS identification was observed. Two major limitations were found using MALDI-TOF MS: the differentiation of members of the Streptococcus mitis group and the identification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae. The Bruker MALDI Biotyper system using the direct transfer-formic acid sample preparation method was shown to be a highly reliable tool for the identification of Gram-positive cocci. We here suggest a practical algorithm for the clinical laboratory combining MALDI-TOF MS with phenotypic and molecular methods. PMID:23554198

Schulthess, Bettina; Brodner, Katharina; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Zbinden, Reinhard; Bottger, Erik C.

2013-01-01

371

Comparative In Vitro Activities of SMT19969, a New Antimicrobial Agent, against Clostridium difficile and 350 Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Aerobic and Anaerobic Intestinal Flora Isolates  

PubMed Central

The comparative in vitro activity of SMT19969, a novel, narrow-spectrum, nonabsorbable agent, was studied against 50 ribotype-defined Clostridium difficile strains, 174 Gram-positive and 136 Gram-negative intestinal anaerobes, and 40 Gram-positive aerobes. SMT19969 was one dilution more active against C. difficile isolates (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 ?g/ml; MIC90, 0.25 ?g/ml), including ribotype 027 strains, than fidaxomicin (range, 0.06 to 1 ?g/ml; MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml) and two to six dilutions lower than either vancomycin or metronidazole. SMT19969 and fidaxomicin were generally less active against Gram-negative anaerobes, especially the Bacteroides fragilis group species, than vancomycin and metronidazole, suggesting that SMT19969 has a lesser impact on the normal intestinal microbiota that maintain colonization resistance. SMT19969 showed limited activity against other Gram-positive anaerobes, including Bifidobacteria species, Eggerthella lenta, Finegoldia magna, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, with MIC90s of >512, >512, 64, and 64 ?g/ml, respectively. Clostridium species showed various levels of susceptibility, with C. innocuum being susceptible (MIC90, 1 ?g/ml) and C. ramosum and C. perfringens being nonsusceptible (MIC90, >512 ?g/ml). Activity against Lactobacillus spp. (range, 0.06 to >512 ?g/ml; MIC90, >512 ?g/ml) was comparable to that of fidaxomicin and varied by species and strain. Gram-positive aerobic cocci (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and streptococci) showed high SMT19969 MIC90 values (128 to >512 ?g/ml). PMID:23877700

Citron, Diane M.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Merriam, C. Vreni

2013-01-01

372

Comparison of the Vitek Gram-Positive Susceptibility 106 Card and the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test for Determining Oxacillin Resistance in Clinical Bloodstream Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vitek automated susceptibility testing system with a modified Gram-Positive Susceptibility (GPS) 106 Card (bioMerieux Vitek, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) and a rapid slide latex agglutination test (MRSA-Screen; Denka Seiken Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) were evaluated for their ability to detect oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The oxacillin-salt agar screen (OS) test, the reference broth microdilution method, and the detection of

T. Yamazumi; S. A. Marshall; W. W. Wilke; D. J. Diekema; M. A. Pfaller; R. N. Jones

2001-01-01

373

Characterization of a cryptic plasmid from a Greenland ice core Arthrobacter isolate and construction of a shuttle vector that replicates in psychrophilic high G+C Gram-positive recipients.  

PubMed

Over 60 Greenland glacial isolates were screened for plasmids and antibiotic resistance/sensitivity as the first step in establishing a genetic system. Sequence analysis of a small, cryptic, 1,950 bp plasmid, p54, from isolate GIC54, related to Arthrobacter agilis, showed a region similar to that found in theta replicating Rhodococcus plasmids. A 6,002 bp shuttle vector, pSVJ21, was constructed by ligating p54 and pUC18 and inserting a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) cassette conferring chloramphenicol resistance. Candidate Gram-positive recipients were chosen among glacial isolates based on phylogenetic relatedness, relatively short doubling times at low temperatures, sensitivity to antibiotics, and absence of indigenous plasmids. We developed an electroporation protocol and transformed seven isolates related to members of the Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium, and Rhodoglobus genera with pSVJ21. Plasmid stability was demonstrated by successive transformation into Escherichia coli and four Gram-positive isolates, growth without antibiotic, and plasmid re-isolation. This shuttle vector and our transformation protocol provide the basis for genetic experiments with different high G+C Gram-positive hosts to study cold adaptation and expression of cold-active enzymes at low temperatures. PMID:18335166

Miteva, Vanya; Lantz, Sarah; Brenchley, Jean

2008-05-01

374

Bacillus cereus necrotizing pneumonia in a patient with nephrotic syndrome.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is a Gram-positive rod that is widely distributed in the environment and can be a cause of food poisoning. We herein present a case of B. cereus necrotizing pneumonia in a patient with nephrotic syndrome under corticosteroid treatment after developing transient gastroenteritis symptoms. B. cereus was isolated from bronchial lavage fluid and transbronchial biopsy specimens. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of the toxin genes revealed a strain possessing enterotoxicity. The patient recovered after one week of intravenous meropenem followed by a combination of oral moxifloxacin and clindamycin. B. cereus is a pathogen that causes necrotizing pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:23291682

Miyata, Jun; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Miyazaki, Masaki; Yoshida, Syuichi; Naoki, Katsuhiko; Sayama, Koichi; Asano, Koichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

2013-01-01

375

Symposium on microbiology update: old friends and new enemies. Bacillus cereus.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus is an environmentally ubiquitous, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus responsible for 2 distinct foodborne disease syndromes as well as other manifestations of pathogenicity. The rapid-onset, "emetic," foodborne-disease syndrome is associated with an emetic toxin; the delayed-onset, "diarrheal" syndrome is associated with elaboration of enterotoxin. The majority of methods for detection of these toxins have relied on in vivo testing. More recent work on purification of enterotoxin facilitated the development of a rapid, specific, fluorescent immunodot assay and a tissue culture screening assay for enterotoxin. Work on characterization and detection of emetic toxin is ongoing. PMID:1917820

Jackson, S G

1991-01-01

376

The nitrate-ammonifying and nosZ-carrying bacterium Bacillus vireti is a potent source and sink for nitric and nitrous oxide under high nitrate conditions.  

PubMed

Several Gram-positive bacteria carry genes for anaerobic reduction of NO3 (-) via NO2 (-) to NH4 (+) or gaseous nitrogen compounds, but the processes are understudied for these organisms. Here, we present results from a whole-genome analysis of the soil bacterium Bacillus vireti and a phenotypic characterization of intermediate and end-products, formed under anoxic conditions in the presence of NO3 (-) . Bacillus vireti has a versatile metabolism. It produces acetate, formate, succinate and lactate from fermentation and performs dissimilatory nitrate reduction via NO2 (-) to ammonium (DNRA) using NrfA, while NirB may detoxify NO2 (-) in the cytoplasm. Moreover, it produces NO from an unknown source and reduces it via N2 O to N2 using two enzymes connected to denitrification: an unusual NO reductase, qCuA Nor encoded by cbaA, and a z-type N2 O reductase, encoded by nosZ. In batch cultures, B.?vireti reduced all NO3 (-) to NO2 (-) before the NO2 (-) was reduced further. The quantities of all products varied with the initial NO3 (-) concentration. With 5?mM NO3 (-) , 90% was reduced to NH4 (+) while with ??20?mM NO3 (-) , 50% was reduced to NO, N2 O and N2 . This organism is thus an aggressive NO2 (-) accumulator and may act as a net source and sink of NO and N2 O. PMID:24708037

Mania, Daniel; Heylen, Kim; van Spanning, Rob J M; Frostegård, Asa

2014-10-01

377

A singular enzymatic megacomplex from Bacillus subtilis  

E-print Network

A singular enzymatic megacomplex from Bacillus subtilis Paul D. Straight*, Michael A. Fischbach% of the Bacillus subtilis genome, encodes the subunits of 2.5 megadalton active hybrid NRPS/PKS. Many copies enzymes in the context of their native producer organisms. The genome of Bacillus subtilis contains

Rudner, David

378

Antifouling Potential of Some Marine Organisms from India Against Species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Crude methanolic extracts of 37 marine organisms (16 species of flora, 21 species of fauna) were screened for antibacterial\\u000a properties against 5 strains of bacteria isolated from marine environments. Of these, 10 plant and 9 animal extracts exhibited\\u000a antibacterial activity against at least one bacterial strain. The extracts of 6 species were active against all the strains:\\u000a i.e., Stoechospermum

S. H. Bhosale; V. L. Nagle; T. G. Jagtap

2002-01-01

379

Vectors for Lactobacilli and other Gram-positive bacteria based on the minimal replicon of pRV500 from Lactobacillus sakei.  

PubMed

The low-copy-number plasmid pRV500, belonging to the pUCL287 group of theta-type plasmids, was previously isolated from Lactobacillus sakei and characterized. We show here that the replicon of this plasmid enables replication also in Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis but not in Lactococcus lactis. A 1.25 kb region encompassing the iterons and the repA gene was sufficient for replication, copy-number control and relative stable maintenance in L. sakei. Functional implications of host or plasmid-borne factors in the maintenance of pUCL287-type plasmids are discussed. The minimal replicon from pRV500 was fused to pBluescript for constructing the shuttle E. coli/lactobacilli cloning vector pRV610. pRV610 enables the white/blue lacZ alpha-complementation in E. coli. The cassettes for selection (erythromycin resistance) and replication (iterons and repA gene) are each bordered by unique restriction sites for easy replacement if needed. Derivatives in which chloramphenicol or tetracycline resistance replaced erythromycin resistance were constructed. In order to allow inducible gene expression, a copper-inducible promoter was placed on the pRV613 derivative. Expression of the downstream reporter gene lacZ was shown to be induced by 30 microM CuSO(4). PMID:18789962

Crutz-Le Coq, Anne-Marie; Zagorec, Monique

2008-11-01

380

Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains isolated from honey marketed in Malaysia against selected multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 honey samples commercially marketed in Malaysia, 6 strains identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus by API CHL50. The isolates had antibacterial activities against multiple antibiotic resistant's Staphylococcus aureus (25 to 32 mm), Staphylococcus epidermis (14 to 22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 to 19 mm) in the agar overlay method after 24 h incubation at 30 °C. The crude supernatant was heat stable at 90 °C and 121 °C for 1 h. Treatment with proteinase K and RNase II maintained the antimicrobial activity of all the supernatants except sample H006-A and H010-G. All the supernatants showed antimicrobial activities against target bacteria at pH 3 and pH 5 but not at pH 6 within 72 h incubation at 30 °C. S. aureus was not inhibited by sample H006-A isolated from Libyan honey and sample H008-D isolated from Malaysian honey at pH 5, compared to supernatants from other L. acidophilus isolates. The presence of different strains of L. acidophilus in honey obtained from different sources may contribute to the differences in the antimicrobial properties of honey. PMID:22757710

Aween, Mohamed Mustafa; Hassan, Zaiton; Muhialdin, Belal J; Eljamel, Yossra A; Al-Mabrok, Asma Saleh W; Lani, Mohd Nizam

2012-07-01

381

Cloning and enhancing production of a detergent- and organic-solvent-resistant nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis VTCC-DVN-12-01 by using an eight-protease-gene-deficient Bacillus subtilis WB800  

PubMed Central

Background Nattokinases/Subtilisins (EC 3.4.21.62) belong to the second large family of serine proteases, which gain significant attention and play important role in many biotechnology processes. Thus, a number of nattokinases/subtilisins from various Bacillus species, especially from B. subtilis strains, extensively have been investigated to understand their biochemical and physical properties as well as to improve the production for industrial application. The purpose of this study was to clone a nattokinase gene from Bacillus subtilis strain VTCC-DVN-12-01, enhance its production in B. subtilis WB800, which is deficient in eight extracellular proteases and characterize its physicochemical properties for potential application in organic synthesis and detergent production. Results A gene coding for the nattokinase (Nk) from B. subtilis strain VTCC-DVN-12-01 consisted of an ORF of 1146 nucleotides, encoding a pre-pro-protein enzyme (30-aa pre-signal peptide, 76-aa pro-peptide and 275-aa mature protein with a predicted molecular mass of 27.7 kDa and pI 6.6). The nattokinase showed 98-99% identity with other nattokinases/subtilisins from B. subtilis strains in GenBank. Nk was expressed in B. subtilis WB800 under the control of acoA promoter at a high level of 600 mg protein per liter culture medium which is highest yield of proteins expressed in any extracellular-protease-deficient B. subtilis system till date. Nk was purified to homogeneity with 3.25 fold purification, a specific activity of 12.7 U/mg, and a recovery of 54.17%. The purified Nk was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry through three peptides, which showed 100% identity to corresponding peptides of the B. subtilis nattokinase (CAC41625). An optimal activity for Nk was observed at 65°C and pH 9. The nattokinase was stable at temperature up to 50°C and in pH range of 5–11 and retained more than 85% of its initial activity after incubation for 1 h. Mg2+ activated Nk up to 162% of its activity. The addition of Triton X-100, Tween 20, and Tween 80 showed an activation of Nk up to 141% of its initial activity but SDS strongly inhibited. The enzyme was highly resistant to organic solvents. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that an eight-protease-gene-deficient Bacillus subtilis WB800 could overproduce the nattokinase from B. subtilis VTCC-DVN-12-01. Due to high resistance to detergents and organic solvents of this nattokinase, it could be potentially applied in organic synthesis and detergent production. PMID:24021098

2013-01-01

382

A novel method for the rapid cloning in Escherichia coli of Bacillus subtilis chromosomal DNA adjacent to Tn 917 insertions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and general procedure has been devised for the pBR322-mediated cloning in Escherichia coli of Bacillus subtilis chromosomal DNA extending in a specified direction from any Tn917 insertion. Derivatives of Tn917 have been constructed that contain a pBR322-derived replicon, together with a chloramphenicol-resistance (Cmr) gene of Gram-positive origin (selectable in B. subtilis), inserted by ligation in two orientations into

Philip Youngman; John B. Perkins; Richard Losick

1984-01-01

383

Purification and characterization of a halotolerant serine proteinase from thermotolerant Bacillus licheniformis RKK-04 isolated from Thai fish sauce  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gram-positive thermotolerant bacterium, designated strain RKK-04, was isolated from a fermented Thai fish sauce broth as\\u000a it demonstrated high proteolytic activity. A phylogenetic analysis based on comparisons of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed\\u000a that strain RKK-04 is Bacillus licheniformis. The proteolytic enzyme, which was purified 80-fold with 18% yield, has a molecular mass of 31 kDa and an isoelectric point

Yoichi Toyokawa; Hiroaki Takahara; Alissara Reungsang; Masakazu Fukuta; Yuki Hachimine; Shinjiro Tachibana; Masaaki Yasuda

2010-01-01

384

Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance of protease producing facultative alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus flexus from mangrove soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facultative alkaliphilic protease-producing gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria (EMGA 5) was isolated from mangrove soil and confirmed as Bacillus flexus by the 16S rDNA sequence. Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance of this alkaliphilic isolate were investigated for the cells grown at pH 7.2 and 10.5 using acid pulse technique. Suspensions of B. flexus cells grown in poly peptone yeast glucose

P Kannan; S Ignacimuthu; M Gabriel Paulraj

385

Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

Background One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. Results In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37°C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40–60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Conclusions Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells. PMID:25027643

2014-01-01

386

Methodological approaches to help unravel the intracellular metabolome of Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Background Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) has become widely accepted as a model organism for studies on Gram-positive bacteria. A deeper insight into the physiology of this prokaryote requires advanced studies of its metabolism. To provide a reliable basis for metabolome investigations, a validated experimental protocol is needed since the quality of the analytical sample and the final data are strongly affected by the sampling steps. To ensure that the sample analyzed precisely reflects the biological condition of interest, outside biases have to be avoided during sample preparation. Results Procedures for sampling, quenching, extraction of metabolites, cell disruption, as well as metabolite leakage were tested and optimized for B. subtilis. In particular the energy status of the bacterial cell, characterized by the adenylate energy charge, was used to evaluate sampling accuracy. Moreover, the results of the present study demonstrate that the cultivation medium can affect the efficiency of the developed sampling procedure. Conclusion The final workflow presented here allows for the reproducible and reliable generation of physiological data. The method with the highest qualitative and quantitative metabolite yield was chosen, and when used together with complementary bioanalytical methods (i.e., GC-MS, LC-MS and 1H-NMR) provides a solid basis to gather information on the metabolome of B. subtilis. PMID:23844891

2013-01-01

387

Acceptor Substrate Selectivity and Kinetic Mechanism of Bacillus subtilis TagA†  

PubMed Central

Wall teichoic acids (WTAs) are anionic polymers that coat the cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria. Because they are essential for survival or virulence in many organisms, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of WTAs are attractive antibiotic targets. The first committed step in the WTA biosynthetic pathway in Bacillus subtilis is catalyzed by TagA, which transfers N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc) to the C4 hydroxyl of a membrane-anchored N-acetyl glucosaminyl diphospholipid (GlcNAc-pp-undecaprenyl, lipid I) to make ManNAc-?-(1,4)-GlcNAc-pp-undecaprenyl (lipid II). We have previously shown that TagA utilizes an alternative substrate containing a saturated C13H27 lipid chain. Here we use unnatural substrates and products to establish the lipid preferences of the enzyme and to characterize the kinetic mechanism. We report that TagA is a metal ion-independent glycosyltransferase that follows a steady-state ordered Bi Bi mechanism in which UDP-ManNAc binds first and UDP is released last. TagA shares homology with a large family of bacterial glycosyltransferases, and the work described here should facilitate structural analysis of the enzyme in complex with its substrates. PMID:16953575

Zhang, Yu-Hui; Ginsberg, Cynthia; Yuan, Yanqiu; Walker, Suzanne

2008-01-01

388

Causative organisms of post-traumatic endophthalmitis: a 20-year retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background A wide range of organisms that enter the eye following ocular trauma can cause endophthalmitis. This study was to investigate the spectrum of pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates from a large cohort of post-traumatic endophthalmitis cases. Methods A retrospective study of 912 post-traumatic endophthalmitis patients treated at a tertiary eye-care center in China was performed. The associations between risk factors and the most common isolated organisms were investigated by Chi square Test. The percent susceptibilities for the first 10 years (1990–1999) and the second 10 years (2000–2009) were compared by Chi square test. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Three-hundred-forty-seven (38.1%) cases of endophthalmitis were culture-positive, and 11 (3.2%) showed mixed infections (Gram-negative bacilli and fungi), yielding a total of 358 microbial pathogens. Culture proven organisms included 150 (41.9%) Gram-positive cocci, 104 (29.1%) Gram-negative bacilli, 44 (12.3%) Gram-positive bacilli, and 60 (16.8%) fungi. The coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CNS) species S. epidermidis (21.8%) and S. saprophyticus (12.0%) were the predominant pathogens, followed by Bacillus subtilis (8.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.8%), and Escherichia coli (6.4%). Delayed repair over 24 h (p < 0.001) and metallic injury (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with positive culture of CNS. The most frequent fungal species were Aspergillus (26/60), followed by yeast-like fungi (18/60). P. aeruginosa was relatively sensitive to ciprofloxacin (83.3%), cefoperazone (75%), tobramycin (75%), cefuroxime (75%), and ceftazidime (75%) during the second decade. Multi-drug resistance was observed in the predominant Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion We identified a broad spectrum of microbes causing post-traumatic endophthalmitis, with Gram-positive cocci the most frequently identified causative organism, followed by Bacillus species, fungi, and mixed infections. CNS infection was statistically associated with delayed repair and metallic injury. Variation in antibiotic susceptibility was observed among isolated bacteria and between different periods. Ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime in the first and second decades of the study, respectively, showed the highest activity against bacterial post-traumatic endophthalmitis. For infections caused by P. aeruginosa, a combination therapy of ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, and one of the cephalosporins might provide optimal coverage according to data from the second decade. PMID:24661397

2014-01-01

389

Cold Plasma Inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) Spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus spores represent one of the most resistant organisms to conventional sterilization methods. This paper is focused on the inactivation of the spores of two Bacillus species, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, using atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma. Spores treated in liquid or air-dried on a solid surface were effectively inactivated within 1 min of DBD plasma treatment at a discharge

Danil Dobrynin; Gregory Fridman; Yurii V. Mukhin; Meghan A. Wynosky-Dolfi; Judy Rieger; Richard F. Rest; Alexander F. Gutsol; Alexander Fridman

2010-01-01

390

Binary Bacterial Toxins: Biochemistry, Biology, and Applications of Common Clostridium and Bacillus Proteins  

PubMed Central

Certain pathogenic species of Bacillus and Clostridium have developed unique methods for intoxicating cells that employ the classic enzymatic “A-B” paradigm for protein toxins. The binary toxins produced by B. anthracis, B. cereus, C. botulinum, C. difficile, C. perfringens, and C. spiroforme consist of components not physically associated in solution that are linked to various diseases in humans, animals, or insects. The “B” components are synthesized as precursors that are subsequently activated by serine-type proteases on the targeted cell surface and/or in solution. Following release of a 20-kDa N-terminal peptide, the activated “B” components form homoheptameric rings that subsequently dock with an “A” component(s) on the cell surface. By following an acidified endosomal route and translocation into the cytosol, “A” molecules disable a cell (and host organism) via disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, increasing intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, or inactivation of signaling pathways linked to mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. Recently, B. anthracis has gleaned much notoriety as a biowarfare/bioterrorism agent, and of primary interest has been the edema and lethal toxins, their role in anthrax, as well as the development of efficacious vaccines and therapeutics targeting these virulence factors and ultimately B. anthracis. This review comprehensively surveys the literature and discusses the similarities, as well as distinct differences, between each Clostridium and Bacillus binary toxin in terms of their biochemistry, biology, genetics, structure, and applications in science and medicine. The information may foster future studies that aid novel vaccine and drug development, as well as a better understanding of a conserved intoxication process utilized by various gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria. PMID:15353562

Barth, Holger; Aktories, Klaus; Popoff, Michel R.; Stiles, Bradley G.

2004-01-01

391

Transcriptional control of the sulfur-regulated cysH operon, containing genes involved in L-cysteine biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms of regulation of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of cysteine are poorly characterized in Bacillus subtilis and other gram-positive bacteria. In this study we describe the expression pattern of the B. subtilis cysH operon in response to sulfur starvation. A 6.1-kb polycistronic transcript which includes the cysH, cysP, ylnB, ylnC, ylnD, ylnE, and ylnF genes was identified. Its synthesis was induced by sulfur limitation and strongly repressed by cysteine. The cysH operon contains a 5' leader portion homologous to that of the S box family of genes involved in sulfur metabolism, which are regulated by a transcription termination control system. Here we show that induction of B. subtilis cysH operon expression is dependent on the promoter and independent of the leader region terminator, indicating that the operon is regulated at the level of transcription initiation rather than controlled at the level of premature termination of transcription. Deletion of a 46-bp region adjacent to the -35 region of the cysH promoter led to high-level expression of the operon, even in the presence of cysteine. We also found that O-acetyl-L-serine (OAS), a direct precursor of cysteine, renders cysH transcription independent of sulfur starvation and insensitive to cysteine repression. We propose that transcription of the cysH operon is negatively regulated by a transcriptional repressor whose activity is controlled by the intracellular levels of OAS. Cysteine is predicted to repress transcription by inhibiting the synthesis of OAS, which would act as an inducer of cysH expression. These novel results provide the first direct evidence that cysteine biosynthesis is controlled at a transcriptional level by both negative and positive effectors in a gram-positive organism. PMID:11004190

Mansilla, M C; Albanesi, D; de Mendoza, D

2000-10-01

392

Cell lysis and DNA extraction of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria from whole blood in a disposable microfluidic chip  

E-print Network

in dysfunction of the microcirculation that can result in organ failure and/or death. In almost all cases species), and the Enterococcus species.2,5 Current gold standard diagnostics include a broad spectrum of blood testing, other bodily fluid testing and imaging, which are often not specific for the infectious

393

The tubercle bacillus  

PubMed Central

A series of lectures on the tubercle bacillus by eminent authorities from various countries was organized at the Institut d'Hygiène et de Bactériologie of the University of Lausanne by Professor Paul Hauduroy, from 22 to 25 April 1949. Through the kindness of Professor Hauduroy it has been possible for the World Health Organization to publish in the Bulletin summaries of these lectures. * PMID:20603940

1949-01-01

394

Bacillus arsenicoselenatis, sp. nov., and Bacillus selenitireducens, sp. nov.: Two haloalkaliphiles from Mono Lake, California that respire oxyanions of selenium and arsenic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two gram-positive anaerobic bacteria (strains E1H and MLS10) were isolated from the anoxic muds of Mono Lake, California, an alkaline, hypersaline, arsenic-rich water body. Both grew by dissimilatory reduction of As(V) to As(III) with the concomitant oxidation of lactate to acetate plus CO2. Bacillus arsenicoselenatis (strain E1H) is a spore-forming rod that also grew by dissimilatory reduction of Se(VI) to Se(IV). Bacillus selenitireducens (strain MLS 10) is a short, non-spore-forming rod that grew by dissimilatory reduction of Se(IV) to Se(0). When the two isolates were cocultured, a complete reduction of Se(VI) to Se(0) was achieved. Both isolates are alkaliphiles and had optimal specific growth rates in the pH range of 8.5-10. Strain E1H had a salinity optimum at 60 g 1-1 NaCl, while strain MLS10 had optimal growth at lower salinities (24-60 g 1-1 NaCl). Both strains have limited abilities to grow with electron donors and acceptors other than those given above. Strain MLS10 demonstrated weak growth as a microaerophile and was also capable of fermentative growth on glucose, while strain E1H is a strict anaerobe. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the two isolates with other Bacillus spp. in the low G+C gram-positive group of bacteria.

Switzer, Blum J.; Burns, Bindi A.; Buzzelli, J.; Stolz, J.F.; Oremland, R.S.

1998-01-01

395

Activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents tested against contemporary Gram-positive and -negative (2011) isolates collected in Europe, Turkey, and Israel  

PubMed Central

The activity of ceftaroline was tested against 8233 isolates mainly collected from bloodstream, urinary, respiratory and skin and soft tissue specimens in European medical centers during 2011. This cephalosporin displayed activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50, 0·25 mg/l), with greater activity against MRSA (MIC50, 1 mg/l) than other ?-lactams tested. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-resistant strains, other streptococcal groups and Haemophilus spp., ceftaroline was highly active and MIC90 values ranged from ?0·015 to 0·12 mg/l. Ceftaroline, like other cephalosporins, had limited activity against ESBL-phenotype Enterobacteriaceae, but showed good activity against isolates not displaying an ESBL-phenotype. Ceftaroline remains very active against MRSA and other organisms than could be associated with its approved indications in the EU (complicated skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired pneumonia). PMID:24070006

Castanheira, Mariana; Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Helio S

2014-01-01

396

Pumilicin 4, A Novel Bacteriocin with Anti-MRSA and Anti-VRE Activity Produced by Newly Isolated Bacteria Bacillus pumilus Strain WAPB4  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 34 bacterial strains with anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity were isolated from 69 soil and water samples collected from four areas of Thailand. One strain, WAPB4 identified\\u000a as Bacillus pumilus, showed remarkable antibacterial activity against MRSA, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), and several Gram-positive test bacteria. Bacteriocin produced by WAPB4 was designated as pumilicin 4. It was heat

Ratchaneewan Aunpad; Keasara Na-Bangchang

2007-01-01

397

Bacillus arsenicoselenatis, sp. nov., and Bacillus selenitireducens, sp. nov.: two haloalkaliphiles from Mono Lake, California that respire oxyanions of selenium and arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two gram-positive anaerobic bacteria (strains E1H and MLS10) were isolated from the anoxic muds of Mono Lake, California,\\u000a an alkaline, hypersaline, arsenic-rich water body. Both grew by dissimilatory reduction of As(V) to As(III) with the concomitant\\u000a oxidation of lactate to acetate plus CO2. Bacillus arsenicoselenatis (strain E1H) is a spore-forming rod that also grew by dissimilatory reduction of Se(VI) to

Jodi Switzer Blum; A. Burns Bindi; J. Buzzelli; John F. Stolz; R. S. Oremland

1998-01-01

398

Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of 4-arylthiosemicarbazides as topoisomerase IV inhibitors with Gram-positive antibacterial activity. Search for molecular basis of antibacterial activity of thiosemicarbazides.  

PubMed

1-(indol-2-carbonyl)-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-thiosemicarbazide was synthesized and antibacterial and type IIA topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) activity was evaluated. It was found that it shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria with MICs of 50 ?g/mL and inhibitory action against topoisomerase IV with an IC(50) of 14 ?M. Although modification of its structure resulted in molecules with a lower biological profile, our observations strongly implicate that thiosemicarbazide derivatives participate in at least two different mechanisms of antibacterial activity; one is connected with the inhibition of topoisomerase IV, while the nature of the other cannot be elucidated from the limited data collected thus far. The differences in bioactivity further investigated by the molecular modeling approach and docking studies suggest that inhibitory activity of 4-arylthiosemicarbazides is connected with electronic structure rather than the geometry of the molecule. PMID:21978836

Siwek, Agata; St?czek, Pawe?; Stefa?ska, Joanna

2011-11-01

399

Draft Genome Sequence Analysis of a Pseudomonas putida W15Oct28 Strain with Antagonistic Activity to Gram-Positive and Pseudomonas sp. Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas putida is a member of the fluorescent pseudomonads known to produce the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdine siderophore. P. putida W15Oct28, isolated from a stream in Brussels, was found to produce compound(s) with antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, an unusual characteristic for P. putida. The active compound production only occurred in media with low iron content and without organic nitrogen sources. Transposon mutants which lost their antimicrobial activity had the majority of insertions in genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine, although purified pyoverdine was not responsible for the antagonism. Separation of compounds present in culture supernatants revealed the presence of two fractions containing highly hydrophobic molecules active against P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed the presence of putisolvin biosynthesis genes and the corresponding lipopeptides were found to contribute to the antimicrobial activity. One cluster of ten genes was detected, comprising a NAD-dependent epimerase, an acetylornithine aminotransferase, an acyl CoA dehydrogenase, a short chain dehydrogenase, a fatty acid desaturase and three genes for a RND efflux pump. P. putida W15Oct28 genome also contains 56 genes encoding TonB-dependent receptors, conferring a high capacity to utilize pyoverdines from other pseudomonads. One unique feature of W15Oct28 is also the presence of different secretion systems including a full set of genes for type IV secretion, and several genes for type VI secretion and their VgrG effectors. PMID:25369289

Ye, Lumeng; Hildebrand, Falk; Dingemans, Jozef; Ballet, Steven; Laus, George; Matthijs, Sandra; Berendsen, Roeland; Cornelis, Pierre

2014-01-01

400

Control of glutamate homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis: a complex interplay between ammonium assimilation, glutamate biosynthesis and degradation.  

PubMed

Glutamate, the major amino group donor in anabolism, is synthesized by the combined action of the glutamine synthetase (GS) and the glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Bacillus subtilis. The glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) exclusively degrades glutamate. GS and GDH are both trigger enzymes, active in nitrogen metabolism and in controlling gene expression. Feedback-inhibited GS (FBI-GS) controls DNA-binding activities of two transcription factors, the repressor GlnR and TnrA, the global regulator of nitrogen metabolism. FBI-GS binds to and activates GlnR. This protein complex inhibits GS formation and thus glutamine synthesis. Moreover, FBI-GS inhibits DNA-binding activity of TnrA. Glutamate biosynthesis, the reaction linking carbon with nitrogen metabolism, is controlled by GDH. Together with glutamate GDH inhibits GltC, the transcription factor that activates expression of the GOGAT genes. Thus, GS and GDH control glutamine and glutamate synthesis, respectively, depending on the nitrogen status of the cell. B. subtilis lacking a functional GDH show a severe growth defect. Interestingly, the growth defect is suppressed by the rapid activation of an inactive GDH. Thus, maintenance of glutamate homeostasis is crucial for cellular vitality. This review covers the recent work on the complex control of glutamine and glutamate metabolism in the Gram-positive model organism B. subtilis. PMID:22625175

Gunka, Katrin; Commichau, Fabian M

2012-07-01