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1

Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-borne diseases such as listeriosis and diseases caused by the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) are globally recognized as environmental hazards to the food supply and human health. Natural inhibitors for pathogenic microorganisms have been explored in many plants. The antimicrobial activity against some food-borne pathogens by various extracts from pomegranate fruit peels was evaluated using both

N. S. Al-Zoreky

2009-01-01

2

HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Profile, Nutritive Content, and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts Obtained from Punica granatum Fruit Peel.  

PubMed

This study revealed polyphenolic content, nutritive content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile of methanol and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum peel extract. For this, extracts were screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The total phenolics and flavonoid recovered by methanolic (MPE) and the water extract (AQPE) were ranged from 185?±?12.45 to 298.00?±?24.86?mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/gm and 23.05?±?1.54 to 49.8?±?2.14 quercetin (QE) mg/g, respectively. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 100 µg/ml (0.38 quercetin equivalents), for AQPE, 168 µg/ml (0.80 quercetin equivalents), for MPE. The phenolic profile in the methanolic extracts was investigated by chromatographic (HPLC) method. About 5 different flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives including quercetin (1), rutin (2), gallic acid (3), ellagic acid (4), and punicalagin as a major ellagitannin (5) have been identified. Among both extracts, methanolic extract was the most effective. This report may be the first to show nutritive content and correlation analysis to suggest that phenols and flavonoids might contribute the high antioxidant activity of this fruit peel and establish it as a valuable natural antioxidant source applicable in the health food industry. PMID:23983682

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

2013-08-01

3

Protective role of Citrus sinensis, Musa paradisiaca, and Punica granatum peels against diet-induced atherosclerosis and thyroid dysfunctions in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit peels are generally considered as waste. This may not hold true for all types of fruit peels. Therefore, an attempt has been made to reveal the protective role of Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca peel extracts in diet-induced atherosclerosis and thyroid dysfunction in rats. Wistar albino male rats were fed an atherogenic diet composed of 4% cholesterol,

Hamendra Singh Parmar; Anand Kar

2007-01-01

4

A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and the individual constituents responsible for them. This review provides an insight on the phytochemical components that contribute too antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect, and numerous other effects of wonderful, economic, and eco-friendly pomegranate peel extract (PP). PMID:23878603

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

2013-06-25

5

Antimicrobial Ellagitannin From Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethyl acetate extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits was fractionated by chromatographic techniques to afford the ellagitannin punicalagin. The substance was found to be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and was identified by HPLC\\/UV and HNMR. The antibacterial assays that guided the isolation of the tannin were conducted using the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was

Amit Parashar; Charu Gupta; S. K. Gupta; Ashok Kumar

2009-01-01

6

Partial identification of antifungal compounds from Punica granatum peel extracts.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of pomegranate peels were assayed in vitro for their antifungal activity against six rot fungi that cause fruit and vegetable decay during storage. The growth rates of Alternaria alternata , Stemphylium botryosum , and Fusarium spp. were significantly inhibited by the extracts. The growth rates were negatively correlated with the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in the extract and particularly with punicalagins, the major ellagitannins in pomegranate peels. Ellagitannins were also found to be the main compounds in the bioactive fractions using bioautograms, and punicalagins were identified as the main bioactive compounds using chromatographic separation. These results suggest that ellagitannins, and more specifically punicalagins, which are the dominant compounds in pomegranate peels, may be used as a control agent of storage diseases and to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides. PMID:22533815

Glazer, Ira; Masaphy, Segula; Marciano, Prosper; Bar-Ilan, Igal; Holland, Doron; Kerem, Zohar; Amir, Rachel

2012-05-07

7

Process for Peeling Waxy Fruit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waxy skinned fruits, such as apples, are peeled by contacting the fruit with a wax solvent and a lye solution. In one embodiment, the wax solvent is combined with the lye solution and dewaxing occurs in conjunction with digestion of the peel or skin.

W. O. Harrington C. H. Hills

1965-01-01

8

In vitro and In vivo Antibacterial Activity of Punica granatum Peel Ethanol Extract Against Salmonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Punica granatum is commonly used in Korea as a traditional medicine for the treatment of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of P. granatum peel EtOH extract (PGPE) against 16 strains of Salmonella. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of PGPE were in the range of 62.5-1000m gm l1. In addition, the in

Jang-Gi Choi; Ok-Hwa Kang; Young-Seob Lee; Hee-Sung Chae; You-Chang Oh; Obiang-Obounou Brice; Min-San Kim; Dong-Hwan Sohn; Hun-Soo Kim; Hyun Park; Dong-Won Shin; Jung-Rae Rho; Dong-Yeul Kwon

2009-01-01

9

Wound Healing Activity of the Fruit Skin of Punica granatum.  

PubMed

Abstract The skin of the fruit and the bark of Punica granatum are used as a traditional remedy against diarrhea, dysentery, and intestinal parasites. The fruit skin extract of P. granatum was tested for its wound healing activity in rats using an excision wound model. The animals were divided into three groups of six each. The experimental group of animals was topically treated with P. granatum at a dose of 100?mg/kg every day for 15 days, while the controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of saponins, triterpenes, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides. Extract-treated animals exhibited 95% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls (84%), which was statistically significant (P<.01). The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelize faster compared with controls. The hydroxyproline content of extract-treated animals was significantly higher than controls (P<.05). The fruit skin extract did not show any antimicrobial activity against the microrganisms tested. P. granatum promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:24044494

Nayak, Shivananda B; Rodrigues, Vincent; Maharaj, Sandeep; Bhogadi, Venkata Sai

2013-09-01

10

Heavy Metals Bounding Ability of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel in Model System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate fruit is an important sources of natural phenolic compounds. In this study, the influence of pomegranate fruit peel on binding of some heavy metals were established by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). Also, the total phenolic content of methanol extract of pomegranate fruit peel was determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Amounts of 1, 2, 3, 10, 20,

Mehmet Musa Ozcan; Nesim Dursun; Co?kun Sa?lam

2011-01-01

11

Antiplasmodial activity of Punica granatum L. fruit rind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studySun-dried rind of the immature fruit of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) (Pg) is presently used as a herbal formulation (OMARIA) in Orissa, India, for the therapy and prophylaxis of malaria. The aims of this study were (i) to assess in vitro the antiplasmodial activity of the methanolic extract, of a tannin enriched fraction and of compounds\\/metabolites of

Mario Dell’Agli; Germana V. Galli; Yolanda Corbett; Donatella Taramelli; Leonardo Lucantoni; Annette Habluetzel; Omar Maschi; Donatella Caruso; Flavio Giavarini; Sergio Romeo; Deepak Bhattacharya; Enrica Bosisio

2009-01-01

12

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEELING MACHINE FOR PERSIMMON FRUIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peeling operation affects directly the product quality in persimmon fruits process. The conventional peeling machines may not have persimmon fruits peeling perfectly. Compensation by manual operations is needed. The emphasis of this study is to develop a new peeling machine to improve the effect of persimmon fruits peeling. Applying the approach mold theory, this peeling machine provides a tensile force

Wen-Bin Chen

1999-01-01

13

Hydroalcoholic extract based-ointment from Punica granatum L. peels with enhanced in vivo healing potential on dermal wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports for the first time, the in vivo wound healing potential of Punica granatum L. peels. A 5% (w\\/w) methanolic extract based-ointment was formulated and evaluated for its wound healing in guinea pigs. The ointment was applied in vivo on the paravertebral area of twelve excised wounded models once a day for 10 consecutive days. The ointment

E. A. Hayouni; K. Miled; S. Boubaker; Z. Bellasfar; M. Abedrabba; H. Iwaski; H. Oku; T. Matsui; F. Limam; M. Hamdi

2011-01-01

14

Broad spectrum antimutagenic activity of antioxidant active fraction of punica granatum L. peel extracts.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades, scientific research has indicated a credible basis for some of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of pomegranate. This study aims to evaluate the broad spectrum antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of peel extracts of pomegranate. The sequentially extracted Punica granatum peel fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe(3+) reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing ability) assays. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by all the four in vitro assays comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) followed by activity in ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate fractions. Based on the promising antioxidant activities, the methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic activity by Ames Salmonella/microsome assay against sodium azide (NaN(3)), methyl methane sulphonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102) tester strains. The methanol fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentration of 10-80?g/mL. This fraction showed antimutagenic activity against NaN(3) and MMS with percent inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 66.76% to 91.86% in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar trend of inhibition of mutagenicity (81.2-88.58%) against indirect mutagens (2-AF and B(a)P) was also recorded. Phytochemical analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and total phenolic content revealed high content of ellagitannins which might be responsible for promising antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of P. granatum peel extract. Further, contribution of bioactive compounds detected in this study is to be explored to understand the exact mechanism of action as well as their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20708098

Zahin, Maryam; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal

2010-08-11

15

Studies on the toxicity of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) whole fruit extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current investigation focuses on the toxicity evaluation of whole fruit hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), used in Cuban traditional medicine a.o. for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Previous findings on the anti-influenza activity of Punica granatum extracts has given support to the ethnopharmacological application. In our study, in chick embryo model, it was found that doses of the

Alexis Vidal; Adyary Fallarero; Blanca R Peña; Maria E Medina; Bienvenido Gra; Felicia Rivera; Yamilet Gutierrez; Pia M Vuorela

2003-01-01

16

Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Punica Granatum Peel Extracts Against Oral Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective: Punica granatum has been used for many years in folk medicine due to several purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Punica granatum peel (MEPGP) against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Actynomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the mentioned oral organisms were cultured in blood agar and mueller-hinton media and then paper disks containing MEPGP at concentrations of 4 mg/ml, 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml were inserted on medias. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. The effects of three different concentrations of MEPGP against microorganisms were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: All concentrations of MEPGP had antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Only at concentration of 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml MEPGP was effective against L. acidophilus, S. mutans and S. salivarius. Furthermore; no concentrations of MEPGP inhibited A. viscosus and C. albicans. Conclusion: This study suggests that MEPGP might be used as an antibacterial agent in controlling oral infections.

Abdollahzadeh, Sh.; Mashouf, RY.; Mortazavi, H.; Moghaddam, MH.; Roozbahani, N.; Vahedi, M.

2011-01-01

17

Assessment of the genotoxic risk of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) whole fruit extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) whole fruit extracts, have been used in Cuban traditional medicine as an effective drug for the treatment of respiratory diseases. This species showed interesting anti-viral activity, e.g. aqueous or hydroalcoholic extracts of whole fruits have proved highly active against the influenza virus. However, some toxic properties of this extract have also been reported and, to date,

Angel Sánchez-Lamar; Gladys Fonseca; Jorge Luis Fuentes; Renata Cozzi; Enrico Cundari; Mario Fiore; Ruggero Ricordy; Paolo Perticone; Francesca Degrassi; Rosella De Salvia

2008-01-01

18

Anti-coccidial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis and helminthosis in poultry are responsible for worldwide economic losses. The methanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel was used in vivo for its pharmacological, antioxidant and anti-coccidial properties and in vitro for its anthelmintic activity. For the in vivo study, four groups of mice were investigated. The first group was inoculated only with sterile saline and served as the control group. The second group was treated by oral gavage with pomegranate extract (300 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. The third and fourth groups were infected with 10(3) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata. The fourth group was also treated once daily with pomegranate peel extract for 5 days. For the in vitro study, the anthelmintic effect of pomegranate peel extract was observed on live adult Allolobophora caliginosa. Paraffin sections from jejunum as well as jejunal homogenate were prepared for the histopathological and biochemical investigations, respectively. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata revealed an output of approximately 2.9 × 10(5) oocysts per gram faeces on day 5 p.i. This output is significantly decreased to 50 % in pomegranate-treated mice. Infection with E. papillata induced marked histopathological alterations in jejunum in the form of inflammation, vacuolation of the epithelium and destruction of some villi. In addition, pomegranate extract caused a great diminish in body weight loss of infected mice. Moreover, the number of goblet cells stained with Alcian blue within the infected villi was significantly increased by about 26 % after pomegranate treatment. In addition, Pomegranate significantly lowered the increased number of apoptotic cells due to E. papillata infection by about 36 %. The results showed that E. papillata enhanced hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production with concomitant reduction in glutathione. Pomegranate induced marked improvements in all of the studied parameters as well as the histopathological features of jejunum. In addition, pomegranate was able to exert a significant anthelmintic effect on live adult A. caliginosa worms in terms of the paralysis and death of the worms at different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 mg/ml). The study revealed that pomegranate as a natural product has protective effects against E. papillata-induced coccidiosis as well as it possesses an anthelmintic activity. PMID:23609599

Dkhil, Mohammed A

2013-04-23

19

Embryo protective effect of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit extract in adriamycin-induced oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible protective role of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit extract which has shown antioxidant capacity higher than that of red wine and green tea was evaluated against adriamycin-induced oxidative stress in chick embryos. Adriamycin (ADR), an anthracycline broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drug is used for the treatment of variety of cancers; however, its prolonged use is limited by an

R Krishna Kishore; D Sudhakar; P R Parthasarathy

20

Selected Mechanical Properties of Pomegranate Peel and Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical property data of pomegranate fruits are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the compression and cutting properties of whole fruit as well as the puncture strength of peel samples of fruit at different storage times. The results showed that storage time had a significant effect on all the properties studied in this work except for peel

Nader Ekrami-Rad; Javad Khazaei; Mohammad-Hadi Khoshtaghaza

2011-01-01

21

Comparison of antioxidant capacities and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was undertaken to explore the potential of fruit waste materials as sources of powerful natural antioxidants. The peels of eight kinds of fruits commonly consumed and grown in Thailand were used. The ethanolic fruit peel extracts were subjected to the scavenging tests of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Results from both assays were in good agreement that the top

Siriporn Okonogi; Chadarat Duangrat; Songyot Anuchpreeda; Suganya Tachakittirungrod; Sombat Chowwanapoonpohn

2007-01-01

22

Changes in physical and chemical properties during pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical studies of pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum) variety Taifi, including total seed juice extracted from unripe, half-ripe and full-ripe stages are reported. Edible portion of pomegranate (57.51% of total fruit wt.) comprised 63.58% of juice and 36.21% of seeds. Fresh juice contained 84.57% moisture, 14.1% sugar, 1.05% protein and 0.33% ash. Total protein, ascorbic acid, fat and phenolic compounds in

Salah A Al-Maiman; Dilshad Ahmad

2002-01-01

23

Physicochemical Properties, Vitamin C Content, and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate Fruit ( Punica granatum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit is widely used in the food and process industries due to its excellent nutritional and health value and as a raw\\u000a material for the manufacture of secondary products such as jellies, dyes, and cosmetics. The objectives of this research were\\u000a to determine the vitamin C content and antimicrobial properties of fresh and dried fractions of

Linus U. Opara; Majeed R. Al-Ani; Yusra S. Al-Shuaibi

2009-01-01

24

Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) peel, mesocarp, aril and differently produced juices by HPLC-DAD–ESI\\/MS n  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel, mesocarp and arils. Extracts and juices were characterised by HPLC-DAD–ESI\\/MSn. In total, 48 compounds were detected, among which 9 anthocyanins, 2 gallotannins, 22 ellagitannins, 2 gallagyl esters, 4 hydroxybenzoic acids, 7 hydroxycinnamic acids and 1 dihydroflavonol were identified based on their UV spectra and fragmentation patterns in collision-induced dissociation experiments.

Ulrike A. Fischer; Reinhold Carle; Dietmar R. Kammerer

2011-01-01

25

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is effective in a murine model of experimental Cryptosporidium parvum ultrastructural studies of the ileum.  

PubMed

The current treatments for cryptosporidiosis are ineffective, and there is an urgent need to search for more effective and safer alternatives. One such alternative may be treatments derived from natural resources. The pomegranate peel has been used effectively in traditional medicine to cure diarrhea and dysentery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel suspension as a treatment for Cryptosporidium parvum infection. In this study, the effects of this treatment on the ultrastructure of both the intestinal epithelial layer of infected nursling mice and the parasite were observed with a transmission electron microscope. The histological study focused on the examination of the microvilli, columnar epithelium, goblet cells, lamina propria, and crypts of Lieberkuhn. Examination of the ileums of infected mice that received the pomegranate peel suspension demonstrated that the general structure of the ileal tissue of these mice was similar to that of the control group. In the infected mice treated with the suspension, but not the infected/untreated mice, there was an improvement in all ultrastructure aspects at 28days post-inoculation. The study of the ultrastructure of the parasite (C. parvum) in mice treated with the suspension showed that there was decomposition in the parasite to the extent that in some cases we were unable to identify the stage of the parasite due to the severe degeneration. Significant decomposition of the nutrition organ was also observed. Additionally, microgamonte and macrogamonte were not observed in the suspension-treated group, explaining the disappearance of the sexual phases of the parasite in the lumens of this group. In all, this examination demonstrated the restoration of the normal structures of villi and the disappearance of acute symptoms in the suspension-treated mice and showed that the suspension directly affected the parasite at various stages of its development and led to its decomposition and death. PMID:23684569

Al-Mathal, Ebtisam M; Alsalem, Afaf A

2013-05-16

26

Hydroalcoholic extract based-ointment from Punica granatum L. peels with enhanced in vivo healing potential on dermal wounds.  

PubMed

The present study reports for the first time, the in vivo wound healing potential of Punica granatum L. peels. A 5% (w/w) methanolic extract based-ointment was formulated and evaluated for its wound healing in guinea pigs. The ointment was applied in vivo on the paravertebral area of twelve excised wounded models once a day for 10 consecutive days. The ointment significantly enhanced the wound contraction and the period of epithelialization as assessed by the mechanical (contraction rate, tensile strength), the biochemical (increasing of collagen, DNA and proteins synthesis) and the histopathological characteristics. Such investigation was encouraged by the efficiency of the methanolic extract as antimicrobial and antioxidant. Indeed, the extract showed antioxidant activity as strong as natural and synthetic compounds (Trolox, BHA, Quercetin). Furthermore, the extract exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against almost all tested bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Trichopyton rubrum and Aspergillus niger. The formulated ointment might well find use as skin repair agent without hazard to human health based on these results and on the fact that it has been well established that the extracts of pomegranate used in conditions similar to those applied by traditional medicine, showed no toxic effects. PMID:21466954

Hayouni, E A; Miled, K; Boubaker, S; Bellasfar, Z; Abedrabba, M; Iwaski, H; Oku, H; Matsui, T; Limam, F; Hamdi, M

2011-04-03

27

Climate effects on anthocyanin accumulation and composition in the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit arils.  

PubMed

Worldwide pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) production has expanded greatly due to recent evidence on the fruit health attributes. The fruit's unique red color, conferred by anthocyanins, is an imperative sensory quality. Climate effects on the fruit's internal color were reported earlier. The present study investigated the influence of a wide range of temperature regimes (?7-40 °C) on pomegranates' aril anthocyanins. The study included two deciduous and two evergreen accessions as well as desert and Mediterranean orchards. RP-HPLC analysis of the arils' anthocyanins revealed mono- and diglucosylated delphinidins and cyanidins as the major anthocyanins and pelargonidins as minor components. Anthocyanin accumulation changed inversely to the season's temperatures. Cyanidins were generally more abundant but delphinidin accumulation was enhanced in cooler season. Monoglucosylated anthocyanins prevailed at cooler temperatures and subsided during seasonal warming with a concomitant increase in diglucoside proportion. The findings can benefit breeding and agricultural efforts to enhance pomegranate quality, especially in the face of "global warming". PMID:21506517

Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Harari, Moti; Bar-Ya'akov, Irit; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Lurie, Susan; Holland, Doron

2011-05-03

28

Chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Hymenaea courbaril fruit peel.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of the essential oils from the peel of ripe and unripe fruits of Hymenaea courbaril L., obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil from the peel of the ripe fruits were the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (11.1%), spathulenol (10.1%) and beta-selinene (8.2%), while germacrene-D (31.9%), beta-caryophyllene (27.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%) were the major compounds in the oil from unripe fruits. The essential oils were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae and showed LC50 values of 14.8 +/- 0.4 microg/mL and 28.4 +/- 0.3 microg/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit peel oils, respectively. From the peel of the ripe fruits, the diterpenes zanzibaric acid and isoozic acid were isolated, along with the sesquiterpene caryolane-1,9beta-diol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this sesquiterpene in the genus. The structures of all compounds isolated were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. PMID:21299135

Aguiar, José Cláudio D; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Lavor, Patrícia L; Veras, Helenicy N H; Ferreira, Yana S; Lima, Michele A A; Arriaga, Angela M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Lima, Jefferson Q; de Jesus, Hugo C R; Alves, Péricles B; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

2010-12-01

29

Protective role of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel and seed oil extracts on diethylnitrosamine and phenobarbital-induced hepatic injury in male rats.  

PubMed

The present study is an attempt to reveal the protective role of Punica granatum peel and seed oil extracts against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and phenobarbital (PB) induced hepatic injury in rats. DEN administration increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 and glutathione reductase (GSR) activities, while the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and total glutathione peroxidase (t-GPx) were decreased compared with the control. Treatment with peel and seed oil extracts pre, during and post DEN administration improved liver functions, decreased the levels of MDA, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 and GSR activities with an elevation in levels of GSH, SOD, GST and t-GPx activities. This indicates that these extracts reduced the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DEN. Also the effect of administration of PE and SOE separately for a long time (23 weeks) on healthy rats was studied. PMID:23870864

Shaban, Nadia Z; El-Kersh, Mohamed A L; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; Habashy, Noha H

2013-05-23

30

Biogenic robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Punica granatum peel and its application as a green catalyst for the reduction of an anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the peel extract of Punica granatum is reported in this article. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by the appearance of brownish yellow color and the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) peak at 432 nm. The biogenic AgNPs were found to have the size approximately 30 nm with distorted spherical shape. The high negative zeta potential values of AgNPs revealed their high stability which could be attributed to the capping of AgNPs by the phytoconstituents of the Punica granatum peel. The biogenic AgNPs were also found to function as an effective green catalyst in the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant viz., 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by solid sodium borohydride, which was evident from the instantaneous color change of bright yellow (400 nm) to colorless (294 nm) solution, after the addition of AgNPs. The catalytic action of biogenic AgNPs in the reduction of 4-NP could be explained on the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

Edison, T. Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, M. G.

2013-03-01

31

Biogenic robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Punica granatum peel and its application as a green catalyst for the reduction of an anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol.  

PubMed

A robust synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the peel extract of Punica granatum is reported in this article. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by the appearance of brownish yellow color and the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) peak at 432 nm. The biogenic AgNPs were found to have the size approximately 30 nm with distorted spherical shape. The high negative zeta potential values of AgNPs revealed their high stability which could be attributed to the capping of AgNPs by the phytoconstituents of the Punica granatum peel. The biogenic AgNPs were also found to function as an effective green catalyst in the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant viz., 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by solid sodium borohydride, which was evident from the instantaneous color change of bright yellow (400 nm) to colorless (294 nm) solution, after the addition of AgNPs. The catalytic action of biogenic AgNPs in the reduction of 4-NP could be explained on the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. PMID:23274256

Edison, T Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, M G

2012-12-05

32

Evaluation of Irradiation and Heat Treatment on Antioxidant Properties of Fruit Peel Extracts and Its Potential Application During Preservation of Goat Fish Parupenaeus indicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quenching capacities of Vitus vinifera seed extract, Citrus limon peel extract, Punica granatum peel extract, and Citrus sinensis peel extract were studied together with their antioxidant activity in goat fish (Parupenaeus indicus). The functionality of the extracts was evaluated using ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system, reducing power assay, DPPH,\\u000a hydroxyl, and nitrite radical scavenging assay. V. vinifera and P. granatum

Alagesan Paari; Hari Krishnam Naidu; Paulraj Kanmani; Ramraj Satishkumar; Neelakandan Yuvaraj; Vellaiyan Pattukumar; Venkatesan Arul

33

Differentiation-Promoting Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Fruit Extracts in HL60 Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation refers to the ability of cancer cells to revert to their normal counterparts, and its induction rep- resents an important noncytotoxic therapy for leukemia, and also breast, prostate, and other solid malignancies. Flavonoids are a group of differentiation-inducing chemicals with a potentially lower toxicology profile than retinoids. Flavonoid-rich polyphenol fractions from the pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit exert anti-proliferative, anti-invasive,

Satoru Kawaii; Ephraim P. Lansky

2004-01-01

34

Rapid dereplication of estrogenic compounds in pomegranate ( Punica granatum) using on-line biochemical detection coupled to mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, phytoestrogens have been receiving an increasing amount of interest, as several lines of evidence suggest a possible role in preventing a range of diseases, including the hormonally dependent cancers. In this context, various parts of the pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum; Punicaceae), e.g. seed oil, juice, fermented juice and peel extract, have been shown to exert suppressive effects

Danny A van Elswijk; Uwe P Schobel; Ephraim P Lansky; Hubertus Irth; Jan van der Greef

2004-01-01

35

Effects of chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of peeled litchi fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litchi pulp is very perishable and thus has a short shelf life, with marketers and consumers alike desiring a longer period. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of chitosan coating on quality maintenance and shelf life extension of peeled fruit of cv. Huaizhi. Manually peeled litchi fruits were treated with aqueous solutions of 0%, 1%, 2% or

Huaqiang Dong; Liangying Cheng; Jiahou Tan; Kunwang Zheng; Yueming Jiang

2004-01-01

36

Antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of common fruits as determined by FRAP assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of 28 fruits commonly consumed in China were determined using the ferric reducing\\/antioxidant power assay (FRAP assay). The contribution of vitamin C to the antioxidant activity of fruit pulps was also calculated. The results showed that hawthorn pulp had the highest FRAP value among all fruit pulps and followed by date,

Changjiang Guo; Jijun Yang; Jingyu Wei; Yunfeng Li; Jing Xu; Yugang Jiang

2003-01-01

37

Production of Antioxidant Nutraceuticals by Solid-State Cultures of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel and Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this work, creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) leaves and pomegranate (Punica grana- tum) peels were characterized for their use as a source of antioxidants and a support in so- lid-state fermentation. This work focuses on the kinetic evaluation of physicochemical changes during the fungal fermentation of two tannin-rich plant materials, mainly on the polyphenolic content. Aspergillus niger GH1 was

Cristóbal Noé Aguilar; Antonio Aguilera-Carbo; Armando Robledo; Janeth Ventura; Ruth Belmares; Diego Martinez; Raul Rodríguez-Herrera; Juan Contreras

38

Essential and toxic elements in three Pakistan's medicinal fruits (Punica granatum, Ziziphus jujuba and Piper cubeba) analysed by INAA.  

PubMed

Three important medicinal fruits generally used by the people of Pakistan for the treatment of different diseases have been studied for their mineral contents. Twenty-two major and minor trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were identified in Punica granatum (pomegranate), Ziziphus jujuba (jujube) and Piper cubeba L. (cubeb) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The studied medicinal herbs are a good source of the essential elements while toxic elements are found in trace amounts. K is detected as a major element in pomegranate, jujube and cubeb with respective values of 1.20%, 1.18% and 2.01%. Pomegranate has significant concentrations of Na, Zn, Cr and Se; jujube has high Cl, Zn, Mn and Co contents while cubeb is a good source of K and Fe. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of mineral elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal herbs. PMID:22017565

Fatima, Ismat; Waheed, Shahida; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain

2011-10-21

39

[Changes in antioxidative system and cell ultrastructure in the fruit peels of apple during sunburn development].  

PubMed

Fruits from 6-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Fuji) were used as materials to test the changes of antioxidative system and cell ultrastructure of fruit peels during sunburn development. Fruit sunburn appeared in mid July, 2002. The process of apple fruit sunburn was divided into three phases (0 degrees : control): 1 degrees : bleaching, 2 degrees : brownness, and 3 degrees : necrosis. Fuji apple fruits in different sunburn state were picked. Phenolic compounds, membrane protective enzymes (SOD, POD, PPO, CAT), cell membrane lipid peroxidation and cell ultrastructure in fruit peel were studied. The result showed that the degree of cell membrane lipid peroxidation enhanced along with development of sunburn. The activity of membrane protective enzymes also increased remarkably. However, the cell structure kept its integrity, except some organelles which partly disassembled, and cytoplasm and vacuoles became enriched with electron-dense substances while fruit peels became pale. As peel became brown, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin and myricetin accumulated, and cells of outer layers of the epidermis collapsed correspondingly, cell wall became thicker. It is suggested that changes in both cell ultrastructure and antioxidative system confirm that physiological state of fruit peels becomes disordered during sunburn development. PMID:15583404

Hao, Yan-Yan; Huang, Wei-Dong

2004-02-01

40

Ellagitannins of the fruit rind of pomegranate (Punica granatum) antagonize in vitro the host inflammatory response mechanisms involved in the onset of malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The sun-dried rind of the immature fruit of pomegranate (Punica granatum) is presently used as a herbal formulation (OMARIA, Orissa Malaria Research Indigenous Attempt) in Orissa, India, for the therapy and prophylaxis of malaria. The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, a complication of the infection by Plasmodium falciparum, is an inflammatory cytokine-driven disease associated to an up-regulation and activity of

Mario Dell'Agli; Germana V Galli; Michela Bulgari; Nicoletta Basilico; Sergio Romeo; Deepak Bhattacharya; Donatella Taramelli; Enrica Bosisio

2010-01-01

41

Mass modeling of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit with some physical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among physical characteristics, dimensions, mass, volume and projected areas are important parameters in sizing and grading systems. Fruits with the similar weight and uniform shape are desirable in terms of marketing value. Therefore, grading fruit based on weight reduces packing and handling costs and also provides suitable packing patterns. The different grading systems require different fruit sizing based on particular

F. Khoshnam; A. Tabatabaeefar; M. Ghasemi Varnamkhasti; A. Borghei

2007-01-01

42

Influence of fruit maturity in the susceptibility of Navelina oranges to develop postharvest non-chilling peel pitting.  

PubMed

Peel pitting is a disorder occurring mostly during postharvest storage at non-chilling temperatures in different varieties of citrus fruit and consists in collapse of flavedo and albedo tissues that may affect oil glands. It has been demonstrated that during postharvest, sharp variations in water potential of cells from flavedo and albedo are sufficient to provoke fractures in cell walls from external albedo resulting in tissue collapse. However, morphology and composition of cells and cell walls in flavedo and albedo varies during fruit maturation and this may affect water flow through the different fruit peel layers and susceptibility of fruit to develop peel pitting. In this paper, we have studied the influence of the stage of maturation in the susceptibility of Navelina orange to develop peel pitting. Except in mature-green fruit, peel pitting increased with maturation after transferring fruit from 45% to 95% relative humidity and was also more severe as more dehydrated was the tissue before transference. Also, differences in water potential of fruit maintained at 45 or 95% relative humidity increased as fruit matured, suggesting that tissue reduces the ability of water adjustment during maturation. In this sense, only mature-green fruit flavedo was able to recover water potential when transferred from 45 to 95% relative humidity. Ethylene production upon transfer from low to high relative humidity increased only in mature tissue and was rapid and transient, and before initial symptoms of peel pitting. Flavedo and albedo water potential (?w) was substantially reduced during fruit maturation. As lower was the ?w of freshly harvested fruit, minor variations were observed by changes in the storage relative humidity and higher the induced damage. Therefore, the increasing susceptibility of Navelina fruits to develop peel pitting with fruit maturation may be related to a reduced ability to regulate peel evapotranspiration and osmotic adjustment during postharvest storage. PMID:23733827

Alferez, Fernando; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2013-06-01

43

Chemical nature, stability and bioefficacies of anthocyanins from fruit peel of syzygium cumini Skeels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, anthocyanin pigments from Syzygium cumini fruit peels were characterized and evaluated for their antioxidant efficacy, and stability as extract and in formulation. Total anthocyanin content was 216mg\\/100ml of extract which is equivalent to 230mg\\/100g fruit on a dry weight basis. Three anthocyanins were identified as glucoglucosides of delphinidin (1), petunidin (2) and malvidin (3) by HPLC–ESI–MS.

Jyothi M. Veigas; Mandayam S. Narayan; Padmere M. Laxman; Bhagyalakshmi Neelwarne

2007-01-01

44

Recovery of arbutin in high purity from fruit peels of pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Arbutin is one of the most abundant compounds in pear fruit and has been widely used as a whitening agent in cosmetic products.\\u000a In this study, a simple method for the purification and isolation of arbutin in high purity from the fruit peel of a pear\\u000a (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuhwangbae) was developed. The high extraction efficiency of arbutin was

Jeong-Yong Cho; Keun Young Park; Ki Hoon Lee; Hyoung Jae Lee; Sang-Hyun Lee; Jeong An Cho; Wol-Soo Kim; Soo-Cheol Shin; Keun-Hyung Park; Jae-Hak Moon

2011-01-01

45

Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to elucidate the inhibitory potential of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract on mouse skin papillomagensis with the modulatory influence of biotransformation system enzymes. Topical application of Momordica whole fruit extract (100 ?l\\/animal per day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)

Anjali Singh; Satya Prakash Singh; Ramesh Bamezai

1998-01-01

46

The sun-exposed peel of apple fruit has higher xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal dissipation and antioxidants of the ascorbate–glutathione pathway than the shaded peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine how xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal dissipation and the antioxidant system in the peel of apple fruit respond to the natural light exposure within the tree canopy. Fruit from exterior and interior canopies of both mature ‘Gala’ and ‘Smoothee’ apple trees were sampled at noon and\\/or predawn to measure chlorophyll fluorescence, xanthophyll cycle pool

Fengwang Ma; Lailiang Cheng

2003-01-01

47

Relation of peel damage in citrus fruit to wind climate in orchard and its control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peel damage originated by wind is the main abiotic cause of citrus fruit discards for export in Uruguay. Natural windbreaks such as Eucalyptus and Casuarinas have not been effective in reducing it. This research was carried out during three years in a citrus orchard situated in the coastal plain of Uruguay (35° SL). The purpose of this work was to

Alfredo Gravina; José Cataldo; Giuliana Gambetta; Elisa Pardo; Cecilia Fornero; Sebastián Galiger; Rodolfo Pienika

2011-01-01

48

A pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) WD40-repeat gene is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis TTG1 and is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins are the major pigments responsible for the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit skin color. The high variability in fruit external color in pomegranate cultivars reflects variations in anthocyanin\\u000a composition. To identify genes involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in the pomegranate fruit skin\\u000a we have isolated, expressed and characterized the pomegranate homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT

Zohar Ben-Simhon; Sylvie Judeinstein; Talia Nadler-Hassar; Taly Trainin; Irit Bar-Ya’akov; Hamutal Borochov-Neori; Doron Holland

49

A new method of standartization of health-promoting pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) extract.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the major phenolic constituents of pomegranate fruit juice and pericarp feedstock, and dry extracts thereof, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pomegranate pericarp was extracted with water (WE) and alcohol (AE) as solvents, and liquid extracts were subsequently freeze-dried. The results indicate that ellagitannins punicalagin A and punicalagin B are the major constituents in the primary pomegranate feedstock and in both types of extracts. Ellagic acid, a common botanical constituent that is currently used to standardize pomegranate extracts, as well as ellagitannin punicalin, were found to be only minor constituents. Total punicalagins (the sum of punicalagins A+B and punicalin) and ellagic acid content in the pomegranate fruit pericarp feedstock WE were 7,6+/-0,3% and 0,2+/-0,1% by dry weight, respectively, and in the AE feedstock 7,0+/-0,2 and 0,4+/-0,1%, respectively. Total phenolic content (the sum of punicalagins and ellagic acid) in the pomegranate WE and AE were 45,8+/-1,2% and 42,3+/-1,1%, respectively. The concentrations of ellagic acid in the pomegranate WE and AE were 0,8+/-0,2% and 3,9+/-0,2%, respectively. Total phenolics in fresh single-strength pomegranate whole fruit juice contained 2,216+/-70 mg/L (95% punicalagins), whereas commercial pomegranate juice that was purchased from local stores was 317+/-13 mg/L (70% punicalagins). Our results strongly suggest that the commercially produced pomegranate extracts should be standardized to the content of total punicalagins as well as ellagic acid. The current standard uses only ellagic acid, which is unreliable, potentially misleading and vulnerable to commercial adulteration. PMID:17179594

Jimenez Del Rio, M; Ramazanov, A; Sikorski, S; Ramazanov, Z; Chkhikvishvili, I

2006-11-01

50

Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf  

PubMed Central

The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe.

Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

2011-01-01

51

Metal analysis in citrus sinensis fruit peel and psidium guajava leaf.  

PubMed

The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's 't' test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

2011-07-01

52

Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 ?g mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 ?g mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals. PMID:22699857

Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

2012-06-15

53

Antioxidant capacities of peel, pulp, and seed fractions of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. fruit.  

PubMed

Antioxidant capacities of ethylacetate, butanol, and water fractions of peel, pulp, and seeds of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) were determined using various in vitro antioxidant models. Ethylacetate fraction of peel (EAFPE) exhibited the highest total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities compared to pulp, seeds, and other solvent fractions. Antioxidant capacities were assayed by total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hemoglobin oxidation assay. Total phenolic content of ethylacetate fractions was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant activities from CO fruit fractions. Thus, EAFPE can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible pharmaceutical supplement. PMID:20936182

Prasad, K Nagendra; Chew, Lye Yee; Khoo, Hock Eng; Kong, Kin Weng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin

2010-09-20

54

Antioxidant Capacities of Peel, Pulp, and Seed Fractions of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant capacities of ethylacetate, butanol, and water fractions of peel, pulp, and seeds of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) were determined using various in vitro antioxidant models. Ethylacetate fraction of peel (EAFPE) exhibited the highest total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities compared to pulp, seeds, and other solvent fractions. Antioxidant capacities were assayed by total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hemoglobin oxidation assay. Total phenolic content of ethylacetate fractions was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant activities from CO fruit fractions. Thus, EAFPE can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible pharmaceutical supplement.

Prasad, K. Nagendra; Chew, Lye Yee; Khoo, Hock Eng; Kong, Kin Weng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin

2010-01-01

55

Potent antifungal activity of extracts and pure compound isolated from pomegranate peels and synergism with fluconazole against Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity-guided repeated fractionation of crude hydro alcoholic extract prepared from the fruit peel of Punica granatum on a silica-gel column yielded a compound that exhibited strong antifungal activity against Candida spp. Based on spectral analyses, the compound was identified as punicalagin. Punicalagin showed strong activity against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, with MICs of 3.9 and 1.9 ?g\\/ml, respectively. The combination

Eliana Harue Endo; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho

2010-01-01

56

Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 ?g/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 ?g/ml and 15.88 ?g/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors.

2012-01-01

57

Anti-proliferative effects of compounds from the fruit peel of Wisteria floribunda on vascular smooth muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new compound (1) together with 21 known compounds (2–22) were isolated from the fruit peel of Wisteria floribunda. The structure of the new compound was determined by extensive spectroscopic studies and chemical evidence. We also tested for inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation in culture. Compounds 2, 5, 10, 13, 14, and 16 significantly inhibited VSMC proliferation

Trinh Nam Trung; Do Thi Ha; NamHui Yim; Tran Minh Ngoc; Tran Thi Phuong; Nguyen Bich Thu; Hoang Van Luong; KiHwan Bae

58

The effect of microwave heating of fresh orange peels on the fruit tissue and quality of extracted pectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microwave pretreatment of fruit raw material on some physical properties of the orange tissue was investigated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that microwave heating led to destruction of the parenchymal cells. It was also found that specific surface and the water absorption capacity of the orange tissue, and the endogenous enzymes of the peels were inactivated. As a

M Kratchanova; E Pavlova; I Panchev

2004-01-01

59

Oral administration of purple passion fruit peel extract attenuates blood pressure in female spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated the potential antihypertensive effect of the purple passion fruit peel (PFP) extract, a mixture of bioflavonoids, phenolic acids, and anthocyanins, in spontaneously hypertensive rats and human. A high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed to identify the active ingredients of the PFP extract. In

Sherma Zibadi; Reza Farid; Satoru Moriguchi; Yinrong Lu; Lai Yeap Foo; Pooya Moslemzadeh Tehrani; Judith B. Ulreich; Ronald R. Watson

2007-01-01

60

Changes in Peroxidase Activity in the Peel of Unshiu Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Fruit with Different Storage Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Unshiu mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is the major Citrus crop in Croatia. Limit- ing factors for longer consumption of Unshiu mandarin are low storage performance and the appearance of chilling injuries during storage. Previous studies indicated that oxida- tive stress might be involved in cold-induced peel damage of harvested Citrus fruit. The aim of the present study was

Hrvoje Lepedu; Marko Jozi; Nikola Pavi; Branimir K. Hackenberger; Vera Cesar

2005-01-01

61

Ethylene induces de novo synthesis of chlorophyllase, a chlorophyll degrading enzyme, in Citrus fruit peel.  

PubMed Central

Chlorophyllase (Chlase; EC 3.1.1.14) was extracted from plastid fractions of ethylene-treated orange fruit peel and purified 400-fold to homogeneity by gel filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and preparative SDS/PAGE of nonheated protein. SDS/PAGE of nonheated purified enzyme indicated that Chlase activity is associated with a single protein band migrating at an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa whereas the heated purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 35 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the purified protein was determined. The purified enzyme was used as an immunogen for raising antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum was highly specific and on Western blots recognized both the heated and the nonheated form of Chlase. The antibodies also recognized the solubilized enzyme, as shown by an immunoprecipitation assay and by antigen-antibody capture assays in microtiter plates. Treatment with ethylene, which enhances degreening, increased Chlase activity 12-fold. Immunoblot analyses of crude extracts from ethylene-treated fruit detected a strong signal of the Chlase protein, while only a trace level of the enzyme protein could be detected in air. Gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine partly counteracted the ethylene-induced increase in Chlase activity as well as the immunodetected upsurge of the Chlase protein. Ethylene appears to enhance the degreening of citrus fruit through de novo synthesis of the Chlase protein, which in turn is inhibited by the senescence-delaying regulators, gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine. The Chlase enzyme protein may, therefore, serve as a model system for studying the hormonal molecular regulation of fruit ripening and senescence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Trebitsh, T; Goldschmidt, E E; Riov, J

1993-01-01

62

Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels.  

PubMed

Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327

Martos, María A; Zubreski, Emilce R; Garro, Oscar A; Hours, Roque A

2013-04-17

63

Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels  

PubMed Central

Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine.

Martos, Maria A.; Zubreski, Emilce R.; Garro, Oscar A.; Hours, Roque A.

2013-01-01

64

OPTIMIZING THE USE OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES TO FACILITATE PEELING OF CITRUS FRUIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven commercially produced enzyme preparations were tested for their effectiveness in facilitating the peeling of Florida oranges and grapefruit. An automated citrus peeling machine, developed by the Florida Department of Citrus, was used to objectively assess peeling efficiency. Four enzyme prep...

65

A new flavan-3-ol and the anti-inflammatory effect of flavonoids from the fruit peels of Wisteria floribunda  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavan-3-ol, (+)-afzelechin 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (2), together with 13 known flavonoids (1, 3–14), was isolated from the fruit peels of Wisteria floribunda. Their structures were assigned by detailed interpretation of NMR, MS, and CD spectroscopic data, as well as by comparing with published reports. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds (1–14) was examined. Among them, compounds 3,

Bui Huu Tai; Trinh Nam Trung; Nguyen Xuan Nhiem; Do Thi Ha; Chu Van Men; Vu Binh Duong; Hoang Van Luong; SeokBean Song; KiHwan Bae; Young Ho Kim

2011-01-01

66

Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate\\u000a fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax\\u000a : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both\\u000a treatments retained significantly higher

Kalyan Barman; Ram Asrey; R. K. Pal; Charanjit Kaur; S. K. Jha

67

Cytoprotective effect of preparations from various parts of Punica granatum L. fruits in oxidatively injured mammalian cells in comparison with their antioxidant capacity in cell free systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) is being increasingly proposed as a nutritional supplement to prevent atherosclerosis in humans. This therapeutically valuable potential has been attributed to PJ antioxidant capacity which has been mostly tested by means of cell-free assays: indeed, to the best of our knowledge, no study has focused on the direct antioxidant capacity of PJ in cultured

Piero Sestili; Chiara Martinelli; Donata Ricci; Daniele Fraternale; Anahi Bucchini; Laura Giamperi; Rosanna Curcio; Giovanni Piccoli; Vilberto Stocchi

2007-01-01

68

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.

Gozlekci, Sadiye; Saracoglu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

69

A new flavan-3-ol and the anti-inflammatory effect of flavonoids from the fruit peels of Wisteria floribunda.  

PubMed

A new flavan-3-ol, (+)-afzelechin 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (2), together with 13 known flavonoids (1, 3-14), was isolated from the fruit peels of Wisteria floribunda. Their structures were assigned by detailed interpretation of NMR, MS, and CD spectroscopic data, as well as by comparing with published reports. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds (1-14) was examined. Among them, compounds 3, 6, and 9 produced highest inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-induced nuclear factor kappa-B activation in HepG2 cells with IC(50) values of 14.1, 16.5, and 11.9 ?M, respectively. With the exception of compound 6, the compounds significantly inhibited the accumulation of pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins in TNF-?-stimulated HepG2 cells at a concentration as low as 0.1 ?M. PMID:21985227

Tai, Bui Huu; Trung, Trinh Nam; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Ha, Do Thi; Van Men, Chu; Duong, Vu Binh; Van Luong, Hoang; Song, Seokbean; Bae, Kihwan; Kim, Young Ho

2011-10-10

70

Flavonoids from Punica granatum—potential antiperoxidative agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractions rich in flavonoids obtained from the fruits of Punica granatum extract, orally administered to rats at dose of 10 mg kg?1 day?1, showed potential antiperoxidative effect. Concentrations of malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were significantly decreased in liver while the activities of the enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase showed significant elevation. Concentrations of glutathione

S. Sudheesh; N. R. Vijayalakshmi

2005-01-01

71

Effects of 1-MCP on chlorophyll degradation pathway-associated genes expression and chloroplast ultrastructure during the peel yellowing of Chinese pear fruits in storage.  

PubMed

The peel yellowing is an important pigment physiological process of green fruit ripening, which mainly results from chlorophyll degradation in the fruit peel. In this work, two typical cultivars with different ripening speed, a slow ripening pear 'Emerald' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Emerald) and a fast ripening 'Jingbai' (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. cv. Jingbai) were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of chlorophyll degradation in pear yellowing/ripening during postharvest storage. The fruits after harvest were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor at 1.0 ?Ll(-1) to determine its effect on chloroplast ultrastructure and the expression of chlorophyll degradation associated genes in peel tissues. Our results show that the pears treated with 1-MCP had a lower ethylene production rate and higher chlorophyll content compared to those of untreated fruit. The more intact chloroplasts with well-organised grana thylakoids and small plastoglobuli were maintained in the peel of 1-MCP treated fruit for up to 30 and 15 d in 'Emerald' and 'Jingbai', respectively. The expression of chlorophyll degradation associated genes: pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), non-yellow colouring (NYC), NYC1-like (NOL), stay-green 1(SGR1), was suppressed, while no significant change was found in chlorophyllase 1 (CHL1) and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR) in both cultivar fruits treated with 1-MCP. These results suggest that 1-MCP can delay chlorophyll degradation by inhibiting ethylene production and suppressing the gene expression of PAO, NYC, NOL and SGR1, which are closely associated with chlorophyll catabolic pathway. PMID:22868108

Cheng, Yudou; Dong, Yu; Yan, Hongbo; Ge, Wenya; Shen, Chengguo; Guan, Junfeng; Liu, Liqin; Zhang, Yingying

2012-05-11

72

Peel and peel again  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To determine if the internal limiting membrane (ILM) was present in the epiretinal membrane (ERM) when we deliberately tried to perform a “double peel” for macular pucker.Methods:Pars-plana vitrectomy and a “double peel” were carried out. The ERM and ILM were stained with Trypan Blue and peeled separately over the same area. The amount of ERM present in ILM specimens and

S. K. Gibran; B. Flemming; T. Stappler; I. Pearce; C. Groenewald; H. Heimann; P. Hiscott; D. Wong

2008-01-01

73

A COMPARISON OF ETHANE, ETHYLENE AND CO2 PEEL PERMEANCE-DIFFUSION FOR FRUIT WITH DIFFERENT COATINGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oranges, bell peppers and apples were treated with different coatings, and the peel permeance coeffiecients were measured for ethane, CO2 and ethylene. The shellac and wood resin coatings reduced ethane permeance of orange and apple peels by approximately 95% from the values for non-coated peel, an...

74

Composition, ultrastructure and function of the cutin and suberin-containing layers in the leaf, fruit peel, juice-sac and inner seed coat of grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi Macfed.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutin and suberin polymers from various anatomical regions of grapefruit were analyzed chemically and ultrastructurally. The leaf, fruit peel and juice-sac showed an amorphous cuticular layer. The cutin in the leaf was composed of 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid and its positional isomers as the major monomers whereas 16-hydroxy-10-oxo C16 acid was a major component in the fruit peel. Juice-sac cutin, on

Karl E. Espelie; Ronald W. Davis; P. E. Kolattukudy

1980-01-01

75

Oral intake of purple passion fruit peel extract reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adult patients with knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disorder and a major cause of pain and disability. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the passion fruit peel extract (PFP), a flavonoid-rich dietary supplement, would reduce symptoms due to knee OA. Thirty-three OA patients were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Patients received either placebo

Reza Farid; Zahra Rezaieyazdi; Zahra Mirfeizi; Mohamad Reza Hatef; Mahyar Mirheidari; Hassan Mansouri; Habib Esmaelli; Gayle Bentley; Yinrong Lu; Yeap Foo; Ronald Ross Watson

2010-01-01

76

BÚSQUEDA DE LAS MEJORES CONDICIONES PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN Y MEDIDA DE ACTIVIDAD DE CELULASA Y XILANASA EXTRAÍDAS DE LA CORTEZA DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya) Searching the Best Conditions for the Extraction and Activity Measurement of Cellulase and Xylanase Extracted from the Yellow Pitaya Fruit Peel (Acanthocereus pitajaya)  

Microsoft Academic Search

By applying different conservation techniques on yellow pitaya fruit (Acanthocereus pitajaya) it has been found that excessive softening of the peel contributes to the deterioration of the fruit. Due to that both cellulase and xylanase have been related to the softening of the fruit's peel; this work was based on the search of the best conditions

YENNY MARITZA; DUEÑAS GÓMEZ

77

Cell wall, cell membrane, and volatile metabolism are altered by antioxidant treatment, temperature shifts, and peel necrosis during apple fruit storage.  

PubMed

The transition from cold storage to ambient temperature alters apple quality through accelerated softening, flavor and color changes, and development of physiological peel disorders, such as superficial scald, in susceptible cultivars. To reveal global metabolism associated with this transition, the 'Granny Smith' peel metabolome was evaluated during storage of 6 months and shelf life periods. Treatment with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) reduced scald, creating a metabolic contrast with untreated fruit, which developed superficial scald. Superficial scald symptoms developed on control fruit after 120 days of storage, and symptoms progressed following transition to ambient-temperature shelf life. The metabolic profile of control and DPA-treated fruit was divergent after 30 days of cold storage due to differing levels of ?-farnesene oxidation products, methyl esters, phytosterols, and other compounds potentially associated with chloroplast integrity and oxidative stress response. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed coregulation within the volatile synthesis pathway including control of the availability of methyl, propyl, ethyl, acetyl, and butyl alcohol and/or acid moieties for ester biosynthesis. Overall, the application of metabolomics techniques lends new insight into physiological processes leading to cell death and ripening processes that affect fruit flavor, appearance, and overall quality. PMID:23311914

Leisso, Rachel; Buchanan, David; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James; Rudell, David

2013-02-01

78

Cytoprotective effect of preparations from various parts of Punica granatum L. fruits in oxidatively injured mammalian cells in comparison with their antioxidant capacity in cell free systems.  

PubMed

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) is being increasingly proposed as a nutritional supplement to prevent atherosclerosis in humans. This therapeutically valuable potential has been attributed to PJ antioxidant capacity which has been mostly tested by means of cell-free assays: indeed, to the best of our knowledge, no study has focused on the direct antioxidant capacity of PJ in cultured cells. Here, the antioxidant capacity in cell free-systems of preparations from various parts of pomegranate has been compared with their cytoprotective -bona fide antioxidant--activity in cultured human cells (U937 promonocytes and HUVEC endothelial cells) exposed to an array of oxidizing agents. Pomegranate derivatives were PJ, arils only juice (AJ) and aqueous rinds extract (RE). In cell-free assays--1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase assays--all the preparations displayed good antioxidant capacity, the relative potency order being RE>PJ>AJ. On the contrary, only RE was capable of preventing the deleterious effects--cytotoxicity, DNA damage and depletion of non-protein sulphydrils (NPSH) pool--caused by treatment of cells with H(2)O(2), tert-butylhydroperoxide (tB-OOH) or oxidized lipoproteins (Ox-LDL) via a mechanism which is likely to involve both direct scavenging of radical species and iron chelation. Surprisingly, AJ and PJ slightly sensitized cells to the cytotoxic effects of the three agents. Then it would appear that AJ, the major and tasty part of PJ, does not contain ellagic acid and punicalagin (i.e. the polyphenols highly represented in RE which are reputed to be responsible for the antioxidant capacity) in amounts sufficient to exert cytoprotection in oxidatively injured, living cells. Based on these results, the development and evaluation of rinds-only based derivatives for antiatherogenic preventive purposes in humans should be encouraged. PMID:17376699

Sestili, Piero; Martinelli, Chiara; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Giamperi, Laura; Curcio, Rosanna; Piccoli, Giovanni; Stocchi, Vilberto

2007-02-20

79

Influence of dairy Penicillium spp. on nutrient content of citrus fruit peel 1 Contribution from the Ministry of Scientific Research and Technology – Research Fund 60%: M. C. Sinatra. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to improve the nutritional value of bergamot fruit peel by solid-state fermentation with three strains of Penicillium camemberti and seven strains of Penicillium roqueforti. To assess the effect of their growth on the chemical composition of the substrate, the following analytical determinations were carried out before and after microbial colonization: crude protein, pure protein,

V Scerra; A Caridi; F Foti; M. C Sinatra

1999-01-01

80

Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In...

81

Identification of steroid hormones in pomegranate ( Punica granatum) using HPLC and GC–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has been known that pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) contains several steroid hormones, concrete experimental proofs about that have not been published until now. In order to identify and evaluate the contents of steroid hormones including estrone in pomegranate, we analyzed pomegranate seed, fruit juice and commercial preparations. We developed a reproducible and sensitive method for separation and identification

Don Woong Choi; Jee Yeun Kim; Seon Hee Choi; Hee Su Jung; Hyo Joo Kim; So Yean Cho; Chan Soon Kang; Seung Yeup Chang

2006-01-01

82

Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

2003-01-01

83

Comprehensive thin-layer chromatography mass spectrometry of flavanols from Juniperus communis L. and Punica granatum L.  

PubMed

The coupling of thin-layer chromatography with mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) for the analysis of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins in samples presented as complex matrices has been studied. The elution conditions for TLC-MS were optimised and full scans were compared with selected reaction monitoring for the MS detection of compounds. The performance of silica gel and cellulose plates with different developing solvents in TLC-MS was assessed. Cellulose plates provided superior sensitivity while ionisation suppression was encountered with silica plates. The use of a HILIC guard column beyond the elution head was found to facilitate detection of monomer compounds on silica plates. A new comprehensive TLC×MS procedure for screening flavanols in the entire chromatogram was developed as an alternative to the use of 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to determine the locations of compounds on the plate. This new procedure was applied to detect flavanols in the peel of Punica granatum L. fruits and in seeds of Juniperus communis L., in which flavanols and proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers were detected for the first time. PMID:23566918

Smrke, Samo; Vovk, Irena

2013-03-16

84

Novel phenotypes related to the breeding of purple-fruited tomatoes and effect of peel extracts on human cancer cell proliferation.  

PubMed

The production of anthocyanins in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit is normally absent or poor, but a number of mutants or introgression lines are known to increase anthocyanin levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Through conventional breeding, a genetic combination was obtained with the remarkable phenotype of a deep purple fruit pigmentation, due to an accumulation of anthocyanins on the peel. Such a genotype was named Sun Black (SB) as a consequence of its sensitivity to light induction. When characterized for morpho-agronomic traits, SB plants showed increased fertility. Purple fruits displayed an arrangement of the epicarp cells different from normal tomatoes, a feature that could account for different mechanical properties and shelf-life potential. The SB genotype and, to a lesser extent, its single mutant parents showed the capacity to accumulate anthocyanins in the seedling root when grown under light. This phenotype, which was greatly improved by the addition of sucrose to the germination medium, proved to be useful as selection index and gave new insights for in vitro production of anthocyanin extracts. To assess the nutraceutical potential of purple tomatoes, we tested the activity of SB skin extracts on the proliferation of two human cancer cells lines. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by SB extract in a dose-dependent manner. When the bioactivity of SB extracts was compared with that of other anthocyanin-containing fruits or vegetables, a significant "Extract*Line" interaction was evidenced, suggesting a crucial role for the extract composition in terms of anthocyanidins and other eventual cell growth-inhibiting compounds. PMID:23769702

Mazzucato, Andrea; Willems, Daniela; Bernini, Roberta; Picarella, Maurizio E; Santangelo, Enrico; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Tilesi, Francesca; Soressi, Gian Piero

2013-05-28

85

Antihypertensive effect of passion fruit peel extract and its major bioactive components following acute supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Extracts from leaves, peels or flowers of Passiflora are noted for their medicinal effects. Passiflora edulis peel extract (PFPE) has been proposed to lower blood pressure (BP); however, only indirect measurement techniques have been employed. To more accurately measure the effect of PFPE on hemodynamic parameters and determine the minimal effective dose, hemodynamic parameters were directly measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) implanted with radiotelemeters. PFPE was given orally at 0, 2.5, 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) to determine the minimal effective dose. Once this dose was determined, the potential active components, edulilic acid (EA), anthocyanin fraction (AF) or ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were tested to determine which may contribute to the reductions in BP. The 50 mg PFPE/kg BW dose was the lowest dose that significantly reduced all hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. When the potential actives were provided at equivalent doses to those found in 50 mg PFPE/kg BW, the EA and AF significantly reduced all measured hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. GABA did not significantly affect any hemodynamic parameters compared to control and significantly increased heart rate. These direct measurements indicate that PFPE can decrease hemodynamic parameters in SHR and indicate that EA and AF are active compounds that contribute to the antihypertensive effects of PFPE supplementation. While these results are encouraging, detailed mechanistic studies are needed to determine the putative value of PFPE for blood pressure control in humans. PMID:23333089

Lewis, Brandon J; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Craig, Teresa A; Mehring-Franklin, Cynthia E; Defreitas, Zoraida; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen

2013-01-17

86

Biosorption properties of citrus peel derived oligogalacturonides, enzyme-modified pectin and peel hydrolysis residues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A citrus processing industry priority is obtaining added value from fruit peel. Approximately one-half of each processed fruit is added to the waste stream. Peel residue mainly is composed of water (~80%), the remaining 20% (solid fraction) consists of pectin, soluble sugars, cellulose, proteins, ph...

87

Oral intake of purple passion fruit peel extract reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adult patients with knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disorder and a major cause of pain and disability. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the passion fruit peel extract (PFP), a flavonoid-rich dietary supplement, would reduce symptoms due to knee OA. Thirty-three OA patients were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Patients received either placebo or PFP pills (150 mg, daily) in a double-blinded fashion for 2 months. The OA clinical symptoms were evaluated monthly with Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index. In the PFP group, there was a significant improvement in total WOMAC score and WOMAC subscale score of physical function after 30 days and pain after 60 days. At 60 days, reductions of 18.6%, 18%, 19.6%, and 19.2% in pain, stiffness, physical function, and composite WOMAC score, respectively, were self-reported in the PFP group. Whereas, in the placebo group, the self-reported WOMAC scores increased in every category. The results of this study show that PFP substantially alleviated osteoarthritis symptoms. This beneficial effect of PFP may be due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:20934601

Farid, Reza; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Mirfeizi, Zahra; Hatef, Mohamad Reza; Mirheidari, Mahyar; Mansouri, Hassan; Esmaelli, Habib; Bentley, Gayle; Lu, Yinrong; Foo, Yeap; Watson, Ronald Ross

2010-09-01

88

Punica granatum (pomegranate) flower extract possesses potent antioxidant activity and abrogates Fe-NTA induced hepatotoxicity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn., Punicaceae) fruit parts are known to possess enormous antioxidant activity. The present study evaluated antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of pomegranate flowers. Alcoholic (ethanolic) extract of flowers was prepared and used in the present study. The extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and exhibit enormous reducing ability, both indicative of potent antioxidant

Gurpreet Kaur; Zoobi Jabbar; Mohammad Athar; M. Sarwar Alam

2006-01-01

89

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of secondary metabolites in citrus fruits peels using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with advanced chemometric methods.  

PubMed

Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) and multivariate clustering methods along with other chemometric methods are proposed to improve the analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprints of secondary metabolites in citrus fruits peels. In this way, chromatographic problems such as baseline/background contribution, low S/N peaks, asymmetric peaks, retention time shifts, and co-elution (overlapped and embedded peaks) occurred during GC-MS analysis of chromatographic fingerprints are solved using the proposed strategy. In this study, first, informative GC-MS fingerprints of citrus secondary metabolites are generated and then, whole data sets are segmented to some chromatographic regions. Each chromatographic segment for eighteen samples is column-wise augmented with m/z values as common mode to preserve bilinear model assumption needed for MCR analysis. Extended multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) is used to obtain pure elution and mass spectral profiles for the components present in each chromatographic segment as well as their relative concentrations. After finding the best MCR-ALS model, the relative concentrations for resolved components are examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) clustering methods to explore similarities and dissimilarities among different citrus samples according to their secondary metabolites. In general, four clear-cut clusters are determined and the chemical markers (chemotypes) responsible to this differentiation are characterized by subsequent discriminate analysis using counter-propagation artificial neural network (CPANN) method. It is concluded that the use of proposed strategy is a more reliable and faster way for the analysis of large data sets like chromatographic fingerprints of natural products compared to conventional methods. PMID:22766429

Parastar, Hadi; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Sereshti, Hassan; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad

2012-06-15

90

ENZYME PEELING OF VALENCIA ORANGE FOR FRESH-CUT SLICES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spite of the booming market for fresh cut fruit, fresh cut citrus has not been successful commercially due to technical difficulties in peeling the fruit. The USDA and the FDOC have developed a process using enzyme infiltration under vacuum to facilitate citrus peeling. However, the enzymes (cel...

91

Therapeutic applications of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): a review.  

PubMed

The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., is an ancient, mystical, unique fruit borne on a small, long-living tree cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region, as far north as the Himalayas, in Southeast Asia, and in California and Arizona in the United States. In addition to its ancient historical uses, pomegranate is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior to that of single constituents. In the past decade, numerous studies on the antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate constituents have been published, focusing on treatment and prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dental conditions, erectile dysfunction, bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance, and ultraviolet radiation-induced skin damage. Other potential applications include infant brain ischemia, male infertility, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, and obesity. PMID:18590349

Jurenka, Julie S

2008-06-01

92

Cell wall, cell membrane, and volatile metabolism are altered by antioxidant treatment, temperature shifts, and peel necrosis during apple fruit storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transition from cold storage to ambient temperature alters apple quality through accelerated softening, flavor and color changes, and symptom development of physiological peel disorders, such as superficial scald, in susceptible cultivars. To reveal global metabolism associated with the transit...

93

Abrasive peeling of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the processing of potatoes in any form, removal of peel is an important unit operation. Hence, a power operated batch type potato peeler was developed and its performance was evaluated. The main parts of the machine are a peeling drum and a water spraying unit. The peeling drum with protrusions on the inside surface rotates and detaches peel from

K. K. Singh; B. D. Shukla

1995-01-01

94

Effects of fruit juices, processed vegetable juice, orange peel and green tea on endogenous formation of N-nitrosoproline in subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer in Moping County, China.  

PubMed

The effects of four fruit juices, processed vegetable juice, orange peel, green tea and low dose vitamin C on endogenous N-nitrosation in 86 subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer in Moping County, China were studied using urinary excretion of N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) as an indicator. After ingestion of 300 mg L-proline, urinary excretion of NPRO was significantly increased from a baseline of 2.5 +/- 1.6 micrograms/day to 8.7 +/- 6.2 micrograms/day. (P < 0.001). Vitamin C (75 mg) administration significantly reduced NPRO formation (62.3%, P < 0.002) although NPRO excretion remained higher than the baseline level (4.2 +/- 1.3 vs 2.2 +/- 1.2 micrograms/day, P < 0.001). Intake of fruit juices and green tea extracts (containing 75 mg vitamin C) or of orange peel powder (containing 3 mg vitamin C) together with 300 mg L-proline inhibited NPRO formation effectively to the baseline level or to levels significantly lower than the baseline level (P < 0.05-0.005). A processed juice of a number of vegetables (300 ml) significantly catalysed endogenous nitrosation (14.7 +/- 11.8 vs 9.4 +/- 4.7 micrograms/day, P < 0.05). Endogenous N-nitrosation was unaffected by the presence of intragastric lesions. The present study shows that endogenous nitrosation in this population is profoundly affected by environmental factors and that inhibitors, such as vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and other non-nutritive compounds in the foods do inhibit endogenous nitrosation either synergistically or in an additive manner. The significance of fruits and vegetables in prevention of human cancers is discussed. PMID:8358285

Xu, G P; Song, P J; Reed, P I

1993-07-01

95

Pomegranate fruit components modulate human thrombin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is an important source of polyphenols with assessed antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were: (i) the characterization of the monomeric phenolic variability on each isolated fruit component (endocarp, mesocarp, aril); (ii) the study on the effect of pomegranate fruit components on human thrombin amidolytic activity. Collectively, our data show that pomegranate components contain bioactive metabolites

M. Cuccioloni; M. Mozzicafreddo; L. Sparapani; M. Spina; A. M. Eleuteri; E. Fioretti; M. Angeletti

2009-01-01

96

Comparative Physical Examination of Various Citrus Peel Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical parameters of various citrus peel essential oils were determined in this study. Essential oils from the peels of Kinnow (C. reticulata, var. mandarin), Fewtrell's early (C. reticulata, var. tangerine), Malta (C. sinensis var. malta), Mousami (C. sinensis var. mousami), grape fruit (C. paradisi) and eureka lemon (C. limon) were extracted by applying cold expressing method. Eureka lemon had the

MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ AHMAD; FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM; EHSAN ELAHI BAJWA

2006-01-01

97

Development of a machine for the automatic sorting of pomegranate ( Punica granatum) arils based on computer vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pomegranate is a fruit with excellent organoleptic and nutritional properties, but the fact that it is difficult to peel affects its commercialisation and decreases its potential consumption. One solution is to market the arils of pomegranate in a ready-to-eat form. However, after the peeling process, unwanted material, such as internal membranes and defective arils, is extracted together with good

J. Blasco; S. Cubero; J. Gómez-Sanchís; P. Mira; E. Moltó

2009-01-01

98

Safety assessment of pomegranate fruit extract: Acute and subchronic toxicity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit is widely consumed as fresh fruit and juice. Because of its potential for health benefits, pomegranate fruit extracts have been commonly marketed as dietary supplements in recent years. The objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of a standardized pomegranate fruit extract in rats following subchronic administration. The extract

Chintan Patel; Paresh Dadhaniya; Lal Hingorani; M. G. Soni

2008-01-01

99

THE POMEGRANATE: A NEW LOOK AT THE FRUIT OF PARADISE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pomegranate, Punica granatum, is one of 2 members of the Punicaceae family. The plant was first domesticated approximately 10,000 years ago in Iran, where it is native, and Turkey. The fruit may have been the “apple” that Eve was deceived by the snake into partaking. Cultivation of the fruit q...

100

Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers (SSR).  

PubMed

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In the present study, we report the development of 4 new polymorphic SSR markers. They have been used in addition to 11 SSRs previously published to investigate molecular diversity of 33 P. granatum ecotypes. Based on the multi-locus profiles, twenty-two distinctive genotypes were identified. Globally, quite low genetic diversity has been revealed, as measured by allele richness (2.83 per locus) and heterozygosity (He=0.245; Ho=0.243), reflecting the narrow genetic background of the plant material. Four synonymous groups could be detected involving 15 accessions. Results of ordination and cluster analysis suggested that almost all the Tunisian cultivars share similar genetic background, and are likely derived from a small number of introductions in ancient times. Results issued from this study provide essential information to project a pomegranate core-collection without plant material duplication and for sustainable management of pomegranate landraces at national and international level. Furthermore, these SSR markers are powerful tool for marker assisted selection (MAS) program and for QTL studies. PMID:22123180

Hasnaoui, Nejib; Buonamici, Anna; Sebastiani, Federico; Mars, Messaoud; Zhang, Dapeng; Vendramin, Giovanni G

2011-11-20

101

Fruit quality of Italian pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) autochthonous varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate is getting an increasing attention for its health-promoting effects. Collection and characterization of plants\\u000a of local sources has been performed, and five accessions have been propagated and cultivated in a collection field for extra\\u000a situ investigations. Accessions differ for pomological traits and chemical composition. Three of them, MG1, MG2, and MG3,\\u000a belong to typology with low-medium acidity and high

Valerio CristoforiDonatella Caruso; Donatella Caruso; Gabriele Latini; Mario Dell’Agli; Corrado Cammilli; Eddo Rugini; Cristina Bignami; Rosario Muleo

2011-01-01

102

Effect of Peel Angle on Peel Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of peel force P per unit width are reported for samples of three adhesive tapes, adhering to two different substrates. In all cases, the work of detachment per unit area of bonded interface was found to depend upon the angle theta of detachme...

R. S. Miller

1987-01-01

103

Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

A central composite design was employed to optimize the extraction of pectin with citric acid. The independent variables were citric acid concentration (0.086-2.91% w/v) and extraction time (17-102 min). The combined effect of these variables on the degree of esterification was investigated. Results have shown that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between the independent variables and the responses. Besides that, the citric acid concentration was the most important factor to affect the degree of esterification, as it exerted a significant influence on the dependent variable. Lower citric acid concentration increased the pectin degree of esterification. The surface response showed the relationships between the independent variables, and thus responses were generated. Through this surface, the satisfactory condition of 0.086% w/v citric acid for 60 min was established for extraction of high-ester yellow passion fruit pectin. PMID:18083550

Pinheiro, Eloi Sa Rovaris; Silva, Iolanda M D A; Gonzaga, Luciano V; Amante, Edna R; Teófilo, Reinaldo F; Ferreira, Márcia M C; Amboni, Renata D M C

2008-02-20

104

Chemistry with a Peel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

1997-01-01

105

Chemistry with a Peel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)|

Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

1997-01-01

106

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the dwarf pomegranate (Punica granatum L. var. nana).  

PubMed

The dwarf pomegranate (Punica granatum L. var. nana) is a dwarf ornamental plant that has the potential to be the model plant of perennial fruit trees because it bears fruits within 1 year of seedling. We established an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the dwarf pomegranate. Adventitious shoots regenerated from leaf segments were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector pBin19-sgfp, which contains neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) and green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene as a selectable and visual marker, respectively. After co-cultivation, the inoculated adventitious shoots were cut into small pieces to induce regeneration, and then selected on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 muM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 5 muM N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), 0.3% gellan gum, 50 mg/l kanamycin, and 10 mg/l meropenem. Putative transformed shoots were regenerated after 6-8 months of selection. PCR and PCR-Southern blot analysis revealed the integration of the transgene into the plant genome. Transformants bloomed and bore fruits within 3 months of being potted, and the inheritance of the transgene was confirmed in T(1) generations. The advantage of the transformation of dwarf pomegranate was shown to be the high transformation rate. The establishment of this transformation system is invaluable for investigating fruit-tree-specific phenomena. PMID:17453216

Terakami, Shingo; Matsuta, Nagao; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Sugaya, Sumiko; Gemma, Hiroshi; Soejima, Junichi

2007-04-24

107

Essential oils content and antioxidant properties of peel ethanol extract in 18 lemon cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition of essential oils and antioxidant activity of peel ethanol extract were analyzed in 18 local lemon cultivars. Essential oils composition was determined by GC\\/FID analysis, and antioxidant activity with the ABTS method. Fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameters, peel thickness, seed number, juice percentage, titratable acidity and juice pH were also determined for each cultivar. The main component in

C. Di Vaio; G. Graziani; A. Gaspari; G. Scaglione; S. Nocerino; A. Ritieni

2010-01-01

108

Diversity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) germplasm in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) accessions were studied to determine the overall degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities among genotypes. PCA and cluster analysis showed a considerable phenotypic and genetic diversity in the local pomegranate germplasm. Some polyclonal varieties were identified and cases of homonymy were detected. The geographic origin was not a determinant criterion for cultivars clustering. Parameters

Messaoud Mars; Mohamed Marrakchi

1999-01-01

109

John Peel's Home Truths  

Microsoft Academic Search

John Peel will be remembered mainly as the most influential British radio DJ of the last century, but he was in addition a successful and important presenter of speech radio. The transition from being a DJ on BBC Radio 1 to presenting the Radio 4 speech programmes, 'Offspring' and 'Home Truths' began when he started writing a column for 'Radio

Hugh Chignell; John Devlin

2007-01-01

110

In vitro induction of tetraploid in pomegranate ( Punica granatum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetraploid plants were obtained in pomegranate (Punica granatum L. var. `Nana') by colchicine treatment of shoots propagated in vitro. Shoots cultured on MS medium supplemented with 10 mg l-1 colchicine, 1.0 mg l-1 BA and 0.1 mg l-1 NAA for 30 days produced tetraploids at a high frequency of 20%. No tetraploids were detected by treating the shoots in 5000

Jianzhu Shao; Chunli Chen; Xiuxin Deng

2003-01-01

111

Acids of pomegranate peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

the substance were identical with those of ellagic acid. On the basis of the results of a determination of the maximum intensities of the spots (SF-4a at 440 nm) revealed with a 1% solution of iron ammonium alum, it was established that the peel contains0.55% of ellagic acid on the air-dry raw material. The ethereal extract was evaporated to dryness

E. P. Nosacheva; Yu. B. Kerimov; T. N. Bikbulatova

1973-01-01

112

Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last 7 years have seen over seven times as many publications indexed by Medline dealing with pomegranate and Punica granatum than in all the years preceding them. Because of this, and the virtual explosion of interest in pomegranate as a medicinal and nutritional product that has followed, this review is accordingly launched. The pomegranate tree, Punica granatum, especially its

Ephraim P. Lansky; Robert A. Newman

2007-01-01

113

The role of anthocyanin in photoprotection and its relationship with the xanthophyll cycle and the antioxidant system in apple peel depends on the light conditions.  

PubMed

The synthesis of anthocyanin, the xanthophyll cycle, the antioxidant system and the production of active oxygen species (AOS) were compared between red and non-red apple cultivars, in response to either long-term sunlight exposure (high light intensity) during fruit development, or to exposure of bagged fruits to lower light intensity late in fruit development. During fruit development of red and non-red apples, the xanthophyll cycle pool size decreased much more in red apple peel late in development. With accumulation of AOS induced by long-term sunlight exposure, enhancement of the antioxidant system was found. However, this change became significantly lower in red apple than non-red apple as fruit developed, which might serve to accelerate the anthocyanin synthesis in red apple peel. When, late in fruit development, bagged fruits were exposed to sunlight, the accumulation of AOS was lower in red apple peel than in non-red peel. This could be due to the higher anthocyanin concentration in the red peels. Meanwhile, compared with that in non-red cultivar, the xanthophyll cycle and the antioxidant system in red apple peel were protected first but then down-regulated by its higher anthocyanin concentration during sunlight exposure. In conclusions, red and non-red apples peel possess different photoprotective mechanisms under high light conditions. The relationship between anthocyanin synthesis and the xanthophyll cycle, and the antioxidant system, depends on the light conditions that fruit undergoes. PMID:23438020

Chen, Changsheng; Li, Houhua; Zhang, Di; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang

2013-03-29

114

Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum show significant anti-secretory effects and protect the gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, the gastroprotective mechanism of Xylocarpus granatum fruit and its active constituents gedunin and photogedunin was investigated. Chloroform fraction (Fr-CHCl(3)) of X. granatum fruit was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats and histamine (HA) induced duodenal ulcer model in guinea pigs. Potential anti-ulcer activity of Fr-CHCl(3) was observed against CRU (58.28%), AS (67.81%), AL (84.38%), PL (65.66%) and HA (61.93%) induced ulcer models. The standard drug omeprazole (10mg/kg, p.o.) showed 68.25% protection against CRU, 57.08% against AS and 69.42% against PL model and 70.79% against HA induced duodenal ulcer. Sucralfate, another standard drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 62.72% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Fr-CHCl(3) significantly reduced free acidity (51.42%), total acidity (30.76%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 58.37% respectively. Phytochemical investigations of Fr-CHCl(3) yielded gedunin (36%), photogedunin (2%). Further, Fr-CHCl(3) and its compounds gedunin and photogedunin significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC(50) of 89.37, 56.86 and 66.54 microg/ml respectively as compared to the IC(50) value of omeprazole (30.24 microg/ml) confirming their anti-secretory activity. Conclusively, Fr-CHCl(3) of Xylocarpus granatum was found to possess anti-ulcerogenic activity which might be due to its anti-secretory activity and subsequent strengthening of the defensive mechanism. This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-secretory effect of gedunin and photogedunin. Therefore it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease. PMID:19962286

Lakshmi, V; Singh, N; Shrivastva, S; Mishra, S K; Dharmani, P; Mishra, V; Palit, G

2009-12-03

115

A galactomannan polysaccharide from Punica granatum imparts in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity.  

PubMed

Galactomannan polysaccharide (PSP001) was isolated from the fruit rind of Punica granatum and was previously reported to have excellent antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The cytotoxicity of PSP001 was evaluated in the human cancer cell lines A375, HCT116, and HepG2 as well as the murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC over a wide range of concentrations. PSP001 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis with no in vivo toxicity up to a concentration of 2000mg/kg body weight when assessed in BALB/c mice. The antitumor efficacy of PSP001 was tested in DLA and EAC murine ascites and EAC solid tumor mouse models. PSP001 alone and in combination with doxorubicin produced a significant reduction in the tumor burden and increased life span in both models compared to the controls. The results suggest that PSP001 has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent either alone or as an adjuvant to chemotherapy. PMID:24053828

Joseph, Manu M; Aravind, S R; George, Suraj K; Varghese, Sheeja; Sreelekha, T T

2013-07-17

116

Biochemical Properties of ?-Amylase from Peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. ?-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange,\\u000a and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of ?-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of\\u000a ?-amylase

Saleh Ahmed Mohamed; Ehab A. Drees; Mohamed O. El-Badry; Afaf S. Fahmy

2010-01-01

117

The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms.  

PubMed

Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

2011-11-01

118

Peel Behaviour of Aircraft Fuel Tank Sealants: the Effect of Peel Angle, Sealant Layer Thickness and Peel Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peel performance of two aircraft fuel tank sealants was comprehensively investigated by means of a modified peel specimen previously developed. Experiments were carried out at five different peel angles in the range from 90 to 180° using seven sealant layer thicknesses in the range from 0.1 to 5 mm. The effect of the peel rate was also investigated at

S. Giannis; R. D. Adams; L. J. Clark; M. A. TAYLOR

2008-01-01

119

Novel character impact compounds in Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) peel oil.  

PubMed

Yuzu ( Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a tree-grown fruit similar to a kind of sour orange, is widely used in Japanese food/cooking for its pleasant flavor. To clarify the odor-active volatiles that differentiate yuzu from other citrus fruits, sensory evaluations were conducted on yuzu peel oil. The results revealed that the polar part of yuzu peel oil was the source of the characteristic aroma of fresh yuzu fruit. By aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the polar volatile part of yuzu peel oil, seven odorants were newly identified as odor-active volatiles in yuzu peel oil in the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors of 128 and 32: oct-1-en-3-one, (E)-non-4-enal, (E)-dec-4-enal, 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, (E)-non-6-enal, (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-3-one (Yuzunone), and (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-4-ol (Yuzuol). Among the most odor-active volatiles in yuzu, (E)-non-6-enal and Yuzunone were identified for the first time solely in yuzu peel oil and not in the peel of other citrus species, and Yuzuol was identified for the first time in nature. Sensory evaluation of yuzu aroma reconstitutions revealed that the newly identified compound, Yuzunone, contributes greatly to the distinct yuzu aroma. PMID:19203264

Miyazawa, Norio; Tomita, Naomi; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Akira; Ohkubo, Yasutaka; Maeda, Tomoko; Fujita, Akira

2009-03-11

120

Effect of calcium sprays, time of harvest, cold storage, and ripeness on fruit quality of ‘anjou’ pears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride (CaCl2), increased Ca concentrations in fruit cortex and peel of ‘Anjou’ pears (Pyrus communis L.). Calcium sprays reduced the fruit disorders: brown core, cork spot and superficial scald. Fruit size (weight) increased while fruit Ca concentrations decreased with fruit at the later harvest dates. The earliest harvest date was associated with a lower incidence of fruit disorders. Superficial

J. T. Raese; S. R. Drake

2000-01-01

121

Edible Coatings for Fresh-Cut Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and\\/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have

G. I. Olivas; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2005-01-01

122

Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin.  

PubMed

Chemical peeling for skin of color arose in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient cultures in and around Africa. Our current fund of medical knowledge regarding chemical peeling is a result of centuries of experience and research. The list of agents for chemical peeling is extensive. In ethnic skin, our efforts are focused on superficial and medium-depth peeling agents and techniques. Indications for chemical peeling in darker skin include acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, scarring, photodamage, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Careful selection of patients for chemical peeling should involve not only identification of Fitzpatrick skin type, but also determining ethnicity. Different ethnicities may respond unpredictably to chemical peeling regardless of skin phenotype. Familiarity with the properties each peeling agent used is critical. New techniques discussed for chemical peeling include spot peeling for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and combination peels for acne and photodamage. Single- or combination-agent chemical peels are shown to be efficacious and safe. In conclusion, chemical peeling is a treatment of choice for numerous pigmentary and scarring disorders arising in dark skin tones. Familiarity with new peeling agents and techniques will lead to successful outcomes. PMID:15113287

Roberts, Wendy E

2004-01-01

123

Postharvest peel pitting at non-chilling temperatures in grapefruit is promoted by changes from low to high relative humidity during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marsh' white grapefruit are prone to develop postharvest peel pitting during storage at non-chilling temperatures. The disorder is characterized by sunken areas or 'pits' on the flavedo followed by browning and dryness of affected areas in severe stages. Despite its uncertain cause, coating fruit with commercial waxes coupled with warm-temperature storage has been reported to promote peel pitting. In this

Fernando Alférez; Jacqueline K. Burns

124

New microsatellite loci for pomegranate, Punica granatum (Lythraceae).  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: A new set of pomegranate microsatellites was selected and characterized to assess the level of genetic diversity among cultivars and wild genotypes. • Methods and Results: Nine Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were obtained using the Microsatellite-AFLP technique and were successfully amplified in 34 genotypes belonging to Italian, Spanish, and Turkish germplasm collections. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 5, and the total number of alleles was 22. • Conclusions: Because only a few codominant markers are available for this species, the newly identified SSRs will facilitate genetic diversity studies, fingerprinting, and mapping. In addition, the 9 loci successfully amplified in P. granatum var. nana. No cross transferability was observed for Cuphea micropetala and Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae). PMID:21616853

Currò, Sergio; Caruso, Marco; Distefano, Gaetano; Gentile, Alessandra; La Malfa, Stefano

2010-06-16

125

Improving the keeping quality of pomegranate fruit by intermittent warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mollar pomegranates (Punica granatum, Punicaceae) were stored at 0??°C or 5??°C and 95% relative humidity (RH) for 80 days. Intermittent warming (IW) cycles of\\u000a 1 day at 20??°C every 6 days, during which time the fruit had been stored at 0??°C or 5??°C, followed by a shelf-life period\\u000a of 7 days at 15??°C and 70% RH were applied. IW during

F. Artés; J. A. Tudela; M. I. Gil

1998-01-01

126

Using peel fluorescence in black light rooms to identify navel oranges with shorter storage life and poor rind quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this project is to minimize postharvest decay losses of fresh citrus fruits. Among the approaches recently examined was peel fluorescence under ultraviolet light. In addition to its usual application to identify fruit with developing decay lesions (“blister” or “clear” rot) in black...

127

Nutritional constituents and antioxidant properties of indigenous kembayau ( Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) H. J. Lam) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional and antioxidant properties of peels, pulp and seeds of kembayau (Dacryodes rostrata) fruits were evaluated. Kembayau seeds and pulp were rich in fat, while peels had the highest ash contents. Potassium was the most prevalent mineral in peels (380.72–1112.00mg\\/100g). In kembayau fruits, total flavonoid content (1012.74–28,022.28mg rutin equivalent\\/100g) was higher than total phenolic and total monomeric anthocyanin contents.

Kin Weng Kong; Lye Yee Chew; K. Nagendra Prasad; Cheng Yuon Lau; Amin Ismail; Jian Sun; Bahareh Hosseinpoursarmadi

2011-01-01

128

SPRING APPLICATION OF GROWTH REGULATORS AFFECTS FRUIT QUALITY OF 'BLOOD RED' SWEET ORANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring applications of two plant growth regulators (GA3 and 2, 4-D) alone and in combination, were tested on 'Blood Red' sweet orange trees at full bloom. Ultimate effects of these growth regulators were studied on external and internal fruit quality. Fruit weight, diameter, peel thickness and peel quantity were significantly decreased by the growth regulator treatments compared with control while

BASHARAT ALI SALEEM; AMAN ULLAH MALIK; M. ASLAM PERVEZ; AHMAD SATTAR KHAN; M. NAWAZ KHAN

129

Silver nitrate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine promote in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.).  

PubMed

A protocol is presented for direct adventitous shoot organogenesis and complete plant regeneration from seedling-derived explants of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), a tropical fruit tree. Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium enriched with 8.9 mumol/L benzyladenine (BA), 5.4 mumol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 10% coconut water (CW) induced adventitious shoot bud differentiation in axenic seedling-derived cotyledons as well as hypocotyl segments. The cotyledons were more responsive than the hypocotyls. Addition of ethylene inhibitors such as AgNO3 (10-40 mumol/L) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) (5-15 mumol/L) to the medium markedly enhanced regeneration frequency as well as number of shoots obtained per explant. The promotive effect of AVG and AgNO3 on shoot organogenesis was observed only in cotyledon explants. The regeneration medium containing AgNO3 (20 mumol/L) or AVG (10 mumol/L) induced adventitious shoot buds from 57% or 53% of the cotyledon explants respectively. These shoot buds developed into shoots upon transfer to a regeneration medium without AgNO3 and AVG. The promotive effect of AVG on shoot regeneration was reversed by exogenous application of 20 mumol/L 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA), an ethylene releasing compound. On the other hand, shoot regeneration stimulated by AgNO3 was relatively less affected by CEPA. Regenerated shoots were rooted in half-strength MS medium (1/2 MS) containing 0.54 mumol/L NAA. The well rooted plantlets were acclimatized and eventually established in soil. PMID:12756923

Naik, Soumendra K; Chand, Pradeep K

2003-04-01

130

Peeling mode relaxation ELM model  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses an approach to modelling Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in which toroidal peeling modes are envisaged to initiate a constrained relaxation of the tokamak outer region plasma. Relaxation produces both a flattened edge current profile (which tends to further destabilise a peeling mode), and a plasma-vacuum negative current sheet which has a counteracting stabilising influence; the balance that is struck between these two effects determines the radial extent (rE) of the ELM relaxed region. The model is sensitive to the precise position of the mode rational surfaces to the plasma surface and hence there is a 'deterministic scatter' in the results that has an accord with experimental data. The toroidal peeling stability criterion involves the edge pressure, and using this in conjunction with predictions of rE allows us to evaluate the ELM energy losses and compare with experiment. Predictions of trends with the edge safety factor and collisionality are also made.

Gimblett, C. G. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

2006-11-30

131

Peel Zone Model of Tape Peeling Based on the Gecko Adhesive System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tape peeling model based on the geometry of the peel zone (PZ) is derived to predict the peeling behavior of adhesive tapes at peel angles less than or equal to 90 degrees. The PZ model adds an angle-dependent multiplier to the Kendall equation that tak...

B. Zhao K. Rosenberg N. S. Pesika P. McGuiggan Y. Tian

2006-01-01

132

'Hass' Avocado Carbohydrate Fluctuations. II. Fruit Growth and Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persea americana, perseitol, soluble sugar, starch ABSTRACT. Changes in soluble sugar and starch reserves in avocado ( Persea americana Mill. on 'Duke 7' rootstock) fruit were followed during growth and development and during low temperature storage and ripening. During the period of rapid fruit size expansion, soluble sugars accounted for most of the increase in fruit tissue biomass (peel: 17%

Xuan Liu; Paul W. Robinson; Monica A. Madore; Guy W. Witney; Mary Lu Arpaia

133

Advances in understanding of enzymatic browning in harvested litchi fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is a subtropical to tropical fruit of high commercial value in international trade. However, harvested litchi fruit rapidly lose their bright red skin colour. Peel browning of harvested litchi fruit has largely been attributed to rapid degradation of red anthocyanin pigments. This process is associated with enzymatic oxidation of phenolics by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and\\/or peroxidase

Yueming Jiang; Xuewu Duan; Daryl Joyce; Zhaoqi Zhang; Jianrong Li

2004-01-01

134

Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

2000-01-01

135

Harvesting by Peel Color to Reduce Bruising of "Golden Delicious" Apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Golden Delicious’ apples harvested at three peel color stages were immediately bruised to a constant depth using an artificial finger attached to an Instron universal material testing instrument. Bruised tissue was sliced sequentially from the fruit surface in a plane perpendicular to the directio...

136

Gibberellic acid (GA3) effects on late season grapefruit peel oil composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gibberellic acid (GA3) is commonly applied to citrus fruit in the late summer/early autumn to delay peel maturation and extend late season quality. The effect of August/September GA3 application on oil gland composition of "Marsh" white grapefruit harvested in March 18 and April 16 from three groves...

137

SENSORY EVALUATION OF CITRUS PEEL ESSENTIAL OILS AS FLAVOURING AGENTS IN VARIOUS FOOD PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 2002-2003. The objective was to evaluate the utility of peel essential oils of various Pakistani citrus varieties such as Kinnow (C. reticulata, var. mandarin), Fewtrell's Early (C. reticulata, var. tangenrine), Malta (C. sinensis var. malta), Mousami (C. sinensis var. mousami), grape fruit (C.

Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad

138

Production and optimization of polygalacturonase from mango ( Mangifera indica L.) peel using Fusarium moniliforme in solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango peel is one of the major wastes from fruit processing industries, which poses considerable disposal problems and ultimately\\u000a leads to environmental pollution. The objective of the current research was to determine the significant parameters on the\\u000a production of polygalacturonase from mango peel which is a major industrial waste. Solid state culture conditions for polygalacturonase\\u000a production by Fusarium moniliforme from

Y. Sudheer Kumar; S. Varakumar; O. V. S. Reddy

2010-01-01

139

?-Tocomonoenol: A new vitamin E from kiwi ( Actinidia chinensis) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new vitamin E, ?-tocomonoenol, has been isolated from Actinidia chinensis (kiwi) fruits. The new structure, 2,8-dimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridec-11-enyl)chroman-6-ol, has been elucidated on the basis of EIMS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data. GC–MS analysis of peels and pulps of kiwi showed that the new compound, together with ?-tocopherol, is mainly present in the fruit peel, whilst ?-tocopherol is present in a

Antonio Fiorentino; Claudio Mastellone; Brigida D’Abrosca; Severina Pacifico; Monica Scognamiglio; Giuseppe Cefarelli; Romualdo Caputo; Pietro Monaco

2009-01-01

140

Assessment of antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark in mice model.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark was studied for its antidiarrhoeal properties in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per oral, the methanol extract showed significant and dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity in both models. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg; i.m.). The results showed that the extracts of Xylocarpus granatum bark have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine. PMID:16997521

Rouf, Razina; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal; Shilpi, Jamil Ahmad; Alamgir, Mahiuddin

2006-08-23

141

Anthocyanin and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF?B pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD1 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoprevention has come of age as an effective cancer control modality; however, the search for novel agent(s) for the armamen- tarium of cancer chemoprevention continues. We argue that agents capable of intervening at more than one critical pathway in the carcinogenesis process will have greater advantage over other single-target agents. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) derived from the tree Punica granatum

Farrukh Afaq; Mohammad Saleem; Christian G. Krueger; Jess D. Reed; Hasan Mukhtar

2005-01-01

142

Citrus peel use is associated with reduced risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.  

PubMed

Limonene has demonstrated efficacy in preclinical models of breast and colon cancers. The principal sources of d-limonene are the oils of orange, grapefruit, and lemon. The present case-control study was designed to determine the usual citrus consumption patterns of an older Southwestern population and to then evaluate how this citrus consumption varied with history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. In this Arizona population, 64.3% and 74.5% of the respondents reported weekly consumption of citrus fruits and citrus juices, respectively. Orange juice (78.5%), orange (74.3%), and grapefruit (65.3%) were the predominant varieties of citrus consumed. Peel consumption was not uncommon, with 34.7% of all subjects reporting citrus peel use. We found no association between the overall consumption of citrus fruits [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73-1.32] or citrus juices (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.71-1.31) and skin SCC. However, the most striking feature was the protection purported by citrus peel consumption (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45-0.95). Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship between higher citrus peel in the diet and degree of risk lowering. This is the first study to explore the relationship between citrus peel consumption and human cancers. Our results show that peel consumption, the major source of dietary d-limonene, is not uncommon and may have a potential protective effect in relation to skin SCC. Further studies with large sample sizes are needed to more completely evaluate the interrelationships between peel intake, bioavailability of d-limonene, and other lifestyle factors. PMID:11142088

Hakim, I A; Harris, R B; Ritenbaugh, C

2000-01-01

143

Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract.  

PubMed

The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250?mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid. PMID:23774607

Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana

2013-06-17

144

Chemical variability of peel and leaf essential oils of 15 species of mandarins.  

PubMed

Peel and leaf oils of 58 mandarin cultivars, belonging to 15 different species were obtained from fruits and leaves collected on mandarin-trees submitted to the same pedoclimatic and cultural conditions. Their chemical composition was investigated by capillary GC, GC/MS and 13C NMR and the results were submitted to a cluster analysis and a discriminant analysis. Three major chemotypes, limonene, limonene/gamma-terpinene and linalyl acetate/limonene, were distinguished for peel oils while three other chemotypes, sabinene/linalool, gamma-terpinene/linalool and methyl N-methylanthranilate, were observed for leaf oils. PMID:11068126

Lota; de Rocca Serra D; Tomi; Casanova

2001-01-01

145

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF XYLOCARPUS GRANATUM STEM BARKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial effect of the crude organic extract of Xylocarpus granatum stem barks was studied in the Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh, during the period from October to December 2003. Disc diffusion method has been adopted in this study and petri dishes (120 mm in diameter) containing nutrient agar medium seeded with the test organism was used for

M. A. Alam; M. Sarder; M. A. Awal; M. M. H. Sikder; K. A. Daulla

2006-01-01

146

MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF PEELING OF CARROTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, carrots of Beypazari variety were chemically and steam peeled. Effects of temperature, concentration of NaOH solutions and immersion time on lye peeling of carrots were studied. The optimum time-temperature-concentration relations of lye peeling of carrots were analyzed mathematically. Experiments were carried out for NaOH solutions of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g NaOH \\/ kg at 57,

Özlem Aydin; Levent Bayindirli; Nevzat Artik

147

Antioxidant activity and protective effect of banana peel against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocyte at different stages of ripening.  

PubMed

Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and cytoprotective activities and their therapeutic properties. Banana peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids, and others. In the present study, effect of ripening, solvent polarity on the content of bioactive compounds of crude banana peel and the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe banana fruit on hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis and their antioxidant capacity were investigated. Banana (Musa paradisica) peel at different stages of ripening (unripe, ripe, leaky ripe) were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned in order of polarity with water, ethyl acetate, chloroform (CHCl?), and hexane sequentially. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated by the red cell hemolysis assay, free radical scavenging (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical elimination) and superoxide dismutase activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent assay was used to estimate the phenolic content of extracts. The findings of this investigation suggest that the unripe banana peel sample had higher antioxidant potency than ripe and leaky ripe. Further on fractionation, ethyl acetate and water soluble fractions of unripe peel displayed high antioxidant activity than CHCl? and hexane fraction, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavenging capacity and the content of phenolic compound were found in unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe stages of banana peel. PMID:21369778

Sundaram, Shanthy; Anjum, Shadma; Dwivedi, Priyanka; Rai, Gyanendra Kumar

2011-03-03

148

Shrinkage and peel strength of adhesive joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory for the effect of shrinkage stresses on the peel strength of a joint between rubber and glass is developed. The theory suggests that shrinkage weakens the joint, the weakening becoming more noticeable with rise in shrinkage strain and rubber film thickness. Peeling experiments on a rubber-glass bond verify the theory and justify a discussion of shrinkage in butt

K. Kendall

1973-01-01

149

Biomethanization of orange peel waste.  

PubMed

Recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste is a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products such as methane. Following a pre-treatment to extract D-limonene, the anaerobic digestion of orange peel waste was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. D-limonene removals of 70% were reached with pre-treatment. The results showed the convenience of thermophilic conditions for treating this waste as the methane production rate and biodegradability were higher than at mesophilic temperature. At pilot scale, a thermophilic continuously stirred-tank reactor working in semi-continuous mode was employed. The OLR was found to be in the range of 1.20-3.67 kg COD/m(3) d; the most appropriate range for working under stable conditions at SRT of 25 d. The methane yield coefficient was found to be 0.27-0.29 L(STP)CH(4)/g added COD and the biodegradability 84-90% under these conditions. However, acidification occurred at the highest OLR. PMID:20655741

Martín, M A; Siles, J A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

2010-07-23

150

Atomic-Scale Peeling of Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the atomic-scale peeling of a single-layer graphene on a graphite substrate, in which stick-slip sliding of the single-layer graphene occurs at the atomic scale while maintaining AB-stacking registry with the graphite substrate. The peeling force curve clearly exhibits a transition from surface-contact to line-contact between the graphene and graphite surfaces. The amplitude of the peeling force depends on the lattice orientation of the surface, which is affected by the sliding force at the interface between the graphene and graphite surfaces. This study of peeling at the atomic scale will clarify the relationship among peeling, friction, adhesion, and superlubricity.

Ishikawa, Makoto; Ichikawa, Masaya; Okamoto, Hideki; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo; Miura, Kouji

2012-06-01

151

Chemical peeling in ethnic skin: an update.  

PubMed

With the growth of cosmetic dermatology worldwide, treatments that are effective against skin diseases and augment beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasing in popularity. Chemical peels are a commonly used, fast, safe and effective clinic room treatment that may be used for cosmetic purposes, such as for fine lines and photoageing, but also as primary or adjunct therapies for acne, pigmentary disorders and scarring. Clinicians are faced with specific challenges when using peels on ethnic skin (skin of colour). The higher risk of postinflammatory dyschromias and abnormal scarring makes peels potentially disfiguring. Clinicians should therefore have a sound knowledge of the various peels available and their safety in ethnic skin. This article aims to review the background, classification, various preparations, indications, patient assessment and complications of using chemical peels in ethnic skin. PMID:24098904

Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Galadari, H

2013-10-01

152

Nutritional Control of Regreening and Degreening in Citrus Peel Segments 1  

PubMed Central

A method for reversibly regreening and degreening citrus epicarp in vitro using peel segments was developed. Peel segments from mature degreened fruit promptly regreened when kept in light upon agar medium containing low (15 millimolar) concentrations of sucrose. Higher concentrations of sucrose inhibited this regreening, but NO3? and certain amino acids included in the media overcame the inhibition by sucrose. However, l-serine strongly inhibited regreening. In the presence of nitrogen, sucrose promoted regreening. Peel segments from green fruit remained green on media with low concentrations of sucrose and on media with high concentrations of sucrose and 60 millimolar KNO3, but degreened in response to high concentrations of sucrose in the absence of nitrogen. Nitrate overcame the degreening effects of high sucrose concentrations in both light and dark. Peel segments were reversibly degreened and regreened by transferring the segments between appropriate media. Nitrate in the media markedly reduced the levels of endogenous sugars in the epicarp and increased endogenous amino acid levels. Sucrose in the media increased endogenous sugar levels and, in the presence of nitrate, increased endogenous amino acid levels. In the absence of nitrogen, high sucrose concentrations reduced endogenous amino acid concentrations.

Huff, Albert

1983-01-01

153

Identification and quantification of flavonol aglycons in cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus indica) fruit using a commercial pectinase and cellulase preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of pectinases and cellulases as soft hydrolysing agents on flavonol glycosides was investigated for identification and quantification of flavonol aglycons in cactus pear fruit. Freeze-dried samples of cactus pear fruit’s peel (cactus pear peels) and onions were treated with commercial pectinase and cellulase preparations at 50°C for different time periods (up to 16h). Additionally isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3,4?-O-diglucoside were

Tamer E. Moussa-Ayoub; Salah K. El-Samahy; Lothar W. Kroh; Sascha Rohn

2011-01-01

154

Stomatal Density and Responsiveness of Banana Fruit Stomates  

PubMed Central

Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf. It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host. Images

Johnson, Barbara E.; Brun, W. A.

1966-01-01

155

Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

2008-01-01

156

The pectin of the rind of the fruit of Punica granatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

and chloroform, was treated with a 1% solution of formalin (4°C, 16 h) to free it from polyphenolic compounds. The residue of the raw material was extracted twice with a mixture of equal volumes of 1% solutions of oxalic acid and ammonium oxalate at 75°C. The extract obtained (2 liters) was dialyzed against distilled water, evaporated to I liter, and

N. P. Yuldasheva; D. A. Rakhimov; Z. F. Ismailov

1978-01-01

157

Studies on the storage effects and the peel structure of citrus irradiated by electron beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When radiated with 0.5 kGy electron radiation, the peel structure kept normal, i.e. the waxy layer were thick, the oil cell and spongeous parenchyma cell arranged intensely, which results in plump fruits, lower rate of rot and weight loss during storage, and little bad influence on the flavour. The content of Vitamin C, total acid and total sugar were close to those of control.

Mei, Hua Fen

1993-07-01

158

Valorisation of orange peel residues: waste to biochemicals and nanoporous materials.  

PubMed

FRUIT FOR THOUGHT: Low-temperature microwave hydrothermal processing of orange peel not only enables the separation of the major components but also adds further value through the production of other high-value products: pectin and D-limonene, together with a rare form of mesoporous cellulose, are produced in a single step, without added acid. A process temperature change enables the conversion of D-limonene to ?-terpineol. PMID:22888008

Balu, Alina Mariana; Budarin, Vitaliy; Shuttleworth, Peter S; Pfaltzgraff, Lucie A; Waldron, Keith; Luque, Rafael; Clark, James H

2012-08-07

159

Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg\\/kg of MI and 100mg\\/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic

Hamendra Singh Parmar; Anand Kar

2009-01-01

160

Spontaneous ultra fast synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Punica granatum for cancer targeted drug delivery.  

PubMed

Rapid synthesis of mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles through economically feasible green chemistry approach is highly desirable. In this study, we have developed a method to synthesize mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles (PAuNPs) by mixing gold solution with fruit peel extract of Punica granutum without using any surfactant or external energy. In this method, physiologically stable, biocompatible PAuNPs were formed within 60s. Casein, being a biocompatible polymer, is used to couple the prepared PAuNPs for functionalization of folic acid, which is highly expressed in cancer cells. These functionalized PAuNPs could be used for targeted drug delivery for cancer with enhanced therapeutic efficacy and minimal side effects. PAuNPs were characterized by UV, IR, TEM, Particle size analyzer and zeta potential measurement. In vitro stability of the PAuNPs was also analyzed. Hemocompatibility of PAuNPs was evaluated in human blood samples and found that the particles were hemocompatible. The toxicity of the PAuNPs, 5-Fu and 5Fu@PAuNPs was analyzed in zebrafish embryos. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free 5-Fu, 5Fu@PAuNPs-Fa was investigated against MCF-7 cells (breast cancer) and observed that the amount of 5-Fu required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (Ic50) was much lower when compared to free 5-Fu. PMID:23434714

Ganeshkumar, Moorthy; Sathishkumar, Muniram; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Dinesh, Murugan Girija; Suguna, Lonchin

2013-01-24

161

Patterning, Prestress, and Peeling Dynamics of Myocytes  

PubMed Central

As typical anchorage-dependent cells myocytes must balance contractility against adequate adhesion. Skeletal myotubes grown as isolated strips from myoblasts on micropatterned glass exhibited spontaneous peeling after one end of the myotube was mechanically detached. Such results indicate the development of a prestress in the cells. To assess this prestress and study the dynamic adhesion strength of single myocytes, the shear stress of fluid aspirated into a large-bore micropipette was then used to forcibly peel myotubes. The velocity at which cells peeled from the surface, Vpeel, was measured as a continuously increasing function of the imposed tension, Tpeel, which ranges from ?0 to 50 nN/?m. For each cell, peeling proved highly heterogeneous, with Vpeel fluctuating between 0 ?m/s (?80% of time) and ?10 ?m/s. Parallel studies of smooth muscle cells expressing GFP-paxillin also exhibited a discontinuous peeling in which focal adhesions fractured above sites of strong attachment (when pressure peeled using a small-bore pipette). The peeling approaches described here lend insight into the contractile-adhesion balance and can be used to study the real-time dynamics of stressed adhesions through both physical detection and the use of GFP markers; the methods should prove useful in comparing normal versus dystrophic muscle cells.

Griffin, Maureen A.; Engler, Adam J.; Barber, Thomas A.; Healy, Kevin E.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Discher, Dennis E.

2004-01-01

162

Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes  

SciTech Connect

This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

1980-06-01

163

Enhanced peel resistance of fiber reinforced phenolic foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-fiber reinforced phenolic foams were synthesized and characterized by climbing drum peel tests and tensile tests. Significant improvements in mechanical properties were realized, including a multiple-fold increase in peel strength. Because peel strength is closely linked to the fracture toughness of foams, particular attention was focused on the mechanism responsible for the enhanced peel resistance. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed

Hongbin Shen; Andre J. Lavoie; Steven R. Nutt

2003-01-01

164

Antidiabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: Activation of PPAR-? and identification of an active component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 6-week oral administration of methanol extract from PGF

Tom H. W. Huang; Gang Peng; Bhavani P. Kota; George Q. Li; Johji Yamahara; Basil D. Roufogalis; Yuhao Li

2005-01-01

165

Assessment of antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark in mice model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark was studied for its antidiarrhoeal properties in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. At the doses of 250 and 500mg\\/kg per oral, the methanol extract showed significant and dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity in both models. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared

Razina Rouf; Shaikh Jamal Uddin; Jamil Ahmad Shilpi; Mahiuddin Alamgir

2007-01-01

166

Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate ( Punica granatum ) for human breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh organically grown pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) of the Wonderful cultivar were processed into three components: fermented juice, aqueous pericarp extract and cold-pressed or supercritical CO2-extracted seed oil. Exposure to additional solvents yielded polyphenol-rich fractions (‘polyphenols’) from each of the three components. Their actions, and of the crude whole oil and crude fermented and unfermented juice concentrate, were assessed in

Nam Deuk Kim; Rajendra Mehta; Weiping Yu; Ishak Neeman; Talia Livney; Akiva Amichay; Donald Poirier; Paul Nicholls; Andrew Kirby; Wenguo Jiang; Robert Mansel; Cheppail Ramachandran; Thangaiyan Rabi; Boris Kaplan; Ephraim Lansky

2002-01-01

167

Characterization of a Potential Nutraceutical Ingredient: Pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil Unsaponifiable Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical fingerprinting of the unsaponifiable fraction of different Punica granatum seed oils was performed in order to evaluate their potential as a functional food ingredient. Qualitative and quantitative\\u000a determinations of tocopherol, aliphatic alcohol (including policosanol), squalene, phytosterols and triterpene contents were\\u000a performed by GC-MS. A high yield (3.1–4.2%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained and consistent levels of squalene (up

Augusta Caligiani; Francesca Bonzanini; Gerardo Palla; Martina Cirlini; Renato Bruni

2010-01-01

168

Terpene down-regulation in orange reveals the role of fruit aromas in mediating interactions with insect herbivores and pathogens.  

PubMed

Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens. PMID:21525333

Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

2011-04-27

169

The Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the department of physics of the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) has been involved in the Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary study. An appendix which presents the departmental approach to curriculum matters is also included. (HM)|

Walker, Warren; Black, Ronald

1979-01-01

170

Theory of Peeling through a Hookean Solid  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the adhesive is a Hookean solid and the adhesive joint between a rigid plate and a flexible ribbon is peeled, the force required for peeling is 0.3799 w?(E?E1)14?34y014, if w denotes the width of the ribbon, ? the tensile strength of the adhesive, E and E1 the moduli of elasticity of the ribbon and the adhesive, respectively, ? the

J. J. Bikerman

1957-01-01

171

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained

S. Ketnawa; P. Chaiwut; S. Rawdkuen

2011-01-01

172

Identification of two chilling-regulated 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate synthase genes from citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal change in the temperature below or above 12.5 °C hastens the degreening of citrus peel and elicits the phytohormone ethylene production in citrus fruit. Ethylene triggers the degradation of chlorophyll and synthesis of carotenoids in citrus peel. To investigate if ethylene is required for the degreening of citrus peel elicited by low temperatures, we studied the chilling-regulated gene expression of

Wai Shing Wong; Wen Ning; Pei Lin Xu; Shain Dow Kung; Shang Fa Yang; Ning Li

1999-01-01

173

Apple peel powder, methods of making, and uses thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a method of making a powder from apple peel by providing an apple peel, subjecting the apple peel to a phytochemical preservation treatment, drying the treated apple peel, and grinding the dried, treated apple peel to a powder. A powder from apple peel having a phenolic content and a flavonoid content similar to fresh apple peel on a fresh weight basis, where the powder has a water activity of less than 0.30 is also disclosed. The present invention also relates to a method of treating cancer in a patient by administering a powder from apple peel to a patient under conditions effective to treat cancer. Also disclosed is a method of inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells by contacting cancer cells with a powder from apple peel under conditions effective to inhibit proliferation of the cancer cells.

Liu; Rui Hai (Ithaca, NY)

2013-10-08

174

Report of phenol peel for Asians.  

PubMed

With the advancement of trichloroacetic acid peel technology and wound care, trichloroacetic acid peeling has become very successful in Korea. Its success has opened studies on the possibility of using phenol on Korean skin. Dr. Mee's phenol formula (molding mask technique) was chosen for experiments on Korean skin because of the presumed safety of use on non-Caucasian skin. Between January of 1996 and January of 1998, 30 cases of significant small pox scars were treated with phenol at the Korea University Anam Hospital. The age range was from 43 to 60 years, with a mean of 49 years. The average follow-up period was 13 months, ranging from 1 month to 2 years. All of the procedures were performed in the operating room while the patient was under deep i.v. sedation. After the entire face was peeled, it was covered with an occlusive tape mask. During the recovery period, the patients underwent a post-peel skin care program. All 30 patients showed significant improvement of the severe pox marks with a marked rejuvenation effect. There was no sign of hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation. As a complication, two patients developed hypertrophic scars on the perioral area, which responded well to steroid injections. Another pair of patients had herpetic infection, which left minimal scarring. Five patients developed cardiac arrhythmia with this rapid technique, but this was safely managed by an anesthesiologist during the procedure. Korean skin belongs to Fitzpatrick types IV and V and occasionally to type III or VI. It is common knowledge that performing chemical peeling on the latter types of skin is dangerous, but in this report, excellent results were obtained from all 30 patients, even though the peeling itself was very deep. With more knowledge and experience, phenol peel can be safely conducted on Asian skin. PMID:9915186

Yoon, E S; Ahn, D S

1999-01-01

175

Rapid large scale purification of ellagitannins from pomegranate husk, a by-product of the commercial juice industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed fresh and in processed forms as juice, jams and wine. Pomegranate fruit husk\\/peel is a rich source of hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins (ETs). In the commercial pomegranate juice (PJ) industry, these ETs are extracted from the husk in significant quantities into the juice due to their hydrophilic properties. Pomegranate husk, a by-product

N. Seeram; R. Lee; M. Hardy; D. Heber

2005-01-01

176

Phenolics and lipid-soluble antioxidants in fruit cuticle of apples and their antioxidant activities in model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolics were extracted from fruit cuticles of ‘Delicious’, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Empire’ and ‘Cortland’ apples, using either cuticular wax scraped from fruit peel or enzyme-isolated cuticles. The concentrations of free phenolics in fruit cuticle ranged from 8 to 45 ?g g?1 and bound phenolics ranged from 50 to 110 ?g g?1 in these cultivars. Free cuticular phenolic concentrations in the four

Zhiguo Ju; William J Bramlage

1999-01-01

177

Extract from peel of Citrus natsudaidai alleviates experimental chronic allergic dermatitis in mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Citrus natsudaidai (natsumikan) is a typical citrus fruit containing several antioxidative nutrients which are found in higher concentration in the peel than in the pulp of the fruit. In this study, we examined whether extract from immature natsumikan peel prevents development of chronic allergic dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Chronic allergic dermatitis was induced by repeated application of 2, 4, 6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene in BALB/c mice and natsumikan was administrated orally for 30 days. Ear swelling and dermatitis score were measured after each challenge. The level of derivative-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM) in serum was measured on day 30. Results: Treatment of natsumikan significantly attenuated the increase in ear swelling and improved dermatitis scores. In addition, increases in serum d-ROM were attenuated by a treatment of natsumikan. Although the routine treatment with dexamethasone resulted in a clear and significant reduction in body weight, natsumikan treatment did not have such effects. Conclusion: Immature natsumikan peel is beneficial for the treatment of chronic allergic dermatitis.

Nakayama, Noriyuki; Yamaura, Katsunori; Shimada, Maki; Ueno, Koichi

2011-01-01

178

Assessing the Biosynthetic Capabilities of Secretory Glands in Citrus Peel1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cells (ECs) lining the secretory cavities of Citrus peel have been hypothesized to be responsible for the synthesis of essential oil, but direct evidence for such a role is currently sparse. We used laser-capture microdissection and pressure catapulting to isolate ECs and parenchyma cells (as controls not synthesizing oil) from the peel of young grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi ‘Duncan’), isolated RNA, and evaluated transcript patterns based on oligonucleotide microarrays. A Gene Ontology analysis of these data sets indicated an enrichment of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile terpenoids and nonvolatile phenylpropanoids in ECs (when compared with parenchyma cells), thus indicating a significant metabolic specialization in this cell type. The gene expression patterns in ECs were consistent with the accumulation of the major essential oil constituents (monoterpenes, prenylated coumarins, and polymethoxylated flavonoids). Morphometric analyses demonstrated that secretory cavities are formed early during fruit development, whereas the expansion of cavities, and thus oil accumulation, correlates with later stages of fruit expansion. Our studies have laid the methodological and experimental groundwork for a vastly improved knowledge of the as yet poorly understood processes controlling essential oil biosynthesis in Citrus peel.

Voo, Siau Sie; Grimes, Howard D.; Lange, B. Markus

2012-01-01

179

Developmental changes of cuticular constituents and their association with ethylene during fruit ripening in ‘Delicious’ apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental changes in total cuticle and cuticular constituents and their responses to ethylene during fruit ripening were studied using ‘Delicious’ apples. Total chloroform extractable wax and total cutin (including carbohydrate polymers) were 3.1 and 5.4 g m?2, respectively, in young fruit. They increased during fruit development and reached 14.1 and 24.7 g m?2 of fruit peel, respectively, at harvest. During

Zhiguo Ju; William J. Bramlage

2001-01-01

180

Terpene Down-Regulation in Orange Reveals the Role of Fruit Aromas in Mediating Interactions with Insect Herbivores and Pathogens1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens.

Rodriguez, Ana; San Andres, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquezar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, Jose; Rodrigo, Maria Jesus; Zacarias, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluis; Lopez, Maria M.; Castanera, Pedro; Pena, Leandro

2011-01-01

181

Evaluating the potential role of pomegranate peel in aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in brain of female rats.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that pomegranate, Punica granatum Linn. (Lythraceae), has remarkable biological and medicinal properties. However, the effects of pomegranate peel methanolic extract (PPME) on the aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological change have not been reported yet. To determine the effect of PPME (200 mg/kg bwt) on the aluminum chloride (AlCl?; 34 mg/kg bwt)-induced neurotoxicity, aluminum accumulation in brain and oxidant/antioxidant status were determined. The change of brain structure was investigated with hematoxylin and eosin, and anti-apoptosis effects of PPME were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The present study showed an indication of carcinogenicity in the AlCl?-treated group representing an increase in tissue tumor markers such as tumor necrosis factor-? and angiogenin and inflammation by inducing an increase in prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2?. PPME protected brain through decreasing the aluminum accumulation and stimulating antioxidant activities and anti-apoptotic proteins namely Bcl-2. Therefore, these results indicated that pomegranate peel methanolic extract could inhibit aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alternations in brain of female rats, and these effects may be related to anti-apoptotic and antioxidants activities. PMID:22945624

Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

2012-09-05

182

Peeling U(1)-gauge cosmic strings  

SciTech Connect

We numerically investigate collisions of cosmic strings carrying different winding numbers. We find that for strings with winding numbers n/sub 1/ and n/sub 2/, intercommutation occurs by peeling a string of winding number chemically bondn/sub 1/-n/sub 2/chemically bond from the string with the larger winding number. The resulting string connects the original colliding strings to form a state of three joined strings, but because of the peeling the eventual result is a reduction in the winding numbers of the network. Stable astrophysical strings with large winding number are thus unlikely to persist. All simulations have gauge/scalar-field mass ratio = 2. .AE

Laguna, P.; Matzner, R.A.

1989-04-24

183

Single cell protein production from mandarin orange peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the hydrolysis of mandarin orange peel with macerating enzyme (40°C, 24 h) produced 0.59 g g-1 reducing sugar per dry peel compared to 0.36 by acid-hydrolysis (15 min at 120°C with 0.8 N H2SO4), the production of single cell protein (SCP) from orange peel was studied mostly using enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel.

Naomichi Nishio; Shiro Nagai

1981-01-01

184

Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.  

PubMed

alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088

Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

2009-11-26

185

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3-4 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practices, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability could be greatly improved if this amount of peel can be used to produce high...

186

Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of a Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) phytotherapeutic gel and miconazole (Daktarin® oral gel) against three standard streptococci strains (mutans ATCC 25175, sanguis ATCC 10577 and mitis ATCC 9811), S. mutans clinically isolated and Candida albicans either alone or in association. The effect of minimum inhibitory concentrations of the gels

Maria do Socorro; Vieira PEREIRA; Maria Helena Pereira; Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira; Jane Sheila Higino; Maria Helena Pereira Peixoto

2006-01-01

187

Wound healing activity of Malva sylvestris and Punica granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The flowers of Malva sylvestris Linn. (Malvaceae) and Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani) whose have been used as remedy against edema, bum, wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The diethyl ether extract of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers were used to evaluate the wound healing activity at 200 mg/kg/day dose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Wounds were induced in Wister rats divided into six groups as following; Group I, normal rats were treated with simple ointment base. Group II, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control). Groups III and IV, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals), Groups V, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts (1:1), Group VI, diabetic rats received the standard drug (nitrofurazone). The efficacy of treatment was evaluated based on wound area relative and histopathological characteristics. The extract-treated diabetic animals showed significant reduction in the wound area when compared with control. Also, histological studies of the tissue obtained on days 9th and 18th from the extract-treated by extract of M. sylvestris showed increased well organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts and few inflammatory cells. These findings demonstrate that extract of M. sylvestis effectively stimulates wound contraction as compared to control group and other groups. M. sylvestris accelerated wound healing in rats and thus supports its traditional use. PMID:20873419

Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Azizi, Shahrzad; Koohpayeh, Abed; Hamedi, Behzad

188

Punica granatum (pomegranate) flower extract possesses potent antioxidant activity and abrogates Fe-NTA induced hepatotoxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Most pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn., Punicaceae) fruit parts are known to possess enormous antioxidant activity. The present study evaluated antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of pomegranate flowers. Alcoholic (ethanolic) extract of flowers was prepared and used in the present study. The extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and exhibit enormous reducing ability, both indicative of potent antioxidant ability. The extract showed 81.6% antioxidant activity in DPPH model system. The ability of extract to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was tested and it was found to significantly scavenge superoxide (O(2)(.-)) (by up to 53.3%), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (by up to 30%), hydroxyl radicals (()OH) (by up to 37%) and nitric oxide (NO) (by up to 74.5%). The extract also inhibited (.)OH induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in vitro. These results indicated pomegranate flower extract to exert a significant antioxidant activity in vitro. The efficacy of extract was tested in vivo and it was found to exhibit a potent protective activity in acute oxidative tissue injury animal model: ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of 9 mg/kg body wt. Fe-NTA to mice induced oxidative stress and liver injury. Pretreatment with pomegranate flower extract at a dose regimen of 50-150 mg/kg body wt. for a week significantly and dose dependently protected against Fe-NTA induced oxidative stress as well as hepatic injury. The extract afforded up to 60% protection against hepatic lipid peroxidation and preserved glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) by up to 36%, 28.5%, 28.7%, 40.2% and 42.5% respectively. A protection against Fe-NTA induced liver injury was apparent as inhibition in the modulation of liver markers viz., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and albumin in serum. The histopathological changes produced by Fe-NTA, such as ballooning degeneration, fatty changes, necrosis were also alleviated by the extract. These results indicate pomegranate flowers to possess potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective property, the former being probably responsible for the latter. PMID:16426722

Kaur, Gurpreet; Jabbar, Zoobi; Athar, Mohammad; Alam, M Sarwar

2006-01-19

189

X-Band Peeled HEMT Amplifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discrete peeled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was integrated into a 10 GHz amplifier. The discrete HEMT device interconnects were made using photo patterned metal, stepping from the 10 mil alumina host substrate onto the 1.3 microns th...

P. G. Young R. R. Romanofsky S. A. Alterovitz E. D. Smith

1993-01-01

190

Volumetric depth peeling for medical image display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volumetric depth peeling (VDP) is an extension to volume rendering that enables display of otherwise occluded features in volume data sets. VDP decouples occlusion calculation from the volume rendering transfer function, enabling independent optimization of settings for rendering and occlusion. The algorithm is flexible enough to handle multiple regions occluding the object of interest, as well as object self-occlusion, and

David Borland; John P. Clarke; Julia R. Fielding; Russell M. Taylor

191

Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

192

Permineralized fruits of Diplopanax (Cornaceae, Mastixioideae) from the middle Eocene Princeton chert of British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 80 specimens of a permineralized fruit referable to the Cornaceae (Mastixioideae) have been recovered from the middle Eocene Princeton chert (Allenby Formation) of British Columbia, Canada. Specimens were studied using a modified cellulose acetate peel technique using hydrofluoric acid. Diplopanax eydei Stockey, LePage et Pigg sp. nov. has fruits with endocarps up to 11 mm long and 10 mm

Ruth A. Stockey; Ben A. LePage; Kathleen B. Pigg

1998-01-01

193

Fruit processing residues as an alternative fuel for drying in Northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the fuel potential of residues from local fruit processing facilities in Northern Thailand was assessed. Facilities were surveyed to determine current processing and waste disposal strategies. In facilities handling large amounts of these fruits particularly, residues are currently disposed of in municipal dumps. Fresh processing refuse such as peels and seeds was sampled and analyzed for fuel

Marcus Nagle; Kennedy Habasimbi; Busarakorn Mahayothee; Methinee Haewsungcharern; Serm Janjai; Joachim Müller

2011-01-01

194

Supercritical extraction of carotenoids and lipids from buriti ( Mauritia flexuosa), a fruit from the Amazon region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulp of the buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa, Mart.) was extracted with supercritical CO2 to obtain oil fractions with a high concentration of vitamins, especially ?-carotene. The raw material consisted of a mixture of pulp and peel that was scraped off the immature fruit. The extracted oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and spectrophotometry, and results were compared with those obtained

Luiz Ferreira de França; Georg Reber; M. Angela A Meireles; Nélio T Machado; Gerd Brunner

1999-01-01

195

Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.).

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi; Yukitoshi Tanaka

2004-01-01

196

Studies on the Cytotoxic Activities of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) Extract on Prostate Cell Line by Induction of Apoptosis.  

PubMed

The Punica granatum L. var. granatum (pomegranate) has been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on various types of cancer cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the medicinal herbs Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (apple punice) that are native to Iran. This study was determined to test the possible cytotoxic activity and induction of apoptosis on human prostate cell lines. The effect of ethanol extracts of the herbs on the inhibition of cell proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay. PC3 cell lines treated with the extracts were analyzed for the induction of apoptosis by cell death detection (ELISA) and TUNEL assay. Dye exclusion analysis was performed for viability rate. Our results demonstrated that the Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract dose dependently suppressed the proliferation of PC3 cells (IC(50)= 250.21??g/mL) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug (Toxol) (Vesper Pharmaceuticals) with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract attenuated the human prostate cell proliferation in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa is likely to be valuable for the treatment of some forms of human prostate cell line. PMID:23320197

Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Khori, Vahid; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare

2012-12-17

197

Studies on the Cytotoxic Activities of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) Extract on Prostate Cell Line by Induction of Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The Punica granatum L. var. granatum (pomegranate) has been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on various types of cancer cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the medicinal herbs Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (apple punice) that are native to Iran. This study was determined to test the possible cytotoxic activity and induction of apoptosis on human prostate cell lines. The effect of ethanol extracts of the herbs on the inhibition of cell proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay. PC3 cell lines treated with the extracts were analyzed for the induction of apoptosis by cell death detection (ELISA) and TUNEL assay. Dye exclusion analysis was performed for viability rate. Our results demonstrated that the Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract dose dependently suppressed the proliferation of PC3 cells (IC50= 250.21??g/mL) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug (Toxol) (Vesper Pharmaceuticals) with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract attenuated the human prostate cell proliferation in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa is likely to be valuable for the treatment of some forms of human prostate cell line.

Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Khori, Vahid; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare

2012-01-01

198

Phenolic acid profiles of mangosteen fruits ( Garcinia mangostana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of phenolic acids in various parts of mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) was determined by GC and MS. The total content of phenolic acids, identified by GC-FID ranged from 265.7±12.7 (aril) to 5027.7±188.0 (peel) mg per kg of dry matter of sample. Ten phenolic acids were identified in mangosteen fruit. Of these, protocatechuic acid was the major phenolic acid

Ryszard Zadernowski; Sylwester Czaplicki; Marian Naczk

2009-01-01

199

Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial.  

PubMed

The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women. PMID:24133616

Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea; Park, Eunju

2013-10-01

200

Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial  

PubMed Central

The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women.

Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

2013-01-01

201

Anointing chemicals and hematophagous arthropods: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene components.  

PubMed

Some birds and mammals roll on or wipe themselves with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae. These anointing behaviors, as with anointing in general, are thought to function in the topical acquisition of chemicals that deter consumers, including hematophagous arthropods. We measured avoidance and other responses by nymphal lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate and to 24 volatile monoterpenes (racemates and isomers), including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetates, ketones, and oxides, present in citrus fruits and leaves in order to examine their potential as arthropod deterrents. Ticks allowed to crawl up vertically suspended paper strips onto a chemically treated zone avoided the peel exudate and geraniol, citronellol, citral, carveol, geranyl acetate, ?-terpineol, citronellyl acetate, and carvone. Ticks confined in chemically treated paper packets subsequently were impaired in climbing and other behaviors following exposure to the peel exudate and, of the compounds tested, most impaired to carveol. Mosquitoes confined in chambers with chemically treated feeding membranes landed and fed less, and flew more, when exposed to the peel exudate than to controls, and when exposed to aldehydes, oxides, or alcohols versus most hydrocarbons or controls. However, attraction by mosquitoes in an olfactometer was not inhibited by either lemon peel exudate or most of the compounds we tested. Our results support the notion that anointing by vertebrates with citrus-derived chemicals deters ticks. We suggest that some topically applied compounds are converted into more potent arthropod deterrents when oxidized on the integument of anointed animals. PMID:21409496

Weldon, Paul J; Carroll, John F; Kramer, Matthew; Bedoukian, Robert H; Coleman, Russell E; Bernier, Ulrich R

2011-03-16

202

Volatile components of peel and leaf oils of lemon and lime species.  

PubMed

Peel and leaf oils of 43 taxa of lemons and limes were obtained from fruits and leaves collected from trees submitted to the same pedoclimatic and cultural conditions. Their chemical composition was investigated by capillary GC, GC-MS, and (13)C NMR, and the results were submitted to principal component analysis to check for chemical variability. Three major chemotypes were distinguished for lemon peel oils: limonene; limonene/beta-pinene/gamma-terpinene; and limonene/linalyl acetate/linalool. Two chemotypes were identified for lemon leaf oils: limonene/beta-pinene/geranial/neral and linalool/linalyl acetate/alpha-terpineol. In lime peel oils, four chemotypes were distinguished: limonene; limonene/gamma-terpinene; limonene/beta-pinene/gamma-terpinene; and limonene/gamma-terpinene/beta-pinene/oxygenated products. Four others were identified for lime leaf oils: beta-pinene/limonene; limonene/geranial/neral; limonene/linalool/citronellal; and limonene/sabinene/citronellal/linalool. These results were interpreted using principal component analysis. PMID:11829647

Lota, Marie-Laure; de Rocca Serra, Dominique; Tomi, Félix; Jacquemond, Camille; Casanova, Joseph

2002-02-13

203

Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant.  

PubMed

Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T

2012-02-07

204

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.  

PubMed

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

2011-08-03

205

Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.  

PubMed

Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its climatic environment during growth could affect postharvest behaviour and quality. PMID:23267462

Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

2012-12-23

206

Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma  

PubMed Central

Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

Puri, Neerja

2012-01-01

207

Modified atmosphere and modified humidity packaging alleviates chilling injury symptoms in mango fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage of mango (Mangifera indica L. cvs. Tommy Atkins and Keitt) fruits at 12°C caused slight chilling injury (CI) symptoms on the fruit peel, expressed as red spots around the lenticels (lenticel spotting). A modified atmosphere (?5% CO2 and ?10% O2) was created in 4-kg film-lined cartons by using microperforated polyethylene (PE) or Xtend® film (XF). For ‘Keitt’ fruit, a

Edna Pesis; Dalia Aharoni; Zion Aharon; Rosa Ben-Arie; Nehemia Aharoni; Yoram Fuchs

2000-01-01

208

1-MCP extends the storage and shelf life of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit were harvested when the peel (pericarp) was light greenish yellow with scattered pinkish spots. Fruit were exposed to 1?LL?1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 6h at 25°C and were then stored at 25°C (control) or 15°C. The 1-MCP treatment only temporarily delayed softening of the fruit flesh, during storage. Storage life, defined as the time until the

Phatchara Piriyavinit; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn

2011-01-01

209

Antimicrobial activity of six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties and their relation to some of their pomological and phytonutrient characteristics.  

PubMed

Arils from six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties grown in the Mediterranean region of Turkey were tested for their antimicrobial properties by the agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods against seven bacteria: (Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 9027, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Escherichia coli DM, Enterococcus faecalis A10, Micrococcus luteus LA 2971), and threefungi (Kluvyeromyces marxianus A230, Rhodotorula rubra MC12, Candida albicans ATCC 1023). It has been observed that the pomegranate aril extracts had antimicrobial effect on all microorganisms, giving inhibition zones ranging in size from 13 to 26 mm. The MIC values for active pomegranate extracts ranged between 30 and >90 microg/mL. The results obtained appeared to confirm the antimicrobial potential of the Punica granatum varieties. PMID:19471201

Duman, Ahmet D; Ozgen, Mustafa; Dayisoylu, Kenan S; Erbil, Nurcan; Durgac, Coskun

2009-05-13

210

Effect of Punica granatum Linn. (flowers) on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Gulnar farsi’, male abortive flowers of Punica granatum L., are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Unani medicine. Oral administration of its aqueous-ethanolic (50%, v\\/v) extract led to significant blood glucose lowering effect in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This effect of the extract was maximum at 400 mg\\/kg, b.w.

M. A Jafri; M Aslam; Kalim Javed; Surender Singh

2000-01-01

211

Rosetted siblings in F 2 of a cross in pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) can be useful model for rosetting investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmentally and developmentally controlled rosette formation is welldocumented in certain crop species. But this report describes a geneticallyinduced rosetting observed in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.).Rosette genotypes were detected at a frequency of 0.12 in the F2 familiesof cv. Ganesh and a recessive rosette mutant clone of cv. Kabul Yellow. Therosetted seedlings had leaves almost touching the ground at emergence, whichwere

S. H. Jalikop

2003-01-01

212

Potent anti-cancer effects of citrus peel flavonoids in human prostate xenograft tumors.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Fruit and vegetable consumption is a novel, non-toxic therapeutic approach that can be used to prevent and treat prostate cancer. Citrus peels and their extracts have been reported to have potent pharmacological activities and health benefits due to the abundance of flavonoids in citrus fruits, particularly in the peels. Our previous studies demonstrated that oral administration of Gold Lotion (GL), an extract of multiple varieties of citrus peels containing abundant flavonoids, including a large percentage of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), effectively suppressed azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic tumorigenesis. However, the efficacy of GL against prostate cancer has not yet been investigated. Here, we explored the anti-tumor effects of GL using a human prostate tumor xenograft mouse model. Our data demonstrated that treatment with GL by both intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and oral administration dramatically reduced both the weights (57%-100% inhibition) and volumes (78%-94% inhibition) of the tumors without any observed toxicity. These inhibitory effects were accompanied by mechanistic down-regulation of the protein levels of inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2), metastasis (matrix metallopeptidase-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), and proliferative molecules, as well as by the induction of apoptosis in prostate tumors. Our findings suggest that GL is an effective anti-cancer agent that may potentially serve as a novel therapeutic option for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:23673480

Lai, Ching-Shu; Li, Shiming; Miyauchi, Yutaka; Suzawa, Michiko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

2013-05-14

213

Importance of Deoxyribose Degradation Assay for Evaluating Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity of Punica Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Punica granatum L. (Family: Punicaceae), commonly known as pomegranate (Anar) has been used traditionally as medicine to treat a number of diseases and disorders. Various parts of the plant and their active constituents are known to possess diverse biological activity. However, little is known about the antioxidant potential of pomegranate fruit peel, which is otherwise considered as waste. Therefore, the

Suaib Luqman; Ritesh Kumar

2012-01-01

214

IMPORTANCE OF DEOXYRIBOSE DEGRADATION ASSAY FOR EVALUATING HYDROXYL RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF PUNICA EXTRACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Punica granatum L. (Family: Punicaceae), commonly known as pomegranate (Anar) has been used traditionally as medicine to treat a number of diseases and disorders. Various parts of the plant and their active constituents are known to possess diverse biological activity. However, little is known about the antioxidant potential of pomegranate fruit peel which is otherwise considered as waste. Therefore, we

Suaib Luqman; Ritesh Kumar

2011-01-01

215

Effect of Punica granatum solvent extracts on immune system and disease resistance in Paralichthys olivaceus against lymphocystis disease virus (LDV).  

PubMed

We report the effect of aqueous, ethanol, and methanol solvent leaf extracts of Punica granatum on innate immune mechanisms, such as phagocytosis activity, respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity and functional immunity in terms of percentage cumulative mortality and Relative Percent Survival (RPS) in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus naturally infected with lymphocystis disease virus (LDV) after 8 weeks. Infected fish were intraperitoneally administered with 0, 5, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight of solvent extracts. In groups treated with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight, the chosen innate immune parameters significantly increased after 8 weeks when compared to 0 mg kg(-1) dose, but not with 5 mg kg(-1). Administration of P. granatum solvent extracts for 8 weeks significantly reduced the percentage mortality with the consequent increase in RPS. The results suggest that intraperitoneal administration of the leaf extracts of P. granatum at 50 or 100 mg kg(-1) dose clearly enhance the innate immune responses and disease resistance after 8 weeks in P. olivaceus against natural LDV infection. PMID:20624470

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Heo, Jaehyun; Balasundaram, Chellam; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Heo, Moon-Soo

2010-07-31

216

Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.  

PubMed

Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications. PMID:11204182

Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

217

Developments in ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5~5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value pr...

218

HYDROLYSIS OF GRAPEFRUIT PEEL WASTE WITH CELLULASE AND PECTINASE ENZYMES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 1 million Mg of grapefruit were processed in 2003/04 resulting in 500 thousand Mg of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes and pH levels t...

219

Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

220

Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of pomegranate peel extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried pomegranate peels were powdered and extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol and water for 4 h each. The dried extracts were used to determine their antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex and antimutagenicity against the mutagenicity of sodium azide by the Ames test. All the peel extracts exhibited marked antioxidant capacity, but

P. S. Negi; G. K. Jayaprakasha; B. S. Jena

2003-01-01

221

Failure mechanisms of aluminum bondpad peeling during thermosonic bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum bondpad peeling was observed in a newly developed thermosonic wirebonding process for chip-on-board assembly. Through detailed failure analysis and with the help of finite element analysis on stress simulation, the true root cause of the peeling is identified. It is found that the true root cause is the effect of skidding force as a result of the constrained movement

Cher Ming Tan; Zhenghao Gan

2003-01-01

222

Guidelines for chemical peeling in Japan (3rd edition).  

PubMed

Chemical peeling may be defined as the therapies, procedures and techniques used for the treatment of certain cutaneous diseases or conditions, and for aesthetic improvement. The procedures include the application of one or more chemical agents to the skin. Chemical peeling has been very popular in both medical and aesthetic fields. Because neither its scientific background is well understood nor a systematic approach established, medical and social problems have taken place. This prompted us to establish and distribute a standard guideline of care for chemical peeling. Previous guidelines such as the 2001 and 2004 versions included minimum standards of care such as indications, chemicals, applications, and any associated precautions, including post-peeling care. The principles in this updated version of chemical peeling are as follows: (i) chemical peeling should be performed under the strict technical control and responsibility of a physician; (ii) the physician should have sufficient knowledge of the structure and physiology of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and understand the mechanisms of wound-healing induced by chemical peeling; (iii) the physician should be board-certified in an appropriate specialty such as dermatology; and (iv) the ultimate judgment regarding the appropriateness of any specific chemical peeling procedure must be made by the physician while considering all standard therapeutic protocols, which should be presented to each individual patient. Keeping these concepts in mind, this new version of the guidelines includes a more scientific and detailed approach from the viewpoint of evidence-based medicine. PMID:22439791

2011-10-02

223

DRY CAUSTIC PEELING OF CLINGSTONE PEACHES. CAPSULE REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Capsule Report discusses the modified dry caustic process which uses rapidly rotating rubber discs to mechanically wipe the caustic treated peel from clingstone peaches. This report covers two-seasons of evaluation during which the dry caustic peeling system was operated in p...

224

The Effect of Soaked Cassava Peels on Weanling Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of using milled sun-dried cassava peels soaked in water to substitute maize in the diet of mixed breed (Californian x Dutch) weanling rabbits averaging 831 g in body weight were examined in an 8 - week experiment. One of four portions of fresh cassava peels was sun-dried immediately after collection while one of each of the remaining 3

O. I. A. Oluremi; A. Nwosu

2004-01-01

225

Structure-function relationship of the foam-like pomelo peel (Citrus maxima)-an inspiration for the development of biomimetic damping materials with high energy dissipation.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of artificial foams are mainly determined by the choice of bulk materials and relative density. In natural foams, in contrast, variation to optimize properties is achieved by structural optimization rather than by conscious substitution of bulk materials. Pomelos (Citrus maxima) have a thick foam-like peel which is capable of dissipating considerable amounts of kinetic energy and thus this fruit represents an ideal role model for the development of biomimetic impact damping structures. This paper focuses on the analysis of the biomechanics of the pomelo peel and on its structure-function relationship. It deals with the determination of the onset strain of densification of this foam-like tissue and on how this property is influenced by the arrangement of vascular bundles. It was found here that the vascular bundles branch in a very regular manner-every 16.5% of the radial peel thickness-and that the surrounding peel tissue (pericarp) attains its exceptional thickness mainly by the expansion of existing interconnected cells causing an increasing volume of the intercellular space, rather than by cell division. These findings lead to the discussion of the pomelo peel as an inspiration for fibre-reinforced cast metallic foams with the capacity for excellent energy dissipation. PMID:23648799

Thielen, M; Schmitt, C N Z; Eckert, S; Speck, T; Seidel, R

2013-05-07

226

Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

PubMed

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-05-14

227

The use of a modified peel specimen to assess the peel resistance of aircraft fuel tank sealants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to comprehensively review the traditional peel specimen for assessing adhesion of aircraft fuel tank sealants. A modified peel specimen was proposed that overcomes the inherent problems of the traditional test, which are associated with inaccurate geometry definition and clamping, and avoids any subjective interaction during testing from the knife cuts used to re-initiate the

S. Giannis; R. D. Adams; L. J. Clark; M. A. Taylor

2008-01-01

228

Apple flavonols during fruit adaptation to solar radiation: spectral features and technique for non-destructive assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Spectral properties of flavonols of three varieties (Golden Delicious, Antonovka, and Renet Simirenko) of anthocyanin-free apple fruit were investigated with reflectance spectroscopy. The results of spectral and biochemical analyses suggested that fruit reflectance in a broad spectral range 365-430nm is strongly dependent on and, in sunlit fruit surfaces, governed by flavonols. The build up of peel flavonols (mainly rutin

Mark N. Merzlyak; Alexei E. Solovchenko; Alexei I. Smagin; Anatoly A. Gitelson

2005-01-01

229

Effects of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one vapor on peel browning of ‘Delicious’ and ‘Granny Smith’ apples: open vs. closed system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open and a closed system were used to evaluate the effects of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (MHO) vapor on peel browning or scald development of ‘Delicious’ and ‘Granny Smith’ (scald susceptible) or ‘Fuji’ and ‘Gala’ (scald resistant) apples. In the open system, fruit were placed on the top of a beaker containing MHO and held in a ventilation hood with airflow of

Zhiguo Ju; Eric A. Curry

2002-01-01

230

Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  

PubMed

We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight. PMID:18613588

Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

2008-06-01

231

Strength of adhesive joints with adherend yielding: II. Peel experiments and failure criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peel tests were conducted with an epoxy adhesive on nine rigid-flexible peel configurations: combinations of 1, 2, and 3 mm aluminum adherend thickness and 30°, 60°, and 90° peel angle. The peel model described in an accompanying paper was used to calculate the stress and strain distributions in the adhesive, the strain energy release rates, and the root curvature of

R. X. Wang; A. N. Sinclair; J. K. Spelt

2003-01-01

232

Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

2012-01-01

233

Complications of Medium Depth and Deep Chemical Peels  

PubMed Central

Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarring. In very rare cases, complications can be life-threatening.

Nikalji, Nanma; Godse, Kiran; Sakhiya, Jagdish; Patil, Sharmila; Nadkarni, Nitin

2012-01-01

234

Physiological responses of ‘Murcott’ mandarins and ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruit to anaerobic stress conditions and their relation to fruit taste, quality and emission of off-flavor volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

During their postharvest handling citrus fruit may be exposed to various anaerobic stresses, which may occur, for example: during quarantine treatments, because of inadequate ventilation in containers and storage rooms, following application of waxes that restrict gas exchange through the peel and after packing the fruit in plastic liners. It is known that mandarins tend to develop off-flavors much more

Jian Xin Shi; Ron Porat; Raphael Goren; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt

2005-01-01

235

Freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder improves insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed mice.  

PubMed

The peel of the native Brazilian fruit jaboticaba is rich in anthocyanins, which are known for their anti-obesity effects in animal models. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder (FDJPP) on a number of metabolic parameters in a model of diet-induced obesity. Mice (n 8 per group) were initially fed on a high-fat diet (HFD, 35% w/w) for 4 weeks and then switched to a HFD supplemented with FDJPP (1, 2 or 4% w/w) for an additional 6 weeks. Energy intake, weight loss, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and lipid profile were determined, and the results were evaluated using ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. The FDJPP exerted no protective effect on HFD-induced weight gain, hyperleptinaemia and glucose intolerance. However, the supplementation was effective to reduce insulin resistance, as evidenced in the insulin tolerance test, and subsequently confirmed by improved signal transduction through the insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate-1/Akt/forkhead box protein pathway and by the attenuation of HFD-induced inflammation in the liver, verified by lower expressions of IL-1b and IL-6 and decreased phosphorylated IkB-a protein levels in all jaboticaba-treated mice. These results suggest that FDJPP may exert a protective role against obesity-associated insulin resistance. PMID:23415177

Dragano, Nathalia R V; Marques, Anne y Castro; Cintra, Dennys E C; Solon, Carina; Morari, Joseane; Leite-Legatti, Alice V; Velloso, Lício A; Maróstica-Júnior, Mário R

2013-02-18

236

Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling  

PubMed Central

The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of 1H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake.

Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

2011-01-01

237

FRUIT SPLIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water stage fruit split is a noninfectious disorder of pecan. Its occurrence and severity varies greatly depending upon cultivar, crop load, water status of trees, and atmospheric conditions. This review article discusses the symptoms, causes, and control measures for water stage fruit split in pe...

238

Shocking Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how a piece of fruit can act as an electrolyte, conducting electricity between two different metals. In this way, learners construct a simple battery and record their observations. Educators can use this activity to introduce circuits, electrodes, and electrolytes. After completing this activity, learners can explore other fruit and vegetable conductors.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

239

BEARDIA VANCOUVERENSIS GEN. ET SP. NOV .( JUGLANDACEAE): PERMINERALIZED FRUITS FROM THE EOCENE OF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of permineralized juglandaceous fruits were identified in calcareous nodules from the Eocene Appian Way locality on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. The fruits, small dorsiventrally flattened nutlets, 4.5-7.0 mm long and 5.5-9.0 3 3-5 mm in diameter, were studied using cellulose acetate peels. They are wingless, ribbed, and have a lobed epicarp that surrounds the nutlet. Cells of

LINDSAY L. ELLIOTT; R ANDAL A. MINDELL; RUTH A. STOCKEY

240

Flavonoids from the fruits of Murraya paniculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an investigation of the peel and pulp of the fresh ripe fruits of Murraya paniculata nine flavonoids: 5,7,3?,4?,5?-pentamethoxyflavanonol, 5,6,7,3?,4?,5?-hexamethoxyflavone, 3,5,6,7,3?,4?,5?-heptamethoxyflavone, 5,7,8,3?,4?,5?-hexamethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,8,3?,4?,5?-heptamethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,8,3?,4?-hexamethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8,3?,4?-pentamethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8,3?,4?,5?-hexamethoxyflavone and 8-hydroxy-3,5,7,3?,4?,5?-hexamethoxyflavone, were identified. The latter two compounds appear to be novel.

Ricardo J. Ferracin; M. Fátima das G. F. da Silva; João B. Fernandes; Paulo C. Vieira

1998-01-01

241

Chemical peels: their place within the range of resurfacing techniques.  

PubMed

The photoaging index has been developed to determine the level of skin rejuvenation required to reduce the visible signs of aging. Minor photoaging is reversed with free-radical avoidance and peeling with a topical skin care regimen consisting of buffing grains, alpha-hydroxy acid normalizing tonics and vitamin A conditioning lotions. The reversal of moderate photoaging requires the addition of light-to-moderate peels using alpha-hydroxy acids combined with microdermabrasion. For the more advanced case the Jessner/trichloroacetic acid (TCA) combination peel (Monheit peel) is used which can be repeated once to twice a year. Laser resurfacing is especially useful to shrink the collagen and produce a 'face-lift bypass'. The phenol peel remains the standard to reverse heavy lines. A new modified formula (Hetter) is used which contains less phenol and less croton oil. Dermabrasion is helpful for removing multiple actinic keratosis. With this combination of skin care, chemical peels, and dermabrasion it is possible to reverse the photoaging index. PMID:15186197

Fulton, James E; Porumb, Serban

2004-01-01

242

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis

Federico Martinelli; Sandra L. Uratsu; Ute Albrecht; Russell L. Reagan; My L. Phu; Monica Britton; Vincent Buffalo; Joseph Fass; Elizabeth Leicht; Weixiang Zhao; Dawei Lin; Raissa DSouza; Cristina E. Davis; Kim D. Bowman; Abhaya M. Dandekar

2012-01-01

243

Does ethylene degreening affect internal quality of citrus fruit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus fruit are non-climacteric. However, exposure to exogenous ethylene, e.g., during ethylene degreening, stimulates various ripening-related processes in the peel tissue, such as destruction of the green chlorophyll pigments and accumulation of orange\\/yellow carotenoids. Nonetheless, it is not yet known whether exogenous ethylene affects internal ripening processes in citrus flesh. To address this question, we examined the possible effects of

Lina Mayuoni; Zipora Tietel; Bhimanagouda S. Patil; Ron Porat

2011-01-01

244

Control of rotting and browning of Longan fruit cv. Biew Kiew after harvested by sulphur dioxide treatment under various storage temperatures.  

PubMed

The experiment of Longan fruit cv. Biew Kiew, untreated (control) and treated with SO2 treatment were stored under 2 +/- 2 and 7 +/- 2 degrees C for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks were studied. The treatment of fresh longan fruit with SO2 fumigation combined with the suitable storage condition improved the overall longan fruit quality, especially on inner and outer peel tissue and aril color than no SO2 treatment. Treatment stabilizes peel color with no subsequent loss of color during storage (fruit color were bright-yellowish color). When the fruit showed during SO2 treatment, increasing of storage duration and temperatures, the dark color of inner and outer peel of longan fruit was appeared, this was correlated with the increasing of PPO activity. The activity of PPO enzyme in control fruit (no SO2 treatment) gradually lower than SO2 treatments. Fruit exposed to cool storage temperature (2 degrees C) exhibited a lower PPO enzymatic activity compared to those kept in high storage temperature (7 degrees C). Moreover, PPO enzymatic activity significantly increased over the storage durations The additional SO2 treatment no subsequent loss of weight of longan fruit during storage. However, the sulphite residues could detect immediately after SO2 treatment in all part of longan fruit, especially on aril tissue. The SEM evaluation found that the surface cracking was also impair the physiological function of the cuticle and increasing water permeability, which may cause water soaking at the inner side of the peel. The injured cell would accelerate the oxidation of phenolic substances and the oxidative products resulted in dark color of inner and outer peel. PMID:20180317

Chitbanchong, W; Sardsud, V; Whangchai, K; Koslanund, R; Thobunluepop, P

2009-11-15

245

Can Stanton Peele's opinions be taken seriously? A reply to Peele.  

PubMed

In an article in the October-December 1988 issue of the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Stanton Peele expressed a number of opinions against alcoholism treatment and in favor of controlled drinking as a treatment goal for alcoholics. These opinions are examined critically and found to be contradicted by recent studies, empirical observations, and reinterpretations of earlier studies. It is concluded that marginal scholarship, partial and/or inaccurate representations of research, and inappropriate generalizations do not constitute the basis for drawing reliable and valid conclusions about alcoholism treatment or about controlled drinking as a feasible treatment goal for alcoholics. PMID:2668489

Wallace, J

246

Physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of fruits xoconostle (Opuntia matudae) pears from Central-México Region.  

PubMed

Xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeño (Opuntia matudae) has attracted domestic and international industry attention; however, variations of composition from xoconostle structures have not been evaluated. Industries discard the pulp (endocarp) and peel (pericarp) as wastes and utilize the skin (mesocarp), which is the edible portion. The physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of structures from xoconostle pear from 3 major sites of production in Mexico were assessed. Skin yield ranged from 58% to 64% and was higher to that of peel (22% to 24%) and pulp (12% to 18%) yields. pH, degrees Brix, and acidity were similar among xoconostle structures. Total fiber showed by peel (18.23% to 20.37%) was 2-fold higher than that of skin. Protein and ether extract were higher in xoconostle pulp compared to that showed by peel and skin. Iron content of xoconostle peel (6 to 9.6 mg/100 g, DWB) was higher to that of skin and pulp and prickly pear pulp. Soluble phenols of peel (840 to 863 mg GAE/100 g, DWB) were almost similar to that of skin (919 to 986 mg GAE/100 g, dry weigh basis); meanwhile, ascorbic acid concentration of skin was 2-fold higher compared to that of peel. The phenolic fraction of xoconostle structures consisted of gallic, vanillic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids; catechin, epicatechin, and vanillin were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-didoe array detection (HPLC-DAD). Xoconostle peel showed higher antioxidant activity (TEAC) compared to that of skin (2-fold) and pulp (6-fold) of commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The potential of xoconostle peel and pulp for the production of feed or food is promissory. Practical Application: Outstanding nutritional and functional properties of xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeño fruits are demonstrated. Increased consumption could contribute positively to improve the diet of rural and urban consumers. The high fiber, mineral, and antioxidant components of xoconostle peel and pulp suggest that these fruit structures, which are currently discarded as waste, have promissory use as feed or food by industry. PMID:20722901

Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H; Morales-Montelongo, Ana L; Mondragón-Jacobo, Candelario; Herrera-Hernández, Guadalupe; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia

2010-08-01

247

Long-term potentiation: Peeling the onion.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), thousands of papers have been published on this phenomenon. With this massive amount of information, it is often difficult, especially for someone not directly involved in the field, not to be overwhelmed. The goal of this review is to peel away as many layers as possible, and probe the core properties of LTP. We would argue that the many dozens of proteins that have been implicated in the phenomenon are not essential, but rather modulate, often in indirect ways, the threshold and/or magnitude of LTP. What is required is NMDA receptor activation followed by CaMKII activation. The consequence of CaMKII activation is the rapid recruitment of AMPA receptors to the synapse. This recruitment is independent of AMPA receptor subunit type, but absolutely requires an adequate pool of surface receptors. An important unresolved issue is how exactly CaMKII activation leads to modifications in the PSD to allow rapid enrichment. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23439383

Nicoll, Roger A; Roche, Katherine W

2013-02-21

248

Pome fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes the beneficial influences of controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) on the major quality deterioration, physiological disorders and diseases of pome fruits, and the problems resulting from improper atmosphere conditions. It discusses the interactions between ...

249

Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report  

PubMed Central

Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Conclusions Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.

2012-01-01

250

Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits  

PubMed Central

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation. The carotenoid content in the peel and flesh of LYQ was approximately 68 ?g g?1 and 13 ?g g?1 fresh weight (FW), respectively, and for BS 19 ?g g?1 and 0.27 ?g g?1 FW. The mRNA levels of 15 carotenogenesis-related genes were analysed during fruit development and ripening. After the breaker stage (S4), the mRNA levels of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) and chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase (CYCB) were higher in the peel, and CYCB and ?-carotene hydroxylase (BCH) mRNAs were higher in the flesh of LYQ, compared with BS. Plastid morphogenesis during fruit ripening was also studied. The ultrastructure of plastids in the peel of BS changed less than in LYQ during fruit development. Two different chromoplast shapes were observed in the cells of LYQ peel and flesh at the fully ripe stage. Carotenoids were incorporated in the globules in chromoplasts of LYQ and BS peel but were in a crystalline form in the chromoplasts of LYQ flesh. However, no chromoplast structure was found in the cells of fully ripe BS fruit flesh. The mRNA level of plastid lipid-associated protein (PAP) in the peel and flesh of LYQ was over five times higher than in BS peel and flesh. In conclusion, the lower carotenoid content in BS fruit was associated with the lower mRNA levels of PSY1, CYCB, and BCH; however, the failure to develop normal chromoplasts in BS flesh is the most convincing explanation for the lack of carotenoid accumulation. The expression of PAP was well correlated with chromoplast numbers and carotenoid accumulation, suggesting its possible role in chromoplast biogenesis or interconversion of loquat fruit.

Fu, Xiumin; Kong, Wenbin; Peng, Gang; Zhou, Jingyi; Azam, Muhammad; Xu, Changjie; Grierson, Don; Chen, Kunsong

2012-01-01

251

Protective effect of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant activity of quince (Cydonia oblonga) fruit. For this purpose, fruits were separated into pulps, peels and seeds and methanolic extracts were prepared. The phenolic profiles were determined by HPLC/UV and antioxidant properties were studied for their ability to quench the stable free radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and to inhibit the 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The main phenolic compounds were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid for pulp and peel (57% and 29%, respectively) and stellarin-2 for seed (18%). Total phenolics content was 2.5, 6.3 and 0.4g/kg of methanolic extract for pulp, peel and seed, respectively. Pulp and peel extracts showed similar DPPH free radical scavenging activities (EC(50) of 0.6 and 0.8 mg/ml, respectively), while seed extract presented much lower antioxidant potential (EC(50) of 12.2mg/ml). Under the oxidative action of AAPH, pulp and peel extracts showed significant protection of the erythrocyte membrane from hemolysis, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Seed extracts by themselves induced extensive hemolysis. These results indicate higher antioxidant activity for certain parts of quince fruit, namely pulp and peel, that may therefore represent accessible sources of natural antioxidants with potential application in nutritional/pharmaceutical fields, as preventive or therapeutic agents in diseases in which free radicals are implicated. PMID:19306906

Magalhães, Ana S; Silva, Branca M; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Carvalho, Márcia

2009-03-21

252

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.  

PubMed

Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

2011-01-01

253

On-farm sources of microbial contamination of persimmon fruit in Japan.  

PubMed

Potential sources of microbial contamination for persimmon fruit during growing and harvesting in the 2005 season were investigated to provide a baseline to design the good agricultural practices program for persimmons in Japan. Microbial counts in the peel of persimmon fruit during production season were close to or below 2.4 log CFU/g for bacteria and 3.0 log CFU/g for fungi but were above these values on harvested fruit. The counts in the flesh were below the detection level with all fruit. Bacteria and molds isolated from peel and flesh of persimmons during growing were phytopathogenic and soilborne organisms such as bacteria genera Enterobacter and Bacillus and mold genera Fusarium and Cladosporium, which were found in soil, weeds, agricultural water, and pesticide solution throughout the production season. The agricultural water was one of the most important potential preharvest sources, because Escherichia coli O157:H7 was identified from agricultural water in May, and Salmonella was detected in agricultural water, pesticide solution containing the agricultural water for the mixture, and soil after application of the pesticide solution in June. Neither of the two pathogenic bacteria was detected in any of the fruit samples. Microbial counts and diversity in the peel of persimmons at harvest increased after contact with plastic harvest basket and container, which could be sources of contamination during harvesting. Therefore, monitoring and management on-farm should focus on agricultural water and harvest equipment as important control points to reduce microbial contamination on persimmons. PMID:18236662

Izumi, Hidemi; Tsukada, Yumi; Poubol, Jutatip; Hisa, Kazuo

2008-01-01

254

The peeling behaviour of a graphene sheet on a nano-scale corrugated surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peeling process and average peeling force of a graphene (GE) sheet on a corrugated surface are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the peeling behaviour varies with the substrate surface roughness and the peeling angle. Three kinds of typically peeling behaviours include (a) GE sheet directly passing the valley of the substrate roughness; (b) bouncing off from the substrate; and (c) continuously peeling off similarly to that on a flat substrate. As a result, the average peeling force is strongly dependent of the peeling behaviours. Furthermore, some interesting phenomena are caught, such as partial detaching and partial sliding of GE sheet in the valley of the substrate roughness, which are mainly due to the effects of pre-tension in GE sheet and the reduction of friction resistance. The results in this paper should be useful for the design of nano-film/substrate systems.

Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaohua

2013-10-01

255

Double peeling during vitrectomy for macular pucker: the Charles L. Schepens Lecture.  

PubMed

Epiretinal membranes are commonly encountered in retinal practice, and they result in decreased vision. The present work addresses whether peeling of the internal limiting membrane is necessary during vitrectomy for macular pucker. We performed a retrospective analysis to investigate the effects of "single peeling," in which only the epiretinal membrane was peeled, and "double peeling," in which the internal limiting membrane was also stained and peeled. Although significantly more patients in the single-peeling group had an epiretinal membrane remaining in the central fovea postoperatively, visual acuity was not found to differ between the 2 groups in the short term. Patients who had an epiretinal membrane for more than 18 months had significantly worse visual acuity outcomes. Unexpectedly, there was a greater proportional decrease in central macular thickness in the single-peeling group than in the double peeling group, a finding that deserves further study. PMID:23579603

Chang, Stanley; Gregory-Roberts, Emily M; Park, Sungpyo; Laud, Ketan; Smith, Scott D; Hoang, Quan V

2013-04-01

256

Apple peels--a versatile biomass for water purification?  

PubMed

The presence of anions such as chromate, arsenate, and arsenite in drinking water is a major health concern in many parts of the world due to their high toxicity. Removal of such anions from water using low cost biomass is an efficient and affordable treatment process. Owing to the easy availability and biodegradability, we chose to use apple peel as a substrate for our investigations. Zirconium cations were immobilized onto the apple peel surface and used for the extraction of anions. Zirconium loaded apple peels were used to extract anions such as phosphate, arsenate, arsenite, and chromate ions from aqueous solutions. The presence of Zr cations on the apple peel surface was characterized using XPS. The modified adsorbent was characterized using SEM, EDS, and FT-IR. Zr treated apple peels showed efficient adsorption toward AsO2(-) (15.64 mg/g), AsO4(3-) (15.68 mg/g), Cr2O7(2-) (25.28 mg/g), and PO4(3-) (20.35 mg/g) anions. The adsorption and desorption studies revealed the adsorption mechanism involves electrostatic interactions. Anion removal efficiency was estimated by batch adsorption studies. Adsorption kinetic parameters for all anions at different concentrations were described using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. Langumir and Freundlich isotherms were used to validate our adsorption data. Arsenate and chromate anions were strongly adsorbed at the pH range from 2 to 6, while arsenite was extracted efficiently between pH 9 and 10. Overall, the Zr immobilized apple peel is an efficient adsorbent for common anionic pollutants. PMID:23635477

Mallampati, Ramakrishna; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

2013-05-13

257

Lemon peel and Limoncello liqueur: a proteomic duet.  

PubMed

Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of lemon peels and pulp, of a home-made alcoholic infusion of peels and of a very popular Italian liqueur called "Limoncello", stated to be an infusion of the flavedo (the outer, yellow skin of lemons). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the lemon peel proteome but also to assess the genuineness of the commercial liqueur via a three-pronged attack. First, different extraction techniques have been used for the characterization of the peel (and additionally of the pulp) proteome, secondly a home-made infusion has been analysed and finally the proteome of the commercial drink was checked. The peel (the flavedo, not the underlying layer called albedo) proteome has been evaluated via prior capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). Via mass spectrometry analysis of the recovered fractions, after elution of the captured populations in 4% boiling SDS, we could identify a total of 1011 unique gene products in the peel extracts and 674 in the pulp, 264 proteins in the home-made infusion and just 8 proteins (and protein fragments), together with 12 peptides, in one Italian Limoncello produced in the Sorrento Region, thus proving the genuineness of this product. On the contrary, cheaper Limoncellos were devoid of any protein/peptide, casting doubts on their production from vegetable extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the genuineness and natural origin of commercial drinks in order to protect consumers from adulterated products. PMID:23681105

Fasoli, Elisa; Colzani, Mara; Aldini, Giancarlo; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

2013-05-14

258

Rod Press Fruit Harvester.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to an apparatus for removing or harvesting fruit and more particularly to an apparatus that will harvest fruit especially from narrow fruit growing canopies by pressing the fruit out of the production canopy.

D. L. Peterson

1982-01-01

259

Thomas Peel Dunhill: pioneer thyroid surgeon.  

PubMed

Thomas Peel Dunhill, a name by now almost completely forgotten in his native Australia, was born in 1876 near Kerang in the State of Victoria. Although he qualified as a pharmacist in 1898, Dunhill had already decided to study medicine and graduated in 1903 from the Clinical School of the Melbourne Hospital. He was regarded as an outstanding student. In 1905 Dunhill was invited to join the Senior Medical Staff at St Vincent's Hospital by Mother Berchmans Daly, the then Mother Rectress. In 1906 Dunhill was awarded the MD and in 1907 he performed his first thyroid lobectomy under local anaesthesia for toxic goitre. As early as 1908, Dunhill understood the essentials for successful surgery in thyrotoxicosis--enough thyroid had to be removed to cure the condition. To this end, he advocated a bilateral attack on the thyroid and advocated thyroidectomy in the thyrocardiac patient. He did this before Theodor Kocher, Charles Mayo, William Halsted or George Crile. In 1911 Dunhill visited the USA and England and communicated his results to the thyroid surgeons in both countries (230 cases of exophthalmic goitre operated on with four deaths). The English could not, or would not, believe his results as the mortality of surgery for exophthalmic goitre at St Thomas's Hospital, London in 1910 was 33%. Dunhill served with distinction in the Great War and his abilities favourably impressed George Gask, who was to become the Professor of Surgery at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Gask eventually invited Dunhill to join his Unit and Dunhill left St Vincent's Hospital in 1920. Between 1920 and Dunhill's retirement at the age of 60 in 1935, he became the outstanding general surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital. Dunhill and Cecil Joll, were regarded as the leading thyroid surgeons in the UK. Knighted in 1933, Dunhill was appointed surgeon to the Royal Household, serving four British monarchs. In addition to his brilliant surgical career, Dunhill maintained a love for the land. He was an expert fly fisherman. Dunhill retired from surgical practice in 1949 and died at the age of 80 in 1957 at his London home. Many eulogies were delivered, especially by Sir James Paterson Ross and Sir Geoffrey Keynes, his former pupils. Dunhill's exploits as a thyroid surgeon in the development of a safe and effective treatment for thyrotoxicosis and in operating on the thyrocardiac enables this modest, courteous and loyal Australian to be included with Theodor Kocher, Charles Mayo, William Halsted and George Crile in the pantheon of pioneer thyroid surgeons. PMID:10353556

Vellar, I D

1999-05-01

260

Biogas production from blends of cassava (Manihot utilissima) peels with some animal wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava peels (CP) obtained after peeling cassava roots were anaerobically digested using 50L capacity fermentor and in blends with some animal wastes. The peels were blended with cow dung (CD), poultry droppings (PD) and swine dung (SD), in the ratio of 1:1. The mean flammable biogas yield of the cassava peels alone was 2.29 ± 0.97L \\/total mass of slurry.

A. U. Ofoefule; E. O. Uzodinma

261

The study on failure mechanisms of bond pad metal peeling: Part A--Experimental investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the experimental investigation on failure mechanisms of bond pad metal peeling, 31 failed SDRAM chips after the pad peeling are gathered, and SEM and FIB are utilized. From the results of this study, the vertical tension loading transferred by the capillary to the deformed ball is recognized as the direct driving force for the pad peeling and the crack

Insu Jeon; Qwanho Chung

2003-01-01

262

Isolation and characterization of functional components from peel samples of six potatoes varieties growing in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato processing industry generates high amounts of peel as a byproduct. It is a good source of several beneficial functional ingredients including antioxidant polyphenols. A study was undertaken to estimate the polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties of peel samples from potatoes grown in Ontario, Canada. Peel samples from Vivaldi, Yukon Gold, Dakota Pearl, FL 1533, Siècle and Purple Majesty varieties

Amir Al-Weshahy; A. Venket Rao

2009-01-01

263

Buckling instability during the 180°peeling of brass shim from polychloroprene rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 180°-peel adhesion of brass shim firmly bonded to a steel plate with a rubber interlayer has been studied as a function of rubber thickness, t, and test temperature. At low temperatures, peeling occurs via 'normal' interfacial detachment and the peel force increases to a plateau with rubber thickness. At higher temperatures and with larger values of t, compressive forces

G. R. Hamed; T. Tsaur

1988-01-01

264

Isolation and identification of an allelopathic substance from peel of Citrus junos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of Citrus junos peel on plant growth using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a bioassay material was investigated, since the powder of the peel had been found to inhibit growth of weeds. Basic, neutral and acidic fractions were separated from the aqueous fraction obtained from the methanol extract of C. junos peel. All fractions inhibited the growth

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi; Yukitoshi Tanaka; Toshihumi Murakami; Shosuke Yamamura; Shinsuke Fujihara

2002-01-01

265

Comparison of three drying processes to obtain an apple peel food ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple peel, a waste product from dried apple manufacture, has a high content of bioactive phenolic compounds. In Chile ca. 9000 ton of apple peel are generated each year. To obtain a novel food ingredient, we compared three drying processes on Granny Smith apple peel: oven (60°C), drum dryer (110°C), and freeze drying. The influence of each drying technology on

M. Henríquez; S. Almonacid; M. Lutz; R. Simpson; M. Valdenegro

2012-01-01

266

Peel strength of uncrosslinked styrene-butadiene rubber adhered to polyester film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testpieces consisting of a fabric-backed styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR 1502) layer bonded directly to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film were T-peel tested at various rates, R , and temperatures. Peel energies were superposed toformmastercurves using shift factors, a T , in accord with the universal WLF equation. When peeled at intermediate reduced rates, Ra T , failure was cohesive within the SBR

G. R. Hamed; W. Preechatiwong

2003-01-01

267

Auger electron spectroscopy studies on bondpad peeling failure in wafer fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a case of bondpad peeling was investigated. EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis) and AES (Auger electron spectroscopy) techniques were used to identify the possible root cause. Based on EDX and AES results, it is concluded that the bondpad peeling problem was due to significant carbon contamination on the peeled area of the bondpad, which might contribute to the

Y. N. Hua; Shailesh Redkar; L. H. An; G. B. Ang

2000-01-01

268

Mandarin peelings: The best carbon source to produce laccase by static cultures of Trametes pubescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated the effect of different carbon sources (glucose, glycerol and ground mandarin peelings) on laccase production by Trametes pubescens grown on stainless steel sponges under static conditions. The cultures with ground mandarin peelings gave the highest laccase activities, showing values of about 100Ul?1. This is a very interesting result, since mandarin peelings are common agricultural

Johann F. Osma; Verónica Saravia; José L. Toca Herrera; Susana Rodríguez Couto

2007-01-01

269

Experimental and analytical studies on peeling and spalling resistance of unidirectional FRP sheets bonded to concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the peeling and spalling resistance of unidirectional fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets externally bonded to concrete surface are investigated experimentally through a series of peeling tests. A peeling load is applied on the FRP sheet by a circular rod placed into the central notch of the beam. The effects of different FRP composites, adhesives, surface treatments and

Zhishen Wu; Hong Yuan; Yoshiyuk Kojima; Ehsan Ahmed

2005-01-01

270

Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on ripening and cell-wall matrix polysaccharides of avocado ( Persea americana) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Indian-type avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv. ‘Simmonds’) fruit were treated with two different concentrations (0.09 and 0.45 ?ll?1) of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for three exposure times (6, 12, and 24 h) at 20°C. The fruit were then stored at 20°C in ethylene-free air for ripening assessment. Firmness, weight loss, respiration and C2H4 production, peel color, cell-wall enzymes (polygalacturonase (PG), pectinmethylesterase,

Jiwon Jeong; Donald J. Huber; Steven A. Sargent

2002-01-01

271

Reflectance spectral features and non-destructive estimation of chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content in apple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit reflectance spectra of five apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars (Zhigulevskoe, Antonovka, Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Renet Simirenko) with a wide range of peel pigment (chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids and anthocyanins) content have been studied to develop non-destructive techniques for pigment assessment. In addition to chlorophylls, positions of in vivo absorption maxima were established for carotenoids (480, 455

Mark N. Merzlyak; Alexei E. Solovchenko; Anatoly A. Gitelson

2003-01-01

272

Tolerability and Efficacy of Retinoic Acid Given after Full-face Peel Treatment of Photodamaged Skin  

PubMed Central

Objective: All-trans retinoic acid is a well-established topical treatment of photodamaged skin. This study assessed the tolerance and efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid after full-face treatment with a chemical peel. Design: This was a split-face, randomized study. One side of each face was treated with peel and the other side with peel and all-trans retinoic acid (3%). Four treatments were given during the 10-week study period. Setting: Physician office. Participants: Fifteen female subjects 39 to 55 years of age. Measurements: Results were evaluated at Baseline; Weeks 4, 7, and 10; and at a 13-week follow-up visit by dermal grading of visual symptoms of irritation, subjective experiences of irritation, clinical grading of skin condition, and self-assessment questionnaires. Results: Both peel and peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatments achieved significant improvement in fine lines, radiance, roughness, skin tone clarity, skin tone evenness, and hyperpigmentation appearance. Improvement in wrinkles and firmness was not observed in the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid arm, while pore appearance failed to improve in either treatment arm. Improvement in overall facial appearance was greater in the peel alone arm. Peel alone and the addition of all-trans retinoic acid did not cause dryness, edema, or peeling, and the frequency of peel-induced erythema did not increase with the addition of all-trans retinoic acid. Subject-perceived improvements with the peel treatment did not differ significantly from subject-perceived improvements of the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatment. Adverse events requiring intervention or discontinuing treatment were not observed in either treatment arm. Conclusion: The addition of all-trans retinoic acid after peel treatment does not significantly enhance peel-induced improvement in photoaging parameters, peel-induced adverse effects, and subject-perceived improvements.

Hu, Judy Y.; Biron, Julie A.; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Oresajo, Christian

2011-01-01

273

Peeling of convection cells and the generation of sheared flow  

SciTech Connect

A periodic array of convection cells is subject to a shear flow'' instability. The generation of the sheared flow is a consequence of peeling'' of the convection cells. Fluid simulations demonstrate that the efficiency of shear flow generation is high. Implications for understanding poloidal rotation in tokamaks are discussed.

Drake, J.F.; Finn, J.M.; Guzdar, P.; Shapiro, V.; Shevchenko, V.; Waelbroeck, F.; Hassam, A.B.; Liu, C.S.; Sagdeev, R. (Laboratory for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States))

1992-03-01

274

Quantitative determination of the polyphenolic content of pomegranate peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative determination of total phenols, ellagic tannins and gallic and ellagic acids in the peel of the Tunisian pomegranate variety Chelfi, has been carried out. The ellagic tannin content is prominently less than the amount of total phenols, which led us to look for the presence of the condensed tannins. The determination of the content of catechic tannins in

C. Ben Nasr; N. Ayed; M. Metche

1996-01-01

275

[Facial rejuvenation with chemical peeling using phenol (Exoderm)].  

PubMed

The authors report their personal experience in the treatment of the resurfacing by means of phenol chemical peeling using a new solution described by Dr. Yoram Fintsi and called Exoderm. They report dressing technique and possible contraindications as well. PMID:10732384

Vergine, M; Veneroso, S; Martino, G; Badiali, V; Braccioni, A; Monti, M

276

Optical analysis of orange peel on metallic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution, the orange peel on highly polished metallic surfaces was analysed by means of a 3D interferometric microscope and also using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Firstly, the surface topography of polished metallic samples, in view to detect orange peel, was determined using a phase-shifting interferometer. This metrological 3D analysis showed that the orange peel can be seen as a periodic waviness on the surface. Then the optical properties of the investigated samples were studied via spectroscopic ellipsometry at various incident angles. These ellipsometric measurements proved that the samples have peculiar optical properties. In particular, it was found that the resulting pseudo-dielectric function in the entire range from 1.5 eV to 2.5 eV - as obtained based on the measured ellipsometric parameters - does depend on the surface topography of the samples. Based in this experimental finding, it is then immediately shown that spectroscopic ellipsometry can be applied to qualitatively describe the orange peel on highly polished metallic surfaces.

Miranda-Medina, M. L.; Wagner, T.; Böhm, J. A.; Vernes, A.; Hingerl, K.

2012-05-01

277

Present day status of the chemical face peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenol chemical face peel restores a clean, youthful appearance by removing the fine wrinkles of the tired, aged face. This procedure has the additional advantage of decreasing the rate of appearance of precancerous and probably early cancerous lesions of the photoaged skin of the face. Knowledge of the history, theory, histology, and technique are made current. A comprehensive review

Clyde Litton; Edward H. Szachowicz II; Griselda P. Trinidad

1986-01-01

278

Persimmon peel gel for the selective recovery of gold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of persimmon peel gel for the recovery of Au(III) from aqueous chloride medium was investigated. By comparing with the adsorption of some other metal ions, the gel was found to be selective only for Au(III). The XRD analysis and the digital micrograph of the gel taken after adsorption supported the formation of gold particles during adsorption process. High

Durga Parajuli; Hidetaka Kawakita; Katsutoshi Inoue; Keisuke Ohto; Kumiko Kajiyama

2007-01-01

279

Characterization of Constituents in the Peel of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachibankan).  

PubMed

Fifteen constituents, including a new compound, were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the peel of Citrus kawachiensis Hort. ex. Y. Tanaka (Japanese brand name, kawachibankan) which is one of the citrus products specific to Ehime, Japan. The new compound was characterized as 4'-dihydrophaseic acid ?-glucopyranose ester (15) on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:24018684

Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Ouchi, Kazusa; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko; Yoshida, Takashi

2013-09-07

280

Cellulose extraction from orange peel using sulfite digestion reagents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orange peel (OP) was used as raw material for cellulose extraction. Two different pulping reagents were used, sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite. The effect of the main process parameters, sulfite agent dosage and reaction duration, on cellulose yield was investigated. A central composite rotatable design involving two variables at five levels and response surface methodology were used for the optimization

Ioan Bicu; Fanica Mustata

2011-01-01

281

STRATEGIC APPROACH TOWARD INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CITRUS PEEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is well known that washed citrus peel is composed mainly of polysaccharides. Maximum utilization of this material resides on finding new products derived from the cellulosics or pectins found in this source. Strategies on this conversion will be discussed. For ease of chemical and enzymatic mo...

282

DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOROPERATED PEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOR-OPERATED PEEL BAR PUSHER WITH PINCH ROLLS FOR MOVING BILLETS ENDWISE OUT THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE FURNACE TOWARD THE CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

283

CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1 are differentially induced during leaf and fruit abscission and diurnally regulated in Citrus sinensis  

PubMed Central

Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Valencia’. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLD?1 expression was reduced in leaves but unaltered in fruit peel tissue treated with an ethylene-releasing compound (ethephon), or a fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP). By contrast, CsPLD?1 expression was up-regulated within 6 h (leaves) and 24 h (fruit peel) after treatment with ethephon or CMNP, respectively. CsPLD?1 expression was diurnally regulated in leaf blade but not fruit peel. CsPLD?1 exhibited strong diurnal oscillation in expression in leaves and fruit peel with peak expression around midday. While diurnal fluctuation in CsPLD?1 expression appeared to be light-entrained in leaves, CsPLD?1 expression was regulated by light and the circadian clock. The diurnal expression of both genes was modulated by ethylene-signalling. The ethephon-induced leaf abscission and the ethephon- and CMNP-induced decrease in fruit detachment force were enhanced by application during rising diurnal expression of CsPLD?1. The results indicate differential regulation of CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1 in leaves and fruit, and suggest possible roles for PLD-dependent signalling in regulating abscission responses in citrus.

Malladi, Anish; Burns, Jacqueline K.

2008-01-01

284

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana Àlvarez-Fernàndez; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía

285

The inhibition of gastric mucosal injury by Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) methanolic extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of 70% methanolic extract of Punicagranatum fruit rind (250mg\\/kg and 500mg\\/kg) shows a percentage of inhibition in 22.37, 74.21 and 21.95, 63.41 in aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulceration, respectively. In treated groups of animals, the in vivo antioxidant levels such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were increased and found more or less

K. B. Ajaikumar; M. Asheef; B. H. Babu; J. Padikkala

2005-01-01

286

Effects of low UV-B doses on the accumulation of UV-B absorbing compounds and total phenolics and carbohydrate metabolism in the peel of harvested lemons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examined the peel (albedo and flavedo) of postharvest lemon fruits after UV-B exposure in order to analyze relationships between soluble carbohydrate metabolism and secondary metabolite accumulation. Lemons (Citrus limon, cv. Limoneira 8A) were harvested in winter months (June to August), treated with 0.43Wm?2 (22kJm?2d?1 UV-BBE) of UV-B radiation during 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0min, and

Roque Interdonato; Mariana Rosa; Cecilia B. Nieva; Juan A. González; Mirna Hilal; Fernando E. Prado

2011-01-01

287

Decreased retinal sensitivity after internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery  

PubMed Central

Aims To compare the retinal sensitivity and frequency of microscotomas found by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) combined with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) microperimetry after idiopathic macular hole closure, in eyes that underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes that did not. Methods This was a retrospective, non-randomised, comparative study. Combined SD-OCT and SLO microperimetry was performed in 16 consecutive eyes after closure of an idiopathic macular hole. A customised microperimetry pattern with 29 measurement points was used. The ILM was peeled in 8/16 eyes. The main outcome measure was mean retinal sensitivity. Results Mean retinal sensitivity (in dB) was lower after peeling: 9.80±2.35?dB with peeling versus 13.19±2.92 without (p=0.0209). Postoperative microscotomas were significantly more frequent after ILM peeling: 11.3±6.6 points with retinal sensitivity below 10?dB in eyes that underwent peeling versus 2.9±4.6 in those that did not (p=0.0093). Conclusions These results suggest that ILM peeling may reduce retinal sensitivity, and significantly increase the incidence of microscotomas. Until a prospective trial confirming or not these results, it seems justified to avoid peeling the ILM when its potential benefit seems minor or unproved, and when peeling is carried out, to limit the surface peeled to the bare minimum.

Tadayoni, Ramin; Svorenova, Ivana; Erginay, Ali; Gaudric, Alain; Massin, Pascale

2012-01-01

288

Assimilation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues  

SciTech Connect

Assimilation and metabolism of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was compared to that of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the /sup 14/C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO/sub 2/ assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose.

Tomlinson, P.T.; Koch, K.E.

1987-04-01

289

Laserpeel: a peeling concept revolution with laser resurfacing protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author who is inventor of EasyPeel then Laserpeel wants to introduce new ways to choose the right indications for patients asking for cosmetic surgery. A lifting is as if you take a shirt and want to reduce its size cutting it. A resurfacing is as if you put a shirt and want to iron it. A peeling was as if you changed the color and grain of the shirt. Laserpeel is as if you iron the shirt treated with amidon, transform the second hand shirt as new, up to date on with glance effect sand give it then a stretching disco new wave effect. So, indications of facial lifting decrease at the same speed at the increase of indications of 'LASERPEEL'. Laser CO2 resurfacing should reborn because the post redness appearance decreases in intensity and duration due to LASERPEEL. LASERPEEL should be considered too as a preventive therapy coupled with preventive treatment resulting from longevity tests.

Tenenbaum, Alain

2000-06-01

290

Antioxidant activity of nasunin, an anthocyanin in eggplant peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical scavenging activities and inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation of a delphinidin derivative in eggplant were investigated. Delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroylrutinoside)-5-glucoside (nasunin), an anthocyanin, was isolated as purple colored crystals from eggplant peels. Using electron spin resonance spectrometry and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), hydroxyl radicals (OH) or superoxide anion radicals (O2?) generated by the Fenton reaction or the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system were measured

Yasuko Noda; Takao Kneyuki; Kiharu Igarashi; Akitane Mori; Lester Packer

2000-01-01

291

Study of the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of new sherry vinegar-derived products by maceration with fruits.  

PubMed

Several experiments of maceration of a sherry wine vinegar with different fruits (orange, lemon, strawberry, grapefruit, and lime) have been carried out. After optimization (only peel, no heating and seven days as maximum time of maceration), parameters such as polyphenolic content, superoxide anion scavenging ability (related to antioxidant activity) and ascorbic acid content were determined in sherry wine vinegars macerated with two amounts of peel and for two maceration times (3 and 7 days). The analysis of variance pointed to a clear relationship (p<0.01) between type of fruit and amount of peel and polyphenolic content. The factor "time" was practically not significant for any polyphenol. Sherry wine vinegars macerated with different fruits exhibited higher superoxide anion scavenger ability, with the maximum values found for the vinegar macerated with lemon peel. The correlation analysis showed that the superoxide anion scavenger ability of the vinegars macerated, and thus their antioxidant activity, was highly correlated (p<0.01) with several polyphenols, especially with naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin and gentisic acid and not with the ascorbic acid content. PMID:21080728

Cejudo Bastante, María Jesús; Durán Guerrero, Enrique; Castro Mejías, Remedios; Natera Marín, Ramón; Rodríguez Dodero, M Carmen; Barroso, Carmelo García

2010-10-29

292

Lipolytic effects of citrus peel oils and their components.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the lipolytic effects of eight kinds of citrus peel oils and their components. All of the citrus peel oils revealed lipolytic effects on olive oil model solution ranging from 10.9 to 73.8%. Hakyul (Citrus natsudaidai Hayata) showed the highest lipolytic effect (73.8%), followed by yuza (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka, 68.1%) and lemon (Citrus limonium, 63.4%), and their effects were comparable with or stronger than that of 5 mM raspberry ketone (p < 0.05). Among 17 authentic compounds relating to citrus peel oils, octanal (78.6%) showed the highest lipolytic effect, followed by gamma-terpinene (76.3%), limonene (75%), terpinen-4-ol (70.7%), nerol (69.9%), p-cymene (67.7%), and geranyl acetate (67.2%), and their effects were stronger than that of 5 mM raspberry ketone (p < 0.05). Ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene, myrcene, citronellal, linallyl acetate, and citronellol exhibited poor lipolytic effect in the model solution. Lipolytic effect was found to be high when the oils included a higher content of gamma-terpinene and p-cymene. Limonene showed potential lipolytic effect, and its effect is likely to be enhanced by the presence of gamma-terpinene and p-cymene. It is considered that monoterpene hydrocarbons consisting of one or two double bonds would have stronger lipolytic effect than those having three double bonds. PMID:16637681

Choi, Hyang-Sook

2006-05-01

293

Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

2013-08-31

294

Influence of chemical peeling on the skin stress response system.  

PubMed

Skin stress response system (SSRS) involves corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and b-endorphin that are locally generated in response to locally provided stressors or proinflammatory cytokines. This system would restrict tissue damage and restore local homoeostasis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is one of the most widely used peeling agents and applied for cosmetic treatment of photodamaged skin. However, the biological mechanism responsible for TCA peeling has yet to be fully determined. While our investigation focused on the inflammation and wound healing pathways, in the recent study, we have examined involvement of the SSRS as the third pathway. Mostly depending on our findings that TCA peeling activates the SSRS by inducing the POMC expression of keratinocytes in the CRH-independent manner, together with the results reported by other researchers, we can say that the biological effect of POMC seems to be responsible for the TCA-induced epidermal SSRS activation. PMID:22626464

Kimura, Ayako; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Li, Hong-Jin; Yonei, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

2012-07-01

295

Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.  

PubMed

The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate. PMID:16968082

Mattila, Pirjo; Hellström, Jarkko; Törrönen, Riitta

2006-09-20

296

Quantitative and qualitative effects of chemical peeling on photo-aged skin: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Chemical peel reverses the visible stigmata of photo aging in human skin. The qualitative and, in particular, the quantitative changes in the dermis that effect this transformation are unclear. This study used a recognized photo-aged animal model, the Skh:HR-1 hairless mouse, to quantify and qualify the changes that occurred in collagen and glycosaminoglycan content after chemical peel. One hundred Skh:HR-1 hairless mice were photo-aged by use of chronic ultraviolet B irradiation for 14 weeks. After irradiation the animals were randomly distributed into five groups of 20 mice each: group 1, control; group 2, 50% glycolic acid peel; group 3, 30% trichloroacetic acid peel; group 4, 50% trichloroacetic acid peel; group 5, phenol peel (Baker-Gordon formula). The respective peeling agent was applied to the dorsal skin of each animal while it was fully anesthetized. Punch biopsies were taken at several times after peel for histological and biochemical analysis. Glycosaminoglycan content was assessed at 14, 28, and 60 days using a colorimetric assay. Collagen content per unit volume increased initially 3 days after the procedure in all chemical peel groups, declining on day 7, and peaking again on day 28. Significant elevations (p < 0.04) were seen in the 30% trichloroacetic acid, 50% trichloroacetic acid, and phenol peels on days 3 and 28 in comparison with controls. This increase in collagen content was not maintained and returned to control values by 60 days. Glycosaminoglycan content per unit volume was elevated initially after peel with significant elevation (p < 0.02) in the 50% trichloroacetic acid and phenol groups on days 14 and 28. This increase in glycosaminoglycan content was not maintained beyond 28 days and declined to control values by day 60 in all groups. Histological examination demonstrated an increase in dermal thickness in the 50% trichloroacetic acid and phenol groups in comparison with controls by day 60. Under polarized light all chemical peel groups at day 60 demonstrated a reorganization of collagen in the reticular and papillary dermis. The elastotic masses that are pathognomonic of photo aging were present in the control group but were absent in the peel groups and demonstrated a reorganization of the elastic fibers in the dermis. This effect was deeper in the dermis in the deeper peel groups (50% trichloroacetic acid and phenol peel). The beneficial effects of chemical peel were due to a combination of two findings; a reorganization in dermal structural elements and an increase in dermal volume. These effects were more pronounced in the deeper peel groups. PMID:11176627

Butler, P E; Gonzalez, S; Randolph, M A; Kim, J; Kollias, N; Yaremchuk, M J

2001-01-01

297

Rapid and comprehensive evaluation of (poly)phenolic compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice by UHPLC-MSn.  

PubMed

The comprehensive identification of phenolic compounds in food and beverages is a crucial starting point for assessing their biological, nutritional, and technological properties. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been described as a rich source of (poly)phenolic components, with a broad array of different structures (phenolic acids, flavonoids, and hydrolyzable tannins) and a quick, high throughput, and accurate screening of its complete profile is still lacking. In the present work, a method for UHPLC separation and linear ion trap mass spectrometric (MSn) characterization of pomegranate juice phenolic fraction was optimized by comparing several different analytical conditions. The best solutions for phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and ellagitannins have been delineated and more than 70 compounds have been identified and fully characterized in less than one hour total analysis time. Twenty-one compounds were tentatively detected for the first time in pomegranate juice. The proposed fingerprinting approach could be easily translated to other plant derived food extracts and beverages containing a wide array of phytochemical compounds. PMID:23519255

Mena, Pedro; Calani, Luca; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Galaverna, Gianni; García-Viguera, Cristina; Bruni, Renato; Crozier, Alan; Del Rio, Daniele

2012-12-13

298

Chemical characterization of the mucilage from fruits of Opuntia ficus indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of peeled fruits of Opuntia ficus indica afforded with 3.8% yield a mucilage, which contained 23.4% of galacturonic acid. Total hydrolysis of a mucilage and gas–liquid chromatographic analysis of the derived alditol acetates indicated the presence of arabinose, rhamnose, xylose and galactose in the molar ratio 1.0:1.7:2.5:4.1. Gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B showed the polysaccharide to be composed

Betty Matsuhiro; Luis E. Lillo; Carmen Sáenz; Carlos C. Urzúa; Oriette Zárate

2006-01-01

299

The Role of Preformed Antifungal Substances in the Resistance of Fruits to Postharvest Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plants contain secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. In fruits they are mostly concentrated in the peel at immature\\u000a stage and decline during ripening in coincidence with fungal rot development. The information on antifungal systems in immature\\u000a avocado and mango, reviewed here, suggests that they play a role in natural disease resistance. Immature mangoes have evolved\\u000a a formidable antifungal system comprising

Nimal Adikaram; Chathurika Karunanayake; Charmalie Abayasekara

300

Antioxidant activity of microwave-assisted extract of longan ( Dimocarpus Longan Lour.) peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longan (Dimocarpus Longan Lour.) peel was extracted with 95% ethanol employing microwave-assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction method, the total phenolic content of microwave-assisted extract of Langan peel (MEL) and Soxhlet extract of Langan peel (SEL) reached 96.78mg\\/g and 90.35mg\\/g dry weight, respectively, expressed as pyrocatechol equivalents, which were quantified using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Subsequently, antioxidant properties of two extracts were

Yingming Pan; Kai Wang; Siqin Huang; Hengshan Wang; Xiaomei Mu; Chunhuan He; Xiaowen Ji; Jie Zhang; Fujuan Huang

2008-01-01

301

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of d-limonene concentration, enzyme loading, and pH on ethanol production from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 37°C. Prior to SSF, citrus peel waste underwent a steam explosion process to remove more than 90% of the initial d-limonene present in the peel waste. d-Limonene is known to inhibit yeast

Mark R. Wilkins; Wilbur W. Widmer; Karel Grohmann

2007-01-01

302

Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Construction PeelAway Great Smoky Mountains National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Construction Peel-Away - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

303

Optics for produce quality evaluation: laser diffusion for orange peel thickness measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new sensing technique was investigated to nondestructively measure the peel thickness of oranges destined for fresh market consumption. Coherent polarized laser emissions diffused by the subcuticular layers of the peel were filtered and imaged into a matrix CCD camera. Images were analyzed using conventional high-speed pixel operations. Resulting correlations suggest that this method may be a successful tool in real-time food processing operations providing the packer and the consumer with an objective evaluation of peel thickness, and subsequently, edible volume, juice content, and the ease with which the peel can be removed.

Affeldt, Henry A.; Heck, Richard D.

1993-05-01

304

Characterization of polyphenolic compounds in unripe chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia) fruit by HPLC/PDA/ESI/MS-MS.  

PubMed

The flavonoid and furocoumarin composition was investigated of peel and pulp tissues of unripe fruits of Citrus myrtifolia Rafinesque, an ingredient of the popular soft drink "chinotto". Compound separation and identification was made using an HPLC-PDA detector coupled to ESI/MS/MS in positive and negative mode. Eighteen compounds (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids, furocoumarins and polymethoxylated flavones) were identified and quantified. Data indicated that the overall amount of flavonoids and furocoumarins in peel was higher than in the pulp, even though their relative distribution did not significantly change, apart from a different distribution of flavones and a lower content of naringin in the peel. PMID:22312725

Scordino, Monica; Sabatino, Leonardo; Belligno, Adalgisa; Gagliano, Giacomo

2011-12-01

305

Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening  

PubMed Central

The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1–MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1–MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components.

Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

2012-01-01

306

Mechanism of Fruit Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The making of a fruit is a developmental process unique to plants. It requires a complex network of interacting genes and\\u000a signaling pathways. In fleshy fruit, it involves three distinct stages, namely, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening.\\u000a Of these, ripening has received most attention from geneticists and breeders, as this important process activates a whole\\u000a set of biochemical

M. Bouzayen; A. Latché; P. Nath; J. C. Pech

307

Purification and properties of polyphenoloxidase of mango peel ( Mangifera indica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenoloxidase from mango(Mangifera indica) peel was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate fractionation, chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex and gel filtration of\\u000a Sephadex G-200. The enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 136,000. Its pH and temperature optimum were 5.4 and 50‡C,\\u000a respectively. The enzyme possessed catecholase activity and was specific too-dihydroxy phenols. The enzyme also exhibited peroxidase activity. Some non-oxidizable phenolic

T. N. Prabha; M. V. Patwardhan

1982-01-01

308

Nonparametric Multivariate Analysis of SDSS Quasars by Convex Hull Peeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Without prior knowledge, traditional parametric statistics tends to break down, especially when data are massive and multidimensional. To overcome such difficulties, we introduce convex hull peeling algorithms as nonparametric exploratory data analysis tools, which provide descriptive measures of massive multivariate data. In this presentation, we apply these statistical tools to describe the multi-color distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey data (http://www.sdss.org/dr4). This work is supported in part by the NSF Grant AST-0434234 (P.I.: G.J. Babu).

Lee, H.

2007-11-01

309

Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO(3). Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4h at room temperature (25°C) and 60°C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35±5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation. PMID:22336049

Kumar, Rajendran; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Chakroborty, Subhendu

2012-01-28

310

Iatrogenic choroidal neovascularization following idiopathic epiretinal membrane peel  

PubMed Central

Summary Choroidal neovascularization is an uncommon complication of macular surgery. The functional outcome is poor despite various treatment options, including laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, and a variety of surgical procedures. We report a case of iatrogenic choroidal neovascularization in a 69-year-old woman at the site of inadvertent retinal trauma 5 weeks after an epiretinal membrane peel. Visual acuity was 6/15 at the time of diagnosis. Four intravitreal bevacizumab injections were administered over a period of 6 months; treatment was discontinued when a disciform scar was noted. At last follow-up, 21 months after surgery, the patient’s visual acuity was counting fingers.

Goh, Yi Wei; Ehrlich,, Rita; Welch, Sarah

2013-01-01

311

The flavonol glycosides in the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien.  

PubMed

1. Two new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien. These were identified as isorhamnetin 3-rhamnogalactoside and a derivative of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside which was associated (possibly acylated) with an unknown aliphatic organic acid. 2. The melting point of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside isolated from Bon Chrétien pears is different from that of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside previously isolated from Argemone mexicana and Calendula officinalis. 3. Isorhamnetin 3-rhamnoglucoside was isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien. This glycoside appears to be identical with narcissin, previously isolated from Narcissus tazetta and Lilium auratum. 4. Isoquercitrin, previously reported to be present in pear leaves, was isolated from the fruit of Bon Chrétien pears. 5. The isolated glycosides were present in the peels and flesh of the fruit, but were absent from the cores. PMID:16749105

Nortjé, B K

1965-10-01

312

Antispasmodic Effects of Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Punica granatum Flower Extracts on the Uterus of Non-pregnant Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Punica granatum Linn. (PG) is native to the Mediterranean region. Its flower exhibited antioxidant activity. The present study attempt to investigate the effect of these extract on uterine contraction and its possible mechanism(s). Methods Thirty five female Wistar rats (200–300 g) at estrous phases of cycle was examined in this study; pieces of virgin adult rat uterus (1.5 cm) were suspended in an organ bath containing 10 ml of De Jalon solution at 29 °C. Tissue contractility was isometrically recorded. KCl (60 mM), BaCl2 (4 mM) and oxytocin (10 mU/ml) were applied to the tissue in the presence and absence of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the plant (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/ml). Propranolol (1 µM) and naloxane (1 µM) were added in KCl induced contractions. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and p < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results Cumulative concentration of extracts reduced uterine contractions induced by KCl dose-dependently (p < 0.01). Extracts in a dose dependent (p < 0.05) reduced uterine contractions decreased dose-dependently after of addition oxytocin. The extracts added cumulatively to the organ bath reduced contractions but they did not affect uterine contractions induced by BaCl2 except the last dose. Spasmolytic effects of the extracts were not affected by propranolol or naloxane in KCl induced contractions. Conclusion Extracts diminished K+-induced contraction in uterus, therefore it seems that substances that decrease K+-induced contraction can also block voltage dependent calcium channel. The extracts did not have any effect on ?-adrenoceptors or potassium channels.

Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Razieh; Abdolahzadeh, Mahsa; Oroojan, Ali Akbar

2012-01-01

313

Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.  

PubMed

The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed. PMID:23519009

Szakiel, Anna; P?czkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

2012-06-26

314

Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.  

PubMed

Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645

Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

2012-03-09

315

Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit  

PubMed Central

Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves (‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’) and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY ‘Hamlin’, HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY ‘Valencia’, the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY ‘Valencia’ JV than in SY ‘Hamlin’ JV. More genes were also affected in AS ‘Valencia’ FF and VT than in AS ‘Valencia’ JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation.

Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

2012-01-01

316

Ultra-HPLC-MS(n) (Poly)phenolic profiling and chemometric analysis of juices from ancient Punica granatum L. Cultivars: a nontargeted approach.  

PubMed

This study deals with the qualitative characterization of the phenolic profile of pomegranate juices obtained from ancient accessions. Composition data, together with genetic, morphological, and agronomical parameters, may lead to a full characterization of such germplasm, with the aim of its retrieval and biodiversity valorization. Environmental adaptation, indeed, may contribute to an enrichment of the phenolic content in pomegranate, with important effects on its nutritional properties. More than 65 punicalagins, ellagic acid derivatives, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenylpropanoids were simultaneously detected from four centuries old Punica granatum L. ecotypes from northern Italy and compared with those of P. granatum cv. Dente di Cavallo, a widely cultivated Italian cultivar, using a simple ultra-HPLC (uHPLC) separation and MS(n) linear ion trap mass spectrometric characterization. Fingerprinting phytochemical discrimination of the accessions was obtained by chemometric analysis despite their limited geographical distribution, confirming the great intraspecific variability in pomegranate secondary metabolism. The combined recourse to uHPLC-MS(n) qualitative fingerprinting and multivariate analysis may represent a useful tool for the discrimination and selection of pomegranate germplasm with specific properties related to polyphenolic content. PMID:23668895

Calani, Luca; Beghè, Deborah; Mena, Pedro; Del Rio, Daniele; Bruni, Renato; Fabbri, Andrea; Dall'asta, Chiara; Galaverna, Gianni

2013-05-30

317

Mark's Fruit Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

Rieger, Mark

318

Optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to determine the effects of ethanol concentration (%), extraction temperature (oC), and extraction time (min) on total phenolic content (TPC) from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels. The

Wan Aida; Jalan Menara Gading

319

EFFECT OF SEASONAL VARIATION ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF VALENCIA ORANGE PEEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 10 million tons of oranges are processed in Florida each year, producing approximately 5 million tons of waste consisting of peel, seeds and segment membranes. Most of this peel is currently dried and pelletized to produce citrus pulp pellets, a low value cattle feed. Several researc...

320

THE ROLE OF CITRUS PEEL COMPOUNDS IN HOST RECOGNITION BY PENICILLIUM DIGITATUM AND P. ITALICUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Components of citrus peel stimulate the growth of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, suggesting that components in the host play a role in recognition by the pathogen. To determine which components of the peel are responsible for this stimulation, flavedo of Citrus medica and C. paradisi was ext...

321

Effects of yam peel extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The phenolic acid and flavonoid profiles in yam peel extract were determined by HPLC. Quercetin, hesperidin, and apigenin were predominant components in yam peel extract. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with yam peel extract (100.02, 266.72, and 433.42 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) daily, with administration of CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 20% CCl4 in olive oil) twice a week. Yam peel extract for 8 weeks significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The overall potential of the antioxidant system was significantly enhanced by the yam peel extract supplements as the plasma and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were lowered, whereas the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) protein level were elevated. Yam peel extract decreased the level of nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in CCl4. These results point out that yam peel extract can inhibit lipid peroxidation, enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and decrease the TNF-?/NF-?B level, nitric oxide production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions. Therefore, it was speculated that yam peel extract protects rats from liver damage through its anti-inflammation capacity. PMID:23841820

Yeh, Yen-Hung; Hsieh, You-Liang; Lee, Ya-Ting

2013-07-23

322

Production of pectinases by Aspergillus sp using differently pretreated lemon peel as the carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aspergillus sp strains from decaying lemons were tested for extracellular pectinase production, testing differently pretreated lemon peel as the carbon source instead of pectin. It was found that the production of extracellular polygalacturonase was about the same and that of pectinesterase substantially higher when unwashed fresh lemon peel was used instead of pectin. The culture filtrate obtained showed a

María C. Maldonado; Antonio Navarro; Danley A. S. Callieri

1986-01-01

323

Piezoelectric film sensor for measurement of peel stresses in bonded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesively bonded composite patches employed for repairing fatigue cracks in metallic airframe structural components often fail under peel stress generated in the structure. The application of piezoelectric stress sensors embedded within the bonded joint for direct measurement of the peel stresses is reported here. Polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) film of about 28 micron thickness coated with nickel copper is employed to

Krishnakumar Shankar; Murat Tahtali; Richard Chester; Glen Torr

2001-01-01

324

Adsorption of copper from aqueous solution by activated carbons obtained by pyrolysis of cassava peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons (ACs) were prepared by pyrolysis of cassava peel in presence of chloride zinc (chemical activities). Cassava peel from Colombian cassava cultives were impregnated with aqueous solutions of ZnCl2 following a variant of the incipient wetness method. Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios of 40, 70, 110 and 160wt.%. Activation was carried out under argon flow by

J. C. Moreno-Piraján; L. Giraldo

2010-01-01

325

Removal of Anionic Dyes from Water using Citrus limonum (Lemon) Peel: Equilibrium Studies and Kinetic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of Citrus limonum (lemon) peel as an adsorbent for the removal of two anionic dyes, Methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration, and temperature by batch method. The adsorption capacities of lemon peel adsorbent for

Amit Bhatnagar; Eva Kumar; A. K. Minocha; Byong-Hun Jeon; Hocheol Song; Yong-Chan Seo

2009-01-01

326

Calcium uptake by smooth endoplasmic reticulum of peeled retinal photoreceptors of the crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The localization and basic properties of Ca2+-accumulating sites in crayfish photoreceptors were studied with a novel preparation of peeled retinula cells in suspension. Peeled photoreceptors were obtained by gentle mechanical disruption of the retina, and incubated in media based on a Ca2+-EGTA buffer with ATP and oxalate. Electron microscopy of photoreceptors so treated showed the appearance of peculiar dense

Eugenio Frixione; Lourdes Ruiz

1988-01-01

327

Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate is an important source of bioactive compounds and has been used for folk medicine for many centuries. Pomegranate juice has been demonstrated to be high in antioxidant activity and is effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. In a previous study, we found that pomegranate peel had the highest antioxidant activity among the peel, pulp and seed fractions of 28

Yunfeng Li; Changjiang Guo; Jijun Yang; Jingyu Wei; Jing Xu; Shuang Cheng

2006-01-01

328

Effects of peeling on the surface structure of the Avena coleoptile: Implications for hormone research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coleoptiles of oats (Avena sativa L.) are often peeled in order to observe hormone-enhanced acidification of the external medium. It is shown by means of the scanning electron microscope that peeling largely removes a single layer of cells, the epidermis with its cuticle. Strips of intact and damaged epidermal cells remain, but most of the newly exposed surface is composed

Bernard Rubinstein; Otto L. Stein

1980-01-01

329

New insulating particleboards prepared from mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing and corn peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

New composite boards with low-thermal conductivity produced from a mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing (solid waste TPM) and corn peel have been developed. The effects of solid waste TPM\\/corn peel ratio on the properties of the boards were investigated and the possibility of using recycled polystyrene packaging foam as a laminating agent to improve the quality of

Pranee Lertsutthiwong; Srichalai Khunthon; Krisana Siralertmukul; Khanittha Noomun; Suwalee Chandrkrachang

2008-01-01

330

A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES FOR WATER-BASED EXTRACTION OF PECTIN FROM ORANGE PEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of pectin from orange peels has been studied using microwave and conventional extraction, with operating conditions including different extraction periods, different solvent pHs, and different types of solvent systems. The extracted pectin from orange peels was initially precipitated with concentrated ethanol and was quantified by the carbazole assay. For microwave extraction, the greatest total amount of pectin yield

S. Yeoh; S. Zhang; J. Shi; T. A. G. Langrish

2008-01-01

331

Turning Catholic: Peele's The Battle of Alcazar and Captain Thomas Stukeley  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The English-born Captain Thomas Stukeley is the ostensible hero of George Peele's The Battle of Alcazar, yet the play emphasizes the ambiguity of Stukeley's identity as an English hero since he acts on behalf of Catholic interests. While the trope of 'turning' is usually associated with English fears of their countrymen 'turning Turk', Peele's construction of Stukeley's Catholic allegiances

Joanne W. Roby

2011-01-01

332

Turning Catholic: Peele's The Battle of Alcazar and Captain Thomas Stukeley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The English-born Captain Thomas Stukeley is the ostensible hero of George Peele's The Battle of Alcazar, yet the play emphasizes the ambiguity of Stukeley's identity as an English hero since he acts on behalf of Catholic interests. While the trope of 'turning' is usually associated with English fears of their countrymen 'turning Turk', Peele's construction of Stukeley's Catholic allegiances evokes

Joanne W. Roby

2011-01-01

333

Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel ( Opuntia ficus indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to

Siham Lahsasni; Mohammed Kouhila; Mostafa Mahrouz; Ali Idlimam; Abdelkrim Jamali

2004-01-01

334

A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments  

PubMed Central

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration.

Rodrigo, Maria J.; Alquezar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

2013-01-01

335

A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments.  

PubMed

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8'-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7',8' double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7',8' double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

Rodrigo, María J; Alquézar, Berta; Alós, Enriqueta; Medina, Víctor; Carmona, Lourdes; Bruno, Mark; Al-Babili, Salim; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2013-09-04

336

Punica granatum (Pomegranate) juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide  

PubMed Central

Background For ? 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ? 30 million lives, causing ? 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vaccines, topical microbicides, expected to block virus transmission, offer hope for controlling the pandemic. Antiretroviral chemotherapeutics have decreased AIDS mortality in industrialized countries, but only minimally in developing countries. To prevent an analogous dichotomy, microbicides should be: acceptable; accessible; affordable; and accelerative in transition from development to marketing. Already marketed pharmaceutical excipients or foods, with established safety records and adequate anti-HIV-1 activity, may provide this option. Methods Fruit juices were screened for inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IIIB using CD4 and CXCR4 as cell receptors. The best juice was tested for inhibition of: (1) infection by HIV-1 BaL, utilizing CCR5 as the cellular coreceptor; and (2) binding of gp120 IIIB and gp120 BaL, respectively, to CXCR4 and CCR5. To remove most colored juice components, the adsorption of the effective ingredient(s) to dispersible excipients and other foods was investigated. A selected complex was assayed for inhibition of infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Results HIV-1 entry inhibitors from pomegranate juice adsorb onto corn starch. The resulting complex blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5 and inhibits infection by primary virus clades A to G and group O. Conclusion These results suggest the possibility of producing an anti-HIV-1 microbicide from inexpensive, widely available sources, whose safety has been established throughout centuries, provided that its quality is adequately standardized and monitored.

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao; Debnath, Asim K

2004-01-01

337

Pomegranate peel attenuates aluminum-induced hepatorenal toxicity.  

PubMed

Abstract The present study was undertaken to determine the potential role of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel (MEPP) in modulating aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced hepatorenal toxicity in female rats. The effect of MEPP (200?mg/kg?bwt) on AlCl3 (34?mg/kg?bwt) induced hepatorenal toxicity, accumulation of aluminum (Al), hepatorenal functions and oxidant/antioxidant status of liver and kidney were determined. The changes of liver and kidney structures were investigated with hematoxyline and eosin, in addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of MEPP was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The present study showed an indication of carcinogenicity in the AlCl3 treated group represented by an increase in tumor necrosis factor-? and angiogenin and inflammation by inducing an increase in prostaglandin E2 and F2?. MEPP protected liver and kidney through reduce the Al accumulation, stimulated antioxidant activities and elevated the anti-apoptotic protein namely Bcl-2. Therefore, these results indicated that the methanolic extract of pomegranate peel has beneficial influences and could be able to inhibit Al-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alternations in liver and kidney of female rats, and these effects may be related to anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activities. PMID:23837566

Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Othman, Mohamed S; Mohmoud, Sahar M; El-Deib, Kamal M

2013-10-08

338

[Comparative study of chemical composition of pomegranate peel pomegranates inside and pomegranate seeds].  

PubMed

An HPLC fingerprint of pomegranate peel was established. Using chromatographic conditions, we compared the chemical composition of pomegranate peel, inside and seeds, and simultaneously determined the contents of gallic acid and ellagic acid. By comparison, we found that there were no significant differences between pomegranate peel and inside, but there was a big difference between pomegranate seeds and another two. The contents of gallic acid and ellagic acid of pomegranate peel respectively were 0.33%, 0.59%, while in pomegranate inside the result respectively were 0.52%, 0.38%. Content of ellagic acid from pomegranate seeds was only 0.01%. By study, we thought that when pomegranate peel was processed, pomegranate seeds should be removed, while pomegranate inside could be retained on the premise of full drying. PMID:24079246

Zhou, Qian; Sun, Li-Li; Dai, Yan-Peng; Wang, Liang; Su, Ben-Zheng

2013-07-01

339

New formulation of chemical peeling agent: histological evaluation in sun-damaged skin model in hairless mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: chemical peelings injure the superficial skin, which is then restored by healing of the wound. Objectives: to document the acute and chronic histological changes produced by applying chemical peeling agents used clinically to the UVB-irradiated skin of hairless mice, which served as a model of sun-damaged skin. Design: three chemical peeling agents, 30% salicylic acid, dissolved in macrogol (a

Midori Isoda; Setsuko Ueda; Shuhei Imayama; Kazue Tsukahara

2001-01-01

340

Removal of lead (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution using pomegranate peel as a new adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective removal of heavy metals from aqueous wastes is among the most important issues for many industrialized countries. Removal of lead (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solutions were studied using pomegranate peel (raw), activated carbon prepared from pomegranate peel (AC1) and activated carbon prepared from chemically treated pomegranate peel (AC2 and AC3). Batch adsorption experiments were performed as

E.-S. Z. El-Ashtoukhy; N. K. Amin; O. Abdelwahab

2008-01-01

341

Surface modification of polyethylene by radiation-induced grafting for adhesive bonding. IV. Improvement in wet peel strength. [Gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesive joints of hydrolyzed methyl acrylate grafts, bonded with epoxy adhesives, yield extremely high peel strength (adherend failure) in dry conditions. However, when the joints are exposed to humid environments, the peel strength rapidly decreases with exposure time and then reaches a constant value (wet peel strength). Since the locus of failure changes from the adherend to the homopolymer layer

S. Yamakawa; F. Yamamoto

1980-01-01

342

Liberation and separation of phenolic compounds from citrus mandarin peels by microwave heating and its effect on antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microwave treatment on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of citrus mandarin peels was evaluated. After microwave treatment, methanol extracts of citrus peels were prepared and the contents of phenolic acids (free and bound) and flavanol, flavanone and flavonol compounds (FCs) were determined by HPLC. Antioxidant capacity of peel extracts was measured using DPPH radical scavenging assay,

Khizar Hayat; Xiaoming Zhang; Hanqing Chen; Shuqin Xia; Chengsheng Jia; Fang Zhong

2010-01-01

343

A mathematical model to describe potato chemical (NaOH) peeling. Energy and mass transfer model resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the oldest and most commonly used industrial processes for peeling potatoes is chemical peeling. Solute (NaOH) diffusion, energy transfer and chemical kinetics are involved in the process. The Shrinking Core Model and the second Fick's law were selected to formulate the mathematical model, according to mechanisms involved during the peeling process. Heats of reactions were neglected as a

Mónica S. Chavez; Julio A. Luna; Raúl L. Garrote

1997-01-01

344

Biofertilizers improve plant growth, fruit yield, nutrition, metabolism and rhizosphere enzyme activities of Pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) in Indian Thar Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of horticultural crops has undergone enormous change in recent years due to development of innovative technologies including integrated nutrient management practices using biofertilizers. The present study represents the positive response of biofertilizers in nursery seedlings followed by their transplantation in harsh field conditions of Indian Thar Desert. Nursery and field experiments were carried out to assess the effectiveness of

G. K. Aseri; Neelam Jain; Jitendra Panwar; A. V. Rao; P. R. Meghwal

2008-01-01

345

How Do Fruits Ripen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

346

Precooked Fruits and Vegetables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precooked fruits and vegetables are prepared by a process wherein the fruits and vegetables are cooked to their centers at a temperature below the temperature at which sloughing of the surface tissue would occur if the fruits or vegetables were cooked to ...

M. L. Weaver K. C. Ng

1978-01-01

347

The protective effect of Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit against low-density lipoprotein peroxidation and its active compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of extracts from Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit (ODHF) and its active compounds on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation were investigated. The results indicated that the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ODHF in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and oxygen-radical absorbance capacity assays were in the order of seed>peel>pulp. The lag time of conjugated diene formation

Su-Feng Chang; Chiu-Lan Hsieh; Gow-Chin Yen

2008-01-01

348

Protective Effect of Punica granatum L. against Serum/Glucose Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury  

PubMed Central

The discovery and development of natural products with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties have been one of the most interesting and promising approaches in the search for the treatment of many neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has served as an excellent in vitro model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia and for the development of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies suggested that pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) or its active constituents exert pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, in this study we investigated the possible protective effects of different extracts of pomegranate against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Initially, the cells were pretreated with different concentrations of pulp hydroalcoholic extract (PHE), pulp aqueous extract (PAE) and pomegranate juice (PJ) for 2?h and then deprived of serum/glucose (SGD) for 6 and 12?h. SGD caused a significant reduction in cell viability (measured by the MTT assay) after 6 and 12?h, as compared with control cells (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with PHE, PAE, and PJ significantly and concentration-dependently increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6 and 12?h. A significant increase in DNA damage (measured by the comet assay) was seen in nuclei of cells following SGD for 12?h (P < 0.001). In control groups, no significant difference was seen in DNA damage between PHE, PAE, and PJ-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated PC12 cells (P > 0.05). PHE, PAE, and PJ pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage following ischemic insult (P < 0.001). This suppression of DNA damage by PHE, PAE and PJ was found to be concentration dependent. These data indicate that there is a cytoprotective property in PHE, PAE, and PJ under SGD condition in PC12 cells, suggesting that pomegranate has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders.

Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Afkhami Goli, Amir; Asadpour, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

2013-01-01

349

High Technique for T-Peel Strength Enhancement of Al/AFRP Hybrid Composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interlaminar peel strength of Al/AFRP (Aluminum alloy/Aramid Fiber Reinforced Plastic) hybrid composite is affected by the adhesive strength between the Al alloy layer and the aramid fiber layer. The study of the tensile strength and the T-peel strength of the Al/AFRP should be accomplished first. Therefore, this study focused on the effect of the resin mixture ratio as the Al/AFRP on the tensile strength and T-peel strength. In conclusions, the resin mixture ratio by equivalence ratio of equal to <1:1> of Al/AFRP-I and the resin mixture ratio by equivalence ratio of equal to <1:1:0.2> of Al/AFRP-II showed the highest ultimate tensile strength. After the T-peel test, it is found that the T-peel strength of Al/AFRP-II is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of Al/AFRP-I. Reviewing the characteristics of the tensile and T-peel strengths, the resin mixture ratio <1:1:0.2> of Al/AFRP-II showed the highest tensile strength and T-peel strength.

Kim, Cheol-Woong; Oh, Dong-Joon

350

Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.  

PubMed

An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of this information to the general public), on the chemistry and biological and physiological functions of these "superfoods" are necessary. PMID:18211023

Seeram, Navindra P

2008-01-23

351

Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional Chinese medicinal food ingredients in China.  

PubMed

Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in flavonoid composition. Huyou peel (C. paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou) was found to be the best naringin (3.25%) and neohesperidin (2.76%) source; C. aurantium, a major ingredient of several citrus-related TCM, is also a suitable source of naringin and neohesperidin, and a good juice source for flavanone glycosides; the peel of Wenzhoumiju (C. unshiu) is one of the richest local species in hesperidin (up to 6.25%); Zaoju (C. subcompressa) has the highest content of nobiletin (0.59%), a polymethoxylated flavone. LC-ES-MS analysis of Zanthoxylum genus for flavonoids revealed for the first time the presence of significant amounts (0.74%) of hesperidin in the root of Liangmianzhen (Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC), a relative of Sichuan pepper, which is a spice widely used in China. PMID:16816988

Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Chongwei; Bucheli, Peter; Wei, Dongzhi

2006-07-01

352

Antihypertensive properties of flavonoid-rich apple peel extract.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a major public health problem rising across the globe. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is identified as a main therapeutic target in controlling high blood pressure. The present study investigated the ACE inhibitory property of a flavonoid-rich apple peel extract (FAE), its constituents, selected flavonoids and some quercetin metabolites using a biochemical assay of ACE inhibition and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) model. FAE, all the tested flavonoids except genistein, and two quercetin metabolites (quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid and quercetin-3-O-sulfate) significantly (p<0.05) inhibited ACE. Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed that flavonoids are competitive inhibitors of ACE. In the HUVEC model, FAE, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid inhibited significantly (p<0.05) ACE activity. Overall, FAE and most of the flavonoids tested showed ACE inhibition in vitro which needs further investigations using animal and human clinical trials. PMID:22980808

Balasuriya, Nileeka; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

2012-07-17

353

Cellulose extraction from orange peel using sulfite digestion reagents.  

PubMed

Orange peel (OP) was used as raw material for cellulose extraction. Two different pulping reagents were used, sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite. The effect of the main process parameters, sulfite agent dosage and reaction duration, on cellulose yield was investigated. A central composite rotatable design involving two variables at five levels and response surface methodology were used for the optimization of cellulose recovery. Other two invariable parameters were reaction temperature and hydromodulus. The optimum yields, referred to the weight of double extracted OP, were 40.4% and 45.2% for sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite digestions, respectively. The crude celluloses were bleached with hypochlorite and oxygen. The physicochemical characterization data of these cellulose materials indicate good levels of purity, low crystallinities, good whitenesses, good water retention and moderate molecular weights. According to these specific properties the recovered celluloses could be used as fillers, water absorbents, or as raw materials for cellulose derivatives. PMID:21893413

Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

2011-08-17

354

Phenolic compound profiles and antioxidant capacity of Persea americana Mill. peels and seeds of two varieties.  

PubMed

Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p < 0.05). Overall these findings indicate that both the seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive. PMID:22494370

Kosi?ska, Agnieszka; Karama?, Magdalena; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña; Dykes, Gary A

2012-04-24

355

Detection and classification of orange peel on polished steel surfaces by interferometric microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we provide a general description of the so-called orange peel defect produced on polished steel surfaces. By characterizing a prototype set of samples with various degrees orange peel, we attempt to create a simple model that allows the classification of additional samples through the study of surface parameters. On those surfaces, the orange peel structure has roughness amplitudes in the nanometer range. Detecting surface features on that range requires the implementation of a high-precision technique, such as phase shifting interferometry (PSI). Therefore, we can contribute to the improvement of the manufacturing of polished steel surfaces as well as to the quality control by using optical techniques.

Miranda-Medina, M. L.; Somkuti, P.; Steiger, B.

2013-06-01

356

Physico-chemical, respiratory and fungicide residue changes in wax coated mandarin fruit stored at chilling temperature with intermittent warming.  

PubMed

Influence of chilling temperature, intermittent warming (IW) and fungicidal wax coating was evaluated during storage of 'Nagpur' mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Fruits were light green coloured with slight colour-break at the start of storage. Waxed and non-waxed fruits were stored at 3.5 °C (constant), 2 weeks at 3.5 °C followed by IW for 1 week at 19.5 °C (cycle) and at 6.5 °C (constant), and were evaluated immediately after 30, 45, 60, 75 days and also after 1 week holding at ambient condition (24?±?2 °C, 60-70% RH). There was no chilling injury to fruit under IW treatment irrespective of coating. At 3.5 °C (constant) chilling injury appeared after 45 days during 1 week holding and thereafter increased at each storage interval. Wax coated fruit had lower chilling injury. Fruit under IW treatment and at 6.5 °C (constant) developed yellow-orange colour while at 3.5 °C (constant) fruit remained green during storage. Juice content, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid contents were not affected by temperature regimes and waxing while total soluble solids content was higher with IW treatment. Reducing and total sugars were higher in fruits stored at IW treatment and at 6.5 °C (constant) than at 3.5 °C (constant). Total peel phenols content were not significantly affected by waxing and temperature regimes. However, loss of phenols content was higher at 3.5 °C (constant). Phenol content decreased during storage. At 3.5 °C (constant), chlorophyll ('a', 'b' and total) content in peel was maximum while total carotenoids were minimum with little colour development. Rapid colour development was recorded under IW and also at 1 week holding. Wax coating delayed colour development at 3.5 °C (constant). Initially carbendazim residues were higher in peel (4.0 ppm) and pulp (3.2 ppm) of waxed fruit than in non-waxed (3.2 ppm in peel and 3.1 ppm in pulp) fruit. Overall drop in residues till storage up to 75 days+ 1 week over the initial values was 80.2-85.6% in peel and 56.2-75.8% in pulp of waxed and non-waxed fruit, respectively. Respiration was lower in waxed fruit. Respiratory rate was lowest at 3.5 °C (constant) and it changed with IW. At 3.5 °C and 6.5 °C (constant), range of respiration was 4-6 mgCO2/kg/h and 7-9 mgCO2/kg/h, respectively in waxed and non-waxed fruit. Respiratory rate increased as the fruit was removed to warmer temperature. Chilling injury caused considerable rise in respiration rate of fruit. Present findings indicated that storage life of 'Nagpur' mandarin can be extended up to 75 days at 3.5 °C with IW. PMID:23572729

Ladaniya, Milind Shivratan

2010-11-14

357

Polyphenol-rich extract of pomegranate peel alleviates tissue inflammation and hypercholesterolaemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice: potential implication of the gut microbiota.  

PubMed

Pomegranate extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine to confer health benefits in a number of inflammatory diseases, microbial infections and cancer. Peel fruit are rich in polyphenols that exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities in vitro. Recent studies strongly suggest that the gut microbiota is an environmental factor to be taken into account when assessing the risk factors related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the prebiotic potency of a pomegranate peel extract (PPE) rich in polyphenols in a nutritional model of obesity associated with hypercholesterolaemia and inflammatory disorders. Balb/c mice were fed either a control diet or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without PPE (6 mg/d per mouse) over a period of 4 weeks. Interestingly, PPE supplementation increased caecal content weight and caecal pool of bifidobacteria. It did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycaemia, glucose tolerance and inflammatory markers measured in the serum. However, it reduced the serum level of cholesterol (total and LDL) induced by HF feeding. Furthermore, it counteracted the HF-induced expression of inflammatory markers both in the colon and the visceral adipose tissue. Together, these findings support that pomegranate constitutes a promising food in the control of atherogenic and inflammatory disorders associated with diet-induced obesity. Knowing the poor bioavailability of pomegranate polyphenols, its bifidogenic effect observed after PPE consumption suggests the involvement of the gut microbiota in the management of host metabolism by polyphenolic compounds present in pomegranate. PMID:22676910

Neyrinck, Audrey M; Van Hée, Vincent F; Bindels, Laure B; De Backer, Fabienne; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

2012-06-07

358

Flavonoid profiling and biosynthetic gene expression in flesh and peel of two tomato genotypes grown under UV-B-depleted conditions during ripening.  

PubMed

The effect of shielding solar ultraviolet B radiation on the accumulation of some flavonoids and their precursor hydroxycinnamic acids in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was evaluated by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In particular, flesh and peel of two tomato hybrids, DRW 5981 and Esperanza, were separately analyzed. The hybrids have been chosen for their different responses to the light, since it was previously reported that they show different pigmentation and opposite behavior under UV-B in terms of carotenoids and ascorbic acid content at different ripening stages. To determine the effect of UV-B radiation during tomato ripening, we also measured the expression of some flavonoid biosynthetic genes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The results allowed us to conclude that UV-B radiation deeply and differentially affects the content of the considered flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids as well as the expression of some of their biosynthetic genes in both flesh and peel during the ripening process. On the other hand, the collected data clearly showed that this influence varies between different genotypes. We conclude that the use of specific plastic covers able to eliminate UV-B radiation may be an environmentally friendly approach to modulate the expression of structural genes and, in turn, to enhance healthy antioxidant compounds in fruits of specific tomato cultivars. PMID:18564848

Giuntini, Deborah; Lazzeri, Valerio; Calvenzani, Valentina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Galaverna, Gianni; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia; Ranieri, Annamaria

2008-06-20

359

Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.  

PubMed

This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, ?-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (P<0.05) bioactive content than their respective fruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry. PMID:24054258

Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro da; Figueiredo, Evania Altina Teixeira de; Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes Silva; Vieira, Icaro Gusmao Pinto; Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane de; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

2013-08-09

360

Peeling and aspiration of elschnig pearls! An effective alternative to Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy!  

PubMed

To evaluate the efficacy of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls. Retrospective study in a medical college hospital. Records of 217 eyes which underwent surgical peeling and aspiration for membranous PCO between 2006 and 2009, was reviewed. Peeling and aspiration was fashioned with a blunt tipped 20G cannula after stabilizing anterior chamber with anterior chamber maintainer. Post-operative vision and complications were analyzed. Mc Nemar and Chi square tests. The mean age was 56.84 years. 85.71% patients achieved best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20 at 3 m. Recurrence of pearls, uveitis and cystoid macular edema were the most common causes of reduced vision. Peeling and aspiration of pearls seem to be a viable alternative to Neodymium yttrium garner aluminium (Nd: YAG) laser capsulotomy for membranous PCO. PMID:24104714

Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Sharma, Shiv K; Sharma, Sumat; Mehra, Namrata; Mishra, Anuraag

2013-09-01

361

PEELING/FALLING OF PROTECTIVE COVERING CONCRETE AND ITS OPTIMAL INSPECTION POLICY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to maintain and manage infrastructures appropriately under a budget constraint, it is necessary to grasp the processes of deterioration and damage, which are the targets of visual inspection, specify the criteria for risk management, and determine inspection cycle. This study is focused on the peeling/falling of the protective covering concrete of expressway bridge slabs, formulates its process with the Poisson model, and proposes a model that can take into account some effects on peeling/falling. This study proposes a random proportional Poisson model for discussing the heterogeneity of the peeling/falling of concrete of individual slabs. Then, the criteria for risk management regarding peeling/falling are specified, and a method for determining optimal inspection cycle that satisfies the criteria for risk management is proposed. Lastly, the appropriateness of the proposed model is discussed empirically, by applying it to actual expressways.

Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Okizuka, Ryosuke; Ito, Tetsuo; Hashizume, Kenji; Deguchi, Munehiro

362

FRACTION OF ORANGE PEEL PHENOLS AND EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange peel contains numerous flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, and related phenolic compounds. Among the flavonoids are several main structural categories, including the flavanone di- and triglycosides, flavone-O- and C-glycosides, and the highly methoxylated flavone aglycones, termed polymethoxylate...

363

Lipari Foods Recalls Wholey Peeled Cooked Tail-on 31/40 ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... PEELED TAIL-ON 31/40 FINISHED COUNT Brand: Wholey Package Size: 1 Pound bag UPC Number: 094776074556 Lot Numbers: 30081, 10081 ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/recalls

364

FRACTIONATION OF ORANGE PEEL PHENOLS IN ULTRAFILTERED MOLASSES AND MASS BALANCE STUDIES OF THEIR ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The flavonoids in orange peel molasses was fractionated by adsorption, ion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Size-exclusion chromatography effectively separated the different classes of flavonoids in ultrafiltered molasses, including the polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone-O-trisacchari...

365

Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts

V. H. Tournas; J. Heeres; L. Burgess

2006-01-01

366

Pectinesterase extraction from Mexican lime ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) and prickly pear ( Opuntia ficus indica L.) peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.) peels were tested for their pectinesterase activity. A factorial design was applied in this study as a method for enzyme extraction in which the variables were the source of enzyme (prickly pear and Mexican lime peels) and the NaCl solution concentration (0–3.0M). In all cases, enzyme

J. C. Contreras-Esquivel; C. Correa-Robles; C. N. Aguilar; J Rodr??guez; J. Romero

1999-01-01

367

Peel ply surface treatment for composite assemblies: Chemistry and morphology effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass\\/epoxy and carbon\\/epoxy composites were manufactured using a series of polyester and polyamide based peel ply treatments. The influence of peel ply removing upon surface characteristics was assessed with performing contact angle measurements, laser profilometry, SEM and ToF-SIMS analysis.The surface properties of the composite material prior to bonding and the single lap shear performances of resulting assemblies were compared, in

Q. Bénard; M. Fois; M. Grisel

2005-01-01

368

Pars plana vitrectomy for diabetic fibrovascular proliferation with and without internal limiting membrane peeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the anatomical and functional results of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during pars plana vitrectomy for fibrovascular proliferation (FVP) in diabetic retinopathy.MethodsThe study was a prospective comparative case series in design. Patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for mild to moderate diabetic FVP were divided into either Group 1: vitrectomy only, or Group 2: further ILM peeling in the

P-Y Chang; C-M Yang; C-H Yang; M-S Chen; J-Y Wang

2009-01-01

369

Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·103 to 0.7·108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

Torrado, Ana Maria; Cortes, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, Jose; Max, Belen; Rodriguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Dominguez, Jose

2011-01-01

370

Free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of potato peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant potency of freeze-dried aqueous extract of potato peel was investigated employing various established in vitro systems, such as lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)\\/superoxide\\/hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power, and iron ion chelation. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of potato peel powder (PPE) showed strong inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenate induced by the FeCl2–H2O2

Nandita Singh; P. S. Rajini

2004-01-01

371

Pleiotropic Phenotypes of the sticky peel Mutant Provide New Insight into the Role of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 in Epidermal Cell Function in Tomato1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plant epidermal cells have evolved specialist functions associated with adaptation to stress. These include the synthesis and deposition of specialized metabolites such as waxes and cutin together with flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have important roles in providing a barrier to water loss and protection against UV radiation, respectively. Characterization of the sticky peel (pe) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) revealed several phenotypes indicative of a defect in epidermal cell function, including reduced anthocyanin accumulation, a lower density of glandular trichomes, and an associated reduction in trichome-derived terpenes. In addition, pe mutant fruit are glossy and peels have increased elasticity due to a severe reduction in cutin biosynthesis and altered wax deposition. Leaves of the pe mutant are also cutin deficient and the epicuticular waxes contain a lower proportion of long-chain alkanes. Direct measurements of transpiration, together with chlorophyll-leaching assays, indicate increased cuticular permeability of pe leaves. Genetic mapping revealed that the pe locus represents a new allele of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 (CD2), a member of the class IV homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family, previously only associated with cutin deficiency in tomato fruit. CD2 is preferentially expressed in epidermal cells of tomato stems and is a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ANTHOCYANINLESS2 (ANL2). Analysis of cuticle composition in leaves of anl2 revealed that cutin accumulates to approximately 60% of the levels observed in wild-type Arabidopsis. Together, these data provide new insight into the role of CD2 and ANL2 in regulating diverse metabolic pathways and in particular, those associated with epidermal cells.

Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Pollard, Mike; Kosma, Dylan K.; Allen, Charles; Ohlrogge, John B.; Barry, Cornelius S.

2012-01-01

372

Viscous control of peeling an elastic sheet by bending and pulling.  

PubMed

Propagation of a viscous fluid beneath an elastic sheet is controlled by local dynamics at the peeling front, in close analogy with the capillary-driven spreading of drops over a precursor film. Here we identify propagation laws for a generic elastic peeling problem in the distinct limits of peeling by bending and peeling by pulling, and apply our results to the radial spread of a fluid blister over a thin prewetting film. For the case of small deformations relative to the sheet thickness, peeling is driven by bending, leading to radial growth as t^{7/22}. Experimental results reproduce both the spreading behavior and the bending wave at the front. For large deformations relative to the sheet thickness, stretching of the blister cap and the consequent tension can drive peeling either by bending or by pulling at the front, both leading to radial growth as t^{3/8}. In this regime, detailed predictions give excellent agreement and explanation of previous experimental measurements of spread in the pulling regime in an elastic Hele-Shaw cell. PMID:24160604

Lister, John R; Peng, Gunnar G; Neufeld, Jerome A

2013-10-07

373

Chemical Peels for Acne and Acne Scars in Asians: Evidence Based Review  

PubMed Central

Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars, but there are very few studies on Asian populations who are more prone to develop hyper pigmentation. This article aims to summarize and evaluate the existing studies on the role of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars among Asians. An online search was conducted to identify prospective studies published in English that evaluated the use of chemical peels in active acne and acne scars in Asian populations. There were six studies for acne and eight studies for acne scars that were identified using our search parameters. Most were single-centre, open label and with small sample sizes. Acne severity was not uniformly reported and the objective outcome measures of some studies were not explicitly reported as well. The general trend of the results of the studies support the safety and efficacy of chemical peels for acne and acne scars including those of darker skin types. The existing studies support the use of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars in Asians. Further clinical trials with better study design and more subjects are needed to further establish the role of chemical peels in Asian acne patients.

Handog, Evangeline B; Datuin, Maria Suzanne L; Singzon, Ivan A

2012-01-01

374

Viscous Control of Peeling an Elastic Sheet by Bending and Pulling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation of a viscous fluid beneath an elastic sheet is controlled by local dynamics at the peeling front, in close analogy with the capillary-driven spreading of drops over a precursor film. Here we identify propagation laws for a generic elastic peeling problem in the distinct limits of peeling by bending and peeling by pulling, and apply our results to the radial spread of a fluid blister over a thin prewetting film. For the case of small deformations relative to the sheet thickness, peeling is driven by bending, leading to radial growth as t7/22. Experimental results reproduce both the spreading behavior and the bending wave at the front. For large deformations relative to the sheet thickness, stretching of the blister cap and the consequent tension can drive peeling either by bending or by pulling at the front, both leading to radial growth as t3/8. In this regime, detailed predictions give excellent agreement and explanation of previous experimental measurements of spread in the pulling regime in an elastic Hele-Shaw cell.

Lister, John R.; Peng, Gunnar G.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

2013-10-01

375

Antioxidant ability of fractionated apple peel phenolics to inhibit fish oil oxidation.  

PubMed

Polyphenols isolated from frozen and dried apple peels were studied as potential natural antioxidants to stabilize omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (?3 PUFA) enriched fish oil. The ethanolic extracts of apple peels were fractionated by reversed phase chromatography using gradient elution of 20-100% aqueous ethanol. The collected fractions were analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of each fraction were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assays. Inhibition of fish oil oxidation was studied using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Polyphenols fractionated using frozen apple peel extract had significantly higher FC, FRAP and DPPH(·) scavenging values than those of dried apple peel (p<0.05). The flavonol-rich fractions inhibited fish oil oxidation by 40-62% at a total phenolic concentration of 200 ?g/ml. The fractionated polyphenols from both dried and frozen apple peel showed higher inhibition of lipid oxidation compared to ?-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene and crude apple peel extracts. PMID:23578632

Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2013-02-21

376

Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber

2004-01-01

377

Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber

378

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

379

Efficient phyto-synthesis and structural characterization of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles using Annona squamosa peel extract.  

PubMed

In the present study, the biosynthesis of rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) was achieved by a novel, biodegradable and convenient procedure using fruit peel Annona squamosa aqueous extract. This is the first report on the new, simple, rapid, eco-friendly and cheaper methods for the synthesis of rutile TiO(2) NPs at lower temperature using agricultural waste. Rutile TiO(2) NPs were characterized by UV, XRD, SEM, TEM and EDS studies. The UV-Vis spectrophotometer results were promising and showed a rapid production of TiO(2) NPs with a surface plasmon resonance occurring at 284 nm. The formation of the TiO(2) NPs as observed from the XRD spectrum is confirmed to be TiO(2) particles in the rutile form as evidenced by the peaks at 2?=27.42°, 36.10°, 41.30° and 54.33° when compared with the literature. The TEM images showed polydisperse nanoparticles with spherical shapes and size 23±2 nm ranges. PMID:22983203

Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, A; Prabhakarn, A; Rahuman, A Abdul; Velayutham, K; Rajakumar, G; Padmaja, R D; Lekshmi, Mohan; Madhumitha, G

2012-08-27

380

Investigation on the antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stems bark, and kernel of mango (Mangifera indica L.).  

PubMed

Bioactive polyphenols, cartenoids, and anthocyanins present in fruits and vegetables are receiving much attention because of their potential antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stem bark, and kernel of mango varieties langra and chonsa. Total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs) in segments of langra ranged from 63.89 to 116.80 mg GAE/g DW and 45.56 to 90.89 mg CE/g DW, respectively, and that of chonsa were 69.24 to 122.60 mg GAE/g DW and 48.43 to 92.55 mg CE/g DW, respectively. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and linoleic inhibition capacity in segments of langra ranged from 53.30% to 61.10% and 40.0% to 47.20%, respectively, whereas for chonsa; 56.40% to 66.0% and 48.1% to 49.0%, respectively. The reducing potentials of different segments of langra and chonsa at concentration of 10 mg/mL were 0.512 to 0.850 and 0.595 to 0.665 mV, respectively. Comparison between both varieties showed chonsa exhibited better antioxidant activity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely randomised design (CRD) under factorial. PMID:22860576

Sultana, Bushra; Hussain, Zaib; Asif, Muhammad; Munir, Adil

2012-08-01

381

Spreading and peeling dynamics in a model of cell adhesion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand how viscous and elastic membrane forces mediate the adhesion of fluid-borne cells to biological surfaces under the action of specific receptor ligand bonds, we consider a model problem in which a two-dimensional cell interacts with a plane adhesive surface. The cell is modelled as an extensible membrane under tension containing fluid of constant volume. Assuming rapid binding kinetics, molecular binding forces are described through a contact potential that is long-range attractive but short-range repulsive. Using lubrication theory to describe the thin-film flow between the cell and the plane, we model sedimentation of the cell onto the plane under adhesive forces, followed by removal of the cell from the plane under the action of an external force. Numerical simulations show how these events are dominated respectively by quasi-steady spreading and peeling motions, which we capture using an asymptotic analysis. The analysis is extended to model a cell tank-treading over an adhesive wall in an external shear flow. The relation between cell rolling speed and shear rate is determined: at low speeds it is linear and independent of the viscosity of the suspending fluid; at higher speeds it is nonlinear and viscosity-dependent.

Hodges, S. R.; Jensen, O. E.

2002-06-01

382

Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from potato peels.  

PubMed

A response surface method was used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction parameters such as extraction time (t) (min), solvent (methanol) concentration (S) (v/v) and microwave power level (MP) for extraction of antioxidants from potato peels. Max. total phenolics content of 3.94 mg g?¹ dry weight (dw) was obtained at S of 67.33%, t of 15 min and a MP of 14.67%. For ascorbic acid (1.44 mg g?¹ dw), caffeic acid (1.33 mg g?¹ dw), ferulic acid (0.50 mg g?¹ dw) max contents were obtained at S of 100%, t of 15 min, and MP of 10%, while the max chlorogenic acid content (1.35 mg g?¹ dw) was obtained at S of 100%, t of 5 min, and MP of 10%. The radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated by using the DPPH assay and optimum antioxidant activity was obtained at S of 100%, t of 5 min, and MP of 10%. PMID:21383659

Singh, Ashutosh; Sabally, Kebba; Kubow, Stan; Donnelly, Danielle J; Gariepy, Yvan; Orsat, Valérie; Raghavan, G S V

2011-03-07

383

High pressure extraction of antioxidants from Solanum stenotomun peel.  

PubMed

In the work described here, two techniques for the recovery of anthocyanins from potato peel were studied and compared. One of the techniques employed was supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 or with CO2 and ethanol as cosolvent and the other technique was pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), where the solvent used was ethanol in water acidified to pH 2.6. The effects of pressure and temperature were studied and the anthocyanin contents obtained were statistically analyzed. In SFE the use of low pressure (100 bar) and high temperature (65 °C) was desirable for the anthocyanin extraction. With PLE the anthocyanin contents are increased considerably, and the best yields were obtained at 100 bar and 80 °C. This result is in correspondence with antioxidant activity index values (1.66) obtained in a DPPH antioxidant activity assay. In the extracts obtained with PLE the phenolic compounds were also determined, but the main compounds presented in the extract are anthocyanins. PMID:23528996

Cardoso, Lourdes Casas; Serrano, Casimiro Mantell; Quintero, Edwin Torrez; López, Clara Pereyra; Antezana, Ruder Medrano; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

2013-03-08

384

Photosynthesis, respiration and translocation in green fruit of normal and mutant grapefruit. [Citrus paradisi Macf  

SciTech Connect

Gas exchange, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation/and subsequent photosynthate translocation were followed during a 24h light/dark period in green grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) detached after 2.5 mo. growth. Fruit photosynthesis could account for net fixation of less than 1% of the daily dry weight increase recorded for fruit at this stage of development, but a comparison of light/dark CO/sub 2/ exchange indicated that as much as 27% of this daily gain was maintained by refixation of respiratory CO/sub 2/ during daylight hours. Approximately 10% of photosynthates labeled in the outer peel (flavedo) were translocated to segment epidermis and juice vesicles of normal fruit during 1 + 23h pulse-chase experiments. This process typically continues for 4 to 5 days and refixation products would presumably follow the same path. In a low-acid mutant believed to differ only in acid/sugar ratio of juice vesicles, however, inward translocation of /sup 14/C-photosynthates from flavedo was restricted primarily to the inner peel (albedo).

Koch, K.E.; Yen, C.R.; Avigne, W.T.

1986-04-01

385

Identification of Aroma-Active Compounds in Malaysian Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Peel by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysian pink and white pomelo (Citrusgrandis (L.) Osbeck) peels were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM). Using GC-FID\\/MS and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), 50 and 47 aroma-active compounds were identified in pink and white pomelo peel extracts, respectively. The potency of each odorant in both pomelo peel extracts was determined by aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). On the basis of flavor dilution (FD)

M-W Cheong; S-Q Liu; J. Yeo; H-K Chionh; K. Pramudya; P. Curran; B. Yu

2011-01-01

386

Fruit: Outlook and Situation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Larger fruit supplies, lower prices expected. Supplies of most fresh fruit this spring are expected to be larger than a year ago. The volume of oranges and lemons still to be harvested is substantially bigger, while cold storage holdings of fresh apples a...

1983-01-01

387

Regulation of fruit ripening  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

388

Ripening attributes of new passion fruit line featuring seasonal non-climacteric behavior.  

PubMed

The passion fruit hybrid cultivar 'Passion Dream' (PD) produces two cycles of fruiting per year, in the summer and winter. Self-hybridization of PD created various lines, including 'Ripens during Summer' (RS), which lacks the ability to abscise during winter, suggesting a seasonal nonclimacteric behavior. The two lines were characterized by several quality traits: PD produced high ethylene levels in both seasons; RS produced significantly less ethylene during summer and almost none during winter. The ratio of total soluble solids to titratable acidity (TSS/TA), and aroma volatiles production, as determined by solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (SPME/GC-MS) techniques, and taste indices were highest in PD summer fruits and lowest in RS winter fruits. Peel color in PD was affected by environmental and storage temperatures, whereas RS fruits always showed a strong purple color. The present findings suggest that ethylene production levels in passion fruit greatly influence various ripening processes, including acid degradation, increased TSS/TA ratio, accumulation of aroma volatiles, and tastiness. PMID:22248094

Goldenberg, Livnat; Feygenberg, Oleg; Samach, Alon; Pesis, Edna

2012-02-09

389

Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads  

SciTech Connect

Reliable applications of adhesively bonded joints require understanding of the stress distribution along the bond-line and the stresses that are responsible for the joint failure. To properly evaluate factors affecting peel strength, effects of defects such as voids on the stress distribution in the overlap region must be understood. In this work, the peel stress distribution in a single lap joint is derived using a strength of materials approach. The bonded joint is modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams, bonded together with an adhesive, which is modeled as an elastic foundation which can resist both peel and shear stresses. It is found that for certain adhesive and adherend geometries and properties, a central void with the size up to 50% of the overlap length has negligible effect on the peak peel and shear stresses. To verify the solutions obtained from the model, the problem is solved again by using the finite element method and by treating the adherends and the adhesive as elastic materials. It is found that the model used in the analysis not only predicts the correct trend for the peel stress distribution but also gives rather surprisingly close results to that of the finite element analysis. It is also found that both shear and peel stresses can be responsible for the joint performance and when a void is introduced, both of these stresses can contribute to the joint failure as the void size increases. Acoustic emission activities of aluminum-adhesive-aluminum specimens with different void sizes were monitored. The AE ringdown counts and energy were very sensitive and decreased significantly with the void size. It was observed that the AE events were shifting towards the edge of the overlap where the maximum peeling and shearing stresses were occurring as the void size increased.

Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; Jawad, O.C. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

1997-10-01

390

Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My L; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E; Bowman, Kim D; Dandekar, Abhaya M

2012-05-31

391

ELM phenomenon as an interaction between bootstrap-current driven peeling modes and pressure-driven ballooning modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ELMy ASDEX Upgrade plasma equilibrium is reconstructed taking into account the bootstrap current. The peeling mode stability of the equilibrium is numerically analysed using the GATO [1] code, and it is found that the bootstrap current can drive the plasma peeling mode unstable. A high-n ballooning mode stability analysis of the equilibria revealed that, while destabilizing the peeling modes, the bootstrap current has a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A combination of these two instabilities is a possible explanation for the type I ELM phenomenon. A triangularity scan showed that increasing triangularity stabilizes the peeling modes and can produce ELM-free periods observed in the experiments.

Saarelma, S.; Günter, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.

2000-05-01

392

Friction, force chains, and falling fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction is of great concern from both a national security and quality-of-life point of view, and the economic impact of energy efficiency, wear, and manufacturing cannot be underestimated. Theorists have always believed that friction plays a great role in avalanche-like collapse of a granular piles, but the predictions have proven difficult to test. We devised an experimentally controlled way to prove it, accessible to all who dare try, and report on it here [1,2]. With the aid of a middle school assistant, we studied and filmed piles of apples, oranges, and onions as one or more pieces of fruit were removed. Among other things, we discovered that increasing the friction of the onions (by peeling them) vastly decreased the likelihood of collapse. Our work includes videos written by, produced, and starring our seventh grade assistant, some of which are posted on the Physics Today YouTube channel [1] and featured in the Sept. 2009 issue of Physics Today [2]. [4pt] [1] Youtube.com, keywords ``unpeeled onions'', with full set at www.dukefruit.info. [0pt] [2] J. Krim and R.P. Berhinger, Physics Today (Sept., 2009) volume 62, pp.66-67

Krim, Jacqueline; Behringer, Robert

2010-03-01

393

GaAs peeled-film solar cells. Final report, March 15, 1980-December 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Our approach to the fabrication of a peeled film GaAs solar cell is to grow an (AlGa)As layer between the substrate and solar cell. This (AlGa)As parting layer can be etched away selectively to separate substrate and cell. The use of an (AlGa)As parting layer has the advantage of an excellent lattice match to GaAs, which promotes the subsequent growth of a high quality single crystal solar cell. The (AlGa)As material can also be grown in the same reactor used to grow the solar cells. The technical areas most critical to the success of this project are the etch parting process, and subsequent peeled film handling and processing. Highly selective etching of the (AlGa)As is necessary for successful peeling; to peel a 1 cm diameter cell while removing less than 100 A of it requires that the etchant attack the (AlGa)As parting layer at a rate 5 x 10/sup 5/ times as fast as it attacks GaAs. The peeled film so removed will be extremely fragile, unless support is provided during the parting process.

Miller, D.L.; Burke, W.E.; Simpson, W.I.; Yang, J.J.J.; Zehr, S.W.; Harris, J.S.

1982-01-01

394

Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.  

PubMed

Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel. PMID:23957402

Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

2013-08-01

395

Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.  

PubMed

Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid. PMID:23107679

Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

2012-03-07

396

Peel-and-Stick: Fabricating Thin Film Solar Cell on Universal Substrates  

PubMed Central

Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well.

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin

2012-01-01

397

Investigation of Radiation-Induced Free Radicals and Luminescence Properties in Fresh Pomegranate Fruits.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced free radicals and luminescence properties were investigated in ?-irradiated (0-3 kGy) pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruits. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) analysis showed limited applicability, and only 3 kGy-irradiated pomegranates showed positive PSL values (>5000 PCs). Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve features, such as intensity and the presence of maximum glow peak in radiation-specific temperature range (150-250 °C), provided definite proof of irradiation, and the TL ratios (TL1/TL2) also confirmed the reliability of TL results. Scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis of the separated minerals showed that feldspar and quartz minerals were responsible for the luminescence properties. Radiation-induced cellulose radicals were detected in the seeds and rinds by ESR analysis. The ESR results were better in freeze-dried samples than in alcohol-extracted ones. A positive correlation was found between the ESR and TL signal intensities and irradiation doses; however, the most promising detection of the irradiation status was possible through TL analysis. PMID:23565691

Shahbaz, Hafiz M; Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

2013-04-18

398

Effects of low preharvest temperature on scald susceptibility and biochemical changes in `Granny Smith' apple peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An over-tree mist system provided evaporative cooling of the `Granny Smith' apple fruit. The temperatures of fruit under mist, control (without mist) and air were recorded from 1 September until harvest. Fruit were harvested when 30, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 160h at less than 10°C had been recorded. Fruit maturity indices (flesh firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, starch index,

T. Thomai; E. Sfakiotakis; Gr. Diamantidis; M. Vasilakakis

1998-01-01

399

Transgenic Temperate Fruit Tree Rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperate fruit trees of the genus Malus (apple), Pyrus (pear) and Prunus (almond, apricot, sweet and sour cherry, peach, and plum) used for commercial fruit production and for backyard growers are usually grafted on clonal (asexually propagated) rootstocks. Rootstocks are used to propagate the fruiting scion onto a rooting system, to gain uniformity and precocity in fruiting portion compared to

SERGEY V DOLGOV; M-viola Hanke

400

Influence of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning instability and edge localized mode crash  

SciTech Connect

The E Multiplication-Sign B shear flow plays a dual role on peeling-ballooning modes and their subsequently triggered edge localized mode (ELM) crashes. On one hand, the flow shear can stabilize high-n modes and twist the mode in the poloidal direction, constraining the mode's radial extent and reducing the size of the corresponding ELM. On the other hand, the shear flow also introduces the Kelvin-Helmholtz drive, which can destabilize peeling-ballooning modes. The overall effect of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning modes and ELM crashes depends on the competition between these two effects. When the flow shear is either small or very large, it can reduce ELM size. However, for moderate values of flow shear, the destabilizing effect from the Kelvin-Helmholtz term is dominant and leads to larger ELM crashes.

Xi, P. W. [Fusion Simulation Center, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wang, X. G. [Fusion Simulation Center, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

2012-09-15

401

Piezoelectric film sensor for measurement of peel stresses in bonded joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesively bonded composite patches employed for repairing fatigue cracks in metallic airframe structural components often fail under peel stress generated in the structure. The application of piezoelectric stress sensors embedded within the bonded joint for direct measurement of the peel stresses is reported here. Polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) film of about 28 micron thickness coated with nickel copper is employed to construct hin sensors embedded between the composite patch and the metallic surface of the crotch joint specimen. PVDF sensor with varying sizes were constructed and calibrated using polycarbonate test specimens subjected to uniaxial tension and compression. The sensors were then embedded between the composite patch and the metallic surface of the crotch specimen to monitor the peel stresses in the adhesive. The measurements are compare with stresses in the adhesive. The measurements are compared with stresses predicted by finite element modeling.

Shankar, Krishnakumar; Tahtali, Murat; Chester, Richard; Torr, Glen

2001-06-01

402

Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Wampee (Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels) Peel  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant activities of wampee peel extracts using five different solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water) were determined by using in-vitro antioxidant models including total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and superoxide scavenging activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions, even higher than synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). In addition, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901), human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG-2) and human lung adenocarcinoma (A-549) cancer cell lines, higher than cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug. The total phenolic content of wampee fraction was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant and anticancer activities of the wampee peel extract. Thus, wampee peel can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.

Prasad, K. Nagendra; Hao, Jing; Yi, Chun; Zhang, Dandan; Qiu, Shengxiang; Jiang, Yueming; Zhang, Mingwei; Chen, Feng

2009-01-01

403

Pectic oligosacharides from lemon peel wastes: production, purification, and chemical characterization.  

PubMed

Lemon peel wastes were extracted with water to remove free sugars and other soluble compounds, and the insoluble solid was employed as a substrate for the manufacture of pectin-derived oligosaccharides by processing with hot, compressed water. When water-extracted lemon peel wastes were treated with water at 160 °C, the oligomer concentration reached the maximum value (31 g/L). Autohydrolysis liquors were subjected to two membrane filtration stages (diafiltration followed by concentration), yielding a refined product containing about 98 wt % of oligomers at a global yield of 14 kg/100 kg oven-dry lemon peel. The concentrate contained oligogalacturonides (with DP in the range of 2-18) and arabinooligosaccharides (with DP in the range of 2-8). PMID:24066740

Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Parajó, Juan C; Alonso, Jose L

2013-10-15

404

Mandarin peelings: the best carbon source to produce laccase by static cultures of Trametes pubescens.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of different carbon sources (glucose, glycerol and ground mandarin peelings) on laccase production by Trametes pubescens grown on stainless steel sponges under static conditions. The cultures with ground mandarin peelings gave the highest laccase activities, showing values of about 100 U l(-1). This is a very interesting result, since mandarin peelings are common agricultural wastes in some regions such as Mediterranean and Asiatic countries. Therefore, their reutilisation, besides reducing medium cost, also helps to solve the pollution problems caused by their disposal. Also, we studied the effect of supplementing the culture medium with different potential laccase-inducing compounds (ABTS, Tween 20, soya oil, Malaquite Green, Cu(2+), tannic acid) on laccase production. Soya oil was the best inducer of laccase activities, attaining values 4-fold higher than those obtained in the reference cultures. PMID:17234250

Osma, Johann F; Saravia, Verónica; Herrera, José L Toca; Couto, Susana Rodríguez

2007-01-17

405

Multiple minimally invasive Erbium:YAG laser mini-peels for skin rejuvenation: An objective assessment  

PubMed Central

Summary Background As the demand for minimally invasive rejuvenation is increasing, micro-peel resurfacing using Erbium:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG ) laser 2940 nm has been reported for the treatment of photoaged skin without ablation of the epidermis. However, little is known about the efficacy and underlying histologic changes associated with this type of treatment. Aims The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes in response to multiple sessions of Er:YAG laser 2940 nm mini-peels. Patients and methods Six female volunteers of Fitzpatrick skin type III-IV and Glogau’s class I-III wrinkles were subjected to six microresurfacing peels at 2-week intervals using Er:YAG 2940 nm laser at sub-ablative fluences of 2 - 3 J/cm2 to treat periorbital rhytides. Quantitative evaluation of collagen types I, III and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin and tropoelastin was performed by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry coupled with computerized morphometric analysis at base line, end of treatment, and three months post treatment. Results Compared to the base line, evaluation of volunteers revealed obvious clinical improvement in response to Er:YAG mini-peels. Collagen types I, III, and VII, as well as newly synthesized collagen, together with tropoelastin showed a statistically significant increase in response to treatment, while the mean level of total elastin was significantly decreased in response to treatment. However, this was followed by regression of improvement at 3 months post treatment, but was still better than baseline. Conclusions The present study revealed that multiple Er:YAG mini-peels is a promising treatment option for photoaging as it reverses the signs of photoaged skin with little downtime and side effects. However, to maintain the short term improvement achieved after treatment, continued Er:YAG 2940 nm laser mini-peels is required.

El-Domyati, Moetaz; El-Ammawi, Tarek S.; Medhat, Walid; Moawad, Osama; Mahoney, My G.; Uitto, Jouni

2012-01-01

406

Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

407

Fruits, Vegetables & Nuts  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... However, harmful bacteria that may be in the soil or water where produce grows may come in contact with and contaminate fruits, vegetables, and ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

408

An Experimental-Numerical Study of Metal Peel off in Cu\\/low-k Back-End Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire pull tests are generally conducted to assess the wire bonding quality. Using Cu\\/low-k technology, two failure modes are usually observed: Failure in the neck of the wire (neck break) and metal peel off (MPO). The objective of our study is to investigate the root cause of metal peel off by using a combined experimental and numerical approach. First, dedicated

K. Kregting; R. B. R. van Silfhout; O. van der Sluis; R. A. B. Engelen; W. D. van Driel; G. Q. Zhang

2006-01-01

409

Average bonding peel strength of geosynthetic clay liners after short-term exposure to water and jet fuel A-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average peak and bonding peel strengths of needle-punched thermally bonded geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) exposed to Jet Fuel A-1 are presented. Peel testing was performed on dry and saturated GCLs and the effect of stress during exposure was examined. GCLs exposed to Jet Fuel A-1 under zero stress for up to 14 days showed no statistically significant decrease in

P. Hurst; R. K. Rowe

2006-01-01

410

Activated carbon obtained by pyrolysis of potato peel for the removal of heavy metal copper (II) from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons (ACs) were prepared by pyrolysis of potato peel in presence of zinc chloride (chemical activities). Potato peel from Colombian cultives were impregnated with aqueous solutions of ZnCl2 following a variant of the incipient wetness method. Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios of 40, 70, 110 and 160wt.%. Activation was carried out under argon flow by heating

J. C. Moreno-Piraján; L. Giraldo

2011-01-01

411

Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Lemon Peels  

PubMed Central

Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from lemon peels by using ionic liquid as alternative solvent was investigated. The extracted pectin was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectra. The extraction conditions were optimized through the different experiments in conjunction with the response surface methodology. A pectin yield of 24.68 % was obtained under the optimal parameters: the extraction temperature of 88°C, the extraction time of 9.6?min, and a liquid-solid ratio of 22.7?ml · g?1. The structure of the pretreated lemon peel samples and the samples after microwave-assisted extraction were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope.

Guolin, Huang; Jeffrey, Shi; Kai, Zhang; Xiaolan, Huang

2012-01-01

412

Nanoscale Resolution, Multi-component Biomolecular Arrays Generated By Aligned Printing With Parylene Peel-Off  

PubMed Central

We present Print-and-Peel, a high-throughput method to generate multi-component biomolecular arrays with sub-100nm nanoscale feature width. An inkjet printer is first aligned to a parylene template containing nanoscale openings. After printing, the parylene is peeled off to reveal uniformly patterned nanoscale features, despite the imperfect morphologies of the original inkjet spots. We further patterned combinatorial nanoarrays by performing a second print-run superimposed over the first, thereby extending the multiplexing capability of the technique.

Tan, Christine P.; Cipriany, Benjamin R.; Lin, David M.; Craighead, Harold G.

2010-01-01

413

Facial skin rejuvenation: Ablative laser resurfacing, chemical peels, or photodynamic therapy? Facts and controversies.  

PubMed

Patients and cosmetic surgeons continue to develop innovative devices and techniques in search of the elusive fountain of youth. Our efforts in the past decade can be distilled to three primary approaches: refinement of existing technologies (ablative lasers); refinement of tried-and-true techniques (chemical peeling); and innovative use of new technologies (photorejuvenation). In this contribution, the authors discuss how these three approaches are used to achieve facial skin rejuvenation. Specifically, the authors compare and contrast the clinical benefits and disadvantages of the ablative fractionated and unfractionated carbon dioxide resurfacing lasers, medium-depth and deep chemical peeling, and the combination of photodynamic therapy with intense-pulsed light. PMID:24160279

Hassan, Khaled M; Benedetto, Anthony V

414

The Effect of Two Methods of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) Juice Extraction on Quality During Storage at 4°C  

PubMed Central

The effect of two extraction methods of pomegranate juice on its quality and stability was evaluated. The first method consisted of separation of the seeds from fruits and centrifugation. The second method consisted of squeezing fruit halves with an electric lemon squeezer. During a period of 72 hours of cold storage at 4°C, the juices were evaluated for the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins. Delphinidin 3-glucoside was identified to be the major anthocyanin present at the level of 45–69?mg/L. Among the organic acids, oxalic and tartaric acids dominated. The major sugars detected in pomegranate juice were glucose and sucrose. No significant differences in the content of sugars, organic acids, or anthocyanins in juices obtained through application of the two different extraction methods were detected, with the exception of the drastic decrease of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside level in juice obtained by seed centrifugation. The pH did not show differences between treatments. Titrable acidity and the level of sugars expressed as °Brix decreased after 32 and 15 hours after extraction, respectively, when juice was obtained by centrifuging the seeds.

Antunes, Dulce

2004-01-01

415

Isolation of banana lectin-a practical scale procedure from ripe banana fruit.  

PubMed

Banana lectin (BanLec) was isolated from slightly overripe bananas (PCI 6-7) by homogenation in NaCl solution, followed by extraction in the presence of glucose, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and affinity chromatography. Yields were approximately 10-fold greater that those of previously published methods using acidic extraction from very overripe fruit (Peel Color Index [PCI] 7+). By dilution of added isotopically labeled recombinant lectin, the content of total exchangeable BalLec was shown to be constant or to slightly decrease with increasing stage of ripeness, even though extractable BanLec increased, followed by rapid decrease in overripened fruit. In the course of this study we observed that recombinant BanLec expressed in Escherichia coli, although chemically and functionally identical to native BanLec, differed slightly in its apparent molecular size on gel filtration, probably due to differences in its native folding. PMID:23379275

Wearne, Kimberly; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J

2013-01-01

416

WITHDRAWN: Anti-proliferative effects of compounds from the fruit peel of Wisteria floribunda on vascular smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. PMID:20951585

Trung, Trinh Nam; Ha, Do Thi; Yim, Namhui; Ngoc, Tran Minh; Phuong, Tran Thi; Thu, Nguyen Bich; Luong, Hoang Van; Bae, Kihwan

2010-09-25

417

21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limitations provided: Substances Limitations Hydrogen peroxide Used in combination with acetic acid to form peroxyacetic...Peroxyacetic acid Prepared by reacting acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide. Not to exceed 80 ppm in wash water....

2013-04-01

418

21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vegetables. Sodium n- alkylbenzene-sulfonate (alkyl group predominantly...dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates (mol. wt. 245-260...dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates (mol. wt. 245-260...to exceed 3 ppm. Linear...

2009-04-01

419

21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vegetables. Sodium n- alkylbenzene-sulfonate (alkyl group predominantly...dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates (mol. wt. 245-260...dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates (mol. wt. 245-260...to exceed 3 ppm. Linear...

2010-01-01

420

Tomato allergy: detection of IgE-binding lipid transfer proteins in tomato derivatives and in fresh tomato peel, pulp, and seeds.  

PubMed

There is an increasing consumption of tomatoes worldwide: fresh in salads, cooked in household sauces, or industrially processed. Although many tomato allergens have been identified, there is no information in the literature on the allergenic components found in commercial tomato products. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the allergenic profile of commercial tomato products by skin prick tests (SPTs) and IgE/immunoblotting in tomato-allergic subjects. The secondary end point was the study of the IgE-binding profile of tomato peel, pulp, and seeds. Forty tomato-allergic patients, reporting oral allergy syndrome (OAS) at different grades of severity for fresh and, in some cases, also for cooked tomato, were selected on the basis of positive tomato allergy history or open food challenge (OFC). They were evaluated by SPTs with different experimental tomato extracts. SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting was performed to detect tomato allergens, which were then identified by Edman degradation. Twenty-three patients (57.5%) presented first-grade OAS at the OFC, whereas 17 (42.5%) reported severe symptoms. Ten of these 17 patients (25%) reported allergic reactions to cooked tomatoes; in immunoblotting tests, their sera reacted only to lipid transfer protein (LTP). In commercial products, LTP was the only detectable allergen. In contrast to other LTP-containing fruits, in tomato, an IgE-binding LTP was identified not only in the peel but also in the pulp and seeds. This study demonstrates that, in fresh tomato, different LTP isoforms are present and allergenic. Industrial tomato derivatives still contain LTP, thus presenting a problem for LTP-allergic patients. PMID:19919119

Pravettoni, Valerio; Primavesi, Laura; Farioli, Laura; Brenna, Oreste V; Pompei, Carlo; Conti, Amedeo; Scibilia, Joseph; Piantanida, Marta; Mascheri, Ambra; Pastorello, Elide A

2009-11-25

421

Differential attraction of Aedes albopictus in the field to flowers, fruits and honeydew.  

PubMed

Sugar is the main source of energy for the activities of mosquitoes; however, information on the vital sugar feeding of Aedes albopictus in the field is scanty and often anecdotal. Using glue traps and baits, we evaluated the attraction of Ae. albopictus to 28 different, potential sugar sources. Control traps were baited with either sugar-water solution or water alone, and since there was no significant difference between these controls, the water control was used as the standard for comparison. The total catch amounted to 1347 females and 1127 males. An attraction index (mean number of mosquitoes attracted to the baits/mean number of mosquitoes attracted to the control) was used to compare the relative attraction of the baits. The attraction index of significantly attractive baits ranged from 2.5 to 50.0 and the index of others ranged from 0.50 to 2.75. None of the baits were repellent. Significantly high attraction was observed for four of six ornamental flowers (Tamarix chinensis, Vitex agnus-castus, Polygonum baldchuanicum, Buddleja davidii), four of eleven wild flowers (Prosopis farcta, Ziziphus spina-christi, Polygonum equisetiforme, Ceratonia siliqua), the only tested seed pod when damaged and fermenting (C. siliqua), and all five of the tested fruits: Opuntia ficus indica (sabra), Ficus carica (fig), Punica granatum (pomegranate, damaged), Eriobotyra japonica (loquat), and Rubus sanctus (raspberry). Unlike damaged, fermenting carob seed pods and pomegranates, the fresh fruits were not attractive. Attraction to foliage soiled with honeydew excretion of three different aphid species was also not significant. The potential to use attractive sugar sources for mosquito control is discussed. PMID:21310142

Müller, Günter C; Xue, Rui-De; Schlein, Yosef

2011-02-16

422

Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps.  

PubMed

Fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen pulps (FP) consumed in the Brazilian diet were analyzed for antioxidant activities using two different methods, one that determines the inhibition of copper-induced peroxidation of liposome and another based on the inhibition of the co-oxidation of linoleic acid and beta-carotene. The anthocyanin-rich samples showed the highest, concentration-dependent, antioxidant activities in both systems. In the liposome system, at both 10 and 50 microM gallic acid equivalent (GAE) addition levels, the neutral and acidic flavonoids of red cabbage, red lettuce, black bean, mulberry, Gala apple peel, jambolao, acai FP, mulberry FP, and the acidic flavonoids of acerola FP showed the highest antioxidant activities (>85% inhibition). In the beta-carotene bleaching system, the samples cited above plus red guava gave inhibition values >70%. On the other hand, some samples showed pro-oxidant activity in the liposome system coincident with a low antioxidant activity in the beta-carotene system. There was no relationship between total phenolics content, vitamin C, and antioxidant activity, suggesting that the antioxidant activity is a result of a combination of different compounds having synergic and antagonistic effects. PMID:15826041

Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Genovese, Maria Inés; Lajolo, Franco Maria

2005-04-20

423

Quality of nectarine and peach nectars as affected by lye-peeling and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was focused on nectarine and peach nectars, with the aim to evaluate different quality indices at the time of production and to devise a predictive model for quality variation during storage at 23 and 37°C. Nectars were produced from the Elegant Lady and Redhaven peach varieties and from the Stark Red Gold nectarine variety, from both peeled and

Vera Lavelli; Carlo Pompei; Maria Aurelia Casadei

2009-01-01

424

Effect of Peel-Ply Surface Preparation Variables on Bond Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The understanding of composite bonding lags behind that of metals. Although techniques to achieve good bond strength in composites have been developed, the role of surface-preparation techniques, such as peel-ply removal at the fundamental level, is poorl...

B. Flinn M. Phariss

2006-01-01

425

Peeling of convection cells and the generation of sheared flow as relaxation to minimum enstrophy  

SciTech Connect

Recent work by Drake {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Fluids B {bold 4}, 488 (1992)) has found that convection cells can generate large-scale shear flows by a dynamical process called peeling.'' Here, it is shown that this process can be viewed as a relaxation to a state where enstrophy is minimized relative to a fixed energy.

Mattor, N. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States))

1992-10-01

426

Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified

Susana Johann; Vetúria Lopes de Oliveira; Moacir G Pizzolatti; Jan Schripsema; Raimundo Braz-Filho; Alexsandro Branco; Artur Smânia Jr

2007-01-01

427

Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of the Citrus decumana L. peel extract.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Citrus decumana peel extract. Antioxidant activity of Citrus decumana peel extract in four solvent systems was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(.)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) radical scavenging methods. Ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus decumana (EtCD) was studied for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at a dose level of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory activity was performed using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions in mice. EtCD showed significant antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner when compared with ascorbic acid. EtCD at the dose of 300 mg/kg produced significant decrease in paw volume and pain when compared with reference drug diclofenac and morphine, respectively. The Citrus decumana peel extract may be useful as a natural antioxidant in the treatment of inflammation and pain. PMID:19763789

Sood, Shailja; Arora, Bhawna; Bansal, Stuti; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Gill, Naresh Singh; Arora, Rashmi; Bali, Manoj; Sharma, Pritam Dev

2009-09-19

428

Peeling Single Stranded DNA from Graphite Surface to Determine Oligonucleotide Binding Energy by Force Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We measured the force required to peel single-stranded DNA molecules from single-crystal graphite using chemical force microscopy. Force traces during retraction of a tip chemically modified with oligonucleotides displayed characteristic plateaus with abrupt force jumps, which we interpreted as a steady state peeling process punctuated by complete detachment of one or more molecules. We were able to differentiate between bases in pyrimidine homopolymers – peeling forces were 85.3±4.7 pN for polythymine and 60.8±5.5 pN for polycytosine, substantially independent of salt concentration and the rate of detachment. We developed a model for peeling a freely jointed chain from the graphite surface and estimated the average binding energy per monomer to be 11.5±0.6 kBT and 8.3±0.7 kBT in the cases of thymine and cytosine nucleotides. The equilibrium free-energy profile simulated using molecular dynamics had a potential well of 18.9 kBT for thymidine, showing that non-electrostatic interactions dominate the binding. The discrepancy between the experiment and theory indicates that not all bases are adsorbed on the surface or that there is a population of conformations in which they adsorb. Force spectroscopy using oligonucleotides covalently linked to AFM tips provides a flexible and unambiguous means to quantify the strength of interactions between DNA and a number of substrates, potentially including nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes.

Manohar, Suresh; Mantz, Amber R.; Bancroft, Kevin E.; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Jagota, Anand; Vezenov, Dmitri V.

2009-01-01

429

Incidence, Growth, and Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in Cooked and Peeled Cold-Water Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooked and peeled cold-water shrimp (Pandalus jordani) naturally contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes were obtained from a processor for a series of studies to determine the level of contamination and growth characteristics of this bacterium in the naturally contaminated product. L. monocytogenes was isolated from every 25-g sample of individually quick frozen (IQF) shrimp that was tested. The level of contamination

R. N. Paranjpye; M. E. Peterson; F. T. Poysky; M. W. Eklund

2008-01-01

430

Pre-storage UV-White Light Irradiation Alters Apple Peel Metabolome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global metabolic profiling of ‘Granny Smith’ apple peel was employed for evaluating metabolomic alterations resulting from pre-storage UV-white light irradiation. Apples were bagged mid-season to restrict sunlight, harvested at the pre-climacteric stage prior to bag removal, treated with fluorescen...

431

Uptake of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by biosorption onto granular kohlrabi peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low cost, locally available biomaterial was tested for its ability to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution. Granules prepared from kohlrabi peel had been utilized as a sorbent for uptake of three cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and acridine orange (AO). The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g., dye concentration, particle size, initial pH, contact

Renmin Gong; Xiaoping Zhang; Huijun Liu; Yingzhi Sun; Birong Liu

2007-01-01

432

Constructing Addiction from Experience and Context: Peele and Brodsky's Love and Addiction Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peele and Brodsky (1975) first proposed the experiential-constructivist model of addiction utilizing the construct of compulsive interpersonal attachment (then not viewed as an addiction) as a vehicle to argue that substance addiction is rooted in experiential and contextual forces. One of these contextual forces is the prevalence of the disease mindset itself. With increasing legitimacy accorded to disordered love attachments

Alex W. Kwee

2007-01-01

433

Coming Up to Speed: Investigating a learning community for the Peel region, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project was to identify characteristics of a learning community and the type of vision, and values, that have been associated with effective lifelong learning, and to consider how these might enmesh with existing planning and priorities of the City of Mandurah and the wider Peel region. A second feature of the investigation was to identify how

Jennifer Nevard; Challenger TAFE; Dorothy Lucks

434

Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil fertility in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical areas, where crop production is limited by low soil quality, the development of techniques improving soil fertility without damage to the environment is a priority. In French Guiana, we used subsistence fanner plots on poor acidic soils to test the effect of different organic amendments, bitter manioc peel (M), sawdust (Sw) and charcoal (Ch), on soil nutrient content,

Stéphanie Topoliantz; Jean-François Ponge; Sylvain Ballof

2005-01-01

435

Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics\\u000a were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had

G. Oboh; A. O. Ademosun

436

Energy performance analysis of Region of Peel Headquarters Building as a sustainable building using the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of building energy simulation and its relationship with heating and cooling energy calculation help to make an integrated evaluation of building energy consumption. This is used to achieve a better and more energy efficient building. The sensitivity analysis of energy efficient HVAC design was used to create an energy efficient Peel Region Headquarters Building. An energy audit was

Afzal Siraj Siddique

2008-01-01

437

Flavonoid composition of fruit tissues of citrus species.  

PubMed

An HPLC analysis was performed on the concentrations of flavonoids in 42 species and cultivars of the Citrus genus and those of two Fortunella and one Poncirus species according to the classification system established by Tanaka. The composition of 8 flavanones and 9 flavone/ols for these species was determined in the albedo, flavedo, segment epidermis and juice vesicle tissues, and those in the fruit and peel tissues were calculated from the composition data of the tissues. A principal component analysis showed that such neohesperidosyl flavonoids as neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, and rhoifolin had large factor loading values in the first principal component for each tissue. The flavonoid composition of citrus fruits was approximately the same within each section of Tanaka's system, except for the species in the Aurantium section and those with a peculiar flavonoid composition such as Bergamot (C. bergamia), Marsh grapefruit (C. paradisi), Sour orange (C. aurantium), and Shunkokan (C. shunkokan). The Aurantium section included both naringin-rich and hesperidin-rich species. PMID:16428836

Nogata, Yoichi; Sakamoto, Koji; Shiratsuchi, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Toshinao; Yano, Masamichi; Ohta, Hideaki

2006-01-01

438

Peel strength of denture liner to PMMA and polyamide: laser versus air-abrasion  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study investigated the effect of laser parameters and air-abrasion on the peel strength of silicon-based soft denture liner to different denture resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS Specimens (N=180) were prepared out of three different denture base resins (Rodex, cross-linked denture base acrylic resin; Paladent, heat-cured acrylic resin; Deflex, Polyamide resin) (75 mm × 25 mm × 3 mm). A silicon-based soft denture liner (Molloplast B) was applied to the denture resins after the following conditioning methods: a) Air-abrasion (50 µm), b) Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase MD Turbo, Biolase Technology) at 2 W-20 Hz, c) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 2 W-30 Hz, d) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-20 Hz, e) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-30 Hz. Non-conditioned group acted as the control group. Peel test was performed in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were evaluated visually. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=.05). RESULTS Denture liner tested showed increased peel strength after laser treatment with different parameters (3.9±0.4 - 5.58±0.6 MPa) compared to the control (3.64±0.5 - 4.58±0.5 MPa) and air-abraded groups (3.1±0.6 - 4.46±0.3 MPa), but the results were not statistically significant except for Paladent, with the pretreatment of Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-20 Hz. Polyamide resin after air-abrasion showed significantly lower peel strength than those of other groups (3.1±0.6 MPa). CONCLUSION Heat-cured acrylic resin, PMMA, may benefit from Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment at 3 W-20 Hz irradiation. Air-abrasion of polyamide resins should be avoided not to impair their peel bond strengths to silicon-based soft denture liners.

Bagis, Bora; Ozcan, Mutlu; Durkan, Rukiye; Turgut, Sedanur; Ates, Sabit Melih

2013-01-01

439

QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALLOONING MODES  

SciTech Connect

OAK A271 QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALLOONING MODES. Two of the major issues crucial for the design of the next generation tokamak burning plasma devices are the predictability of the edge pedestal height and control of the divertor heat load in H-mode configurations. Both of these are strongly impacted by edge localized modes (ELMs) and their size. A working model for ELMs is that they are intermediate toroidal mode number, n {approx} 5-30, peeling-ballooning modes driven by the large edge pedestal pressure gradient P{prime} and the associated large edge bootstrap current density J{sub BS}. the interplay between P{prime} and J{sub BS} as a discharge evolves can excite peeling-ballooning modes over a wide spectrum of n. The pedestal current density plays a dual role by stabilizing the high n ballooning modes via opening access to second stability but providing free energy to drive the intermediate n peeling modes. This makes a systematic evaluation of this model particularly challenging. This paper describes recent quantitative tests of this model using experimental data from the DIII-D and the JT-60U tokamaks. These tests are made possible by recent improvements to the ELITE MHD stability code, which allow an efficient evaluation of the unstable peeling-ballooning modes, as well as by improvements to other diagnostic and analysis techniques. Some of the key testable features of this model are: (1) ELMs are triggered when the growth rates of intermediate n MHD modes become significantly large; (2) ELM sizes are related to the radial widths of the unstable modes; (3) the unstable modes have a strong ballooning character localized in the outboard bad curvature region; (4) at high collisionality, ELM size generally becomes smaller because J{sub BS} is reduced.

LAO, LL; SNYDER, PB; LEONARD, AW; OSBORNE, TH; PETRIE, TW; FERRON, JR; GROEBNER, RJ; HORTON, LD; KAMADA, Y; MURAKAMI, M; OIKAWA, T; PEARLSTEIN, LD; SAARELMA, S; STJOHN, HE; THOMAS, DM; TURNBULL, AD; WILSON, HR

2002-07-01

440

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Fruit Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2009-04-01

441

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Fruit Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2010-04-01

442

21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Fruit Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2013-04-01

443

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-04-21

444

Pesticide residue dynamics in passion fruits: comparing field trial and modelling results.  

PubMed

We evaluated the exposure to pesticides from the consumption of passion fruits and subsequent human health risks by combining several methods: (i) experimental field studies including the determination of pesticide residues in/on passion fruits, (ii) dynamic plant uptake modelling, and (iii) human health risk assessment concepts. Eight commonly used pesticides were applied onto passion fruits cultivated in Colombia. Pesticide concentrations were measured periodically (between application and harvest) in whole fruits and fruit pulp. Measured concentrations were compared with predicted residues calculated with a dynamic and crop-specific pesticide uptake model, namely dynamiCROP. The model accounts for the time between pesticide application and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the amount of spray deposition on plant surfaces, uptake processes, dilution due to crop growth, degradation in plant components, and reduction due to food processing (peeling). Measured and modelled residues correspond well (r(2)=0.88-0.99), with all predictions falling within the 90% confidence interval of the measured values. A mean error of 43% over all studied pesticides was observed between model estimates and measurements. The fraction of pesticide applied during cultivation that is eventually ingested by humans is on average 10(-4)-10(-6), depending on the time period between application and ingestion and the processing step considered. Model calculations and intake fractions via fruit consumption based on experimental data corresponded well for all pesticides with a deviation of less than a factor of 2. Pesticide residues in fruits measured at recommended harvest dates were all below European Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) and therefore do not indicate any violation of international regulatory thresholds. PMID:22673401

Juraske, Ronnie; Fantke, Peter; Ramírez, Ana Cecilia Romero; González, Alonso

2012-06-04

445

Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among U.S. males, with a similar trend in many Western countries. One approach to control this malignancy is its prevention through the use of agents present in diet consumed by humans. Pomegranate from the tree Punica granatum possesses strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. We

Arshi Malik; Farrukh Afaq; Sami Sarfaraz; Vaqar M. Adhami; Deeba N. Syed; Hasan Mukhtar

2005-01-01

446

Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits UVB-induced inflammation and proliferation by modulating NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways in mouse skin†  

PubMed Central

There is considerable interest in the identification of natural agents capable of affording protection to skin from the adverse effects of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) fruit possess strong anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Recently, we have shown that oral feeding of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) to mice afforded substantial protection from the adverse effects of single UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the photochemopreventive effects of PFE (0.2%, w/v) after multiple UVB irradiations (180 mJ/cm2; on alternative day; for a total of seven treatments) to the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice. Oral feeding of PFE to SKH-1 mice inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration of leukocytes, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that oral feeding of PFE to mice inhibited UVB-induced (i) nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of NF-?B/p65, (ii) phosphorylation and degradation of I?B?, (iii) activation of IKK?/IKK?, and (iv) phosphorylation of MAPK proteins and c-Jun. PFE consumption also inhibited UVB-induced protein expression of (i) COX-2 and iNOS, (ii) PCNA and cyclin D1, and (iii) matrix metalloproteinases-2,-3 and -9 in mouse skin. Taken together, these data show that PFE consumption afforded protection to mouse skin against the adverse effects of UVB radiation by modulating UVB-induced signaling pathways.

Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N.; Pal, Harish Chandra; Mukhtar, Hasan; Afaq, Farrukh

2012-01-01

447

Heat treatment and fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postharvest heat treatments lead to an alteration of gene expression and fruit ripening can sometimes be either delayed or disrupted. The extent of the alternation of fruit ripening is a function of the exposure temperature and duration and how quickly the commodity is cooled following the heat treatment. The most commonly measured components of fruit ripening affected by heat treatments

Robert E Paull; Nancy Jung Chen

2000-01-01

448

Microbial Safety of Tropical Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. Tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. Tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. Documented outbreaks of foodborne

Laura K. Strawn; Keith R. Schneider; Michelle D. Danyluk

2011-01-01

449

Anthocyanins in Blackcurrant Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robinson and Robinson1 investigated the anthocyanin pigments of the fruit of the blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and stated that the skins contained a cyanidin-3-bioside. Gyanidin was the only aglycone found; but it was thought possible that small amounts of delphinidin were present. Fouassin2 has recently examined blackcurrant pigments by paper chromatography and has found two glycosides of cyanidin and two glycosides

B. V. Chandler; K. A. Harper

1958-01-01

450

Fruits and vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods. Humans need to consume these in order to get the nutrients they need to grow and maintain their bodies. People with anorexia would probably not eat these foods or any other foods. Anorexia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted with anorexia doesn't eat or eats very little food.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-07-23

451

The Passiflora tripartita (Banana Passion) fruit: a source of bioactive flavonoid C-glycosides isolated by HSCCC and characterized by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS/MS.  

PubMed

The banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita Breiter, Passifloraceae) known as "tumbo" is very appreciated in tropical and subtropical countries of South America. Methanolic extracts from peel and the fruit juice of P. tripartita growing in Chile were analyzed for antioxidant capacity as well as for flavonoid and phenolic content. A chromatographic method was developed for the rapid identification of the main phenolics in the samples by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. The fast fingerprint analysis allowed the detection of eighteen flavonoid C-glycosides and four flavonoid O-glycoside derivatives which were characterized by UV spectra and ESI-MS-MS analysis. Several of the C-glycosides detected are structurally related to the orientin derivative 4'-methoxy-luteolin-8-C-(6"acetyl)-b-D-glucopyranoside (31), fully elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant derivative 31 along with schaftoside, vicenin II, orientin and vitexin were isolated from the fruit extract by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). A suitable method for the preparative isolation of flavonol C-glycosides from "tumbo" extracts by HSCCC is reported. The pulp of the fruits showed good antioxidant capacity (12.89 ± 0.02 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). The peel presented the highest content of flavonoids (56.03 ± 4.34 mg quercetin/100 g dry weight) which is related to the highest antioxidant power (10.41 ± 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). PMID:23358325

Simirgiotis, Mario J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Bórquez, Jorge; Kennelly, Edward J

2013-01-28

452

Response of wild-type and high pigment-1 tomato fruit to UV-B depletion: flavonoid profiling and gene expression.  

PubMed

The tomato high pigment-1 (hp-1) mutant is characterised by exaggerated photoresponsiveness and increased fruit pigmentation, and carries a mutation in the HP1/LeDDB1 gene, encoding the tomato homologue of the negative regulator of the light signal transduction DDB1a from Arabidopsis. Here, we investigated the molecular events underlying flavonoid accumulation in flesh and peel of wild-type and hp-1 fruits in presence or absence of UV-B light. In hp-1 peel, a twofold higher level of rutin and an earlier accumulation of flavonoids than in wild-type were observed, which correlated to the earlier activation of most flavonoid biosynthetic genes compared to wild-type. In hp-1 flesh, flavonoid content was up to 8.5-fold higher than in wild-type and correlated to the higher transcript level of flavonoid genes compared to wild-type. In both tissues, the expression of flavonoid genes was correlated with the anticipated and/or enhanced activation of the light signal transduction genes: LeCOP1LIKE, LeCOP1 and LeHY5. In wild-type, flavonoid content was severely reduced by UV-B depletion mostly in peel, whereas in hp-1 it was significantly increased in flesh. The activation of flavonoid and light signal transduction genes was UV-B dependent mostly at the mature green stage, whereas LeDDB1 expression was not regulated by UV-B. PMID:20033231

Calvenzani, Valentina; Martinelli, Moira; Lazzeri, Valerio; Giuntini, Deborah; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Galaverna, Gianni; Tonelli, Chiara; Ranieri, Annamaria; Petroni, Katia

2009-12-22

453

AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES IN HAWAIIAN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four economically important fruit flies have been accidentally introduced into Hawaii: melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and Malaysian fruit fly. Over 400 different host fruits are attacked. These fruit flies inhibit development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable i...

454

Parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.  

PubMed

Parthenocarpic fruit development is a very attractive trait for growers and consumers. In tomato, three main sources of facultative parthenocarpy, pat, pat-2, pat-3/pat-4, are known to have potential applications in