These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats  

PubMed Central

Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Results: Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7th day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14th day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21st day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Conclusion: Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P. granatum in diabetes. Fruit peel which is normally thrown by many while eating pomegranate fruit is having anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and Antioxidant activity. Furthermore high therapeutic index is safe for chronic use.

Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

2015-01-01

2

HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Profile, Nutritive Content, and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts Obtained from Punica granatum Fruit Peel  

PubMed Central

This study revealed polyphenolic content, nutritive content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile of methanol and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum peel extract. For this, extracts were screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The total phenolics and flavonoid recovered by methanolic (MPE) and the water extract (AQPE) were ranged from 185?±?12.45 to 298.00?±?24.86?mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/gm and 23.05?±?1.54 to 49.8?±?2.14 quercetin (QE) mg/g, respectively. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 100 µg/ml (0.38 quercetin equivalents), for AQPE, 168 µg/ml (0.80 quercetin equivalents), for MPE. The phenolic profile in the methanolic extracts was investigated by chromatographic (HPLC) method. About 5 different flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives including quercetin (1), rutin (2), gallic acid (3), ellagic acid (4), and punicalagin as a major ellagitannin (5) have been identified. Among both extracts, methanolic extract was the most effective. This report may be the first to show nutritive content and correlation analysis to suggest that phenols and flavonoids might contribute the high antioxidant activity of this fruit peel and establish it as a valuable natural antioxidant source applicable in the health food industry. PMID:23983682

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

2013-01-01

3

The antioxidant potency of Punica granatum L. Fruit peel reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on breast cancer.  

PubMed

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to possess pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant and anticancer. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potency of a methanolic pomegranate fruit peel extract (PPE) and the relation with its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of PPE were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau and the 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl free radical methods, respectively. Phenolic acids present in the extract were characterized by a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Cell proliferation was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay. The apoptotic effects were determined by in situ Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The extraction yield as a percentage of plant material was 37.97% (wt/wt), and total phenolic content was 331.28 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract. According to HPLC analysis, the most abundant phenolic acid detected in the extract was ellagic acid. MCF-7 cell proliferation decreased depending on PPE concentration (25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 ?g/mL) and incubation times (24, 48, and 72 hours). After 48 and 72 hours, the apoptotic cell numbers were significantly increased at 100, 200, and 300 ?g/mL PPE concentrations. In addition, expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was increased, and that of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 was decreased after 200 and 300 ?g/mL PPE treatment for 48 and 72 hours. Because PPE reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis on MCF-7 cancer cells, we believe that PPE has important antioxidant and apoptotic effects. PMID:21861726

Dikmen, Miris; Ozturk, Nilgün; Ozturk, Yusuf

2011-12-01

4

A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and the individual constituents responsible for them. This review provides an insight on the phytochemical components that contribute too antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect, and numerous other effects of wonderful, economic, and eco-friendly pomegranate peel extract (PP). PMID:23878603

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

2013-01-01

5

A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and the individual constituents responsible for them. This review provides an insight on the phytochemical components that contribute too antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect, and numerous other effects of wonderful, economic, and eco-friendly pomegranate peel extract (PP). PMID:23878603

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

2013-01-01

6

Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.  

PubMed

Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P < .05) and glucose (P < .001) concentrations with a concomitant increase in insulin levels (P < .05). P. granatum decreased LPO in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissues (P < .01, P < .001, and P < .05, respectively) and serum glucose concentration (P < .01). M. paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. PMID:18598183

Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

2008-06-01

7

Antidiabetic potential of Citrus sinensis and Punica granatum peel extracts in alloxan treated male mice.  

PubMed

An investigation on the effects of four different concentrations of peel extract from Citrus sinensis (CS) or Punica granatum (PG) in male mice revealed the maximum glucose lowering and antiperoxidative activities at 25 mg/kg of CS and 200 mg/kg of PG. In a separate experiment their potential was evaluated with respect to the regulation of alloxan induced diabetes mellitus. While a single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) increased the serum levels of glucose and alpha-amylase activity, rate of water consumption and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in hepatic, cardiac and renal tissues with a parallel decrease in serum insulin level, administration of 25 mg/kg of CS or 200 mg/kg of PG was found to normalize all the adverse changes induced by alloxan, revealing the antidiabetic and anti peroxidative potential of test fruit peel extracts. Subsequent phytochemical analysis indicated that the high content of total polyphenols in the test peels might be related to the antidiabetic and antiperoxidative effects of the test peels. PMID:18806305

Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

2007-01-01

8

Partial identification of antifungal compounds from Punica granatum peel extracts.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of pomegranate peels were assayed in vitro for their antifungal activity against six rot fungi that cause fruit and vegetable decay during storage. The growth rates of Alternaria alternata , Stemphylium botryosum , and Fusarium spp. were significantly inhibited by the extracts. The growth rates were negatively correlated with the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in the extract and particularly with punicalagins, the major ellagitannins in pomegranate peels. Ellagitannins were also found to be the main compounds in the bioactive fractions using bioautograms, and punicalagins were identified as the main bioactive compounds using chromatographic separation. These results suggest that ellagitannins, and more specifically punicalagins, which are the dominant compounds in pomegranate peels, may be used as a control agent of storage diseases and to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides. PMID:22533815

Glazer, Ira; Masaphy, Segula; Marciano, Prosper; Bar-Ilan, Igal; Holland, Doron; Kerem, Zohar; Amir, Rachel

2012-05-16

9

Study on wound healing activity of Punica granatum peel.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels showed the presence of a high content of phenolic compounds (44.0%) along with other constituents. This extract was formulated as a 10% (wt/wt) water-soluble gel and was studied for its wound healing property against an excision wound on the skin of Wistar rats. The activity was compared with that of a commercial topical antibacterial applicant. The wound healing activity was assessed by measuring the percent contraction in skin and estimation of collagen content in terms of hydroxyproline content. Healed skin was also subjected to histopathological studies to examine the microscopic changes. The animals treated with 2.5% gel showed moderate healing (55.8% and 40.8% healing compared with negative and positive controls, respectively), whereas the group treated with 5.0% gel showed good healing (59.5% and 44.5% healing compared with negative and positive controls, respectively). The amount of hydroxyproline increased by twofold in the group treated with 5.0% gel. Histopathological studies also supported the wound healing on application of the gels. The group of rats that received 5.0% gel showed complete healing after 10 days, whereas in rats treated with 2.5% gel, healing was observed on day 12, in contrast to the positive control animals receiving the blank gel, which took 16-18 days for complete healing. The results of this study may be extended to different types of wounds so that the formulation could be exploited to develop it as a topical dermatological formulation. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the extract showed the presence of gallic acid and catechin as major components. PMID:15298776

Murthy, K N Chidambara; Reddy, Vittal K; Veigas, Jyothi M; Murthy, Uma D

2004-01-01

10

Antiplasmodial activity of Punica granatum L. fruit rind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studySun-dried rind of the immature fruit of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) (Pg) is presently used as a herbal formulation (OMARIA) in Orissa, India, for the therapy and prophylaxis of malaria. The aims of this study were (i) to assess in vitro the antiplasmodial activity of the methanolic extract, of a tannin enriched fraction and of compounds\\/metabolites of

Mario Dell’Agli; Germana V. Galli; Yolanda Corbett; Donatella Taramelli; Leonardo Lucantoni; Annette Habluetzel; Omar Maschi; Donatella Caruso; Flavio Giavarini; Sergio Romeo; Deepak Bhattacharya; Enrica Bosisio

2009-01-01

11

Increased antioxidant content in juice enriched with dried extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel.  

PubMed

Antioxidants are compounds responsible for free radical scavenging in the body. They protect the organism from oxidative modification of cells and tissues. These modifications have been associated with degenerative diseases, atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis. Punica granatum displays high antioxidant potential due to the presence of phenolic compounds, which are capable of disease prevention. The present study showed the highest antioxidant activity in pomegranate peel than in seeds and pulp. Based on these results, pomegranate peel was used to produce dried extract that was added to commercial tomato juice and orange juice with strawberries. Analysis to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed on pomegranate pulp, seeds and peel and in juices enriched with dried extract of pomegranate peel. The dried extract was responsible for a significant increase in antioxidant activity of the juices, proportional to the concentrations added. However, although both flavors of enriched juices displayed high antioxidant levels, the samples with higher dried extract concentrations received the lowest scores from sensory analysis participants due to the characteristic astringent flavor of pomegranate peels. Therefore, to obtain greater acceptance in the consumer market, we concluded that the maximum addition of dried pomegranate peel extract is 0.5% in tomato juice and orange juice with strawberries. PMID:22392496

Mastrodi Salgado, Jocelem; Baroni Ferreira, Tânia Rachel; de Oliveira Biazotto, Fúvia; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu

2012-03-01

12

Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract using in vivo models.  

PubMed

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extracts have been shown to possess significant antioxidant activity in various in vitro models. Dried pomegranate peels were powdered and extracted with methanol for 4 h. The dried methanolic extract was fed to albino rats of the Wistar strain, followed by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and the levels of various enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation were studied. Treatment of rats with a single dose of CCl4 at 2.0 g/kg of body weight decreases the levels of catalase, SOD, and peroxidase by 81, 49, and 89% respectively, whereas the lipid peroxidation value increased nearly 3-fold. Pretreatment of the rats with a methanolic extract of pomegranate peel at 50 mg/kg (in terms of catechin equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment causes preservation of catalase, peroxidase, and SOD to values comparable with control values, wheres lipid peroxidation was brought back by 54% as compared to control. Histopathological studies of the liver were also carried out to determine the hepatoprotection effect exhibited by the pomegranate peel extract against the toxic effects of CCl4. Histopathological studies of the liver of different groups also support the protective effects exhibited by the MeOH extract of pomegranate peel by restoring the normal hepatic architecture. PMID:12166961

Chidambara Murthy, Kotamballi N; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvahally K; Singh, Ravendra P

2002-08-14

13

Broad spectrum antimutagenic activity of antioxidant active fraction of punica granatum L. peel extracts.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades, scientific research has indicated a credible basis for some of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of pomegranate. This study aims to evaluate the broad spectrum antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of peel extracts of pomegranate. The sequentially extracted Punica granatum peel fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe(3+) reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing ability) assays. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by all the four in vitro assays comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) followed by activity in ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate fractions. Based on the promising antioxidant activities, the methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic activity by Ames Salmonella/microsome assay against sodium azide (NaN(3)), methyl methane sulphonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102) tester strains. The methanol fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentration of 10-80?g/mL. This fraction showed antimutagenic activity against NaN(3) and MMS with percent inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 66.76% to 91.86% in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar trend of inhibition of mutagenicity (81.2-88.58%) against indirect mutagens (2-AF and B(a)P) was also recorded. Phytochemical analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and total phenolic content revealed high content of ellagitannins which might be responsible for promising antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of P. granatum peel extract. Further, contribution of bioactive compounds detected in this study is to be explored to understand the exact mechanism of action as well as their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20708098

Zahin, Maryam; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal

2010-12-21

14

Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum  

PubMed Central

Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG) and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, ?-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in ?-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25??g/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41??g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400?mg/kg, p.o.) and VAD (10, 25, and 50?mg/kg, p.o.) have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400?mg/kg, p.o.), VAD (10, 25, and 50?mg/kg, p.o.), and glibenclamide (10?mg/kg, p.o.) treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:22919408

Jain, Vishal; Viswanatha, G. L.; Manohar, D.; Shivaprasad, H. N.

2012-01-01

15

Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats.  

PubMed

Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300?mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

Sadeghipour, Alireza; Eidi, Maryam; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

2014-01-01

16

Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300?mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

2014-01-01

17

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Punica granatum Peel Ethanol Extract against Salmonella  

PubMed Central

Punica granatum is commonly used in Korea as a traditional medicine for the treatment of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of P. granatum peel EtOH extract (PGPE) against 16 strains of Salmonella. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of PGPE were in the range of 62.5–1000?x03BCg?mL?1. In addition, the in vivo antibacterial activity of the PGPE extract was examined in a S. typhimurium infection mouse model. Mice were initially infected with S. typhimurium and then with PGPE. The extract was found to have significant effects on mortality and the numbers of viable S. typhimurium recovered from feces. Although clinical signs and histological damage were rarely observed in the treated mice, the untreated controls showed signs of lethargy and histological damage in the liver and spleen. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that PGPE has the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis. PMID:19687188

Choi, Jang-Gi; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Lee, Young-Seob; Chae, Hee-Sung; Oh, You-Chang; Brice, Obiang-Obounou; Kim, Min-San; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Hun-Soo; Park, Hyun; Shin, Dong-Won; Rho, Jung-Rae; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

2011-01-01

18

Punica granatum peel extract protects against ionizing radiation-induced enteritis and leukocyte apoptosis in rats.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced enteritis is a well-recognized sequel of therapeutic irradiation. Therefore we examined the radioprotective properties of Punica granatum peel extract (PPE) on the oxidative damage in the ileum. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body X-ray irradiation of 800 cGy. Irradiated rats were pretreated orally with saline or PPE (50 mg/kg/day) for 10 days before irradiation and the following 10 days, while control rats received saline or PPE but no irradiation. Then plasma and ileum samples were obtained. Irradiation caused a decrease in glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, which was accompanied by increases in malondialdehyde levels, myeloperoxidase activity, collagen content of the tissue with a concomitant increase 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (an index of oxidative DNA damage). Similarly, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6) and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated in irradiated groups as compared to control. PPE treatment reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by irradiation. Furthermore, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in irradiated animals, while PPE reversed these effects. PPE supplementation reduced oxidative damage in the ileal tissues, probably by a mechanism that is associated with the decreased production of reactive oxygen metabolites and enhancement of antioxidant mechanisms. Adjuvant therapy of PPE may have a potential to support a successful radiotherapy by protecting against radiation-induced enteritis. PMID:19478462

Toklu, Hale Z; Sehirli, Ozer; Ozyurt, Hazan; Mayada?li, A Alpaslan; Ek?io?lu-Demiralp, Emel; Cetinel, Sule; Sahin, Hülya; Ye?en, Berrak C; Ulusoylu Dumlu, Melek; Gökmen, Vural; Sener, Göksel

2009-07-01

19

Anti-coccidial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis and helminthosis in poultry are responsible for worldwide economic losses. The methanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel was used in vivo for its pharmacological, antioxidant and anti-coccidial properties and in vitro for its anthelmintic activity. For the in vivo study, four groups of mice were investigated. The first group was inoculated only with sterile saline and served as the control group. The second group was treated by oral gavage with pomegranate extract (300 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. The third and fourth groups were infected with 10(3) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata. The fourth group was also treated once daily with pomegranate peel extract for 5 days. For the in vitro study, the anthelmintic effect of pomegranate peel extract was observed on live adult Allolobophora caliginosa. Paraffin sections from jejunum as well as jejunal homogenate were prepared for the histopathological and biochemical investigations, respectively. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata revealed an output of approximately 2.9 × 10(5) oocysts per gram faeces on day 5 p.i. This output is significantly decreased to 50 % in pomegranate-treated mice. Infection with E. papillata induced marked histopathological alterations in jejunum in the form of inflammation, vacuolation of the epithelium and destruction of some villi. In addition, pomegranate extract caused a great diminish in body weight loss of infected mice. Moreover, the number of goblet cells stained with Alcian blue within the infected villi was significantly increased by about 26 % after pomegranate treatment. In addition, Pomegranate significantly lowered the increased number of apoptotic cells due to E. papillata infection by about 36 %. The results showed that E. papillata enhanced hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production with concomitant reduction in glutathione. Pomegranate induced marked improvements in all of the studied parameters as well as the histopathological features of jejunum. In addition, pomegranate was able to exert a significant anthelmintic effect on live adult A. caliginosa worms in terms of the paralysis and death of the worms at different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 mg/ml). The study revealed that pomegranate as a natural product has protective effects against E. papillata-induced coccidiosis as well as it possesses an anthelmintic activity. PMID:23609599

Dkhil, Mohammed A

2013-07-01

20

Effect of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel powder (DPPP) on textural, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of biscuits.  

PubMed

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, hence could be used in the development of functional food formulations. Attempt was made to see the effect of dried pomegranate peel powder (DPPP) and emulsifiers on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of biscuits. Incorporation of DPPP from 0 to 10% increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability, increased amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity of wheat flour; increased hardness and decreased cohesiveness of biscuit dough; decreased spread ratio and increased breaking strength of biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 7.5% DPPP were acceptable. Among emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate significantly improved the quality characteristics of 7.5% DPPP incorporated biscuits. Addition of 7.5% DPPP increased the protein, dietary fibre, minerals, anti-oxidant activity and ?-carotene contents of biscuits. The studies indicated the possibility of utilizing DPPP to improve the nutritional characteristics of biscuits. PMID:25019979

Srivastava, Prateeti; Indrani, D; Singh, R P

2014-11-01

21

Polyhydroxylated phragmalins from the fruit of a Chinese mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Three new polyhydroxylated phragmalins, named xyloccensins Y, Z(1), and Z(2) (1-3), were isolated from the fruit of a Chinese mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum, together with eight known compounds. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical methods. PMID:16872150

Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Fan; Wu, Jun; Zou, Kun

2006-07-01

22

Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models.  

PubMed

Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and seeds using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were screened for their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) model systems. The methanol extract of peels showed 83 and 81% antioxidant activity at 50 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract of seeds showed 22.6 and 23.2% antioxidant activity at 100 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. As the methanol extract of pomegranate peel showed the highest antioxidant activity among all of the extracts, it was selected for testing of its effect on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The methanol extract showed 56, 58, and 93.7% inhibition using the thiobarbituric acid method, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and LDL oxidation, respectively, at 100 ppm. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from pomegranate peel and seeds. Owing to this property, the studies can be further extended to exploit them for their possible application for the preservation of food products as well as their use as health supplements and neutraceuticals. PMID:11754547

Singh, R P; Chidambara Murthy, K N; Jayaprakasha, G K

2002-01-01

23

Xylogranatins A-D, new mexicanolides from the fruit of a Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Four new mexicanolides with a Delta(14,15) double bond, named xylogranatins A and D (1-4), were isolated from the fruit of a Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum, together with two known 8,9,30-phragmalin ortho esters, xyloccensins P and Q. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, especially 2D NMR techniques including HSQC, HMBC and NOESY. PMID:17077557

Wu, Jun; Zhang, Si; Li, Minyi; Zhou, Yuan; Xiao, Qiang

2006-11-01

24

Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues. PMID:25304489

Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

2015-01-01

25

Studies on the toxicity of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) whole fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Current investigation focuses on the toxicity evaluation of whole fruit hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), used in Cuban traditional medicine a.o. for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Previous findings on the anti-influenza activity of Punica granatum extracts has given support to the ethnopharmacological application. In our study, in chick embryo model, it was found that doses of the extract of less than 0.1 mg per embryo are not toxic. The LD50 of the extract, determined in OF-1 mice of both sexes after intraperitoneal administration, was 731 mg/kg. Confidence limits were 565-945 mg/kg. At the doses of 0.4 and 1.2 mg/kg of extract, the repeated intranasal administration to Wistar rats produced no toxic effects in terms of food intake, weight gain, behavioural or biochemical parameters, or results of histopathological studies. We conclude that toxic effects of Punica granatum fruit extract occurred at higher doses than those effective in the models where the anti-viral activity has been studied or than those doses used in Cuban folk medicine. PMID:14611895

Vidal, Alexis; Fallarero, Adyary; Peña, Blanca R; Medina, Maria E; Gra, Bienvenido; Rivera, Felicia; Gutierrez, Yamilet; Vuorela, Pia M

2003-12-01

26

Chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Hymenaea courbaril fruit peel.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of the essential oils from the peel of ripe and unripe fruits of Hymenaea courbaril L., obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil from the peel of the ripe fruits were the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (11.1%), spathulenol (10.1%) and beta-selinene (8.2%), while germacrene-D (31.9%), beta-caryophyllene (27.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%) were the major compounds in the oil from unripe fruits. The essential oils were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae and showed LC50 values of 14.8 +/- 0.4 microg/mL and 28.4 +/- 0.3 microg/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit peel oils, respectively. From the peel of the ripe fruits, the diterpenes zanzibaric acid and isoozic acid were isolated, along with the sesquiterpene caryolane-1,9beta-diol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this sesquiterpene in the genus. The structures of all compounds isolated were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. PMID:21299135

Aguiar, José Cláudio D; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Lavor, Patrícia L; Veras, Helenicy N H; Ferreira, Yana S; Lima, Michele A A; Arriaga, Angela M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Lima, Jefferson Q; de Jesus, Hugo C R; Alves, Péricles B; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

2010-12-01

27

Effect of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peels and It’s Extract on Obese Hypercholesterolemic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an inverse association between fiber intake and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary supplementation with nutrients rich in antioxidants is associated with inhibition of atherogenic modifications to LDL, macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Pomegranates are a good source of polyphenols and other antioxidants. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of pomegranate peel powder and it's extract

Fatma Labib Ahmed Hossin; Ahmed Hossin

2009-01-01

28

Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits.  

PubMed

This article aims to determine the phenolic, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant capacities from fruits (juices, peels, and seed oils) of 6 Tunisian pomegranate ecotypes. Total anthocyanins were determined by a differential pH method. Hydrolyzable tannins were determined with potassium iodate. The tocopherol (?-tocopherol, ?-tocopherol, and ?-tocopherol) contents were, respectively, 165.77, 107.38, and 27.29 mg/100 g from dry seed. Four phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in pomegranate peel and pulp using the high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet method: 2 hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic and ellagic acids) and 2 hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic and p-coumaric acids). Juice, peel, and seed oil antioxidants were confirmed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The highest values were recorded in peels with 25.63 mmol trolox equivalent/100 g and 22.08 mmol TE/100 g for FRAP and ORAC assay, respectively. Results showed that the antioxidant potency of pomegranate extracts was correlated with their phenolic compound content. In particular, the highest correlation was reported in peels. High correlations were also found between peel hydroxybenzoic acids and FRAP ORAC antioxidant capacities. Identified tocopherols seem to contribute in major part to the antioxidant activity of seed oil. The results implied that bioactive compounds from the peel might be potential resources for the development of antioxidant function dietary food. PMID:22417416

Elfalleh, Walid; Tlili, Nizar; Nasri, Nizar; Yahia, Yassine; Hannachi, Hédia; Chaira, Nizar; Ying, Ma; Ferchichi, Ali

2011-01-01

29

Protective role of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel and seed oil extracts on diethylnitrosamine and phenobarbital-induced hepatic injury in male rats.  

PubMed

The present study is an attempt to reveal the protective role of Punica granatum peel and seed oil extracts against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and phenobarbital (PB) induced hepatic injury in rats. DEN administration increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 and glutathione reductase (GSR) activities, while the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and total glutathione peroxidase (t-GPx) were decreased compared with the control. Treatment with peel and seed oil extracts pre, during and post DEN administration improved liver functions, decreased the levels of MDA, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 and GSR activities with an elevation in levels of GSH, SOD, GST and t-GPx activities. This indicates that these extracts reduced the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DEN. Also the effect of administration of PE and SOE separately for a long time (23 weeks) on healthy rats was studied. PMID:23870864

Shaban, Nadia Z; El-Kersh, Mohamed A L; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; Habashy, Noha H

2013-12-01

30

Biogenic robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Punica granatum peel and its application as a green catalyst for the reduction of an anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol.  

PubMed

A robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the peel extract of Punica granatum is reported in this article. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by the appearance of brownish yellow color and the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) peak at 432 nm. The biogenic AgNPs were found to have the size approximately 30 nm with distorted spherical shape. The high negative zeta potential values of AgNPs revealed their high stability which could be attributed to the capping of AgNPs by the phytoconstituents of the Punica granatum peel. The biogenic AgNPs were also found to function as an effective green catalyst in the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant viz., 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by solid sodium borohydride, which was evident from the instantaneous color change of bright yellow (400 nm) to colorless (294 nm) solution, after the addition of AgNPs. The catalytic action of biogenic AgNPs in the reduction of 4-NP could be explained on the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. PMID:23274256

Edison, T Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, M G

2013-03-01

31

Essential and toxic elements in three Pakistan's medicinal fruits (Punica granatum, Ziziphus jujuba and Piper cubeba) analysed by INAA.  

PubMed

Three important medicinal fruits generally used by the people of Pakistan for the treatment of different diseases have been studied for their mineral contents. Twenty-two major and minor trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were identified in Punica granatum (pomegranate), Ziziphus jujuba (jujube) and Piper cubeba L. (cubeb) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The studied medicinal herbs are a good source of the essential elements while toxic elements are found in trace amounts. K is detected as a major element in pomegranate, jujube and cubeb with respective values of 1.20%, 1.18% and 2.01%. Pomegranate has significant concentrations of Na, Zn, Cr and Se; jujube has high Cl, Zn, Mn and Co contents while cubeb is a good source of K and Fe. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of mineral elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal herbs. PMID:22017565

Fatima, Ismat; Waheed, Shahida; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain

2012-05-01

32

Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 ?M Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 ?M Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25053022

Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

2015-01-01

33

Influence of fruit maturity in the susceptibility of Navelina oranges to develop postharvest non-chilling peel pitting.  

PubMed

Peel pitting is a disorder occurring mostly during postharvest storage at non-chilling temperatures in different varieties of citrus fruit and consists in collapse of flavedo and albedo tissues that may affect oil glands. It has been demonstrated that during postharvest, sharp variations in water potential of cells from flavedo and albedo are sufficient to provoke fractures in cell walls from external albedo resulting in tissue collapse. However, morphology and composition of cells and cell walls in flavedo and albedo varies during fruit maturation and this may affect water flow through the different fruit peel layers and susceptibility of fruit to develop peel pitting. In this paper, we have studied the influence of the stage of maturation in the susceptibility of Navelina orange to develop peel pitting. Except in mature-green fruit, peel pitting increased with maturation after transferring fruit from 45% to 95% relative humidity and was also more severe as more dehydrated was the tissue before transference. Also, differences in water potential of fruit maintained at 45 or 95% relative humidity increased as fruit matured, suggesting that tissue reduces the ability of water adjustment during maturation. In this sense, only mature-green fruit flavedo was able to recover water potential when transferred from 45 to 95% relative humidity. Ethylene production upon transfer from low to high relative humidity increased only in mature tissue and was rapid and transient, and before initial symptoms of peel pitting. Flavedo and albedo water potential (?w) was substantially reduced during fruit maturation. As lower was the ?w of freshly harvested fruit, minor variations were observed by changes in the storage relative humidity and higher the induced damage. Therefore, the increasing susceptibility of Navelina fruits to develop peel pitting with fruit maturation may be related to a reduced ability to regulate peel evapotranspiration and osmotic adjustment during postharvest storage. PMID:23733827

Alferez, Fernando; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2014-04-01

34

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract efficacy as a dietary antioxidant against azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rat.  

PubMed

Functional foods include antioxidant nutrients which may protect against many human chronic diseases by combating reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors in rats as an in vivo experimental model. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups containing 10 rats per group, and were treated with either AOM, PPE, or PPE plus AOM or injected with 0.9% physiological saline solution as a control. At 8 weeks of age, the rats in the AOM and PPE plus AOM groups were injected with 15 mg AOM/kg body weight, once a week for two weeks. After the last AOM injection, the rats were continuously fed ad-libitum their specific diets for another 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment (i.e. at the age of 4 months), all rats were killed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for lesions suspected of being preneoplastic lesions or tumors as well as for biochemical measurement of oxidative stress indices. The results revealed a lower incidence of aberrant crypt foci in the PPE plus AOM administered group as compared to the AOM group. In addition, PPE blocked the AOM-induced impairment of biochemical indicators of oxidative stress in the examined colonic tissue homogenates. The results suggest that PPE can partially inhibit the development of colonic premalignant lesions in an AOM-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model, by abrogating oxidative stress and improving the redox status of colonic cells. PMID:23098515

Waly, Mostafa I; Ali, Amanat; Guizani, Nejib; Al-Rawahi, Amani S; Farooq, Sardar A; Rahman, Mohammad S

2012-01-01

35

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel.  

PubMed

In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction technology was employed to investigate and optimize the crude polysaccharide extraction from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel using three levels, four factors (LS ratio, ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time) Box-Behnken response surface design. The results showed that highest polysaccharide yield of 8.31% was obtained with an LS ratio of 32:1 ml:g, ultrasonic power of 110 W, extraction temperature of 53°C and extraction time of 41 min. The experimental yield of polysaccharide (8.29±0.03%) at optimal condition was well agreed with the predicted value. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the identification of functional groups present in the extracted polysaccharide. The results suggest that ultrasound-assisted extraction could be a good alternative for the extraction of polysaccharide from N. lappaceum L. fruit peel at industrial level. PMID:25064556

Maran, J Prakash; Priya, B

2014-09-01

36

Complete assignments of (1)H and (13)C NMR data for two 3beta,8beta-epoxymexicanolides from the fruit of a Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Three 3beta,8beta-epoxymexicanolides, including xyloccensin K, 6-acetoxycedrodorin and a new one named xyloccensin W, were isolated from the fruit of a Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. The first complete assignment of (1)H and (13)C NMR data for xyloccensin W was achieved by means of 2D NMR techniques, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra. In addition, the confusion of (1)H and (13)C NMR data previously reported for xyloccensin K was clarified. PMID:16261504

Wu, Jun; Xiao, Zhihui; Song, Yang; Zhang, Si; Xiao, Qiang; Ma, Cha; Ding, Haixin; Li, Qingxin

2006-01-01

37

A pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) WD40-repeat gene is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis TTG1 and is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins are the major pigments responsible for the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit skin color. The high variability in fruit external color in pomegranate cultivars reflects variations in anthocyanin\\u000a composition. To identify genes involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in the pomegranate fruit skin\\u000a we have isolated, expressed and characterized the pomegranate homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT

Zohar Ben-Simhon; Sylvie Judeinstein; Talia Nadler-Hassar; Taly Trainin; Irit Bar-Ya’akov; Hamutal Borochov-Neori; Doron Holland

38

Antioxidant Capacities of Peel, Pulp, and Seed Fractions of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant capacities of ethylacetate, butanol, and water fractions of peel, pulp, and seeds of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) were determined using various in vitro antioxidant models. Ethylacetate fraction of peel (EAFPE) exhibited the highest total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities compared to pulp, seeds, and other solvent fractions. Antioxidant capacities were assayed by total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hemoglobin oxidation assay. Total phenolic content of ethylacetate fractions was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant activities from CO fruit fractions. Thus, EAFPE can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible pharmaceutical supplement. PMID:20936182

Prasad, K. Nagendra; Chew, Lye Yee; Khoo, Hock Eng; Kong, Kin Weng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin

2010-01-01

39

Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 ?g/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 ?g/ml and 15.88 ?g/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:23110485

2012-01-01

40

Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues.  

PubMed

Horticultural waste was co-composted with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues individually to evaluate the effects of these easily available organic wastes in Singapore on the composting process and product quality. Each co-composting material was mixed with horticultural waste in the wet weight ratio of 1:1 and composted for 46 days. Results showed that all co-composting materials accelerated the degradation of total carbon and resulted in higher nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the final product compared with horticultural waste alone. Mixture with fruit peels achieved the fastest total carbon loss; however, did not reach the minimum required temperature for pathogen destruction. The end product was found to be the best source for K and had a higher pH that could be used for the remediation of acidic soil. Food waste resulted in the highest available nitrate (NO3-N) content in the end product, but caused high salt content, total coliforms, and slower total carbon loss initially. Soybean residues were found to be the best co-composting material to produce compost with high N, P, and K when compared with other materials due to the highest temperature, fastest total carbon loss, fastest reduction in C/N ratio, and best conservation of nutrients. PMID:25650141

Choy, Sing Ying; Wang, Ke; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ben; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

2015-06-01

41

Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic Activity of Citrus limetta Fruit Peel in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

The present paper aims to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of methanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peel (MECL) in streptozotocin-induced (STZ; 65?mg/kg b.w.) diabetic rats. Three days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received MECL orally at 200 and 400?mg kg?1 body weight daily for 15 days. Glibenclamide (0.5?mg kg?1 p. o.) was used as reference drug. Blood glucose levels were measured on 0th, 4th, 8th, and 15th days of study. Serum biochemical parameters namely, SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The TBARS and GSH levels of pancreas, kidney, and liver were determined. MECL significantly (P < 0.001) and dose dependently normalized blood glucose levels and serum biochemical parameters, decreased lipid peroxidation, and recovered GSH as compared to those of STZ control. The present paper infers that in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats, C. limetta fruit peel demonstrated a potential antihyperglycemic effect which may be attributed to its antioxidant property. PMID:22363893

KunduSen, Sriparna; Haldar, Pallab K.; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K.; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Kar, Biswakanth

2011-01-01

42

Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.  

PubMed

Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2014-05-01

43

Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.  

PubMed

Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted. PMID:25129791

Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

2014-11-01

44

Protective effect of Cucurbita pepo fruit peel against CCl4 induced neurotoxicity in rat.  

PubMed

Cucurbita pepo is a common vegetable used all over the world. In folk medicine it is used in gastroenteritis, hepatorenal and in brain anomalies. In the present study, protective effect of Cucurbita pepo fruit peel against CCl4-induced neurotoxicity in rats was investigated. In this study, 36 Sprague-Dawley female rats (190±15 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. Group I was given 1 ml/kg bw (body weight) of corn oil intraperotoneally (i.p); Group II, III and IV were treated with 20% CCl4 in corn oil (1ml/kg bw i.p.). However, animals of Group III and IV were also treated with CPME (methanol extract of C. pepo fruit peel) at 200 and 400mg/kg bw respectively. Animals of Group V and VI were administered only with CPME at 200 and 400mg/kg bw respectively. These treatments were administered 3 days a week for two weeks. Administration of CCl4 cause acute neurotoxicity as depicted by significant depletion (p<0.05) in the activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, quinone reductase, while enhanced the ?-glutamyl transferase level in brain samples. CCl4 intoxication decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level whereas markedly (p<0.05) enhanced lipid peroxidation in brain samples. Co-treatment of CPME significantly (p<0.05) protected the brain tissues against CCl4 constituted injuries by restoring activities of antioxidant enzymes and ameliorated lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent fashion. These neuroprotective effects might be due to the presence of antioxidant constituents. PMID:25362619

Zaib, Sania; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

2014-11-01

45

Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels  

PubMed Central

Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327

Martos, María A.; Zubreski, Emilce R.; Garro, Oscar A.; Hours, Roque A.

2013-01-01

46

In vitro antioxidant activity and potential inhibitory action against ?-glucosidase of polysaccharides from fruit peel of tea (Camellia sinensis L.)* #  

PubMed Central

The conditions for extracting polysaccharides from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel (TFPPs) were studied. Three parameters (temperature, time, and liquid/solid ratio) affecting the extraction of TFPP were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions, the yield of TFPP was predicted to be 4.98%. The physicochemical properties, in vitro antioxidant activities, and inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase of fractionated TFPPs (TFPP-0, TFPP-20, TFPP-40, and TFPP-60) were investigated. We found that the TFPPs were all acid protein-bound heteropolysaccharides, although with different chemical compositions. They had not only remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing activity, but also excellent inhibitory potential against ?-glucosidase in vitro. Our results suggest that tea fruit peel could be treated as a potential bioresource for the development of polysaccharide antioxidants. PMID:24510710

Wang, Yue-fei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jing; Xu, Ping; Wang, Yi-qi; Gao, Jun-jie; Hochstetter, Danielle

2014-01-01

47

Iron Oxide Impregnated Morus alba L. Fruit Peel for Biosorption of Co(II): Biosorption Properties and Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

2013-01-01

48

Adsorption studies on Citrus reticulata (fruit peel of orange): removal and recovery of Ni(II) from electroplating wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of fruit peel of orange to remove Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cr from aqueous solution by adsorption was studied. The adsorption was in the order of Ni(II)>Cu(II)>Pb(II)>Zn(II)>Cr(II). The extent of removal of Ni(II) was found to be dependent on sorbent dose, initial concentration, pH and temperature. The adsorption follows first-order kinetics. The process is endothermic showing monolayer

Mohammad Ajmal; Rifaqat Ali Khan Rao; Rais Ahmad; Jameel Ahmad

2000-01-01

49

Attenuating effect of standardized fruit extract of punica granatum L in rat model of tibial and sural nerve transection induced neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Background Injury to a nerve is the most common reason of acquired peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, searching for effective substance to recover of nerve after injury is need of present era. The current study investigates the protective potential of Standardized Fruit Extract of Punica granatum L (PFE) [Ellagic acid (41.6%), Punicalagins (10%), Granatin (5.1%)] in Tibial & Sural Nerve Transection (TST) induced neuropathic pain in rats. Methods TST was performed by sectioning tibial and sural nerve portions of the sciatic nerve and leaving the common peroneal nerve intact. Acetone drop, pin-prick, hot plate, paint brush & Walking Track tests were performed to assess cold allodynia; mechanical heat, hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia & tibial functional index respectively. The levels of TNF-?, TBARS, GSH and Nitrite were measured in the sciatic nerve as an index of inflammation & oxidative stress. Results TST led to significant development of cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; dynamic mechanical allodynia; functional deficit in walking along with rise in the levels of TBARS, TNF-?, GSH and Nitrite. Administrations of PFE (100 & 300 mg/kg oral), significantly attenuate TST induced behavioral & biochemical changes. Pretreatments of BADGE (120 mg/kg IP) a PPAR-? antagonist and nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg IP) abolished the protective effect of PFE. Whereas, pretreatment of L-NAME (5 mg/kg IP) a NOS inhibitor significantly potentiated PFE’s protective effect of PFE. Conclusion PFE shown to have attenuating effect in TST induced neuropathic pain which may be attributed to potential PPAR-gamma agonistic activity, nitric oxide inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and anti oxidative actions. PMID:24499201

2013-01-01

50

Transcriptomic profiling of citrus fruit peel tissues reveals fundamental effects of phenylpropanoids and ethylene on induced resistance.  

PubMed

Penicillium spp. are the major postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit in Mediterranean climatic regions. The induction of natural resistance constitutes one of the most promising alternatives to avoid the environmental contamination and health problems caused by chemical fungicides. To understand the bases of the induction of resistance in citrus fruit against Penicillium digitatum, we have used a 12k citrus cDNA microarray to study transcriptional changes in the outer and inner parts of the peel (flavedo and albedo, respectively) of elicited fruits. The elicitor treatment led to an over-representation of biological processes associated with secondary metabolism, mainly phenylpropanoids and cellular amino acid biosynthesis and methionine metabolism, and the down-regulation of genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Among phenylpropanoids, we detected the over-expression of a large subset of genes important for the synthesis of flavonoids, coumarins and lignin, especially in the internal tissue. Furthermore, these genes and those of ethylene biosynthesis showed the highest induction. The involvement of both phenylpropanoid and ethylene pathways was confirmed by examining changes in gene expression and ethylene production in elicited citrus fruit. Therefore, global results indicate that secondary metabolism, mainly phenylpropanoids, and ethylene play important roles in the induction of resistance in citrus fruit. PMID:21726388

Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Lafuente, M Teresa; Forment, Javier; Gadea, José; De Vos, Ric C H; Bovy, Arnaud G; González-Candelas, Luis

2011-12-01

51

Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage.  

PubMed

Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared with control fruits under both the storage conditions. Combined application of putrescine + carnauba wax showed better response in retaining functional properties than putrescine treated or nontreated fruits. The impacts of putrescine and carnauba wax treatments were found more pronounced after 30 days at 3-5 °C storage temperature in retaining functional and sensory qualities. After 60 days of storage, putrescine + carnauba wax retained about 25% higher antioxidant activity both at 3 and 5 °C storage temperatures. PMID:24426055

Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R K; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S K

2014-01-01

52

Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.  

PubMed

In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (?3) and omega-6 (?6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ?3 (linolenic acid) and ?6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. PMID:24909999

Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

2014-09-01

53

Preparation method and stability of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit peel extract.  

PubMed

A simple one-step purification using liquid-liquid extraction for preparing pomegranate peel extract rich in ellagic acid has been demonstrated. The method involved partitioning of the 10% v/v water in methanol extract of pomegranate peel between ethyl acetate and 2% aqueous acetic acid. This method was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content of the extract from 7.06% to 13.63% w/w. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was also increased (ED(50) from 38.21 to 14.91 micro/mL). Stability evaluations of the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract in several conditions through a period of four months found that the extracts were stable either kept under light or protected from light. The extracts were also stable under 4 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, 30 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and accelerated conditions at 45 degrees C with 75% relative humidity. However, study on the effect of pH on stability of the extract in the form of solution revealed that the extract was not stable in all tested pH (5.5, 7 and 8). These results indicated that the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract was stable when it was kept as dried powder, but it was not stable in any aqueous solution. PMID:20645841

Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Itsuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak

2010-02-01

54

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

Gözlekçi, ?adiye; Saraço?lu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Özgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

55

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars.  

PubMed

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

Gözlekçi, Sadiye; Saraço?lu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-04-01

56

Effects of 1-MCP on chlorophyll degradation pathway-associated genes expression and chloroplast ultrastructure during the peel yellowing of Chinese pear fruits in storage.  

PubMed

The peel yellowing is an important pigment physiological process of green fruit ripening, which mainly results from chlorophyll degradation in the fruit peel. In this work, two typical cultivars with different ripening speed, a slow ripening pear 'Emerald' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Emerald) and a fast ripening 'Jingbai' (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. cv. Jingbai) were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of chlorophyll degradation in pear yellowing/ripening during postharvest storage. The fruits after harvest were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor at 1.0 ?Ll(-1) to determine its effect on chloroplast ultrastructure and the expression of chlorophyll degradation associated genes in peel tissues. Our results show that the pears treated with 1-MCP had a lower ethylene production rate and higher chlorophyll content compared to those of untreated fruit. The more intact chloroplasts with well-organised grana thylakoids and small plastoglobuli were maintained in the peel of 1-MCP treated fruit for up to 30 and 15 d in 'Emerald' and 'Jingbai', respectively. The expression of chlorophyll degradation associated genes: pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), non-yellow colouring (NYC), NYC1-like (NOL), stay-green 1(SGR1), was suppressed, while no significant change was found in chlorophyllase 1 (CHL1) and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR) in both cultivar fruits treated with 1-MCP. These results suggest that 1-MCP can delay chlorophyll degradation by inhibiting ethylene production and suppressing the gene expression of PAO, NYC, NOL and SGR1, which are closely associated with chlorophyll catabolic pathway. PMID:22868108

Cheng, Yudou; Dong, Yu; Yan, Hongbo; Ge, Wenya; Shen, Chengguo; Guan, Junfeng; Liu, Liqin; Zhang, Yingying

2012-11-15

57

Fruit Preparation Apples Select crisp and firm apples. Wash, peel and core. Slice medium apples  

E-print Network

. Crumple a small piece of water-resistant paper on top to hold fruit down. Sugar Pack - To each quart. *Syrup Concentrations for Freezing Fruits Type of Syrup Sugar Water 10% (very light) ½ cup 4 cups 20 cups Directions: Dissolve sugar in lukewarm water. Mix until dissolved. Chill syrup before using

New Hampshire, University of

58

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

59

Chemical Peels  

MedlinePLUS

... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more about specific conditions where chemical ... damaged skin Sagging skin Wrinkles What is a chemical peel? A chemical peel is a technique used ...

60

Composition, ultrastructure and function of the cutin and suberin-containing layers in the leaf, fruit peel, juice-sac and inner seed coat of grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi Macfed.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutin and suberin polymers from various anatomical regions of grapefruit were analyzed chemically and ultrastructurally. The leaf, fruit peel and juice-sac showed an amorphous cuticular layer. The cutin in the leaf was composed of 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid and its positional isomers as the major monomers whereas 16-hydroxy-10-oxo C16 acid was a major component in the fruit peel. Juice-sac cutin, on

Karl E. Espelie; Ronald W. Davis; P. E. Kolattukudy

1980-01-01

61

Therapeutic Applications of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., is an ancient, mystical, unique fruit borne on a small, long-living tree cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region, as far north as the Himalayas, in Southeast Asia, and in California and Arizona in the United States. In addition to its ancient historical uses, pomegranate is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments.

Julie Jurenka

2008-01-01

62

Chemical Peeling of Tomatoes.  

E-print Network

Frrrzts 41CkFw calded m 21 percent NaOH (230" F.) for 20 seconds, 4> percetlt CaCI, (a6 F.) JW seconds and water (212" F.) for 90 seconds, respectively. The fruits were photographed immediately after scalding. bical Peeling of Tomatoes... UNIVERSITY Summary I Tomato fruits of the Chico and Homestead varieties were scalded in solutions of water, NaOH and CaC12 at various concentrations, times and tem- peratures. Fruits were weighed before and after ' peeling to determine percent weight...

Heddins, Gerald C.; Burns, E. E.

1965-01-01

63

Cell wall, cell membrane, and volatile metabolism are altered by antioxidant treatment, temperature shifts, and peel necrosis during apple fruit storage.  

PubMed

The transition from cold storage to ambient temperature alters apple quality through accelerated softening, flavor and color changes, and development of physiological peel disorders, such as superficial scald, in susceptible cultivars. To reveal global metabolism associated with this transition, the 'Granny Smith' peel metabolome was evaluated during storage of 6 months and shelf life periods. Treatment with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) reduced scald, creating a metabolic contrast with untreated fruit, which developed superficial scald. Superficial scald symptoms developed on control fruit after 120 days of storage, and symptoms progressed following transition to ambient-temperature shelf life. The metabolic profile of control and DPA-treated fruit was divergent after 30 days of cold storage due to differing levels of ?-farnesene oxidation products, methyl esters, phytosterols, and other compounds potentially associated with chloroplast integrity and oxidative stress response. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed coregulation within the volatile synthesis pathway including control of the availability of methyl, propyl, ethyl, acetyl, and butyl alcohol and/or acid moieties for ester biosynthesis. Overall, the application of metabolomics techniques lends new insight into physiological processes leading to cell death and ripening processes that affect fruit flavor, appearance, and overall quality. PMID:23311914

Leisso, Rachel; Buchanan, David; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James; Rudell, David

2013-02-13

64

Metabolic Changes in Excised Fruit Tissue. IV. Changes Occurring in Discs of Apple Peel During the Development of the Respiration Climacteric  

PubMed Central

It is shown that a sequential development of a series of enzyme systems occurs in the peel of the apple as the respiration climacteric develops in the whole fruit. The sequence of development of these systems, i.e. acetate incorporation into lipid, production of ethylene, incorporation of amino acid into protein and, finally, the decarboxylation of added malate (malate effect) is the same as that shown earlier for the short term (24 hr) aging of peel discs from pre-climacteric apples. As these systems appear in the initial discs from fruit passing through the climacteric they gradually cease to increase during the 24 hour aging period. Uptake studies show that none of the changes in these systems can be due solely to changes in the permeability of the tissue over the climacteric period. On the basis of these results it is tentatively suggested that the aging of discs from pre-climacteric tissue might provide a model system for a detailed study of the physiological and biochemical changes occurring during the climacteric of apple fruits. PMID:16656898

Hulme, A. C.; Rhodes, M. J. C.; Galliard, T.; Wooltorton, L. S. C.

1968-01-01

65

Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp  

PubMed Central

Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 ?g/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms. PMID:24516425

Anibal, Paula Cristina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Foglio, Mary Ann; Höfling, José Francisco

2013-01-01

66

Effect of the yellow passion fruit peel flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa deg.) in insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients  

PubMed Central

Background A study with the yellow passion fruit peel flour showed positive action in blood glucose control as therapies’ adjuvant in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we evaluated its effect on insulin sensitivity since there is a quest for studies that focus at better understanding of insulin resistance aspects in diabetic patients. Furthermore its relationship with chronic complications can also give good prospects for alternative treatments. Methods A total of 43 type 2 diabetes volunteers (28 females and 15 males) ingested 30 g/day of the yellow passion fruit peel flour for two months. The levels of blood glucose and fasting insulin, HOMA index and glycated hemoglobin were measured for each patient before and after dietary supplementation. Results There was a significant difference in the fasting blood glucose values (P?=?0.000) and glycated hemoglobin (P?=?0.032) after supplementation. It was also seen a reduction in HOMA IR (P?=?0.005) in the supplemented group, however it was not observed changes in insulin values for females. HOMA beta (P?=?0.000) showed significant increase in its values for the studied group. Conclusions The supplementation used decreased insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a positive action in blood glucose control as adjuvant therapy in conventional treatments. PMID:23088514

2012-01-01

67

Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa and its compounds against blood-feeding parasites.  

PubMed

Plant products may be alternative sources of parasitic control agents, since they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are eco-friendly and nontoxic products. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) extracted by immersion method exhibited adulticidal activity against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae) and the hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and larvicidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of A. squamosa fruit peel aqueous extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent of peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa was identified as 1H- cycloprop[e]azulen-7-ol decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-[1ar-(1a?,4a?, 7?, 7 a, ?, 7b?)] (28.55%) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The other major constituents present in the aqueous extract were retinal 9-cis- (12.61%), 3,17-dioxo-4-androsten-11alpha-yl hydrogen succinate (6.86%), 1-naphthalenepentanol decahydro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-5,8a-dimethyl-y,2-bis(methylene)-(1?,4a?,5?,8a?) (14.83%), 1-naphthalenemethanol decahydro -5-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-pentenyl)- 1,4a-di methyl - 6-methylene -(1S-[1?, 4a?, 5?(E), 8a?] (4.44%), (-)-spathulenol (20.75%), podocarp-7-en-3-one13?-methyl-13-vinyl- (5.98%), and 1-phenanthrene carboxaldehyde 7-ethenyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydro-1,4a,7-trimethyl-[1R-(1?,4a?.4b?,7?, 10a?)]-(5.98%). The adult and larval parasitic mortalities observed in fruit peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa were 31, 59, 80, 91, and100%; 27, 42, 66, 87, and 100%; and 33, 45, 68, 92, and 100% at the concentrations of 250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm, respectively, against Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Hippobosca maculata, and R. microplus. The observed larvicidal efficacies were 36, 55, 72, 92, 100% and 14, 34, 68, 89, and 100% at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 ppm, respectively, against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. The highest parasite mortality was found after 24 h of exposure against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (LC(50)?=?404.51 ppm, r (2)?=?0.890), Hippobosca maculata (LC(50)?=?600.75 ppm, r (2)?=?0.983), the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?=?548.28 ppm, r (2)?=?0.975), fourth-instar larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50)?=?327.27 pm, r (2)?=?0.970), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=?456.29 ppm, r (2)?=?0.974), respectively. The control (distilled water) showed nil mortality in the concurrent assay. The ? (2) values were significant at p?fruit peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa may be an alternative to conventional synthetic chemicals, particularly in integrated approach for the control of Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Hippobosca maculata, R. microplus, and the medically important vectors A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:22006187

Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Priya, Kanagaraj Mohana; Saral, Antoneyraj Mary; Khan, Fazlur Rahman Nawaz; Khanna, Venkatesh Gopiesh; Velayutham, Kannaiyaram; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

2012-11-01

68

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE WOUND INDUCED MATERIAL IN CITRUS FRUIT PEEL BY CARBON-13 CP-MAS SOLID STATE NMR SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are conflicting views regarding the chemical composition of the induced, phloroglucinol-HCl (PG-HCl) reacting, material accumulating in injured citrus peel tissues. Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, were injured, inoculated with Peicillium digitatum and incubated under contitions favorable to the a...

69

Flavonoids from Punica granatum--potential antiperoxidative agents.  

PubMed

Fractions rich in flavonoids obtained from the fruits of Punica granatum extract, orally administered to rats at dose of 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), showed potential antiperoxidative effect. Concentrations of malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were significantly decreased in liver while the activities of the enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase showed significant elevation. Concentrations of glutathione in the tissues were also increased. PMID:15752628

Sudheesh, S; Vijayalakshmi, N R

2005-03-01

70

Rapid dereplication of estrogenic compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) using on-line biochemical detection coupled to mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

During recent years, phytoestrogens have been receiving an increasing amount of interest, as several lines of evidence suggest a possible role in preventing a range of diseases, including the hormonally dependent cancers. In this context, various parts of the pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum; Punicaceae), e.g. seed oil, juice, fermented juice and peel extract, have been shown to exert suppressive effects on human breast cancer cells in vitro. On-line biochemical detection coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-BCD-MS) was applied to rapidly profile the estrogenic activity in the pomegranate peel extract. The crude mixture was separated by HPLC, after which the presence of biologically active compounds, known or unknown, was detected by means of an on-line beta-estrogen receptor (ER) bioassay. Chemical information, such as molecular weight and MS/MS fingerprint, was obtained in real time by directing part of the HPLC effluent towards a mass spectrometer. Using this approach in total three estrogenic compounds, i.e. luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol, were detected and identified by comparing the obtained molecular weights and negative ion APCI MS/MS spectra with the data of an estrogenic compound library. Although well known in literature and widely distributed in nature, the presence of these phytoestrogenic compounds in pomegranate peel extract was not reported previously. Compared to traditional screening approaches of complex mixtures, often characterized by a repeating cycle of HPLC fractionation and biological screening, LC-BCD-MS was shown to profoundly accelerate the time required for compound description and identification. PMID:14732284

van Elswijk, Danny A; Schobel, Uwe P; Lansky, Ephraim P; Irth, Hubertus; van der Greef, Jan

2004-01-01

71

Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review  

PubMed Central

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist’s arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

72

Structure elucidation of an unprecedented alkaloid and a new limonoid from Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

An unprecedented new limonoid-based alkaloid, granatoine (1), and a new phragmalin, xylocarpin L (2), along with xyloccensin Y were isolated as minor components from the fruits of the Chinese mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR) analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway for granatoine was also depicted. PMID:18615864

Cui, Jianxin; Ouyang, Jie; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

2008-09-01

73

Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In...

74

CLONING AND FUNCTIONAL EXPRESSION OF AN (E)-NEROLIDOL SYNTHASE CDNA FROM PEEL TISSUE OF APPLE FRUIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased production of terpenes and many other aroma-related volatiles occurs with the onset of ripening in apple fruit. The gaseous plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in the induction of volatile synthesis, but the mechanism is not yet understood. Using a degenerate primer based on a short co...

75

Comprehensive thin-layer chromatography mass spectrometry of flavanols from Juniperus communis L. and Punica granatum L.  

PubMed

The coupling of thin-layer chromatography with mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) for the analysis of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins in samples presented as complex matrices has been studied. The elution conditions for TLC-MS were optimised and full scans were compared with selected reaction monitoring for the MS detection of compounds. The performance of silica gel and cellulose plates with different developing solvents in TLC-MS was assessed. Cellulose plates provided superior sensitivity while ionisation suppression was encountered with silica plates. The use of a HILIC guard column beyond the elution head was found to facilitate detection of monomer compounds on silica plates. A new comprehensive TLC×MS procedure for screening flavanols in the entire chromatogram was developed as an alternative to the use of 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to determine the locations of compounds on the plate. This new procedure was applied to detect flavanols in the peel of Punica granatum L. fruits and in seeds of Juniperus communis L., in which flavanols and proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers were detected for the first time. PMID:23566918

Smrke, Samo; Vovk, Irena

2013-05-10

76

Establishment of pomegranate (Punica granatum) hairy root cultures for genetic interrogation of the hydrolyzable tannin biosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

In contrast to the numerous reports on the human therapeutic applications of hydrolyzable tannins (HTs), genes involved in their biosynthesis have not been identified at the molecular level from any plant species. Although we have previously identified candidate HT biosynthetic genes in pomegranate using transcriptomic and bioinformatic analyses, characterization of in planta enzyme function remains a critical step in biochemical pathway elucidation. We here report the establishment of a pomegranate (Punica granatum) hairy root culture system that produces HTs. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains transformed with a binary vector harboring a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) gene were used for hairy root induction, allowing visual, non-destructive, detection of transgene incorporation. It also demonstrated that the pomegranate hairy root culture system is suitable for expressing heterologous genes (YFP in this case). Expression of 26 putative UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, obtained from a pomegranate fruit peel (a tissue highly abundant in HTs) RNA-Seq library, were verified in wild type and hairy roots. In addition, two candidate UGTs for HT biosynthesis were identified based on HPLC and differential gene expression analyses of various pomegranate tissues. Together with in vitro enzyme activity assays, the hairy root culture system holds great promise for revealing the undivulged HT biosynthetic pathway using pomegranate as a model system. PMID:22810948

Ono, Nadia N; Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C G; Tian, Li

2012-09-01

77

Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features.  

PubMed

The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements. PMID:25529700

Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Fraternale, Daniele; Sestili, Piero

2015-05-01

78

ENZYME PEELING OF VALENCIA ORANGE FOR FRESH-CUT SLICES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spite of the booming market for fresh cut fruit, fresh cut citrus has not been successful commercially due to technical difficulties in peeling the fruit. The USDA and the FDOC have developed a process using enzyme infiltration under vacuum to facilitate citrus peeling. However, the enzymes (cel...

79

Emerging fruit crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

80

Punica granatum: A review on its potential role in treating periodontal disease  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of plants possess enormous treasure of medicinal value. Majority of these medicinal plants have been used to treat various systemic conditions successfully. Over the recent years, use of these medicinal plants has resurfaced to treat oral conditions. Among the oral conditions, periodontal disease remains one of the most common. Alternative and preventive options has become the need of the hour in order to overcome the adverse effects of the antimicrobial agents used in large as an adjunct to mainstream periodontal treatment. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) is one of the oldest edible fruit which has a long history as a medicinal fruit. This review is an attempt to highlight the potential of Punica granatum as a preventive and therapeutic aid to periodontal disease. PMID:25210254

Prasad, Divyashree; Kunnaiah, Ravi

2014-01-01

81

Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties.  

PubMed

The dried powdered fruit peels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ?60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 ?mol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 ?mol Trolox/g). PMID:24799227

Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana

2014-10-01

82

In vitro antioxidant properties of mangosteen peel extract.  

PubMed

The growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on the screening of plant-derived raw materials for identifying new antioxidants. The special attention of research today is focused on inexpensive or residual sources from agricultural industries. Fruit peels as sources of powerful natural antioxidants are often the waste parts of various fruits from consumption and food industry. Among the fruit peels, mangosteen peel is an important source of natural phenolic antioxidants. The mangosteen peel contains various bioactive substances, i.e., phenolic acids and flavonoids, which possess biological and medicinal properties, especially antioxidant properties. The aim of this review, after presenting analytical techniques for determining in vitro antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, is to summarize available data on the factors affecting antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract. In addition, the potential antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, the bioactive compounds identified from mangosteen peel extract and their antioxidant activity are presented. Potential applications of the mangosteen peel extract in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products are also discussed. PMID:25477623

Suttirak, Weerayuth; Manurakchinakorn, Supranee

2014-12-01

83

Therapeutic applications of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): a review.  

PubMed

The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., is an ancient, mystical, unique fruit borne on a small, long-living tree cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region, as far north as the Himalayas, in Southeast Asia, and in California and Arizona in the United States. In addition to its ancient historical uses, pomegranate is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior to that of single constituents. In the past decade, numerous studies on the antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate constituents have been published, focusing on treatment and prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dental conditions, erectile dysfunction, bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance, and ultraviolet radiation-induced skin damage. Other potential applications include infant brain ischemia, male infertility, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, and obesity. PMID:18590349

Jurenka, Julie S

2008-06-01

84

HPLC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHENOLS IN LONGAN (DIMOCARPUS LONGAN LOUR.) PEEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longan fruit are susceptible to chilling injury, where the peel exhibits discoloration (water-soaking and/or browning area on the peel). Two varieties of longan (Daw and Biew Kiew) were subjected to abusive cold storage to evaluate the changes in the phenolic compounds that occurred in peel exhibit...

85

Analysis of the phenolic compounds in longan (Dimocarpus longan lour.) peel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longan fruit are susceptible to chilling injury, where the injured peel exhibits discoloration due to water-soaking and enzymatic browning. This peel discoloration is dependent to a large degree on the composition of the phenolic compounds. Yet, the main classes of phenols in longan peel remain la...

86

Potent antifungal activity of extracts and pure compound isolated from pomegranate peels and synergism with fluconazole against Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Activity-guided repeated fractionation of crude hydro alcoholic extract prepared from the fruit peel of Punica granatum on a silica-gel column yielded a compound that exhibited strong antifungal activity against Candida spp. Based on spectral analyses, the compound was identified as punicalagin. Punicalagin showed strong activity against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, with MICs of 3.9 and 1.9 microg/ml, respectively. The combination of punicalagin and fluconazole showed a synergistic interaction. MIC for fluconazole decreased twofold when combined with the extract. The FIC index was 0.25. The synergism observed in disk-diffusion and checkerboard assays was confirmed in time-kill curves. The effect of punicalagin on the morphology and ultrastructure in treated yeast cells was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. An irregular budding pattern and pseudohyphae were seen in treated yeasts. By transmission electron microscopy, treated cells showed a thickened cell wall, changes in the space between cell wall and the plasma membrane, vacuoles, and a reduction in cytoplasmic content. Since the punicalagin concentration effective in vitro is achievable in vivo, the combination of this agent with fluconazole represents an attractive prospect for the development of new management strategies for candidiasis, and should be investigated further in in vivo models. PMID:20541606

Endo, Eliana Harue; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado

2010-09-01

87

Valuable components of raw and ripe peels from two Indian mango varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango is one of the most important tropical fruits and India ranks first in its world production. During the processing of mango, mainly for mango pulp and preparation of amchur powder, peel is a by-product. Peel forms about 20% of the whole fruit and at present it is a waste product and its disposal has become a great problem. With

C. M. Ajila; S. G. Bhat; U. J. S. Prasada Rao

2007-01-01

88

ENZYME-PEELING OF VALENCIA ORANGES FOR FRESH-CUT SLICES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spite of the booming market for fresh cut fruit, fresh cut citrus has not been successful commercialized due to technical difficulties in peeling the fruit. The USDA and the FDOC have developed a process using enzyme infiltration under vacuum to facilitate citrus peeling. However, the enzymes (...

89

Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.  

PubMed

The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID:24906123

Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

2014-08-01

90

Comparative Antioxidant Activity and Total Flavonoid Content of Persian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars.  

PubMed

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Lythraceae, is mainly grown in Mediterranean region. It is one of the major cultivated productions of Iran, which have been used in folk medicine for many centuries. It has been proved that pomegranate has a high antioxidant activity and is effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. This study compares the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of nine different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran. Aqueous solutions of known Fe(+2) concentration, vitamin E, vitamin C, gallic acid and catechin were used for calibration. The results showed that Sour summer pulp cultivar had the most antioxidant effect with significant difference with the other cultivar (p < 0.05) which can be introduced as a potent source of natural antioxidants, and the peel of three cultivars (Sweet saveh malas, Sour summer and Black peel) as a suitable source for extraction and purification of phenolic and flavonoid compound. The antioxidant capacity of pomegranate peel extract is 10 times higher than the pulp extract. PMID:24250384

Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Gholam, Narges; Moridi, Tahereh

2011-01-01

91

Comparative Antioxidant Activity and Total Flavonoid Content of Persian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Lythraceae, is mainly grown in Mediterranean region. It is one of the major cultivated productions of Iran, which have been used in folk medicine for many centuries. It has been proved that pomegranate has a high antioxidant activity and is effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. This study compares the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of nine different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran. Aqueous solutions of known Fe+2 concentration, vitamin E, vitamin C, gallic acid and catechin were used for calibration. The results showed that Sour summer pulp cultivar had the most antioxidant effect with significant difference with the other cultivar (p < 0.05) which can be introduced as a potent source of natural antioxidants, and the peel of three cultivars (Sweet saveh malas, Sour summer and Black peel) as a suitable source for extraction and purification of phenolic and flavonoid compound. The antioxidant capacity of pomegranate peel extract is 10 times higher than the pulp extract. PMID:24250384

Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Gholam, Narges; Moridi, Tahereh

2011-01-01

92

Xylocarpins A-I, limonoids from the Chinese mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Chemical examination of the fruits of the Chinese mangrove plant, Xylocarpus granatum, resulted in the isolation and characterization of nine new limonoids, named xylocarpins A-I (1-5, 7-10), along with nine known limonoids. Xylocarpins A-E were designated as polyoxyphragmalins, xylocarpin I was identified as a phragmalin orthoester, while xylocarpins F-H represented mexicanolides modified by ring oxidation and unusual 9,10-bond cleavage. The structure of xyloccensin U was revised to be 6-dehydroxyxylocarpin D on the basis of 2D spectroscopic data. PMID:17428091

Cui, Jianxin; Wu, Jun; Deng, Zhiwei; Proksch, Peter; Lin, Wenhan

2007-05-01

93

Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164. Methods: Various parts of the herbs were extracted from fruit using ethanol as the solvent, and the cytotoxicity and cell viability of the ethanolic extract were determined by the MTT assay. To determine whether necrosis or apoptosis is the predominant cause of cell death, cell death detection was performed using the ELISA method. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- (TdT-) mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Moreover, a sensitive immunoblotting technique was used to examine the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins. Results: Our findings suggested that the ethalonic extract of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa altered cell morphology, decreased cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner in WEHI-164 cells (IC50 = 229.024?g/ml), when compared to a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, Toxol (Vesper Pharmaceuticals), with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the decrease of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and quantitatively confirmed by Immunoblotting analysis. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study have demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of Ethanol Extracts from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa, and clearly showed that apoptosis was the major mechanism of in-vitro cell death induced by the extract. PMID:25671193

Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

2014-01-01

94

Constituents of the flowers of Punica granatum.  

PubMed

A new polyphenol compound named pomegranatate (1), together with, ellagic acid, 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid, ethyl brevifolincarboxylate, urolic and maslinic acids, and daucosterol were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Punica granatum. The structure of compound 1 was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Maslinic acid exhibited antioxidant activity, evaluated by measurement of LDL susceptibility to oxidation. PMID:16887296

Wang, Rufeng; Wei Wang; Wang, Liang; Liu, Ruining; Yi Ding; Du, Lijun

2006-12-01

95

THE POMEGRANATE: A NEW LOOK AT THE FRUIT OF PARADISE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pomegranate, Punica granatum, is one of 2 members of the Punicaceae family. The plant was first domesticated approximately 10,000 years ago in Iran, where it is native, and Turkey. The fruit may have been the “apple” that Eve was deceived by the snake into partaking. Cultivation of the fruit q...

96

Chemistry with a Peel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

1997-01-01

97

Obtaining and storage of ready-to-use segments from traditional orange obtained by enzymatic peeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to optimize all parameters implied in the process of obtaining orange segments as minimally processed product by enzymatic peeling, from the method of segment obtaining to the storage conditions, and also to evaluate two films with different permeability. Enzymatic peeling was carried out by fruit infusion under vacuum conditions in a commercial preparation of

P. Sanchez-Bel; I. Egea; M. Serrano; A. Romojaro; M. T. Pretel

2012-01-01

98

CHANGES IN ENZYME-ASSISTED PEELING EFFICIENCY AND QUALITY OF FRESH ‘VALENCIA’ ORANGE AND OF STORED ‘VALENCIA’ ORANGE AND ‘RUBY RED’ GRAPEFRUIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Valencia’ oranges were harvested at three-week intervals, beginning on February 11 and ending on June 17, 2002. Fruit were peeled after infusion with 0.25% to 0.50% Peelzyme using an automated citrus peeling machine developed by the Florida Department of Citrus. Greater than 50% peeling efficienc...

99

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using renewable Punica granatum juice and study of its catalytic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Punica granatum juice, a delicious multivitamin drink of great medicinal significance, is rich in different types of phytochemicals, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, sterols, polyphenols, sugars, fatty acids, aromatic compounds, amino acids, tocopherols, etc. We have demonstrated the use of the juice for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the AuNPs was complete in few minutes and no extra stabilizing or capping agents were necessary. The size of the nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the fruit extract. The AuNPs were characterized by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Catalytic activity of the synthesized colloidal AuNPs has also been demonstrated.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal

2014-01-01

100

Ethylene and Acetylene-Induced Degreening on the Composition of Kagzi Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) Peel Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peel oil from mature (dark green), ripe (full yellow) and degreened ‘kagzi’ lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) fruit was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography for the aroma composition. Degreening did not affect the peel oil content to any great extent. However, it affected the oil composition. The relative amounts of the major compounds—namely limonene, ?-pinene and ?-terpinene—were found to be

Y. Selvaraj; G. Venkateshwarlu; K. S. Shivashankara; T. K. Roy

2004-01-01

101

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients: 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 1/2 pound grapes, seedless 2 bananas 1 3/4 cups skim milk 4 ounces instant pudding mix, lemon flavored Directions 1. Open can to bowl. 3. Wash and peel bananas, and slice. Add to bowl. Set aside. 4. In separate bowl, pour lemon

Liskiewicz, Maciej

102

Huanglongbing disease impacts on volatile profiles of peel oil in 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' oranges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange fruit and juice from Huanglongbing (HLB) affected trees have been reported to be off-flavored, and this is the first report on volatile components of citrus peel oil affected by HLB disease. ‘Valencia’ oranges were harvested from commercial groves in South Florida. Fruit samples (26), each ob...

103

Phragmalin-type limonoids from the mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Five new phragmalin-type limonoids, xyloccensins Q-U (1-5), along with xyloccensin P were isolated from the stem bark of the mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as IR and MS spectroscopic data analyses. PMID:16084539

Cui, Jianxin; Deng, Zhiwei; Li, Jun; Fu, Hongzheng; Proksch, Peter; Lin, Wenhan

2005-10-01

104

Component tissues of different morphological types of tomato fruit and their qualitative and quantitative effects on quality of processed product  

E-print Network

Solids Acidity. Morphological Fruit Types. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 10 Raw Material 10 Processing Methods Evaluation of Fruit Areas. 10 13 Color. 13 Whole fruit color evaluations. 13 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT' D) Page Peel color evaluation. 13... of the tomatoes were dissected into four tissue parts: peel, outer~all, cross~all and core, and locular contents. The nitrogen peeling process described by Brown et al. (1970) was used to remove the tomato skin. The various components were placed...

Wagner, Alfred Bernhart

1972-01-01

105

Flavonoid profiles of immature and mature fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck (Dangyuja) and overall contribution to the antioxidant effect.  

PubMed

Citrus fruits are a valuable functional food and their peel is used in East Asian folk medicine. In this study, the polar components of the fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared with reported data. Among the 13 characterized compounds, eight flavonoids and one coumarin were identified for the first time in fruit tissues. The total amount of the identified components was the largest for the immature fruit peel, followed by mature fruit peel, mature fruit flesh, and immature fruit flesh. Naringin (2) and neohesperidin (3) were particularly rich in all samples. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids extracted from fruit tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of the fruit peels was significantly higher than that of the fruit flesh. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25201434

Yu, Eun Ae; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Semin; Yi, Song; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

2015-04-01

106

Edible Coatings for Fresh-Cut Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and\\/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have

G. I. Olivas; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2005-01-01

107

Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum possess antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in experimental rodent host.  

PubMed

The present study is aimed to evaluate antifilarial activity of Xylocarpus granatum (fruit from Andaman) against human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in vivo. The in vitro antifilarial activity has already been reported earlier for this mangrove plant which has traditionally been used against several ailments. Aqueous ethanolic crude extract, four fractions (ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction, water-soluble fraction and water-insoluble fraction) and pure molecule/s of X. granatum (fruit) were tested in vitro on adult worms and microfilariae (mf) of B. malayi and the active samples were further evaluated in vivo in B. malayi (intraperitoneally) i.p. transplanted in the jird model (Meriones unguiculatus) and Mastomys coucha subcutaneously infected with infective larvae (L3). The crude aqueous ethanolic extract was active in vitro (IC50: adult = 15.46 ?g/ml; mf = 13.17 ?g/ml) and demonstrated 52.8% and 62.7% adulticidal and embryostatic effect on B. malayi, respectively, in Mastomys at a dose of 5 × 50 mg/kg by oral route. The antifilarial activity was primarily localized in the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction which revealed IC50 of 8.5 and 6.9 ?g/ml in adult and mf, respectively. This fraction possessed moderate adulticidal and embryostatic action in vivo in Mastomys. Out of eight pure molecules isolated from the active fraction, two compounds gedunin (IC50 = 0.239 ?g/ml, CC50 = 212.5 ?g/ml, SI = 889.1) and photogedunin (IC50 = 0.213 ?g/ml, CC50 = 262.3 ?g/ml, SI = 1231.4) at 5 × 100 mg/kg by subcutaneous route revealed excellent adulticidal efficacy resulting in to the death of 80% and 70% transplanted adult B. malayi in the peritoneal cavity of jirds respectively in addition to noticeable microfilaricidalo action on the day of autopsy. The findings reveal that the extract from the fruit X. granatum contains promising in vitro and in vivo antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarial parasite B. malayi which could be attributed to the presence of two pure compounds gedunin and photogedunin. PMID:21523424

Misra, Sweta; Verma, Meenakshi; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Shishir; Lakshmi, Vijai; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

2011-11-01

108

Continuous peeling extrusion of SEBS block copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During continuous peeling, a central polymer rod free of visible defects was continuously extruded while being peeled at the die exit. Continuous peeling can occur at flow rates orders of magnitude higher than those at which initial surface cracking is observed. Thus, if continuous peeling can be controlled it may have potential industrial applications. The aim of this work was

J.-M. Piau; E. Santanach Carreras; D. Suárez Dabó

2007-01-01

109

Factors limiting the intertidal distribution of the mangrove species Xylocarpus granatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tree species Xylocarpus granatum is commonly described as occurring in the upper intertidal zone of mangrove forests, but mature trees are occasionally found at lower elevations. In the Utwe River basin, on the Pacific island of Kosrae, we investigated the relative importance of several biotic and abiotic factors that may control the intertidal distribution of X. granatum. Factors we

James A. Allen; Ken W. Krauss; Robert D. Hauff

2003-01-01

110

Fresh Fruits: Getting the Most Nutrition for Your Money  

E-print Network

variety on the variety of pear. dull color. Pineapples Peak season is Vitamin C Ripe pineapples have a Avoid pineapples with a March to June. yellow color with a good sunken peel,dull yellow aroma.They are firm and color or dried look. Avoid heavy... peeled fruits or fruit juices. Shop Smart! A market full of a variety of fresh fruits makes it easy to shop and spend more than planned. To help keep your food budget in check when choosing fresh fruits, buy fresh fruits when they are in season...

Anding, Jenna

2000-05-05

111

Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum show significant anti-secretory effects and protect the gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, the gastroprotective mechanism of Xylocarpus granatum fruit and its active constituents gedunin and photogedunin was investigated. Chloroform fraction (Fr-CHCl(3)) of X. granatum fruit was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats and histamine (HA) induced duodenal ulcer model in guinea pigs. Potential anti-ulcer activity of Fr-CHCl(3) was observed against CRU (58.28%), AS (67.81%), AL (84.38%), PL (65.66%) and HA (61.93%) induced ulcer models. The standard drug omeprazole (10mg/kg, p.o.) showed 68.25% protection against CRU, 57.08% against AS and 69.42% against PL model and 70.79% against HA induced duodenal ulcer. Sucralfate, another standard drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 62.72% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Fr-CHCl(3) significantly reduced free acidity (51.42%), total acidity (30.76%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 58.37% respectively. Phytochemical investigations of Fr-CHCl(3) yielded gedunin (36%), photogedunin (2%). Further, Fr-CHCl(3) and its compounds gedunin and photogedunin significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC(50) of 89.37, 56.86 and 66.54 microg/ml respectively as compared to the IC(50) value of omeprazole (30.24 microg/ml) confirming their anti-secretory activity. Conclusively, Fr-CHCl(3) of Xylocarpus granatum was found to possess anti-ulcerogenic activity which might be due to its anti-secretory activity and subsequent strengthening of the defensive mechanism. This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-secretory effect of gedunin and photogedunin. Therefore it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease. PMID:19962286

Lakshmi, V; Singh, N; Shrivastva, S; Mishra, S K; Dharmani, P; Mishra, V; Palit, G

2010-07-01

112

Photoprotection mechanism in the 'Fuji' apple peel at different levels of photooxidative sunburn.  

PubMed

The xanthophyll cycle, flavonoid metabolism, the antioxidant system and the production of active oxygen species were analyzed in the peel of 'Fuji' apples re-exposed to sunlight after extended periods of fruit bagging treatment, resulting in different levels of photooxidative sunburn. After re-exposing bagged fruits to sunlight, the production of active oxygen species and the photoprotective capacity in apple peels were both significantly enhanced. As sunburn severity increased, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased, while xanthophyll cycle pool size decreased. For the key genes involved in flavonoid synthesis, expressions of MdMYB10 and MdPAL were upregulated, whereas the expressions of MdCHS, MdANS, MdFLS and MdUFGT were downregulated in sunburnt fruit peel. Correspondingly, concentrations of both quercetin-3-glycoside and cyanidin-3-galactoside decreased. Total ascorbate concentrations decreased as sunburn severity increased, with the decrease being faster for oxidized than for reduced ascorbate. Transcription levels of MdGMP, MdGME, MdGGP, MdGPP, MdGalDH and MdGalLDH, the genes involved in ascorbate synthesis, were similar in non-sunburnt and sunburnt fruit peels, whereas activities of l-galactose dehydrogenase and l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase decreased in severely sunburnt peel. Although activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase increased, the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase decreased as sunburn severity increased. In summary, the occurrence of photooxidative sunburn in 'Fuji' apple peel is closely associated with a relatively lower xanthophyll cycle pool size, reduced levels of ascorbate reduction and synthesis and reduced flavonoid synthesis. Our data are consistent with the idea that ascorbate plays a key role in protecting apple fruit from photooxidative sunburn. PMID:25185895

Zhang, Jiangli; Niu, Junping; Duan, Ying; Zhang, Mengxia; Liu, Jingying; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang

2015-05-01

113

EDIBLE COATINGS FOR LYCHEE FRUIT TO MAINTAIN COLOR IN STORAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bright red pericarp of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit quickly turns brown after harvest due to peel dehydration, anthocyanin degradation, and fungal growth on the fruit surface. Lychee fruit, cv. Mauricious and Brewster from Florida, and Hong Hauy and Juckapat from Thailand, were dipped ...

114

?-Tocomonoenol: A new vitamin E from kiwi ( Actinidia chinensis) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new vitamin E, ?-tocomonoenol, has been isolated from Actinidia chinensis (kiwi) fruits. The new structure, 2,8-dimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridec-11-enyl)chroman-6-ol, has been elucidated on the basis of EIMS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data. GC–MS analysis of peels and pulps of kiwi showed that the new compound, together with ?-tocopherol, is mainly present in the fruit peel, whilst ?-tocopherol is present in a

Antonio Fiorentino; Claudio Mastellone; Brigida D’Abrosca; Severina Pacifico; Monica Scognamiglio; Giuseppe Cefarelli; Romualdo Caputo; Pietro Monaco

2009-01-01

115

Chemical peels and combination therapies.  

PubMed

The topical application of acids is one of the most dependable and widely recognized methods of improving the overall health and appearance of the skin. The goal of a chemical peel is to regulate and enhance the cellular turnover process-a complex system that ultimately leads to the shedding of cornified cells. In addition to maintaining healthy cell turnover rates, each of the most commonly used topical acids provides ancillary benefits. Numerous studies have shown that all chemical peel solutions stimulate collagen and glycosaminoglycan production, regardless of depth of penetration (). Other modalities have also gained popularity and many of them may be successfully combined with chemical peels to create dramatic, visible results in the skin. By outlining a variety of chemoexfoliants, as well as some popular modalities, the clinician will gain a deeper understanding of the wide variety of combination therapies available for improving skin health. PMID:23727725

Linder, Jennifer

2013-01-01

116

Gibberellic acid (GA3) effects on late season grapefruit peel oil composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gibberellic acid (GA3) is commonly applied to citrus fruit in the late summer/early autumn to delay peel maturation and extend late season quality. The effect of August/September GA3 application on oil gland composition of "Marsh" white grapefruit harvested in March 18 and April 16 from three groves...

117

Chemical variability of peel and leaf essential oils of mandarins from Citrus reticulata Blanco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peel and leaf oils of 41 mandarin cultivars, belonging to the Citrus reticulata Blanco species, were obtained from fruits and leaves collected on mandarin trees submitted to the same pedoclimatic and cultural conditions. Their chemical composition was investigated by capillary GC, GC\\/MS and 13C NMR and the results were submitted to a cluster analysis and a discriminant analysis. Two major

Marie-Laure Lota; Dominique de Rocca Serra; Félix Tomi; Joseph Casanova

2000-01-01

118

Stress Distribution during Peeling of Adhesive Tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of stress distribution observed during the peeling of pressure sensitive tapes is not adequately described by existing theoretical analyses of peel, which make over-simplifying assumptions. In particular, the consequence of filamentation or “legging” in the peeling zone is neglected by the theories. In the present work an attempt is made to assess the effect of filamentation by analysis

F. Niesiolowski; D. W. Aubrey

1981-01-01

119

Peeling Back the Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols.

Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed.

Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers.

The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior.

The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of some of the rock abrasion tool and science team members.

2004-01-01

120

Pharmacological activity of compounds extracted from persimmon peel (Diospyros kaki THUNB.).  

PubMed

Persimmon peels (Diospyros kaki THUNB.) are discarded during the production of dried fruit. The 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (8) which is component of persimmon peel had high antioxidant activity on the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay and SOD (superoxide dismutase) assay. And (8) had higher tyrosinase inhibiting activity than that of arbutin using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. In addition, tyrosinase inhibiting activity of synthesized 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol glycoside (8a) was studied. (8a) had tyrosinase inhibiting activity, suggesting that (8a) has possibilities for ingredient of cosmetics that are possessed of whitening effect. PMID:19282644

Fukai, Satomi; Tanimoto, Shinichi; Maeda, Aki; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okada, Yoshiharu; Nomura, Masato

2009-01-01

121

Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.  

PubMed

The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape. PMID:25363615

Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

2014-12-28

122

Inhibition of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins from defatted Canarium odontophyllum pericarp and peel using in vitro bioassays.  

PubMed

Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD(+) and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

2014-01-01

123

Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays  

PubMed Central

Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

2014-01-01

124

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PEEL OF AMORPHOPHALLUS PAEONIIFOLIUS  

E-print Network

The present study aims qualitative screening of the phytochemicals present in the peel of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Jimikand / Suran) for its utilization as a potential therapeutic. The peel extract was prepared by dissolving dried peel powder in solvents like water, methanol, petroleum ether, and chloroform and concentrated using a rotary vacuum evaporator. The standard qualitative test for each of the peel solvent extracts was performed, which indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, carbohydrates and fat in the peel. Total phenolic content was found better in methanolic and chloroform extracts than other aqueous and petroleum ether extract. The present study summarizes Amorphophallus peels utilization and verification of bioactive ingredients that include important constituents for pharmacological activity.

Anuradha Singh; Kshitiz C. Srivastava; Anwesa Banerjee; Neeraj Wadhwa

125

Limonoids from the seeds of the marine mangrove Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Five new limonoids, granaxylocarpins A-E (1-5), were isolated from the seeds of the Chinese marine mangrove Xylocarpus granatum. Granaxylocarpins A (1) and B (2) are mexicanolide-type limonoids with a 9,10-seco skeleton, and granaxylocarpin C (3) possesses an 8alpha,30alpha-epoxy ring and a rare 1,29-oxygen bridge. The structures of these limonoids were characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis performed on 4. The structure of xyloccensin U (4a) was revised as 4b by comparison with granaxylocarpin D (4). The cytotoxicity of these isolates was evaluated against the P-388 and A-549 tumor cell lines. PMID:17323995

Yin, Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Fan, Cheng-Qi; Lin, Li-Ping; Ding, Jian; Yue, Jian-Min

2007-04-01

126

Bioactive compounds from the seeds of Punica granatum (pomegranate).  

PubMed

Two new compounds, coniferyl 9-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->6)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and sinapyl 9-O-[beta-d-apiofuranosyl(1-->6)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated from the seeds of Punica granatum (pomegranate), together with five known compounds, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (4), phenethyl rutinoside, icariside D1, and daucosterol. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 1-4 exhibited antioxidant activity, which was evaluated by measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) susceptibility to oxidation and by determination in vitro of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the rat brain. PMID:15620261

Wang, Ru-Feng; Xie, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Zhang; Xing, Dong-Ming; Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Ma, Chao; Du, Li-Jun

2004-12-01

127

Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Results Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. Conclusion The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases. PMID:24884677

2014-01-01

128

Evaluation of the reasons why freshly appearing citrus peel fluorescence during automatic inspection by fluorescent imaging technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defective unshu oranges (Citrus reticulate Blanco var. unshu) were sorted based on fluorescent imaging technique in a commercial packinghouse but fresh appearing unshu were rejected due to fluorescence appearing on their peel. We studied the various visible patterns based on colour, fluorescence and microscopic images, where even areas of the peel that are not obviously damaged can have fluorescence, to provide a categorization of fluorescence reasons. The categorization corresponded to: 1) hole and flow; 2) influenced by damaged or rotten fruits that have released peel oil onto it; 3) immature or poor peel quality; 4) whitish fluorescence due to agro-chemicals and 5) variation of the growing season. The identification of such patterns of fluorescence might be useful for citrus grading industry to take some initiatives to make the entire automated system more efficient.

Momin, Md. Abdul; Kondo, Naoshi; Kuramoto, Makoto; Ogawa, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Shiigi, Tomoo; Ninomiya, Kazunori

2011-07-01

129

Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

2008-01-01

130

EDIBLE COATINGS AND OTHER SURFACE TREATMENTS TO MAINTAIN COLOR OF LYCHEE FRUIT IN STORAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bright red pericarp of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit quickly turns brown after harvest due to peel dehydration, anthocyanin degradation, and fungal growth on the fruit surface. Lychee fruit, cv. ‘Brewster’ and ‘Mauritius’ in Florida, and ‘Juckapat’ in Thailand, were dipped in acidic tre...

131

Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes  

SciTech Connect

This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

1980-06-01

132

Antiangiogenic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Citrus Reticulata Peel In The Chorio Allantoic Membrane (CAM) Induced by bFGF  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the characteristic of cancer is new blood vessels formation or angiogenesis. Angiogenesis supplies oxygen and nutrition for cancer cells in order to fulfill their needs to keep growing. So, blockade of angiogenesis is a promising strategy to suppress tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Tangeretin and nobiletin which concentrated in the peel of citrus fruit are widely known has

Edison Chrisnanto; M. N. Abdi Sahid; Diah Setyaningtias; Edy Meiyanto

2008-01-01

133

Development of a kolanut peeling device.  

PubMed

A kolanut peeling machine was designed, constructed and evaluated for the postharvest processing of the seed. The peeling machine consists of a standing frame, peeling unit and hopper. The peeling unit consists of a special paddle, which mixes the kolanut, rubs them against one another and against the wall of the barrel and also conveys the kolanut to the outlet. The performance of the kolanut peeling machine was evaluated for its peeling efficiency at different moisture content (53.0, 57.6, 61.4 % w.b.) and speeds of operation of the machine. The result of the analysis of variance shows that the main factors and their interaction had significant effects (p?peeling efficiency of the machine. The result also shows that the peeling efficiency of the machine increased as the moisture content increase and decreased with increase in machine speed. The highest efficiency of the machine was 60.3 % at a moisture content of 61.4 % w.b. and speed of 40 rpm. PMID:25328224

Kareem, I; Owolarafe, O K; Ajayi, O A

2014-10-01

134

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS SINENSIS PEEL  

E-print Network

Citrus Sinensis peel was screened for its phytochemical composition. The aqueous as well as the ethanoic extracts of the peel revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, fixed oils and lipids, sugars, proteins, terpenoids, steroids, and amino acids whereas the saponins are present only in the ethanolic extract.

Pankaja S. Chede; Kiran Nagar; Amravati M. S

135

Microbial production of pectin from citrus peel.  

PubMed

A new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. For this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of Trichosporon penicillatum. The most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30 degrees C. During the fermentation, the pectin in the peel was extracted almost completely without macerating the peel. By this method, 20 to 25 g of pectin was obtained per kg of peel. The pectin obtained was special in that it contained neutral sugar at high levels, which was determined to have a molecular weight suitable for practical applications. PMID:16345556

Sakai, T; Okushima, M

1980-04-01

136

Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.  

PubMed

The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus. PMID:25237738

Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia del Valle; Vera, Teresa

2014-10-15

137

Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in tomato peel, seeds, and byproducts.  

PubMed

The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-?-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds. PMID:24792924

Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

2014-06-11

138

Pathogen-produced ethylene and the Colletotrichum musae -banana fruit pathosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colletotrichum musae isolate CM100 is capable of producing ethylene in vitro on methionine-supplemented basal medium. This isolate also produced ethylene on peel extracts of banana fruit that contained\\u000a methionine at 0.31–0.42 ?mol\\/g fresh weight. Ethylene production rates by fresh banana peel strip explants and by whole fruit\\u000a were not significantly increased after C. musae infection compared with non-infected control tissues.

W. A. M. Daundasekera; D. C. Joyce; N. K. B. Adikaram; L. A. Terry

2008-01-01

139

Changes in the Peel Oil Composition of Kagzi Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) during Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peel oil of Kagzi lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) was isolated by hydrodistillation at six ripening stages and analyzed by GC. Nineteen components were identified and some important aroma components were observed at higher concentrations than normally reported such as neral and geranial (7.8%), geraniol (7.3%) and citronellol (1.2%), particularly in green fruits. A decrease in oxygenated monoterpenes and an

G. Venkateshwarlu; Y. Selvaraj

2000-01-01

140

Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract.  

PubMed

The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250?mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid. PMID:23774607

Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana

2014-09-01

141

An aqueous pomegranate peel extract inhibits neutrophil myeloperoxidase in vitro and attenuates lung inflammation in mice.  

PubMed

Punica granatum peel aqueous extract (PGE) is widely used to treat disorders such as inflammation, ulcers and infections, but its pharmacological target is not known. In this study we investigated the effect of PGE on human neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vitro and on LPS-induced lung inflammation in vivo in mice. Neutrophils were isolated and ROS generation was measured by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. Superoxide anion generation was detected by the cytochrome c reduction assay. H(2)O(2) was detected by DCFH fluorescence assay. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured by the tetramethyl benzidine oxidation method. Lung inflammation was induced in mice by LPS instillation. PGE inhibited luminol-amplified chemiluminescence of resting neutrophils and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF)- or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated neutrophils, in a concentration-dependent manner. PGE had no effect on superoxide anion generation, suggesting that it does not directly inhibit NADPH oxidase activity or activation pathways, or scavenge superoxide anions. PGE did not scavenge H(2)O(2) but directly inhibited myeloperoxidase activity in vitro. In vivo studies showed that PGE also attenuated LPS-induced lung inflammation in mice. So this study reveals that PGE inhibits neutrophil MPO activity and attenuates LPS-induced lung inflammation in mice. Inhibition of MPO activity by PGE could explain its anti-inflammatory action. PMID:21376769

Bachoual, Rafik; Talmoudi, Wifak; Boussetta, Tarek; Braut, Françoise; El-Benna, Jamel

2011-06-01

142

Adhesive Joint Durability Assessed Using Open-faced Peel Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation of the durability of two aluminum-epoxy adhesive systems by means of open-faced peel specimens. A peel analysis model was used to determine the fracture energy from the peel data. Both wet and dry peel tests were conducted in order to distinguish between the reversible and the permanent effects of water. The effects of water on

Abduljaleel K. Moidu; Anthony N. Sinclair; Jan K. Spelt

1998-01-01

143

Prestorage ultraviolet-white light irradiation alters apple peel metabolome.  

PubMed

Global metabolic profiling of 'Granny Smith' apple peel was employed for evaluating metabolomic alterations resulting from prestorage UV-white light irradiation. Apples were bagged midseason to restrict sunlight, harvested at the preclimacteric stage prior to bag removal, treated with fluorescent UV-white light for 0-48.5 h, and stored for 6 months at 0 degrees C. Trimethylsilyl (oxime) derivatized or underivatized aliquots of methanolic extracts from peel samples collected immediately after irradiation or following cold storage were evaluated using GC-MS and LC-UV/vis-MS, respectively. The profile, including more than 200 components, 78 of which were identified, revealed changes in the metabolome provoked by UV-white light irradiation and cold storage. Analyses of individual components selected using principal component analysis (PCA) models showed distinct temporal changes, before and after cold storage, related to prestorage irradiation in a diverse set of primary and secondary metabolic pathways. The results demonstrate metabolic pathways associated with ethylene synthesis, acid metabolism, flavonoid pigment synthesis, and fruit texture, are altered by prestorage irradiation, and many of the alterations are detectable after 6 months of cold storage in air. PMID:18167073

Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Curry, Eric A

2008-02-13

144

Effects of bagging on volatiles and polyphenols in "Wanmi" peaches during endocarp hardening and final fruit rapid growth stages.  

PubMed

Fruits of the late-ripening peach cultivar "Wanmi" were bagged at the early period of fruit endocarp hardening, and the bags were removed 1 wk before maturity harvest. The effects of bagging on volatile compounds and polyphenols were studied. Total volatiles and the sum of C(6) compounds, esters from bagged fruits were significantly lower than from nonbagged fruits from the beginning of the final rapid fruit growth stage to maturity. As the most dominant compounds of C(6) compounds and esters, the lower contents of hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, hexyl acetate, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, and trans-2-hexenyl acetate attributed to the lower content of C(6) compounds and esters in bagged fruit. ?-Hexalactone and ?-decalactone were produced earlier in bagged fruits than in nonbagged ones, suggesting that bagging accelerates fruit maturity. Level of ?-decalactone in bagged fruits was significantly lower than in nonbagged fruits at 159 days after full blossom (DAFB), so did ?-decalactone at 166 DAFB. Bagging did not affect chlorogenic acid and catechol contents of either fruit peel or flesh, nor did it affect contents of keracyanin or quercetin-3-rutinoside in fruit flesh during fruit development. However, keracyanin and quercetin-3-rutinoside levels were significantly reduced in bagged fruit peels before ripening compared to nonbagged fruit peels. Considering the large changes in volatiles and polyphenols, the key stage for "Wanmi" fruit maturity was between 126 DAFB and 147 DAFB, about 1 mo ahead of maturity. PMID:21535618

Wang, Yiju; Yang, Chunxiang; Liu, Chunyan; Xu, Man; Li, Shaohua; Yang, Liu; Wang, Younian

2010-01-01

145

Genetics Home Reference: Acral peeling skin syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... skin disorders, the condition is likely underdiagnosed. What genes are related to acral peeling skin syndrome? Acral ... syndrome is caused by mutations in the TGM5 gene. This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme ...

146

Xyloccensins O and P, unique 8,9,30-phragmalin ortho esters from Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Two unique 8,9,30-phragmalin ortho esters, xyloccensins O (1) and P (2), were isolated from the mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum. They are a new type of ortho ester of phragmalin. The structures were determined by spectroscopic and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The biogenetic pathway to these new phragmalins was also proposed. [structure: see text] PMID:15151428

Wu, Jun; Xiao, Qiang; Huang, Jianshe; Xiao, Zhihui; Qi, Shuhua; Li, Qingxin; Zhang, Si

2004-05-27

147

Protoxylocarpins F-H, protolimonoids from seed kernels of Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Three new protolimonoids, protoxylocarpins F-H (1-3), along with 11 known limonoids, were isolated from seed kernels of Xylocarpus granatum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analyses. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against five human tumor cell lines. PMID:19908853

Pudhom, Khanitha; Sommit, Damrong; Nuclear, Paulwatt; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Petsom, Amorn

2009-12-01

148

Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple wastes studied at various HRTs showed a higher rate of gas production at lower retention time. The lowest possible HRT for banana peel was 25 days, resulting in a maximum rate of gas production of 0.76 vol\\/vol\\/day with 36% substrate utilization, while pineapple-processing waste digesters could be operated at 10 days HRT, with a

Nirmala Bardiya; Deepak Somayaji; Sunil Khanna

1996-01-01

149

Factors limiting the intertidal distribution of the mangrove species Xylocarpus granatum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tree species Xylocarpus granatum is commonly described as occurring in the upper intertidal zone of mangrove forests, but mature trees are occasionally found at lower elevations. In the Utwe River basin, on the Pacific island of Kosrae, we investigated the relative importance of several biotic and abiotic factors that may control the intertidal distribution of X. granatum. Factors we evaluated included differential seed predation across the lower, mid, and upper intertidal zones and seedling responses to salinity, tidal flooding, and shade. Seed predation was 22.4% over the first 34 days and varied little among zones or in gaps versus under the forest canopy. By day 161, there were still no differences in seed mortality, but a significant difference was found in seedling establishment, with much greater establishment in the upper intertidal plots. X. granatum seedlings in a greenhouse experiment exhibited greater growth in freshwater than seedlings in 23 ppt salinity, which is typical of salinity levels found in the mid intertidal zone in our field study sites in Micronesia, where mature X. granatum trees are generally absent. Seedlings grown in 23 ppt salinity, however, exhibited few visible signs of stress associated with patterns in growth. Seedlings grown in a simulated tidal flooding treatment (with 23 ppt salinity) also showed few signs of stress. Growth declined dramatically under 80% shade cloths, but there were few interactions of shading with either 23 ppt salinity or simulated tidal flooding. Differential seed predation is not likely to be the primary factor responsible for the intertidal distribution of X. granatum on Kosrae. However, seedling tolerance of flooding or salinity may be more important, especially relative to a potential contribution to secondary stress mortality. Other factors may ultimately prove to be more critical, such as physiological effects of salinity on seed germination, effects of tides on seed dispersal and rooting, or differential herbivory on seedlings.

Allen, J.A.; Krauss, K.W.; Hauff, R.D.

2003-01-01

150

Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L.) on blood glucose and ?-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas ?-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV) injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ). Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for ?-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS) and HbA1c, and decrease of ?-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The ?-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract. PMID:25653767

Javidanpour, Somaye; Fatemi Tabtabaei, Seyed Reza; Siahpoosh, Amir; Morovati, Hasan; Shahriari, Ali

2012-01-01

151

Triterpene acids from apple peel inhibit lepidopteran larval midgut lipases and larval growth.  

PubMed

Fruit extracts from apple, kiwifruit, feijoa, boysenberry, and blueberry were screened for the presence of lipase inhibitory compounds against lepidopteran larval midgut crude extracts. From 120 extracts, six showed significant inhibition with an extract from the peel of Malus × domestica cv. "Big Red" showing highest levels of inhibition. Because this sample was the only apple peel sample in the initial screen, a survey of peels from seven apple cultivars was undertaken and showed that, despite considerable variation, all had inhibitory activity. Successive solvent fractionation and LC-MS of cv. "Big Red" apple peel extract identified triterpene acids as the most important inhibitory compounds, of which ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were the major components and oxo- and hydroxyl-triterpene acids were minor components. When ursolic acid was incorporated into artificial diet and fed to Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera) larvae at 0.16% w/v, a significant decrease in larval weight was observed after 21 days. This concentration of ursolic acid is less than half the concentration reported in the skin of some apple cultivars. PMID:24753088

Christeller, John T; McGhie, Tony K; Poulton, Joanne; Markwick, Ngaire P

2014-07-01

152

Chlorophyll Catabolism in Senescing Plant Tissues: In vivo Breakdown Intermediates Suggest Different Degradative Pathways for Citrus Fruit and Parsley Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to separate chlorophyll derivatives in acetone extracts from senescing Citrus fruit peel, autumnal Melia azedarach L. leaves, and dark-held detached parsley (Petroselinum sativum L.) leaves. Chlorophyllide a and another polar, dephytylated derivative accumulated in large amounts in senescing Citrus peel, particularly in fruit treated with ethylene. Ethylene also induced a 4-fold increase in the specific

Dekel Amir-Shapira; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt; Arie Altman

1987-01-01

153

Assessing the Biosynthetic Capabilities of Secretory Glands in Citrus Peel1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cells (ECs) lining the secretory cavities of Citrus peel have been hypothesized to be responsible for the synthesis of essential oil, but direct evidence for such a role is currently sparse. We used laser-capture microdissection and pressure catapulting to isolate ECs and parenchyma cells (as controls not synthesizing oil) from the peel of young grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi ‘Duncan’), isolated RNA, and evaluated transcript patterns based on oligonucleotide microarrays. A Gene Ontology analysis of these data sets indicated an enrichment of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile terpenoids and nonvolatile phenylpropanoids in ECs (when compared with parenchyma cells), thus indicating a significant metabolic specialization in this cell type. The gene expression patterns in ECs were consistent with the accumulation of the major essential oil constituents (monoterpenes, prenylated coumarins, and polymethoxylated flavonoids). Morphometric analyses demonstrated that secretory cavities are formed early during fruit development, whereas the expansion of cavities, and thus oil accumulation, correlates with later stages of fruit expansion. Our studies have laid the methodological and experimental groundwork for a vastly improved knowledge of the as yet poorly understood processes controlling essential oil biosynthesis in Citrus peel. PMID:22452856

Voo, Siau Sie; Grimes, Howard D.; Lange, B. Markus

2012-01-01

154

Spontaneous ultra fast synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Punica granatum for cancer targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

Rapid synthesis of mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles through economically feasible green chemistry approach is highly desirable. In this study, we have developed a method to synthesize mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles (PAuNPs) by mixing gold solution with fruit peel extract of Punica granutum without using any surfactant or external energy. In this method, physiologically stable, biocompatible PAuNPs were formed within 60s. Casein, being a biocompatible polymer, is used to couple the prepared PAuNPs for functionalization of folic acid, which is highly expressed in cancer cells. These functionalized PAuNPs could be used for targeted drug delivery for cancer with enhanced therapeutic efficacy and minimal side effects. PAuNPs were characterized by UV, IR, TEM, Particle size analyzer and zeta potential measurement. In vitro stability of the PAuNPs was also analyzed. Hemocompatibility of PAuNPs was evaluated in human blood samples and found that the particles were hemocompatible. The toxicity of the PAuNPs, 5-Fu and 5Fu@PAuNPs was analyzed in zebrafish embryos. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free 5-Fu, 5Fu@PAuNPs-Fa was investigated against MCF-7 cells (breast cancer) and observed that the amount of 5-Fu required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (Ic50) was much lower when compared to free 5-Fu. PMID:23434714

Ganeshkumar, Moorthy; Sathishkumar, Muniram; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Dinesh, Murugan Girija; Suguna, Lonchin

2013-06-01

155

Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.).

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi; Yukitoshi Tanaka

2004-01-01

156

Studies on the development of functional powder from citrus peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of citrus peels, generated as a by-product of the juice industry, as a source of antioxidants was investigated. Citrus peel powder was prepared by lyophilizing 70% ethanol extract from citrus peels. Extraction was carried out at room temperature (20°C) for 72h. The extract was subjected to gamma-irradiation treatment (20kGy). The aqueous solutions of citrus peel powder were examined

H. J. Kang; S. P. Chawla; C. Jo; J. H. Kwon; M. W. Byun

2006-01-01

157

Polyribosomes from Pear Fruit  

PubMed Central

Polysome profiles were examined from lyophilized peel tissue of ripening pear (Pyrus communis, L. var. Passe-Crassane). Messenger RNA chains bearing up to eight ribosomes (octamers) were resolved and exhibited the highest absorption peak when ribonuclease activity was eliminated during extraction. Neither normal ripening nor the increase of large polyribosomes that normally accompanies ripening and senescence of the fruit occurred when pretreatment at 0 C was omitted. Normal ripening and increase of large polyribosomes would, however, be initiated by an ethylene treatment. The size distribution of the polyribosomes remained essentially constant throughout a 4-month cold storage; there was, however, a large increase in ribosomes by the 12th week of storage. PMID:16661101

Drouet, Alain; Hartmann, Claude

1979-01-01

158

Evaluating the potential role of pomegranate peel in aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in brain of female rats.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that pomegranate, Punica granatum Linn. (Lythraceae), has remarkable biological and medicinal properties. However, the effects of pomegranate peel methanolic extract (PPME) on the aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological change have not been reported yet. To determine the effect of PPME (200 mg/kg bwt) on the aluminum chloride (AlCl?; 34 mg/kg bwt)-induced neurotoxicity, aluminum accumulation in brain and oxidant/antioxidant status were determined. The change of brain structure was investigated with hematoxylin and eosin, and anti-apoptosis effects of PPME were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The present study showed an indication of carcinogenicity in the AlCl?-treated group representing an increase in tissue tumor markers such as tumor necrosis factor-? and angiogenin and inflammation by inducing an increase in prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2?. PPME protected brain through decreasing the aluminum accumulation and stimulating antioxidant activities and anti-apoptotic proteins namely Bcl-2. Therefore, these results indicated that pomegranate peel methanolic extract could inhibit aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alternations in brain of female rats, and these effects may be related to anti-apoptotic and antioxidants activities. PMID:22945624

Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

2012-12-01

159

Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

160

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practice, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability would be greatly improved if peel could be used to produce higher value produ...

161

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3-4 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practices, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability could be greatly improved if this amount of peel can be used to produce high...

162

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practice, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability would be greatly improved if peels could be used to produce higher value produ...

163

The Peeling Behavior of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives from Uncoated Papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a tape based on pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) is peeled from paper, either the tape comes off leaving a clean paper surface or the paper undergoes catastrophic cohesive failure which is the delamination of fiber layers in the paper sheet. The objectives of this work were to determine the links between paper properties and peel characteristics. Peel tests and

Robert Pelton; Wei Chen; Hong Li; Michael R. Engel

2001-01-01

164

The Simulation of Paint Cracking and Peeling Eric Paquette  

E-print Network

The Simulation of Paint Cracking and Peeling Eric Paquette D´ep. I.R.O., Universit´e de Montr of time results in cracking and peeling of layers such as paint. To include these ef- fects in computer of paint peeling. We present a new approach which computes such a simulation on surfaces. Our simulation

Boyer, Edmond

165

Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate ( Punica granatum ) for human breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh organically grown pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) of the Wonderful cultivar were processed into three components: fermented juice, aqueous pericarp extract and cold-pressed or supercritical CO2-extracted seed oil. Exposure to additional solvents yielded polyphenol-rich fractions (‘polyphenols’) from each of the three components. Their actions, and of the crude whole oil and crude fermented and unfermented juice concentrate, were assessed in

Nam Deuk Kim; Rajendra Mehta; Weiping Yu; Ishak Neeman; Talia Livney; Akiva Amichay; Donald Poirier; Paul Nicholls; Andrew Kirby; Wenguo Jiang; Robert Mansel; Cheppail Ramachandran; Thangaiyan Rabi; Boris Kaplan; Ephraim Lansky

2002-01-01

166

Xylomexicanins C and D, new mexicanolide-type limonoids from Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Two new limonoids, named xylomexicanins C and D, were isolated from a dichloromethane extract of the seeds of Xylocarpus granatum cultivated in Hainan, China, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR (including 1H, 13C-NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and confirmed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Xylomexicanin C exhibited antiproliferative activity against human breast carcinoma cells (KT). PMID:23563540

Wu, Yi-Bing; Ni, Zhi-Yu; Huo, Chang-Hong; Su, Jian; Dong, Mei; Sauriol, Françoise; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

2013-01-01

167

Characterization of a Potential Nutraceutical Ingredient: Pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil Unsaponifiable Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical fingerprinting of the unsaponifiable fraction of different Punica granatum seed oils was performed in order to evaluate their potential as a functional food ingredient. Qualitative and quantitative\\u000a determinations of tocopherol, aliphatic alcohol (including policosanol), squalene, phytosterols and triterpene contents were\\u000a performed by GC-MS. A high yield (3.1–4.2%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained and consistent levels of squalene (up

Augusta Caligiani; Francesca Bonzanini; Gerardo Palla; Martina Cirlini; Renato Bruni

2010-01-01

168

Pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) Juice Supplementation Attenuates Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Necrosis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-supplementation with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) on heart weight, infarct size, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic\\u000a and non-enzymatic antioxidants, cardiac ATPases and histopathology of isoproterenol (IP)-induced cardiac necrosis (CN) in\\u000a rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg\\/kg, s.c.) for 2 days at an

Ravirajsinh N. Jadeja; Menaka C. Thounaojam; Dipak K. Patel; Ranjitsinh V. Devkar; A. V. Ramachandran

2010-01-01

169

Punica Granatum Juice Effects on Oxidative Stress in Severe Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate Punica granatum juice effects on oxidative stress in young healthy males during severe physical activity. Methods: Our subjects were selected from healthy males at 18 - 24 years. They were enrolled and randomly distributed into control and supplemented groups. 240 ml of Punica granatum juice and tap water were given to supplement and control groups daily for two weeks, respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken at the starting and the end of two weeks of intervention. Subjects were given once severe physical activity and then fasting blood samples were taken. Fasting blood samples were used for testing of oxidative and antioxidative factors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests, paired samples t-test, and independent samples t-test. Results: The levels of arylesterase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity after severe physical activity in supplement group were significantly increased (p<0.05), while the content of malondialdehyde showed a significantly decrease in comparison to control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that regular intake of Punica granatum juice significantly modulates oxidative stress and thus protects against severe physical activity oxidative injury in young healthy males.

Naghizadeh-Baghi, Abbas; Mazani, Mohammad; Shadman-Fard, Ali; Nemati, Ali

2015-01-01

170

Antioxidant assay-guided purification and LC determination of ellagic acid in pomegranate peel.  

PubMed

On the basis of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay-guided purification, ellagic acid was isolated from the methanol extract of pomegranate fruit peel by liquid-liquid extraction and chromatographic techniques. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was described for determination of ellagic acid in pomegranate fruit peel extract. The method involved the use of a TSK-gel ODS-80Tm column with a mixture of 2% aqueous acetic acid and methanol (gradient elution mode: 0-15 min, 40-60% v/v methanol and 15-20 min, 60% v/v methanol) as the mobile phase and detection at 254 nm. The parameters of linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy, and specificity of the method were evaluated. The recovery of the method was 98.5% and linearity (r(2) > 0.9995) was obtained for ellagic acid. A high degree of specificity as well as repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation values less than 5%) were also achieved. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.00 and 2.50 microg/mL, respectively. The solvent for extraction of ellagic acid from pomegranate fruit peel was examined in order to maximize the ellagic acid content of the extract. A solution of 10% v/v water in methanol was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content in the extract up to 7.66% w/w. The ellagic acid content and antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction separated from the crude extract using water and ethyl acetate partition was higher than that of the crude extract. PMID:20822660

Panichayupakarananta, Pharkphoom; Issuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak; Wang, Wei

2010-07-01

171

Ripening, storage temperature, ethylene action, and oxidative stress alter apple peel phytosterol metabolism.  

PubMed

The chilling conditions of apple cold storage can provoke an economically significant necrotic peel disorder called superficial scald (scald) in susceptible cultivars. Disorder development can be reduced by inhibiting ethylene action or oxidative stress as well as intermittent warming. It was previously demonstrated that scald is preceded by a metabolomic shift that results in altered levels of various classes of triterpenoids, including metabolites with mass spectral features similar to ?-sitosterol. In this study, a key class of phytosterol metabolites was identified. Changes in peel tissue levels of conjugates of ?-sitosterol and campesterol, including acylated steryl glycosides (ASG), steryl glycosides (SG) and steryl esters (SE), as well as free sterols (FS), were determined during the period of scald development. Responses to pre-storage treatment with the ethylene action inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene, or an antioxidant (diphenylamine), rapid temperature elevation, and cold acclimation using intermittent warming treatments were evaluated. Diphenylamine, 1-MCP, and intermittent warming all reduced or prevented scald development. ASG levels increased and SE levels decreased in untreated control fruit during storage. Removing fruit from cold storage to ambient temperature induced rapid shifts in ASG and SE fatty acyl moieties from unsaturated to saturated. FS and SG levels remained relatively stable during storage but SG levels increased following a temperature increase after storage. ASG, SE, and SG levels did not increase during 6 months cold storage in fruit subjected to intermittent warming treatment. Overall, the results show that apple peel phytosteryl conjugate metabolism is influenced by storage duration, oxidative stress, ethylene action/ripening, and storage temperature. PMID:21665233

Rudell, David R; Buchanan, David A; Leisso, Rachel S; Whitaker, Bruce D; Mattheis, James P; Zhu, Yanmin; Varanasi, Vijay

2011-08-01

172

Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

173

An Ap"peel"ing Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a hands-on mathematics activity wherein students peel oranges to explore the surface area and volume of a sphere. This activity encourages students to make conjectures and hold mathematical discussions with both their peers and their teacher. Moreover, students develop formulas for the surface area and volume of a sphere…

Urich, Joshua A.; Sasse, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

174

Pomegranate peel extract prevents liver fibrosis in biliary-obstructed rats.  

PubMed

Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) is a widely used plant that has high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic administration of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. PPE (50 mg kg(-1)) or saline was administered orally for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined to assess liver function and tissue damage. Proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1 beta) in the serum and antioxidant capacity (AOC) were measured in plasma samples. Samples of liver tissue were taken for measurement of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen content. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence assay. Serum AST, ALT, LDH and cytokines were elevated in the BDL group compared with the control group; this increase was significantly decreased by PPE treatment. Plasma AOC and hepatic GSH levels were significantly depressed by BDL but were increased back to control levels in the PPE-treated BDL group. Increases in tissue MDA levels and MPO activity due to BDL were reduced back to control levels by PPE treatment. Similarly, increased hepatic collagen content in the BDL rats was reduced to the level of the control group with PPE treatment. Thus, chronic PPE administration alleviated the BDL-induced oxidative injury of the liver and improved the hepatic structure and function. It therefore seems likely that PPE, with its antioxidant and antifibrotic properties, may be of potential therapeutic value in protecting the liver from fibrosis and oxidative injury due to biliary obstruction. PMID:17939210

Toklu, Hale Z; Dumlu, Melek U; Sehirli, Ozer; Ercan, Feriha; Gedik, Nursal; Gökmen, Vural; Sener, Goksel

2007-09-01

175

Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant  

PubMed Central

Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

2012-01-01

176

Chemical Peels for Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients  

PubMed Central

Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results. PMID:23378706

Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

2012-01-01

177

Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial  

PubMed Central

The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women. PMID:24133616

Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

2013-01-01

178

Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial.  

PubMed

The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women. PMID:24133616

Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea; Park, Eunju

2013-10-01

179

Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.  

PubMed

Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its climatic environment during growth could affect postharvest behaviour and quality. PMID:23267462

Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

2013-04-15

180

Gedunin, a limonoid from Xylocarpus granatum, inhibits the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell line in vitro.  

PubMed

Xylocarpus granatum J. König (Meliaceae), commonly known as 'dhundul', is a Bangladeshi mangrove tree, and well distributed in a number of other countries of south-east Asia, Australia and east Africa. Traditionally, X. granatum has been used as an astringent and febrifuge, and also for the treatment of fever, malaria, thrush, cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in many countries including Bangladesh. Two limonoids, gedunin and 1alpha-hydroxy-1,2-dihydrogedunin, the latter being new, have been isolated from the bark of Xylocarpus granatum by reversed-phase preparative HPLC, and the structures were confirmed by spectroscopic means. The cytotoxic potential of gedunin has been evaluated by the Promega's CellTiter 96 non-radioactive cell proliferation assay using the CaCo-2 colon cancer cell line (IC(50) = 16.83 microM). A summary of the biological activities of gedunin reported to date is also presented. PMID:17450509

Uddin, Shaikh J; Nahar, Lutfun; Shilpi, Jamil A; Shoeb, Mohammad; Borkowski, Tomasz; Gibbons, Simon; Middleton, Moira; Byres, Maureen; Sarker, Satyajit D

2007-08-01

181

Inhibition of AP-1 and neoplastic transformation by fresh apple peel extract.  

PubMed

Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a low incidence of cancers and other chronic diseases. Previous studies suggested that fresh apples inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Here we report that oral administration of apple peel extracts decreased the number of nonmalignant and malignant skin tumors per mouse induced by 12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated mouse skin. ESR analysis indicated that apple extract strongly scavenged hydroxyl (OH) and superoxide (O(2)(-)) radicals. Mechanistic studies showed that pretreatment with apple peel extract inhibited AP-1 transactivation induced by ultraviolet B irradiation or TPA in JB6 cells and AP-1-luciferase reporter transgenic mice. This inhibitory effect appears to be mediated by the inhibition of ERKs and JNK activity. The results provide the first evidence that an extract from fresh apple peel extract may inhibit tumor promoter-induced carcinogenesis and associated cell signaling, and suggest that the chemopreventive effects of fresh apple may be through its antioxidant properties by blocking reactive oxygen species-mediated AP-1-MAPK activation. PMID:14665633

Ding, Min; Lu, Yongju; Bowman, Linda; Huang, Chuanshu; Leonard, Stephen; Wang, Liying; Vallyathan, Val; Castranova, Vince; Shi, Xianglin

2004-03-12

182

Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.  

PubMed

Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh. PMID:25035992

Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

2014-01-01

183

Peel of an adhesive tape from a temperature-gradient surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peel force of a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) tape is measured on a surface that varied linearly in temperature. As the tape is peeled from the surface, the adhesive is peeled from the surface at a different temperature. Since the peel force varies with temperature, the measurement allows the temperature dependence of the peel force to be determined with

P. M. McGuiggan; A. Chiche; J. J. Filliben; D. J. Yarusso

2008-01-01

184

Fruit Flavor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...

185

Anticancer Activities of Citrus Peel Polymethoxyflavones Related to Angiogenesis and Others  

PubMed Central

Citrus is a kind of common fruit and contains multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Flavonoids, as a class of plant secondary metabolites, exist in citrus fruits abundantly. Due to their broad range of pharmacological properties, citrus flavonoids have gained increased attention. Accumulative in vitro and in vivo studies indicate protective effects of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) against the occurrence of cancer. PMFs inhibit carcinogenesis by mechanisms like blocking the metastasis cascade, inhibition of cancer cell mobility in circulatory systems, proapoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. This review systematically summarized anticarcinogenic effect of citrus flavonoids in cancer therapy, together with the underlying important molecular mechanisms, in purpose of further exploring more effective use of citrus peel flavonoids. PMID:25250322

Wang, Liwen; Wang, Jinhan; Fang, Lianying; Zheng, Zuliang; Zhi, Dexian; Wang, Suying; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhao, Hui

2014-01-01

186

Apparatus Tests Peeling Of Bonded Rubbery Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumented hydraulic constrained blister-peel apparatus obtains data on degree of bonding between specimen of rubbery material and rigid plate. Growth of blister tracked by video camera, digital clock, pressure transducer, and piston-displacement sensor. Cylinder pressure controlled by hydraulic actuator system. Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) and float provide second, independent measure of change in blister volume used as more precise volume feedback in low-growth-rate test.

Crook, Russell A.; Graham, Robert

1996-01-01

187

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.  

PubMed

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

2011-08-01

188

Hydrolysis of grapefruit peel waste with cellulase and pectinase enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 1 million metric tons of grapefruit were processed in the 2003\\/04 season resulting in 500,000 metric tons of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes and pH levels to hydrolyze grapefruit peel waste to produce sugars. Pectinase and cellulase

Mark R. Wilkins; Wilbur W. Widmer; Karel Grohmann; Randall G. Cameron

2007-01-01

189

Xylogranin B: a potent Wnt signal inhibitory limonoid from Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Xylogranin B (2) was isolated from Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae) leaves, by use of a cell-based luciferase screening system targeting a Wnt signaling pathway. Compound 2 inhibited TCF/?-catenin transcriptional activity (IC50 48.9 nM) and exhibited strong cytotoxicity against colon cancer cell lines. Compound 2 significantly decreased ?-catenin protein levels in nuclei but not in the cytosol. These results indicated that a decrease in ?-catenin levels in nuclei by 2 resulted in the Wnt signal inhibitory effects of 2. PMID:24255943

Toume, Kazufumi; Kamiya, Kentaro; Arai, Midori A; Mori, Naomi; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

2013-12-01

190

Absolute configurations of new limonoids from a Krishna mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Four new limonoids, named granatumins V-Y (1-4), belonging to the small group of limonoids with a C1-C29 oxygen bridge and a ?(8,30) double bond, were isolated from the seeds of an Indian mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum, collected in the swamp of Krishna estuary, Andhra Pradesh. The constitutions and absolute configurations of these compounds were established by extensive NMR investigations, single-crystal X-ray crystallography using Cu K? radiation, and by the comparison of circular dichroism spectrum. PMID:24525299

Chen, Wenping; Shen, Li; Li, Minyi; Xiao, Qiang; Satyanandamurty, Tirumani; Wu, Jun

2014-04-01

191

Key findings from Year 2 of Full-Day Early Learning Kindergarten in Peel  

E-print Network

learning environment, and parent involvement were collected using the Indicators Kindergarten in Peel I'm playing with my friends at school (F in collaboration with the Regional Municipality of Peel, the Peel District School Board

Sokolowski, Marla

192

Comparative analysis of Tunisian wild Crataegus azarolus (yellow azarole) and Crataegus monogyna (red azarole) leaf, fruit, and traditionally derived syrup: phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous-acetone extracts.  

PubMed

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the yellow and red azarole phenolic extracts prepared from leaf, fruit peel/pulp, and syrup were comparatively investigated. The yellow azarole was found significantly richer in polyphenols than the red-fruit species. Hyperoside was the main phenolic in both yellow and red azarole leaves and only in yellow fruits, whereas procyanidin B2 was the major compound in red fruits. Yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities using DPPH (?168 and 79 ?mol TEAC/g fw, respectively) and FRAP (?378 and 161 ?mol Fe(2+)/g fw, respectively) assays. The highest antibacterial activities were recorded for the yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts, especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis . The low phenolic content of the syrups contrasted with their significant antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, which were correlated to their hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (furan derivative amounts) content. PMID:24070066

Belkhir, Manel; Rebai, Olfa; Dhaouadi, Karima; Congiu, Francesca; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Amri, Mohamed; Fattouch, Sami

2013-10-01

193

Xylomexicanins A and B, new Delta14,15-mexicanolides from seeds of the Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Two new mexicanolide-type limonoids, named xylomexicanin A (1) and xylomexicanin B (2), were isolated from seeds of the Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 exhibited antiproliferative activity against human breast carcinoma cells (KT), while 2 did not show inhibitory effects on eleven human tumour cell lines tested. PMID:19323264

Shen, Li-Ru; Dong, Mei; Guo, Dong; Yin, Bao-Wei; Zhang, Man-Li; Shi, Qing-Wen; Huo, Chang-Hong; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Suzuki, Nobuo; Cong, Bin

2009-01-01

194

Punica granatum (pomegranate) flower extract possesses potent antioxidant activity and abrogates Fe-NTA induced hepatotoxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Most pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn., Punicaceae) fruit parts are known to possess enormous antioxidant activity. The present study evaluated antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of pomegranate flowers. Alcoholic (ethanolic) extract of flowers was prepared and used in the present study. The extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and exhibit enormous reducing ability, both indicative of potent antioxidant ability. The extract showed 81.6% antioxidant activity in DPPH model system. The ability of extract to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was tested and it was found to significantly scavenge superoxide (O(2)(.-)) (by up to 53.3%), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (by up to 30%), hydroxyl radicals (()OH) (by up to 37%) and nitric oxide (NO) (by up to 74.5%). The extract also inhibited (.)OH induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in vitro. These results indicated pomegranate flower extract to exert a significant antioxidant activity in vitro. The efficacy of extract was tested in vivo and it was found to exhibit a potent protective activity in acute oxidative tissue injury animal model: ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of 9 mg/kg body wt. Fe-NTA to mice induced oxidative stress and liver injury. Pretreatment with pomegranate flower extract at a dose regimen of 50-150 mg/kg body wt. for a week significantly and dose dependently protected against Fe-NTA induced oxidative stress as well as hepatic injury. The extract afforded up to 60% protection against hepatic lipid peroxidation and preserved glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) by up to 36%, 28.5%, 28.7%, 40.2% and 42.5% respectively. A protection against Fe-NTA induced liver injury was apparent as inhibition in the modulation of liver markers viz., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and albumin in serum. The histopathological changes produced by Fe-NTA, such as ballooning degeneration, fatty changes, necrosis were also alleviated by the extract. These results indicate pomegranate flowers to possess potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective property, the former being probably responsible for the latter. PMID:16426722

Kaur, Gurpreet; Jabbar, Zoobi; Athar, Mohammad; Alam, M Sarwar

2006-07-01

195

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

The Jim Henson Company

2008-01-01

196

Wound healing activity of Malva sylvestris and Punica granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The flowers of Malva sylvestris Linn. (Malvaceae) and Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani) whose have been used as remedy against edema, bum, wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The diethyl ether extract of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers were used to evaluate the wound healing activity at 200 mg/kg/day dose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Wounds were induced in Wister rats divided into six groups as following; Group I, normal rats were treated with simple ointment base. Group II, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control). Groups III and IV, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals), Groups V, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts (1:1), Group VI, diabetic rats received the standard drug (nitrofurazone). The efficacy of treatment was evaluated based on wound area relative and histopathological characteristics. The extract-treated diabetic animals showed significant reduction in the wound area when compared with control. Also, histological studies of the tissue obtained on days 9th and 18th from the extract-treated by extract of M. sylvestris showed increased well organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts and few inflammatory cells. These findings demonstrate that extract of M. sylvestis effectively stimulates wound contraction as compared to control group and other groups. M. sylvestris accelerated wound healing in rats and thus supports its traditional use. PMID:20873419

Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Azizi, Shahrzad; Koohpayeh, Abed; Hamedi, Behzad

2010-01-01

197

Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  

PubMed

We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight. PMID:18613588

Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

2008-06-01

198

Obesity: the preventive role of the pomegranate (Punica granatum).  

PubMed

Obesity represents a rapidly growing threat to the health of populations in an increasing number of countries. Diet intervention has been proposed as one of the strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance. Traditionally, the pomegranate, including its roots, tree bark, fruit juice, leaves, and flowers, has been used to treat some conditions such as diarrhea, hemorrhage, acidosis, and microbial infections. Pomegranate extracts have been found to have strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and even antitumor properties in vivo and in vitro. More recently, positive effects on fat reduction have been shown using the pomegranate and its extracts. Many of the beneficial effects are related to the presence of anthocyanins, tannins, and very high levels of antioxidants, including polyphenols and flavonoids. Many studies have explored the effects of the pomegranate in obesity, and various mechanisms have been proposed as to how these different extracts help in fat reduction. This article provides an overview of the work done addressing the potential benefits of the pomegranate on obesity and assesses the efficacy of intervention by means of the pomegranate and its extracts. Human studies in this field are still limited and need more attention that would help in understanding the preventive and protective roles pomegranate extracts have on obesity. PMID:22342388

Al-Muammar, May Nasser; Khan, Fozia

2012-06-01

199

HYDROLYSIS OF GRAPEFRUIT PEEL WASTE WITH CELLULASE AND PECTINASE ENZYMES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 1 million Mg of grapefruit were processed in 2003/04 resulting in 500 thousand Mg of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes and pH levels t...

200

DRY CAUSTIC PEELING OF CLINGSTONE PEACHES. CAPSULE REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Capsule Report discusses the modified dry caustic process which uses rapidly rotating rubber discs to mechanically wipe the caustic treated peel from clingstone peaches. This report covers two-seasons of evaluation during which the dry caustic peeling system was operated in p...

201

Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

202

Peeling Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive Tape from Thin Elastic Strip  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some applications of peeling of a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape, the substrate is thin and flexible, such as fabric, paper, leather, rubber, or skin. A thin strip, fixed at its ends, is considered as the substrate in this study. The strip and tape are assumed to be linearly elastic with negligible bending stiffness. The peel force depends on the adhesive

Raymond H. Plaut

2010-01-01

203

Peel Adhesion of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) to Nitrile Rubbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to molecular interaction and physical entanglement of the molecular chains across the interface in poly (vinyl chloride)-nitrile rubber joints, at high temperatures and long contact times interfacial chemical bonds may be formed which seem to couple the two adherends thereby resulting in cohesive failure of the rubber matrix on peeling. This is verified by performing the peel tests

N. R. Manoj; P. P. De

1993-01-01

204

Hydrolysis of grapefruit peel waste with cellulase and pectinase enzymes.  

PubMed

Approximately 1 million metric tons of grapefruit were processed in the 2003/04 season resulting in 500,000 metric tons of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes and pH levels to hydrolyze grapefruit peel waste to produce sugars. Pectinase and cellulase loadings of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10mgprotein/g peel dry matter were tested at 45 degrees C. Hydrolyses were supplemented with 2.1mg beta-glucosidase protein/g peel dry matter. Five mg pectinase/g peel dry matter and 2mgcellulase/g peel dry matter were the lowest loadings to yield the most glucose. Optimum pH was 4.8. Cellulose, pectin, and hemicellulose in grapefruit peel waste can be hydrolyzed by pectinase and cellulase enzymes to monomer sugars, which can then be used by microorganisms to produce ethanol and other fermentation products. PMID:16934453

Wilkins, Mark R; Widmer, Wilbur W; Grohmann, Karel; Cameron, Randall G

2007-05-01

205

Exposure to Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Trees, Fruit, and Oil Enhances Mating Success of Male Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann])  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous laboratory tests revealed that exposure to oranges (Citrus sinensis L.) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (medfly). This advantage may have resulted from male exposure to a-copaene (a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and known male attractant) in the peel, as pure a-copaene has been shown to increase the mating success of male medflies. Working with

Todd Shelly; Charmian Dang; Susan Kennelly

2004-01-01

206

Antioxidant properties and hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS profiling of Chilean Pica mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueño).  

PubMed

Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu), 13 in Pica peel (ppe) 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu) and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe). Three procyanidin dimers (peaks 6, 9 and 10), seven acid derivatives (peaks 1-4, 11, 20 and 21) and four xanthones were identified, mainly mangiferin (peak 12) and mangiferin gallate, (peak 7), which were present in both peel and pulp of the two studied species from northern Chile. Homomangiferin (peak 13) was also present in both fruit pulps and dimethylmangiferin (peak 14) was present only in Tommy pulp. Pica fruits showed better antioxidant capacities and higher polyphenolic content (73.76/32.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 32.49/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay, for edible pulp and peel, respectively) than Tommy Atkins fruits (127.22/46.39 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 25.03/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay for pulp and peel, respectively). The peel of Pica mangoes showed also the highest content of phenolics (66.02 mg/100 g FW) measured by HPLC-PDA. The HPLC generated fingerprint can be used to authenticate Pica mango fruits and Pica mango food products. PMID:24384924

Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario J

2013-01-01

207

Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. PMID:25660857

Raduni?, Mira; Juki? Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

2015-06-15

208

Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22942704

Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

2012-01-01

209

Microcontact Peeling as a New Method for Cell Micropatterning  

PubMed Central

Micropatterning is becoming a powerful tool for studying morphogenetic and differentiation processes of cells. Here we describe a new micropatterning technique, which we refer to as microcontact peeling. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were treated with oxygen plasma, and the resulting hydrophilic layer of the surface was locally peeled off through direct contact with a peeling stamp made of aluminum, copper, or silicon. A hydrophobic layer of PDMS could be selectively exposed only at the places of the physical contact as revealed by water contact angle measurements and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which thus enabled successful micropatterning of cells with micro-featured peeling stamps. This new micropatterning technique needs no procedure for directly adsorbing proteins to bare PDMS in contrast to conventional techniques using a microcontact printing stamp. Given the several unique characteristics, the present technique based on the peel-off of inorganic materials may become a useful option for performing cell micropatterning. PMID:25062030

Yokoyama, Sho; Matsui, Tsubasa S.; Deguchi, Shinji

2014-01-01

210

Physiological responses of ‘Murcott’ mandarins and ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruit to anaerobic stress conditions and their relation to fruit taste, quality and emission of off-flavor volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

During their postharvest handling citrus fruit may be exposed to various anaerobic stresses, which may occur, for example: during quarantine treatments, because of inadequate ventilation in containers and storage rooms, following application of waxes that restrict gas exchange through the peel and after packing the fruit in plastic liners. It is known that mandarins tend to develop off-flavors much more

Jian Xin Shi; Ron Porat; Raphael Goren; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt

2005-01-01

211

Proteomics approach reveals mechanism underlying susceptibility of loquat fruit to sunburn during color changing period.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to investigate why loquat fruit peels are more sensitive to high temperature and strong sunlight, making them highly susceptible to sunburn, during the color changing period (CCP). Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the fruit peel proteins was performed over three developmental periods, namely green fruit period (GFP), color changing period and yellow ripening period (YRP). Fifty-five protein spots with at least 2-fold differences in abundance were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. The identified proteins were divided into categories related to heat-shock response, stress response and defense, energy metabolism, photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis. The results showed that expression of proteins related to anaerobic respiration and photorespiration were increased while the proteins related to ROS scavenging, polyamine biosynthesis, defense pathogens and photosynthesis were decreased during CCP under heat stress. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of loquat fruit susceptible to sunburn during CCP. PMID:25624247

Jiang, Ji-Mou; Lin, Yong-Xiang; Chen, Yi-Yong; Deng, Chao-Jun; Gong, Hui-Wen; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Zheng, Shao-Quan; Chen, Wei

2015-06-01

212

Uptake of quercetin and quercetin 3-glucoside from whole onion and apple peel extracts by Caco-2 cell monolayers.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables may be responsible for this health benefit. However, there is limited knowledge on the bioavailability of specific phytochemicals from whole fruits and vegetables. This study used Caco-2 cells to examine uptake of quercetin aglycon and quercetin 3-glucoside as purified compounds and from whole onion and apple peel extracts. Pure quercetin aglycon was absorbed by the Caco-2 cells in higher concentrations than quercetin 3-glucoside (p < 0.05). Caco-2 cells treated with quercetin 3-glucoside accumulated both quercetin 3-glucoside and quercetin. Caco-2 cells absorbed more onion quercetin aglycon than onion quercetin 3-glucoside (p < 0.05), and the percentage of onion quercetin absorbed was greater than that of pure quercetin, most likely due to enzymatic hydrolysis of quercetin 3-glucoside and other quercetin glucosides found in the onion by the Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cells absorbed low levels of quercetin 3-glucoside from apple peel extracts, but quercetin aglycon absorption was not detected. Caco-2 cell homogenates demonstrated both lactase and glucosidase activities when incubated with lactose and quercetin 3-glucoside, respectively. This use of the Caco2 cell model appears to be a simple and useful system for studying bioavailability of whole food phytochemicals and may be used to assess differences in bioavailability between foods. PMID:15537334

Boyer, Jeanelle; Brown, Dan; Liu, Rui Hai

2004-11-17

213

Purification and some properties of polyphenol oxidase of longan fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit peel, with a 46-fold purification of PPO by ammonium sulfate, Sephadex G-200 and Phenyl Sepharose being achieved. Pyrogallol, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol were good substrates for the enzyme, and activity with chlorogenic acid, p-cresol, resorcinol, or tyrosine was not observed. The optimal pH for PPO activity was 6.5 with 4-methylcatechol.

Yue-Ming Jiang

1999-01-01

214

A generalized cohesive zone model of the peel test for pressure-sensitive adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peel test is a commonly used testing method for adhesive strength evaluation. The test involves peeling a pressure-sensitive tape away from a substrate and measuring the applied peel force. In the present study, a cohesive zone model, in which the adhesive fails cohesively, is proposed to analyze the mechanics of the peel test. The proposed model is capable of

Liang Zhang; Jyhwen Wang

2009-01-01

215

Characterization of Oils from the Fruits, Leaves and Flowers of the Bitter Orange Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bitter orange tree is used to obtain different products: essential oil cold pressed from the peel of the fruit, the neroli distilled from the flowers, the petitgrain distilled from the leaves and twigs, and different other products obtained by solvent extraction or by hydrodistillation. All these products are much appreciated for their odor properties. Their analytical characterization is important

Giovanni Dugo; Ivana Bonaccorsi; Danilo Sciarrone; Rosaria Costa; Paola Dugo; Luigi Mondello; Luca Santi; Hussein A. Fakhry

2011-01-01

216

POSTHARVEST CALCIUM CHLORIDE DIPS OF WHOLE TOMATO FRUIT REDUCE POSTHARVEST DECAY UNDER COMMERCIAL CONDITIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research showed that mature green tomato fruit dipped 1 to 4 minutes in a 1% CaCl2 solutions before storage had significantly increased peel calcium content and reduced postharvest decay. The present experiments, conducted over 3-day periods (reps), evaluate treatment effectiveness under c...

217

Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry.  

PubMed

The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the peel extract was greatest and followed by that of the inside and seed extracts in all bioassays. Significant reductions in the root and shoot growth were observed as the extract concentration was increased. The concentrations of abscisic acid-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-GE) in peel, inside and seeds separated from the C. junos fruit waste were determined, since ABA-GE was found to be one of the main growth inhibitors in C. junos fruit. The concentration was greatest in the peel, followed by the inside and seeds; there was a good correspondence between these concentrations and the inhibitory activities of the extracts. This suggests that ABA-GE may also be involved in the growth inhibitory effect of C. junos waste. These results suggested that C. junos waste may possess allelopathic potential, and the waste may be potentially useful for weed management. PMID:15158515

Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Yukitoshi

2004-09-01

218

Changes in ascorbic acid, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in minimally processed cactus pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cv. ‘Gialla’) were manually peeled, then placed in plastic boxes sealed with a film with high permeability to gases, and kept at 4°C for 9 days. After 3, 6 and 9 days, chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters, total phenols, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity were determined. In-package gas concentrations were measured almost

A Piga; A. Del Caro; I Pinna; M Agabbio

2003-01-01

219

Physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of fruits xoconostle (Opuntia matudae) pears from Central-México Region.  

PubMed

Xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeño (Opuntia matudae) has attracted domestic and international industry attention; however, variations of composition from xoconostle structures have not been evaluated. Industries discard the pulp (endocarp) and peel (pericarp) as wastes and utilize the skin (mesocarp), which is the edible portion. The physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of structures from xoconostle pear from 3 major sites of production in Mexico were assessed. Skin yield ranged from 58% to 64% and was higher to that of peel (22% to 24%) and pulp (12% to 18%) yields. pH, degrees Brix, and acidity were similar among xoconostle structures. Total fiber showed by peel (18.23% to 20.37%) was 2-fold higher than that of skin. Protein and ether extract were higher in xoconostle pulp compared to that showed by peel and skin. Iron content of xoconostle peel (6 to 9.6 mg/100 g, DWB) was higher to that of skin and pulp and prickly pear pulp. Soluble phenols of peel (840 to 863 mg GAE/100 g, DWB) were almost similar to that of skin (919 to 986 mg GAE/100 g, dry weigh basis); meanwhile, ascorbic acid concentration of skin was 2-fold higher compared to that of peel. The phenolic fraction of xoconostle structures consisted of gallic, vanillic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids; catechin, epicatechin, and vanillin were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-didoe array detection (HPLC-DAD). Xoconostle peel showed higher antioxidant activity (TEAC) compared to that of skin (2-fold) and pulp (6-fold) of commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The potential of xoconostle peel and pulp for the production of feed or food is promissory. Practical Application: Outstanding nutritional and functional properties of xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeño fruits are demonstrated. Increased consumption could contribute positively to improve the diet of rural and urban consumers. The high fiber, mineral, and antioxidant components of xoconostle peel and pulp suggest that these fruit structures, which are currently discarded as waste, have promissory use as feed or food by industry. PMID:20722901

Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H; Morales-Montelongo, Ana L; Mondragón-Jacobo, Candelario; Herrera-Hernández, Guadalupe; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia

2010-08-01

220

Control of rotting and browning of Longan fruit cv. Biew Kiew after harvested by sulphur dioxide treatment under various storage temperatures.  

PubMed

The experiment of Longan fruit cv. Biew Kiew, untreated (control) and treated with SO2 treatment were stored under 2 +/- 2 and 7 +/- 2 degrees C for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks were studied. The treatment of fresh longan fruit with SO2 fumigation combined with the suitable storage condition improved the overall longan fruit quality, especially on inner and outer peel tissue and aril color than no SO2 treatment. Treatment stabilizes peel color with no subsequent loss of color during storage (fruit color were bright-yellowish color). When the fruit showed during SO2 treatment, increasing of storage duration and temperatures, the dark color of inner and outer peel of longan fruit was appeared, this was correlated with the increasing of PPO activity. The activity of PPO enzyme in control fruit (no SO2 treatment) gradually lower than SO2 treatments. Fruit exposed to cool storage temperature (2 degrees C) exhibited a lower PPO enzymatic activity compared to those kept in high storage temperature (7 degrees C). Moreover, PPO enzymatic activity significantly increased over the storage durations The additional SO2 treatment no subsequent loss of weight of longan fruit during storage. However, the sulphite residues could detect immediately after SO2 treatment in all part of longan fruit, especially on aril tissue. The SEM evaluation found that the surface cracking was also impair the physiological function of the cuticle and increasing water permeability, which may cause water soaking at the inner side of the peel. The injured cell would accelerate the oxidation of phenolic substances and the oxidative products resulted in dark color of inner and outer peel. PMID:20180317

Chitbanchong, W; Sardsud, V; Whangchai, K; Koslanund, R; Thobunluepop, P

2009-11-15

221

Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling  

E-print Network

We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependencies of the stick and slip phases durations with the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K.W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205--222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase.

Marie-Julie Dalbe; Stéphane Santucci; Pierre-Philippe Cortet; Loïc Vanel

2013-11-14

222

Andhraxylocarpins?A-E: structurally intriguing limonoids from the true mangroves Xylocarpus granatum and Xylocarpus moluccensis.  

PubMed

Five new limonoids, including andhraxylocarpins?A and B (1 and 2) which contain a 9-oxa-tricyclo[3.3.2.1(7,?10)]undecane-2-ene motif, andhraxylocarpins?C and D (3 and 4), which contain a (Z)-bicyclo[5.2.1]dec-3-en-8-one substructure, and andhraxylocarpin?E (5), which contains a tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,?6)]decane-9-one scaffold, were isolated from the seeds of two true mangroves, Xylocarpus granatum and Xylocarpus moluccensis, that were collected in the estuaries of Andhra Pradesh, India. The absolute configurations of these compounds were determined by extensive NMR investigations, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and by circular dichroism and optical rotatory dispersion spectroscopy, in combination with quantum-chemical calculations. The pronounced structural diversity of limonoids from these mangroves might originate from environmental factors. PMID:23008237

Li, Jun; Li, Min-Yi; Bruhn, Torsten; Götz, Daniel C G; Xiao, Qiang; Satyanandamurty, Tirumani; Wu, Jun; Bringmann, Gerhard

2012-11-01

223

Granatumins A-G, limonoids from the seeds of a Krishna mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Seven new limonoids (1-7), named granatumins A-G, were isolated from seeds of an Indian mangrove (Xylocarpus granatum) collected from the wetlands of Krishna estuary, Andhra Pradesh. The known compounds khayasin T, tigloylseneganolide A, 6-deoxyswietenine, swietemahonolide, febrifugin A, gedunin, xylogranatinin, phaseic acid, (2R,3R)-3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanone, and (E)-4-hydroxycinnamic acid were also isolated. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data. Granatumins A and B are mexicanolides with endo-conjugated Delta(8,30) and Delta(14,15) double bonds, and granatumins F and G are polyhydroxylated phragmalins found previously in plants of the Meliaceae. Khayasin T exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against fifth instar larvae of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) at a concentration of 20 mg/L. PMID:19888743

Li, Min-Yi; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Pan, Jian-Yu; Feng, Gang; Xiao, Qiang; Sinkkonen, Jari; Satyanandamurty, Tirumani; Wu, Jun

2009-12-01

224

Freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder improves insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed mice.  

PubMed

The peel of the native Brazilian fruit jaboticaba is rich in anthocyanins, which are known for their anti-obesity effects in animal models. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder (FDJPP) on a number of metabolic parameters in a model of diet-induced obesity. Mice (n 8 per group) were initially fed on a high-fat diet (HFD, 35% w/w) for 4 weeks and then switched to a HFD supplemented with FDJPP (1, 2 or 4% w/w) for an additional 6 weeks. Energy intake, weight loss, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and lipid profile were determined, and the results were evaluated using ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. The FDJPP exerted no protective effect on HFD-induced weight gain, hyperleptinaemia and glucose intolerance. However, the supplementation was effective to reduce insulin resistance, as evidenced in the insulin tolerance test, and subsequently confirmed by improved signal transduction through the insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate-1/Akt/forkhead box protein pathway and by the attenuation of HFD-induced inflammation in the liver, verified by lower expressions of IL-1b and IL-6 and decreased phosphorylated IkB-a protein levels in all jaboticaba-treated mice. These results suggest that FDJPP may exert a protective role against obesity-associated insulin resistance. PMID:23415177

Dragano, Nathalia R V; Marques, Anne y Castro; Cintra, Dennys E C; Solon, Carina; Morari, Joseane; Leite-Legatti, Alice V; Velloso, Lício A; Maróstica-Júnior, Mário R

2013-08-28

225

Purification and characterisation of a novel amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel.  

PubMed

An amylase enzyme from pitaya peel was purified 234.2-folds with 72.1% recovery using ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE revealed that the enzyme is monomeric with a molecular weight of 42.1kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax of the amylase were 2.7 mg/ml and 34.30 u/min/mg of protein, respectively. The enzyme was highly active and stable over a wide pH range from pH 3 to pH 11.0, with optimum activity being observed at pH 5.0. The enzyme was highly selective for soluble starch, amylopectin, glycogen and pulullan. The purified amylase did not require calcium and displayed extreme stability with regard to surfactants and oxidising agents. EDTA, a powerful chelating agent, did not have any significant effect on the stability of the enzyme. Such characteristics have not been previously reported for this type of enzyme from fruit peel. This enzyme, which possesses unique properties, could be widely used in different types of industries, especially in food and biotechnological applications. PMID:25038694

Amid, Mehrnoush; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

2014-12-15

226

Limonoids with an oxygen bridge between C(1) and C(29) from the seeds of a Krishna mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Ten limonoids, named granatumins L-U (1-10, resp.), were isolated from the seeds of an Indian mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum, collected in the estuary of Krishna, Andhra Pradesh. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data. The relative configuration of granatumin L (1) was confirmed by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Granatumins L-T (1-9, resp.) belong to the small group of limonoids with an oxygen bridge between C(1) and C(29), while granatumin U (10) is a 28-Me-oxidized mexicanolide. This is the first report of limonoids with an O-bridge between C(1) and C(29) from the Indian X. granatum. The pronounced structural diversity of limonoids from this mangrove might originate from environmental factors. PMID:24591316

Li, Min-Yi; Xiao, Qiang; Satyanandamurty, Tirumani; Wu, Jun

2014-02-01

227

Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine. PMID:25668694

Gopi, D; Kanimozhi, K; Kavitha, L

2015-04-15

228

Effect of Punica granatum Linn. (flowers) on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Gulnar farsi’, male abortive flowers of Punica granatum L., are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Unani medicine. Oral administration of its aqueous-ethanolic (50%, v\\/v) extract led to significant blood glucose lowering effect in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This effect of the extract was maximum at 400 mg\\/kg, b.w.

M. A Jafri; M Aslam; Kalim Javed; Surender Singh

2000-01-01

229

The absolute stereochemistry of protoxylogranatin A - a new protolimonoid from the seeds of Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

A new protolimonoid, named protoxylogranatin A, has been isolated from the seeds of a Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of modern spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration was determined by the application of the modified Mosher MTPA ester method. The first complete assignments of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data for this protolimonoid were achieved by means of 2D NMR techniques, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra. PMID:18470801

Li, Min-Yi; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Si; Xiao, Qiang; Li, Qing-Xin

2008-01-01

230

Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: Effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of Punica granatum aqueous extract (PgAq) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats by measuring fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles (atherogenic index), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of both non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60mg\\/kg) to albino Wistar rats. The increase in blood glucose level, total cholesterol

Priyanka Bagri; Mohd. Ali; Vidhu Aeri; Malay Bhowmik; Shahnaz Sultana

2009-01-01

231

Effect of Punica granatum Linn. (flowers) on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

'Gulnar farsi', male abortive flowers of Punica granatum L., are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Unani medicine. Oral administration of its aqueous-ethanolic (50%, v/v) extract led to significant blood glucose lowering effect in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This effect of the extract was maximum at 400 mg/kg, b.w. PMID:10837992

Jafri, M A; Aslam, M; Javed, K; Singh, S

2000-06-01

232

Gene Expression and Metabolism in Tomato Fruit Surface Tissues1[C][W  

PubMed Central

The cuticle, covering the surface of all primary plant organs, plays important roles in plant development and protection against the biotic and abiotic environment. In contrast to vegetative organs, very little molecular information has been obtained regarding the surfaces of reproductive organs such as fleshy fruit. To broaden our knowledge related to fruit surface, comparative transcriptome and metabolome analyses were carried out on peel and flesh tissues during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development. Out of 574 peel-associated transcripts, 17% were classified as putatively belonging to metabolic pathways generating cuticular components, such as wax, cutin, and phenylpropanoids. Orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SHINE2 and MIXTA-LIKE regulatory factors, activating cutin and wax biosynthesis and fruit epidermal cell differentiation, respectively, were also predominantly expressed in the peel. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a flame ionization detector identified 100 metabolites that are enriched in the peel tissue during development. These included flavonoids, glycoalkaloids, and amyrin-type pentacyclic triterpenoids as well as polar metabolites associated with cuticle and cell wall metabolism and protection against photooxidative stress. Combined results at both transcript and metabolite levels revealed that the formation of cuticular lipids precedes phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression patterns of reporter genes driven by the upstream region of the wax-associated SlCER6 gene indicated progressive activity of this wax biosynthetic gene in both fruit exocarp and endocarp. Peel-associated genes identified in our study, together with comparative analysis of genes enriched in surface tissues of various other plant species, establish a springboard for future investigations of plant surface biology. PMID:18441227

Mintz-Oron, Shira; Mandel, Tali; Rogachev, Ilana; Feldberg, Liron; Lotan, Ofra; Yativ, Merav; Wang, Zhonghua; Jetter, Reinhard; Venger, Ilya; Adato, Avital; Aharoni, Asaph

2008-01-01

233

Simulation of Peeling Using 3D-Surface Cellular Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for modeling the natural peeling phenomenon over any 3D surface. Using crack input data—precomputed with a semi-physical solution—this method allows simulating peeling on any type of triangulated 3D object. Our model's main advantage is that it proposes an method that is intuitive enough to make it easy to understand and convenient to apply, user controllable,

Stéphane Gobron; Norishige Chiba

2001-01-01

234

Deterpenation of Brazilian orange peel oil by vacuum distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deterpenation of orange peel oil in most industries is accomplished by vacuum distillation, but surprisingly little information\\u000a on this matter can be found in the open literature. This work reports recent results on orange peel oil deterpenation carried\\u000a out in an automatic vacuum distillation column operated in the semibatch mode at the temperatures of 50, 65, and 80C, at

Giane R. Stuart; Daíse Lopes; J. Vladimir Oliveira

2001-01-01

235

Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ˜ 0.1 MA m?2) and low magnetic field (B ˜ 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ? 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink.

Bongard, M. W.; Thome, K. E.; Barr, J. L.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

2014-11-01

236

Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing  

PubMed Central

Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, ?-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

2010-01-01

237

Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

2014-01-01

238

Volumetric depth peeling for medical image display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volumetric depth peeling (VDP) is an extension to volume rendering that enables display of otherwise occluded features in volume data sets. VDP decouples occlusion calculation from the volume rendering transfer function, enabling independent optimization of settings for rendering and occlusion. The algorithm is flexible enough to handle multiple regions occluding the object of interest, as well as object self-occlusion, and requires no pre-segmentation of the data set. VDP was developed as an improvement for virtual arthroscopy for the diagnosis of shoulder-joint trauma, and has been generalized for use in other simple and complex joints, and to enable non-invasive urology studies. In virtual arthroscopy, the surfaces in the joints often occlude each other, allowing limited viewpoints from which to evaluate these surfaces. In urology studies, the physician would like to position the virtual camera outside the kidney collecting system and see inside it. By rendering invisible all voxels between the observer's point of view and objects of interest, VDP enables viewing from unconstrained positions. In essence, VDP can be viewed as a technique for automatically defining an optimal data- and task-dependent clipping surface. Radiologists using VDP display have been able to perform evaluations of pathologies more easily and more rapidly than with clinical arthroscopy, standard volume rendering, or standard MRI/CT slice viewing.

Borland, David; Clarke, John P.; Fielding, Julia R.; TaylorII, Russell M.

2006-01-01

239

Peel testing behavior of mushroom-top terminated structured adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic structured surfaces have been created based on the extraordinary adhesive ability exhibited by insects, spiders, and geckos. The adhesion of synthetic and natural structured adhesives is attributed to the cumulative addition of van der Waals forces acting on the structures of the surface. It has been shown that for synthetic surfaces a "mushroom top" or "flanged" terminating structure exhibits the highest adhesion. Unfortunately, due to the variety of testing and fabrication techniques and the small scale of previous studies, the detachment behavior of these structures is not well understood. This research systematically investigated the effect of peel angle, pillar diameter, flange diameter, and pillar aspect ratio on the force required for peeling. Explicit emphasis was placed on relatively large pillar structures to allow for in situ optical visualization in order to gain insights into fundamental mechanisms which dictate peeling. Traditional molding techniques were used to fabricate optical-scale mushroom terminated structures with pillar diameters of 1mm and 400microm and aspect ratios of 1, 3, and 5. Results were quantitatively compared to peel testing theory for conventional adhesives. It was convincingly demonstrated that the adhesive energy of a patterned surface changes as function of angle, and cannot be treated as a constant. The variability in the energy was linked to mechanistic differences in detachment through in situ observations and finite element analysis. Experimental results show that smaller pillars do not necessarily lead to higher adhesion during peeling, aspect ratio plays little role in peeling adhesive behavior, and pillar flange size is critical to adhesion. The conclusions from this study outline design parameters for mushroom topped dry adhesives in peeling applications.

Hossfeld, Craig Kenneth

240

[Survey of pesticide residues in imported fruit products (1994.4-2006.3)].  

PubMed

A survey of pesticide residues in 600 imported fruit products on the Tokyo market from April 1994 to March 2006 was carried out. Thirty kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate, and pyrethroid, were detected between levels of Tr (below 0.01 ppm) to 0.37 ppm from 75 samples. Residual pesticides were detected from fruit products, dried fruits and pressed juice. A high frequency of pesticide residues was observed in peels, whole body of fruits and products which contained them. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as between less than 0.1 and 3.9% of their ADI values according to the daily intake of fruit products. Therefore, these fruit products should be safe when eaten in customary amounts. PMID:19897954

Kobayash, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Sakai, Naoko; Kamijo, Kyoko; Kageyama, Yuriko; Takano, Ichiro; Nagayama, Toshihiro

2009-10-01

241

Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet ? cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the pancreas weight index and the histological changes in the pancreas, were also determined. The results showed that, after fours weeks of treatment with PPE, BBPE or PPE + BBPE, DM mice showed, to different degrees, a decrease in blood glucose, increases in insulin secretion and the pancreas weight index, and an increase in antioxidative activity. These changes were particularly evident in the DM mice subjected to the combined intervention strategy of PPE + BBPE. The histological findings indicated that the injury to the pancreatic islets in DM mice was also ameliorated following treatment. In conclusion, PPE and BBPE, particularly the combination of the two, have the ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced pancreatic damage; this finding may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM. PMID:25452774

WANG, JIAN-YUN; ZHU, CHUANG; QIAN, TIAN-WEI; GUO, HAO; WANG, DONG-DONG; ZHANG, FAN; YIN, XIAOXING

2015-01-01

242

Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet ? cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the pancreas weight index and the histological changes in the pancreas, were also determined. The results showed that, after fours weeks of treatment with PPE, BBPE or PPE + BBPE, DM mice showed, to different degrees, a decrease in blood glucose, increases in insulin secretion and the pancreas weight index, and an increase in antioxidative activity. These changes were particularly evident in the DM mice subjected to the combined intervention strategy of PPE + BBPE. The histological findings indicated that the injury to the pancreatic islets in DM mice was also ameliorated following treatment. In conclusion, PPE and BBPE, particularly the combination of the two, have the ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced pancreatic damage; this finding may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM. PMID:25452774

Wang, Jian-Yun; Zhu, Chuang; Qian, Tian-Wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Xiaoxing

2015-01-01

243

Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on ripening and cell-wall matrix polysaccharides of avocado ( Persea americana) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Indian-type avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv. ‘Simmonds’) fruit were treated with two different concentrations (0.09 and 0.45 ?ll?1) of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for three exposure times (6, 12, and 24 h) at 20°C. The fruit were then stored at 20°C in ethylene-free air for ripening assessment. Firmness, weight loss, respiration and C2H4 production, peel color, cell-wall enzymes (polygalacturonase (PG), pectinmethylesterase,

Jiwon Jeong; Donald J. Huber; Steven A. Sargent

2002-01-01

244

Reflectance spectral features and non-destructive estimation of chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content in apple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit reflectance spectra of five apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars (Zhigulevskoe, Antonovka, Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Renet Simirenko) with a wide range of peel pigment (chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids and anthocyanins) content have been studied to develop non-destructive techniques for pigment assessment. In addition to chlorophylls, positions of in vivo absorption maxima were established for carotenoids (480, 455

Mark N. Merzlyak; Alexei E. Solovchenko; Anatoly A. Gitelson

2003-01-01

245

Oxidation products of alpha-farnesene associated with superficial scald development in d'Anjou pear fruit are conjugated trienols  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conjugated triene (CT) oxidation products of the acyclic sesquiterpene alpha-farnesene are thought to induce development of the physiological storage disorder superficial scald in apple and pear fruits of susceptible cultivars. CTs that accumulate in peel tissue of Granny Smith and Delicious apples ...

246

CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1 are differentially induced during leaf and fruit abscission and diurnally regulated in Citrus sinensis.  

PubMed

Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Valencia'. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLDalpha1 expression was reduced in leaves but unaltered in fruit peel tissue treated with an ethylene-releasing compound (ethephon), or a fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP). By contrast, CsPLDgamma1 expression was up-regulated within 6 h (leaves) and 24 h (fruit peel) after treatment with ethephon or CMNP, respectively. CsPLDalpha1 expression was diurnally regulated in leaf blade but not fruit peel. CsPLDgamma1 exhibited strong diurnal oscillation in expression in leaves and fruit peel with peak expression around midday. While diurnal fluctuation in CsPLDalpha1 expression appeared to be light-entrained in leaves, CsPLDgamma1 expression was regulated by light and the circadian clock. The diurnal expression of both genes was modulated by ethylene-signalling. The ethephon-induced leaf abscission and the ethephon- and CMNP-induced decrease in fruit detachment force were enhanced by application during rising diurnal expression of CsPLDgamma1. The results indicate differential regulation of CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1 in leaves and fruit, and suggest possible roles for PLD-dependent signalling in regulating abscission responses in citrus. PMID:18799715

Malladi, Anish; Burns, Jacqueline K

2008-01-01

247

CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1 are differentially induced during leaf and fruit abscission and diurnally regulated in Citrus sinensis  

PubMed Central

Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Valencia’. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLD?1 expression was reduced in leaves but unaltered in fruit peel tissue treated with an ethylene-releasing compound (ethephon), or a fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP). By contrast, CsPLD?1 expression was up-regulated within 6 h (leaves) and 24 h (fruit peel) after treatment with ethephon or CMNP, respectively. CsPLD?1 expression was diurnally regulated in leaf blade but not fruit peel. CsPLD?1 exhibited strong diurnal oscillation in expression in leaves and fruit peel with peak expression around midday. While diurnal fluctuation in CsPLD?1 expression appeared to be light-entrained in leaves, CsPLD?1 expression was regulated by light and the circadian clock. The diurnal expression of both genes was modulated by ethylene-signalling. The ethephon-induced leaf abscission and the ethephon- and CMNP-induced decrease in fruit detachment force were enhanced by application during rising diurnal expression of CsPLD?1. The results indicate differential regulation of CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1 in leaves and fruit, and suggest possible roles for PLD-dependent signalling in regulating abscission responses in citrus. PMID:18799715

Malladi, Anish; Burns, Jacqueline K.

2008-01-01

248

Onion Peeling for CDMA-Symmetric Rate Under RMS-Bandwidth Constraints  

E-print Network

Onion Peeling for CDMA- Symmetric Rate Under RMS-Bandwidth Constraints Tommy Guess and Mahesh K-theoretic arguments have shown that sequential decoding onion peeling can be used in such a way as to achieve maximum

Varanasi, Mahesh K.

249

Effect of Tensile Strength by Variations in Peel Strength in Laminated Film for Liquid Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good tensile strength of a laminated film for packaging is an indispensable property in preventing leakage. It is known that the peel strength between laminated film layers is closely related to the tensile strength of the film. In this study, we have measured the tensile strength for various peel strengths of two kinds of three layered laminated film; Nylon + Aluminum + Polyethylene and Nylon + Polyester + Polyethylene. These films have two peel layers, so we escalated one peel strength and fix another one. Then we found that the peel strength between the sealant and the boundaries strongly influences the tensile strength. About Nylon + Polyester + Polyethylene film, we researched applied amount of adhesive and observed cross section of specimen at measurement of peel strength. Then we found that there is difference in specimen condition at measurement of peel strength, and examined about relationship of peel strength and stiffness of specimen.

Machida, Yukihiko; Shimamoto, Akira; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Futase, Katsunori

250

Triterpenes as uncompetitive inhibitors of ?-glucosidase from flowers of Punica granatum L.  

PubMed

The ?-glucosidase and maltase inhibitory effects of Punica granatum L. flowers (PGF) were investigated. The methanol extract (PGFMe), n-hexane extract (PGFH), chloroform extract (PGFC) and the remaining water fraction (PGFW) were assayed for their ?-glucosidase and maltase inhibitory effects. PGFW showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC?? of 0.8 ?g/mL followed by PGFMe (IC?? of 4.0 ?g/mL) then PGFC (IC?? of 5.21 ?g/mL) in comparison to acarbose (0.9 ?M). Due to its selectivity towards ?-glucosidase, PGFC was subjected to bioactivity-guided isolation of its main active constituents. Five known compounds (1-5) were identified as ?-sitosterol (1), oleanolic acid (2), ursolic acid (3), p-coumaric acid (4) and apigenin (5). Ursolic and oleanolic acids showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibition (IC?? of 39.0 and 35.0 ?M, respectively), while they did not show significant maltase inhibition. Kinetic study using the double Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that ursolic acid uncompetitively inhibited ?-glucosidase in comparison with acarbose as a competitive inhibitor. PMID:24956202

Salah El Dine, Riham; Ma, Qiong; Kandil, Zeinab A; El-Halawany, Ali M

2014-01-01

251

Efficacy of Punica granatum L. hydroalcoholic extract on properties of dyed hair exposed to UVA radiation.  

PubMed

The solar radiation promotes color fading of natural and dyed hair by free radical generation, which oxidize the pigments, and it has been proposed the incorporation of antioxidants in order to reduce the alterations of hair color. Due to its high content of polyphenols and tannins, which are potent antioxidants, the hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) was used in this research. Hair care formulations containing pomegranate extract were applied to red dyed hair tresses, and these were exposed to UVA radiation. Non-ionic silicone emulsion presenting color protection properties were also used for comparison purpose between the results obtained with different treatments, including silicone in combination with the pomegranate extract. The pomegranate extract at 5.0% and 10.0%w/w was effective in preventing the hair color fading in 37.6% and 60.8%, respectively, but the association of hydroalcoholic extract and non-ionic silicone emulsion is not encouraged. Mechanical properties were not affected by UVA radiation, since significant differences in breaking strength were not observed. Considering the conditions which the tresses have been exposed, it was concluded that the pomegranate extract at 10.0% w/w in hair care formulations are effective in reducing color fading of red dyed hair. PMID:23380541

Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Pahl, Richard; de Castro, Jordana Rodrigues; de Lima, Fernando Soares; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Pinto, Claudinéia A S O; Baby, André Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

2013-03-01

252

A Comprehensive Review of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) Properties in Toxicological, Pharmacological, Cellular and Molecular Biology Researches  

PubMed Central

Punica granatum (Pg), commonly known as pomegranate (Pg), is a member of the monogeneric family, Punicaceae, and is mainly found in Iran which is considered to be its primary centre of origin. Pg and its chemical components possess various pharmacological and toxicological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines), anti-cancer and anti-angiogenesis activities. They also show inhibitory effects on invasion/motility, cell cycle, apoptosis, and vital enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX), lipooxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 (CYP450), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), carbonic anhydrase (CA), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSDs) and serine protease (SP). Furthermore, they can stimulate cell differentiation and possess anti-mutagenic effects. Pg can also interfere with several signaling pathways including PI3K/AKT, mTOR, PI3K, Bcl-X, Bax, Bad, MAPK, ERK1/2, P38, JNK, and caspase. However, the exact mechanisms for its pharmacological and toxicological properties remain to be unclear and need further evaluation. These properties strongly suggest a wide range use of Pg for clinical applications. This review will discuss the areas for which Pg has shown therapeutic properties in different mechanisms. PMID:24250463

Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Arastoo, Mohammad; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

2012-01-01

253

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice supplementation attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac necrosis in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-supplementation with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) on heart weight, infarct size, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, cardiac ATPases and histopathology of isoproterenol (IP)-induced cardiac necrosis (CN) in rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) for 2 days at an interval of 24 h caused significant (P < 0.05) infarct in myocardium and increase in heart weight, lipid peroxidation (LPO), activity levels of Ca(+2) ATPase and plasma marker enzymes, while there was significant (P < 0.05) decrease in endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and Na(+)-K(+) and Mg(+2)ATPases. Pre-supplementation with PJ for 30 consecutive days and treated with IP on days 29th and 30th showed significantly (P < 0.05) lesser increase in heart weight, infarct size, plasma marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, Ca(+2) ATPase and a significant protective effect in endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) and Mg(+2) ATPases compared to IP alone treated group. Present study provides first scientific report on protective effect of supplementation of Pomegranate juice against IP-induced CN in rats. PMID:20509006

Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Thounaojam, Menaka C; Patel, Dipak K; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

2010-09-01

254

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling  

PubMed Central

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20?kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50?kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure “fracture” bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions. PMID:24651648

Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

2014-01-01

255

A Generalized Cohesive Zone Model of Peel Test for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives  

E-print Network

The peel test is a commonly used testing method for adhesive strength evaluation. The test involves peeling a pressure sensitive tape away from a substrate and measuring the peel force that is applied to rupture the adhesive bond. In the present...

Zhang, Liang

2010-01-16

256

Comparison of three drying processes to obtain an apple peel food ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple peel, a waste product from dried apple manufacture, has a high content of bioactive phenolic compounds. In Chile ca. 9000 ton of apple peel are generated each year. To obtain a novel food ingredient, we compared three drying processes on Granny Smith apple peel: oven (60°C), drum dryer (110°C), and freeze drying. The influence of each drying technology on

M. Henríquez; S. Almonacid; M. Lutz; R. Simpson; M. Valdenegro

2012-01-01

257

Electrical transients generated by the peel of a pressure sensitive adhesive tape from a copper substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report measurements of the electrical current fluctuations generated by peeling a pressure sensitive adhesive tape from a smooth, clean copper substrate in the ?180° peel geometry at speeds between 2 and 6 mm\\/s. Spectral analysis of these fluctuations using Fourier transform techniques reveals broad bands in the region of 0-150 Hz at these peel speeds. A significant transition in

L. Scudiero; J. T. Dickinson; L. C. Jensen; S. C. Langford

1995-01-01

258

Xylogranatins A-D: novel tetranortriterpenoids with an unusual 9,10-seco scaffold from marine mangrove Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text] Four novel tetranortriterpenoids, xylogranatins A-D (1-4), with an unusual 9,10-seco skeleton were isolated from the seeds of a Chinese marine mangrove Xylocarpus granatum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means. Xylogranatin A (1) featured by a unique 1,9-oxygen bridge was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and xylogranatin D (4) with an unprecedented skeleton of C-30-C-9 linkage was postulated biogenetically from 3 via an alpha-hydroxyl ketone rearrangement and was chemically mimicked. PMID:17020340

Yin, Sheng; Fan, Cheng-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lin, Li-Ping; Ding, Jian; Yue, Jian-Min

2006-10-12

259

Uni-dimensional double development HPTLC-densitometry method for simultaneous analysis of mangiferin and lupeol content in mango (Mangifera indica) pulp and peel during storage.  

PubMed

Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390nm, while lupeol at 610nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed. PMID:25624210

Jyotshna; Srivastava, Pooja; Killadi, Bharti; Shanker, Karuna

2015-06-01

260

Tolerability and Efficacy of Retinoic Acid Given after Full-face Peel Treatment of Photodamaged Skin  

PubMed Central

Objective: All-trans retinoic acid is a well-established topical treatment of photodamaged skin. This study assessed the tolerance and efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid after full-face treatment with a chemical peel. Design: This was a split-face, randomized study. One side of each face was treated with peel and the other side with peel and all-trans retinoic acid (3%). Four treatments were given during the 10-week study period. Setting: Physician office. Participants: Fifteen female subjects 39 to 55 years of age. Measurements: Results were evaluated at Baseline; Weeks 4, 7, and 10; and at a 13-week follow-up visit by dermal grading of visual symptoms of irritation, subjective experiences of irritation, clinical grading of skin condition, and self-assessment questionnaires. Results: Both peel and peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatments achieved significant improvement in fine lines, radiance, roughness, skin tone clarity, skin tone evenness, and hyperpigmentation appearance. Improvement in wrinkles and firmness was not observed in the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid arm, while pore appearance failed to improve in either treatment arm. Improvement in overall facial appearance was greater in the peel alone arm. Peel alone and the addition of all-trans retinoic acid did not cause dryness, edema, or peeling, and the frequency of peel-induced erythema did not increase with the addition of all-trans retinoic acid. Subject-perceived improvements with the peel treatment did not differ significantly from subject-perceived improvements of the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatment. Adverse events requiring intervention or discontinuing treatment were not observed in either treatment arm. Conclusion: The addition of all-trans retinoic acid after peel treatment does not significantly enhance peel-induced improvement in photoaging parameters, peel-induced adverse effects, and subject-perceived improvements. PMID:22010055

Hu, Judy Y.; Biron, Julie A.; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Oresajo, Christian

2011-01-01

261

Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification  

PubMed Central

Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 ?g iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs. PMID:23818889

Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

2013-01-01

262

Individual and combined effects of postharvest dip treatments with water at 50 degrees C, soy lecithin and sodium carbonate on cold stored cactus pear fruits.  

PubMed

Objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prestorage dip treatments at 20 degrees C or 50 degrees C alone or with sodium carbonate (SC) and soy lecithin (LEC), either individually or in combination, on weight losses, peel disorders, overall appearance and decay of cactus pears. Fruits were subjected to a simulated Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) disinfestation by cold quarantine at 2 degrees C for 21 days followed by one week of shelf-life at 20 degrees C. Hot water alone was very effective in reducing peel disorders and decay both during cold storage and shelf-life. SC applied at 20 degrees C showed a weak control of decay and chilling injury, while its effectiveness significantly increased when the solution temperature was set to 50 degrees C. LEC was more effective in preserving freshness during cold storage, but after shelf-life decay incidence in fruit dipped in LEC at 20 degrees C or 50 degrees C was higher than in those dipped in water at 20 degrees C or 50 degrees C, respectively. Significant but moderate differences were detected among treatments in weight loss. After shelf-life, fruit dipped in the heated mixture of SC and LEC showed the lowest incidence of peel disorders and the highest percentage of marketable fruit, although decay incidence was slightly higher than in fruit treated with SC at 50 degrees C. SC and LEC used in combination at 50 degrees C improved fruit tolerance to chilling injury and reduced decay. PMID:23878975

D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Continella, A; La Malfa, S; Gentile, A; Schirra, M

2012-01-01

263

Long argan fruit drying time is detrimental for argan oil quality.  

PubMed

Argan oil is extracted from the kernels of argan fruits that have been sun-dried for either a few days or up to several weeks. The influence of the fruit drying time on the quantity, quality, and preservation of solvent-extracted argan oil was compared with press-extracted argan oil. Quantitatively, the time necessary for efficient fruit peeling and the amount of extracted oil were determined with regard to the fruit drying time (0 to 28 days). Argan oil quality was studied using, as markers, moisture content, specific extinction, acid index, peroxide index, fatty acid composition, and Rancimat oxidative stability. Oil from fresh fruit presents a high moisture content, high acidity and peroxide values, and short shelf life. Ten to fourteen days of sun-drying is optimum to obtain high quality argan oil. PMID:21213985

Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Kartah, Badr Eddine; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dom

2010-11-01

264

Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit  

PubMed Central

Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1?mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0?mg ?-carotene equivalents (BC)/100?g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R.

2013-01-01

265

Carbon nanotubes adhesion and nanomechanical behavior from peeling force spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Carbon nanotubes adhesion and nanomechanical behavior from peeling force spectroscopy Julien December 17, 2010 Abstract Applications based on Single Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) are good example such as adhesion energy per unit length, curvature and bending rigidity of the nanotube. A complete picture

Boyer, Edmond

266

PERFORMANCE AND MECHANISM OF METHYLENE BLUE BIOSORPTION ON ORANGE PEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution using orange peel biosorbent was experimentally investigated. The effects of dye concentration, solution pH, salt concentration and contact time were investigated in a batch model. The results showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached within one hour at two initial MB concentrations (200 and 1000 mg l). The uptake of MB was significantly

L. Cui; C. Liu; G. Wu

2008-01-01

267

Performance and mechanism of methylene blue biosorption on orange peel.  

PubMed

Biosorption of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution using orange peel biosorbent was experimentally investigated. The effects of dye concentration, solution pH, salt concentration and contact time were investigated in a batch model. The results showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached within one hour at two initial MB concentrations (200 and 1000 mg 1(-1)). The uptake of MB was significantly affected by the pH of dye solution. As the pH decreased, the uptake of MB decreased and was zero at pH 2. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted the experimental data well, and the maximum adsorption capacities of the orange peel were 246.8 +/- 10.6 and 370.3 +/- 31.0 mg g(-1) at pH 7 and pH 10, respectively. The uptake of MB was significantly affected by the high concentration of salts. Adsorption of MB onto orange peel was reversible, and the sorption/desorption efficiencies remained almost 100% even up to seven reuse cycles when the biosorbent loss was taken into consideration. The binding sites were identified to be primary carboxyl groups present in orange peel. The main mechanism of MB adsorption is considered to be electrostatic interaction. PMID:18844129

Cui, L; Liu, C; Wu, G

2008-09-01

268

Effect of a Punica granatum enriched diet on immunocompetence in Rhinella marina.  

PubMed

Direct ingestion of plant materials has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects on a variety of herbivores. Studies have also shown that compounds ingested indirectly by predators through prey items can affect the general physiology of the ingesting organism. Relatively little data exists, however, concerning the modulation of a predator's immune system via compounds obtained indirectly through prey. In this study, we sought to determine if the immune-stimulating properties of Punica granatum (pomegranate) could be conveyed from a prey organism, Acheta domestica, to a predator, Rhinella marina, through diet specialization. Experimental crickets were fed a diet of agar supplemented with 10?mg/mL of lyophilized, powdered, whole pomegranate while control crickets were fed unadulterated agar. Experimental toads consumed a diet consisting of crickets fed the pomegranate-enriched diet, while control toads consumed a diet consisting of crickets fed the standard agar diet. Blood samples were taken weekly and leukocyte profiles and neutrophil phagocytic activity were determined for all toads over an 8-week period. Complement activity was measured at 6 weeks. Toads fed the pomegranate-enriched diet showed altered leukocyte profiles as evidenced by an increase in circulating eosinophil number and a decrease in the number of circulating lymphocytes, monocytes, and basophils as compared to controls, indicating an immunomodulatory effect of the pomegranate-enhanced diet. These results suggest that pomegranate-derived immunomodulatory compounds can be transferred from prey to predator, and suggests that the flora in the environment where insectivores forage could have a significant effect on the physiology of the animal. PMID:24664895

Parker, Anna N; Ward, Chelsea K; Estes, N Robert

2014-07-01

269

Heavy metals in apple orchard soils and fruits and their health risks in Liaodong Peninsula, Northeast China.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the heavy metal concentrations in soils and fruits and their possible human health risk in apple orchards of Liaodong Peninsula-a well-known fruit-producing area of China. The soil pollution index (PI) and health risk assessment methods (daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI)) were employed to explore the soil pollution levels and the potential health hazards of heavy metals in fruits. The results showed that all orchard soils were with low PI values (PI ?1) for Cd and Zn, while 2.78 and 5.56% of the soil samples exceeded the allowable levels of Cr and Cu for orchard soil, respectively. The Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations for the apple flesh samples were all lower than the national maximum permissible concentrations. While 6.34% of apple peel samples for Cd, 76.5% of apple peel samples and 65.6% of apple flesh samples for Cr, and 28.1% of apple peel samples for Zn exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. Furthermore, both the DIM and the HRI values for all the apple flesh samples were within the safe limits, indicating that no health risk was found for heavy metals in the fruits of the study area. In order to protect the consumers from fruits that might cause health risks, results from this study suggested that the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be conducted for the orchards of Liaodong Peninsula. PMID:25433544

Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Cheng, Shuai

2015-01-01

270

Assimilation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues  

SciTech Connect

Assimilation and metabolism of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was compared to that of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the /sup 14/C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO/sub 2/ assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose.

Tomlinson, P.T.; Koch, K.E.

1987-04-01

271

Monoterpenes released from fruit, plant, and vegetable systems.  

PubMed

To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs) from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST)-thermal desorption (TD) method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID), consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99). This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V) samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris), tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice) marked ?-pinene, ?-pinene, myrcene, ?-terpinene, R-limonene, ?-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, ?-pinene was the most abundant MT (37%) for carrot, while it was myrcene (31%) for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed ?-pinene, ?-pinene, myrcene, ?-terpinene, and ?-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants. PMID:25268921

Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Hyeon

2014-01-01

272

Relationship between pollination and cell wall properties in common fig fruit.  

PubMed

Most botanical types in fig Ficus carica require pollination to fulfil their development and ensure quality onset of the fruit. Cell wall behaviour and composition was followed in fig fruit in response to pollination during maturity. Figs, when ripe, soften drastically and lose of their firmness and cell wall cohesion. Pollination increased peel thickness, flesh thickness, fresh weight and dry matter content of the fruit. Alcohol insoluble solids (AIS), more concentrated in the flesh tissue, were not influenced by the lack of pollination. Concentrations in uronic acids were higher in the AIS of the peel than that of the flesh and differences were significant between pollinated and non-pollinated fruits. Pectin polymers in figs were high methylated (DM>50). The methylation degree (DM) increased more with pollination affecting textural properties of the fig receptacle. The major neutral sugars from the AIS were glucose (Glc) from cellulose followed by arabinose (Ara). No significant changes in neutral sugars content could be allocated to pollination. Pollination is essential in fruit enlargement and softening. Minor changes were determined in the cell wall composition of the fruit at maturity. Fertile seeds resulting from pollination may possibly take place in hormonal activity stimulating many related enzymes of the wall matrix depolymerisation in particular polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME). PMID:24393459

Trad, Mehdi; Ginies, Christian; Gaaliche, Badii; Renard, Catherine M G C; Mars, Messaoud

2014-02-01

273

Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.  

PubMed

Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 ?m and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 ?g steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid ?g/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (E<5%) values. Predicted models were highly significant (p<0.05) for all parameters studied. This study indicates that UAE has strong potential as an extraction method for steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste. PMID:24582305

Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

2014-07-01

274

Modeling of the Peeling Process of Pressure-sensitive Adhesive Tapes with the Combination of Maxwell Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model for the peeling process of pressure-sensitive adhesive tape is presented. The model consists of linear springs and dashpots and can be solved analytically. Based on the modeling, the curved profile of the peeling tape is spontaneously determined in terms of viscoelastic properties of adhesives. Using this model, two experimental results are discussed: critical peel rates in the peel force and the peel rate dependence of the detachment process of adhesive from the substrate.

Sato, Katsuhiko; Toda, Akihiko

2004-08-01

275

Influence of ethylene action, storage atmosphere, and storage duration on diphenylamine and diphenylamine derivative content of Granny Smith apple peel.  

PubMed

The application of diphenylamine (DPA) to prevent the apple peel disorder superficial scald can result in accumulation of a number of DPA derivatives resulting from C-nitration, C-hydroxylation, O-methylation, and N-nitrosation during fruit storage. As the presence of these compounds may be indicative of metabolic processes leading to superficial scald development, the contents of DPA and DPA derivatives were determined in fruits treated at harvest with DPA or DPA plus the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which also prevents scald development. Influences of fruit maturity, storage environment, storage duration, and a 14 day poststorage ripening period on accumulation of DPA metabolites were also assessed. Poststorage ripening, 1-MCP treatment, and controlled atmosphere storage had varied effects on DPA derivative contents suggesting that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, such as *OH, *NO, and *NO2, or enzyme-catalyzed reactions may be present during certain ripening and senescence-related physiological processes. Definitive correlations between superficial scald incidence and contents of specific derivatives were not observed. PMID:16536620

Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Fellman, John K

2006-03-22

276

Quantification of multi-residue levels in peach juices, pulps and peels using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on floating organic droplet coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection.  

PubMed

In this paper, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and pyrethroid pesticides in peach was investigated by comparing their residual level in peach juice, pulps and peels using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO) combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Extraction conditions such as the type of extractant, volume of extractant and dispersant, salt effect and extraction time were optimized. For juice samples, the linearity of the method was obtained in the range of 10-2000 ng L(-1),with determination coefficients>0.99. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method were ranged between 2.8 and 18.5 ng L(-1). For pulp and peel samples, the developed method is linear over the range assayed, 1-20 ?g kg(-1),with coefficients also >0.99. The relative recoveries of compounds analyzed from juice, pulp and peel samples were in the range of 73-106% with a relative standard deviation between 2.6 and 11.8%. The proposed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of residues in real peach juice, pulp and peel samples. As a result, there were no target analytes found in peach juices and pulps while 3.3 ?g kg(-1) cyhalothrin and 3.5 ?g kg(-1) fenvalerate were found in peels. The experiment results revealed that the pyrethroid residues just deposited on the peels of the fruits, but did not move into pulps and juices. PMID:21703950

Matsadiq, Guzalnur; Hu, Hai-Li; Ren, Hai-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Wen; Liu, Lu; Cheng, Jing

2011-07-15

277

Chemotaxonomic Study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella Genotypes Based on Peel Oil Volatile Compounds - Deciphering the Genetic Origin of Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro)  

PubMed Central

Volatile profiles yielded from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis provide abundant information not only for metabolism-related research, but also for chemotaxonomy. To study the chemotaxonomy of Mangshanyegan, its volatile profiles of fruit and leaf and those of 29 other genotypes of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results showed that 145 identified (including 64 tentatively identified) and 15 unidentified volatile compounds were detected from their peel oils. The phylogenetic analysis of peel oils based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) demonstrated a good agreement with the Swingle taxonomy system, in which the three genera of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were almost completely separated. As to Citrus, HCA indicated that Citrophorum, Cephalocitrus, and Sinocitrus fell into three subgroups, respectively. Also, it revealed that Mangshanyegan contain volatile compounds similar to those from pummelo, though it is genetically believed to be a mandarin. These results were further supported by the principal component analysis of the peel oils and the HCA results of volatile profiles of leaves in the study. PMID:23516475

Liu, Cuihua; Jiang, Dong; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Fang, Liu; Ma, Zhaocheng; Xu, Juan

2013-01-01

278

Pectin methyl esterase from orange fruit: characterization and localization by in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Pectin methyl esterase (PME) from orange (Citrus sinensis L.) fruit peels has been purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, and ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography.\\u000a Characterization of the enzyme revealed a 36-kDa protein with an isoelectric point >9, a pH optimum at 7 and temperature optimum\\u000a at 50?°C. The substrate specificity and kinetic experiments showed that the affinity of PME for

Tove M. I. E. Christensen; John E. Nielsen; Jette D. Kreiberg; Preben Rasmussen; Jørn D. Mikkelsen

1998-01-01

279

Partial purification and some properties of polyphenol oxidase extracted from litchi fruit pericarp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit peel polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was partially purified 21 fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration. Pyrogallol, catechol, and 4-methylcatechol were good substrates for the enzyme; with no activity observed with chlorogenic acid, p-cresol, resorcinol, or tyrosine. The optimal pH for PPO activity was 7.0 with 4-methylcatechol, with the enzyme being most stable at pH

Jiang Yue-Ming; Giora Zauberman; Yoram Fuchs

1997-01-01

280

Antioxidant, Sugar, Mineral and Phytonutrient Concentrations Across Edible Fruit Tissues of Orange-Fleshed HoneyDew Melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange-fleshed honey dew melon (Cucumis melo L.) equatorial mesocarp was segmented into hypodermal (sub-peel), outer, middle, and inner (near the seed cavity) tissues and assayed for enzymatic antioxidants, fruit sugars, minerals, phytonutrients, and total protein concentrations. Moving inwards fro...

281

Vibrational spectroscopy for the evaluation of molecular perturbations induced in fruit lipids by cold storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrational spectroscopy (Raman, FT-IR-ATR) has been applied for the first time to the study of the mechanism of chilling stress and the monitoring of the best operative conditions for cold storage of fruit. In particular, this work deals with some results of the application of vibrational spectroscopy to the molecular characterization of lipidic extracts of fruits (apples and pears, pulp and peel) stored at low temperatures. The results have been obtained in a cooperative interdisciplinary research project performing experiments on fruits for one year cycles under different storage conditions of temperature (0°C, 8°C) and atmosphere (normal, controlled). The Raman spectra, useful for the evaluation of the transition temperature and the cooperative effect in the fruit membrane lipids, were masked by the strong resonance spectrum of carotenoids. The lipid unsaturation, the natural response to cold storage, was evaluated in the FT-IR-ATR spectra and expressed as the "total" unsaturation degree R = I{3012 cm -1}/{2858 cm -1}. The results on pulp and peel lipids have shown that the R value, higher in the pulps than peels, is dependent on the storage temperature and time. The increase in R is correlated with the higher fruit resistance to the chilling stress. Furthermore, the FT-IR spectra of the outer part of the fruits stored at 8°C show modifications of the carbonylic band at 1738 cm -1 (esteric group) such as the appearance of two other bands at 1715 and 1700 cm -1 increasing in intensity with storage time. These new components can be considered as molecular markers of the onset of a hydrolysis reaction and also of a partial peroxidation of the acylic unsaturated chains.

Bertoluzza, A.; Bottura, G.; Filippetti, P.; Tosi, M. R.; Vasina, M.; Pratella, G. C.; Folchi, A.; Gallerani, G.

1994-07-01

282

Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene  

PubMed Central

Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1?:?2 to 1?:?12 for 10 to 300?min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12?:?1 at 20°C for 10?min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217?m3 methane/kg?VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2015-01-01

283

A comparison of dynamic mechanical properties of processing-tomato peel as affected by hot lye and infrared radiation heating for peeling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the viscoelastic characteristics of tomato skins subjected to conventional hot lye peeling and emerging infrared-dry peeling by using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Three DMA testing modes, including temperature ramp, frequency sweep, and creep behavior test, were conduct...

284

Determination of carotenoids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of Arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh), an Amazonian fruit.  

PubMed

The fruit of Arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh) native to the Colombian Amazon is considered a potentially economically valuable fruit for the Andean economy due to its novel and unique taste. The fruit has an intense yellow color, but its chemical composition and properties have not been well studied. Here we report the identification and quantitation of carotenoids in the ripe fruit using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detector (PDA) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APcI) mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The qualitative carotenoid profile of the fruit according to maturity stage was also observed. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of the peel and pulp were assessed using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, in addition to chemical indexes and total phenolic content. Multiple carotenoids were identified in the peel and pulp including four xanthophylls (free and esterified as their mono and diesters) and two carotenes. One of the xanthophylls was tentatively identified as zeinoxanthin, while the others were identified as lutein, zeaxanthin, and ?-cryptoxanthin. Carotenes included ?-carotene and ?-carotene. The total carotenoid content was significantly higher in the peel (2484 ± 421 ?g/100 g FW) than in the pulp (806 ± 348 ?g/100 g FW) with lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, and zeinoxanthin as the major carotenoid components. The unique carotenoid composition of this fruit can differentiate it from other carotenoid-rich fruits and perhaps be useful in authentication procedures. Overall, results from this study suggest that Colombian Arazá may be a good edible source of carotenoids important in retinal health as well as carotenoids with provitamin A activity. Therefore, Arazá fruit can be used as a nutraceutical ingredient and in production of functional foods in the Colombian diet. PMID:22519635

Garzón, G Astrid; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kopec, Rachel E; Barry, Andrew M; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J

2012-05-01

285

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of pomegranate peel extracts.  

PubMed

Pomegranate peels of Ganesh variety were subjected to extraction using different solvents viz. water, methanol and ethanol either alone or in combination with water. The extraction yield, antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS inhibition) and total phenolic contents were evaluated. Highest yield was obtained from 50 % ethanol: 50 % water (16.3?±?1.99 %). The DPPH and ABTS inhibition activity was found to be the highest for methanol and 70 % ethanol: 30 % water extract (79.5?±?6.5; 94.6?±?6.10), respectively. The phenolic content was the highest in the aqueous extract (438.3?±?14.15). The antibacterial activity of peel extracts was tested against four bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the extracts demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activities against all the tested bacterial strains. The 70 % ethanol: 30 % water and 100 % water extract had a higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content and has the potential for nutraceutical application. PMID:25477693

Malviya, Shalini; Arvind; Jha, Alok; Hettiarachchy, Navam

2014-12-01

286

Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.  

PubMed

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm. PMID:24738409

Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

2014-06-01

287

Laserpeel: a peeling concept revolution with laser resurfacing protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author who is inventor of EasyPeel then Laserpeel wants to introduce new ways to choose the right indications for patients asking for cosmetic surgery. A lifting is as if you take a shirt and want to reduce its size cutting it. A resurfacing is as if you put a shirt and want to iron it. A peeling was as if you changed the color and grain of the shirt. Laserpeel is as if you iron the shirt treated with amidon, transform the second hand shirt as new, up to date on with glance effect sand give it then a stretching disco new wave effect. So, indications of facial lifting decrease at the same speed at the increase of indications of 'LASERPEEL'. Laser CO2 resurfacing should reborn because the post redness appearance decreases in intensity and duration due to LASERPEEL. LASERPEEL should be considered too as a preventive therapy coupled with preventive treatment resulting from longevity tests.

Tenenbaum, Alain

2000-06-01

288

Anticandidal activity of pomegranate peel extract aerosol as an applicable sanitizing method.  

PubMed

Pomegranate is a wonderful fruit from the paradise which contains a wide variety of precious phytochemical compounds applicable in the fields of therapeutics and health care. Candida albicans is the most common etiological agent for many clinical mycoses which could lead to human and animal death. Determination of the anticandidal activity of pomegranate peel extracts (PPE), and application of PPE aerosol as sanitizer agent against C. albicans contamination were investigated. Agar diffusion assay and broth microdilution susceptibility test were applied for qualitative and quantitative determining the PPE anticandidal activity, respectively, versus commonly used fungicides. Aerosolization of PPE using an experimentally designed sanitizer room was applied for examining C. albicans sanitation potentiality of extract. PPE exhibited potent anticandidal activity against C. albicans strains comparing with standard fungicides in both used susceptibility techniques. Methanol, ethanol and water extracts were the most effective for inhibiting C. albicans growth. PPE aerosol was an efficient method for complete sanitizing of semi-closed places against C. albicans growth. Application of PPE aerosol is a proper sanitizing method for preventing C. albicans contamination and growth in suspected places. PMID:19207830

Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F

2010-03-01

289

Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed

María Boluda-Aguilar; Lidia García-Vidal; Fayiny del Pilar González-Castañeda; Antonio López-Gómez

2010-01-01

290

Monoterpenoid coumarins from the peels of Clausena lansium.  

PubMed

A phytochemical investigation on the peels of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels led to the isolation of two new monoterpenoid coumarins, named clauslactone V (1) and clauslactone W (2), together with three known analogues (3-5). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, MS, 1D and 2D?NMR). All the compounds were evaluated for hypoglycemic activity, and compounds 1-5 showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. PMID:25046576

Deng, Hui-Dong; Mei, Wen-Li; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Liu, Shuai; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Dong, Wen-Hua; Li, Shao-Peng; Dai, Hao-Fu

2014-07-01

291

Supercritical CO 2 extraction of essential oils from orange peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of orange essential oil was studied using dehydrated orange peel (0.0538 kg H2O kg?1 dm) from naveline cultivars as raw material and CO2 as solvent. The effect of operation conditions was analyzed in a series of experiments at 313 and 323 K and pressures between 1 and 25 MPa. Furthermore, the effect of CO2 flow rate

A. Berna; M BLASCO; S SUBIRATS

1996-01-01

292

Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

2013-11-01

293

Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes  

PubMed Central

The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1–MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein–protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278

Lu, Wang-jin

2013-01-01

294

Antioxidant properties of peel and pulp hydro extract in ten Persian pomegranate cultivars.  

PubMed

This study compares the antioxidant activity of ten different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran using the ferric reducing power assay (FRAP assay), which is based on the reduction of a ferric-tripyridyl triazine complex to its ferrous, colored form in the presence of antioxidants. Aqueous solutions of known Fe(+2) concentration, in the range of 100-1000 micromol L(-1) were used for calibration. The results showed that among pulp and peel fractions the sour alac and sweet white peel cultivars had more FRAP value respectively. The pomegranate peel extract had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than the pulp extract. The peel extract of sweet white peel cultivar appeared to have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants compared to the pulp and peel extracts of other pomegranate cultivars. PMID:18819648

Hajimahmoodi, M; Oveisi, M R; Sadeghi, N; Jannat, B; Hadjibabaie, M; Farahani, E; Akrami, M R; Namdar, R

2008-06-15

295

Temperature-dependent autoxidation of conjugated trienols from apple peel yields 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, a volatile implicated in induction of scald.  

PubMed

Conjugated triene (CT) oxidation products of alpha-farnesene have long been thought to be involved in development of superficial scald in apple fruit. Early studies found that CT hydroperoxides and the volatile 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (MHO) are major in vitro autoxidation products of alpha-farnesene. However, it was recently shown that > or =99% of the oxidation products of alpha-farnesene that accumulate in apple peel are conjugated trienols (CTols), isomers of 2,6,10-trimethyldodeca-2,7,9,11-tetraene-6-ol. HPLC-purified CTols from fruit of two scald-susceptible cultivars, Granny Smith (GS) and Red Delicious (RD), were used to study autoxidation of these compounds in vitro. Incubation of CTols in sealed glass vials under air resulted in accumulation of MHO. Oxygen enrichment did not increase the amount of MHO produced. Regardless of which cultivar CTols were derived from, at 0 degrees C autoxidation yielding MHO was quite slow and linear, whereas at 20 degrees C MHO production was much more rapid, and after several hours the rate increased abruptly. However, CTols isolated from GS and RD fruit differed in the duration of the initial lag phase and the overall level of MHO generated at 20 degrees C. The sharp increase in MHO production occurred after 3 h with GS CTols and at about 12 h with RD CTols. Also, the yield of MHO from GS CTols after 6 h at 20 degrees C was nearly 6-fold greater than that from RD CTols after 20 h at 20 degrees C. The antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and diphenyamine reduced the yield of MHO by about 97%. Recent work has shown that MHO can induce scald-like symptoms in apple peel and that tissue sensitivity increases with time in storage. This may explain the correlation between high CTol levels and scald development, and why symptoms rapidly intensify when fruits are removed from cold storage. PMID:10888495

Whitaker, B D; Saftner, R A

2000-06-01

296

Tomato FRUITFULL homologs regulate fruit ripening via ethylene biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Certain MADS-box transcription factors play central roles in regulating fruit ripening. RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a tomato MADS-domain protein, acts as a global regulator of ripening, affecting the climacteric rise of ethylene, pigmentation changes, and fruit softening. Previously, we showed that two MADS-domain proteins, the FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2, form complexes with RIN. Here, we characterized the FUL1/FUL2 loss-of-function phenotype in co-suppressed plants. The transgenic plants produced ripening-defective fruits accumulating little or no lycopene. Unlike a previous study on FUL1/FUL2 suppressed tomatoes, our transgenic fruits showed very low levels of ethylene production, and this was associated with suppression of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene synthesis. FUL1/FUL2 suppression also caused the fruit to soften in a manner independent of ripening, possibly due to reduced cuticle thickness in the peel of the suppressed tomatoes. PMID:25036675

Shima, Yoko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

297

The maturity characterization of orange fruit by using high frequency ultrasonic echo pulse method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this present work, we develop a new ultrasonic echo pulse method in order to study the feasibility of maturity assessment of orange fruit. This study concerns two varieties of orange (Navel and Mandarin) which are the most harvested in the region of Souss-Massa-Dr?a in Morocco. We worked in the range of high frequencies by the means of a focusing transducer with 20MHz as a central frequency. By taking into account the strong attenuation of the ultrasounds in the texture of fruits and vegetables, we limited our study only to the external layer of orange peel. This control is based mainly on the measure of the ultrasonic parameters eventually velocity and attenuation in order to check the aptitude of this technique to detect the maturity degree of the fruit without passing by penetrometric and biochemical measurements which are generally destructives but the mostly correlated with human perception concerning the firmness of the fruit.

Aboudaoud, I.; Faiz, B.; Aassif, E.; Moudden, A.; Izbaim, D.; Abassi, D.; Malainine, M.; Azergui, M.

2012-12-01

298

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of d-limonene concentration, enzyme loading, and pH on ethanol production from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 37°C. Prior to SSF, citrus peel waste underwent a steam explosion process to remove more than 90% of the initial d-limonene present in the peel waste. d-Limonene is known to inhibit yeast

Mark R. Wilkins; Wilbur W. Widmer; Karel Grohmann

2007-01-01

299

Fruit organ cultures.  

PubMed

The culture of fruit tissues as whole organs or isolated tissue sections has been conducted with various species (1). Whole, isolated ovaries have been successfully cultured to give rise to mature fruits (e.g., strawberry). Typically, however, when an isolated portion of the fruit tissue is introduced into a sterile environment, it immediately loses structural integrity and degenerates into a rapidly dividing callus mass (2). Loss of structural integrity is correspondingly associated with an alteration of physiology that is subsequently reflected in the production of an altered metabolism. Therefore, a meaningful study of fruit development using callus derived from fruit tissues is often not possible. Recently, we studied the parameters involved in the maintenance of citrus fruit tissue integrity (2). In this paper, the culture of isolated fruit tissues, as well as half and whole fruit culture, is demonstrated using the lemon fruit (Fig. 1-3). PMID:21390600

Tisserat, B; Galletta, P D; Jones, D

1990-01-01

300

Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.  

PubMed

Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645

Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

2012-05-01

301

Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit  

PubMed Central

Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves (‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’) and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY ‘Hamlin’, HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY ‘Valencia’, the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY ‘Valencia’ JV than in SY ‘Hamlin’ JV. More genes were also affected in AS ‘Valencia’ FF and VT than in AS ‘Valencia’ JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645

Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

2012-01-01

302

Influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on sebum secretion in ageing women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Azelaic acid and mandelic acid are superficial peels commonly applied in people of various age groups. As they are mild and do not cause any side effects, they are also often used in elderly people. Aim To compare the influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on facial sebum secretion in mature women aged 49-71 years. Material and methods The level of secreted sebum was measured in 28 women. Eleven women were treated with azelaic acid peel and 17 with mandelic acid peel. Each of the peels was applied five times with 2-week intervals. The measurements were made on the cheeks and chin with the use of Sebumeter SM 15 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany). The last measurement, i.e. the sixth one, was made 2 weeks after the treatment. Results We observed a significant increase in sebum secretion in the U-zone after the application of 20% azelaic peel and 40% mandelic peel. Neither peel significantly affected sebum secretion in the T-zone. Conclusions Peels with 20% azelaic acid and 40% mandelic acid might be considered treatments which contribute to an increase in sebum secretion in ageing women. PMID:24278065

Wójcik, Aneta; Kubiak, Marlena

2013-01-01

303

A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments  

PubMed Central

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

2013-01-01

304

Utility of Metabolomics toward Assessing the Metabolic Basis of Quality Traits in Apple Fruit with an Emphasis on Antioxidants  

PubMed Central

A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry approach was employed to evaluate the use of metabolite patterns to differentiate fruit from six commercially grown apple cultivars harvested in 2008. Principal component analysis (PCA) of apple fruit peel and flesh data indicated that individual cultivar replicates clustered together and were separated from all other cultivar samples. An independent metabolomics investigation with fruit harvested in 2003 confirmed the separate clustering of fruit from different cultivars. Further evidence for cultivar separation was obtained using a hierarchical clustering analysis. An evaluation of PCA component loadings revealed specific metabolite classes that contributed the most to each principal component, whereas a correlation analysis demonstrated that specific metabolites correlate directly with quality traits such as antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins, which are important parameters in the selection of breeding germplasm. These data sets lay the foundation for elucidating the metabolic basis of commercially important fruit quality traits. PMID:22881116

Cuthbertson, Daniel; Andrews, Preston K.; Reganold, John P.; Davies, Neal M.; Lange, B. Markus

2012-01-01

305

Fruit-based Natural Antioxidants in Meat and Meat Products: A Review.  

PubMed

Due to the potential toxic effects of synthetic antioxidants, natural antioxidant sources especially fruits are being preferred now-a-days for use in different meat products. The majority of the antioxidant capacity of a fruit is especially because of numerous phenolic compounds. Many of the phytochemicals present in fruits may help protect cells against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancers, and neurological diseases. Various parts of the fruit including their byproducts like skin and seeds have been used in meat products. Plum has been used as plum puree, prunes (dried plum), and plum extracts. Grape skin, seed, peel extracts, and grape pomace; berries as cakes and powder extracts; pomegranate rind powder and its juice; and most of the citrus fruits have proved beneficial sources of antioxidants. All these natural sources have effectively reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values and free radical frequency. Thus, lipid oxidation is prevented and shelf life is greatly enhanced by incorporating various kinds of fruits and their byproducts in meat and meat products. There is a great scope for the use of fruits as natural sources of antioxidants in meat industry. The review is intended to provide an overview of the fruit-based natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. PMID:24915314

Ahmad, S R; Gokulakrishnan, P; Giriprasad, R; Yatoo, M A

2015-09-19

306

Fun Fruit: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Children's Museum of Houston

2004-01-01

307

BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

308

How Do Fruits Ripen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

309

FUTURE FRUIT EXPLORATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fruits of the earth have nurtured and intrigued humanity throughout history. Genome complexities of cultivated fruit species combined with people’s increased nutritional needs insure that the future will be no different. Prospecting for wild fruit will continue. The global nature of science and ...

310

Physicochemical and functional properties of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin flour.  

PubMed

This study was intended to investigate the potential of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp as a raw material for the production of flour that could be used in composite blend with wheat flour or as a functional ingredient in food products. The peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp were soaked in sodium metabisulphite solution, sliced and dried overnight in a hot air oven, followed by milling into peeled pumpkin pulp flour (PPPF) and unpeeled pumpkin pulp flour (UPPF), respectively. The flours were then evaluated for physicochemical attributes (color, proximate compositions, and water activity) and functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity), in comparison to the commercial wheat flour. PPPF and UPPF were observed to be more attractive in terms of color than wheat flour, as indicated by the significantly higher results (P or= 0.05) was shown in water holding capacity of PPPF and wheat flour. However, the oil holding capacity of PPPF and UPPF was shown to be significantly higher (P

Noor Aziah, A A; Komathi, C A

2009-09-01

311

Submerged citric acid fermentation on orange peel autohydrolysate.  

PubMed

The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation. PMID:18321055

Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

2008-04-01

312

Identification, Synthesis, and Characterization of Novel Sulfur-Containing Volatile Compounds from the In-Depth Analysis of Lisbon Lemon Peels (Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon).  

PubMed

Lemons (Citrus limon) are a desirable citrus fruit grown and used globally in a wide range of applications. The main constituents of this sour-tasting fruit have been well quantitated and characterized. However, additional research is still necessary to better understand the trace volatile compounds that may contribute to the overall aroma of the fruit. In this study, Lisbon lemons (C. limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon) were purchased from a grove in California, USA, and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Fractionation and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were utilized to separate, focus, and enhance unidentified compounds. In addition, these methods were employed to more accurately assign flavor dilution factors by aroma extract dilution analysis. Numerous compounds were identified for the first time in lemons, including a series of branched aliphatic aldehydes and several novel sulfur-containing structures. Rarely reported in citrus peels, sulfur compounds are known to contribute significantly to the aroma profile of the fruit and were found to be aroma-active in this particular study on lemons. This paper discusses the identification, synthesis, and organoleptic properties of these novel volatile sulfur compounds. PMID:25639384

Cannon, Robert J; Kazimierski, Arkadiusz; Curto, Nicole L; Li, Jing; Trinnaman, Laurence; Ja?czuk, Adam J; Agyemang, David; Da Costa, Neil C; Chen, Michael Z

2015-02-25

313

Carbazole alkaloids from the peels of Clausena lansium.  

PubMed

A new carbazole alkaloid, claulansine K (1), together with six known carbazole alkaloids (2-7), was isolated from the peels of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels. The new compound was elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, COSY, and ROESY) techniques, and HR-EI-MS analyses. Compound 1 showed in vitro ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 value of 0.11 mM. Compound 2 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with the diameter of inhibition zone of 14.2 mm. PMID:24993293

Deng, Hui-Dong; Mei, Wen-Li; Wang, Hui; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Dong, Wen-Hua; Wang, Hao; Li, Shao-Peng; Dai, Hao-Fu

2014-10-01

314

Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO3. Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4 h at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35 ± 5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation.

Kumar, Rajendran; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Chakroborty, Subhendu

2012-05-01

315

The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.  

PubMed

Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

2014-08-01

316

AFLP and SCAR Markers Associated with Peel Color in Eggplant ( Solanum melongena)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peel color is an important breeding objective for eggplant. Dark purple and purplish red are the most common colors in commercial eggplant cultivars. A co-dominant amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker which was associated with the peel color (each in coupling phase to dark purple and purplish red) was found in studying the genetic diversity in 58 eggplant accessions (contained

Yi LIAO; Bao-juan SUN; Guang-wen SUN; Hou-cheng LIU; Zhi-liang LI; Zhen-xing LI; Guo-ping WANG; Ri-yuan CHEN

2009-01-01

317

Feasibility Study of Using Infrared Radiation Heating as a Sustainable Tomato Peeling Method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yye peeling technique is putting both environmental and economic pressure on California tomato processing industry due to its associated salinity issues and wastewater disposal problems. This study is aimed at developing alternative peeling methods with reduced or no caustic usage to produce hi...

318

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF GRAPEFRUIT PEEL TO PRODUCE ETHANOL AND OTHER PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over 1 million tons of grapefruit were processed in 2003/04 resulting in 500,000 tons of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested several different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes to hydrolyze grap...

319

Removal of dyes from colored textile wastewater by orange peel adsorbent: Equilibrium and kinetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. Orange peel was collected from the fields of orange trees in the north of Iran and converted into a low-cost adsorbent. This paper deals with the removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions by orange peel.

Mokhtar Arami; Nargess Yousefi Limaee; Niyaz Mohammad Mahmoodi; Nooshin Salman Tabrizi

2005-01-01

320

Optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to determine the effects of ethanol concentration (%), extraction temperature (oC), and extraction time (min) on total phenolic content (TPC) from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels. The

Wan Aida; Jalan Menara Gading

321

Production of macerating enzymes of mandarin orange peel by fungal cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine fungal cultures belonging to the genera of Aspergillus, Podospora, Sordaria, Cbaetomium, Iodophanus, Scleotinia, Coniella, Pellicularia and others, were examined for the production of enzymes which macerate the mandarin orange peel using a wheat bran as substrate. An isolated strain of Aspergillus niger was an excellent producer of macerating enzymes compared to other organisms tested. The peel of the mandarin

Naomichi Nishio; Shiro Nagai

1979-01-01

322

Electrical transients generated by the peel of a pressure sensitive adhesive tape from a copper substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact electrification during the formation of adhesive bonds can lead to transient electrical signals and even electrical discharges when these bonds are subsequently broken. We present detailed measurements of the electrical current generated by peeling a pressure sensitive adhesive from an electropolished Cu substrate in air and in vacuum. The magnitude of this current depends strongly upon the peel speed.

S. Lee; L. C. Jensen; S. C. Langford; J. T. Dickinson

1995-01-01

323

Properties of the Photon Emission Accompanying the Peeling of a Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the peeling of pressure-sensitive adhesives, it is well known that visible light is emitted from the region near the detachment zone. This photon emission due to adhesive failure is a unique form of triboluminescence. In this paper, we further investigate the properties of this light from the peeling of a filament tape with a natural rubber-resin adhesive from its

Ma Zhenyi; Fan Jiawen; J. T. Dickinson

1988-01-01

324

Alteration of 'Granny Smith' Apple Peel Metabolic Profiles by Postharvest UV/Visable Irradiation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Light exposure stimulates an array of responses in apple peel including photosynthesis and pigment metabolism. While the specifics of many metabolic processes stimulated by light are known, impacts of light on primary metabolism in apple peel are relatively uncharacterized. ‘Granny Smith’ apples, ...

325

Overexpression of petunia chalcone isomerase in tomato results in fruit containing increased levels of flavonols.  

PubMed

Tomatoes are an excellent source of the carotenoid lycopene, a compound that is thought to be protective against prostate cancer. They also contain small amounts of flavonoids in their peel ( approximately 5-10 mg/kg fresh weight), mainly naringenin chalcone and the flavonol rutin, a quercetin glycoside. Flavonols are very potent antioxidants, and an increasing body of epidemiological data suggests that high flavonoid intake is correlated with a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. We have upregulated flavonol biosynthesis in the tomato in order to generate fruit with increased antioxidant capacity and a wider range of potential health benefit properties. This involved transformation of tomato with the Petunia chi-a gene encoding chalcone isomerase. Resulting transgenic tomato lines produced an increase of up to 78 fold in fruit peel flavonols, mainly due to an accumulation of rutin. No gross phenotypical differences were observed between high-flavonol transgenic and control lines. The phenotype segregated with the transgene and demonstrated a stable inheritance pattern over four subsequent generations tested thus far. Whole-fruit flavonol levels in the best of these lines are similar to those found in onions, a crop with naturally high levels of flavonol compounds. Processing of high-flavonol tomatoes demonstrated that 65% of flavonols present in the fresh fruit were retained in the processed paste, supporting their potential as raw materials for tomato-based functional food products. PMID:11329019

Muir, S R; Collins, G J; Robinson, S; Hughes, S; Bovy, A; Ric De Vos, C H; van Tunen, A J; Verhoeyen, M E

2001-05-01

326

Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional Chinese medicinal food ingredients in China.  

PubMed

Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in flavonoid composition. Huyou peel (C. paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou) was found to be the best naringin (3.25%) and neohesperidin (2.76%) source; C. aurantium, a major ingredient of several citrus-related TCM, is also a suitable source of naringin and neohesperidin, and a good juice source for flavanone glycosides; the peel of Wenzhoumiju (C. unshiu) is one of the richest local species in hesperidin (up to 6.25%); Zaoju (C. subcompressa) has the highest content of nobiletin (0.59%), a polymethoxylated flavone. LC-ES-MS analysis of Zanthoxylum genus for flavonoids revealed for the first time the presence of significant amounts (0.74%) of hesperidin in the root of Liangmianzhen (Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC), a relative of Sichuan pepper, which is a spice widely used in China. PMID:16816988

Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Chongwei; Bucheli, Peter; Wei, Dongzhi

2006-06-01

327

Characterization of orange peel pectin and effect of sugars, l-ascorbic acid, ammonium persulfate, salts on viscosity of orange peel pectin solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl, acetyl, ash contents and optical rotation of pectin obtained by a HCl extraction procedure (90°C, pH=2.5, 90min) were found to be 74.30, 12.15, 0.37, 6.07% (DM basis) and +252° respectively. The degree of methylation was found to be over 50%, indicating that the orange peel pectin had a high methoxyl content.The reduced viscosities of orange peel pectin

F Kar; N Arslan

1999-01-01

328

Functional analysis of unfermented and fermented citrus peels and physical properties of citrus peel-added doughs for bread making.  

PubMed

Several studies have indicated citrus peels (CP) contain specific methoxy flavones, e.g. nobiletin and tangeretin, which have been shown to prevent numerous diseases. However, research reports regarding their application as food additive in healthy baked products is scarce. In our study, both unfermented (UF) and fermented (F) citrus peels were processed under different dry hot-air temperatures to make four citrus peel powders , UF-100 °C,UF-150 °C, F-100 °C, F-150 °C, respectively. The analysis of the basic components and nutraceuticals as well as antioxidant activity were conducted. Various percentages of CP were added to dough and toast bread for physical property and sensory evaluations. The results indicated the contents of crude proteins (3.3-4.3 mg/g) and fibers (10.9-14.9 %) among the four samples were similar. The UF extracts showed better antioxidant activities than F extracts. HPLC analysis indicated the contents of hesperidine, nobiletin and tangeretin in CP extracts were UF-150 °C?>?UF-100 °C. Farinograph analysis indicated a linear relation between CP powder content and the parameters of the physical properties of dough. A high percentage of fibrous CP powder in dough increases the water adsorption capacity of the dough, resulting in a decrease in its stability The sensory evaluation results indicated a greater acceptability of UF-added toast bread relative to the F-added one. Among these, according to the statistical anaylsis, the UF-150 °C 4 % and UF-100 °C 6 % groups were the best and F-150 °C 2 % group was the poorest in overall acceptability. PMID:25477647

Shyu, Yung-Shin; Lu, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chuan-Chuan

2014-12-01

329

Cassava peel as a replacement for corn in the diet of lactating cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the replacement of corn with cassava peel in the diets of dairy cows. Eight Holstein cows were used. The experimental treatments consisted of four replacement levels of corn with cassava peel (0, 33, 66, and 100 %). The replacement of corn with cassava peel linearly decreased the intake and digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, but did not alter the intake of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein. In addition, there was a linear decrease in milk production. The milk components (g/kg) of fat, protein, lactose, and total solids were not altered. Although cassava peel decreased intake, digestibility, and milk production, the replacement of corn with cassava peel may be advantageous in locations close to the starch industry. PMID:25686553

Dos Santos, Viviany Lúcia Fernandes; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Dos Santos, Geraldo Tadeu; Damasceno, Julio Cesar; de Oliveira, Kelly; Agostino, Bruna Calvo; Olivo, Paula Martins; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; de Lima Silva, Janaina

2015-04-01

330

Destabilization of low-n peeling modes by trapped energetic particles  

SciTech Connect

The kinetic effect of trapped energetic particles (EPs), arising from perpendicular neutral beam injection, on the stable low-n peeling modes in tokamak plasmas is investigated, through numerical solution of the mode's dispersion relation derived from an energy principle. A resistive-wall peeling mode with m/n=6/1, with m and n being the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively, is destabilized by trapped EPs as the EPs' pressure exceeds a critical value ?{sub c}{sup *}, which is sensitive to the pitch angle of trapped EPs. The dependence of ?{sub c}{sup *} on the particle pitch angle is eventually determined by the bounce average of the mode eigenfunction. Peeling modes with higher m and n numbers can also be destabilized by trapped EPs. Depending on the wall distance, either a resistive-wall peeling mode or an ideal-kink peeling mode can be destabilized by EPs.

Hao, G. Z.; Wang, A. K.; Mou, Z. Z.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, PO Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, PO Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Matsunaga, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2013-06-15

331

New formulation of chemical peeling agent: histological evaluation in sun-damaged skin model in hairless mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: chemical peelings injure the superficial skin, which is then restored by healing of the wound. Objectives: to document the acute and chronic histological changes produced by applying chemical peeling agents used clinically to the UVB-irradiated skin of hairless mice, which served as a model of sun-damaged skin. Design: three chemical peeling agents, 30% salicylic acid, dissolved in macrogol (a

Midori Isoda; Setsuko Ueda; Shuhei Imayama; Kazue Tsukahara

2001-01-01

332

Surface modification of polyethylene by radiation-induced grafting for adhesive bonding. IV. Improvement in wet peel strength. [Gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesive joints of hydrolyzed methyl acrylate grafts, bonded with epoxy adhesives, yield extremely high peel strength (adherend failure) in dry conditions. However, when the joints are exposed to humid environments, the peel strength rapidly decreases with exposure time and then reaches a constant value (wet peel strength). Since the locus of failure changes from the adherend to the homopolymer layer

S. Yamakawa; F. Yamamoto

1980-01-01

333

Modeling of the Peeling Process of Pressure-sensitive Adhesive Tapes with the Combination of Maxwell Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model for the peeling process of pressure-sensitive adhesive tape is presented. The model consists of linear springs and dashpots and can be solved analytically. Based on the modeling, the curved profile of the peeling tape is spontaneously determined in terms of viscoelastic properties of adhesives. Using this model, two experimental results are discussed: critical peel rates in the

Katsuhiko Sato; Akihiko Toda

2004-01-01

334

Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil1 fertility in the tropics2  

E-print Network

1 Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil1 fertility of different organic amendments, bitter manioc peel (M), sawdust (Sw) and charcoal6 (Ch), on soil nutrient were lowest in9 unamended soil. The application of a mixture of manioc peel and charcoal (M+Ch)10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

Regiospecific Ester Hydrolysis by Orange Peel Esterase - An Undergraduate Experiment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple but effective experiment has been developed to demonstrate the regiospecificity of enzyme catalysis using an esterase activity easily isolated from orange peel. The experiment involves the preparation of diester derivatives of para-, meta- and ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid (e.g. methyl 4-acetoxy-benzoic acid). The derivatives are incubated with orange peel esterase, as a crude extract, and with commercially available pig liver esterase and porcine pancreatic lipase. The enzymatic hydrolysis reactions are monitored by thin layer chromatography, revealing which of the two ester groups is hydrolysed, and the rate of the enzyme-catalysed reaction. The results of a group experiment revealed that in all cases hydrolysis was observed with at least one enzyme, and in most cases the enzymatic hydrolysis was specific for production of either the hydroxy-ester or acyl-acid product. Specificity towards the ortho-substituted series was markedly different to that of the para-substituted series, which could be rationalised in the case of pig liver esterase by a published active site model.

Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Lewin, Andrew M.; Catlin, Eric R.

1997-01-01

336

Pomegranate peel attenuates aluminum-induced hepatorenal toxicity.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to determine the potential role of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel (MEPP) in modulating aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced hepatorenal toxicity in female rats. The effect of MEPP (200 mg/kg?bwt) on AlCl3 (34 mg/kg?bwt) induced hepatorenal toxicity, accumulation of aluminum (Al), hepatorenal functions and oxidant/antioxidant status of liver and kidney were determined. The changes of liver and kidney structures were investigated with hematoxyline and eosin, in addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of MEPP was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The present study showed an indication of carcinogenicity in the AlCl3 treated group represented by an increase in tumor necrosis factor-? and angiogenin and inflammation by inducing an increase in prostaglandin E2 and F2?. MEPP protected liver and kidney through reduce the Al accumulation, stimulated antioxidant activities and elevated the anti-apoptotic protein namely Bcl-2. Therefore, these results indicated that the methanolic extract of pomegranate peel has beneficial influences and could be able to inhibit Al-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alternations in liver and kidney of female rats, and these effects may be related to anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activities. PMID:23837566

Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Othman, Mohamed S; Mohmoud, Sahar M; El-Deib, Kamal M

2013-10-01

337

Effect of reddening-ripening on the antioxidant activity of polyphenol extracts from cv. 'Annurca' apple fruits.  

PubMed

Apple is among the most consumed fruits worldwide, and several studies suggest that apple polyphenols could play a role in the prevention of degenerative diseases. 'Annurca' apple fruit undergoes, after harvest, a typical reddening treatment to turn the apples' skin red, and it is noted for its high firmness. This paper reports the effect of reddening-ripening treatment on polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity of both peel and flesh extracts. The in vitro antioxidant properties have been compared with the protective effect against the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species using Caco-2 cells as model system. Pretreatment of cells with different polyphenolic apple extracts provides a remarkable protection against oxidative damage. This effect seems to be associated with the antioxidant activity of 'Annurca' apple polyphenolic compounds. The flesh has antioxidant properties comparable to those possessed by the peel. Neither the reddening nor the fruit conservation causes changes in the antioxidant properties possessed by this apple variety. The data indicate that polyphenolic compounds in 'Annurca' apples are relatively stable in the peel and also in the flesh; therefore, the health benefits of polyphenols should be maintained during long-term storage. Finally, a diet rich in apple antioxidants could exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of intestinal pathologies related to the production of reactive oxygen species. PMID:17960886

D'Angelo, Stefania; Cimmino, Amelia; Raimo, Marianna; Salvatore, Anna; Zappia, Vincenzo; Galletti, Patrizia

2007-11-28

338

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Punica granatum mesocarp, Nelumbo nucifera Leaf, Psidium guajava Leaf and Coffea Canephora Extract on Common Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Alternative therapies are increasingly being explored as extensive use of synthetic chemicals has led to the emergence of substantial side effects. Phytomedicine has been well practiced as traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of oral diseases. It has gained importance of late as an alternative to the conventional therapy. Various plant and fruit extracts have been monitored recently to assess their potential against the common oral pathogens. Aim of this study was to assess in-vitro efficacy of pomegranate peel, lotus leaf, guava leaf and coffee extracts on oral microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared for each, followed by efficacy testing using disc diffusion method against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans. Results: All the four extracts were found to be effective against S.mutans and S.mitis, with maximum efficacy against S.mutans and S.mitis displayed by pomegranate and lotus. Antifungal efficacy was demonstrated by coffee and pomegranate. Guava, lotus and coffee were effective against P.intermedia, while only coffee was found to be effective against P. gingivalis. All the results were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Interpretation & Conclusion: Pomegranate, guava, lotus and coffee displayed significant anticariogenic effect while coffee was found to be most effective against periodontal pathogens as well as Candida albicans. Results revealed that natural products may be used as economical and suitable adjuvant to synthetic medicines and compounds and their judicious use might not only help to inhibit the side effects of synthetic chemicals but also prove to be cost effective in developing economies. PMID:25177642

Mehta, Viral V.; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; B.H, Mithun Pai

2014-01-01

339

Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.  

PubMed

This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, ?-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (P<0.05) bioactive content than their respective fruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry. PMID:24054258

Ribeiro da Silva, Larissa Morais; Teixeira de Figueiredo, Evania Altina; Silva Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes; Pinto Vieira, Icaro Gusmao; Wilane de Figueiredo, Raimundo; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

2014-01-15

340

Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.  

PubMed

An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of this information to the general public), on the chemistry and biological and physiological functions of these "superfoods" are necessary. PMID:18211023

Seeram, Navindra P

2008-02-13

341

Physical and chemical characteristics of golden-yellow and purple-red varieties of tamarillo fruit (Solanum betaceum Cav.).  

PubMed

Golden-yellow and purple-red tamarillos (Solanum betaceum Cav.) cultivated in Ecuador were studied for their physical properties, proximate composition, pH, degrees Brix, acidity, sugars, organic acids, minerals, vitamin C and beta-carotene content in the edible part. Results were compared with those for Spanish fruits. The golden-yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian fruits were larger (107 and 188 g) than the respective Spanish fruits (43 and 63 g), softer but generally similar in chemical composition except for fat (0.72 and 0.6%) and malic acid (0.32 and 0.53%) contents in the golden-yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian fruits. Tamarillo fruits are a good source of potassium (approximately 400 mg/100 g fresh weight). Total phenolics in the golden-yellow and purple-red varieties were 125 and 187 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh weight, respectively. The golden-yellow variety had weaker anti-DPPH radical activity than the purple-red variety. Flavonols were only found in the peel of both varieties, while hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found in peel and pulp. PMID:19657848

Vasco, Catalina; Avila, Jenny; Ruales, Jenny; Svanberg, Ulf; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

2009-01-01

342

Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

2014-01-01

343

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

344

High Technique for T-Peel Strength Enhancement of Al/AFRP Hybrid Composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interlaminar peel strength of Al/AFRP (Aluminum alloy/Aramid Fiber Reinforced Plastic) hybrid composite is affected by the adhesive strength between the Al alloy layer and the aramid fiber layer. The study of the tensile strength and the T-peel strength of the Al/AFRP should be accomplished first. Therefore, this study focused on the effect of the resin mixture ratio as the Al/AFRP on the tensile strength and T-peel strength. In conclusions, the resin mixture ratio by equivalence ratio of equal to <1:1> of Al/AFRP-I and the resin mixture ratio by equivalence ratio of equal to <1:1:0.2> of Al/AFRP-II showed the highest ultimate tensile strength. After the T-peel test, it is found that the T-peel strength of Al/AFRP-II is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of Al/AFRP-I. Reviewing the characteristics of the tensile and T-peel strengths, the resin mixture ratio <1:1:0.2> of Al/AFRP-II showed the highest tensile strength and T-peel strength.

Kim, Cheol-Woong; Oh, Dong-Joon

345

Protective role of three vegetable peels in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in male mice.  

PubMed

The hitherto unknown glucose regulating role of three vegetable peels from cucurbitaceae family was evaluated. In a preliminary study, effects of ethanolic extracts of Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus and Praecitrullus fistulosus peels were studied at 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 15 days in the alterations in serum glucose and in hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) in male mice. In the pilot experiment, the effective and safe concentration of each peel was administered (p.o.) for 10 consecutive days and then on 11th and 12th days alloxan was administered along with peel extracts. The treatment was continued up to 15th day. At the end, alterations in serum glucose, insulin, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and catalase were studied. All the three peel extracts nearly reversed most of these changes induced by alloxan suggesting their possible role in ameliorating diabetes mellitus and related changes in serum lipids. However, Cucurbita pepo peel was found to be the most effective. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents of the test peels were also estimated, which appear to be associated with the observed antidiabetic and antioxidative potentials. PMID:20614191

Dixit, Yamini; Kar, Anand

2010-09-01

346

Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.  

PubMed

Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits. PMID:25872450

Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

2015-10-01

347

Preserving Fresh Fruit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

2000-01-01

348

Intermittent Peel Front Dynamics and the Crackling Noise in an Adhesive Tape  

E-print Network

We report a comprehensive investigation of a model for peeling of an adhesive tape along with a nonlinear time series analysis of experimental acoustic emission signals in an effort to understand the origin of intermittent peeling of an adhesive tape and its connection to acoustic emission. The model represents the acoustic energy dissipated in terms of Rayleigh dissipation functional that depends on the local strain rate. We show that the nature of the peel front exhibits rich spatiotemporal patterns ranging from smooth, rugged and stuck-peeled configurations that depend on three parameters, namely, the ratio of inertial time scale of the tape mass to that of the roller, the dissipation coefficient and the pull velocity. The stuck-peeled configurations are reminiscent of fibrillar peel front patterns observed in experiments. We show that while the intermittent peeling is controlled by the peel force function, the model acoustic energy dissipated depends on the nature of the peel front and its dynamical evolution. Even though the acoustic energy is a fully dynamical quantity, it can be quite noisy for a certain set of parameter values suggesting the deterministic origin of acoustic emission in experiments. To verify this suggestion, we have carried out a dynamical analysis of experimental acoustic emission time series for a wide range of traction velocities. Our analysis shows an unambiguous presence of chaotic dynamics within a subinterval of pull speeds within the intermittent regime. Time series analysis of the model acoustic energy signals is also found to be chaotic within a subinterval of pull speeds.

Jagadish Kumar; Rumi De; G. Ananthakrishna

2008-12-01

349

Xylogranatins F-R: antifeedants from the Chinese mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum, a new biogenetic pathway to tetranortriterpenoids.  

PubMed

Thirteen limonoids with a new carbon skeleton, the xylogranatins F-R (1-13), have been isolated from the seeds of a Chinese mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum; two recently reported compounds, xylogranatins C and D were also isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configurations of these compounds were determined by using the modified Mosher MTPA ester method and by quantum chemical circular dichroism (CD) calculations. Xylogranatins F-Q are the first aromatic B-ring limonoids found in nature. They belong to two substructural classes, of which one (1-3) contains a pyridine ring while the other one (4-12) contains a central furan core. Xylogranatins C and R can be considered to be key biosynthetic intermediates, while xylogranatin D, the only limonoid found so far with a carbon skeleton that conatains a C(30)-C(9) linkage, is apparently an artifact. The structures of these compounds suggest a new biogenetic pathway to tetranortriterpenoids. Xylogranatins F, G and R were found to exhibit marked antifeedant activity against the third instar larvae of Mythimna separata (Walker) at a concentration of 1 mg mL(-1). The most potent compound tested was xylogranatin G. Its AFC(50) (concentration for 50 % antifeedant activity) values at the exposure times of 24 and 48 h were 0.31 and 0.30 mg mL(-1), respectively. PMID:18046683

Wu, Jun; Zhang, Si; Bruhn, Torsten; Xiao, Qiang; Ding, Haixin; Bringmann, Gerhard

2008-01-01

350

Xylocarpins A and B, two new mexicanolides from the seeds of a Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum: NMR investigation in mixture.  

PubMed

Xylocarpins A and B, two new mexicanolides with a tiglate group at C-3, have been identified in the mixture using NMR spectroscopy. Both compounds were isolated in the mixture from the seeds of a Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum. The first complete assignments of 1H and 13C NMR data for these mexicanolides were achieved by means of 2D NMR techniques, including 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra. In order to separate xylocarpins A (1) and B (2) by chemical method, the mixture of two compounds was reduced with sodium borohydride in anhydrous methanol. However, the reduction led to the opening of the delta-lactone ring in xylocarpin B and afforded compound 3 as the main product. The complete NMR assignments of compound 3 were also achieved by means of the above 2D NMR techniques. Moreover, xylocarpin A was easily transformed into xylocarpin B during our normal liquid column chromatography. From this point of view, xylocarpin A was deemed to be the genuine natural product and xylocarpin B might be an artifact. PMID:17568455

Li, Minyi; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Si; Xiao, Qiang; Li, Qingxin

2007-08-01

351

In vitro propagation of two Iranian commercial pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) cvs. 'Malas Saveh' and 'Yusef Khani'.  

PubMed

An efficient in vitro propagation is described for Punica granatum L. using shoot tip and nodal explants. The influence of two basal medium, WPM and MS, and different plant growth regulators was investigated on micropropagation of the Iranian pomegranate cultivars, 'Malas Saveh' and 'Yousef Khani'. For proliferation stage, media supplemented with different concentrations (2.3, 4.7, 9.2 and 18.4 ?M) of kinetin along with 0.54 ?M NAA was used. WPM proved to be more efficient medium compared to MS. The best concentrations of kinetin were 4.7 ?M for 'Malas Saveh' and 9.2 ?M for 'Yousef Khani', resulting in the highest number of shoots per explants, shoot length and leaf number. For both cultivars, half-strength WPM medium supplemented with 5.4 ?M NAA was most effective for rooting of shoots. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred into soil. The micropropagated plants were morphologically uniform and exhibited similar growth characteristics and vegetative morphology to the mother plants. PMID:24431529

Valizadehkaji, Babak; Ershadi, Ahmad; Tohidfar, Masoud

2013-10-01

352

EFFECT OF POMEGRANATE (Punica granatum L) JUICE ON CHANGES IN TISSUE GLUTATHIONE LEVELS OF RATS EXPOSED TO HIGH ALTITUDE HYPOXIA  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress due to excessive production of free radicals in living organisms during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia is well documented. In search of a suitable antioxidant from natural sources, in the present study effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum, family Punicaceae) juice (PG) was evaluated on glutathione levels and related enzymes in tissues of rats exposed to simulated altitude of 6096 m. Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided in three groups i.e. 1) Normal, 2) Exposed to hypoxia and 3) Exposed to hypoxia and treated prior with PG (0.1g/rat) for 15 days. Blood glucose, liver glycogen, glutathione (reduced, GSH; oxidized, GSSG), glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, Y-glutamyl transpeptidase were estimated in liver, muscle and blood/RBC. Marked alterations were observed in these variables during hypoxia exposure. There was decrease in lipid peroxidation in muscle and restoration of GSH:GSSG ratio in PG treated group in comparison with untreated exposed animals. Results confirm recently reported antioxidant property of pomegranate. PMID:22557035

Gaurava; Praveenvats; Shyam, Radhey; Suri, Shoba; Kumria, MML; Sridharan, K; Sharmaa, PC; Singh, Som Nath

2001-01-01

353

Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of Punica granatum aqueous extract (PgAq) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats by measuring fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles (atherogenic index), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of both non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) to albino Wistar rats. The increase in blood glucose level, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), LPO level with decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidant enzymes namely, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were the salient features observed in diabetic rats. On the other hand, oral administration of PgAq at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg for 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and tissue LPO levels coupled with elevation of HDL-C, GSH content and antioxidant enzymes in comparison with diabetic control group. The results suggest that PG could be used, as a dietary supplement, in the treatment of chronic diseases characterized by atherogenous lipoprotein profile, aggravated antioxidant status and impaired glucose metabolism and also in their prevention. PMID:18950673

Bagri, Priyanka; Ali, Mohd; Aeri, Vidhu; Bhowmik, Malay; Sultana, Shahnaz

2009-01-01

354

Punica granatum flower extract, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, improves postprandial hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.  

PubMed

Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The flowering part of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) (PGF) has been recommended in Unani literature as a remedy for diabetes. We investigated the effect and action mechanism of a methanolic extract from PGF on hyperglycemia in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of PGF extract markedly lowered plasma glucose levels in non-fasted Zucker diabetic fatty rats (a genetic model of obesity and type 2 diabetes), whereas it had little effect in the fasted animals, suggesting it affected postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. In support of this conclusion the extract was found to markedly inhibit the increase of plasma glucose levels after sucrose loading, but not after glucose loading in mice, and it had no effect on glucose levels in normal mice. In vitro, PGF extract demonstrated a potent inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase activity (IC50: 1.8 microg/ml). The inhibition is dependent on the concentration of enzyme and substrate, as well as on the length of pretreatment with the enzyme. These findings strongly suggest that PGF extract improves postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and obesity, at least in part, by inhibiting intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity. PMID:15894133

Li, Yuhao; Wen, Suping; Kota, Bhavani Prasad; Peng, Gang; Li, George Qian; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D

2005-06-01

355

Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions  

PubMed Central

Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg) rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1) or chitosan (F2) against Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods. We measured the acute (6?h) and subacute (8 days) effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks). In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA) was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications. PMID:24982685

Raafat, K.; Samy, W.

2014-01-01

356

Lesson 21: Fruits [Matunda  

E-print Network

/ fruits] [orange / oranges] embe / maembe [mango / mangoes] limao / malimao; limau / malimau [lemon / lemons] nanasi / mananasi [pineapple / pineapples] ndimu / ndimu [lime / limes] ndizi / ndizi [banana

357

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Maria Habib

2008-01-01

358

Orange Peel The Orange’s Life Vest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a lesson unit using an orange as a main ingredient to illustrate the concept of density of the system. The orange may be treated as a system comprised of two major components: pulp and peel. Teachers involved in the study tested whether they can average the densities of these components to find the value for the density of the system. The unit is flexible enough to be introduced in inquiry based classrooms at several grade bands and at different levels of sophistication: from basic qualitative description of the behavior of the orange in different liquids to quantitative calculations of the buoyant force which selected liquids exert on the orange. The activity has been implemented among several populations of pre and in service teachers through physical science courses and workshops. The impact of this activity on teachers’ and their K-12 students’ understanding of the density of the system will be discussed in this presentation.

Suskavcevic, Milijana; Hagedorn, E.

2006-12-01

359

[Tomato peel: rare cause of biliary tract obstruction].  

PubMed

Foreign bodies in the biliary tree are rare causes of obstructive jaundice. Food bezoars are infrequent as well. They can cause biliary obstruction after biliary tract interventions, or in the presence of biliary-bowel fistula or duodenum diverticulum. Food bezoars usually pass the gastrointestinal tract without any symptoms, but they can cause abdominal pain and obstructive jaundice in the case of biliary tract obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography has the major role in the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease. Authors summarize the medical history of a 91-year-old female patient, who developed vomiting and right subcostal pain due to the presence of tomato peel within the ductus choledochus. PMID:22042318

Hagymási, Krisztina; Péter, Zoltán; Csöregh, Eva; Szabó, Emese; Tulassay, Zsolt

2011-11-20

360

Investigation of EUVL reticle capping layer peeling under wet cleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of a pellicle, an EUVL reticle is expected to withstand up to 100 cleaning cycles. EUVL reticles constitute a complex multi-layer structure with extremely sensitive materials which are prone to damage during cleaning. The 2.5 nm thin Ru capping layer has been reported to be most sensitive to repeated cleaning, especially when exposed to aggressive dry etch or strip chemicals [1]. Such a Ru film exhibits multiple modes of failure under wet cleaning processes. In this study we investigated the Ru peeling effect. IR-induced thermo-stress in the multilayer and photochemical-induced radical attack on the surface are investigated as the two most dominant contributors to Ru damage in cleaning. Results of this investigation are presented and corrective actions are proposed.

Singh, Sherjang; Dattilo, Davide; Dietze, Uwe; Kadaksham, Arun J.; Jang, Il-Yong; Goodwin, Frank

2013-09-01

361

Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed by means thermogravimetric analysis. The d-limonene contents and their influence on ethanol production have been also studied, while concentration of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol have been analysed to measure the saccharification and fermentation (HF and SSF) processes efficiency obtained by MCPW steam explosion pretreatment. Ethanol contents of 50-60L/1000kg raw MCPW can be obtained and CPP yields can be regulated by means the control of enzymes dose and the steam explosion pretreatment which can significantly reduce the enzymes requirements. PMID:20093022

Boluda-Aguilar, María; García-Vidal, Lidia; González-Castañeda, Fayiny Del Pilar; López-Gómez, Antonio

2010-05-01

362

Antiliperoxidant activity of pomegranate peel extracts on lard.  

PubMed

Phenolics were extracted from powdered pomegranate peel using water, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), respectively. The antiliperoxidant activity of the extracts on lard was studied by peroxide value method. All the extracts showed enhanced inhibitory effect on lard peroxidation with the increase of phenolic concentrations. Acetone extract exhibited the highest antiliperoxidant activity followed by water, methanol and EtOAc extracts. Acetone extract at 0.1% (w/w) and water extract at 0.2% (w/w) demonstrated an antiliperoxidant effect close to that of tea polyphenols (0.02%, w/w) and higher than that of BHT (0.02%, w/w). At 0.2% (w/w), acetone extract showed a higher inhibitory activity on lard oxidation than that of tea polyphenols and BHT. Owing to the high antiliperoxidant property, acetone extract may have possible application in the food industry. PMID:17365710

Zhang, Qian; Jia, Dongying; Yao, Kai

2007-03-01

363

The Exponentially Faster Stick-Slip Dynamics of the Peeling of an Adhesive Tape  

E-print Network

The stick-slip dynamics is considered from the nonlinear differential-algebraic equation (DAE) point of view and the peeling dynamics is shown to be a switching differential index DAE model. In the stick-slip regime with bifurcations, the differential index can be arbitrarily high. The time scale of the peeling velocity, the algebraic variable, in this regime is shown to be exponentially faster compared to the angular velocity of the spool and/or the stretch rate of the tape. A homogenization scheme for the peeling velocity which is characterized by the bifurcations is discussed and is illustrated with numerical examples.

Nachiketa Mishra; Nigam Chandra Parida; Soumyendu Raha

2014-05-07

364

Production of ethanol from enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

We extended our previous investigations of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in orange peel by commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes to higher, more practical concentrations of orange peel solids. High yields of saccharification could be maintained even at substrate concentrations as high as 22-23%, but the rates of solubilization and saccharification decreased 2-3-fold. We also tested the fermentability of these hydrolysates by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which revealed the presence of inhibitory compounds. These compounds could be removed by the filtration of hydrolyzed peel. Successful fermentations of filtered hydrolysates were achieved after pH adjustment with calcium carbonate. PMID:8010764

Grohmann, K; Baldwin, E A; Buslig, B S

1994-01-01

365

Polyphenol-rich extract of pomegranate peel alleviates tissue inflammation and hypercholesterolaemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice: potential implication of the gut microbiota.  

PubMed

Pomegranate extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine to confer health benefits in a number of inflammatory diseases, microbial infections and cancer. Peel fruit are rich in polyphenols that exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities in vitro. Recent studies strongly suggest that the gut microbiota is an environmental factor to be taken into account when assessing the risk factors related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the prebiotic potency of a pomegranate peel extract (PPE) rich in polyphenols in a nutritional model of obesity associated with hypercholesterolaemia and inflammatory disorders. Balb/c mice were fed either a control diet or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without PPE (6 mg/d per mouse) over a period of 4 weeks. Interestingly, PPE supplementation increased caecal content weight and caecal pool of bifidobacteria. It did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycaemia, glucose tolerance and inflammatory markers measured in the serum. However, it reduced the serum level of cholesterol (total and LDL) induced by HF feeding. Furthermore, it counteracted the HF-induced expression of inflammatory markers both in the colon and the visceral adipose tissue. Together, these findings support that pomegranate constitutes a promising food in the control of atherogenic and inflammatory disorders associated with diet-induced obesity. Knowing the poor bioavailability of pomegranate polyphenols, its bifidogenic effect observed after PPE consumption suggests the involvement of the gut microbiota in the management of host metabolism by polyphenolic compounds present in pomegranate. PMID:22676910

Neyrinck, Audrey M; Van Hée, Vincent F; Bindels, Laure B; De Backer, Fabienne; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

2013-03-14

366

Pilot histologic and ultrastructural study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chemical peels are employed for a variety of benign and premalignant skin disorders.Objective: We compared clinical and histologic features with ultrastructural changes that occur after medium-depth chemical facial peel.Methods: Three men with actinically damaged facial skin underwent a single 35% trichloroacetic acid peel. Biopsy specimens were taken before the peel, and 2 weeks and 3 months after the peel,

Bruce R Nelson; Darrell J Fader; Montgomery Gillard; Gopa Majmudar; Timothy M Johnson

1995-01-01

367

Photosynthesis, respiration and translocation in green fruit of normal and mutant grapefruit. [Citrus paradisi Macf  

SciTech Connect

Gas exchange, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation/and subsequent photosynthate translocation were followed during a 24h light/dark period in green grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) detached after 2.5 mo. growth. Fruit photosynthesis could account for net fixation of less than 1% of the daily dry weight increase recorded for fruit at this stage of development, but a comparison of light/dark CO/sub 2/ exchange indicated that as much as 27% of this daily gain was maintained by refixation of respiratory CO/sub 2/ during daylight hours. Approximately 10% of photosynthates labeled in the outer peel (flavedo) were translocated to segment epidermis and juice vesicles of normal fruit during 1 + 23h pulse-chase experiments. This process typically continues for 4 to 5 days and refixation products would presumably follow the same path. In a low-acid mutant believed to differ only in acid/sugar ratio of juice vesicles, however, inward translocation of /sup 14/C-photosynthates from flavedo was restricted primarily to the inner peel (albedo).

Koch, K.E.; Yen, C.R.; Avigne, W.T.

1986-04-01

368

Identification and assessment of antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals from kiwi fruits.  

PubMed

The kiwi fruit is the edible berry of a cultivar group of the woody vine of several Actinidia species. The most common commercially available, green-fleshed kiwi fruit is the cultivar 'Hayward', which belongs to the Actinidia deliciosa species. An antioxidative screening of kiwi fruit components (peel and pulp) crude extracts was carried out using specific assay media characterized for the presence of highly reactive species such as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(•-). The Mo(VI) reducing power of the samples was also determined. The phenol and flavonoid contents were quantified. Phytochemical analysis of kiwi peel crude extracts led to the isolation of vitamin E, 2,8-dimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridec-11-enyl)chroman-6-ol, as well as ?- and ?-tocopherol, 7 sterols, the triterpene ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 11 flavonoids. Chemical fractionation of pulp crude extracts led to the isolation of two caffeic acid glucosyl derivatives and two coumarin glucosydes, besides the three vitamin E, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and its ?(7) isomer, campesterol, chlorogenic acid, and some flavone and flavanol molecules. All of the compounds were tested for their radical scavenging and antioxidant capabilities by measuring their capacity to scavenge DPPH and anion superoxide radical and to reduce a Mo(VI) salt. PMID:19358604

Fiorentino, Antonio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Pacifico, Severina; Mastellone, Claudio; Scognamiglio, Monica; Monaco, Pietro

2009-05-27

369

FRUIT & NUT Rabbiteye Blueberries  

E-print Network

Rabbiteyes' are spring blooming, with flower appearance affected by chilling hours (# hours below 45 oF). The lowest chilling varieties typically bloom and set fruit early, and thus are at the greatest risk for crop are somewhat self-fruitful. When se- #12;2 lecting pollenizers, identify those that bloom in the same part

Mukhtar, Saqib

370

Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients  

E-print Network

Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients: 8 ounces crushed pineapple in juice 6 ounces nonfat yogurt, with fruit 6 ounces orange juice, frozen concentrate, thawed Directions 1. Mix the ingredients in a medium opener Popsicle sticks Number of Servings: 4 Preparation Time: 5 minutes Total time: 4 hours For more

Liskiewicz, Maciej

371

FRUIT & NUT NATIVE PECANS  

E-print Network

with this product to prevent potential damage to pecan trees. All foreign timber should be removed prior to beTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION NATIVE PECANS Larry Stein, Monte Nesbitt & Jim Kamas Extension Fruit trees in Texas, approximately 40,000 acres are managed consistently as the native crop production

Mukhtar, Saqib

372

Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit color.  

PubMed

The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines had a homozygous S. chmielewskii introgression on the short arm of chromosome 1, consistent with the position of the y (yellow) mutation known to result in colorless epidermis, and hence pink-colored fruit, when combined with a red flesh. Metabolic analysis showed that pink fruit lack the ripening-dependent accumulation of the yellow-colored flavonoid naringenin chalcone in the fruit peel, while carotenoid levels are not affected. The expression of all genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes involved in the production of the flavonol rutin from naringenin chalcone was down-regulated in pink fruit, suggesting that the candidate gene underlying the pink phenotype encodes a regulatory protein such as a transcription factor rather than a biosynthetic enzyme. Of 26 MYB and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors putatively involved in regulating transcription of genes in the phenylpropanoid and/or flavonoid pathway, only the expression level of the MYB12 gene correlated well with the decrease in the expression of structural flavonoid genes in peel samples of pink- and red-fruited genotypes during ripening. Genetic mapping and segregation analysis showed that MYB12 is located on chromosome 1 and segregates perfectly with the characteristic pink fruit color. Virus-induced gene silencing of SlMYB12 resulted in a decrease in the accumulation of naringenin chalcone, a phenotype consistent with the pink-colored tomato fruit of IL1b. In conclusion, biochemical and molecular data, gene mapping, segregation analysis, and virus-induced gene silencing experiments demonstrate that the MYB12 transcription factor plays an important role in regulating the flavonoid pathway in tomato fruit and suggest strongly that SlMYB12 is a likely candidate for the y mutation. PMID:19906891

Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Molthoff, Jos; de Vos, Ric; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Orzaez, Diego; Fernández-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tripodi, Pasquale; Grandillo, Silvana; Martin, Cathie; Heldens, Jos; Ykema, Marieke; Granell, Antonio; Bovy, Arnaud

2010-01-01

373

Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.  

PubMed

Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

2014-11-01

374

Quality of mini-peeled carrots as affected by genotype, minimal processing and edible coating  

E-print Network

Minimally processed vegetables provide convenience, fresh characteristics and human health benefits. Some fresh carrots are minimally processed by abrasive peelers and washed to remove cellular fluids to produce carrot sticks, mini peeled carrots...

Dewi, Tjin Tjin

1995-01-01

375

Designing WDM filter on planar holographic Bragg reflectors with iterative layer-peeling algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have developed the design method for planar holographic Bragg reflectors by layer-peeling algorithm. Layer-peeling algorithm is known as an efficient tool for synthesizing fiber Bragg grating which is one-dimension gating. We have modified the layer-peeling algorithm that can synthesize planar holographic Bragg reflectors. In order to solve the difficulty of fabricating the negative parts of apodization in planar holographic Bragg reflectors, we use iterative layer-peeling algorithm with fabrication constraints. The designed planar holographic Bragg reflector with 1 lob is 5.7 mm long, containing no phase shift. The stopband isolation is -30 dB. The bandwidth utilization factor is 68%. The dispersion is 91 ps/nm in the 0.54 nm passband at -1 dB. The group delay ripple is below 0.6 ps. The novel designs for the passband WDM filter that we have demonstrated is easier to manufacture.

Ouyang, Yueh

2006-02-01

376

FRACTION OF ORANGE PEEL PHENOLS AND EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange peel contains numerous flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, and related phenolic compounds. Among the flavonoids are several main structural categories, including the flavanone di- and triglycosides, flavone-O- and C-glycosides, and the highly methoxylated flavone aglycones, termed polymethoxylate...

377

Peeling-off of the external kink modes at tokamak plasma edge  

SciTech Connect

It is pointed out that there is a current jump between the edge plasma inside the last closed flux surface and the scrape-off layer and that the current jump can lead the external kink modes to convert to the tearing modes, due to the current interchange effects [L. J. Zheng and M. Furukawa, Phys. Plasmas 17, 052508 (2010)]. The magnetic reconnection in the presence of tearing modes subsequently causes the tokamak edge plasma to be peeled off to link to the divertors. In particular, the peeling or peeling-ballooning modes can become the “peeling-off” modes in this sense. This phenomenon indicates that the tokamak edge confinement can be worse than the expectation based on the conventional kink mode picture.

Zheng, L. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Furukawa, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

2014-08-15

378

NOAA Technical Report NMFS 50 March 1987 Preparation of Acetate Peels  

E-print Network

NOAA Technical Report NMFS 50 March 1987 Preparation of Acetate Peels of Valves from the Ocean, development and enforcement of domestic fisheries regulations, surveillance of foreign fishing off United

379

A highly versatile convergent/divergent "onion peel" synthetic strategy toward potent multivalent glycodendrimers.  

PubMed

Both convergent and divergent strategies for the synthesis of "onion peel" glycodendrimers are reported which resulted in one of the best multivalent ligands known against the virulent factor from a bacterial lectin isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:25227948

Sharma, Rishi; Kottari, Naresh; Chabre, Yoann M; Abbassi, Leïla; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René

2014-11-11

380

Pleiotropic Phenotypes of the sticky peel Mutant Provide New Insight into the Role of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 in Epidermal Cell Function in Tomato1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plant epidermal cells have evolved specialist functions associated with adaptation to stress. These include the synthesis and deposition of specialized metabolites such as waxes and cutin together with flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have important roles in providing a barrier to water loss and protection against UV radiation, respectively. Characterization of the sticky peel (pe) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) revealed several phenotypes indicative of a defect in epidermal cell function, including reduced anthocyanin accumulation, a lower density of glandular trichomes, and an associated reduction in trichome-derived terpenes. In addition, pe mutant fruit are glossy and peels have increased elasticity due to a severe reduction in cutin biosynthesis and altered wax deposition. Leaves of the pe mutant are also cutin deficient and the epicuticular waxes contain a lower proportion of long-chain alkanes. Direct measurements of transpiration, together with chlorophyll-leaching assays, indicate increased cuticular permeability of pe leaves. Genetic mapping revealed that the pe locus represents a new allele of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 (CD2), a member of the class IV homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family, previously only associated with cutin deficiency in tomato fruit. CD2 is preferentially expressed in epidermal cells of tomato stems and is a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ANTHOCYANINLESS2 (ANL2). Analysis of cuticle composition in leaves of anl2 revealed that cutin accumulates to approximately 60% of the levels observed in wild-type Arabidopsis. Together, these data provide new insight into the role of CD2 and ANL2 in regulating diverse metabolic pathways and in particular, those associated with epidermal cells. PMID:22623518

Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Pollard, Mike; Kosma, Dylan K.; Allen, Charles; Ohlrogge, John B.; Barry, Cornelius S.

2012-01-01

381

Genetic diversity among mandarins in fruit-quality traits.  

PubMed

A detailed phenotypic analysis of fruit-quality traits was conducted among 46 mandarin varieties within the Israeli Citrus breeding collection, belonging to genetically different natural subgroups, including common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). Evaluated qualities included physical attributes (size, shape, color, peel thickness, and seed number); physiological properties (ripening period, peelability, and segmentation); nutritional and biochemical composition (vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid contents and total antioxidant activity); and sensory attributes (total soluble solids and acid levels, flavor preference, sweetness, sourness, and fruitiness). The results indicated wide genetic variability in fruit-quality traits among mandarin varieties and natural subgroups, and statistical and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed multiple correlations among attributes. Such phenomic analysis is an obligatory requirement for identification of molecular markers for distinct fruit-quality traits and for selection of appropriate parents for future breeding programs. PMID:24828369

Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Kaplunov, Tatiana; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

2014-05-28

382

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

2012-01-01

383

Characterization of the intense pigment tomato genotype emphasizing targeted fruit metabolites and chloroplast biogenesis.  

PubMed

The tomato INTENSE PIGMENT (IP) genotype is characterized by intense visual pigmentation of unripe and ripe fruits, not thoroughly analyzed thus far. This study was therefore designed to analyze key morphologic, metabolomic, and photomorphogenic phenotypes of this genotype in comparison to its near-isogenic normal counterpart and to evaluate its significance relative to other tomato mutants known for increased fruit pigmentation. The IP genotype produced smaller and darker red fruits, and a substantially increased chloroplast biogenesis was found in its green fruit and leaf tissues. Ripe-red fruits of the IP genotype produced 34-38% more soluble solids and up to 62.6% more carotenoids, but no differences were found in the concentration of flavonoid compounds in its peel tissue. The IP genotype was found to display a greater hypocotyl inhibition response to blue and yellow light, but a more prominent and novel response to total darkness. As a whole, the IP genotype exhibited highly desirable traits, making it a valuable genotype for tomato breeders attempting to introduce functional and taste qualities into tomato fruits. PMID:19391624

Lavi, Noga; Tadmor, Yaakov; Meir, Ayala; Bechar, Avital; Oren-Shamir, Michal; Ovadia, Rinat; Reuveni, Moshe; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Levin, Ilan

2009-06-10

384

Protective Role of Three Vegetable Peels in Alloxan Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Male Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hitherto unknown glucose regulating role of three vegetable peels from cucurbitaceae family was evaluated. In a preliminary\\u000a study, effects of ethanolic extracts of Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus and Praecitrullus fistulosus peels were studied at 250 and 500 mg kg?1 d?1 for 15 days in the alterations in serum glucose and in hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) in male mice. In the pilot experiment,\\u000a the

Yamini Dixit; Anand Kar

2010-01-01

385

Autographs from Peeling Fiber Reinforced Pressure Sensitive Adhesives: Correlation with Failure Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In past studies, we have investigated the nature of the photon emission accompanying the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesive tapes. These studies included producing clear images of the emitted light created by direct attachment\\/detachment of the adhesive from photographic film (i.e., autographs). Here we present an extension of this work to very slow peeling rates (< 0.05 mm\\/s) in which

E. E. Donaldson; J. T. Dickinson

1989-01-01

386

Citric Acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10(3) to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

2011-01-01

387

Friction, force chains, and falling fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction is of great concern from both a national security and quality-of-life point of view, and the economic impact of energy efficiency, wear, and manufacturing cannot be underestimated. Theorists have always believed that friction plays a great role in avalanche-like collapse of a granular piles, but the predictions have proven difficult to test. We devised an experimentally controlled way to prove it, accessible to all who dare try, and report on it here [1,2]. With the aid of a middle school assistant, we studied and filmed piles of apples, oranges, and onions as one or more pieces of fruit were removed. Among other things, we discovered that increasing the friction of the onions (by peeling them) vastly decreased the likelihood of collapse. Our work includes videos written by, produced, and starring our seventh grade assistant, some of which are posted on the Physics Today YouTube channel [1] and featured in the Sept. 2009 issue of Physics Today [2]. [4pt] [1] Youtube.com, keywords ``unpeeled onions'', with full set at www.dukefruit.info. [0pt] [2] J. Krim and R.P. Berhinger, Physics Today (Sept., 2009) volume 62, pp.66-67

Krim, Jacqueline; Behringer, Robert

2010-03-01

388

Chemical peels for acne and acne scars in asians: evidence based review.  

PubMed

Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars, but there are very few studies on Asian populations who are more prone to develop hyper pigmentation. This article aims to summarize and evaluate the existing studies on the role of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars among Asians. An online search was conducted to identify prospective studies published in English that evaluated the use of chemical peels in active acne and acne scars in Asian populations. There were six studies for acne and eight studies for acne scars that were identified using our search parameters. Most were single-centre, open label and with small sample sizes. Acne severity was not uniformly reported and the objective outcome measures of some studies were not explicitly reported as well. The general trend of the results of the studies support the safety and efficacy of chemical peels for acne and acne scars including those of darker skin types. The existing studies support the use of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars in Asians. Further clinical trials with better study design and more subjects are needed to further establish the role of chemical peels in Asian acne patients. PMID:23378705

Handog, Evangeline B; Datuin, Maria Suzanne L; Singzon, Ivan A

2012-10-01

389

Efficient phyto-synthesis and structural characterization of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles using Annona squamosa peel extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the biosynthesis of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) was achieved by a novel, biodegradable and convenient procedure using fruit peel Annona squamosa aqueous extract. This is the first report on the new, simple, rapid, eco-friendly and cheaper methods for the synthesis of rutile TiO2 NPs at lower temperature using agricultural waste. Rutile TiO2 NPs were characterized by UV, XRD, SEM, TEM and EDS studies. The UV-Vis spectrophotometer results were promising and showed a rapid production of TiO2 NPs with a surface plasmon resonance occurring at 284 nm. The formation of the TiO2 NPs as observed from the XRD spectrum is confirmed to be TiO2 particles in the rutile form as evidenced by the peaks at 2? = 27.42°, 36.10°, 41.30° and 54.33° when compared with the literature. The TEM images showed polydisperse nanoparticles with spherical shapes and size 23 ± 2 nm ranges.

Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, A.; Prabhakarn, A.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Velayutham, K.; Rajakumar, G.; Padmaja, R. D.; Lekshmi, Mohan; Madhumitha, G.

2012-12-01

390

Efficient phyto-synthesis and structural characterization of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles using Annona squamosa peel extract.  

PubMed

In the present study, the biosynthesis of rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) was achieved by a novel, biodegradable and convenient procedure using fruit peel Annona squamosa aqueous extract. This is the first report on the new, simple, rapid, eco-friendly and cheaper methods for the synthesis of rutile TiO(2) NPs at lower temperature using agricultural waste. Rutile TiO(2) NPs were characterized by UV, XRD, SEM, TEM and EDS studies. The UV-Vis spectrophotometer results were promising and showed a rapid production of TiO(2) NPs with a surface plasmon resonance occurring at 284 nm. The formation of the TiO(2) NPs as observed from the XRD spectrum is confirmed to be TiO(2) particles in the rutile form as evidenced by the peaks at 2?=27.42°, 36.10°, 41.30° and 54.33° when compared with the literature. The TEM images showed polydisperse nanoparticles with spherical shapes and size 23±2 nm ranges. PMID:22983203

Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, A; Prabhakarn, A; Rahuman, A Abdul; Velayutham, K; Rajakumar, G; Padmaja, R D; Lekshmi, Mohan; Madhumitha, G

2012-12-01

391

Cloning and characterization of two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase genes, differentially regulated during fruit maturation and under stress conditions, from orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now biochemical and genetic evidence that oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoids by 9-cis- epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the critical step in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis in higher plants. The peel of Citrus fruit accumulates large amounts of ABA during maturation. To under- stand the regulation of ABA biosynthesis in Citrus, two full-length cDNAs (CsNCED1 and CsNCED2)

Maria-Jesus Rodrigo; Berta Alquezar; Lorenzo Zacarias

2006-01-01

392

Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: Activation of PPAR-{gamma} and identification of an active component  

SciTech Connect

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 6-week oral administration of methanol extract from PGF (500 mg/kg, daily) inhibited glucose loading-induced increase of plasma glucose levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes, whereas it did not inhibit the increase in Zucker lean rats (ZL). The treatment did not lower the plasma glucose levels in fasted ZDF and ZL rats. Furthermore, RT-PCR results demonstrated that the PGF extract treatment in ZDF rats enhanced cardiac PPAR-{gamma} mRNA expression and restored the down-regulated cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 (the insulin-dependent isoform of GLUTs) mRNA. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic activity of PGF extract may result from improved sensitivity of the insulin receptor. From the in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the PGF extract enhanced PPAR-{gamma} mRNA and protein expression and increased PPAR-{gamma}-dependent mRNA expression and activity of lipoprotein lipase in human THP-1-differentiated macrophage cells. Phytochemical investigation demonstrated that gallic acid in PGF extract is mostly responsible for this activity. Thus, our findings indicate that PPAR-{gamma} is a molecular target for PGF extract and its prominent component gallic acid, and provide a better understanding of the potential mechanism of the anti-diabetic action of PGF.

Huang, Tom H.W. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Peng Gang [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kota, Bhavani P. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, George Q. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto (Japan); Roufogalis, Basil D. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li Yuhao [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

2005-09-01

393

Preventive Effect of Three Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seeds Fractions on Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) refers to afflicted inflammation of pancreas with unfavorable adverse effects and developed multiple organ failures. Unfortunately, there is not a certain therapeutic method for this disease. Oxidative stress has a serious role in the pathogenesis of AP. Thus, decreasing of oxidative stress may prevent induction and progression of AP. Punica granatum L. has been extensively used in traditional medicine and possesses various active biological elements. Due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate, it could be considered as a good candidate alternative medicine with beneficial effects on AP. In this study, we decided to study the protective effect of three fractions of pomegranate seeds on cerulein-induced AP. Methods: AP was induced in male Syrian mice by five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 ?g/kg) with 1 h intervals. Treatments with pomegranate freeze-dried powder (PFDP) and hydroalcoholic pomegranate seeds extract (PSE) at doses of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg (i.p.) were started 30 min before pancreatitis induction. Pomegranate seed oil fraction (PSOF) was orally administered (50, 100, 200 ?L/kg) and continued for 10 days. Pancreatic tissue was evaluated for histopathological parameters and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as lipase and amylase levels were measured in plasma. Results: The higher doses of three fractions (250 and 500 mg/kg for PFDP and PSE and doses of 100, 200 ?L/kg for PSOF) significantly reduced amylase and lipase activity in serum (at least P < 0.01), pancreatic MPO activity (P < 0.001), edema, leukocyte infiltration and vacuolization in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results propose that pomegranate seeds fractions can prevent and/or treat the AP. PMID:24829726

Minaiyan, Mohsen; Zolfaghari, Behzd; Taheri, Diana; Gomarian, Mahdi

2014-01-01

394

Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: activation of PPAR-gamma and identification of an active component.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 6-week oral administration of methanol extract from PGF (500 mg/kg, daily) inhibited glucose loading-induced increase of plasma glucose levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes, whereas it did not inhibit the increase in Zucker lean rats (ZL). The treatment did not lower the plasma glucose levels in fasted ZDF and ZL rats. Furthermore, RT-PCR results demonstrated that the PGF extract treatment in ZDF rats enhanced cardiac PPAR-gamma mRNA expression and restored the down-regulated cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 (the insulin-dependent isoform of GLUTs) mRNA. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic activity of PGF extract may result from improved sensitivity of the insulin receptor. From the in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the PGF extract enhanced PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression and increased PPAR-gamma-dependent mRNA expression and activity of lipoprotein lipase in human THP-1-differentiated macrophage cells. Phytochemical investigation demonstrated that gallic acid in PGF extract is mostly responsible for this activity. Thus, our findings indicate that PPAR-gamma is a molecular target for PGF extract and its prominent component gallic acid, and provide a better understanding of the potential mechanism of the anti-diabetic action of PGF. PMID:16102567

Huang, Tom H W; Peng, Gang; Kota, Bhavani P; Li, George Q; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao

2005-09-01

395

Antispasmodic Effects of Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Punica granatum Flower Extracts on the Uterus of Non-pregnant Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Punica granatum Linn. (PG) is native to the Mediterranean region. Its flower exhibited antioxidant activity. The present study attempt to investigate the effect of these extract on uterine contraction and its possible mechanism(s). Methods Thirty five female Wistar rats (200–300 g) at estrous phases of cycle was examined in this study; pieces of virgin adult rat uterus (1.5 cm) were suspended in an organ bath containing 10 ml of De Jalon solution at 29 °C. Tissue contractility was isometrically recorded. KCl (60 mM), BaCl2 (4 mM) and oxytocin (10 mU/ml) were applied to the tissue in the presence and absence of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the plant (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/ml). Propranolol (1 µM) and naloxane (1 µM) were added in KCl induced contractions. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and p < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results Cumulative concentration of extracts reduced uterine contractions induced by KCl dose-dependently (p < 0.01). Extracts in a dose dependent (p < 0.05) reduced uterine contractions decreased dose-dependently after of addition oxytocin. The extracts added cumulatively to the organ bath reduced contractions but they did not affect uterine contractions induced by BaCl2 except the last dose. Spasmolytic effects of the extracts were not affected by propranolol or naloxane in KCl induced contractions. Conclusion Extracts diminished K+-induced contraction in uterus, therefore it seems that substances that decrease K+-induced contraction can also block voltage dependent calcium channel. The extracts did not have any effect on ?-adrenoceptors or potassium channels. PMID:23926538

Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Razieh; Abdolahzadeh, Mahsa; Oroojan, Ali Akbar

2012-01-01

396

Effects of rhaponticum carthamoides versus glycyrrhiza glabra and punica granatum extracts on metabolic syndrome signs in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Rhaponticum cathamoides (RC) is an endemic wild Siberian herb with marked medicinal properties that are still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of RC extract (ERC) compared to the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (EGG) and Punica granatum extracts (EPG) in a rat model with high-fat diet-(HFD)-induced signs of metabolic syndrome; therefore, this study addresses a significant global public health problem. Methods Six-month-old male Wistar Albino Glaxo rats were subjected to eight weeks of a standard diet (SD), HFD, or HFD in which ERC, EGG, or EPG powders were incorporated at 300 mg/kg/day. The serum lipid profile, corticosterone and cytokine concentrations, glucose tolerance, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerol accumulation, and PPAR? DNA-binding activities in the liver samples were determined. Results In contrast to EGG and EPG, an ERC supplement significantly reduced the weight of epididymal tissue (19.0%, p?

2014-01-01

397

Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.  

PubMed

Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

Basiri, Shadi

2015-02-01

398

Home Fruit Production - Figs.  

E-print Network

of thick resin that inhibits the entry of the dried fruit beetle, thus reducing on-the-tree fruit souring. Alma is very frost sensitive, especially as a young tree and should be grown no more than 200 miles from the Gulf of Mexico. Brown Turkey... freeze, produce fair-to-good crops on sucker wood the next season. This is an advantage in areas troubled by late spring frosts. The fruit is medium to large, with a reddish-brown skin tinged with purple. The pulp is reddish-pink and of good quality...

Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

1987-01-01

399

GROWTH HABITS IN STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit tree architecture is an increasingly important aspect of fruit production. Pomologists and fruit growers are looking to tree architecture as a way to address various production issues and increase profitability. Stone fruits, particularly peaches, have perhaps the widest range of described g...

400

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Instant potatoes Beets Artichokes Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes Rice milk Boxed, evaporated or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies

O'Toole, Alice J.

401

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

O'Toole, Alice J.

402

Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

1996-01-01

403

Chemical Peeling by SA-PEG Remodels Photo-damaged Skin: Suppressing p53 Expression and Normalizing Keratinocyte Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical peeling with salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol vehicle (SA-PEG), which specifically acts on the stratum corneum, suppresses the development of skin tumors in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. To elucidate the mechanism through which chemical peeling with SA-PEG suppresses skin tumor development, the effects of chemical peeling on photodamaged keratinocytes and cornified envelopes (CEs) were evaluated in vivo. Among UVB-irradiated hairless

Teruki Dainichi; Satoshi Amano; Yukiko Matsunaga; Shunsuke Iriyama; Tetsuji Hirao; Takeshi Hariya; Toshihiko Hibino; Chika Katagiri; Motoji Takahashi; Setsuko Ueda; Masutaka Furue

2006-01-01

404

Parylene peel-off arrays to probe the role of cell–cell interactions in tumour angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microenvironmental conditions impact tumour angiogenesis, but the role of cell-cell interactions in modulating the angiogenic capability of tumour cells is not well understood. We have microfabricated a peel-off cell-culture array (PeelArray) chip to spatiotemporally control interactions between tumour cells in a large array format and to analyse angiogenic factor secretion in response to these conditions. The PeelArray chip consists of

Christine P. Tan; Bo Ri Seo; Daniel J. Brooks; Emily M. Chandler; Harold G. Craighead; Claudia Fischbach

2009-01-01

405

Cellulose nanocrystal isolation from tomato peels and assembled nanofibers.  

PubMed

Pure cellulose has been successfully isolated from tomato peels by either acidified sodium chlorite or chlorine-free alkaline peroxide routes, at 10.2-13.1% yields. Negatively charged (?=-52.4mV, 0.48at% S content) and flat spindle shaped (41:2:1 length:width:thickness) cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were isolated at a 15.7% yield via sulfuric acid hydrolysis (64% H2SO4, 8.75mL/g, 45°C, 30min). CNCs could be facilely assembled from dilute aqueous suspensions into highly crystalline (80.8%) cellulose I? fibrous mass containing mostly sub-micron fibers (?=260nm) and few interconnected nanofibers (?=38nm), with 21.7m(2)/g specific surface and 0.049m(3)/g pore volume. More uniformly nanofibers with average 42nm width and significantly improved specific surface area (101.8m(2)/g), mesoporosity and pore volume (0.4m(3)/g) could be assembled from CNCs in 1:1 v/v tert-butanol/water mixture. PMID:25817643

Jiang, Feng; Hsieh, You-Lo

2015-05-20

406

Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from orange peel.  

PubMed

In this study, microwave-assisted extraction was applied for pectin extraction from the dried orange peel and Box-Behnken response surface design was used to study and optimize the effects of processing variables (microwave power, irradiation time, pH and solid-liquid ratio) on the yield of pectin. The amount of pectin extracted increased with increasing microwave power, while it reduces as the time, pH and solid-liquid ratio increased. From the results, second order polynomial model was developed and it adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between independent variables and the response. An optimization study using Derringer's desired function methodology was performed and optimal conditions based on both individual and combinations of all independent variables (microwave power of 422W, irradiation time of 169 s, pH of 1.4 and solid-liquid ratio of 1:16.9 g/ml) were determined with maximum pectin yield of 19.24%, which was confirmed through validation experiments. PMID:23911504

Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

2013-09-12

407

High pressure extraction of antioxidants from Solanum stenotomun peel.  

PubMed

In the work described here, two techniques for the recovery of anthocyanins from potato peel were studied and compared. One of the techniques employed was supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 or with CO2 and ethanol as cosolvent and the other technique was pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), where the solvent used was ethanol in water acidified to pH 2.6. The effects of pressure and temperature were studied and the anthocyanin contents obtained were statistically analyzed. In SFE the use of low pressure (100 bar) and high temperature (65 °C) was desirable for the anthocyanin extraction. With PLE the anthocyanin contents are increased considerably, and the best yields were obtained at 100 bar and 80 °C. This result is in correspondence with antioxidant activity index values (1.66) obtained in a DPPH antioxidant activity assay. In the extracts obtained with PLE the phenolic compounds were also determined, but the main compounds presented in the extract are anthocyanins. PMID:23528996

Cardoso, Lourdes Casas; Serrano, Casimiro Mantell; Quintero, Edwin Torrez; López, Clara Pereyra; Antezana, Ruder Medrano; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

2013-01-01

408

Fruits and vegetables (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

409

Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

410

Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

411

Thermal stability of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and model solutions.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at a systematic assessment of the factors influencing the anthocyanin (AC) stability and colour retention of pomegranate juices and less complex model solutions with particular focus on the effects of colourless phenolic copigments (CP). The thermal stability of ACs in three pomegranate juices obtained from isolated arils and the entire fruit with and without previous steaming, in model solutions with AC:CP ratios ranging from 1:0 to 1:4 (m/m), and in two purified extracts from pomegranate juices characterised by different phenolic profiles, respectively, was investigated upon heating at 60, 70, 80 and 90°C for 15 min to 5h. The thermal impact on the AC and CP contents, and the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and AC degradation products were monitored using HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Total phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity and colour properties were determined spectrophotometrically. Heating at 90°C for 5h resulted in total AC losses ranging from 76% to 87% of the initial AC levels in the juices, 78% in both extracts as well as 57% and ?78% in the model solutions, showing the best stability at an AC:CP ratio of 1:2 and in juices having the highest initial AC contents, respectively. In contrast, the AC stability was independent of total phenolic contents, and low and high molecular pomegranate matrix components (such as organic acids and sugars). Good correlation of the AC contents with red colour (a(?)) was observed for all samples at elevated temperatures (70-90°C). The stability of putative health-promoting polyphenols of pomegranate juices was not markedly affected by the thermal treatment. Unexpectedly, the HMF contents only slightly increased upon forced heating. Therefore, the visual appearance does not adequately reflect the quality and storage stability of pomegranate juices. PMID:23411312

Fischer, Ulrike A; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

2013-06-01

412

Name That Fruit!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students, will read three informational texts about fruit. Students will identify key ideas and details in each text and use illustrations to help them identify the key ideas. This lesson also incorporates a science standard that asks students to sort objects by color, shape, and size. After reading each text, students will participate in several hands-on activities to sort fruit.

Lauri Christopher

2012-07-20

413

Rate-dependent elastic hysteresis during the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives.  

PubMed

The modelling of the adherence energy during peeling of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (PSA) has received much attention since the 1950's, uncovering several factors that aim at explaining their high adherence on most substrates, such as the softness and strong viscoelastic behaviour of the adhesive, the low thickness of the adhesive layer and its confinement by a rigid backing. The more recent investigation of adhesives by probe-tack methods also revealed the importance of cavitation and stringing mechanisms during debonding, underlining the influence of large deformations and of the related non-linear response of the material, which also intervenes during peeling. Although a global modelling of the complex coupling of all these ingredients remains a formidable issue, we report here some key experiments and modelling arguments that should constitute an important step forward. We first measure a non-trivial dependence of the adherence energy on the loading geometry, namely through the influence of the peeling angle, which is found to be separable from the peeling velocity dependence. This is the first time to our knowledge that such adherence energy dependence on the peeling angle is systematically investigated and unambiguously demonstrated. Secondly, we reveal an independent strong influence of the large strain rheology of the adhesives on the adherence energy. We complete both measurements with a microscopic investigation of the debonding region. We discuss existing modellings in light of these measurements and of recent soft material mechanics arguments, to show that the adherence energy during peeling of PSA should not be associated to the propagation of an interfacial stress singularity. The relevant deformation mechanisms are actually located over the whole adhesive thickness, and the adherence energy during peeling of PSA should rather be associated to the energy loss by viscous friction and by rate-dependent elastic hysteresis. PMID:25791135

Villey, Richard; Creton, Costantino; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Jet, Thomas; Saintyves, Baudouin; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Yarusso, David J; Ciccotti, Matteo

2015-04-22

414

Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan  

PubMed Central

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R.

2012-01-01

415

Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.  

PubMed

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R

2012-01-01

416

Tissue specialization at the metabolite level is perceived during the development of tomato fruit.  

PubMed

Fruit maturation and tissue differentiation are important topics in plant physiology. These biological phenomena are accompanied by specific alterations in the biological system, such as differences in the type and concentration of metabolites. The secondary metabolism of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit was monitored by using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to photo-diode array (PDA) detection, fluorescence detection (FD), and mass spectrometry (MS). Through this integrated approach different classes of compounds were analysed: carotenoids, xanthophylls, chlorophylls, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolic acids, glycoalkaloids, saponins, and other glycosylated derivatives. Related metabolite profiles of peel and flesh were found between several commercial tomato cultivars indicating similar metabolite trends despite the genetic background. For a single tomato cultivar, metabolite profiles of different fruit tissues (vascular attachment region, columella and placenta, epidermis, pericarp, and jelly parenchyma) were examined at the green, breaker, turning, pink, and red stages of fruit development. Unrelated to the chemical nature of the metabolites, behavioural patterns could be assigned to specific ripening stages or tissues. These findings suggest spatio-temporal specificity in the accumulation of endogenous metabolites from tomato fruit. PMID:18065765

Moco, Sofia; Capanoglu, Esra; Tikunov, Yury; Bino, Raoul J; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Vervoort, Jacques; De Vos, Ric C H

2007-01-01

417

Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.  

PubMed

Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel. PMID:23957402

Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

2013-08-01

418

Susceptibility of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel proteins to digestive enzymes  

PubMed Central

Sweet potato proteins have been shown to possess antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The ability of a protein to exhibit systemic effects is somewhat unusual as proteins are typically susceptible to digestive enzymes. This study was undertaken to better understand how digestive enzymes affect sweet potato proteins. Two fractions of industrially processed sweet potato peel, containing 6.8% and 8.5% protein and 80.5% and 83.3% carbohydrate, were used as a source of protein. Sweet potato proteins were incubated with pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin and protein breakdown was visualized with SDS-PAGE. After pepsin digestion, samples were assayed for amylase inhibitory activity. Sporamin, the major storage protein in sweet potatoes, which functions as a trypsin inhibitor as well, exhibited resistance to pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Sporamin from blanched peel of orange sweet potatoes was less resistant to pepsin digestion than sporamin from outer peel and from extract of the white-skinned Caiapo sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitory activity remained after simulated gastric digestion, with the Caiapo potato protein and peel samples exhibiting higher inhibitory activity compared to the blanched peel sample. Amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was not present in any of the samples after digestion. PMID:25473492

Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C

2014-01-01

419

Peel-and-stick: fabricating thin film solar cell on universal substrates.  

PubMed

Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well. PMID:23277871

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin

2012-01-01

420

Dynamics of stick-slip in peeling of an adhesive tape  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamics of peeling of an adhesive tape subjected to a constant pull speed. We derive the equations of motion for the angular speed of the roller tape, the peel angle and the pull force used in earlier investigations using a Lagrangian. Due to the constraint between the pull force, peel angle and the peel force, it falls into the category of differential-algebraic equations requiring an appropriate algorithm for its numerical solution. Using such a scheme, we show that stick-slip jumps emerge in a purely dynamical manner. Our detailed numerical study shows that these set of equations exhibit rich dynamics hitherto not reported. In particular, our analysis shows that inertia has considerable influence on the nature of the dynamics. Following studies in the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, we suggest a phenomenological peel force function which includes the influence of the pull speed. This reproduces the decreasing nature of the rupture force with the pull speed observed in experiments. This rich dynamics is made transparent by using a set of approximations valid in different regimes of the parameter space. The approximate solutions capture major features of the exact numerical solutions and also produce reasonably accurate values for the various quantities of interest.

Rumi De; Anil Maybhate; G. Ananthakrishna

2005-01-18

421

Peel-and-Stick: Fabricating Thin Film Solar Cell on Universal Substrates  

PubMed Central

Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well. PMID:23277871

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin

2012-01-01

422

Side effects assessment in glicolyc acid peelings in patients with acne type I  

PubMed Central

Chemical peeling implies the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The present study was directed toward safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with glycolic acid (GA) in different concentrations at patients with acne tip I. A sample of 90 patients of either sex, aged between 17 to 21 years, were included in the study and submitted to superficial chemical peeling for acne vulgaris. The study lasted eight weeks and peeling sessions were carried out in each patient. Tolerance to the procedure and any undesirable effects noted during these sessions were recorded. For data statistical analysis and interpretation of results, software program “SPSS version 13” was used. Results were expressed through the descriptive statistics, as simple frequencies and percentages, while for establishing of statistically significant differences, in use was Friedman’s test of significance. Almost all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Of totally 90 patients, only six, at the end of therapy experienced hard erythema, only ten, at the end of therapy experienced hard desquamation and only eleven, at the end of therapy experienced hard sensation of pulling of facial skin. Chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well tolerated and safe treatment modality in acne type I. PMID:21342143

Peri?, Sanja; Bubanj, Maja; Bubanj, Saša; Jan?i?, Snežana

2011-01-01

423

Isolation of banana lectin-a practical scale procedure from ripe banana fruit.  

PubMed

Banana lectin (BanLec) was isolated from slightly overripe bananas (PCI 6-7) by homogenation in NaCl solution, followed by extraction in the presence of glucose, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and affinity chromatography. Yields were approximately 10-fold greater that those of previously published methods using acidic extraction from very overripe fruit (Peel Color Index [PCI] 7+). By dilution of added isotopically labeled recombinant lectin, the content of total exchangeable BalLec was shown to be constant or to slightly decrease with increasing stage of ripeness, even though extractable BanLec increased, followed by rapid decrease in overripened fruit. In the course of this study we observed that recombinant BanLec expressed in Escherichia coli, although chemically and functionally identical to native BanLec, differed slightly in its apparent molecular size on gel filtration, probably due to differences in its native folding. PMID:23379275

Wearne, Kimberly; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J

2013-01-01

424

Protective Effect of Punica granatum L. against Serum/Glucose Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury  

PubMed Central

The discovery and development of natural products with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties have been one of the most interesting and promising approaches in the search for the treatment of many neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has served as an excellent in vitro model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia and for the development of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies suggested that pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) or its active constituents exert pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, in this study we investigated the possible protective effects of different extracts of pomegranate against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Initially, the cells were pretreated with different concentrations of pulp hydroalcoholic extract (PHE), pulp aqueous extract (PAE) and pomegranate juice (PJ) for 2?h and then deprived of serum/glucose (SGD) for 6 and 12?h. SGD caused a significant reduction in cell viability (measured by the MTT assay) after 6 and 12?h, as compared with control cells (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with PHE, PAE, and PJ significantly and concentration-dependently increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6 and 12?h. A significant increase in DNA damage (measured by the comet assay) was seen in nuclei of cells following SGD for 12?h (P < 0.001). In control groups, no significant difference was seen in DNA damage between PHE, PAE, and PJ-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated PC12 cells (P > 0.05). PHE, PAE, and PJ pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage following ischemic insult (P < 0.001). This suppression of DNA damage by PHE, PAE and PJ was found to be concentration dependent. These data indicate that there is a cytoprotective property in PHE, PAE, and PJ under SGD condition in PC12 cells, suggesting that pomegranate has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23935674

Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Afkhami Goli, Amir; Asadpour, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

2013-01-01

425

Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits  

MedlinePLUS

... lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from a salad ... coleslaw, or include orange sections, dried cranberries, or grapes in a tossed salad. snack on fruits Dried ...

426

Investigation on CO2 laser irradiation inducing glass strip peeling for microchannel formation  

PubMed Central

The study investigates the use of CO2 laser to induce glass strip peeling off to form microchannels on soda lime gass substrate. The strip peeling exhibits a strong dependence on the energy deposition rate on the glass surface. In spite of the vast difference in the combination of laser power and scanning speed, when the ratio of the two makes the energy deposition rate in the range 3.0-6.0?J/(cm2?s), the temperature rising inside glass will be above the strain point and reach the softening region of the glass. As a result, glass strip peeling is able to occur and form microchannels with dimensions of 20-40??m in depth and 200-280??m in width on the glass surface. Beyond this range, higher energy depsotion rate would lead to surface melting associated with solidification cracks and lower energy deposition rate causes the generation of fragment cracks. PMID:22662087

Wang, Z. K.; Zheng, H. Y.

2012-01-01

427

Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Wampee (Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels) Peel  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant activities of wampee peel extracts using five different solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water) were determined by using in-vitro antioxidant models including total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and superoxide scavenging activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions, even higher than synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). In addition, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901), human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG-2) and human lung adenocarcinoma (A-549) cancer cell lines, higher than cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug. The total phenolic content of wampee fraction was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant and anticancer activities of the wampee peel extract. Thus, wampee peel can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement. PMID:19657451

Prasad, K. Nagendra; Hao, Jing; Yi, Chun; Zhang, Dandan; Qiu, Shengxiang; Jiang, Yueming; Zhang, Mingwei; Chen, Feng

2009-01-01

428

Fermentation of sugars in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 has been investigated in pH-controlled batch fermentations at 32 and 37{degrees}C. pH values and concentration of peel hydrolysate were varied to determine approximate optimal conditions and limitations of these fermentations. Very high yields of ethanol were achieved by this microorganism at reasonable ethanol concentrations (28-48 g/L). The pH range between 5.8 and 6.2 appears to be optimal. The microorganism can convert all major monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol and to smaller amounts of acetic and lactic acids. Acetic acid is coproduced in equimolar amounts with ethanol by catabolism of salts of galacturonic acid.

Grohmann, K.; Cameron, R.G. [Citrus and Subtropical Products Lab., Winter Haven, FL (United States); Buslig, B.S. [Florida Department of Citrus, Winter Haven, FL (United States)

1995-12-31

429

Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology.  

PubMed

This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9°C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products. PMID:25038678

Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio

2014-12-15

430

Response surface optimization of ultrasound-assisted polysaccharides extraction from pomegranate peel.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic technique was employed to extract polysaccharides from pomegranate peel. The optimal conditions for ultrasonic extraction of pomegranate peel polysaccharide (PPP) were determined by response surface methodology. Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of four independent variables (ratio of water to raw material, extraction time, extraction temperature, ultrasonic power) on the yield of PPP. The correlation analysis of mathematical-regression models indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the ultrasonic extraction of PPP. The optimum extraction parameters were as follows: ratio of water to raw material, 24ml/g; extraction time, 63min; extraction temperature, 55°C; and ultrasonic power, 148W. Under these conditions, the polysaccharide yield was 13.658±0.133% for the pomegranate peel, which well matches with the predicted value. PMID:25660869

Zhu, Cai-Ping; Zhai, Xi-Chuan; Li, Lin-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Bing

2015-06-15

431

Fermentation of sugars in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11.  

PubMed

The conversion of monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 has been investigated in pH-controlled batch fermentations at 32 and 37 degrees C. pH values and concentration of peel hydrolysate were varied to determine approximate optimal conditions and limitations of these fermentations. Very high yields of ethanol were achieved by this microorganism at reasonable ethanol concentrations (28-48 g/L). The pH range between 5.8 and 6.2 appears to be optimal. The microorganism can convert all major monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol and to smaller amounts of acetic and lactic acids. Acetic acid is coproduced in equimolar amounts with ethanol by catabolism of salts of galacturonic acid. PMID:7668848

Grohmann, K; Cameron, R G; Buslig, B S

1995-01-01

432

Effective suppression of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in mice with citrus peel flavonoids.  

PubMed

Citrus peel or its extract has been reported to exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activity. Herein, we report the first investigation of inhibitory effects of a formulated product from citrus peel extract, gold lotion (GL), on azoxymethane-induced colonic tumorigenesis. We have demonstrated that oral feeding of GL decreased the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), particularly large size of ACF in colonic tissues of mice. Both gene and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were suppressed by GL treatment. The in vivo data have revealed for the first time that the citrus peel extract-GL-is an effective antitumor agent mechanistically downregulating the protein levels of iNOS, COX-2, ornithine decarboxylase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 in colonic tissues of mice, suggesting that GL is a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation-associated colon tumorigenesis. PMID:23307625

Lai, Ching-Shu; Li, Shiming; Liu, Cheng Bin; Miyauchi, Yutaka; Suzawa, Michiko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

2013-03-01

433

Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in ruminants can be reduced by orange peel product feeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7 are threats to the safety of beef and are publically perceived as “hamburger diseases.” Fresh citrus peel and dried orange pulp are by-products from citrus juice production that have a relatively high nutritive value (high TDN). Orange peel and...

434

Supercritical CO 2 extraction of essential oil from orange peel; effect of the height of the bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the height of the particle bed on the kinetics of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of essential oil from orange peel is analyzed in this article. Peel of dehydrated oranges of the satsuma and naveline cultivars was used. A series of experiments were designed wherein, for the same conditions, particle height varied widely. These experiments were also carried

A Berna; A Tárrega; M Blasco; S Subirats

2000-01-01

435

An analysis of the 180{degree} peel test for measuring sealant adhesion  

SciTech Connect

Sealant adhesion to different substrates is often assessed by using a 180{degree} peel test. It is known that the peel force is a function of the viscoelastic response of the adhesive joint coupled with the intrinsic strength of the interphase. Measurement of the fracture energy as a function of straining rate can yield material properties by separating the bulk effects from the interphase strength. The results of this study highlight some important deficiencies of the ASTM peel test method. In particular, the fracture energy of a silicone sealant to glass and aluminum was measured at different rates, peel thicknesses and sealant moduli using the 180 peel test. It was determined that the sealant failed cohesively when tested on glass. For instances of cohesive failure, a plot of fracture energy vs. strain rate fit a power law model. The rate dependence of the fracture energy was shown to be proportional to the amount of uncrosslinked polymer in the sealant and this suggested an increase in dissipation. It was further shown that as the modulus of the sealant decreases the fracture energy increases. However, at low strain rates, the trend reverses and the high modulus sealant has better adhesion to glass than some of the low modulus sealants. Tests on specimens with aluminum substrates failed in accordance with specific test conditions: adhesive failure was more likely to occur when the strained thickness was small: when the strain rates were slow; or when the modulus was high. This study clearly demonstrated that peel testing at one rate and thickness can not adequately compare one sealant to another.

Shephard, N.E.; Wightman, J.P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

436

Medicinal flowers. XXIII. New taraxastane-type triterpene, punicanolic acid, with tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity from the flowers of Punica granatum.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract from the flowers of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) was found to show inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 1 ng/ml)-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells. By bioassay-guided separation, a new taraxastane-type triterpene, punicanolic acid (1), was isolated from the active fraction (ethyl acetate-soluble fraction) together with four triterpenes (2--5), two galloyl glucoses (6, 7), two flavones (8, 9), and beta-sitosterol. Among the constituents, 1, oleanolic acid (2), maslinic acid (4), 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), and luteolin (8) significantly inhibited TNF-alpha-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells at 30 microM. PMID:18981621

Xie, Yuanyuan; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Imura, Katsuya; Muraoka, Osamu; Yuan, Dan; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2008-11-01

437

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2008-04-21

438

A Bowl of Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem requires a sound understanding of the fraction relationship between part and whole and can be used for finding fractions of numbers and quantities. Students are given the fractional amount of apples in a fruit bowl and the specific number of other fruit in the bowl in order to figure out how many apples are in the bowl. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension, a link to a worksheet which provides student support, and a downloadable pdf of the puzzle.

439

Effect of chemical peeling on the processing quality of long-green mild chile (Capasicum annuum)  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF CHEMICAL PEELING ON THE PROCESSING QUALITY OF LONG-GREEN MILD CHILE (CAPAS ICUM ANNUUM) A Thesis by RICHARD ERLAND TILLMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AfM University 1n Partial fulf1llment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Food Sc1ence and Technology EFFECT OF CHEMICAL PEELING ON THE PROCESSING QUALITY OF LONG-GREEN MILD CHILE (CAPASICUM ANNUUM) A THESIS by RICHARD ERLAND TILLMAN Approved as to style...

Tillman, Richard Erland

1980-01-01

440

Peeling of the Weyl tensor and gravitational radiation in higher dimensions  

E-print Network

The peeling behaviour of the Weyl tensor near null infinity is determined for an asymptotically flat higher dimensional spacetime. The result is qualitatively different from the peeling property in 4d. To leading order, the Weyl tensor is type N. The first subleading term is type II. The next term is algebraically general in 6 or more dimensions but in 5 dimensions another type N term appears before the algebraically general term. The Bondi energy flux is written in terms of "Newman-Penrose" Weyl components.

Mahdi Godazgar; Harvey S. Reall

2012-04-22