Sample records for granatum peel fruits

  1. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Results: Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7th day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14th day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21st day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Conclusion: Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P. granatum in diabetes. Fruit peel which is normally thrown by many while eating pomegranate fruit is having anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and Antioxidant activity. Furthermore high therapeutic index is safe for chronic use. PMID:25810635

  2. Protective role of Citrus sinensis, Musa paradisiaca, and Punica granatum peels against diet-induced atherosclerosis and thyroid dysfunctions in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamendra Singh Parmar; Anand Kar

    2007-01-01

    Fruit peels are generally considered as waste. This may not hold true for all types of fruit peels. Therefore, an attempt has been made to reveal the protective role of Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca peel extracts in diet-induced atherosclerosis and thyroid dysfunction in rats. Wistar albino male rats were fed an atherogenic diet composed of 4% cholesterol,

  3. Biosorption optimization of nickel removal from water using Punica granatum peel waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Bhatnagar; A. K. Minocha

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel waste for the removal of nickel from water. Batch experiments were performed to study the biosorption of nickel on prepared pomegranate peel adsorbent. The sorption process was well explained with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum sorption capacity of pomegranate peel adsorbent for nickel removal was ca.

  4. Adsorptive removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol from water utilizing Punica granatum peel waste and stabilization with cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Bhatnagar; A. K. Minocha

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the adsorption potential of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel as an adsorbent for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration and temperature by batch method. The adsorption capacity of pomegranate peel adsorbent for 2,4-DCP was found to be 65.7mgg?1. The equilibrium adsorption data was

  5. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vishal; Viswanatha, G. L.; Manohar, D.; Shivaprasad, H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG) and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, ?-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in ?-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25??g/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41??g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400?mg/kg, p.o.) and VAD (10, 25, and 50?mg/kg, p.o.) have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400?mg/kg, p.o.), VAD (10, 25, and 50?mg/kg, p.o.), and glibenclamide (10?mg/kg, p.o.) treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:22919408

  6. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300?mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Punica granatum Peel Ethanol Extract against Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang-Gi; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Lee, Young-Seob; Chae, Hee-Sung; Oh, You-Chang; Brice, Obiang-Obounou; Kim, Min-San; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Hun-Soo; Park, Hyun; Shin, Dong-Won; Rho, Jung-Rae; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2011-01-01

    Punica granatum is commonly used in Korea as a traditional medicine for the treatment of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of P. granatum peel EtOH extract (PGPE) against 16 strains of Salmonella. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of PGPE were in the range of 62.5–1000?x03BCg?mL?1. In addition, the in vivo antibacterial activity of the PGPE extract was examined in a S. typhimurium infection mouse model. Mice were initially infected with S. typhimurium and then with PGPE. The extract was found to have significant effects on mortality and the numbers of viable S. typhimurium recovered from feces. Although clinical signs and histological damage were rarely observed in the treated mice, the untreated controls showed signs of lethargy and histological damage in the liver and spleen. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that PGPE has the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis. PMID:19687188

  8. Comparison of antioxidant capacities and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriporn Okonogi; Chadarat Duangrat; Songyot Anuchpreeda; Suganya Tachakittirungrod; Sombat Chowwanapoonpohn

    2007-01-01

    This work was undertaken to explore the potential of fruit waste materials as sources of powerful natural antioxidants. The peels of eight kinds of fruits commonly consumed and grown in Thailand were used. The ethanolic fruit peel extracts were subjected to the scavenging tests of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Results from both assays were in good agreement that the top

  9. Comparative analysis of free radical scavenging potential of several fruit peel extracts by in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Parmar, H S; Kar, A

    2009-04-01

    We studied the radical scavenging potential of several fruit peel extracts using various standard chemical and biochemical in vitro methods. Peel extracts of C. sinensis (CS), P. granatum (PG), M. paradisiaca (MP), C. vulgaris (CV), C. melo (CM), M. indica (MI), and C. papaya (CP) were used in the present study and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) was used as a standard. Marked 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was observed with 25 ?g/mL of CS and MP and 50 ?g/mL of PG, while all the studied doses of CP were found to be pro-oxidative. ?-Carotene bleaching revealed a higher singlet oxygen scavenging potential of all the peel extracts except MI. High NO-radical scavenging activity was observed at 25 ?g/mL of PG and MP. Inhibition test of H2O2-induced LPO in erythrocytes or in liver tissue showed that all the peels tested were effective on peroxy-radicals at one or other doses. The present study revealed the radical scavenging activity of the test peel extracts in a manner that was dose- and radical/methodspecific. Therefore, evaluation of the efficacy of herbal extracts should be carried out using different methods and not merely a single in vitro method. PMID:22495477

  10. Physicochemical Properties, Vitamin C Content, and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate Fruit ( Punica granatum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linus U. Opara; Majeed R. Al-Ani; Yusra S. Al-Shuaibi

    2009-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit is widely used in the food and process industries due to its excellent nutritional and health value and as a raw\\u000a material for the manufacture of secondary products such as jellies, dyes, and cosmetics. The objectives of this research were\\u000a to determine the vitamin C content and antimicrobial properties of fresh and dried fractions of

  11. Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues. PMID:25304489

  12. Characterization of Punica granatum L. peels and quantitatively determination of its biosorption behavior towards lead(II) ions and Acid Blue 40.

    PubMed

    Ay, Ci?dem Omero?lu; Ozcan, A Safa; Erdo?an, Yunus; Ozcan, Adnan

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a waste biomass of Punica granatum L. (P. granatum L.) peels was firstly characterized by means of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, elemental analysis, FT-IR, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and zeta potential measurement techniques. FT-IR results indicated that the mechanism involved in the biosorption of lead(II) ions and AB40 onto biosorbent was mainly attributed to lead(II) ions and dye binding of amino, carboxylic, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. The biosorption abilities of P. granatum L. peels for lead(II) ions and Acid Blue 40 (AB40) were then investigated. Biosorption equilibrium and kinetic data fit well by the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models, respectively. The maximum biosorption capacities were 193.9 mg g(-1) for lead(II) ions and 138.1 mg g(-1) for AB40. Biosorption processes were spontaneous and endothermic in nature according to the thermodynamic results and the equilibrium was attained within 50 min. The validity of used kinetic models in this study can be quantitatively checked by using a normalized standard deviation ?q(%). Finally, the biosorption procedure was adopted to treat the real and simulated wastewaters including several metal salts and dyes. The wastewater applications have shown that the biosorbent indicated a reasonable biosorption capability to remove lead(II) ions (98.07%) and AB40 (94.76%) from industrial wastewaters. PMID:22766298

  13. Chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Hymenaea courbaril fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, José Cláudio D; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Lavor, Patrícia L; Veras, Helenicy N H; Ferreira, Yana S; Lima, Michele A A; Arriaga, Angela M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Lima, Jefferson Q; de Jesus, Hugo C R; Alves, Péricles B; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2010-12-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils from the peel of ripe and unripe fruits of Hymenaea courbaril L., obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil from the peel of the ripe fruits were the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (11.1%), spathulenol (10.1%) and beta-selinene (8.2%), while germacrene-D (31.9%), beta-caryophyllene (27.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%) were the major compounds in the oil from unripe fruits. The essential oils were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae and showed LC50 values of 14.8 +/- 0.4 microg/mL and 28.4 +/- 0.3 microg/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit peel oils, respectively. From the peel of the ripe fruits, the diterpenes zanzibaric acid and isoozic acid were isolated, along with the sesquiterpene caryolane-1,9beta-diol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this sesquiterpene in the genus. The structures of all compounds isolated were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. PMID:21299135

  14. Inhibition of microbial pathogens using fruit and vegetable peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Rakholiya, Kalpna; Kaneria, Mital; Chanda, Sumitra

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the antimicrobial potency of some vegetable and fruit peels. The extraction was done by individual cold percolation method using various solvents with increasing polarity (Hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous). The antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion assay against five Gram positive bacteria, five Gram negative bacteria and four fungi. All extracts demonstrated varied level of antimicrobial activity. The peel extracts showed highest zone of inhibition against Gram negative bacteria as compared to Gram positive bacteria and fungi. Amongst studied peel extracts Citrus limon followed by Manilkara zapota and Carica papaya showed good antimicrobial activity indicating its potency as a promising source of natural antimicrobics. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used. PMID:24725235

  15. Differentiation-Promoting Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Fruit Extracts in HL60 Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Kawaii; Ephraim P. Lansky

    2004-01-01

    Differentiation refers to the ability of cancer cells to revert to their normal counterparts, and its induction rep- resents an important noncytotoxic therapy for leukemia, and also breast, prostate, and other solid malignancies. Flavonoids are a group of differentiation-inducing chemicals with a potentially lower toxicology profile than retinoids. Flavonoid-rich polyphenol fractions from the pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit exert anti-proliferative, anti-invasive,

  16. Production of Antioxidant Nutraceuticals by Solid-State Cultures of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel and Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristóbal Noé Aguilar; Antonio Aguilera-Carbo; Armando Robledo; Janeth Ventura; Ruth Belmares; Diego Martinez; Raul Rodríguez-Herrera; Juan Contreras

    Summary In this work, creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) leaves and pomegranate (Punica grana- tum) peels were characterized for their use as a source of antioxidants and a support in so- lid-state fermentation. This work focuses on the kinetic evaluation of physicochemical changes during the fungal fermentation of two tannin-rich plant materials, mainly on the polyphenolic content. Aspergillus niger GH1 was

  17. The peel and pulp of mango fruit: a proteomic samba.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of mango peel and pulp as well their peptidome content (the latter as captured with a C18 resin). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the mango proteome, but also to assess the potential presence of allergens and of peptides endowed with biological activities. The proteins of peel and pulp have been captured under both native and denaturing extraction techniques. A total of 334 unique protein species have been identified in the peel vs. 2855 in the pulp, via capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). PMID:24056186

  18. Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 ?M Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 ?M Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25053022

  19. Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anjali Singh; Satya Prakash Singh; Ramesh Bamezai

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the inhibitory potential of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract on mouse skin papillomagensis with the modulatory influence of biotransformation system enzymes. Topical application of Momordica whole fruit extract (100 ?l\\/animal per day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)

  20. Mass modeling of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit with some physical characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Khoshnam; A. Tabatabaeefar; M. Ghasemi Varnamkhasti; A. Borghei

    2007-01-01

    Among physical characteristics, dimensions, mass, volume and projected areas are important parameters in sizing and grading systems. Fruits with the similar weight and uniform shape are desirable in terms of marketing value. Therefore, grading fruit based on weight reduces packing and handling costs and also provides suitable packing patterns. The different grading systems require different fruit sizing based on particular

  1. Flavonoids rich fraction of Citrus limetta fruit peels reduces proinflammatory cytokine production and attenuates malaria pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Shilpa; Maurya, Anil K; Jyotshna; Saxena, Archana; Shanker, Karuna; Pal, Anirban; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of possible pharmacological effects along with characterisation of the bioactive compounds present in peels may have a key role in converting the fruit waste materials into therapeutic value added products. Extracts prepared from the Citrus limetta fruit peels were studied for antioxidant and anti- inflammatory activity using in-vitro bioassays. Among all, ClEt an ethanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peels has shown promising anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. ClEt was further validated to ensure its safety evaluation at 2000mg/kg and anti-malarial efficacy at 100, 250, 500 mg/kg body weight with special reference to inflammatory mediators involved in malaria pathogenesis. In-vivo study revealed that ClEt was safe at higher dose and showed promising anti-malarial activity by inhibiting the parasitaemia and inflammatory mediators (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-6) involved in malaria pathogenesis, able to improve the haemoglobin and glucose level and increase the survival time. Chemical fingerprint of ClEt revealed the presence of flavonoids. Results suggested the suitability of ClEt, a flavonoid rich fraction of Citrus limetta fruit peels as a candidate for further investigation towards the management of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:25860065

  2. Sample preparation for single cell transcriptomics: essential oil glands in Citrus fruit peel as an example.

    PubMed

    Voo, Siau Sie; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2014-01-01

    Many plant natural products are synthesized in specialized cells and tissues. To learn more about metabolism in these cells, they have to be studied in isolation. Here, we describe a protocol for the isolation of epithelial cells that surround secretory cavities in Citrus fruit peel. Cells isolated using laser microdissection are suitable for RNA isolation and downstream transcriptome analyses. PMID:24777799

  3. Fruit shading enhances peel color, carotenes accumulation and chromoplast differentiation in red grapefruit.

    PubMed

    Lado, Joanna; Cronje, Paul; Alquézar, Berta; Page, Anton; Manzi, Matías; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Stead, Anthony D; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Rodrigo, María Jesús

    2015-08-01

    The distinctive color of red grapefruits is due to lycopene, an unusual carotene in citrus. It has been observed that red 'Star Ruby' (SR) grapefruits grown inside the tree canopy develop a more intense red coloration than those exposed to higher light intensities. To investigate the effect of light on SR peel pigmentation, fruit were bagged or exposed to normal photoperiodic conditions, and changes in carotenoids, expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and plastid ultrastructure in the peel were analyzed. Light avoidance accelerated chlorophyll breakdown and induced carotenoid accumulation, rendering fruits with an intense coloration. Remarkably, lycopene levels in the peel of shaded fruits were 49-fold higher than in light-exposed fruit while concentrations of downstream metabolites were notably reduced, suggesting a bottleneck at the lycopene cyclization in the biosynthetic pathway. Paradoxically, this increment in carotenoids in covered fruit was not mirrored by changes in mRNA levels of carotenogenic genes, which were mostly up-regulated by light. In addition, covered fruits experienced profound changes in chromoplast differentiation, and the relative expression of genes related to chromoplast development was enhanced. Ultrastructural analysis of plastids revealed an acceleration of chloroplasts to chromoplast transition in the peel of covered fruits concomitantly with development of lycopene crystals and plastoglobuli. In this sense, an accelerated differentiation of chromoplasts may provide biosynthetic capacity and a sink for carotenoids without involving major changes in transcript levels of carotenogenic genes. Light signals seem to regulate carotenoid accumulation at the molecular and structural level by influencing both biosynthetic capacity and sink strength. PMID:25676857

  4. Obtaining fruit segments from a traditional orange variety ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Sangrina) by enzymatic peeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Teresa Pretel; M. Ángeles Botella; Asunción Amorós; María Serrano; Isabel Egea; Felix Romojaro

    2007-01-01

    A process for obtaining fruit segments from a traditional orange of Sangrina variety by enzymatic peeling was optimized. Enzymatic\\u000a peeling was carried out by fruit infusion under vacuum conditions in a commercial preparation of pectinases and cellulases\\u000a (Peelzym II). For the optimization of vacuum conditions, the potential enzymatic saturation of albedo was determined. To obtain\\u000a a final product with good

  5. Bio-hydrogen generation from mixed fruit peel waste using anaerobic contact filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishnan Vijayaraghavan; Desa Ahmad; Christianto Soning

    2007-01-01

    A method of treating mixed fruit peel waste was investigated using anaerobic contact filter based on bio-hydrogen generation. The effectiveness of anaerobic treatment was monitored by varying the influent volatile solid content (46, 66 and 84g\\/L) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15 and 18 days). The results showed that for an influent volatile solid content

  6. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  7. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Banana (Musa, AAA cv. Cavendish) Fruits Peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matook Saif Mokbel; Fumio Hashinaga

    The fresh green and yellow banana peel of, (Musa, cv. Cavendish) fruits were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned with chloroform (CHCl3) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), sequentially. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the thiocyanate method, ß-carotene bleaching method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical elimination. While, antimicrobial activities of the extracts and isolated components were

  8. Comparative analysis of polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tunisian pome fruit pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts.

    PubMed

    Fattouch, S; Caboni, P; Coroneo, V; Tuberoso, C; Angioni, A; Dessi, S; Marzouki, N; Cabras, P

    2008-02-13

    Pome trees, apple, pear, and quince, are classified into the subfamily Pomoideae, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Their autumnal fruits are consumed worldwide in different forms, that is, fresh or transformed into jams, jelly, juices, etc. Their well-established beneficial properties to human health were found mainly related to their phenolic content. Pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts obtained from Tunisian fruits at commercial maturity were comparatively evaluated for their phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials. The phenolic compounds present in the extracts were identified and quantified using RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS techniques. Significant differences in the chromatographic profiles among these fruits, as well as between pulp and peel extracts of each fruit, were observed. Quince, followed by 'Red Delicious', peel extracts showed the highest phenolic content (160.33 and 110.90 mg/100 g of fresh weight). The stronger inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals corresponded to those obtained from peel materials. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial potential against a range of microorganism strains was also carried out. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus were the most sensitive to the active extracts. Among the examined phenolic extracts, 'Red Delicious' and quince peels showed the highest effects for inhibiting bacteria growth. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(4) microg of polyphenol/mL. Red skin apple and quince peels could be of great interest as important antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenol sources. PMID:18181568

  9. Chemical guide parameters for Punica granatum cv. 'Mollar' fruit juices processed at industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Lorente, José; Coll, Luís; Streitenberger, Sergio; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2014-03-15

    To contribute for setting reference guideline for commercial juice from the pomegranate variety 'Mollar', chemical composition of eighteen samples directly obtained and commercialised in 2012 from three different fruit juice factories was investigated. According to the findings, the relative density of direct pomegranate juices varied between 1.061 and 1.064, which correspond to 15.15 and 15.71°Brix; titratable acidity changed between 2.6 and 2.8g/L, citric acid between 2.3 and 2.8 g/L, l-malic acid in a range of 1.3-1.4 g/L, and d-isocitric acid at levels less than 20mg/L. Glucose values ranged from 61.4 to 65.0 g/L, whereas fructose displayed values between 65.3 and 68.0 g/L. The predominant mineral was potassium (2,400-2,900 mg/L), followed by phosphorous, magnesium, calcium and sodium at levels of 81-89 mg/L, 17.6-28.5mg/L, 5.8-7.5mg/L and 4.3-5.3mg/L, respectively. Chemical determinations of anthocyanin and ellagitannin profiles and amino acids contents were also carry out. Concentrations of anthocyanins in commercialised samples were Cy3,5dG (19.30 ± 3.47 mg/L), followed by Dp3,5dG (17.87 ± 6.74 mg/L) and Cy3G (12.91 ± 6.32 mg/L). Punicalagin levels ranged between 503.70 and 762.85 mg/L, punicalins between 239.9 and 364.5mg/L, and free ellagic acid level was typically between 268.67 and 389.64 mg/L. The juice samples exhibited high amount of total phenolics (1,136-3,581 mg/L) as well as high ABTS radical scavenging activity (18-31 mmol Trolox/L). PMID:24206706

  10. Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic Activity of Citrus limetta Fruit Peel in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    KunduSen, Sriparna; Haldar, Pallab K.; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K.; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Kar, Biswakanth

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of methanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peel (MECL) in streptozotocin-induced (STZ; 65?mg/kg b.w.) diabetic rats. Three days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received MECL orally at 200 and 400?mg kg?1 body weight daily for 15 days. Glibenclamide (0.5?mg kg?1 p. o.) was used as reference drug. Blood glucose levels were measured on 0th, 4th, 8th, and 15th days of study. Serum biochemical parameters namely, SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The TBARS and GSH levels of pancreas, kidney, and liver were determined. MECL significantly (P < 0.001) and dose dependently normalized blood glucose levels and serum biochemical parameters, decreased lipid peroxidation, and recovered GSH as compared to those of STZ control. The present paper infers that in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats, C. limetta fruit peel demonstrated a potential antihyperglycemic effect which may be attributed to its antioxidant property. PMID:22363893

  11. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

    PubMed Central

    Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Jung, Un Sun; Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Young Hoon; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Chang, Moon Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro), and anti-wrinkle (in vivo) effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract. Methods Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2?) and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow’s feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo. Results In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox). The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively. Conclusion The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin.

  12. [Furanocoumarins contents and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitory activities of various processed fruit peel products: outflow of 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin during processing treatment of peel].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masaru; Toda, Hikaru; Sunagane, Nobuyoshi; Ohta, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    Furanocoumarins (FCs) such as bergamottin (BG) and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHBG) contained in grapefruits are known to be cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors. These are contained in larger quantity in peel than in pulp, and therefore, processed peel products possibly have strong CYP3A4 inhibitory activity. The CYP3A4 inhibitory potency of these processed peel products, however, remains to be elucidated. The FC content and CYP3A inhibitory activities of various processed fruit peel products were investigated. CYP3A inhibitory activities of crystallized grapefruit peel, grapefruit marmalade, lemon peel and bitter orange slice were close to that of 100% grapefruit juice, while the activities of yuzu slice, pomelo (buntan) marmalade and crystallized iyokan peel were very weak, 1/8-1/20 of 100% grapefruit juice. The maximum BG content was 5.6 µg/g in lemon peel. The maximum DHBG content was 7.2 µg/g in crystallized grapefruit peel, about 1/30 that of raw peel. Grapefruit marmalade and crystallized grapefruit peel contained similar amounts of FCs to 100% grapefruit juice, but FCs were not detected in pomelo (buntan) marmalade or crystallized iyokan peel. Good correlation (r=0.78) was observed between the FC contents of these peel products and those CYP3A inhibitory activities. Preparation of homemade grapefruit marmalade and crystallized peel revealed that considerably lower DHBG content in these products and lower CYP3A inhibitory activity than anticipated were attributable to outflow of DHBG to broth during boiling of the raw peel. PMID:21532264

  13. Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

  14. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.

    PubMed

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

  15. Shell thickness-dependent Raman enhancement for rapid identification and detection of pesticide residues at fruit peels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bianhua; Han, Guangmei; Zhang, Zhongping; Liu, Renyong; Jiang, Changlong; Wang, Suhua; Han, Ming-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the shell thickness-dependent Raman enhancement of silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) for the identification and detection of pesticide residues at various fruit peels. The Raman enhancement of Au@Ag NPs to a large family of sulfur-containing pesticides is ~2 orders of magnitude stronger than those of bare Au and Ag NPs, and there is a strong dependence of the Raman enhancement on the Ag shell thickness. It has been shown for the first time that the huge Raman enhancement is contributed by individual Au@Ag NPs rather than aggregated Au@Ag NPs with "hot spots" among the neighboring NPs. Therefore, the Au@Ag NPs with excellent individual-particle enhancement can be exploited as stand-alone-particle Raman amplifiers for the surface identification and detection of pesticide residues at various peels of fruits, such as apple, grape, mango, pear, and peach. By casting the particle sensors onto fruit peels, several types of pesticide residues (e.g., thiocarbamate and organophosphorous compounds) have been reliably/rapidly detected, for example, 1.5 nanograms of thiram per square centimeter at apple peel under the current unoptimized condition. The surface-lifting spectroscopic technique offers great practical potentials for the on-site assessment and identification of pesticide residues in agricultural products. PMID:22122589

  16. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels

    PubMed Central

    Martos, María A.; Zubreski, Emilce R.; Garro, Oscar A.; Hours, Roque A.

    2013-01-01

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327

  17. Analysis of Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants Produced Through Submerged Fermentation Using Orange Fruit Peelings as Sole Carbon Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seba George; K. Jayachandran

    2009-01-01

    The fermentative production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297 was carried out by submerged fermentation using various cost-effective waste materials such as orange peelings,\\u000a carrot peel waste, lime peelings, coconut oil cake, and banana waste. The orange peel was found to be the best substrate generating\\u000a 9.18 g\\/l of rhamnolipid biosurfactant with a surface tension reduction up to 31.3 mN\\/m.

  18. Iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel for biosorption of Co(II): biosorption properties and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298-328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

  19. In vitro antioxidant activity and potential inhibitory action against ?-glucosidase of polysaccharides from fruit peel of tea (Camellia sinensis L.)* #

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-fei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jing; Xu, Ping; Wang, Yi-qi; Gao, Jun-jie; Hochstetter, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    The conditions for extracting polysaccharides from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel (TFPPs) were studied. Three parameters (temperature, time, and liquid/solid ratio) affecting the extraction of TFPP were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions, the yield of TFPP was predicted to be 4.98%. The physicochemical properties, in vitro antioxidant activities, and inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase of fractionated TFPPs (TFPP-0, TFPP-20, TFPP-40, and TFPP-60) were investigated. We found that the TFPPs were all acid protein-bound heteropolysaccharides, although with different chemical compositions. They had not only remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing activity, but also excellent inhibitory potential against ?-glucosidase in vitro. Our results suggest that tea fruit peel could be treated as a potential bioresource for the development of polysaccharide antioxidants. PMID:24510710

  20. Anthocyanin and colour changes during processing of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L., cv. Hicaznar) juice from sacs and whole fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özge Turfan; Meltem Türky?lmaz; Oktay Yemi?; Mehmet Özkan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of clarification and pasteurisation on anthocyanins (ACNs) and the colour of pomegranate juice (PJ) produced from sacs and whole fruits were investigated. Clarification caused a loss of 4% of ACNs in juice from sacs (JFS) and a loss of 19% in juice from whole fruit (JFWF). After pasteurisation, there was an 8–14% and 13–9% loss of ACNs from

  1. Effect of different coatings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Meighani, Hossein; Ghasemnezhad, Mahmood; Bakhshi, Davood

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three different coatings; resin wax (Britex Ti), carnauba wax (Xedasol M14), and chitosan (1 and 2 % w/v) on postharvest quality of pomegranate fruits were investigated. Fruits quality characteristics and bioactive compounds were evaluated during 40, 80 and 120 days storage at 4.5 °C and 3 additional days at 20 °C. The results showed that uncoated fruits showed higher respiration rate, weight loss, L* and b* values of arils, total soluble solids (TSS)/titratable acidity (TA), and pH than coated fruits during storage. Coating treatments could delay declining TSS and TA percent, a* value of arils, as well as bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The coated fruits with commercial resin and carnauba waxes showed significantly lower respiration rate and weight loss than other treatments, however carnauba wax could maintain considerably higher fruits quality and bioactive compounds than other coating treatments. The results suggested that postharvest application of carnauba wax have a potential to extend storage life of pomegranate fruits by reducing respiration rate, water loss and maintaining fruit quality. PMID:26139918

  2. Passion fruit peel extract attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chilakapati, Shanmuga Reddy; Serasanambati, Mamatha; Manikonda, Pavan Kumar; Chilakapati, Damodar Reddy; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fatal lung disease characterized by excessive collagen deposition, with no effective treatments. We investigated the efficacy of natural products with high anti-inflammatory activity, such as passion fruit peel extract (PFPE), in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to induce PF. Daily PFPE treatment significantly reduced loss of body mass and mortality rate in mice compared with those treated with bleomycin. While bleomycin-induced PF resulted in elevated total numbers of inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on both days 7 and 21, PFPE administration significantly attenuated these phenomena compared with bleomycin group. On day 7, the decreased superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities observed in the bleomycin group were significantly restored with PFPE treatment. On day 21, enhanced hydroxyproline deposition in the bleomycin group was also suppressed by PFPE administration. PFPE treatment significantly attenuated extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulation of collagen in lung tissue sections of bleomycin-induced mice on days 7 and 21, respectively. Our results indicate that administration of PFPE decreased bleomycin-induced PF because of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. PMID:24933624

  3. Utilization of waste fruit-peels to inhibit aflatoxins synthesis by Aspergillus flavus: a biotreatment of rice for safer storage.

    PubMed

    Naseer, R; Sultana, Bushra; Khan, M Z; Naseer, D; Nigam, Poonam

    2014-11-01

    Antifungal activity in lemon and pomegranate peels was considerable against Aspergillus flavus, higher in pomegranate (DIZ 37mm; MIC 135?g/mL). Powdered peels (5, 10, 20% w/w) were mixed in inoculated rice. The inhibitory effect on fungal-growth and production of aflatoxins by A. flavus was investigated at storage conditions - temperature (25, 30°C) and moisture (18%, 21%) for 9months. The maximum total aflatoxins accumulated at 30°C, 21% moisture and at 25°C, 18% moisture were 265.09 and 163.45ng/g, respectively in control. Addition of pomegranate-peels inhibited aflatoxins production to 100% during four month-storage of rice at 25°C and 18% moisture, while lemon-peels showed similar inhibitory effect for 3months at same conditions. However a linear correlation was observed in aflatoxins level with temperature and moisture. Studies showed that both fruit-wastes are potent preventer of aflatoxin production in rice, useful for a safer and longer storage of rice. PMID:25270080

  4. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage.

    PubMed

    Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R K; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S K

    2014-01-01

    Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared with control fruits under both the storage conditions. Combined application of putrescine + carnauba wax showed better response in retaining functional properties than putrescine treated or nontreated fruits. The impacts of putrescine and carnauba wax treatments were found more pronounced after 30 days at 3-5 °C storage temperature in retaining functional and sensory qualities. After 60 days of storage, putrescine + carnauba wax retained about 25% higher antioxidant activity both at 3 and 5 °C storage temperatures. PMID:24426055

  5. Analysis of rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced through submerged fermentation using orange fruit peelings as sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    George, Seba; Jayachandran, K

    2009-09-01

    The fermentative production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297 was carried out by submerged fermentation using various cost-effective waste materials such as orange peelings, carrot peel waste, lime peelings, coconut oil cake, and banana waste. The orange peel was found to be the best substrate generating 9.18 g/l of rhamnolipid biosurfactant with a surface tension reduction up to 31.3 mN/m. The production was growth independent, and optimum conditions were standardized. The emulsifying activity was highest against kerosene (73.3%). Rhamnolipid components were purified and separated by ethyl acetate extraction, preparative silica gel column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. The major rhamnolipid components were characterized, by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, as a mixture of dirhamnolipids and monorhamnolipids. PMID:18716921

  6. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gözlekçi, Sadiye; Saraço?lu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

    2011-04-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  7. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more about specific conditions where chemical peels ... skin Sagging skin Wrinkles What is a chemical peel? A chemical peel is a technique used to ...

  8. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Chemical peel Chemical peels Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do you wish ... cost of cosmetic treatments. Learn more about chemical peels: Is a chemical peel the right choice for ...

  9. A pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) WD40-repeat gene is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis TTG1 and is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simhon, Zohar; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Nadler-Hassar, Talia; Trainin, Taly; Bar-Ya'akov, Irit; Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Holland, Doron

    2011-11-01

    Anthocyanins are the major pigments responsible for the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit skin color. The high variability in fruit external color in pomegranate cultivars reflects variations in anthocyanin composition. To identify genes involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in the pomegranate fruit skin we have isolated, expressed and characterized the pomegranate homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), encoding a WD40-repeat protein. The TTG1 protein is a regulator of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and acts by the formation of a transcriptional regulatory complex with two other regulatory proteins: bHLH and MYB. Our results reveal that the pomegranate gene, designated PgWD40, recovered the anthocyanin, PAs, trichome and seed coat mucilage phenotype in Arabidopsis ttg1 mutant. PgWD40 expression and anthocyanin composition in the skin were analyzed during pomegranate fruit development, in two accessions that differ in skin color intensity and timing of appearance. The results indicate high positive correlation between the total cyanidin derivatives quantity (red pigments) and the expression level of PgWD40. Furthermore, strong correlation was found between the steady state levels of PgWD40 transcripts and the transcripts of pomegranate homologues of the structural genes PgDFR and PgLDOX. PgWD40, PgDFR and PgLDOX expression also correlated with the expression of pomegranate homologues of the regulatory genes PgAn1 (bHLH) and PgAn2 (MYB). On the basis of our results we propose that PgWD40 is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development and that expression of PgWD40, PgAn1 and PgAn2 in the pomegranate fruit skin is required to regulate the expression of downstream structural genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:21643990

  10. Effects of 1-MCP on chlorophyll degradation pathway-associated genes expression and chloroplast ultrastructure during the peel yellowing of Chinese pear fruits in storage.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yudou; Dong, Yu; Yan, Hongbo; Ge, Wenya; Shen, Chengguo; Guan, Junfeng; Liu, Liqin; Zhang, Yingying

    2012-11-15

    The peel yellowing is an important pigment physiological process of green fruit ripening, which mainly results from chlorophyll degradation in the fruit peel. In this work, two typical cultivars with different ripening speed, a slow ripening pear 'Emerald' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Emerald) and a fast ripening 'Jingbai' (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. cv. Jingbai) were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of chlorophyll degradation in pear yellowing/ripening during postharvest storage. The fruits after harvest were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor at 1.0 ?Ll(-1) to determine its effect on chloroplast ultrastructure and the expression of chlorophyll degradation associated genes in peel tissues. Our results show that the pears treated with 1-MCP had a lower ethylene production rate and higher chlorophyll content compared to those of untreated fruit. The more intact chloroplasts with well-organised grana thylakoids and small plastoglobuli were maintained in the peel of 1-MCP treated fruit for up to 30 and 15 d in 'Emerald' and 'Jingbai', respectively. The expression of chlorophyll degradation associated genes: pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), non-yellow colouring (NYC), NYC1-like (NOL), stay-green 1(SGR1), was suppressed, while no significant change was found in chlorophyllase 1 (CHL1) and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR) in both cultivar fruits treated with 1-MCP. These results suggest that 1-MCP can delay chlorophyll degradation by inhibiting ethylene production and suppressing the gene expression of PAO, NYC, NOL and SGR1, which are closely associated with chlorophyll catabolic pathway. PMID:22868108

  11. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Cucumis melo fruit peel extracts in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Bidkar, Jayant S; Ghanwat, Dhanaji Dadaso; Bhujbal, Madhuri D; Dama, Ganesh Y

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cucumis melo Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits have been used, traditionally in Indian traditional system of medicine, for the treatment of various disorders such as liver tonic, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, antiobesity, etc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Cucumis melo fruit peel (CMFP) methanolic and aqueous extract in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Treatment with CMFP methanolic and aqueous extract showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in gain in body weight, serum lipid profile like total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, atherogenic index and increased the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in 28 days treatment when compared to the hyperlipidemic control group. The fecal excretion of bile acids and sterols was further increased upon treatment with CMFP methanolic and aqueous extract and standard drug. Administration of methanolic extract of CMFP at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed higher antihyperlipidemic activity as compared to other extract treated groups. The results concluded that CMFP methanolic extract (500 mg/kg) have potent antihyperlipidemic activity in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia model and which is equipotent activity when compared with atorvastatin treated group. PMID:23023565

  12. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

  13. Determination of the change of flavonoid components as the defence materials of Citrus unshiu Marc. fruit peel against Penicillium digitatum by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae Gyeong Kim; Gon-Sup Kim; Jung Han Lee; Semin Park; Won Young Jeong; Yun-Hi Kim; Jae Hoon Kim; Soo Taek Kim; Young Ah Cho; Won Sup Lee; Soo Jung Lee; Jong Sung Jin; Sung Chul Shin

    2011-01-01

    A healthy fruit peel of Citrus unshiu Marc. and one infected by Penicillium digitatum were analysed for flavonoids via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS\\/MS) in the positive mode with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Among 16 flavonoid components characterised in C. unshiu Marc., four flavanones and nine flavones were identified for the first time. The identified compounds

  14. Direct peel monitoring of xenobiotics in fruit by direct analysis in real time coupled to a linear quadrupole ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2013-03-01

    Study of xenobiotics present in fruit peel by exposing it (without any pretreatment) to direct analysis in real time coupled to a high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer (DART-HRMS) is reported for the first time. Variables such as DART gas heater temperature and pressure, source-to-MS distance, and sample velocity are investigated. The analysis of one sample by DART-MS lasts ca. 1 min, and the benefits of both high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate nontarget or unknown compounds are combined. Identification of postharvest fungicides, antioxidants, and sugars in fruit peel is performed in the positive ion mode. A possible elemental formula is suggested for marker components. The lowest imazalil concentration that could be detected by this system is 1 ng (equivalent to a concentration of ca. 300 ?g kg(-1)), which is well below the maximum residue limit. For oranges and apples, direct peel exposition demonstrated good interday precision (within 20% for any concentration) and proper linearity (R(2) ? 0.99), with a dynamic range from 1 to 2500 ng for apple. A comparison of the results obtained using the direct peel screening DART-based method is made with those obtained by DART analysis of solvent extracts, as well as those obtained analyzing these extracts by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap). The results are in good agreement. Thus, the proposed method proves to be quantitatively accurate with indisputable identification specificity. As an independent method, the approach of direct scanning of peel is of high interest and of potential future within food analysis to guarantee safety, quality, and authenticity. PMID:23356415

  15. Pectin from galgal ( Citrus pseudolimon Tan.) peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Attri; S. B. Maini

    1996-01-01

    During the extraction of juice from galgal fruits (Citrus pesudolimon Tan.), peel, which accounts for about 25–35% of the weight of the fruit, is thrown away and causes an ecological problem when dumped around the processing plants. A process has been standardized for maximum recovery of pectin from these peels by employing various extractants and varying extractant: peel ratios, extraction

  16. Quantitative determination of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel, pulp, and fruit products by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Knödler, Matthias; Reisenhauer, Katharina; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2009-05-13

    Despite a number of serious case reports of mango dermatitis, no attempts at the identification and quantification of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango fruits have so far been made. Therefore, total alk(en)ylresorcinol content and relative homologue composition in 13 mango peel samples and 7 samples of mango pulp were determined by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Furthermore, mango puree and nectar prepared on pilot plant scale were also analyzed and compared with commercially available thermally preserved products. Depending on cultivar, alk(en)ylresorcinol contents ranged from 79.3 to 1850.5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) in mango peels and from 4.9 to 187.3 mg/kg of DM in samples of mango pulp. The profile of alk(en)ylresorcinols was found to be highly characteristic, with an average homologue composition of C15:0 (6.1%), C15:1 (1.7%), C17:0 (1.1%), C17:1 (52.5%), C17:2 (33.4%), C17:3 (2.4%), C19:1 (2.1%), and C19:2 (0.8%). Mango puree samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits revealed contents of 3.8 and 12.3 mg/kg of fresh weight, respectively. Content and homologue composition were not significantly affected during puree processing and thermal preservation. In nectar samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits, contents of 1.4 and 4.6 mg/L, respectively, were found. PMID:19338352

  17. Cell wall, cell membrane, and volatile metabolism are altered by antioxidant treatment, temperature shifts, and peel necrosis during apple fruit storage.

    PubMed

    Leisso, Rachel; Buchanan, David; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James; Rudell, David

    2013-02-13

    The transition from cold storage to ambient temperature alters apple quality through accelerated softening, flavor and color changes, and development of physiological peel disorders, such as superficial scald, in susceptible cultivars. To reveal global metabolism associated with this transition, the 'Granny Smith' peel metabolome was evaluated during storage of 6 months and shelf life periods. Treatment with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) reduced scald, creating a metabolic contrast with untreated fruit, which developed superficial scald. Superficial scald symptoms developed on control fruit after 120 days of storage, and symptoms progressed following transition to ambient-temperature shelf life. The metabolic profile of control and DPA-treated fruit was divergent after 30 days of cold storage due to differing levels of ?-farnesene oxidation products, methyl esters, phytosterols, and other compounds potentially associated with chloroplast integrity and oxidative stress response. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed coregulation within the volatile synthesis pathway including control of the availability of methyl, propyl, ethyl, acetyl, and butyl alcohol and/or acid moieties for ester biosynthesis. Overall, the application of metabolomics techniques lends new insight into physiological processes leading to cell death and ripening processes that affect fruit flavor, appearance, and overall quality. PMID:23311914

  18. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya (dragon fruit) peel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits, and pitaya fruits have gained popularity in many countries all over the world. However, studies on chemical composition and the nutritional quality of pitaya flesh peel are limited. Results Extracts of pitaya (H. polyrhizus and H. undatus) peel were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities were investigated. The main components of H. polyrhizus extract were ?-amyrin (15.87%), ?-amyrin (13.90%), octacosane (12.2%), ?-sitosterol (9.35%), octadecane (6.27%), 1-tetracosanol (5.19%), stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.65%), and campesterol (4.16%), whereas H. undatus were ?-amyrin (23.39%), ?-sitosterol (19.32%), and octadecane (9.25%), heptacosane (5.52%), campesterol (5.27%), nonacosane (5.02%), and trichloroacetic acid, hexadecyl ester (5.21%). Both of the two extracts possessed good cytotoxic activities against PC3, Bcap-37, and MGC-803 cells (IC50 values ranging from 0.61 to 0.73 mg/mL), and the activities of their main components were also studied. Furthermore, these extracts also presented some radical scavenging activities, with IC50 values of 0.83 and 0.91 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion This paper provides evidence for studying the chemical composition of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya peel and their biological activity. PMID:24386928

  19. Resistance to pathogens in terpene down-regulated orange fruits inversely correlates with the accumulation of D-limonene in peel oil glands.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Peña, Leandro

    2015-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are secondary metabolites acting as a language for the communication of plants with the environment. In orange fruits, the monoterpene D-limonene accumulates at very high levels in oil glands from the peel. Drastic down-regulation of D-limonene synthase gene expression in the peel of transgenic oranges harboring a D-limonene synthase transgene in antisense (AS) configuration altered the monoterpene profile in oil glands, mainly resulting in reduced accumulation of D-limonene. This led to fruit resistance against Penicillium digitatum (Pd), Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) and other specialized pathogens. Here, we analyze resistance to pathogens in independent AS and empty vector (EV) lines, which have low, medium or high D-limonene concentrations and show that the level of resistance is inversely related to the accumulation of D-limonene in orange peels, thus explaining the need of high D-limonene accumulation in mature oranges in nature for the efficient attraction of specialized microorganism frugivores. PMID:26023857

  20. Oral administration of the purple passion fruit peel extract reduces wheeze and cough and improves shortness of breath in adults with asthma.

    PubMed

    Watson, Ronald Ross; Zibadi, Sherma; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Jabbari, Farahzad; Ghasemi, Ramin; Ghafari, Javad; Afrasiabi, Hadi; Foo, Lai Yeap; Faridhosseini, Reza

    2008-03-01

    Asthma, affecting as many as 400 million individuals worldwide, is one of the most prevalent chronic health condition in the United States. With an increasing number of patients with asthma and the frequent inability of conventional lifestyle modification and therapy to effectively control the problem, nutritional and dietary therapies are being sought. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the purple passion fruit peel (PFP) extract, a novel mixture of bioflavonoids, on asthma symptoms. Patients with asthma were studied in a 4-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with oral administration of PFP extract (150 mg/d) or placebo pills. The effects of PFP extract were evaluated by assessing the clinical symptoms of asthma and spirometry tests. Most clinical symptoms of asthma of the PFP extract-treated group were moderated significantly compared to the baseline. The prevalence of wheeze, cough, as well as shortness of breath was reduced significantly in group treated with PFP extract (P < .05), whereas the placebo caused no significant improvement. Purple passion fruit peel extract supplementation resulted in a marked increase in forced vital capacity (P < .05) as placebo showed no effect. However, no significant improvement was observed in the forced expiratory volume at 1 second of those supplemented with PFP extract. No adverse effect was reported by any of study participants. The PFP extract may be safely offered to asthmatic subjects as an alternative treatment option to reduce clinical symptoms. PMID:19083404

  1. Effect of the yellow passion fruit peel flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa deg.) in insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A study with the yellow passion fruit peel flour showed positive action in blood glucose control as therapies’ adjuvant in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we evaluated its effect on insulin sensitivity since there is a quest for studies that focus at better understanding of insulin resistance aspects in diabetic patients. Furthermore its relationship with chronic complications can also give good prospects for alternative treatments. Methods A total of 43 type 2 diabetes volunteers (28 females and 15 males) ingested 30 g/day of the yellow passion fruit peel flour for two months. The levels of blood glucose and fasting insulin, HOMA index and glycated hemoglobin were measured for each patient before and after dietary supplementation. Results There was a significant difference in the fasting blood glucose values (P?=?0.000) and glycated hemoglobin (P?=?0.032) after supplementation. It was also seen a reduction in HOMA IR (P?=?0.005) in the supplemented group, however it was not observed changes in insulin values for females. HOMA beta (P?=?0.000) showed significant increase in its values for the studied group. Conclusions The supplementation used decreased insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a positive action in blood glucose control as adjuvant therapy in conventional treatments. PMID:23088514

  2. Differential effects of polyphenols-enriched extracts from hawthorn fruit peels and fleshes on cell cycle and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Zhu, Jiao; Guo, Ling; Shi, Xiaolong; Liu, Yafei; Yang, Xingbin

    2013-11-15

    This study was to investigate the anticancer effects of the peel polyphenolic extract (HPP) and flesh polyphenolic extract (HFP) from hawthorn fruit in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. It was found that the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of HPP were significant higher than that of HFP. Both HPP and HFP inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 of 88.6?g/mL and 175.5?g/mL, respectively, suggesting that HPP was more effective against MCF-7 cells than HFP. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that both HPP and HFP mediated the cell-cycle arrest at the S-phase, and also dose-dependently led to apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathway, as evidenced by the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and the elevation of intracellular ROS production. All these findings indicate that hawthorn fruit, especially its peel, is an excellent source of natural chemopreventive agents in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:23790880

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE WOUND INDUCED MATERIAL IN CITRUS FRUIT PEEL BY CARBON-13 CP-MAS SOLID STATE NMR SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are conflicting views regarding the chemical composition of the induced, phloroglucinol-HCl (PG-HCl) reacting, material accumulating in injured citrus peel tissues. Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, were injured, inoculated with Peicillium digitatum and incubated under contitions favorable to the a...

  4. Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

    2003-01-01

    Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

  5. Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In...

  6. Establishment of pomegranate (Punica granatum) hairy root cultures for genetic interrogation of the hydrolyzable tannin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ono, Nadia N; Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C G; Tian, Li

    2012-09-01

    In contrast to the numerous reports on the human therapeutic applications of hydrolyzable tannins (HTs), genes involved in their biosynthesis have not been identified at the molecular level from any plant species. Although we have previously identified candidate HT biosynthetic genes in pomegranate using transcriptomic and bioinformatic analyses, characterization of in planta enzyme function remains a critical step in biochemical pathway elucidation. We here report the establishment of a pomegranate (Punica granatum) hairy root culture system that produces HTs. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains transformed with a binary vector harboring a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) gene were used for hairy root induction, allowing visual, non-destructive, detection of transgene incorporation. It also demonstrated that the pomegranate hairy root culture system is suitable for expressing heterologous genes (YFP in this case). Expression of 26 putative UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, obtained from a pomegranate fruit peel (a tissue highly abundant in HTs) RNA-Seq library, were verified in wild type and hairy roots. In addition, two candidate UGTs for HT biosynthesis were identified based on HPLC and differential gene expression analyses of various pomegranate tissues. Together with in vitro enzyme activity assays, the hairy root culture system holds great promise for revealing the undivulged HT biosynthetic pathway using pomegranate as a model system. PMID:22810948

  7. Comprehensive thin-layer chromatography mass spectrometry of flavanols from Juniperus communis L. and Punica granatum L.

    PubMed

    Smrke, Samo; Vovk, Irena

    2013-05-10

    The coupling of thin-layer chromatography with mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) for the analysis of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins in samples presented as complex matrices has been studied. The elution conditions for TLC-MS were optimised and full scans were compared with selected reaction monitoring for the MS detection of compounds. The performance of silica gel and cellulose plates with different developing solvents in TLC-MS was assessed. Cellulose plates provided superior sensitivity while ionisation suppression was encountered with silica plates. The use of a HILIC guard column beyond the elution head was found to facilitate detection of monomer compounds on silica plates. A new comprehensive TLC×MS procedure for screening flavanols in the entire chromatogram was developed as an alternative to the use of 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to determine the locations of compounds on the plate. This new procedure was applied to detect flavanols in the peel of Punica granatum L. fruits and in seeds of Juniperus communis L., in which flavanols and proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers were detected for the first time. PMID:23566918

  8. Antihypertensive effect of passion fruit peel extract and its major bioactive components following acute supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brandon J; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Craig, Teresa A; Mehring-Franklin, Cynthia E; Defreitas, Zoraida; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Extracts from leaves, peels or flowers of Passiflora are noted for their medicinal effects. Passiflora edulis peel extract (PFPE) has been proposed to lower blood pressure (BP); however, only indirect measurement techniques have been employed. To more accurately measure the effect of PFPE on hemodynamic parameters and determine the minimal effective dose, hemodynamic parameters were directly measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) implanted with radiotelemeters. PFPE was given orally at 0, 2.5, 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) to determine the minimal effective dose. Once this dose was determined, the potential active components, edulilic acid (EA), anthocyanin fraction (AF) or ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were tested to determine which may contribute to the reductions in BP. The 50 mg PFPE/kg BW dose was the lowest dose that significantly reduced all hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. When the potential actives were provided at equivalent doses to those found in 50 mg PFPE/kg BW, the EA and AF significantly reduced all measured hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. GABA did not significantly affect any hemodynamic parameters compared to control and significantly increased heart rate. These direct measurements indicate that PFPE can decrease hemodynamic parameters in SHR and indicate that EA and AF are active compounds that contribute to the antihypertensive effects of PFPE supplementation. While these results are encouraging, detailed mechanistic studies are needed to determine the putative value of PFPE for blood pressure control in humans. PMID:23333089

  9. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    PubMed Central

    Sharad, Jaishree

    2013-01-01

    Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist’s arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

  10. Investigation of in vivo antioxidant property of Abelmoschus esculentus (L) moench. fruit seed and peel powders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sabitha, Vijayakumar; Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Naveen, Koikaramparambil Robert; Panneerselvam, Kaliyamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. fruit is a commonly consumed vegetable in many countries due to its rich medicinal value. However, till date, in vivo antioxidant property of A. esculentus has not been scientifically documented in animal models. Objective: The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant property of A. esculentus (L.) Moench. peel and seed powder (AEPP and AESP) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In rats, acute toxicity assessment of AEPP and AESP at 2 g/kg did not show any toxicity. Diabetes was induced by STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) injection and diabetic rats received AEPP (100 and 200 mg/kg) as well as AESP (100 and 200 mg/ kg) orally up to 28 days. At the end of the 28 day, diabetic rats were killed and liver, kidney and pancreas were collected to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation level. Results: In diabetic rats, significant (P < 0.001) reduction of liver, kidney and pancreas SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH levels and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were observed as compared to normal control rats. Administration of both doses of AEPP and AESP significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) increased liver, kidney and pancreas SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH levels and decreased TBARS (P < 0.001) levels in diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that A. esculentus peel and seed powder has significant in vivo antioxidant property in diabetic rats. PMID:23326089

  11. CLONING AND FUNCTIONAL EXPRESSION OF AN (E)-NEROLIDOL SYNTHASE CDNA FROM PEEL TISSUE OF APPLE FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased production of terpenes and many other aroma-related volatiles occurs with the onset of ripening in apple fruit. The gaseous plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in the induction of volatile synthesis, but the mechanism is not yet understood. Using a degenerate primer based on a short co...

  12. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  13. Punica granatum (pomegranate) flower extract possesses potent antioxidant activity and abrogates Fe-NTA induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurpreet Kaur; Zoobi Jabbar; Mohammad Athar; M. Sarwar Alam

    2006-01-01

    Most pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn., Punicaceae) fruit parts are known to possess enormous antioxidant activity. The present study evaluated antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of pomegranate flowers. Alcoholic (ethanolic) extract of flowers was prepared and used in the present study. The extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and exhibit enormous reducing ability, both indicative of potent antioxidant

  14. Potential of biosorbent developed from fruit peel of Trewia nudiflora for removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and industrial effluent: Analyzing phytotoxicity in germinating Vigna seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Banerjee, Priya; Mallick, Kwonit; Ghosh, Sourja; Majumdar, Swachchha; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Bandyopadhyay, Sibdas

    2013-01-01

    Chromium (VI) removal efficiency of a biosorbent prepared from fruit peel of Trewia nudiflora plant was studied. The effect of pH, sorbent dose, initial metal concentration and temperature was studied with synthetic Cr?? solution in batch mode. About 278 mg/g of Cr?? sorption was obtained at 293 K at an optimum pH of 2.0 and biosorbent dose of 0.75 g/L. Equilibrium sorption data with varying initial concentration of Cr?? (22-248 mg/L) at three different temperatures (293-313 K) were analyzed by various isotherms. Biosorption kinetics and thermodynamics were described using standard model equations. Encouraging results were obtained by the application of the biosorptive treatment for removal of Cr?? from wastewater collected from common effluent treatment plant of tannery industry. In addition, C??r desorption behavior was studied on different systems. Biosorbent was characterized by FESEM, FT-IR and XRD, etc. Effect of the biosorptive treatement with respect to the phytotoxicity of Cr?? was analyzed by studying the seed germination behavior and enzyme activity of a pulse seed (Vigna radiata L.). Different concentrations of Cr?? solution in both synthetic medium, as well as, in tannery effluent was employed and the results were compared with that of biosorbent treated medium. The study showed that due to efficient removal of Cr?? from aqueous phase, considerable enhancement of seed germination, as well as, increase in root length was obtained for the biosorbent treated solutions which were close to that of the control values. Significant decrease (P < 0.01) in POD activity was observed in seeds irrigated with biosorbent treated wastewater compared to untreated wastewater. The study showed that the novel biosorbent prepared might be utilized for abatement of heavy metal toxicity, i.e., Cr?? from industrial effluent. PMID:23445414

  15. Punica granatum: A review on its potential role in treating periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Divyashree; Kunnaiah, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of plants possess enormous treasure of medicinal value. Majority of these medicinal plants have been used to treat various systemic conditions successfully. Over the recent years, use of these medicinal plants has resurfaced to treat oral conditions. Among the oral conditions, periodontal disease remains one of the most common. Alternative and preventive options has become the need of the hour in order to overcome the adverse effects of the antimicrobial agents used in large as an adjunct to mainstream periodontal treatment. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) is one of the oldest edible fruit which has a long history as a medicinal fruit. This review is an attempt to highlight the potential of Punica granatum as a preventive and therapeutic aid to periodontal disease. PMID:25210254

  16. Emerging fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  17. ENZYME PEELING OF VALENCIA ORANGE FOR FRESH-CUT SLICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of the booming market for fresh cut fruit, fresh cut citrus has not been successful commercially due to technical difficulties in peeling the fruit. The USDA and the FDOC have developed a process using enzyme infiltration under vacuum to facilitate citrus peeling. However, the enzymes (cel...

  18. Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    The dried powdered fruit peels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ?60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 ?mol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 ?mol Trolox/g). PMID:24799227

  19. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Happi Emaga; Jérôme Bindelle; Richard Agneesens; André Buldgen; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the\\u000a variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed\\u000a using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in

  20. In vitro antioxidant properties of mangosteen peel extract.

    PubMed

    Suttirak, Weerayuth; Manurakchinakorn, Supranee

    2014-12-01

    The growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on the screening of plant-derived raw materials for identifying new antioxidants. The special attention of research today is focused on inexpensive or residual sources from agricultural industries. Fruit peels as sources of powerful natural antioxidants are often the waste parts of various fruits from consumption and food industry. Among the fruit peels, mangosteen peel is an important source of natural phenolic antioxidants. The mangosteen peel contains various bioactive substances, i.e., phenolic acids and flavonoids, which possess biological and medicinal properties, especially antioxidant properties. The aim of this review, after presenting analytical techniques for determining in vitro antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, is to summarize available data on the factors affecting antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract. In addition, the potential antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, the bioactive compounds identified from mangosteen peel extract and their antioxidant activity are presented. Potential applications of the mangosteen peel extract in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products are also discussed. PMID:25477623

  1. Characterization of the wound-induced material in Citrus paradisi fruit peel by carbon-13 CP-MAS solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Simona; Lai, Adolfo; Stange, Richard R; McCollum, T Greg; Schirra, Mario

    2003-05-01

    Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, were injured, inoculated with Penicillium digitatum and incubated under conditions favourable for the accumulation of defence related material. Histochemical examination revealed that tissues adjacent to inoculated injuries contained phloroglucinol-HCl (PG-HCl) reactive material. Solvent washed cell wall preparations of intact and injured-inoculated peel were further purified using a mixture of cell wall degrading enzymes. Samples from injured inoculated tissue contained PG-HCl reactive globular material in addition to the fragments of xylem and cuticle found in controls. The principal chemical moieties of the material that accumulates in grapefruit injuries during wound-healing were studied by solid state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR. A complete assignment of the NMR signals was made. From the analysis evidence was found that cellulose and hemicellulose are the biopolymers present in the intact peel samples, in addition, relevant quantities of cutin were found in the residues of enzyme digest. The NMR difference spectrum intact- wounded peels showed resonances which were attributed to all major functional groups of the aromatic-aliphatic suberin polyester of new material produced by the wounds. Information on the latter polyester was obtained by analyzing the T(1)rho (1H) relaxation. PMID:12711139

  2. Composition, ultrastructure and function of the cutin- and suberin-containing layers in the leaf, fruit peel, juice-sac and inner seed coat of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfed.).

    PubMed

    Espelie, K E; Davis, R W; Kolattukudy, P E

    1980-10-01

    Cutin and suberin polymers from various anatomical regions of grapefruit were analyzed chemically and ultrastructurally. The leaf, fruit peel and juice-sac showed an amorphous cuticular layer. The cutin in the leaf was composed of 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid and its positional isomers as the major monomers whereas 16-hydroxy-10-oxo C16 acid was a major component in the fruit peel. Juice-sac cutin, on the other hand, contained the dihydroxy C16 acids, hydroxyoxo C16 acids, hydroxyepoxy C18 acids and trihydroxy C18 acids. Ultrastructural examination of the inner seed coat showed that an amorphous cuticular layer encircled the entire seed except in the chalazal region which showed several layers of cells with lamellar suberin structure throughout the cell walls. Consistent with the ultrastructural assignment, the compositions of the aliphatic components of the polymers from the chalazal region and the non-chalazal region indicated the presence of suberin and cutin, respectively. The aliphatic portion of the polymer from the chalazal region of the inner seed coat contained C16, C18:1, C22 and C24 ?-hydroxy acids (46% combined total) and the corresponding dicarboxylic acids (43%) as the major components. ?-Hydroxy-9,10-epoxy C18 acids and 9,10,18-trihydroxy C18 acids were the major components (77%) of the polymer from the non-chalazal portion of the inner seed coat. The main portion and the chalazal region of the inner seed coat yielded 17 and 342 ?g/cm(2) of aliphatic monomers, respectively, and the diffusion resistance of these two portions of the inner seed coat were 62 and 192 sec/cm, respectively. The inner seed coat was shown to be the major moisture diffusion barrier influencing imbibition and germination. PMID:24306480

  3. HPLC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHENOLS IN LONGAN (DIMOCARPUS LONGAN LOUR.) PEEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longan fruit are susceptible to chilling injury, where the peel exhibits discoloration (water-soaking and/or browning area on the peel). Two varieties of longan (Daw and Biew Kiew) were subjected to abusive cold storage to evaluate the changes in the phenolic compounds that occurred in peel exhibit...

  4. Comparative Antioxidant Activity and Total Flavonoid Content of Persian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Gholam, Narges; Moridi, Tahereh

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Lythraceae, is mainly grown in Mediterranean region. It is one of the major cultivated productions of Iran, which have been used in folk medicine for many centuries. It has been proved that pomegranate has a high antioxidant activity and is effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. This study compares the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of nine different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran. Aqueous solutions of known Fe(+2) concentration, vitamin E, vitamin C, gallic acid and catechin were used for calibration. The results showed that Sour summer pulp cultivar had the most antioxidant effect with significant difference with the other cultivar (p < 0.05) which can be introduced as a potent source of natural antioxidants, and the peel of three cultivars (Sweet saveh malas, Sour summer and Black peel) as a suitable source for extraction and purification of phenolic and flavonoid compound. The antioxidant capacity of pomegranate peel extract is 10 times higher than the pulp extract. PMID:24250384

  5. Comparative Antioxidant Activity and Total Flavonoid Content of Persian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Gholam, Narges; Moridi, Tahereh

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Lythraceae, is mainly grown in Mediterranean region. It is one of the major cultivated productions of Iran, which have been used in folk medicine for many centuries. It has been proved that pomegranate has a high antioxidant activity and is effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. This study compares the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of nine different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran. Aqueous solutions of known Fe+2 concentration, vitamin E, vitamin C, gallic acid and catechin were used for calibration. The results showed that Sour summer pulp cultivar had the most antioxidant effect with significant difference with the other cultivar (p < 0.05) which can be introduced as a potent source of natural antioxidants, and the peel of three cultivars (Sweet saveh malas, Sour summer and Black peel) as a suitable source for extraction and purification of phenolic and flavonoid compound. The antioxidant capacity of pomegranate peel extract is 10 times higher than the pulp extract. PMID:24250384

  6. Valuable components of raw and ripe peels from two Indian mango varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Ajila; S. G. Bhat; U. J. S. Prasada Rao

    2007-01-01

    Mango is one of the most important tropical fruits and India ranks first in its world production. During the processing of mango, mainly for mango pulp and preparation of amchur powder, peel is a by-product. Peel forms about 20% of the whole fruit and at present it is a waste product and its disposal has become a great problem. With

  7. Studies on the utilization of citrus peel for pectinase production using fungus Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SATVINDER SINGH DHILLON; RAJWANT KAUR GILL; SIKANDER SINGH GILL; MALKIAT SINGH

    2004-01-01

    The fruit processing industries produce a large amount of waste material, which poses considerable disposal problems and ultimately leads to pollution. In the processing of citrus fruits, a large proportion of the produce goes waste in the form of peel, pulp and seeds. Dried citrus peel is rich in carbohydrates, proteins and pectin; pectin acts as the inducer for production

  8. Quantification of main phenolic compounds in sweet and bitter orange peel using CE–MS\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saleh M. S. Sawalha; David Arráez-Román; Antonio Segura-Carretero; Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    The food and agricultural products processing industries generate substantial quantities of phenolics-rich subproducts, which could be valuable natural sources of polyphenols. In oranges, the peel represents roughly 30% of the fruit mass and the highest concentrations of flavonoids in citrus fruit occur in peel. In this work we have carried out the characterisation and quantification of citrus flavonoids in methanolic

  9. Peel testing metalized films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivins, L.; Smith, T.

    1980-01-01

    Flimsy ultrathin sheets are mounted on glass for peel-strength measurements. Technique makes it easier to perform peel tests on metalized plastic films. Technique was developed for determining peel strength of thin (1,000 A) layers of aluminum on Kapton film. Previously, material has been difficult to test because it is flimsy and tends to curl up and blow away at slightest disturbance. Procedure can be used to measure effects on metalization bond strength of handling, humidity, sunlight, and heat.

  10. Chemical Peeling of Tomatoes.

    E-print Network

    Heddins, Gerald C.; Burns, E. E.

    1965-01-01

    of tomatoes by means of cold. Ricerca Sci. 25: (5) :1115-1120. Cagnoni, D. 1955. Refrigeration peeling and the industry of peeled tomatoes. Ricerca Sci. 25 (3) : 519-529. Childs, D., A. E. Braun, and J. Hanson. 1948. Procets for treating tomatoes. U. S...

  11. Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers (SSR).

    PubMed

    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Buonamici, Anna; Sebastiani, Federico; Mars, Messaoud; Zhang, Dapeng; Vendramin, Giovanni G

    2012-02-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In the present study, we report the development of 4 new polymorphic SSR markers. They have been used in addition to 11 SSRs previously published to investigate molecular diversity of 33 P. granatum ecotypes. Based on the multi-locus profiles, twenty-two distinctive genotypes were identified. Globally, quite low genetic diversity has been revealed, as measured by allele richness (2.83 per locus) and heterozygosity (He=0.245; Ho=0.243), reflecting the narrow genetic background of the plant material. Four synonymous groups could be detected involving 15 accessions. Results of ordination and cluster analysis suggested that almost all the Tunisian cultivars share similar genetic background, and are likely derived from a small number of introductions in ancient times. Results issued from this study provide essential information to project a pomegranate core-collection without plant material duplication and for sustainable management of pomegranate landraces at national and international level. Furthermore, these SSR markers are powerful tool for marker assisted selection (MAS) program and for QTL studies. PMID:22123180

  12. Fruit quality of Italian pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) autochthonous varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerio CristoforiDonatella Caruso; Donatella Caruso; Gabriele Latini; Mario Dell’Agli; Corrado Cammilli; Eddo Rugini; Cristina Bignami; Rosario Muleo

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate is getting an increasing attention for its health-promoting effects. Collection and characterization of plants\\u000a of local sources has been performed, and five accessions have been propagated and cultivated in a collection field for extra\\u000a situ investigations. Accessions differ for pomological traits and chemical composition. Three of them, MG1, MG2, and MG3,\\u000a belong to typology with low-medium acidity and high

  13. Biosorption of Pb 2+ by original and protonated citrus peels: Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silke Schiewer; Ankit Balaria

    2009-01-01

    Biosorption can be an efficient low-cost process to remove toxic heavy metals from wastewater. This study investigated the uptake of Pb2+ by processed orange peels, a pectin-rich byproduct of the fruit juice industry. Potentiometric titrations showed a significantly higher negative surface charge of protonated peels compared to original peels, with acidic groups around pH 4, 6, and 10. FTIR spectra

  14. Effect of extraction conditions on some physicochemical characteristics of pectins from “ Améliorée” and “ Mango” mango peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Koubala; G. Kansci; L. I. Mbome; M.-J. Crépeau; J.-F. Thibault; M.-C. Ralet

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of pectins from mango peels can offer a way to upgrade byproducts arising from the processing of these tropical fruits. In this work, several extraction conditions (HCl, or deionised water, or ammonium oxalate) were tested in order to isolate pectins from the peels of two mango varieties (Améliorée and Mango) harvested in Cameroon. After determining uronic acid and

  15. Chemistry with a Peel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

  16. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    PubMed

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre. PMID:20725857

  17. Mechanical peeling of pumpkins. Part 2: Modeling of peeling process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bagher Emadi; M. H. Abbaspour-Fard; P. K. D. V. Yarlagadda

    2008-01-01

    A novel mechanical peeling process using an abrasive-cutter brush which applies both abrasive and cutting forces was modeled. An energy consumption model of the peeling process is required to optimize the main influential factors as well as to limit peeling waste and consumed energy. The input and output variables which could be industrially applicable were used. Three variables, namely rotational

  18. Diversity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) germplasm in Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Messaoud Mars; Mohamed Marrakchi

    1999-01-01

    Thirty pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) accessions were studied to determine the overall degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities among genotypes. PCA and cluster analysis showed a considerable phenotypic and genetic diversity in the local pomegranate germplasm. Some polyclonal varieties were identified and cases of homonymy were detected. The geographic origin was not a determinant criterion for cultivars clustering. Parameters

  19. Carbonised jackfruit peel as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Stephen Inbaraj; N Sulochana

    2004-01-01

    The fruit of the jack (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is one of the popular fruits in India, where the total area under this fruit is about 13,460 ha. A significant amount of peel (approximately 2714–11,800 kg per tree per year) is discarded as agricultural waste, as apart from its use as a table fruit, it is popular in many culinary preparations. Treatment

  20. Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients: 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 1/2 pound grapes, seedless 2 bananas 1 3/4 cups skim milk 4 ounces instant pudding mix, lemon flavored Directions 1. Open can to bowl. 3. Wash and peel bananas, and slice. Add to bowl. Set aside. 4. In separate bowl, pour lemon

  1. Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients: non stick cooking spray 3 bananas 1 cup raisins 2 cups rolled oats. Peel and coarsely mash bananas in mixing bowl. 3. Add raisins, oats, apple butter, walnuts, oil and vanilla extract with bananas and stir to mix well. 4. Let stand for 10 minutes. 5. Drop by teaspoonful

  2. Growth inhibitory effects of crude pomegranate peel extract on chronic myeloid leukemia, K562 cells

    PubMed Central

    Asmaa, Mat Jusoh Siti; Ali, Al-Jamal Hamid; Farid, Johan Muhammad; Azman, Seeni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is currently a member of Lythraceae family which has potentially cytotoxic activities. Numerous studies have been done on cytotoxic components of pomegranate's juices, barks and leaves. The peels, which considered as a waste, contain higher antioxidant components compared with other parts of the plant. Aim: To investigate the potential anti-cancer activity of pomegranate peel on growth and cell death mechanisms of chronic myeloid leukemic (CML) cells, K562. Materials and Methods: Punica granatum peels extract (PGPE) was extracted by successive ethanol extraction, 80% (v/v), freeze dried, diluted to 20 mg/mL working concentration and was subjected to phytochemical screening. K562 cell was treated with crude PGPE for 72 h. Following IC50 concentration, the apoptosis, cell cycle and protein analysis were evaluated. Cell growth inhibition assay was performed by conventional trypan blue exclusion assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed by flow-cytometry using BD apoptosis and cell cycle kits and protein analysis by western blotting. All the results are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean of three independent experiments. Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Results demonstrated that PGPE promotes growth inhibition of K562 cells mainly via G2/M phase arrest while still conserving apoptosis induction, but at a lower rate. Apoptosis activities were proposed by the up-regulation of caspases and cytochrome c with an elevated level of p21 and p53. Conclusion: PGPE caused an inhibition in cell proliferation of CML cell mainly by cell cycle arrest.

  3. Effects of the stage of maturation and varieties on the chemical composition of banana and plantain peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Happi Emaga; Rado Herinavalona Andrianaivo; Bernard Wathelet; Jean Tchango Tchango; Michel Paquot

    2007-01-01

    A study of the chemical composition of six varieties of fruit peels of the banana and plantain: dessert banana (Musa AAA), plantain (Musa AAB) cooking banana (Musa ABB) and hybrid (Musa AAAB) at three stages of ripeness, was carried out in order to explore their potential applications. The varieties did not affect chemical constituents in a consistent manner. Peel of

  4. Individual phenolic response and peroxidase activity in peel of differently sun-exposed apples in the period favorable for sunburn occurrence.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Anka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2014-11-15

    Extreme weather events like high solar radiation can cause stress in apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh.). The aim of the study was to make a screening of individual phenols and peroxidase activity in apple peel as a response to sunburn and different sun-exposures in the period when weather conditions are suitable for sunburn occurrence. Apple fruits of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Braeburn' were sampled. Fruit temperature and color were measured prior HPLC-MS(2) and peroxidase activity analyses. Sunburned peel was darker and more yellow-red in comparison to healthy peel, which appeared yellow-green. Fruit temperature, total as well as individual flavonols and dihydrochalcones, total hydroxycinnamics and perixodase activity were highest in sunburned peel in comparison with healthy sun-exposed peel, furthermore both were different than shaded sides of both fruits and peel of apples inside the tree crown; moreover in sunburned peel dihydrochalcones were determined for the first time. Chlorogenic acid was up to 2.5 times higher, 3-hydroxy-phloretin-2'-O-xyloglucoside was up to 10 times higher and quercetin-3-galactoside was up to 33 times higher in sunburned peel, comparing to shaded sided peels. Flavanols did not show a distinct pattern. A deeper insight in phenolic response against environmental stress caused by high solar radiation and high air temperatures has been made. PMID:25209696

  5. Ultraviolet fluorescence to identify navel oranges with poor peel quality and decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Navel oranges were sorted into four groups under ultraviolet (UV) illumination in commercial packinghouse black light rooms based upon the amount of fluorescence visible on each fruit to determine if fluorescence was predictive of peel quality. The groups corresponded to fruit with: 1) no fluorescen...

  6. In vitro induction of tetraploid in pomegranate ( Punica granatum )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianzhu Shao; Chunli Chen; Xiuxin Deng

    2003-01-01

    Tetraploid plants were obtained in pomegranate (Punica granatum L. var. `Nana') by colchicine treatment of shoots propagated in vitro. Shoots cultured on MS medium supplemented with 10 mg l-1 colchicine, 1.0 mg l-1 BA and 0.1 mg l-1 NAA for 30 days produced tetraploids at a high frequency of 20%. No tetraploids were detected by treating the shoots in 5000

  7. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ephraim P. Lansky; Robert A. Newman

    2007-01-01

    The last 7 years have seen over seven times as many publications indexed by Medline dealing with pomegranate and Punica granatum than in all the years preceding them. Because of this, and the virtual explosion of interest in pomegranate as a medicinal and nutritional product that has followed, this review is accordingly launched. The pomegranate tree, Punica granatum, especially its

  8. Influence of white plastic and water replacement rates on pomegranate orchard phenology, fruit yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. In 2013, a pomegranate orchard, established in 2010 with a density of 558 trees/ha, was irrigated at water replacement rates of 35, 50 and 100% based on rainfall, tree water r...

  9. Influence of nitrogen rate and drip application method on pomegranate fruit yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. Developing more efficient methods of water and fertilizer application are important in reducing production costs. In 2012, a pomegranate orchard established in 2010 with a den...

  10. Molecular characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of naringin extracted from kinnow peel waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munish Puri; Aneet Kaur; Wolfgang H. Schwarz; Satbir Singh; J. F. Kennedy

    2011-01-01

    Kinnow peel, a waste rich in glycosylated phenolic substances, is the principal by-product of the citrus fruit processing industry and its disposal is becoming a major problem. This peel is rich in naringin and may be used for rhamnose production by utilizing ?-l-rhamnosidase (EC 3.2.1.40), an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal rhamnosyl groups from naringin to yield prunin

  11. Improving the keeping quality of pomegranate fruit by intermittent warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Artés; J. A. Tudela; M. I. Gil

    1998-01-01

    Mollar pomegranates (Punica granatum, Punicaceae) were stored at 0??°C or 5??°C and 95% relative humidity (RH) for 80 days. Intermittent warming (IW) cycles of\\u000a 1 day at 20??°C every 6 days, during which time the fruit had been stored at 0??°C or 5??°C, followed by a shelf-life period\\u000a of 7 days at 15??°C and 70% RH were applied. IW during

  12. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

    2000-01-01

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

  13. Photoprotection mechanism in the 'Fuji' apple peel at different levels of photooxidative sunburn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangli; Niu, Junping; Duan, Ying; Zhang, Mengxia; Liu, Jingying; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-05-01

    The xanthophyll cycle, flavonoid metabolism, the antioxidant system and the production of active oxygen species were analyzed in the peel of 'Fuji' apples re-exposed to sunlight after extended periods of fruit bagging treatment, resulting in different levels of photooxidative sunburn. After re-exposing bagged fruits to sunlight, the production of active oxygen species and the photoprotective capacity in apple peels were both significantly enhanced. As sunburn severity increased, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased, while xanthophyll cycle pool size decreased. For the key genes involved in flavonoid synthesis, expressions of MdMYB10 and MdPAL were upregulated, whereas the expressions of MdCHS, MdANS, MdFLS and MdUFGT were downregulated in sunburnt fruit peel. Correspondingly, concentrations of both quercetin-3-glycoside and cyanidin-3-galactoside decreased. Total ascorbate concentrations decreased as sunburn severity increased, with the decrease being faster for oxidized than for reduced ascorbate. Transcription levels of MdGMP, MdGME, MdGGP, MdGPP, MdGalDH and MdGalLDH, the genes involved in ascorbate synthesis, were similar in non-sunburnt and sunburnt fruit peels, whereas activities of l-galactose dehydrogenase and l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase decreased in severely sunburnt peel. Although activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase increased, the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase decreased as sunburn severity increased. In summary, the occurrence of photooxidative sunburn in 'Fuji' apple peel is closely associated with a relatively lower xanthophyll cycle pool size, reduced levels of ascorbate reduction and synthesis and reduced flavonoid synthesis. Our data are consistent with the idea that ascorbate plays a key role in protecting apple fruit from photooxidative sunburn. PMID:25185895

  14. Biomethanization of orange peel waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Martín; J. A. Siles; A. F. Chica; A. Martín

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste is a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products such as methane. Following a pre-treatment to extract d-limonene, the anaerobic digestion of orange peel waste was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. d-Limonene removals of 70% were reached with pre-treatment. The results showed

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Novel Microsatellite Markers in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pirseyedi, Seyed Mostafa; Valizadehghan, Sahar; Mardi, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Parvaneh; Zahravi, Mehdi; Zeinalabedini, Mehrshad; Nekoui, Seyed Mojtaba Khayam

    2010-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been cultivated from ancient times for its economic, ornamental and medicinal properties globally. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers from a repeat-enriched genomic library of Punica granatum L. The genetic diversity of these loci was assessed in 60 genotypes of Punica granatum L. All loci were variable: the number of polymorphic alleles per locus ranged from two to five (average 2.9). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.15 to 0.87 and 0.29 to 0.65, respectively. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.26 to 0.61 (average: 0.43). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that polymorphic microsatellite markers have been reported for P. granatum L. These new markers should allow studies of the population structure and genetic diversity of pomegranate to be performed in the future. PMID:20559498

  16. Comparison of Essential Oils Compositions of Citrus maxima Merr. Peel Obtained by Cold Press and Vacuum Stream Distillation Methods and of Its Peel and Flower Extract Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Method and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Napaporn Thavanapong; Penpun Wetwitayaklung; Juree Charoenteeraboon

    2010-01-01

    The oils and extracts of the fruit peels of pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr. cultivar ‘khao-yai’) were obtained by cold-pressing (CP), vacuum steam distillation (VSD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) and the extract of the flowers was obtained by SC-CO2. The composition of the oils and extracts of the peel and flower were determined by GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty, 53

  17. Production and optimization of polygalacturonase from mango ( Mangifera indica L.) peel using Fusarium moniliforme in solid state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Sudheer Kumar; S. Varakumar; O. V. S. Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Mango peel is one of the major wastes from fruit processing industries, which poses considerable disposal problems and ultimately\\u000a leads to environmental pollution. The objective of the current research was to determine the significant parameters on the\\u000a production of polygalacturonase from mango peel which is a major industrial waste. Solid state culture conditions for polygalacturonase\\u000a production by Fusarium moniliforme from

  18. Characterization of banana peel by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy and its use for cadmium removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamil R. Memon; Saima Q. Memon; M. I. Bhanger; G. Zuhra Memon; A. El-Turki; Geoffrey C. Allen

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the use of banana peel, a commonly produced fruit waste, for the removal of Cd(II) from environmental and industrial wastewater. The banana peel was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and found to be rapid

  19. Volatile Components of Peel and Leaf Oils of Lemon and Lime Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Laure Lota; Dominique de Rocca Serra; FE Ä LIX TOMI; Camille Jacquemond; Joseph Casanova

    2002-01-01

    Peel and leaf oils of 43 taxa of lemons and limes were obtained from fruits and leaves collected from trees submitted to the same pedoclimatic and cultural conditions. Their chemical composition was investigated by capillary GC, GC-MS, and 13 C NMR, and the results were submitted to principal component analysis to check for chemical variability. Three major chemotypes were distinguished

  20. Harvesting by Peel Color to Reduce Bruising of "Golden Delicious" Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Golden Delicious’ apples harvested at three peel color stages were immediately bruised to a constant depth using an artificial finger attached to an Instron universal material testing instrument. Bruised tissue was sliced sequentially from the fruit surface in a plane perpendicular to the directio...

  1. Elemental and nutritional analysis of Punica granatum from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dumlu, Melek Ulusoylu; Gürkan, Elçin

    2007-06-01

    Twenty different varieties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) from Turkey were analyzed for vitamin C level, lipid content, sterol determination, anthocyanin content, and elemental analysis (Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Na, and K studies). Vitamin C content range of 1,050-312 mg/100 g, oil content range of 2.41-3.73%, sterol content range of 5.78-8.43%, anthocyanin content range of 2,100-4,400 mg/L, potassium range of 250-1,200 ppm, calcium range of 35-326 ppm, magnesium range of 176-427 ppm, iron range of 21-46 ppm, sodium range of 35-76 ppm, and phosphorus range of 12-43 ppm were observed in these varieties. PMID:17651082

  2. Anthocyanin and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF?B pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD1 mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farrukh Afaq; Mohammad Saleem; Christian G. Krueger; Jess D. Reed; Hasan Mukhtar

    2005-01-01

    Chemoprevention has come of age as an effective cancer control modality; however, the search for novel agent(s) for the armamen- tarium of cancer chemoprevention continues. We argue that agents capable of intervening at more than one critical pathway in the carcinogenesis process will have greater advantage over other single-target agents. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) derived from the tree Punica granatum

  3. Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Results Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. Conclusion The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases. PMID:24884677

  4. KAJIAN PENGGUNAAN LIMBAH BUAH NENAS LOKAL (Ananas comosus, L) SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PEMBUATAN NATA Fruit Waste of Local Pineapple (Ananas Comosus, L) as Nata Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iqmal Tahir; Sri Sumarsih

    Producing nata from fruit waste of local pineapple fruit (A. comosus, L) i.e. fruit kernel, husk, husk containing seed and internal fruit, have been done. Pineapple sample was obtained from local marked on Klaten and was classified into three classes i.e. super, medium and small. The fruit was peeled to get four raw material and each of them was weighted.

  5. Peeling Back the Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols.

    Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed.

    Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers.

    The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior.

    The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of some of the rock abrasion tool and science team members.

  6. Chemical investigation of Indian fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Patnayak; S. Rangaswami; T. R. Seshadri

    1942-01-01

    Summary  The important citrus fruits (oranges) of the Northern Circars belong to three species: (1)C. aurantium, (2)C. medica, (3)C. decumana. Their chemical compositions support their classification as the sweet, the sour and the bitter types. In the peels and rags\\u000a of the first two types hesperidin is present whereas naringin occurs as the characteristic crystalline bitter principle of\\u000a the varieties of

  7. Line creep in paper peeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jari Rosti; Juha Koivisto; Paola Traversa; Xavier Illa; Jean-Robert Grasso; Mikko J. Alava

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of a “peeling front” or an elastic line is studied under creep (constant load) conditions. Our experiments show\\u000a in most cases an exponential dependence of the creep velocity on the inverse force (mass) applied. In particular, the dynamical\\u000a correlations of the avalanche activity are discussed here. We compare various avalanche statistics to those of a line with\\u000a non-local

  8. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Style; Stephen S. L. Peppin; Alan C. F. Cocks

    2011-01-01

    The article demonstrates the method by which mud peeling occurs in drying claysExpressions relating evaporation rate and peel characteristics are derivedMoisture loss rates from soils can be estimated by measuring peel thicknesses

  9. An x-band peeled HEMT amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Paul G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

    1993-01-01

    A discrete peeled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was integrated into a 10 GHz amplifier. The discrete HEMT device interconnects were made using photo patterned metal, stepping from the 10 mil alumina host substrate onto the 1.3 microns thick peeled GaAs HEMT layer, eliminating the need for bond wires and creating a fully integrated circuit. Testing of devices indicate that the peeled device is not degraded by the peel off step but rather there is an improvement in the quantum well carrier confinement. Circuit testing resulted in a maximum gain of 8.5 dB and a return loss minimum of -12 dB.

  10. Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

  11. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Arapoglou; Th. Varzakas; A. Vlyssides; C. Israilides

    2010-01-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted

  12. Design of a dryer for citrus peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Carsky

    2008-01-01

    Citrus peels are important source of production of food additives. South Africa is the third largest citrus exporter in the world but presently no citrus peels are used for further processing. On contrary the country is forced to import these chemicals from overseas in spite of a good quality raw material source in the form of citrus waste. Because citrus

  13. Microbial Production of Pectin from Citrus Peel

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Takuo; Okushima, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    A new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. For this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of Trichosporon penicillatum. The most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30°C. During the fermentation, the pectin in the peel was extracted almost completely without macerating the peel. By this method, 20 to 25 g of pectin was obtained per kg of peel. The pectin obtained was special in that it contained neutral sugar at high levels, which was determined to have a molecular weight suitable for practical applications. Images PMID:16345556

  14. Chemical peeling in ethnic skin: an update.

    PubMed

    Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Galadari, H

    2013-10-01

    With the growth of cosmetic dermatology worldwide, treatments that are effective against skin diseases and augment beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasing in popularity. Chemical peels are a commonly used, fast, safe and effective clinic room treatment that may be used for cosmetic purposes, such as for fine lines and photoageing, but also as primary or adjunct therapies for acne, pigmentary disorders and scarring. Clinicians are faced with specific challenges when using peels on ethnic skin (skin of colour). The higher risk of postinflammatory dyschromias and abnormal scarring makes peels potentially disfiguring. Clinicians should therefore have a sound knowledge of the various peels available and their safety in ethnic skin. This article aims to review the background, classification, various preparations, indications, patient assessment and complications of using chemical peels in ethnic skin. PMID:24098904

  15. Studies on the storage effects and the peel structure of citrus irradiated by electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hua Fen

    1993-07-01

    When radiated with 0.5 kGy electron radiation, the peel structure kept normal, i.e. the waxy layer were thick, the oil cell and spongeous parenchyma cell arranged intensely, which results in plump fruits, lower rate of rot and weight loss during storage, and little bad influence on the flavour. The content of Vitamin C, total acid and total sugar were close to those of control.

  16. Dried peel fraction of Citrus sinensis partially reverses pathological changes in rat model of liver cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shakir AliRam; Ram Prasad; Mohammed Naime; Hina Zafar; Amena Mahmood; Indusmita Routray; Mehmet Yalniz; ?brahim H. Bahcecioglu; Kazim Sahin

    2011-01-01

    Citrus sinensis is a seasonal fruit. Its zester is rich in bioactive phytochemicals, such as limonene, ?-sitosterol, and ascorbic acid, which\\u000a possess pharmacological action. In this study, we report the effect of fraction prepared from dried peel of C. sinensis on biochemical and histopathological changes in rat model of liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was induced in rats by administering\\u000a thioacetamide

  17. Peel test of spinnable carbon nanotube webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandoker, Noman; Hawkins, Stephen C.; Ibrahim, Raafat; Huynh, Chi P.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents results of peel tests with spinnable carbon nanotube webs. Peel tests were performed to study the effect of orientation angles on interface energies between nanotubes. In absence of any binding agent the interface energy represents the Van Der Waals energies between the interacting nanotubes. Therefore, the effect of the orientations on Van Der Waals energies between carbon nanotubes is obtained through the peel test. It is shown that the energy for crossed nanotubes at 90° angle is lower than the energy for parallel nanotubes at 0° angle. This experimental observation was validated by hypothetical theoretical calculations.

  18. Rapid large scale purification of ellagitannins from pomegranate husk, a by-product of the commercial juice industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Seeram; R. Lee; M. Hardy; D. Heber

    2005-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed fresh and in processed forms as juice, jams and wine. Pomegranate fruit husk\\/peel is a rich source of hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins (ETs). In the commercial pomegranate juice (PJ) industry, these ETs are extracted from the husk in significant quantities into the juice due to their hydrophilic properties. Pomegranate husk, a by-product

  19. The Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Warren; Black, Ronald

    1979-01-01

    Describes how the department of physics of the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) has been involved in the Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary study. An appendix which presents the departmental approach to curriculum matters is also included. (HM)

  20. Interpreting honeycomb climbing-drum peel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferdie, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Drum-peel tests are made more meaningful by use of approximations to derive analytical expressions relating failures due to bond flatwise tension, inplane tension, and shear, to adhesive weight and method of bond cure.

  1. Characterization of a Potential Nutraceutical Ingredient: Pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil Unsaponifiable Fraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Augusta Caligiani; Francesca Bonzanini; Gerardo Palla; Martina Cirlini; Renato Bruni

    2010-01-01

    The chemical fingerprinting of the unsaponifiable fraction of different Punica granatum seed oils was performed in order to evaluate their potential as a functional food ingredient. Qualitative and quantitative\\u000a determinations of tocopherol, aliphatic alcohol (including policosanol), squalene, phytosterols and triterpene contents were\\u000a performed by GC-MS. A high yield (3.1–4.2%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained and consistent levels of squalene (up

  2. Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate ( Punica granatum ) for human breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nam Deuk Kim; Rajendra Mehta; Weiping Yu; Ishak Neeman; Talia Livney; Akiva Amichay; Donald Poirier; Paul Nicholls; Andrew Kirby; Wenguo Jiang; Robert Mansel; Cheppail Ramachandran; Thangaiyan Rabi; Boris Kaplan; Ephraim Lansky

    2002-01-01

    Fresh organically grown pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) of the Wonderful cultivar were processed into three components: fermented juice, aqueous pericarp extract and cold-pressed or supercritical CO2-extracted seed oil. Exposure to additional solvents yielded polyphenol-rich fractions (‘polyphenols’) from each of the three components. Their actions, and of the crude whole oil and crude fermented and unfermented juice concentrate, were assessed in

  3. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L.) on blood glucose and ?-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Javidanpour, Somaye; Fatemi Tabtabaei, Seyed Reza; Siahpoosh, Amir; Morovati, Hasan; Shahriari, Ali

    2012-01-01

    There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas ?-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV) injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ). Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for ?-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS) and HbA1c, and decrease of ?-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The ?-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract. PMID:25653767

  4. Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirmala Bardiya; Deepak Somayaji; Sunil Khanna

    1996-01-01

    Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple wastes studied at various HRTs showed a higher rate of gas production at lower retention time. The lowest possible HRT for banana peel was 25 days, resulting in a maximum rate of gas production of 0.76 vol\\/vol\\/day with 36% substrate utilization, while pineapple-processing waste digesters could be operated at 10 days HRT, with a

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Tunisian quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) pulp and peel polyphenolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Fattouch, Sami; Caboni, Pierluigi; Coroneo, Valentina; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Angioni, Alberto; Dessi, Sandro; Marzouki, Nejib; Cabras, Paolo

    2007-02-01

    Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit aqueous acetone extracts were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry were used for the identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds. The total phenolic content of the pulp and peel parts ranged from 37 to 47 and 105 to 157 mg/100 g of fresh weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) was the most abundant phenolic compound in the pulp (37%), whereas rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside) was the main one in the peel (36%). The radical scavenging potential of the extracts was determined and compared with that of synthetic antioxidants. The stronger properties corresponded to those obtained from peel material with a 70-80% inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts against different microorganism strains was also investigated. Quince peel extract was the most active for inhibiting bacteria growth with minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations in the range of 102-5 x 103 microg polyphenol/mL. It seems that chlorogenic acid acts in synergism with other components of the extracts to exhibit their total antimicrobial activities. PMID:17263500

  6. Dermatology procedures: microdermabrasion and chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam

    2014-11-01

    Microdermabrasion and chemical peels are exfoliation procedures used to treat various cosmetic and medical skin conditions. Microdermabrasion involves mechanical abrasion of the skin with a handheld motorized device. Chemical peels involve applying acids directly to the skin. After partial destruction of the skin, these modalities rejuvenate the skin by stimulating production of new skin as well as inducing changes such as increasing production of collagen. Patients planning to undergo one of these procedures should be screened for absolute or relative contraindications, including recent use of retinoids, active skin infection, and immunosuppression. In addition, patients with histories of herpes simplex virus infection in or near the area to be treated should receive antiviral prophylaxis. Microdermabrasion is performed by passing a handheld abrasion device over the skin. Chemical peels are performed by applying liquid acid to the skin. After a chemical peel, patients treated with strong acids may require acid neutralization to protect the skin from sun exposure and reduce pain. Patients should receive aftercare instructions about application of topical agents to reduce pain, erythema, and itching. Patients undergoing chemical peels should be instructed specifically not to remove peeling skin but to let it shed spontaneously. PMID:25373032

  7. [Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p < 0.05). Tangerine's peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058

  8. Pectin-rich fruit wastes as biosorbents for heavy metal removal: Equilibrium and kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silke Schiewer; Santosh B. Patil

    2008-01-01

    Biosorption can be used as a cost effective and efficient technique for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Waste materials from industries such as food processing and agriculture may act as biosorbents. This study investigates the removal of cadmium by fruit wastes (derived from several citrus fruits, apples and grapes). Citrus peels were identified as the most promising

  9. Fruit processing residues as an alternative fuel for drying in Northern Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Nagle; Kennedy Habasimbi; Busarakorn Mahayothee; Methinee Haewsungcharern; Serm Janjai; Joachim Müller

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the fuel potential of residues from local fruit processing facilities in Northern Thailand was assessed. Facilities were surveyed to determine current processing and waste disposal strategies. In facilities handling large amounts of these fruits particularly, residues are currently disposed of in municipal dumps. Fresh processing refuse such as peels and seeds was sampled and analyzed for fuel

  10. Extract from peel of Citrus natsudaidai alleviates experimental chronic allergic dermatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Noriyuki; Yamaura, Katsunori; Shimada, Maki; Ueno, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Citrus natsudaidai (natsumikan) is a typical citrus fruit containing several antioxidative nutrients which are found in higher concentration in the peel than in the pulp of the fruit. In this study, we examined whether extract from immature natsumikan peel prevents development of chronic allergic dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Chronic allergic dermatitis was induced by repeated application of 2, 4, 6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene in BALB/c mice and natsumikan was administrated orally for 30 days. Ear swelling and dermatitis score were measured after each challenge. The level of derivative-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM) in serum was measured on day 30. Results: Treatment of natsumikan significantly attenuated the increase in ear swelling and improved dermatitis scores. In addition, increases in serum d-ROM were attenuated by a treatment of natsumikan. Although the routine treatment with dexamethasone resulted in a clear and significant reduction in body weight, natsumikan treatment did not have such effects. Conclusion: Immature natsumikan peel is beneficial for the treatment of chronic allergic dermatitis. PMID:22022162

  11. Antimutagenic activity of anthocyanins isolated from Aronia melanocarpa fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Szyba; Barbara Brokos; Jan Oszmia?ski

    1997-01-01

    Anthocyanins belong to the flavonoid family and are ubiquitous in plants, especially in flower petals and fruit peels. We established that anthocyanins isolated from fruits of Aronia melanocarpa markedly inhibited the mutagenic activity of benzo(a)pyrene and 2-amino fluorene in the Ames test. In the Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs) test with human blood-derived lymphocytes cultured in vitro, a significant decrease of

  12. Structural Changes in the Minimal Processing of Fruits: Some Effects of Blanching and Sugar Impregnation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella M. Alzamora; Lía N. Gerschenson; Susana L. Vidales; Andrea Nieto

    \\u000a The minimal processing of fruits includes a wide range of methods and technologies for preserving short shelf-life fruit products\\u000a while minimizing changes to their fresh-like characteristics, and the improvement in quality of long shelf-life fruit products\\u000a (Ohlsson, 1994). Examples involve combinations of various treatments such as slicing and peeling, washing, disinfection with chemicals or\\u000a gamma irradiation, soaking in several solutions

  13. Modified atmosphere and modified humidity packaging alleviates chilling injury symptoms in mango fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edna Pesis; Dalia Aharoni; Zion Aharon; Rosa Ben-Arie; Nehemia Aharoni; Yoram Fuchs

    2000-01-01

    Storage of mango (Mangifera indica L. cvs. Tommy Atkins and Keitt) fruits at 12°C caused slight chilling injury (CI) symptoms on the fruit peel, expressed as red spots around the lenticels (lenticel spotting). A modified atmosphere (?5% CO2 and ?10% O2) was created in 4-kg film-lined cartons by using microperforated polyethylene (PE) or Xtend® film (XF). For ‘Keitt’ fruit, a

  14. Extension of the shelf life of banana fruit by 1-methylcyclopropene in combination with polyethylene bags

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueming Jiang; Daryl C Joyce; Andrew J Macnish

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the new anti-ethylene compound 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in combination with polyethylene bags on the ripening of harvested banana fruit was investigated. 1-MCP treatment delayed peel colour change and fruit softening, and extended shelf life in association with suppression of respiration and C2H4 evolution. Banana fruit ripening was delayed when exposed to 0.01–1.0 ?l 1-MCP\\/l for 24 h, and

  15. Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women. PMID:24133616

  16. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-03-12

    There is some evidence that chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, may occur as a result of oxidative stress. Apple peels have high concentrations of phenolic compounds and may assist in the prevention of chronic diseases. Millions of pounds of waste apple peels are generated in the production of applesauce and canned apples in New York State each year. We proposed that a valuable food ingredient could be made using the peels of these apples if they could be dried and ground to a powder without large losses of phytochemicals. Rome Beauty apple peels were treated with citric acid dips, ascorbic acid dips, and blanches before being oven-dried at 60 degrees C. Only blanching treatments greatly preserved the phenolic compounds, and peels blanched for 10 s had the highest total phenolic content. Rome Beauty apple peels were then blanched for 10 s and dried under various conditions (oven-dried at 40, 60, or 80 degrees C, air-dried, or freeze-dried). The air-dried and freeze-dried apple peels had the highest total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents. On a fresh weight basis, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these samples were similar to those of the fresh apple peels. Freeze-dried peels had a lower water activity than air-dried peels on a fresh weight basis. The optimal processing conditions for the ingredient were blanching for 10s and freeze-drying. The process was scaled up, and the apple peel powder ingredient was characterized. The total phenolic content was 3342 +/- 12 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried peels, the flavonoid content was 2299 +/- 52 mg catechin equivalents/100 g dried peels, and the anthocyanin content was 169.7 +/- 1.6 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dried peels. These phytochemical contents were a significantly higher than those of the fresh apple peels if calculated on a fresh weight basis (p < 0.05). The apple peel powder had a total antioxidant activity of 1251 +/- 56 micromol vitamin C equivalents/g, similar to fresh Rome Beauty peels on a fresh weight basis (p > 0.05). One gram of powder had an antioxidant activity equivalent to 220 mg of vitamin C. The freeze-dried apple peels also had a strong antiproliferative effect on HepG(2) liver cancer cells with a median effective dose (EC(50)) of 1.88 +/- 0.01 mg/mL. This was lower than the EC(50) exhibited by the fresh apple peels (p < 0.05). Apple peel powder may be used in a various food products to add phytochemicals and promote good health. PMID:12617604

  17. Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

  18. Peel resistance of adhesive bonds accurately measured

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Strength of adhesive bond between layers of laminated material is tested by peel force to the facing with a tensile testing machine. Testing jig has stainless steel rollers which constrain material to move horizontally while maintaining free end of facing at constant 90 deg angle.

  19. An Ap"peel"ing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urich, Joshua A.; Sasse, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a hands-on mathematics activity wherein students peel oranges to explore the surface area and volume of a sphere. This activity encourages students to make conjectures and hold mathematical discussions with both their peers and their teacher. Moreover, students develop formulas for the surface area and volume of a sphere…

  20. Late Immersion in Perspective: The Peel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presents the 1979 evaluation of the Peel County (Ontario) late immersion French program, in the context of some current issues in second language education in Canada. These include the comparative effectiveness of early and late immersion, the importance of intense exposure, and total accumulated hours of instruction. (Author/AMH)

  1. Palmoplantar peeling secondary to sirolimus therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, L S; McNiff, J M; Colegio, O R

    2014-01-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks. PMID:24224736

  2. Peeling algorithm for custom instruction identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang Zhao; Jinian Bian

    2010-01-01

    To speedup the custom instruction identification for the application specific instruction-set processor (ASIP), this paper proposes a peeling algorithm. It starts with the maximal valid pattern, and then gets a set of valid sub-patterns through deleting the source and sink respectively. Furthermore, a local priority is proposed for the exhaustive pruning. The final experiment indicates a distinct speedup compared to

  3. Chemical Peels for Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

    2012-01-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results. PMID:23378706

  4. Methods for the efficient quantification of fruit provitamin A contents.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Keulemans, Johan; Swennen, Rony

    2006-12-15

    As part of a screening program to identify micronutrient-rich banana and plantain (Musa) varieties, a simple, robust, and comparatively rapid protocol for the quantification of the provitamin A carotenoids contents of fruit pulp and peel tissues by HPLC and by spectrophotometry has been developed. Major points to note include the use lyophilisation and extensive tissue disruption procedures to ensure quantitative recoveries, and the avoidance of saponification and/or concentration steps which lead to significant losses of provitamin A carotenoids. The protocol showed excellent reproducibility between replicate extractions, without the need for an internal standard. Application of the methodology demonstrated that Musa fruit pulp has a relatively simple provitamin A carotenoids content, quite different from the overlying peel, and that the proportions of alpha- and beta-carotene are characteristic for each genotype. The protocol was also used to profile the provitamin A carotenoids of several other fruits. PMID:17049540

  5. Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions by cheaply available fruit waste and algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Pakshirajan, Kannan; Worku, Alemayehu Netsanet; Acheampong, Mike A; Lubberding, Henk J; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different biosorbents, viz. materials commonly present in natural treatment systems (Scenedesmus quadricauda and reed) and commonly produced fruit wastes (orange and banana peel) to remove Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from a synthetic wastewater simulating tannery wastewater. The Cr(III) removal efficiency followed the order S. quadricauda>orange peel>banana peel>reed, whereas the Cr(VI) removal followed the order banana peel>S. quadricauda>reed>orange peel. The chromium biosorption kinetics were governed by the intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Isotherm data obtained using the different biosorbents were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and SIPS models, revealing that the experimental data followed most closely the monolayer sorption theory-based Langmuir model than the other models. The maximum Cr(III) sorption capacity, calculated using the Langmuir model, was found to be 12 and 9 mg/g for S. quadricauda and orange peel, respectively, and the maximum Cr(VI) sorption capacity calculated for banana peel was 3 mg/g. The influence of biosorbent size, pH, solid-liquid ratio, and competing ions were examined for Cr(III) biosorption by S. quadricauda and orange peel and for Cr(VI) sorption by banana peel. The solution pH was found to be the most influential parameter affecting the biosorption process: whereas pH 5 was found to be optimum for maximum removal of Cr(III), Cr(VI) was best removed at a pH as low as 3. Interference to chromium sorption by various ions revealed that Cr(III) binding onto orange peel occurs through electrostatic forces, whereas Cr(VI) binding onto banana peel through non-electrostatic forces. PMID:23553106

  6. Apple Peel Supplemented Diet Reduces Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherogenic Progression in ApoE?/? Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Sandoval, Nathalie; Reyes, María; Gonzalez, Priscila; Gajardo, Monica; Morales, Erik; Neira, Amalia; Razmilic, Iván; Yuri, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE?/? mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE?/? mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice. PMID:26075004

  7. Comparative analysis of Tunisian wild Crataegus azarolus (yellow azarole) and Crataegus monogyna (red azarole) leaf, fruit, and traditionally derived syrup: phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous-acetone extracts.

    PubMed

    Belkhir, Manel; Rebai, Olfa; Dhaouadi, Karima; Congiu, Francesca; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Amri, Mohamed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-10-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the yellow and red azarole phenolic extracts prepared from leaf, fruit peel/pulp, and syrup were comparatively investigated. The yellow azarole was found significantly richer in polyphenols than the red-fruit species. Hyperoside was the main phenolic in both yellow and red azarole leaves and only in yellow fruits, whereas procyanidin B2 was the major compound in red fruits. Yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities using DPPH (?168 and 79 ?mol TEAC/g fw, respectively) and FRAP (?378 and 161 ?mol Fe(2+)/g fw, respectively) assays. The highest antibacterial activities were recorded for the yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts, especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis . The low phenolic content of the syrups contrasted with their significant antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, which were correlated to their hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (furan derivative amounts) content. PMID:24070066

  8. Apparatus Tests Peeling Of Bonded Rubbery Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crook, Russell A.; Graham, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Instrumented hydraulic constrained blister-peel apparatus obtains data on degree of bonding between specimen of rubbery material and rigid plate. Growth of blister tracked by video camera, digital clock, pressure transducer, and piston-displacement sensor. Cylinder pressure controlled by hydraulic actuator system. Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) and float provide second, independent measure of change in blister volume used as more precise volume feedback in low-growth-rate test.

  9. The role of peel stresses in cyclic debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    When an adhesively bonded joint is undergoing cyclic loading, one of the possible damage modes that occurs is called cyclic debonding - progressive separation of the adherends by failure of the adhesive bond under cyclic loading. In most practical structures, both peel and shear stresses exist in the adhesive bonding during cyclic loading. The results of an experimental and analytical study to determine the role of peel stresses on cyclic debonding in a mixed mode specimen are presented. Experimentally, this was done by controlling the forces that create the peel stresses by applying a clamping force to oppose the peel stresses. Cracked lap shear joints were chosen for this study. A finite element analysis was developed to assess the effect of the clamping force on the strain energy release rates due to shear and peel stresses. The results imply that the peel stress is the principal stress causing cyclic debonding.

  10. Frozen Fruit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-04-30

    In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  12. Comparative study of antioxidant power, polyphenols, flavonoids and betacyanins of peel and pulp of three Tunisian Opuntia forms.

    PubMed

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Trabelsi Ayadi, Malika

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta has been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The Total Phenolic Compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulps and the thornless has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 ?g g(-1); thornless: 77.03 ?g g(-1)) and O. stricta peels (19.22 ?g g(-1)). PMID:26030997

  13. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called "the king of fruits", is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  14. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma. PMID:23130283

  15. Hydrolysis of grapefruit peel waste with cellulase and pectinase enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Wilkins; Wilbur W. Widmer; Karel Grohmann; Randall G. Cameron

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 1 million metric tons of grapefruit were processed in the 2003\\/04 season resulting in 500,000 metric tons of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes and pH levels to hydrolyze grapefruit peel waste to produce sugars. Pectinase and cellulase

  16. The peel test in experimental adhesive fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. P.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Several testing methods have been proposed for obtaining critical energy release rate or adhesive fracture energy in bond systems. These tests include blister, cone, lap shear, and peel tests. Peel tests have been used for many years to compare relative strengths of different adhesives, different surface preparation techniques, etc. The present work demonstrates the potential use of the peel test for obtaining adhesive fracture energy values.

  17. Peeling of Polydimethylsiloxane Adhesives : the Case of Adhesive Claude VERDIER(1) *,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Peeling of Polydimethylsiloxane Adhesives : the Case of Adhesive Failure Claude VERDIER(1 The adhesion properties of high molecular weight Polydimethylsiloxane adhesives are measured using 90°-peel effects. Recently, model polymers (Polydimethylsiloxanes, PDMS) were used10 to investigate the peeling

  18. Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Raduni?, Mira; Juki? Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

    2015-06-15

    The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7 mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. PMID:25660857

  19. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract rich in ellagitannins.

    PubMed

    González-Trujano, María Eva; Pellicer, Francisco; Mena, Pedro; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been used for centuries for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, there is a lack of comprehensive information focused on the properties of a certain pomegranate (poly)phenolic profile to cure pain and gastric injury induced by anti-inflammatory drugs. This study investigated the systemic effects of different doses of a HPLC-characterized pomegranate extract on the formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in mice. The effect of the extract against gastric injury caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ethanol was also assessed. Pomegranate reduced nociception in both phases of the formalin test, suggesting central and peripheral activities to inhibit nociception. Indomethacin-induced gastric injury was not produced in the presence of pomegranate, which also protected against ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The present results reinforce the benefits of pomegranate (poly)phenolics in the treatment of pain as well as their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:25822007

  20. FRUIT SPLIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water stage fruit split is a noninfectious disorder of pecan. Its occurrence and severity varies greatly depending upon cultivar, crop load, water status of trees, and atmospheric conditions. This review article discusses the symptoms, causes, and control measures for water stage fruit split in pe...

  1. Efficacy of Modified Jessner's Peel and 20% TCA Versus 20% TCA Peel Alone for the Treatment of Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is a paucity of studies on the use of chemical peels for acne scars among the Asian population. A trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and Jessner's combination chemical peel, originally described by Monheit, is said to be better than a TCA peel alone. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of 20% TCA and Jessner's solution versus 20% TCA alone for the treatment of acne scars. Materials and Methods : The patients were divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Chemical peeling was done in both the groups. In Group I, chemical peeling with Jessner's peel followed by 20% TCA was done and in Group II patients chemical peeling with 20% TCA peel alone was done. Results: In Group I (Jessner's peel and 20% TCA), mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 8% cases, moderate improvement in 32% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 60% patients. In Group II (20% TCA), mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 32% cases, moderate improvement in 40% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 28% patients. But, the difference in improvement of acne scars was not statistically significant in both the groups (P value > 0.05). PMID:25949022

  2. Structure-function relationship of the foam-like pomelo peel (Citrus maxima)-an inspiration for the development of biomimetic damping materials with high energy dissipation.

    PubMed

    Thielen, M; Schmitt, C N Z; Eckert, S; Speck, T; Seidel, R

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical properties of artificial foams are mainly determined by the choice of bulk materials and relative density. In natural foams, in contrast, variation to optimize properties is achieved by structural optimization rather than by conscious substitution of bulk materials. Pomelos (Citrus maxima) have a thick foam-like peel which is capable of dissipating considerable amounts of kinetic energy and thus this fruit represents an ideal role model for the development of biomimetic impact damping structures. This paper focuses on the analysis of the biomechanics of the pomelo peel and on its structure-function relationship. It deals with the determination of the onset strain of densification of this foam-like tissue and on how this property is influenced by the arrangement of vascular bundles. It was found here that the vascular bundles branch in a very regular manner-every 16.5% of the radial peel thickness-and that the surrounding peel tissue (pericarp) attains its exceptional thickness mainly by the expansion of existing interconnected cells causing an increasing volume of the intercellular space, rather than by cell division. These findings lead to the discussion of the pomelo peel as an inspiration for fibre-reinforced cast metallic foams with the capacity for excellent energy dissipation. PMID:23648799

  3. Proteomics approach reveals mechanism underlying susceptibility of loquat fruit to sunburn during color changing period.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ji-Mou; Lin, Yong-Xiang; Chen, Yi-Yong; Deng, Chao-Jun; Gong, Hui-Wen; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Zheng, Shao-Quan; Chen, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate why loquat fruit peels are more sensitive to high temperature and strong sunlight, making them highly susceptible to sunburn, during the color changing period (CCP). Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the fruit peel proteins was performed over three developmental periods, namely green fruit period (GFP), color changing period and yellow ripening period (YRP). Fifty-five protein spots with at least 2-fold differences in abundance were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. The identified proteins were divided into categories related to heat-shock response, stress response and defense, energy metabolism, photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis. The results showed that expression of proteins related to anaerobic respiration and photorespiration were increased while the proteins related to ROS scavenging, polyamine biosynthesis, defense pathogens and photosynthesis were decreased during CCP under heat stress. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of loquat fruit susceptible to sunburn during CCP. PMID:25624247

  4. The use of principal component and cluster analysis to differentiate banana peel flours based on their starch and dietary fibre components.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Saifullah; Ismail, Noryati; Alkarkhi, Abbas Fadhl Mubarek; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2010-08-01

    Banana peel flour (BPF) prepared from green or ripe Cavendish and Dream banana fruits were assessed for their total starch (TS), digestible starch (DS), resistant starch (RS), total dietary fibre (TDF), soluble dietary fibre (SDF) and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that only 1 component was responsible for 93.74% of the total variance in the starch and dietary fibre components that differentiated ripe and green banana flours. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to similar data obtained two statistically significant clusters (green and ripe bananas) to indicate difference in behaviours according to the stages of ripeness based on starch and dietary fibre components. We concluded that the starch and dietary fibre components could be used to discriminate between flours prepared from peels obtained from fruits of different ripeness. The results were also suggestive of the potential of green and ripe BPF as functional ingredients in food. PMID:24575193

  5. Valorisation of low quality edible oil with tomato peel waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amar Benakmoum; Souheila Abbeddou; Ali Ammouche; Panagiotis Kefalas; Dimitrios Gerasopoulos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to enrich edible oils with carotenoids and lycopene from tomato purée or tomato peel, an industrial tomato waste. These tomato derivatives were incorporated in refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil and refined sunflower oil. The incorporation of peel enhanced the concentration of ?-carotene and lycopene more than tomato purée. Furthermore, the incorporation of

  6. HYDROLYSIS OF GRAPEFRUIT PEEL WASTE WITH CELLULASE AND PECTINASE ENZYMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 1 million Mg of grapefruit were processed in 2003/04 resulting in 500 thousand Mg of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes and pH levels t...

  7. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of pomegranate peel extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Negi; G. K. Jayaprakasha; B. S. Jena

    2003-01-01

    Dried pomegranate peels were powdered and extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol and water for 4 h each. The dried extracts were used to determine their antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex and antimutagenicity against the mutagenicity of sodium azide by the Ames test. All the peel extracts exhibited marked antioxidant capacity, but

  8. Combined microwave-hot air drying of peeled longan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Varith; P. Dijkanarukkul; A. Achariyaviriya; S. Achariyaviriya

    2007-01-01

    Objectives of this research were to develop and evaluate a drying process for peeled longan using combined microwave-hot air (MWHA). Each experiment employed the peeled ‘Dor’ longan to be dried to final moisture content of 18% (dry basis). Hot air temperature was regulated for three levels: 40, 50, and 60°C, coupled with MW regulated for four levels: 100, 180, 300

  9. Thermomechanical process intensification for oil extraction from orange peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-A. Rezzoug; N. Louka

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the intensification and improvement of oil extraction from orange peel through a thermomechanical process: the instantaneous controlled pressure drop (briefly D.I.C. process). This process involves subjecting orange peel for a short time to steam pressure, followed by an instantaneous decompression to a vacuum at 50 mbar. Central composite design was used to study the combined effects of processing

  10. DRY CAUSTIC PEELING OF CLINGSTONE PEACHES. CAPSULE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Capsule Report discusses the modified dry caustic process which uses rapidly rotating rubber discs to mechanically wipe the caustic treated peel from clingstone peaches. This report covers two-seasons of evaluation during which the dry caustic peeling system was operated in p...

  11. Manual for Program PSTRESS: Peel stress computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkey, Derek A.; Madan, Ram C.

    1987-01-01

    Described is the use of the interactive FORTRAN computer program PSTRESS, which computes a closed form solution for two bonded plates subjected to applied moments, vertical shears, and in-plane forces. The program calculates in-plane stresses in the plates, deflections of the plates, and peel and shear stresses in the adhesive. The document briefly outlines the analytical method used by PSTRESS, describes the input and output of the program, and presents a sample analysis. The results of the latter are shown to be within a few percent of results obtained using a NASTRAN finite element analysis. An appendix containing a listing of PSTRESS is included.

  12. Peeling Bifurcations of Toroidal Chaotic Attractors

    E-print Network

    Christophe Letellier; Robert Gilmore; Timothy Jones

    2007-10-17

    Chaotic attractors with toroidal topology (van der Pol attractor) have counterparts with symmetry that exhibit unfamiliar phenomena. We investigate double covers of toroidal attractors, discuss changes in their morphology under correlated peeling bifurcations, describe their topological structures and the changes undergone as a symmetry axis crosses the original attractor, and indicate how the symbol name of a trajectory in the original lifts to one in the cover. Covering orbits are described using a powerful synthesis of kneading theory with refinements of the circle map. These methods are applied to a simple version of the van der Pol oscillator.

  13. BIOTECHNOLOGY INFLUENCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OFETHYL ALCOHOL (ETHANOL) FROM WASTE FRUITES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. PUTHETI

    The use of waste fruits of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) banana (Musa accuminata Colla) and pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) as biomas for production of wine was investigated. Ripe, soft pineapple, banana and pawpaw fruits weighing 5.8, 3.3 and 5.8 respectively were used for microbial analysis and nutritional composition. Fungi and bacteria were isolated from the peels, pulp and juice.

  14. Biosorption of heavy metals in polluted water, using different waste fruit cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Kelly-Vargas; Monica Cerro-Lopez; Silvia Reyna-Tellez; Erick R. Bandala; Jose Luis Sanchez-Salas

    The biosorption capacity of different cortex fruit wastes including banana (Musa paradisiaca), lemon (Citrus limonum) and orange (Citrus sinensis) peel were evaluated. In order to perform these experiments, grinded dried cortexes were used as package in 100mm high, 10mm i.d. columns. The grinded material was powdered in a mortar and passed through a screen in order to get two different

  15. POSTHARVEST CALCIUM CHLORIDE DIPS OF WHOLE TOMATO FRUIT REDUCE POSTHARVEST DECAY UNDER COMMERCIAL CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research showed that mature green tomato fruit dipped 1 to 4 minutes in a 1% CaCl2 solutions before storage had significantly increased peel calcium content and reduced postharvest decay. The present experiments, conducted over 3-day periods (reps), evaluate treatment effectiveness under c...

  16. Uptake of quercetin and quercetin 3-glucoside from whole onion and apple peel extracts by Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Brown, Dan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-11-17

    Evidence suggests that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables may be responsible for this health benefit. However, there is limited knowledge on the bioavailability of specific phytochemicals from whole fruits and vegetables. This study used Caco-2 cells to examine uptake of quercetin aglycon and quercetin 3-glucoside as purified compounds and from whole onion and apple peel extracts. Pure quercetin aglycon was absorbed by the Caco-2 cells in higher concentrations than quercetin 3-glucoside (p < 0.05). Caco-2 cells treated with quercetin 3-glucoside accumulated both quercetin 3-glucoside and quercetin. Caco-2 cells absorbed more onion quercetin aglycon than onion quercetin 3-glucoside (p < 0.05), and the percentage of onion quercetin absorbed was greater than that of pure quercetin, most likely due to enzymatic hydrolysis of quercetin 3-glucoside and other quercetin glucosides found in the onion by the Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cells absorbed low levels of quercetin 3-glucoside from apple peel extracts, but quercetin aglycon absorption was not detected. Caco-2 cell homogenates demonstrated both lactase and glucosidase activities when incubated with lactose and quercetin 3-glucoside, respectively. This use of the Caco2 cell model appears to be a simple and useful system for studying bioavailability of whole food phytochemicals and may be used to assess differences in bioavailability between foods. PMID:15537334

  17. Pome fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the beneficial influences of controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) on the major quality deterioration, physiological disorders and diseases of pome fruits, and the problems resulting from improper atmosphere conditions. It discusses the interactions between ...

  18. Residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in/on mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi

    2011-01-01

    Mango, the major fruit crop of India is affected by stone weevil, which can cause serious damage to the fruits. Acephate gives good control of mango stone weevil. Residues of acephate and its major metabolite, methamidophos were evaluated on mango fruits following repeated spray applications at the recommended dose (0.75 kg a.i. ha?¹) and double the recommended dose (1.5 kg a.i. ha?¹). Acephate residues mostly remained on the fruit peel which persisted up to 30 days. Movement of residues to the fruit pulp was detected after 1 day of application, increased to maximum of 0.14 and 0.26 mg kg?¹ after 3 days and reached to below detectable level (BDL) after 20 days. Methamidophos, a metabolite of acephate, was detected from 3rd day onwards in both peel and pulp and persisted up to 15 days. The residues (acephate + methamidophos) dissipated with the half-life of 5 days in peel and pulp. A safe pre-harvest interval of 30 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits following treatment of acephate at the recommended dose of 0.75 kg a.i. ha?¹. PMID:21107525

  19. Correlation of rutin accumulation with 3-O-glucosyl transferase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities during the ripening of tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Capanoglu, Esra; Beekwilder, Jules; Matros, Andrea; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Mock, Hans Peter

    2012-12-01

    In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at different development stages (green, breaker, turning, pink, red, and deep red) were divided into flesh and peel fractions. In each sample, both the content of rutin and the enzymatic activities for PAL and 3-GT were recorded. The highest activities of PAL were recorded in the peel of turning fruit (3,000 ?kat/mg fresh weight). In fruit flesh, maximal activity was observed in red fruit (917.3 ?kat/mg). For both tissues, PAL activity strongly decreased at the final (deep red) fruit stage. The activity of 3-GT in peel peaked in the turning fruit stage (50.7 pkat/mg), while in flesh maximal activity (33.4 pkat/mg) was observed in green fruit, which rapidly declined at the turning stage. Higher levels of rutin were detected in the tomato peel compared to the flesh part with the highest level being found at the green stage. The relation of PAL and 3-GT activities to rutin content is also evaluated. PMID:23117480

  20. Long aculeus and behavior of Anastrepha ludens render gibberellic acid ineffective as an agent to reduce 'ruby red' grapefruit susceptibility to the attack of this pestiferous fruit fly in commercial groves.

    PubMed

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martín; Greany, Patrick; Bigurra, Everardo; Pérez-Staples, Diana; McDonald, Roy

    2006-08-01

    Treating Mexican grapefruit with gibberellic acid (GA3) before color break, significantly delayed peel color change and increased peel puncture resistance, but it did not reduce grapefruit susceptibility to Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) attack under natural conditions. Despite GA3 treatments, larval infestation levels increased with higher fruit fly populations, which also increased as the season progressed. Late in the season, infestation levels were even higher in GA3-treated fruit compared with untreated fruit, possibly because treated fruit were in better condition at that stage. Egg clutch size was significantly greater in very unripe, hard, GA3-treated fruit at the beginning of the harvest season and in December, compared with control fruit. Under laboratory conditions, egg injection into different regions of the fruit suggested that A. ludens eggs are intoxicated by peel oil content in the flavedo region. However, A. ludens' long aculeus allows females to oviposit eggs deeper into the peel (i.e., albedo), avoiding toxic essential oils in the flavedo. This makes A. ludens a particularly difficult species to control compared with other citrus-infesting species such as Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (fly species with significantly shorter aculei), which can be effectively managed with GA3 sprays. We discuss our findings in light of their practical implications and with respect to the oviposition behavior of various fruit flies attacking citrus. PMID:16937671

  1. Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stephane; Vanel, Loic; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2014-03-01

    We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling an adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependencies of the stick and slip phases durations with the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K.W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205-222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase.

  2. Complications of Medium Depth and Deep Chemical Peels

    PubMed Central

    Nikalji, Nanma; Godse, Kiran; Sakhiya, Jagdish; Patil, Sharmila; Nadkarni, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarring. In very rare cases, complications can be life-threatening. PMID:23378707

  3. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiumin; Kong, Wenbin; Peng, Gang; Zhou, Jingyi; Azam, Muhammad; Xu, Changjie; Grierson, Don; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation. The carotenoid content in the peel and flesh of LYQ was approximately 68 ?g g?1 and 13 ?g g?1 fresh weight (FW), respectively, and for BS 19 ?g g?1 and 0.27 ?g g?1 FW. The mRNA levels of 15 carotenogenesis-related genes were analysed during fruit development and ripening. After the breaker stage (S4), the mRNA levels of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) and chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase (CYCB) were higher in the peel, and CYCB and ?-carotene hydroxylase (BCH) mRNAs were higher in the flesh of LYQ, compared with BS. Plastid morphogenesis during fruit ripening was also studied. The ultrastructure of plastids in the peel of BS changed less than in LYQ during fruit development. Two different chromoplast shapes were observed in the cells of LYQ peel and flesh at the fully ripe stage. Carotenoids were incorporated in the globules in chromoplasts of LYQ and BS peel but were in a crystalline form in the chromoplasts of LYQ flesh. However, no chromoplast structure was found in the cells of fully ripe BS fruit flesh. The mRNA level of plastid lipid-associated protein (PAP) in the peel and flesh of LYQ was over five times higher than in BS peel and flesh. In conclusion, the lower carotenoid content in BS fruit was associated with the lower mRNA levels of PSY1, CYCB, and BCH; however, the failure to develop normal chromoplasts in BS flesh is the most convincing explanation for the lack of carotenoid accumulation. The expression of PAP was well correlated with chromoplast numbers and carotenoid accumulation, suggesting its possible role in chromoplast biogenesis or interconversion of loquat fruit. PMID:21994170

  4. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiumin; Kong, Wenbin; Peng, Gang; Zhou, Jingyi; Azam, Muhammad; Xu, Changjie; Grierson, Don; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation. The carotenoid content in the peel and flesh of LYQ was approximately 68 ?g g(-1) and 13 ?g g(-1) fresh weight (FW), respectively, and for BS 19 ?g g(-1) and 0.27 ?g g(-1) FW. The mRNA levels of 15 carotenogenesis-related genes were analysed during fruit development and ripening. After the breaker stage (S4), the mRNA levels of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) and chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase (CYCB) were higher in the peel, and CYCB and ?-carotene hydroxylase (BCH) mRNAs were higher in the flesh of LYQ, compared with BS. Plastid morphogenesis during fruit ripening was also studied. The ultrastructure of plastids in the peel of BS changed less than in LYQ during fruit development. Two different chromoplast shapes were observed in the cells of LYQ peel and flesh at the fully ripe stage. Carotenoids were incorporated in the globules in chromoplasts of LYQ and BS peel but were in a crystalline form in the chromoplasts of LYQ flesh. However, no chromoplast structure was found in the cells of fully ripe BS fruit flesh. The mRNA level of plastid lipid-associated protein (PAP) in the peel and flesh of LYQ was over five times higher than in BS peel and flesh. In conclusion, the lower carotenoid content in BS fruit was associated with the lower mRNA levels of PSY1, CYCB, and BCH; however, the failure to develop normal chromoplasts in BS flesh is the most convincing explanation for the lack of carotenoid accumulation. The expression of PAP was well correlated with chromoplast numbers and carotenoid accumulation, suggesting its possible role in chromoplast biogenesis or interconversion of loquat fruit. PMID:21994170

  5. Punica granatum and its therapeutic implications on breast carcinogenesis: A review.

    PubMed

    Vini, Ravindran; Sreeja, Sreeharshan

    2015-03-01

    Punica granatum has a recorded history of pharmacological properties which can be attributed to its rich reservoir of phytochemicals. Investigations in recent years have established its tremendous potential as an antitumorogenic agent against various cancers including breast cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. The plausible role of Punica as a therapeutic agent, as an adjuvant in chemotherapy, and its dietary implications as chemopreventive agent in breast cancer have been explored. Mechanistic studies have revealed that Punica extracts and its components, individually or in combination, can modulate and target key proteins and genes involved in breast cancer. Our earlier finding also demonstrated the role of methanolic extract of pomegranate pericarp in reducing proliferation in breast cancer by binding to estrogen receptor at the same time not affecting uterine weight unlike estradiol or tamoxifen. This review analyses other plausible mechanisms of Punica in preventing the progression of breast cancer and how it can possibly be a therapeutic agent by acting at various steps of carcinogenesis including proliferation, invasion, migration, metastasis, angiogenesis, and inflammation via various molecular mechanisms. © 2015 BioFactors, 41(2):78-89, 2015. PMID:25857627

  6. Studying genetic variability of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) based on chloroplast DNA and barcode genes.

    PubMed

    Hajiahmadi, Zahra; Talebi, Majid; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim

    2013-11-01

    Chloroplast DNA has been used extensively to analyze plant phylogenies at different taxonomic levels because of its size, organization and sequence conservation. In the present research, two chloroplastic regions, petA–psaJ, trnC–trnD and four DNA barcodes (trnH–psbA, ITS, rbcL, matK), were used to introduce suitable regions for the assessment of genetic diversity among P. granatum L. genotypes. Analysis of psbE–petL in petA–psaJ region revealed 1,300 nucleotides with 4.29 % genetic diversity among genotypes, while trnC–petN in trnC–trnD region showed 1.8 % genetic diversity. Therefore, despite the results obtained from the study of other plants, the trnC–trnD region had a low potential for the evaluation of diversity among pomegranate genotypes. Analysis of DNA barcodes in pomegranate showed that trnH–psbA (genetic diversity 2.91 %) provides the highest intra-species variation, followed by ITS (genetic diversity 0.44 %). Eighteen genotypes from different geographical origins of Iran were used to investigate psbE–petL and trnH–psbA potential as novel barcodes to determine genetic polymorphism and characterize pomegranate genotypes. The results suggested that two regions, psbE–petL and trnH–psbA, were more suitable for determining intra-species relationships of pomegranate. PMID:23797804

  7. Antioxidant capacity changes of 3 cultivar Chinese pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and corresponding wines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Huiting; Du, Jinhua; Wang, Yongmei

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH), ·OH and O(2·)(-)-scavenging abilities, total polyphenols (TP) and total anthocyanins (TA) in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) and pomegranate wine (PW). The correlations among them were also analyzed. Both PJ and PW showed significantly high TP and antioxidant capacities, but some differences existed among these cultivars. There was 1596.67 mg/L TP found in sweet PJ, while sour PJ showed the highest titratable acidity of 35.90 g/L and lowest pH value at 2.56. Red PJ was found to have the highest TA (82.26 mg/L) in the 3 cultivars. Sweet PJ showed higher DPPH-scavenging ability and higher FRAP than others. Both PJ and PW exhibited high and relatively stable ·OH-scavenging abilities, in which sour PJ and sour PW had higher O(2·)(-) scavenging capacity than others. Significant positive correlations were observed among TP, DPPH, and FRAP in both PJ and PW. A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and TP indicated that phenolic compounds were major contributors to the high antioxidant activity of PJ and PW. PMID:22417342

  8. A Comprehensive Review of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) Properties in Toxicological, Pharmacological, Cellular and Molecular Biology Researches

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Arastoo, Mohammad; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Punica granatum (Pg), commonly known as pomegranate (Pg), is a member of the monogeneric family, Punicaceae, and is mainly found in Iran which is considered to be its primary centre of origin. Pg and its chemical components possess various pharmacological and toxicological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines), anti-cancer and anti-angiogenesis activities. They also show inhibitory effects on invasion/motility, cell cycle, apoptosis, and vital enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX), lipooxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 (CYP450), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), carbonic anhydrase (CA), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSDs) and serine protease (SP). Furthermore, they can stimulate cell differentiation and possess anti-mutagenic effects. Pg can also interfere with several signaling pathways including PI3K/AKT, mTOR, PI3K, Bcl-X, Bax, Bad, MAPK, ERK1/2, P38, JNK, and caspase. However, the exact mechanisms for its pharmacological and toxicological properties remain to be unclear and need further evaluation. These properties strongly suggest a wide range use of Pg for clinical applications. This review will discuss the areas for which Pg has shown therapeutic properties in different mechanisms. PMID:24250463

  9. Effect of postharvest UV-B irradiation on nutraceutical quality and physical properties of tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Antonella; Chiavaro, Emma; Dall'asta, Chiara; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Galaverna, Gianni; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2013-04-15

    Nutraceutical (ascorbic acid and carotenoids) and physical (colour and firmness) parameters were evaluated in two tomato genotypes (Money maker and high pigment-1) subjected to post harvest UV-B irradiation at different ripening stages (mature green and turning). UV-B treatment increased the concentration of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in Money maker flesh and peel, while high pigment-1 fruits underwent only minor changes, suggesting that hp-1 mutation decreased the fruit ability to respond to UV-B radiation. Colour parameters appeared to be more influenced by harvesting stages than UV-B with the exception of redness (a?), which in Money maker was found to increase in both flesh and peel of irradiated fruits at turning stage, although not significantly, while control was more red than treated at mature green stage. Firmness was negatively influenced by UV-B, as tomatoes were found to soften after the treatment, although this aspect needs further studies to be clarified. PMID:23200003

  10. What Did Peel County Do In the Great War?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Desmond

    1987-01-01

    Describes the strengths and weaknesses of the Canadian War effort during World War I. Specifically focuses on Peel County, Ontario and the particular problems its inhabitants experienced during the war. (BSR)

  11. Peeling, healing and bursting in a lubricated elastic sheet

    E-print Network

    Hosoi, Anette "Peko"

    ; one that slides off the projector by riding on a thin film of air before coming to rest as far away the plastic sheet lifts off and balloons as a peeling front advances to the right. Following a short transient

  12. The hypocholesterolemic effect of lemon peels, lemon pectin, and the waste stream material of lemon peels in hybrid F 1 B hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. M. Terpstra; J. A. Lapré; H. T. de Vries; A. C. Beynen

    2002-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background We found in preliminary studies with hamsters that citrus peels have a cholesterol lowering effect comparable to that of\\u000a pectin extracted from these peels. Aim of the study We wanted to examine whether the cholesterol lowering effect of the peels could be completely accounted for by the pectin\\u000a in the peels. Methods We fed cholesterol enriched (0.1 %,w\\/w)

  13. Acidification of “dry” caustic peeling waste by lactic acid fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gee; C. C. Huxsoll; R. P. Graham

    1974-01-01

    The wurpeel process used by the potato industry produces a peel waste of high solids. This material is easily handled and\\u000a collected, but due to the caustic used for peel release it has high residual alkalinity. This waste when acidified to neutralize\\u000a the excess alkali yields a useful feedstuff for cattle. A method for neutralization of the excess alkali by

  14. Flow properties of cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose from orange peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fevzi Ya?ar; Hasan To?rul; Nurhan Arslan

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose was extracted with 10% NaOH at 35°C for 22h from defatted, protein, pectin and hemicellulose free, delignified orange peel. The combined effects of temperature and concentration on the viscosity of orange peel cellulose solutions were examined for a temperature range 20–60°C and a concentration range 1–10kg\\/m3. Twenty-eight different models describing the combined effects of temperature and concentration on the

  15. Variations and comparisons in medium-depth chemical peeling.

    PubMed

    Brody, H J

    1989-09-01

    Two effective methods in chemical peeling, solid carbon dioxide plus trichloroacetic acid and Jessner's solution plus trichloroacetic acid, were compared clinically with photographs and histologically with serial biopsies. Carbon dioxide produced a deeper wound than Jessner's solution, and CO2 + TCA was slightly deeper than Jessner's + TCA but was probably not significantly deeper from a clinical standpoint except in correcting scarring. Triple consecutive applications of TCA can substantially increase wound depth with both combination peels. PMID:2506259

  16. Deterpenation of Brazilian orange peel oil by vacuum distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giane R. Stuart; Daíse Lopes; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    The deterpenation of orange peel oil in most industries is accomplished by vacuum distillation, but surprisingly little information\\u000a on this matter can be found in the open literature. This work reports recent results on orange peel oil deterpenation carried\\u000a out in an automatic vacuum distillation column operated in the semibatch mode at the temperatures of 50, 65, and 80C, at

  17. Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongard, M. W.; Thome, K. E.; Barr, J. L.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2014-11-01

    Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ˜ 0.1 MA m?2) and low magnetic field (B ˜ 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ? 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink.

  18. Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, ?-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

  19. Reflectance spectral features and non-destructive estimation of chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content in apple fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark N. Merzlyak; Alexei E. Solovchenko; Anatoly A. Gitelson

    2003-01-01

    Fruit reflectance spectra of five apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars (Zhigulevskoe, Antonovka, Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Renet Simirenko) with a wide range of peel pigment (chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids and anthocyanins) content have been studied to develop non-destructive techniques for pigment assessment. In addition to chlorophylls, positions of in vivo absorption maxima were established for carotenoids (480, 455

  20. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    PubMed

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 ?g/mL, 100 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 ?g/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum. PMID:26004729

  1. Population genetic diversity in Chinese pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars revealed by fluorescent-AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaohe; Yin, Yanlei; Qu, Jianlu; Zhu, Liqin; Li, Yun

    2007-12-01

    Eighty-five pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars from six geographical populations located at Shandong, Anhui, Shaanxi, Henan, Yunnan, and Xinjiang Provinces were studied for its population genetic diversity by means of fluorescent-AFLP markers. The results indicated that 135-185 polymorphic loci were amplified by eight pairs of primers at species level. An average of 158.25 polymorphic loci was amplified for each primer combination. The polymorphism percentage ranged from 62.5% to 86.11%, and the average polymorphism percentage was 73.26%. This indicated that there was plentiful genetic diversity in pomegranate cultivars. The genetic diversity at the species level was higher than that at the population level. The order of the genetic diversity was Henan population > Xinjiang population > Shaanxi population > Anhui population > Shandong population > Yunnan population. Variance analysis showed that there was significant difference between populations in genetic diversity. The genetic differentiation coefficient between populations (G(ST)) was 0.2018, which indicated that gene differentiation was mainly within the population, and between populations, it accounted for 20.18% of the total variation. Gene flow (Nm) between the populations measured was 1.9027 based on the genetic differentiation coefficient between populations, indicating that there was mild gene flow between populations. The UPGMA cluster analysis showed that most accessions from the same population were clustered together, but there was partly gene exchange. All genetic parameters indicated that there was plentiful genetic diversity in pomegranate cultivars in China, of which Henan population was significantly higher than the other populations, and it had wide application foreground in pomegranate breeding in China. PMID:18155618

  2. The efficacy of Punica granatum extract in the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Zolfaghary, Behzad; Farhad, Ali Reza; Tavangar, Atefeh; Soleymani, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common, painful ulcerative disorder of the oral cavity with unknown etiology. No documented cure exists and topical application of medications aims to reduce pain associated with this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Punica granatum (PG) extract on the clinical management of RAS. Methods: A total of 40 patients with RAS participated in this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. During three episodes of RAS, the efficacy of topical PG gel (10%) was evaluated. Patients were randomly assigned to use placebo gel or PG gel daily. The time of pain elimination and the time of complete healing were recorded and the pain degree was assessed and recorded by each patients in different time intervals including: Before using the oral gel (day 0), and on days 1, 3, 5, 7 after using the product. Data were analyzed using the repeated measures ANOVA, paired and independent t-test. Findings: Mean time of pain elimination showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between PG group (3.4 ± 1.09) and placebo group (5.9 ± 0.6). The mean duration of complete healing also showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between PG group (5.3 ± 0.81) and placebo group (8.6 ± 0.99). The visual analog scale score in PG group was significantly less than the placebo group in all time intervals (day 1 to day 7) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that PG extract in the form of oral gel (10%) may be beneficial in reducing RAS pain and has a positive effect in reducing the overall time period of complete healing. It was concluded that PG is an effective herbal medicine for the management of RAS. PMID:24991610

  3. Volumetric depth peeling for medical image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, David; Clarke, John P.; Fielding, Julia R.; TaylorII, Russell M.

    2006-01-01

    Volumetric depth peeling (VDP) is an extension to volume rendering that enables display of otherwise occluded features in volume data sets. VDP decouples occlusion calculation from the volume rendering transfer function, enabling independent optimization of settings for rendering and occlusion. The algorithm is flexible enough to handle multiple regions occluding the object of interest, as well as object self-occlusion, and requires no pre-segmentation of the data set. VDP was developed as an improvement for virtual arthroscopy for the diagnosis of shoulder-joint trauma, and has been generalized for use in other simple and complex joints, and to enable non-invasive urology studies. In virtual arthroscopy, the surfaces in the joints often occlude each other, allowing limited viewpoints from which to evaluate these surfaces. In urology studies, the physician would like to position the virtual camera outside the kidney collecting system and see inside it. By rendering invisible all voxels between the observer's point of view and objects of interest, VDP enables viewing from unconstrained positions. In essence, VDP can be viewed as a technique for automatically defining an optimal data- and task-dependent clipping surface. Radiologists using VDP display have been able to perform evaluations of pathologies more easily and more rapidly than with clinical arthroscopy, standard volume rendering, or standard MRI/CT slice viewing.

  4. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  5. ANTIPLAQUE AND ANTIGINGIVITIS EFFECTS OF A GEL CONTAINING PUNICA GRANATUM LINN EXTRACT. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Alexandre Daher Yunes; Maia, Juliana Lemos; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract were evaluated using a 21-day partial-mouth experimental model of gingivitis. Methods: 23 volunteers participated in this cross-over, doubleblind study, carried out in 2 phases of 21 days each. For each period of the experiment, an acrylic toothshield was made for each volunteer to carry the test or placebo gel as well as to avoid brushing of the 4 experimental teeth (posterior teeth in the lower left quadrant). The subjects were randomly assigned to use either the placebo gel (control group) or the test gel (experimental group) and were instructed to brush the remaining teeth normally 3 times a day. On days 0 and 21, the visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded. Results: The results did not show statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups for either of the indices (VPI and GBI). Conclusion: The gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract was not efficient in preventing supragingival dental plaque formation and gingivitis. PMID:19089066

  6. Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Yun; Zhu, Chuang; Qian, Tian-Wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet ? cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the pancreas weight index and the histological changes in the pancreas, were also determined. The results showed that, after fours weeks of treatment with PPE, BBPE or PPE + BBPE, DM mice showed, to different degrees, a decrease in blood glucose, increases in insulin secretion and the pancreas weight index, and an increase in antioxidative activity. These changes were particularly evident in the DM mice subjected to the combined intervention strategy of PPE + BBPE. The histological findings indicated that the injury to the pancreatic islets in DM mice was also ameliorated following treatment. In conclusion, PPE and BBPE, particularly the combination of the two, have the ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced pancreatic damage; this finding may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM. PMID:25452774

  7. Onion Peeling for CDMA-Symmetric Rate Under RMS-Bandwidth Constraints

    E-print Network

    Varanasi, Mahesh K.

    Onion Peeling for CDMA- Symmetric Rate Under RMS-Bandwidth Constraints Tommy Guess and Mahesh K-theoretic arguments have shown that sequential decoding onion peeling can be used in such a way as to achieve maximum

  8. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 ?g iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs. PMID:23818889

  9. Biogas production from blends of cassava (Manihot utilissima) peels with some animal wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. U. Ofoefule; E. O. Uzodinma

    Cassava peels (CP) obtained after peeling cassava roots were anaerobically digested using 50L capacity fermentor and in blends with some animal wastes. The peels were blended with cow dung (CD), poultry droppings (PD) and swine dung (SD), in the ratio of 1:1. The mean flammable biogas yield of the cassava peels alone was 2.29 ± 0.97L \\/total mass of slurry.

  10. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20?kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50?kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure “fracture” bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions. PMID:24651648

  11. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, D. M.; Thomas, R. D.; Bailey, S. G.; Brinker, D. J.; Deangelo, F. L.

    1990-01-01

    Thin-film, single-crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofluoric acid. The feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high-efficiency, low-mass GaAs solar cells is presently demonstrated. A peeled film GaAs solar cell was successfully produced. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide window and antireflective coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68 percent under AM0 illumination.

  12. Modelling of Mechanical Peeling of Vegetables on the Basis of Energy Consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Emadi; M. H. Abbaspour-Fard; P. KDV

    Energy consumption model of peeling process is required to optimise main influenced factors as well as to limit peeling waste and consumed energy. Mechanical peeling process using an abrasive-cutter brush which applies both abrasive a nd cutting forces was modeled. Choosing the input and output variables which would be industria lly applicable was attempted. Three variables, namely, angular velocities of

  13. A Generalized Cohesive Zone Model of Peel Test for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Liang

    2010-01-16

    The peel test is a commonly used testing method for adhesive strength evaluation. The test involves peeling a pressure sensitive tape away from a substrate and measuring the peel force that is applied to rupture the adhesive bond. In the present...

  14. The Effect of Modification of an Epoxy Resin Adhesive with ATBN on Peel Strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazumune Nakao; Keizo Yamanaka

    1992-01-01

    The effects of rubber content, rate of peel and temperature on peel strength of ATBN modified DGEBA based epoxy resin adhesives have been investigated. The fracture surfaces of peel test specimens and the distribution of rubber particles in cured bulk epoxy resin have been observed with SEM and TEM, respectively. The mechanical properties of bulk rubber modified epoxy resin have

  15. Comparison of three drying processes to obtain an apple peel food ingredient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Henríquez; S. Almonacid; M. Lutz; R. Simpson; M. Valdenegro

    2012-01-01

    Apple peel, a waste product from dried apple manufacture, has a high content of bioactive phenolic compounds. In Chile ca. 9000 ton of apple peel are generated each year. To obtain a novel food ingredient, we compared three drying processes on Granny Smith apple peel: oven (60°C), drum dryer (110°C), and freeze drying. The influence of each drying technology on

  16. Water sorption isotherms for lemon peel at different temperatures and isosteric heats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. García-Pérez; J. A. Cárcel; G. Clemente; A. Mulet

    2008-01-01

    Lemon peel constitutes a potential source of dietary fiber to formulate new and healthier products, as well as a source of essential oils. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for lemon peel processing, especially for drying and storage. Water sorption isotherms of lemon peel were obtained using a standardized conductivity hygrometer at four different temperatures

  17. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Happi Emaga; Christelle Robert; Sébastien N. Ronkart; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was

  18. Photon-Emission From Peeling Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, J. T.

    1988-04-01

    When materials are deformed and fractured, new surfaces are formed which may contain charge concentrations, defects, and broken bonds. The consequences of such departures from non-equilibrium can be the emission of particles (electrons, ions, and neutral species) as well as photons (triboluminescence). Collectively, we refer to these emissions as fracto-emission. In the case of peeling pressure sensitive adhesives from various substrates, charge separation plays a dominant role in producing relatively intense photon-emission as well as other emissions. Here we report on a few of the properties of the photon emission from peeling commercial adhesive tapes and address in particular the time, spectral, and spatial domains.

  19. Improved layer peeling algorithm for strongly reflecting fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liqun; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Jinkuan; Yang, Guang

    2006-09-01

    An improved algorithm based on the layer peeling (LP) method is proposed and demonstrated. The new method is shown to be effective for mitigating the impact of numerical errors on reconstruction of coupling function for strongly reflecting Bragg gratings. As examples, a flat-top dispersion-free fiber grating and a fiber-grating dispersion compensator are designed by the improved LP method. For a chirp grating, more accurate results are demonstrated in comparison with those obtained by the integral layer peeling (ILP) method.

  20. Hydroxycinnamic acids and UV-B depletion: Profiling and biosynthetic gene expression in flesh and peel of wild-type and hp-1.

    PubMed

    Calvenzani, Valentina; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are phenolic compounds widely found in most plant families. Aim of the present work was to investigate their accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression in presence or absence of UV-B radiation in tomato fruits of wild-type and hp-1, a mutant characterized by exaggerated photoresponsiveness and increased fruit pigmentation. Gene expression and HCAs content were higher in hp-1 than in wild type peel and UV-B depletion determined a decrease in HCAs accumulation in wild-type and an increase in hp-1 fruits, generally in accordance with biosynthetic gene expression. In flesh, despite a similar transcript level of most genes between the two genotypes, HCAs content was generally higher in wild type than in hp-1, although remaining at a lower level with respect to wild type peel. Under UV-B depletion, a general reduction of HCAs content was observed in wild-type flesh, whereas an increase in the content of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid was observed in hp-1 flesh. PMID:26002085

  1. Uni-dimensional double development HPTLC-densitometry method for simultaneous analysis of mangiferin and lupeol content in mango (Mangifera indica) pulp and peel during storage.

    PubMed

    Jyotshna; Srivastava, Pooja; Killadi, Bharti; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-06-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390nm, while lupeol at 610nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed. PMID:25624210

  2. Antioxidant Enrichment and Antimicrobial Protection of Fresh-Cut Fruits Using Their Own Byproducts: Looking for Integral Exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Zavala, JF; Rosas-Domínguez, C; Vega-Vega, V; González-Aguilar, GA

    2010-01-01

    Fresh-cut fruit consumption is increasing due to the rising public demand for convenience and awareness of fresh-cut fruit's health benefits. The entire tissue of fruits and vegetables is rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and vitamins. The fresh-cut fruit industry deals with the perishable character of its products and the large percentage of byproducts, such as peels, seeds, and unused flesh that are generated by different steps of the industrial process. In most cases, the wasted byproducts can present similar or even higher contents of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds than the final produce can. In this context, this hypothesis article finds that the antioxidant enrichment and antimicrobial protection of fresh-cut fruits, provided by the fruit's own byproducts, could be possible. PMID:21535513

  3. Antioxidant enrichment and antimicrobial protection of fresh-cut fruits using their own byproducts: looking for integral exploitation.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Zavala, J F; Rosas-Domínguez, C; Vega-Vega, V; González-Aguilar, G A

    2010-10-01

    Fresh-cut fruit consumption is increasing due to the rising public demand for convenience and awareness of fresh-cut fruit's health benefits. The entire tissue of fruits and vegetables is rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and vitamins. The fresh-cut fruit industry deals with the perishable character of its products and the large percentage of byproducts, such as peels, seeds, and unused flesh that are generated by different steps of the industrial process. In most cases, the wasted byproducts can present similar or even higher contents of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds than the final produce can. In this context, this hypothesis article finds that the antioxidant enrichment and antimicrobial protection of fresh-cut fruits, provided by the fruit's own byproducts, could be possible. PMID:21535513

  4. Tolerability and Efficacy of Retinoic Acid Given after Full-face Peel Treatment of Photodamaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Judy Y.; Biron, Julie A.; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Oresajo, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: All-trans retinoic acid is a well-established topical treatment of photodamaged skin. This study assessed the tolerance and efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid after full-face treatment with a chemical peel. Design: This was a split-face, randomized study. One side of each face was treated with peel and the other side with peel and all-trans retinoic acid (3%). Four treatments were given during the 10-week study period. Setting: Physician office. Participants: Fifteen female subjects 39 to 55 years of age. Measurements: Results were evaluated at Baseline; Weeks 4, 7, and 10; and at a 13-week follow-up visit by dermal grading of visual symptoms of irritation, subjective experiences of irritation, clinical grading of skin condition, and self-assessment questionnaires. Results: Both peel and peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatments achieved significant improvement in fine lines, radiance, roughness, skin tone clarity, skin tone evenness, and hyperpigmentation appearance. Improvement in wrinkles and firmness was not observed in the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid arm, while pore appearance failed to improve in either treatment arm. Improvement in overall facial appearance was greater in the peel alone arm. Peel alone and the addition of all-trans retinoic acid did not cause dryness, edema, or peeling, and the frequency of peel-induced erythema did not increase with the addition of all-trans retinoic acid. Subject-perceived improvements with the peel treatment did not differ significantly from subject-perceived improvements of the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatment. Adverse events requiring intervention or discontinuing treatment were not observed in either treatment arm. Conclusion: The addition of all-trans retinoic acid after peel treatment does not significantly enhance peel-induced improvement in photoaging parameters, peel-induced adverse effects, and subject-perceived improvements. PMID:22010055

  5. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Calogero; Gaetano Di Marco

    2008-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency (?=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under

  6. Chemical characterization of the mucilage from fruits of Opuntia ficus indica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betty Matsuhiro; Luis E. Lillo; Carmen Sáenz; Carlos C. Urzúa; Oriette Zárate

    2006-01-01

    Extraction of peeled fruits of Opuntia ficus indica afforded with 3.8% yield a mucilage, which contained 23.4% of galacturonic acid. Total hydrolysis of a mucilage and gas–liquid chromatographic analysis of the derived alditol acetates indicated the presence of arabinose, rhamnose, xylose and galactose in the molar ratio 1.0:1.7:2.5:4.1. Gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B showed the polysaccharide to be composed

  7. Microbiological quality of Icelandic cooked-peeled shrimp ( Pandalus borealis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grimur Valdimarsson; Hjörleifur Einarsson; Birna Gudbjörnsdottir; Hannes Magnusson

    1998-01-01

    Iceland is a major producer of cold water shrimp, Pandalus borealis. In recent years considerable attention has been given to improve hygiene in the factories producing cooked, peeled and frozen shrimp. To keep track of the bacteriological status of the end product, shrimp from most of the factories is routinely analysed bacteriologically by the request of shrimp exporters. This paper

  8. BIOCOMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTALS DERIVED FROM POTATO PEEL WASTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth, derived from a variety of living species. An attractive source to obtain cellulose is from agriculture wastes, for instance, potato peel. Potato is one of the most important crops for human consumption, but in recent years its consumption in raw form has decreased, especially in developed countries. Many potatoes are processed into

  9. The Peel Secondary Followup Study: First Biennial Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Benjamin

    The first round of a study of what happens to students after they leave Peel County (Ontario) secondary schools includes data from students who were in grade 11 in 1977-78 and 1979-80. A 10 percent sample (approximately 750 students in each group) was drawn from school records. Of these, 1,072 people (75 percent) were interviewed by telephone.…

  10. Outdoor Education and the Peel Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Katherine

    1994-01-01

    Describes efforts of an advocacy group of parents, outdoor educators, and classroom teachers to preserve outdoor education in Peel in the face of budget cuts. Despite efforts, a task force recommended the elimination of numerous teaching positions, resulting in reduced programming at outdoor education centers. (LP)

  11. Fracto-emission from the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, J. T.; Shen, X. A.; Jensen, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The electron emission, positive ion emission, photon emission, and long wavelength electromagnetic radiation accompanying the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives in vacuum are examined. These results are interpreted in terms of a previously presented model involving fracture-induced microdischarges which excite the fracture surfaces by particle bombardment.

  12. Quantitative determination of the polyphenolic content of pomegranate peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ben Nasr; N. Ayed; M. Metche

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative determination of total phenols, ellagic tannins and gallic and ellagic acids in the peel of the Tunisian pomegranate variety Chelfi, has been carried out. The ellagic tannin content is prominently less than the amount of total phenols, which led us to look for the presence of the condensed tannins. The determination of the content of catechic tannins in

  13. Enhancement of lycopene extraction from tomato peels by enzymatic treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Lavecchia; Antonio Zuorro

    Four food-grade enzyme preparations (Citrozym CEO and Ultra L, Peclyve EP and LI) with pectinolytic, cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities were investigated to assess their suitability for improving lycopene recovery from tomato peels. After a preliminary screening, the influence of solvent type and enzyme incubation time on the extraction efficiency was studied. Under the best conditions (1-h enzyme incubation followed by

  14. Peeling from a biomimetically patterned thin elastic film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Mahadevan; Manoj K. Chaudhury; Vijay Shenoy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by the observation that many naturally occurring adhesives arise as tex- tured thin films, we consider the displacement-controlled peeling of a flexible plate from an incision-patterned thin adhesive elastic layer. We find that crack initiation from an incision on the film occurs at a load much higher than that required to propagate it on a smooth adhesive surface; multiple

  15. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  16. Antibacterial activity of grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi ) peel extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Negi; G. K. Jayaprakasha

    2001-01-01

    Citrus paradisi peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor for 8 h each. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) of hexane and chloroform extracts showed three spots with different concentrations; hence both the extracts were mixed and fractionated into alcohol soluble and insoluble fractions. Naringin was isolated from acetone and methanol extracts by column chromatography

  17. A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF THE PEEL TEST M. D. Thouless*

    E-print Network

    Thouless, Michael

    , the effects of the transverse shear force that is an integral aspect of almost any peel test are neglected-tip deformation, including bending moment, transverse shear force and axial force, is derived in a self width) required to cause delamination V Transverse shear force (per unit width) acting at crack tip

  18. Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oils of Some Iranian Citrus Peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Monajemi; Shahrbanoo Oryan; Ali Haeri-Roohani; Alireza Ghannadi; Abbas Jafariane

    There have been efforts to overcome the problem in treatment of cancer using medicinal plants. It has been shown that Citrus essential oil of contains different terpens with antitumor activities. In this study we sought to determine the cytotoxicity of essential oils of Iranian Citrus limon (L.), C. medica (L.), C. sinsensis (L.) peels on cancer cell lines. Essential oils

  19. FRUIT & NUT Blackberries

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    and set fruit on flo- ricanes; and Primocane-bearing, which flower on primo-canes late in the growingTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Blackberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Brambles or caneberries are fruits in the Ru- bus genus

  20. Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , with fruit 6 ounces orange juice, frozen concentrate, thawed Directions 1. Mix the ingredients in a mediumFrozen Fruit Pops Ingredients: 8 ounces crushed pineapple in juice 6 ounces nonfat yogurt instead of cups, making great "ice cubes" in fruit juice or diet soda. Try other fruits or juice

  1. Antioxidant, Sugar, Mineral and Phytonutrient Concentrations Across Edible Fruit Tissues of Orange-Fleshed HoneyDew Melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange-fleshed honey dew melon (Cucumis melo L.) equatorial mesocarp was segmented into hypodermal (sub-peel), outer, middle, and inner (near the seed cavity) tissues and assayed for enzymatic antioxidants, fruit sugars, minerals, phytonutrients, and total protein concentrations. Moving inwards fro...

  2. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins. PMID:17931857

  3. Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2014-07-01

    Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 ?m and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 ?g steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid ?g/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (E<5%) values. Predicted models were highly significant (p<0.05) for all parameters studied. This study indicates that UAE has strong potential as an extraction method for steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste. PMID:24582305

  4. Banana peel: a green and economical sorbent for the selective removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Memon, Jamil R; Memon, Saima Q; Bhanger, Muhammad I; El-Turki, Adel; Hallam, Keith R; Allen, Geoffrey C

    2009-05-01

    This study describes the use of banana peel, a commonly produced fruit waste, for the removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature were investigated and the conditions resulting in rapid and efficient adsorption (95% within 10 min) were determined. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 2. The retained species were eluted with 5 mL of 2M H(2)SO(4). To elucidate the mechanism of the process, total amounts of chromium and Cr(VI) were analyzed using flame atomic absorption and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic techniques, respectively. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to describe the partitioning behavior for the system at different temperatures. Kinetics and thermodynamics of Cr(VI) removal by banana peel were also studied. The influence of diverse ions on the sorption behavior revealed that only Fe(II) ions (of those tested) suppressed the sorption of Cr(VI) ions to some extent. The method was applied for the removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater. PMID:19181491

  5. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. PMID:25476008

  6. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1–MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1–MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components. PMID:22888129

  7. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278

  8. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1–MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein–protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278

  9. Mark's Fruit Crops

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rieger, Mark

    Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL

  10. Tomato FRUITFULL homologs regulate fruit ripening via ethylene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shima, Yoko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Certain MADS-box transcription factors play central roles in regulating fruit ripening. RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a tomato MADS-domain protein, acts as a global regulator of ripening, affecting the climacteric rise of ethylene, pigmentation changes, and fruit softening. Previously, we showed that two MADS-domain proteins, the FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2, form complexes with RIN. Here, we characterized the FUL1/FUL2 loss-of-function phenotype in co-suppressed plants. The transgenic plants produced ripening-defective fruits accumulating little or no lycopene. Unlike a previous study on FUL1/FUL2 suppressed tomatoes, our transgenic fruits showed very low levels of ethylene production, and this was associated with suppression of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene synthesis. FUL1/FUL2 suppression also caused the fruit to soften in a manner independent of ripening, possibly due to reduced cuticle thickness in the peel of the suppressed tomatoes. PMID:25036675

  11. The flavonol glycosides in the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien

    PubMed Central

    Nortjé, B. K.; Koeppen, B. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. Two new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien. These were identified as isorhamnetin 3-rhamnogalactoside and a derivative of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside which was associated (possibly acylated) with an unknown aliphatic organic acid. 2. The melting point of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside isolated from Bon Chrétien pears is different from that of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside previously isolated from Argemone mexicana and Calendula officinalis. 3. Isorhamnetin 3-rhamnoglucoside was isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien. This glycoside appears to be identical with narcissin, previously isolated from Narcissus tazetta and Lilium auratum. 4. Isoquercitrin, previously reported to be present in pear leaves, was isolated from the fruit of Bon Chrétien pears. 5. The isolated glycosides were present in the peels and flesh of the fruit, but were absent from the cores. PMID:16749105

  12. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    PubMed

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  13. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves (‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’) and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY ‘Hamlin’, HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY ‘Valencia’, the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY ‘Valencia’ JV than in SY ‘Hamlin’ JV. More genes were also affected in AS ‘Valencia’ FF and VT than in AS ‘Valencia’ JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645

  14. A putative vacuolar processing protease is regulated by ethylene and also during fruit ripening in Citrus fruit.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, J M; Granell, A

    1995-01-01

    A putative citrus vacuolar processing thiolprotease cDNA (Cit-vac) was isolated from a cDNA library of Citrus fruits (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck var Washington navel). The cDNA is 58 and 57% identical with vacuolar processing seed proteases from castor bean and soybean, respectively. The Citvac sequence shows a typical signal peptide for entering into the endoplasmic reticulum and two glycosylation signals. Using an in vitro transcription-translation system, we show that the Citvac precursor is able to enter a microsomal fraction and to undergo proteolytic processing and glycosylation. Transcript levels for the Citvac are developmentally regulated in the flavedo (outer colored part of the fruit peel) and increase during fruit ripening and in the flower during opening. Exogenous treatment with ethylene induces Citvac mRNA expression in both fruits and leaves. Citvac is encoded by one or two genes in the Citrus genome. The possible role of the Citvac gene product during fruit ripening and other ethylene-mediated processes is discussed. PMID:7480346

  15. Utility of Metabolomics toward Assessing the Metabolic Basis of Quality Traits in Apple Fruit with an Emphasis on Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Daniel; Andrews, Preston K.; Reganold, John P.; Davies, Neal M.; Lange, B. Markus

    2012-01-01

    A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry approach was employed to evaluate the use of metabolite patterns to differentiate fruit from six commercially grown apple cultivars harvested in 2008. Principal component analysis (PCA) of apple fruit peel and flesh data indicated that individual cultivar replicates clustered together and were separated from all other cultivar samples. An independent metabolomics investigation with fruit harvested in 2003 confirmed the separate clustering of fruit from different cultivars. Further evidence for cultivar separation was obtained using a hierarchical clustering analysis. An evaluation of PCA component loadings revealed specific metabolite classes that contributed the most to each principal component, whereas a correlation analysis demonstrated that specific metabolites correlate directly with quality traits such as antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins, which are important parameters in the selection of breeding germplasm. These data sets lay the foundation for elucidating the metabolic basis of commercially important fruit quality traits. PMID:22881116

  16. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

  17. Biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Lawton, D; Thompson, M R; Liu, Q

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste as a reinforcement and vapor barrier additive. The nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel by alkali treatment and subsequently acid hydrolysis. TEM images revealed the average fiber length of the nanocrystals was 410 nm with an aspect ratio of 41; its aspect ratio being considerably larger than cotton-derived nanocrystals prepared using similar reaction conditions. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were prepared by solution casting method to maintain uniform dispersion of the 1-2% (w/w) filler content. An increase of 19% and 33% (starch composite) and 38% and 49% (PVA composite) in tensile modulus was observed for the 1% and 2% CNC-reinforced composites, respectively. Water vapor transmission measurements showed a marginal reduction of water permeability for the PVA composite, whereas no effect was observed for the thermoplastic starch composite. PMID:24751097

  18. Extraction of naringin from pomelo peels as dihydrochalcone's precursor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Chun-Feng; Zhong, Shi-An; Zhou, Ming-Da

    2011-01-01

    A new method for the separation of naringin from pomelo peels was investigated by using ultrasonic-assisted extraction and macroporous resin purification technology. The ultrasonic extraction efficiency was dependent on agent's concentration, ratio of sample and solvent and ultrasonic time. Several parameters of macroporous resin-purified process, including resin selection, initial concentration, concentration of eluted agent and pH, were optimized. The experimental results showed that the naringin content in the mature pomelo peels was 2.20% and purification rate of naringin was 77.26% under optimum conditions of purification. The structure of synthetic naringin dihydrochalcone was determined by a series of spectroscopic methods, such as UV, NMR and MS. PMID:21171184

  19. Laserpeel: a peeling concept revolution with laser resurfacing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Alain

    2000-06-01

    The author who is inventor of EasyPeel then Laserpeel wants to introduce new ways to choose the right indications for patients asking for cosmetic surgery. A lifting is as if you take a shirt and want to reduce its size cutting it. A resurfacing is as if you put a shirt and want to iron it. A peeling was as if you changed the color and grain of the shirt. Laserpeel is as if you iron the shirt treated with amidon, transform the second hand shirt as new, up to date on with glance effect sand give it then a stretching disco new wave effect. So, indications of facial lifting decrease at the same speed at the increase of indications of 'LASERPEEL'. Laser CO2 resurfacing should reborn because the post redness appearance decreases in intensity and duration due to LASERPEEL. LASERPEEL should be considered too as a preventive therapy coupled with preventive treatment resulting from longevity tests.

  20. Genetic variability in apple fruit polyphenol composition in Malus × domestica and Malus sieversii germplasm grown in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Volz, Richard K; McGhie, Tony K

    2011-11-01

    Variations in the concentrations of flavan-3-ol, oligomeric procyanidin, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcone, flavonol, and anthocyanin polyphenol groups and total polyphenols were examined in the fruit peel and cortical flesh of 93 (80 Malus × domestica and 13 Malus sieversii) apple genotypes in at least 1 year between 2003 and 2005 grown at one site in New Zealand (NZ). Differences among genotypes accounted for 46-97% of the total variation in the concentrations of total polyphenols and each of the individual phenol groups in the flesh and peel in both species, whereas effects of year and genotype × year were minimal, except for peel flavonols in M. × domestica and flesh flavonols in both species. In these cases, differences among genotypes accounted for less than 30% of the total variation, which was less than the variation found for the interaction between genotype and year. Total polyphenol concentrations among genotypes were spread over a 7- and 9-fold range in the flesh and a 4- and 3-fold range in the peel of M. sieversii and M. × domestica, respectively, with the spread in concentrations of individual polyphenol groups in each tissue and within each species varying from a 2-fold to over a 500-fold range. Higher concentrations were generally found in M. sieversii. In M. × domestica, cultivars and breeding selections originating in NZ had lower average flesh and peel total polyphenols and chlorogenic acid than older cultivars previously imported into NZ from overseas countries. PMID:21955250

  1. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Wilt; R. D. Thomas; S. G. Bailey; D. J. Brinker; F. L. DeAngelo; N. S. Fatemi; G. A. Landis

    1990-01-01

    Thin-film, single-crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W\\/kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity (>106) of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofluoric acid (HF). The feasibility of

  2. Peeled film GaAs solar cells for space power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Wilt; F. L. Deangelo; R. D. Thomas; S. G. Bailey; G. A. Landis; D. J. Brinker; N. S. Fatemi

    1990-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) peeled film solar cells were fabricated, by Organo-Metallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE), incorporating an aluminum arsenide (AlAs) parting layer between the device structure and the GaAs substrate. This layer was selectively removed by etching in dilute hydrofloric (HF) acid to release the epitaxial film. Test devices exhibit high series resistance due to insufficient back contact area. A

  3. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Wilt; R. D. Thomas; S. G. Bailey; D. J. Brinker; F. L. Deangelo

    1990-01-01

    Thin-film, single-crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W\\/kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofluoric acid. The feasibility of using the

  4. Preparation of capacitor’s electrode from cassava peel waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrian Evan Ismanto; Steven Wang; Felycia Edi Soetaredjo; Suryadi Ismadji

    2010-01-01

    Cassava peel was used as the precursor for activated carbon-based electrodes which were then prepared by a combination of chemical and physical activation. The surface of the activated carbon was treated with the oxidative chemical agents, 98 wt.% H2SO4, 65 wt.% HNO3, and 30 wt.% H2O2 solutions. The surface modification had no significant effect on the specific surface area, but

  5. Patterning PEDOT:PSS with Parylene Peel-off Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiichi Takamatsu; Tomoyuki Takahata; Kiyoshi Matsumoto; Isao Shimoyama

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and characterized a technique of patterning PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate) film with a Parylene peel-off method. PEDOT:PSS has characteristics of transparency and high conductivity which are expected to replace transparent ITO (indium tin oxide) electrodes for flat panel displays. But existing technology of inkjet printing decreased its conductivity by mixing a binder, while the other method with electrochemical

  6. Laser and face peel procedures in non-Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Been, Mark J; Mangat, Devinder S

    2014-08-01

    Facial resurfacing procedures are becoming increasingly popular. The percentage of non-Caucasian individuals seeking these treatments continues to rise. Patients with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI) face unique challenges for successful facial skin resurfacing. Common issues encountered by non-Caucasian patients include dyschromias, acne scars, photoaging, keloid and hypertrophic scars, benign cutaneous tumors, and hair-related disorders. This article discusses the most frequently used lasers and chemical peels used to address these problems. PMID:25049128

  7. In vitro protective effects of two extracts from bergamot peels on human endothelial cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Domenico; Cimino, Francesco; Cristani, Mariateresa; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Saija, Antonella; Ginestra, Giovanna; Speciale, Antonio; Chirafisi, Joselita; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Waldron, Keith; Narbad, Arjan; Faulds, Craig B

    2010-07-28

    Bergamot ( Citrus bergamia Risso) is a less commercialized Citrus fruit, mainly used for its essential oil extracted from the peel. Bergamot peel (BP) represents about 60% of the processed fruits and is regarded as primary waste. However, it contains good amounts of useful compounds, such as pectins and flavonoids. Many of the bioactivities of Citrus flavonoids appear to impact vascular endothelial cells. Herein, we report the protective effect of two flavonoid-rich extracts from BP (endowed with radical-scavenging properties and lacking genotoxic activity) against alterations in cell modifications induced by the pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as demonstrated by monitoring intracellular levels of malondialdehyde/4-hydroxynonenal, reduced and oxidized glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity, and the activation status of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Thus, BP appears to be a potential source of natural antioxidant/anti-inflammatory phytocomplexes to be employed as ingredients of nutraceutical products or functional foods. PMID:20578719

  8. Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients: 12 ounces frozen concentrated orange juice, or any other 100% fruit juice concentrate 1 1/2 cups water 3 cups ice Directions In a blender, place juice concentrate, water

  9. Chemical peels: what's new and what isn't new but still works well.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; De Padova, Maria Pia; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-12-01

    Chemical peeling is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of skin rejuvenation where it can improve damaged skin and fine wrinkles. The basic procedure aims at obtaining a controlled chemical burn of the epidermis and/or dermis. This results in epidermal regeneration and postinflammatory collagen neoformation with remodeling of collagen and elastic fibers and deposition of glycosaminoglycans in the dermis. Various chemicals have been used as peeling agents, of which the most used are the alpha-hydroxy acids, such as glycolic acid, or beta-hydroxy acids, such as salicylic acid. The choice of the compound is linked to the different indications and to the depth of the desired peeling. Phenol is still the best agent for deep peeling but requires specific indications, prescription, and post-peeling care. Combination of different compounds is one innovation in the field of chemical peelings. Further controlled studies are necessary to set up specific guidelines. PMID:20024875

  10. Microwave properties of peeled HEMT devices sapphire substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Paul G.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mena, Rafael A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this research is to demonstrate the first full radio frequency characterization of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device parameters. The results of this research are used in the design of circuits with peeled HEMT devices, e.g. 10 GHz amplifiers. Devices were fabricated using two HEMT structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy methods. A 500 A AlAs release layer for 'peel off' was included under the active layers of the structure. The structures are a homogeneously doped Al(0.3)GA(0.7)As/GaAs and a delta doped square well Al(.23)Ga(.77)As/GaAs HEMT structure. Devices were fabricated using a mesa isolation process. Contacts were done by sequentially evaporating Au/Ge/Au/Ni/Au followed by rapid thermal anneal at 400 C for 15 seconds. Gates were wet etch recessed and 1 to 1.4 micron Ti/Au gate metal was deposited. Devices were peeled off the GaAs substrate using Apiezon wax to support the active layer and a HF:DI (1:10) solution to remove the AlAs separation layer. Devices were then attached to sapphire substrates using van der Waals bonding.

  11. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  12. Micropropagation of Small Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir C. Debnath

    \\u000a The small fruit plants are predominantly woody perennial dicot angiosperms, bear small to moderate-sized fruits on herbs,\\u000a vines, or shrubs; and are usually vegetatively propagated to maintain true-to-type. The importance of small fruits in horticulture\\u000a lies in their dual role as in the landscape and of food. The fruits themselves are highly prized for their varying shapes,\\u000a textures, flavors, and

  13. Fun Fruit: Advanced

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children's Museum of Houston

    2004-01-01

    This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

  14. Fruit-based Natural Antioxidants in Meat and Meat Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S R; Gokulakrishnan, P; Giriprasad, R; Yatoo, M A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the potential toxic effects of synthetic antioxidants, natural antioxidant sources especially fruits are being preferred now-a-days for use in different meat products. The majority of the antioxidant capacity of a fruit is especially because of numerous phenolic compounds. Many of the phytochemicals present in fruits may help protect cells against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancers, and neurological diseases. Various parts of the fruit including their byproducts like skin and seeds have been used in meat products. Plum has been used as plum puree, prunes (dried plum), and plum extracts. Grape skin, seed, peel extracts, and grape pomace; berries as cakes and powder extracts; pomegranate rind powder and its juice; and most of the citrus fruits have proved beneficial sources of antioxidants. All these natural sources have effectively reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values and free radical frequency. Thus, lipid oxidation is prevented and shelf life is greatly enhanced by incorporating various kinds of fruits and their byproducts in meat and meat products. There is a great scope for the use of fruits as natural sources of antioxidants in meat industry. The review is intended to provide an overview of the fruit-based natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. PMID:24915314

  15. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Wilkins; Wilbur W. Widmer; Karel Grohmann

    2007-01-01

    The effects of d-limonene concentration, enzyme loading, and pH on ethanol production from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 37°C. Prior to SSF, citrus peel waste underwent a steam explosion process to remove more than 90% of the initial d-limonene present in the peel waste. d-Limonene is known to inhibit yeast

  16. Quality of mini-peeled carrots as affected by genotype, minimal processing and edible coating 

    E-print Network

    Dewi, Tjin Tjin

    1995-01-01

    , soluble phenolics, carotenoids, headspace gases, and sugar content of mini-peeled carrots as affected by genotype and storage in modified atmosphere packages. 25 Volatile terpenoid levels (ppm x 500) in mini-peeled carrots as affected by genotype... and storage in modified atmosphere packages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sensory attributes of mini-peeled carrots as affected by genotype and storage in modified atmosphere packages. . 39 Effects of Nature Seal edible coating...

  17. BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

  18. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  19. Global patterns in fruiting seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Ting; Stephen Hartley; K. C. Burns

    2008-01-01

    Aim To identify geographical and climatic correlates of the timing of fruit production in fleshy fruited plant communities. Location Global. Methods We searched the literature for studies documenting monthly variation in the number of fleshy fruited species bearing ripe fruits in plant communities (i.e. fruit phenologies). From these data, we used circular vector algebra to characterize seasonal peaks in fruit

  20. On the optimum shape of thin adhesive strips for various peeling directions

    E-print Network

    : computational shape optimization, adhesive tapes, cohesive zone models, peeling angle, gecko adhesion 1. The anisotropic attachment and detachment behavior of the microstructures underneath gecko toes, for instance, has

  1. Influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on sebum secretion in ageing women

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Aneta; Kubiak, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Azelaic acid and mandelic acid are superficial peels commonly applied in people of various age groups. As they are mild and do not cause any side effects, they are also often used in elderly people. Aim To compare the influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on facial sebum secretion in mature women aged 49-71 years. Material and methods The level of secreted sebum was measured in 28 women. Eleven women were treated with azelaic acid peel and 17 with mandelic acid peel. Each of the peels was applied five times with 2-week intervals. The measurements were made on the cheeks and chin with the use of Sebumeter SM 15 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany). The last measurement, i.e. the sixth one, was made 2 weeks after the treatment. Results We observed a significant increase in sebum secretion in the U-zone after the application of 20% azelaic peel and 40% mandelic peel. Neither peel significantly affected sebum secretion in the T-zone. Conclusions Peels with 20% azelaic acid and 40% mandelic acid might be considered treatments which contribute to an increase in sebum secretion in ageing women. PMID:24278065

  2. Optics for produce quality evaluation: laser diffusion for orange peel thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affeldt, Henry A., Jr.; Heck, Richard D.

    1993-05-01

    A new sensing technique was investigated to nondestructively measure the peel thickness of oranges destined for fresh market consumption. Coherent polarized laser emissions diffused by the subcuticular layers of the peel were filtered and imaged into a matrix CCD camera. Images were analyzed using conventional high-speed pixel operations. Resulting correlations suggest that this method may be a successful tool in real-time food processing operations providing the packer and the consumer with an objective evaluation of peel thickness, and subsequently, edible volume, juice content, and the ease with which the peel can be removed.

  3. Overexpression of petunia chalcone isomerase in tomato results in fruit containing increased levels of flavonols.

    PubMed

    Muir, S R; Collins, G J; Robinson, S; Hughes, S; Bovy, A; Ric De Vos, C H; van Tunen, A J; Verhoeyen, M E

    2001-05-01

    Tomatoes are an excellent source of the carotenoid lycopene, a compound that is thought to be protective against prostate cancer. They also contain small amounts of flavonoids in their peel ( approximately 5-10 mg/kg fresh weight), mainly naringenin chalcone and the flavonol rutin, a quercetin glycoside. Flavonols are very potent antioxidants, and an increasing body of epidemiological data suggests that high flavonoid intake is correlated with a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. We have upregulated flavonol biosynthesis in the tomato in order to generate fruit with increased antioxidant capacity and a wider range of potential health benefit properties. This involved transformation of tomato with the Petunia chi-a gene encoding chalcone isomerase. Resulting transgenic tomato lines produced an increase of up to 78 fold in fruit peel flavonols, mainly due to an accumulation of rutin. No gross phenotypical differences were observed between high-flavonol transgenic and control lines. The phenotype segregated with the transgene and demonstrated a stable inheritance pattern over four subsequent generations tested thus far. Whole-fruit flavonol levels in the best of these lines are similar to those found in onions, a crop with naturally high levels of flavonol compounds. Processing of high-flavonol tomatoes demonstrated that 65% of flavonols present in the fresh fruit were retained in the processed paste, supporting their potential as raw materials for tomato-based functional food products. PMID:11329019

  4. Fruit-Surface Flavonoid Accumulation in Tomato Is Controlled by a SlMYB12-Regulated Transcriptional Network

    PubMed Central

    Mintz-Oron, Shira; Venger, Ilya; Levy, Dorit; Yativ, Merav; Domínguez, Eva; Wang, Zhonghua; De Vos, Ric C. H.; Jetter, Reinhard; Schreiber, Lukas; Heredia, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2009-01-01

    The cuticle covering plants' aerial surfaces is a unique structure that plays a key role in organ development and protection against diverse stress conditions. A detailed analysis of the tomato colorless-peel y mutant was carried out in the framework of studying the outer surface of reproductive organs. The y mutant peel lacks the yellow flavonoid pigment naringenin chalcone, which has been suggested to influence the characteristics and function of the cuticular layer. Large-scale metabolic and transcript profiling revealed broad effects on both primary and secondary metabolism, related mostly to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, particularly flavonoids. These were not restricted to the fruit or to a specific stage of its development and indicated that the y mutant phenotype is due to a mutation in a regulatory gene. Indeed, expression analyses specified three R2R3-MYB–type transcription factors that were significantly down-regulated in the y mutant fruit peel. One of these, SlMYB12, was mapped to the genomic region on tomato chromosome 1 previously shown to harbor the y mutation. Identification of an additional mutant allele that co-segregates with the colorless-peel trait, specific down-regulation of SlMYB12 and rescue of the y phenotype by overexpression of SlMYB12 on the mutant background, confirmed that a lesion in this regulator underlies the y phenotype. Hence, this work provides novel insight to the study of fleshy fruit cuticular structure and paves the way for the elucidation of the regulatory network that controls flavonoid accumulation in tomato fruit cuticle. PMID:20019811

  5. Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Raafat, K.; Samy, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg) rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1) or chitosan (F2) against Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods. We measured the acute (6?h) and subacute (8 days) effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks). In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA) was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications. PMID:24982685

  6. In vitro propagation of two Iranian commercial pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) cvs. 'Malas Saveh' and 'Yusef Khani'.

    PubMed

    Valizadehkaji, Babak; Ershadi, Ahmad; Tohidfar, Masoud

    2013-10-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation is described for Punica granatum L. using shoot tip and nodal explants. The influence of two basal medium, WPM and MS, and different plant growth regulators was investigated on micropropagation of the Iranian pomegranate cultivars, 'Malas Saveh' and 'Yousef Khani'. For proliferation stage, media supplemented with different concentrations (2.3, 4.7, 9.2 and 18.4 ?M) of kinetin along with 0.54 ?M NAA was used. WPM proved to be more efficient medium compared to MS. The best concentrations of kinetin were 4.7 ?M for 'Malas Saveh' and 9.2 ?M for 'Yousef Khani', resulting in the highest number of shoots per explants, shoot length and leaf number. For both cultivars, half-strength WPM medium supplemented with 5.4 ?M NAA was most effective for rooting of shoots. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred into soil. The micropropagated plants were morphologically uniform and exhibited similar growth characteristics and vegetative morphology to the mother plants. PMID:24431529

  7. Identification, synthesis, and characterization of novel sulfur-containing volatile compounds from the in-depth analysis of Lisbon lemon peels (Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon).

    PubMed

    Cannon, Robert J; Kazimierski, Arkadiusz; Curto, Nicole L; Li, Jing; Trinnaman, Laurence; Ja?czuk, Adam J; Agyemang, David; Da Costa, Neil C; Chen, Michael Z

    2015-02-25

    Lemons (Citrus limon) are a desirable citrus fruit grown and used globally in a wide range of applications. The main constituents of this sour-tasting fruit have been well quantitated and characterized. However, additional research is still necessary to better understand the trace volatile compounds that may contribute to the overall aroma of the fruit. In this study, Lisbon lemons (C. limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon) were purchased from a grove in California, USA, and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Fractionation and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were utilized to separate, focus, and enhance unidentified compounds. In addition, these methods were employed to more accurately assign flavor dilution factors by aroma extract dilution analysis. Numerous compounds were identified for the first time in lemons, including a series of branched aliphatic aldehydes and several novel sulfur-containing structures. Rarely reported in citrus peels, sulfur compounds are known to contribute significantly to the aroma profile of the fruit and were found to be aroma-active in this particular study on lemons. This paper discusses the identification, synthesis, and organoleptic properties of these novel volatile sulfur compounds. PMID:25639384

  8. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of this information to the general public), on the chemistry and biological and physiological functions of these "superfoods" are necessary. PMID:18211023

  9. Coloured intensity enhancement of latent fingerprint powder obtained from banana peel activated carbon with methylene blue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumrit Mopoung

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing activated carbon fingerprint powder derived from banana peel. The obtained powder was then examined for its latent fingerprint identifying capability. First, the banana peel activated carbon powder was ground into fine particles and consequently was sieved using a 400-mesh screen. The powder's adherent quality was evaluated by dusting it to the residue left by

  10. Technical and economic assessments of ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5-5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value p...

  11. EFFECT OF SEASONAL VARIATION ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF VALENCIA ORANGE PEEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 10 million tons of oranges are processed in Florida each year, producing approximately 5 million tons of waste consisting of peel, seeds and segment membranes. Most of this peel is currently dried and pelletized to produce citrus pulp pellets, a low value cattle feed. Several researc...

  12. The peeling behavior of thin films with finite bending stiffness and the implications on gecko adhesion

    E-print Network

    The peeling behavior of thin films with finite bending stiffness and the implications on gecko kinematics and the contact behavior. Recently, such models have been applied to study the peeling of gecko spatulae, although the gecko spatula is significantly different from an idealized thin film. Especially

  13. A detailed 3D finite element analysis of the peeling behavior of a gecko spatula

    E-print Network

    A detailed 3D finite element analysis of the peeling behavior of a gecko spatula Roger A. Sauer 1 of the adhesion of a gecko spatula. The gecko spatulae form the tips of the gecko foot hairs that transfer to simulate the peeling behavior of the gecko spatula under applied vertical and rotational loading

  14. New insulating particleboards prepared from mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing and corn peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranee Lertsutthiwong; Srichalai Khunthon; Krisana Siralertmukul; Khanittha Noomun; Suwalee Chandrkrachang

    2008-01-01

    New composite boards with low-thermal conductivity produced from a mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing (solid waste TPM) and corn peel have been developed. The effects of solid waste TPM\\/corn peel ratio on the properties of the boards were investigated and the possibility of using recycled polystyrene packaging foam as a laminating agent to improve the quality of

  15. Pectinase Production from Mango Peel Using Aspergillus foetidus and its Application in Processing of Mango Juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannam Sudheer Kumar; Poondla Vijaya Kumar; Obulam Vijaya Sarathi Reddy

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate mango peel as a substrate for the production of pectinase enzyme by using Aspergillus foetidus in solid state and submerged fermentation systems. The pectin content of 18.2% (w\\/w) was found in Totapuri mango peel. The highest productivity of polygalacturonase and pectin lyase was obtained with solid state fermentation. Both enzymes had optimum

  16. Layer-peeling algorithm for reconstructing the birefringence in optical emulators

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, Moshe

    Layer-peeling algorithm for reconstructing the birefringence in optical emulators Etgar C. Levy, for extracting the spatial distribu- tion of the birefringence parameters of an optical emulator. The method and the orientation angle of the birefringence axes. The layer- peeling algorithm is designed to minimize

  17. Using Apple Peel Sections To Study Plant Cells and Water Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvius, John E.; Eckart, Christopher P.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests the cells of an apple peel as a plant species that can further enhance the plant cell laboratory. Describes the structure of apple peel cells and the benefits of including them in studies of plant cells. Suggests questions to stimulate further investigations for open-ended laboratories or independent studies. (PVD)

  18. Performance Evaluation of the Educational Leader (PEEL): Another Breakthrough in Competency Based Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Christa; Lynch, Steven B.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes the Performance Evaluation of the Education Leader (PEEL) program, initiated from a study to define the competent school administrator and to develop an instrument to measure administrative competence objectively and accurately. The resulting PEEL materials include the following: (a) "Guidelines for Evaluation: The School…

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunfeng Li; Changjiang Guo; Jijun Yang; Jingyu Wei; Jing Xu; Shuang Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Pomegranate is an important source of bioactive compounds and has been used for folk medicine for many centuries. Pomegranate juice has been demonstrated to be high in antioxidant activity and is effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. In a previous study, we found that pomegranate peel had the highest antioxidant activity among the peel, pulp and seed fractions of 28

  20. Biochemical changes that occur in plantain (unripe) and cassava peels during processing (sun?drying)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Apori

    1994-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot spp) and green (unripe) plantain (Musa spp., AAB group) peels are a cheap source of feed to ruminant livestock in Ghana. Since cassava and plantain availability in large quantity is seasonal, effective utilization of the peels can be obtained by sun?drying (processing) to increase its dry matter content and enhance its storability. A study was conducted to determine

  1. Optimization of narirutin extraction during washing step of the pectin production from citrus peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Kim; D. Y. Lee; C. H. Lee; C. W. Kim

    2004-01-01

    Citrus peels can be a valuable source of pectin and narirutin. Narirutin can be extracted during the washing step of citrus peels in the pectin production process. In this study narirutin extraction conditions were optimized to maximize the narirutin extraction yield while minimized pectin loss. Washing temperature, time, and HCl concentration of the washing solution were chosen as independent variables

  2. Effects of Peeled and Unpeeled Garlic Cloves on the Changes of Drying Rate and Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somkiat Prachayawarakorn; Narongsak Kaewnin; Adisak Nathakaranakule; Somchart Soponronnarit

    2006-01-01

    Reducing moisture content as fast as possible, together with minimizing loss of quality, is important to food processing. To reach these objectives, experimental investigations were conducted to examine the effects of both peeled and unpeeled garlic cloves as well as operating parameters such as temperature and superficial velocity on the drying rate and quality of dried product. Peel resistance to

  3. Structural changes and alkaline solubility of wood cellulose fibers after enzymatic peeling treatment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Structural changes and alkaline solubility of wood cellulose fibers after enzymatic peeling peeling protocol and the changes in terms of structure and alkaline solubility were analyzed destructured, as seen by the absence of birefringence. The alkaline solubility of the different treated samples

  4. Effects of infrared radiation heating on peeling performance and quality attributes of clingstone peaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity and wastewater disposal problems associated with the conventional wet-lye method for peeling clingstone peaches result in considerable negative environment impacts. This study investigated the efficacy of using infrared (IR) heating as an alternative method for peach peel removal without us...

  5. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel ( Opuntia ficus indica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siham Lahsasni; Mohammed Kouhila; Mostafa Mahrouz; Ali Idlimam; Abdelkrim Jamali

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to

  6. Peeled film GaAs solar cells for space power

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, D.M.; Deangelo, F.L.; Thomas, R.D.; Bailey, S.G.; Landis, G.A.; Brinker, D.J.; Fatemi, N.S.

    1990-05-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) peeled film solar cells were fabricated, by Organo-Metallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE), incorporating an aluminum arsenide (AlAs) parting layer between the device structure and the GaAs substrate. This layer was selectively removed by etching in dilute hydrofloric (HF) acid to release the epitaxial film. Test devices exhibit high series resistance due to insufficient back contact area. A new design is presented which uses a coverglass superstrate for structural support and incorporates a coplanar back contact design. Devices based on this design should have a specific power approaching 700 W/Kg.

  7. Peeled film GaAs solar cells for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, D. M.; Deangelo, F. L.; Thomas, R. D.; Bailey, S. G.; Landis, G. A.; Brinker, D. J.; Fatemi, N. S.

    1990-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) peeled film solar cells were fabricated, by Organo-Metallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE), incorporating an aluminum arsenide (AlAs) parting layer between the device structure and the GaAs substrate. This layer was selectively removed by etching in dilute hydrofloric (HF) acid to release the epitaxial film. Test devices exhibit high series resistance due to insufficient back contact area. A new design is presented which uses a coverglass superstrate for structural support and incorporates a coplanar back contact design. Devices based on this design should have a specific power approaching 700 W/Kg.

  8. Simulation of peeling-ballooning modes with pellet injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Huang, J.; Sun, T. T.; Wang, Z. H.; Tang, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    The influence of pellet ablation on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with BOUT++ code. The atoms coming from pellet ablation can significantly reshape the plasma pressure profile, so the behaviors of P-B modes and edge localized mode (ELM) are modified dramatically. This paper shows that the energy loss associated with an ELM increases substantially over that without the pellet, if the pellet is deposited at the top of the pedestal. On the contrary, for pellet deposition in the middle of the pedestal region the ELM energy loss can be less.

  9. Physical and chemical characteristics of golden-yellow and purple-red varieties of tamarillo fruit (Solanum betaceum Cav.).

    PubMed

    Vasco, Catalina; Avila, Jenny; Ruales, Jenny; Svanberg, Ulf; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    2009-01-01

    Golden-yellow and purple-red tamarillos (Solanum betaceum Cav.) cultivated in Ecuador were studied for their physical properties, proximate composition, pH, degrees Brix, acidity, sugars, organic acids, minerals, vitamin C and beta-carotene content in the edible part. Results were compared with those for Spanish fruits. The golden-yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian fruits were larger (107 and 188 g) than the respective Spanish fruits (43 and 63 g), softer but generally similar in chemical composition except for fat (0.72 and 0.6%) and malic acid (0.32 and 0.53%) contents in the golden-yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian fruits. Tamarillo fruits are a good source of potassium (approximately 400 mg/100 g fresh weight). Total phenolics in the golden-yellow and purple-red varieties were 125 and 187 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh weight, respectively. The golden-yellow variety had weaker anti-DPPH radical activity than the purple-red variety. Flavonols were only found in the peel of both varieties, while hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found in peel and pulp. PMID:19657848

  10. The Effect of Silica on the Peel Adhesion of Epoxidized Natural Rubber-Based Adhesive Containing Coumarone-Indene Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imran Khan; B. T. Poh

    2010-01-01

    The peel strength of silica filled on two grades of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR), i.e., ENR 25 and ENR 50 adhesive were investigated using coumarone-indene as the tackifying resin. Toluene was used as the solvent throughout the study. Result shows that peel strength increases with increase in silica loading due to the concentration effect of the filler. Peel strength, however,

  11. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to

  12. Removal of lead (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution using pomegranate peel as a new adsorbent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E.-S. Z. El-Ashtoukhy; N. K. Amin; O. Abdelwahab

    2008-01-01

    The effective removal of heavy metals from aqueous wastes is among the most important issues for many industrialized countries. Removal of lead (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solutions were studied using pomegranate peel (raw), activated carbon prepared from pomegranate peel (AC1) and activated carbon prepared from chemically treated pomegranate peel (AC2 and AC3). Batch adsorption experiments were performed as

  13. New formulation of chemical peeling agent: histological evaluation in sun-damaged skin model in hairless mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Midori Isoda; Setsuko Ueda; Shuhei Imayama; Kazue Tsukahara

    2001-01-01

    Background: chemical peelings injure the superficial skin, which is then restored by healing of the wound. Objectives: to document the acute and chronic histological changes produced by applying chemical peeling agents used clinically to the UVB-irradiated skin of hairless mice, which served as a model of sun-damaged skin. Design: three chemical peeling agents, 30% salicylic acid, dissolved in macrogol (a

  14. Surface modification of polyethylene by radiation-induced grafting for adhesive bonding. IV. Improvement in wet peel strength. [Gamma radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yamakawa; F. Yamamoto

    1980-01-01

    Adhesive joints of hydrolyzed methyl acrylate grafts, bonded with epoxy adhesives, yield extremely high peel strength (adherend failure) in dry conditions. However, when the joints are exposed to humid environments, the peel strength rapidly decreases with exposure time and then reaches a constant value (wet peel strength). Since the locus of failure changes from the adherend to the homopolymer layer

  15. Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil1 fertility in the tropics2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil1 fertility of different organic amendments, bitter manioc peel (M), sawdust (Sw) and charcoal6 (Ch), on soil nutrient were lowest in9 unamended soil. The application of a mixture of manioc peel and charcoal (M+Ch)10

  16. Characterization of orange peel pectin and effect of sugars, l-ascorbic acid, ammonium persulfate, salts on viscosity of orange peel pectin solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Kar; N Arslan

    1999-01-01

    Anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl, acetyl, ash contents and optical rotation of pectin obtained by a HCl extraction procedure (90°C, pH=2.5, 90min) were found to be 74.30, 12.15, 0.37, 6.07% (DM basis) and +252° respectively. The degree of methylation was found to be over 50%, indicating that the orange peel pectin had a high methoxyl content.The reduced viscosities of orange peel pectin

  17. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers' perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  18. Isolation, identification and quantification of unsaturated fatty acids, amides, phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids from potato peel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Ma, Qiong; Cao, Ye; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chao-Mei

    2012-12-15

    Eleven compounds were isolated from potato peels and identified. Their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. The main components of the potato peels were found to be chlorogenic acid and other phenolic compounds, accompanied by 2 glycoalkaloids, 3 low-molecular-weight amide compounds, and 2 unsaturated fatty acids, including an omega-3 fatty acid. The potato peels showed more potent radical scavenging activity than the flesh. The quantification of the 11 components indicated that the potato peels contained a higher amount of phenolic compounds than the flesh. These results suggest that peel waste from the industry of potato chips and fries may be a source of useful compounds for human health. PMID:22980823

  19. Cassava peel as a replacement for corn in the diet of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Santos, Viviany Lúcia Fernandes dos; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Santos, Geraldo Tadeu dos; Damasceno, Julio Cesar; Oliveira, Kelly de; Agostino, Bruna Calvo; Olivo, Paula Martins; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the replacement of corn with cassava peel in the diets of dairy cows. Eight Holstein cows were used. The experimental treatments consisted of four replacement levels of corn with cassava peel (0, 33, 66, and 100 %). The replacement of corn with cassava peel linearly decreased the intake and digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, but did not alter the intake of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein. In addition, there was a linear decrease in milk production. The milk components (g/kg) of fat, protein, lactose, and total solids were not altered. Although cassava peel decreased intake, digestibility, and milk production, the replacement of corn with cassava peel may be advantageous in locations close to the starch industry. PMID:25686553

  20. Characterization of banana peel by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy and its use for cadmium removal.

    PubMed

    Memon, Jamil R; Memon, Saima Q; Bhanger, M I; Memon, G Zuhra; El-Turki, A; Allen, Geoffrey C

    2008-10-15

    This study describes the use of banana peel, a commonly produced fruit waste, for the removal of Cd(II) from environmental and industrial wastewater. The banana peel was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and found to be rapid ( approximately 97% within 10 min). The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was used to describe partitioning behavior for the system at room temperature. The value of Q(L) was found to be (35.52 mg g(-1)) higher than the previously reported materials. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH-dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 8. The retained species were eluted with 5 mL of 5 x 10(-3)M HNO(3) with the detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-3)mg L(-1). Kinetics of sorption followed the pseudo-first-order rate equation with the rate constant k, equal to 0.13+/-0.01 min(-1). Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy at 303K (-7.41+/-0.13 kJ mol(-1)) and enthalpy (40.56+/-2.34 kJ mol(-1)) indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. The developed method was utilized for the removal of Cd(II) ions from environmental and industrial wastewater samples using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). PMID:18760572

  1. Influence of conventional and ultrasonic-assisted extraction on phenolic contents, betacyanin contents, and antioxidant capacity of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

  2. Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

  3. Functional analysis of unfermented and fermented citrus peels and physical properties of citrus peel-added doughs for bread making.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Yung-Shin; Lu, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chuan-Chuan

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have indicated citrus peels (CP) contain specific methoxy flavones, e.g. nobiletin and tangeretin, which have been shown to prevent numerous diseases. However, research reports regarding their application as food additive in healthy baked products is scarce. In our study, both unfermented (UF) and fermented (F) citrus peels were processed under different dry hot-air temperatures to make four citrus peel powders , UF-100 °C,UF-150 °C, F-100 °C, F-150 °C, respectively. The analysis of the basic components and nutraceuticals as well as antioxidant activity were conducted. Various percentages of CP were added to dough and toast bread for physical property and sensory evaluations. The results indicated the contents of crude proteins (3.3-4.3 mg/g) and fibers (10.9-14.9 %) among the four samples were similar. The UF extracts showed better antioxidant activities than F extracts. HPLC analysis indicated the contents of hesperidine, nobiletin and tangeretin in CP extracts were UF-150 °C?>?UF-100 °C. Farinograph analysis indicated a linear relation between CP powder content and the parameters of the physical properties of dough. A high percentage of fibrous CP powder in dough increases the water adsorption capacity of the dough, resulting in a decrease in its stability The sensory evaluation results indicated a greater acceptability of UF-added toast bread relative to the F-added one. Among these, according to the statistical anaylsis, the UF-150 °C 4 % and UF-100 °C 6 % groups were the best and F-150 °C 2 % group was the poorest in overall acceptability. PMID:25477647

  4. Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits. PMID:25872450

  5. Home Fruit Production - Figs. 

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

    1987-01-01

    are required for normal fruit development. If this fertilization process does not occur, fruit will not develop properly and will fall from the tree. Smyrna-type figs are commonly sold as dried figs. San Pedro. These figs can bear two crops of fruit in one... season-one crop on last season's growth and a second crop on current growth. The first crop, called the Breba crop, is parthenocarpic and does not require pollination. Fruit of the second crop is the Smyrna type and requires pollination from...

  6. Nobiletin: efficient and large quantity isolation from orange peel extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiming; Yu, Haiqing; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2006-01-01

    It is known that nobiletin possesses anticancer, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, the demand for nobiletin in large quantities and high purity has increased. However, conventional normal-phase silica gel chromatography and C(18)-reverse-phase separation methods cannot satisfy the requirement of pure and gram scale nobiletin in a timely manner. In exploring the composition and the biological activities of polymethoxyflavones from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel, we developed an efficient isolation method for nobiletin. By employing this methodology, pure nobiletin, in gram quantities, was obtained in only one purification cycle. The orange peel extract was loaded onto a silica gel flash column and eluted by a mixed solvent system of ethyl acetate and hexanes, and the fractions collected. Upon combination of the eluted fractions, mainly containing nobiletin and 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, and concentration under reduced pressure, the resultant residue was loaded onto a Regis chiral column. Gram amounts of nobiletin and 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone were then eluted with ethanol and hexanes, respectively. PMID:15999338

  7. Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: Activation of PPAR-{gamma} and identification of an active component

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tom H.W. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Peng Gang [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kota, Bhavani P. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, George Q. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto (Japan); Roufogalis, Basil D. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li Yuhao [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

    2005-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 6-week oral administration of methanol extract from PGF (500 mg/kg, daily) inhibited glucose loading-induced increase of plasma glucose levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes, whereas it did not inhibit the increase in Zucker lean rats (ZL). The treatment did not lower the plasma glucose levels in fasted ZDF and ZL rats. Furthermore, RT-PCR results demonstrated that the PGF extract treatment in ZDF rats enhanced cardiac PPAR-{gamma} mRNA expression and restored the down-regulated cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 (the insulin-dependent isoform of GLUTs) mRNA. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic activity of PGF extract may result from improved sensitivity of the insulin receptor. From the in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the PGF extract enhanced PPAR-{gamma} mRNA and protein expression and increased PPAR-{gamma}-dependent mRNA expression and activity of lipoprotein lipase in human THP-1-differentiated macrophage cells. Phytochemical investigation demonstrated that gallic acid in PGF extract is mostly responsible for this activity. Thus, our findings indicate that PPAR-{gamma} is a molecular target for PGF extract and its prominent component gallic acid, and provide a better understanding of the potential mechanism of the anti-diabetic action of PGF.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  9. Ultra-HPLC-MS(n) (Poly)phenolic profiling and chemometric analysis of juices from ancient Punica granatum L. Cultivars: a nontargeted approach.

    PubMed

    Calani, Luca; Beghè, Deborah; Mena, Pedro; Del Rio, Daniele; Bruni, Renato; Fabbri, Andrea; Dall'asta, Chiara; Galaverna, Gianni

    2013-06-12

    This study deals with the qualitative characterization of the phenolic profile of pomegranate juices obtained from ancient accessions. Composition data, together with genetic, morphological, and agronomical parameters, may lead to a full characterization of such germplasm, with the aim of its retrieval and biodiversity valorization. Environmental adaptation, indeed, may contribute to an enrichment of the phenolic content in pomegranate, with important effects on its nutritional properties. More than 65 punicalagins, ellagic acid derivatives, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenylpropanoids were simultaneously detected from four centuries old Punica granatum L. ecotypes from northern Italy and compared with those of P. granatum cv. Dente di Cavallo, a widely cultivated Italian cultivar, using a simple ultra-HPLC (uHPLC) separation and MS(n) linear ion trap mass spectrometric characterization. Fingerprinting phytochemical discrimination of the accessions was obtained by chemometric analysis despite their limited geographical distribution, confirming the great intraspecific variability in pomegranate secondary metabolism. The combined recourse to uHPLC-MS(n) qualitative fingerprinting and multivariate analysis may represent a useful tool for the discrimination and selection of pomegranate germplasm with specific properties related to polyphenolic content. PMID:23668895

  10. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Thaís Honório Lins; Sales Santos Veríssimo, Regina Célia; Alvino, Valter; Silva Araujo, Maria Gabriella; Evangelista Pires dos Santos, Raíssa Fernanda; Maurício Viana, Max Denisson; de Assis Bastos, Maria Lysete; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. Objective. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990). Statistical analysis was performed through variance analysis and Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability and significance level. Results. In the in vitro, ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum and Eugenia uniflora and their combination showed the best antimicrobial potential against S. epidermidis and S. aureus. In the in vivo bioassay against S. epidermidis, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested product and the patterns used after five minutes of applying the product. Conclusion. The results indicate that the originated product is an antiseptic alternative source against S. epidermidis compared to chlorhexidine gluconate. It is suggested that further researches are to be conducted in different concentrations of the test product, evaluating its effectiveness and operational costs. PMID:26146655

  11. FRUIT & NUT NATIVE PECANS

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    TEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION NATIVE PECANS Larry Stein, Monte Nesbitt & Jim Kamas Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension There are 600,000 to one million acres of native pecans along is seldom over 20 mil- lion pounds. A native pecan management pro- gram should include nut production

  12. Fruit and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased by more than 30% over the last few decades in the U.S. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruit and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on mi...

  13. Regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

  14. Mutant Fruit Flies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

  15. Thermal stability of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and model solutions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ulrike A; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed at a systematic assessment of the factors influencing the anthocyanin (AC) stability and colour retention of pomegranate juices and less complex model solutions with particular focus on the effects of colourless phenolic copigments (CP). The thermal stability of ACs in three pomegranate juices obtained from isolated arils and the entire fruit with and without previous steaming, in model solutions with AC:CP ratios ranging from 1:0 to 1:4 (m/m), and in two purified extracts from pomegranate juices characterised by different phenolic profiles, respectively, was investigated upon heating at 60, 70, 80 and 90°C for 15 min to 5h. The thermal impact on the AC and CP contents, and the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and AC degradation products were monitored using HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Total phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity and colour properties were determined spectrophotometrically. Heating at 90°C for 5h resulted in total AC losses ranging from 76% to 87% of the initial AC levels in the juices, 78% in both extracts as well as 57% and ?78% in the model solutions, showing the best stability at an AC:CP ratio of 1:2 and in juices having the highest initial AC contents, respectively. In contrast, the AC stability was independent of total phenolic contents, and low and high molecular pomegranate matrix components (such as organic acids and sugars). Good correlation of the AC contents with red colour (a(?)) was observed for all samples at elevated temperatures (70-90°C). The stability of putative health-promoting polyphenols of pomegranate juices was not markedly affected by the thermal treatment. Unexpectedly, the HMF contents only slightly increased upon forced heating. Therefore, the visual appearance does not adequately reflect the quality and storage stability of pomegranate juices. PMID:23411312

  16. Protective role of three vegetable peels in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in male mice.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Yamini; Kar, Anand

    2010-09-01

    The hitherto unknown glucose regulating role of three vegetable peels from cucurbitaceae family was evaluated. In a preliminary study, effects of ethanolic extracts of Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus and Praecitrullus fistulosus peels were studied at 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 15 days in the alterations in serum glucose and in hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) in male mice. In the pilot experiment, the effective and safe concentration of each peel was administered (p.o.) for 10 consecutive days and then on 11th and 12th days alloxan was administered along with peel extracts. The treatment was continued up to 15th day. At the end, alterations in serum glucose, insulin, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and catalase were studied. All the three peel extracts nearly reversed most of these changes induced by alloxan suggesting their possible role in ameliorating diabetes mellitus and related changes in serum lipids. However, Cucurbita pepo peel was found to be the most effective. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents of the test peels were also estimated, which appear to be associated with the observed antidiabetic and antioxidative potentials. PMID:20614191

  17. Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2012-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

  18. Characterization of the intense pigment tomato genotype emphasizing targeted fruit metabolites and chloroplast biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Noga; Tadmor, Yaakov; Meir, Ayala; Bechar, Avital; Oren-Shamir, Michal; Ovadia, Rinat; Reuveni, Moshe; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Levin, Ilan

    2009-06-10

    The tomato INTENSE PIGMENT (IP) genotype is characterized by intense visual pigmentation of unripe and ripe fruits, not thoroughly analyzed thus far. This study was therefore designed to analyze key morphologic, metabolomic, and photomorphogenic phenotypes of this genotype in comparison to its near-isogenic normal counterpart and to evaluate its significance relative to other tomato mutants known for increased fruit pigmentation. The IP genotype produced smaller and darker red fruits, and a substantially increased chloroplast biogenesis was found in its green fruit and leaf tissues. Ripe-red fruits of the IP genotype produced 34-38% more soluble solids and up to 62.6% more carotenoids, but no differences were found in the concentration of flavonoid compounds in its peel tissue. The IP genotype was found to display a greater hypocotyl inhibition response to blue and yellow light, but a more prominent and novel response to total darkness. As a whole, the IP genotype exhibited highly desirable traits, making it a valuable genotype for tomato breeders attempting to introduce functional and taste qualities into tomato fruits. PMID:19391624

  19. Friction, force chains, and falling fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krim, Jacqueline; Behringer, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Friction is of great concern from both a national security and quality-of-life point of view, and the economic impact of energy efficiency, wear, and manufacturing cannot be underestimated. Theorists have always believed that friction plays a great role in avalanche-like collapse of a granular piles, but the predictions have proven difficult to test. We devised an experimentally controlled way to prove it, accessible to all who dare try, and report on it here [1,2]. With the aid of a middle school assistant, we studied and filmed piles of apples, oranges, and onions as one or more pieces of fruit were removed. Among other things, we discovered that increasing the friction of the onions (by peeling them) vastly decreased the likelihood of collapse. Our work includes videos written by, produced, and starring our seventh grade assistant, some of which are posted on the Physics Today YouTube channel [1] and featured in the Sept. 2009 issue of Physics Today [2]. [4pt] [1] Youtube.com, keywords ``unpeeled onions'', with full set at www.dukefruit.info. [0pt] [2] J. Krim and R.P. Berhinger, Physics Today (Sept., 2009) volume 62, pp.66-67

  20. Pilot histologic and ultrastructural study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R Nelson; Darrell J Fader; Montgomery Gillard; Gopa Majmudar; Timothy M Johnson

    1995-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are employed for a variety of benign and premalignant skin disorders.Objective: We compared clinical and histologic features with ultrastructural changes that occur after medium-depth chemical facial peel.Methods: Three men with actinically damaged facial skin underwent a single 35% trichloroacetic acid peel. Biopsy specimens were taken before the peel, and 2 weeks and 3 months after the peel,

  1. The influence of bond line thickness and peel arm thickness on adhesive fracture toughness of rubber toughened epoxy–aluminium alloy laminates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Kawashita; A. J. Kinloch; D. R. Moore; J. G. Williams

    2008-01-01

    The adhesive fracture toughness (GA) of rubber toughened epoxy–aluminium alloy laminates is studied using two types of peel test, namely fixed arm peel and roller-assisted mandrel peel. In the fixed arm tests, the peel angle is varied in the range 45–135° and in the mandrel peel experiments, the mandrel roller size is selected in order to ensure conformance of the

  2. Investigation of EUVL reticle capping layer peeling under wet cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sherjang; Dattilo, Davide; Dietze, Uwe; Kadaksham, Arun J.; Jang, Il-Yong; Goodwin, Frank

    2013-09-01

    In the absence of a pellicle, an EUVL reticle is expected to withstand up to 100 cleaning cycles. EUVL reticles constitute a complex multi-layer structure with extremely sensitive materials which are prone to damage during cleaning. The 2.5 nm thin Ru capping layer has been reported to be most sensitive to repeated cleaning, especially when exposed to aggressive dry etch or strip chemicals [1]. Such a Ru film exhibits multiple modes of failure under wet cleaning processes. In this study we investigated the Ru peeling effect. IR-induced thermo-stress in the multilayer and photochemical-induced radical attack on the surface are investigated as the two most dominant contributors to Ru damage in cleaning. Results of this investigation are presented and corrective actions are proposed.

  3. [Microbiological quality of street sold fruits in San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Monge, R; Arias, M L; Antillón, F; Utzinger, D

    1995-06-01

    The sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in San Jose, Costa Rica. It looked for the presence of Salmonella spp. Shigella spp., Escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (Ananas comosus), papaya (Carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (Mangifera indica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten without peeling, like nances (Byrsonima crassifolia) and jocotes (Spondias purpurea). 25 samples of each fruit, 50 natural refreshments and 50 fruit salads were processed according to rinse solution method, and the bacteriological determination was based in the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. In the same way, it was used the Most Probable Number for 5 tubes described in the Standar Methods of Water and Wastewater in orden to analyze 15 samples of ready to use water by the fruit hawker. The nutritional value was studied according to the food composition tables for Costa Rica, Latin America and USA. The results show that more than 30% of fruit samples, 70% of natural refreshments and 96% of fruit salad presented fecal coliforms. Same time, all of them present important contamination indexes with E. coli. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were not isolated. The water analysis revelead that 53% contained fecal coliforms, probably due to the lack of hygiene in the utensils used to collect water. The nutritional evaluation shows that fruit portions (except watermelon) satisfy more than 100% of the diary recommendation of vitamin C (60 mg) and 4-7% of the recommended ingestion of dietetic fiber (30g). PMID:8729262

  4. Cloning and characterization of two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase genes, differentially regulated during fruit maturation and under stress conditions, from orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria-Jesus Rodrigo; Berta Alquezar; Lorenzo Zacarias

    2006-01-01

    There is now biochemical and genetic evidence that oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoids by 9-cis- epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the critical step in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis in higher plants. The peel of Citrus fruit accumulates large amounts of ABA during maturation. To under- stand the regulation of ABA biosynthesis in Citrus, two full-length cDNAs (CsNCED1 and CsNCED2)

  5. FRUIT & NUT Plums, Nectarines, Apricots,

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    having a groove running down one side of the fruit with a smooth seed. Like peaches, they also set fruitTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Plums, Nectarines, Apricots, Cherries, Almonds & Prunus hybrids Larry Stein, Jim Kamas & Monte Nesbitt Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Plums The stone

  6. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

    1996-01-01

    The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

  7. Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

  8. Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Instant potatoes Beets Artichokes Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes Rice milk Boxed, evaporated or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies

  9. Quality of mini-peeled carrots as affected by genotype, minimal processing and edible coating

    E-print Network

    Dewi, Tjin Tjin

    1995-01-01

    of genotype, minimal processing and edible coating treatment on quality of mini-peeled carrots. Genotypic variations in total terpenoids, sugars, phenolics, total carotenoids and sensory attributes were observed (P>0.05). Among experimental hybrids evaluated...

  10. Recovery of steroidal alkaloids from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Rawson, Ashish; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels) compared to conventional solid-liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels). Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol) for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. PMID:25985357

  11. Micro-force Sensing in Robot Assisted Membrane Peeling for Vitreoretinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Balicki, Marcin; Uneri, Ali; Iordachita, Iulian; Handa, James; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Vitreoretinal surgeons use 0.5mm diameter instruments to manipulate delicate tissue inside the eye while applying imperceptible forces that can cause damage to the retina. We present a system which robotically regulates user-applied forces to the tissue, to minimize the risk of retinal hemorrhage or tear during membrane peeling, a common task in vitreoretinal surgery. Our research platform is based on a cooperatively controlled microsurgery robot. It integrates a custom micro-force sensing surgical pick, which provides conventional surgical function and real time force information. We report the development of a new phantom, which is used to assess robot control, force feedback methods, and our newly implemented auditory sensory substitution to specifically assist membrane peeling. Our findings show that auditory sensory substitution decreased peeling forces in all tests, and that robotic force scaling with audio feedback is the most promising aid in reducing peeling forces and task completion time. PMID:20879413

  12. FRACTION OF ORANGE PEEL PHENOLS AND EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange peel contains numerous flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, and related phenolic compounds. Among the flavonoids are several main structural categories, including the flavanone di- and triglycosides, flavone-O- and C-glycosides, and the highly methoxylated flavone aglycones, termed polymethoxylate...

  13. PEELING/FALLING OF PROTECTIVE COVERING CONCRETE AND ITS OPTIMAL INSPECTION POLICY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Okizuka, Ryosuke; Ito, Tetsuo; Hashizume, Kenji; Deguchi, Munehiro

    In order to maintain and manage infrastructures appropriately under a budget constraint, it is necessary to grasp the processes of deterioration and damage, which are the targets of visual inspection, specify the criteria for risk management, and determine inspection cycle. This study is focused on the peeling/falling of the protective covering concrete of expressway bridge slabs, formulates its process with the Poisson model, and proposes a model that can take into account some effects on peeling/falling. This study proposes a random proportional Poisson model for discussing the heterogeneity of the peeling/falling of concrete of individual slabs. Then, the criteria for risk management regarding peeling/falling are specified, and a method for determining optimal inspection cycle that satisfies the criteria for risk management is proposed. Lastly, the appropriateness of the proposed model is discussed empirically, by applying it to actual expressways.

  14. Fat Fruit Flies

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-08-11

    Broadcast Transcript: Breaking news from South Korea's hi-tech frontline. With the help of drosophila, or the fruit fly, scientists here have discovered strands of genetic material that control growth in the body. They're ...

  15. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  16. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  17. Potato peel as a solid state substrate for thermostable ?-amylase production by thermophilic Bacillus isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyoti Shukla; Rita Kar

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Potato peel was found to be a superior substrate for solid state fermentation, compared to wheat bran, for the production\\u000a of ?-amylase by two thermophilic isolates of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. Under optimal conditions, B. licheniformis produced 270 units\\/ml and 175 units\\/ml of ?-amylase on potato peel and wheat bran, respectively, while the corresponding\\u000a values for B. subtilis were 600 units\\/ml and

  18. Viscosity and Peel Strength of SMR 10Based Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Poh; Y. Y. Chang

    2006-01-01

    The viscosity and peel strength of a natural rubber-based pressure-sensitive adhesive was studied. One grade of natural rubber (SMR 10) and coumarone-indene resin were used as the elastomeric material and tackifier, respectively. Throughout the experiment, toluene was used as the solvent to prepare the adhesive. The effect of mastication time of rubber and tackifier concentration on the viscosity and peel

  19. Improvements in the Peel-Method of Preparing Sections of Fossil Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Walton

    1930-01-01

    THE peel-method of preparing sections of fossil plants was briefly described by me in NATURE of Oct. 13, 1928, p.571. The use of cellulose esters was recommended for preparing peel-sections. Since writing that letter, I have performed experiments on the use of gelatine instead of cellulose esters, and have obtained results which fully justify the adoption of gelatine on many

  20. Characterization of PDMS-modified glass from cast-and-peel fabrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke Liu; Yu Tian; Rajesekar Pitchimani; Michael Huang; Hawa Lincoln; Dimitri Pappas

    2009-01-01

    In glass\\/poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) hybrid microfluidic chips, two different fabrication approaches are used: photolithographic or solid ink molds, or cast-and-peel methods. In the latter, a thin slab of PDMS is laid down and fluid channels are cut manually or by machine. The cast-and-peel approach has been used successfully for low-shear culture devices, among other applications. The main drawback, not reported to

  1. Free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of potato peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nandita Singh; P. S. Rajini

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant potency of freeze-dried aqueous extract of potato peel was investigated employing various established in vitro systems, such as lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)\\/superoxide\\/hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power, and iron ion chelation. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of potato peel powder (PPE) showed strong inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenate induced by the FeCl2–H2O2

  2. Studies on mould growth and biomass production using waste banana peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Essien; E. J. Akpan; E. P. Essien

    2005-01-01

    Hyphomycetous (Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phycomycetous (Mucor hiemalis) moulds were cultivated in vitro at room temperature (28+20 °C) to examined their growth and biomass production on waste banana peel agar (BPA) and broth (BPB) using commercial malt extract agar (MEA) and broth (MEB) as control. The moulds grew comparatively well on banana peel substrates. No significant difference (p>0.05) in radial growth

  3. Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·103 to 0.7·108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

  4. Penetration mechanism and distribution gradients of sodium tripolyphosphate in peeled and deveined shrimp 

    E-print Network

    Tenhet, Vickie Lynn

    1979-01-01

    PENETRATION MECHANISM AND DISTRIBUTION GRADIENTS OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE IN PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP A Thesis by VICKIE LYNN TENHET Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PENETRATION MECHANISM AND DISTRIBUTION GRADIENTS OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE IN PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP A Thesis by VICKIE LYNN TENHET Approved as to style...

  5. Identification of epoxybergamottin as a CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wangensteen; E. Molden; H. Christensen; K. E. Malterud

    2003-01-01

    Objective. The oral availability of many drugs metabolised by the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is increased if co-administered with grapefruit juice. Extracts from grapefruit peel have also demonstrated inhibitory activity and, during commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, inhibitory components might be squeezed into the juice from the peel. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to identify

  6. High dietary fibre powders from orange and lime peels: associated polyphenols and antioxidant capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José A. Larrauri; Pilar Rupérez; Laura Bravo; Fulgencio Saura-Calixto

    1996-01-01

    High dietary fibre powders from Valencia orange and Persa lime peels were prepared and their dietary fibre composition and antioxidant capacity studied. Fibres from both peels had a high total dietary fibre content (61–69%) with an appreciable amount of soluble fibre (19–22%). The concentration of antioxidant [AA50] required to achieve a 50% inhibition of oxidation of linoleic acid at 40°C

  7. Name That Fruit!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauri Christopher

    2012-07-20

    In this lesson, students, will read three informational texts about fruit. Students will identify key ideas and details in each text and use illustrations to help them identify the key ideas. This lesson also incorporates a science standard that asks students to sort objects by color, shape, and size. After reading each text, students will participate in several hands-on activities to sort fruit.

  8. Ethylene and Fruit Ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius S. Barry; James J. Giovannoni

    2007-01-01

    The ripening of fleshy fruits represents the unique coordination of developmental and biochemical pathways leading to changes\\u000a in color, texture, aroma, and nutritional quality of mature seed-bearing plant organs. The gaseous plant hormone ethylene\\u000a plays a key regulatory role in ripening of many fruits, including some representing important contributors of nutrition and\\u000a fiber to the diets of humans. Examples include

  9. Detection of malathion in food peels by surface-enhanced Raman imaging spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Carlos D L; Poppi, Ronei J

    2015-06-16

    An analytical methodology was developed for detection of malathion in the peels of tomatoes and Damson plums by surface-enhanced Raman imaging spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution. To recover the pure spectra and the distribution mapping of the analyzed surfaces, non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), multivariate curve calibration methods with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and MCR with weighted alternating least square (MCR-WALS) were utilized. Error covariance matrices were estimated to evaluate the structure of the error over all the data. For the tomato data, NMF-ALS and MCR-ALS presented excellent spectral recovery even in the absence of initial knowledge of the pesticide spectrum. For the Damson plum data, owing to heteroscedastic noise, MCR-WALS produced better results. This methodology enabled detection below to the maximum residue limit permitted for this pesticide. This approach can be implemented for in situ monitoring because it is fast and does not require extensive manipulation of samples, making its use feasible for other fruits and pesticides as well. PMID:26002473

  10. Photofragment image analysis using the Onion-Peeling Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2003-07-01

    With the growing popularity of the velocity map imaging technique, a need for the analysis of photoion and photoelectron images arose. Here, a computer program is presented that allows for the analysis of cylindrically symmetric images. It permits the inversion of the projection of the 3D charged particle distribution using the Onion Peeling Algorithm. Further analysis includes the determination of radial and angular distributions, from which velocity distributions and spatial anisotropy parameters are obtained. Identification and quantification of the different photolysis channels is therefore straightforward. In addition, the program features geometry correction, centering, and multi-Gaussian fitting routines, as well as a user-friendly graphical interface and the possibility of generating synthetic images using either the fitted or user-defined parameters. Program summaryTitle of program: Glass Onion Catalogue identifier: ADRY Program Summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRY Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computer: IBM PC Operating system under which the program has been tested: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows NT Programming language used: Delphi 4.0 Memory required to execute with typical data: 18 Mwords No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9 911 434 Distribution format: zip file Keywords: Photofragment image, onion peeling, anisotropy parameters Nature of physical problem: Information about velocity and angular distributions of photofragments is the basis on which the analysis of the photolysis process resides. Reconstructing the three-dimensional distribution from the photofragment image is the first step, further processing involving angular and radial integration of the inverted image to obtain velocity and angular distributions. Provisions have to be made to correct for slight distortions of the image, and to verify the accuracy of the analysis process. Method of solution: The "Onion Peeling" algorithm described by Helm [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67 (6) (1996)] is used to perform the image reconstruction. Angular integration with a subsequent multi-Gaussian fit supplies information about the velocity distribution of the photofragments, whereas radial integration with subsequent expansion of the angular distributions over Legendre Polynomials gives the spatial anisotropy parameters. Fitting algorithms have been developed to centre the image and to correct for image distortion. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum image size (1280×1280) and resolution (16 bit) are restricted by available memory and can be changed in the source code. Initial centre coordinates within 5 pixels may be required for the correction and the centering algorithm to converge. Peaks on the velocity profile separated by less then the peak width may not be deconvolved. In the charged particle image reconstruction, it is assumed that the kinetic energy released in the dissociation process is small compared to the energy acquired in the electric field. For the fitting parameters to be physically meaningful, cylindrical symmetry of the image has to be assumed but the actual inversion algorithm is stable to distortions of such symmetry in experimental images. Typical running time: The analysis procedure can be divided into three parts: inversion, fitting, and geometry correction. The inversion time grows approx. as R3, where R is the radius of the region of interest: for R=200 pixels it is less than a minute, for R=400 pixels less then 6 min on a 400 MHz IBM personal computer. The time for the velocity fitting procedure to converge depends strongly on the number of peaks in the velocity profile and the convergence criterion. It ranges between less then a second for simple curves and a few minutes for profiles with up to twenty peaks. The time taken for the image correction scales as R2 and depends on the curve profile. It is on the order of a few minutes for images with R=500

  11. Hidden potential of tropical fruit waste components as a useful source of remedy for obesity.

    PubMed

    Asyifah, Mohamed Rashid; Lu, Kaihui; Ting, Hui Lin; Zhang, Dawei

    2014-04-23

    The array of comorbidities that comes with obesity and the propelling surge of this disease globally today make the urgent need for treatment vital. Although promoting a healthy physical regimen and controlled diet to affected patients are the main bulk of present treatment, prescriptions of weight-loss medications have also been introduced to complement this treatment. However, the use of synthetic medications may produce adverse side effects and consequently affect the patient's quality of life. In view of these problems, the use of natural sources as alternative remedies has recently become very popular. Tropical fruit "waste components", namely, the seed, flower, leaf, peel, and part of the fruit, which are often discarded after consumption, have recently been studied and showed evidence suggesting their potential as promising future alternative sources of remedy. The high amounts of phytochemicals present in these components were believed to be responsible for the antiobesity effect observed experimentally. This review aims to introduce some of the recently discussed tropical fruit waste components that have been discovered to possess antiobesity effects. The major bioactive compounds of the respective fruit components identified and deduced to be responsible for the overall bioactivity will be evaluated. Following this, the subsequent need for the development of an effective processing or recycling technique required to effectively tap the maximum potential of these fruit parts will also be addressed. PMID:24670153

  12. Chemical Peeling by SA-PEG Remodels Photo-damaged Skin: Suppressing p53 Expression and Normalizing Keratinocyte Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruki Dainichi; Satoshi Amano; Yukiko Matsunaga; Shunsuke Iriyama; Tetsuji Hirao; Takeshi Hariya; Toshihiko Hibino; Chika Katagiri; Motoji Takahashi; Setsuko Ueda; Masutaka Furue

    2006-01-01

    Chemical peeling with salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol vehicle (SA-PEG), which specifically acts on the stratum corneum, suppresses the development of skin tumors in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. To elucidate the mechanism through which chemical peeling with SA-PEG suppresses skin tumor development, the effects of chemical peeling on photodamaged keratinocytes and cornified envelopes (CEs) were evaluated in vivo. Among UVB-irradiated hairless

  13. Identification of Aroma-Active Compounds in Malaysian Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Peel by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M-W Cheong; S-Q Liu; J. Yeo; H-K Chionh; K. Pramudya; P. Curran; B. Yu

    2011-01-01

    Malaysian pink and white pomelo (Citrusgrandis (L.) Osbeck) peels were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM). Using GC-FID\\/MS and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), 50 and 47 aroma-active compounds were identified in pink and white pomelo peel extracts, respectively. The potency of each odorant in both pomelo peel extracts was determined by aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). On the basis of flavor dilution (FD)

  14. [Composition and antioxidant capacity of the guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit, pulp and jam].

    PubMed

    Marquina, V; Araujo, L; Ruíz, J; Rodríguez-Malaver, A; Vit, P

    2008-03-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit widely relished in the tropics, consumed fresh and processed. In this work, free acidity, pH, ash, nitrogen and water contents were measured, besides the total polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity of the peel, the shell and the pulp of the fresh fruit and the processed guava pulp and jam. The highest phenolic content was found in the guava skin la (10.36 g/100 g skin) and the lowest in the jam (1.47 g/ 100 g jam), in dry weight. The antioxidant capacity of the skin was 10 times higher than that of the pulp, and the jam was twice that of the shell. PMID:18589579

  15. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26022876

  16. Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber

    Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

  17. Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber

    2004-01-01

    Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

  18. Novel TGM5 mutations in acral peeling skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Jaap J A J; van Geel, Michel; Nellen, Ruud G L; Jonkman, Marcel F; McGrath, John A; Nanda, Arti; Sprecher, Eli; van Steensel, Maurice A M; McLean, W H Irwin; Cassidy, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS, MIM #609796) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by superficial exfoliation and blistering of the volar and dorsal aspects of hands and feet. The level of separation is at the junction of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. APSS is caused by mutations in the TGM5 gene encoding transglutaminase-5, which is important for structural integrity of the outermost epidermal layers. The majority of patients originate from Europe and carry a p.(Gly113Cys) mutation in TGM5. In this study, we report both European and non-European families carrying other mutations in the TGM5 gene. In 5 patients, we found 3 novel mutations: c.1001+2_1001+3del, c.1171G>A and c.1498C>T. To confirm their pathogenicity, we performed functional analyses with a transglutaminase activity assay, determined alternative splicing by reverse-transcribed PCR analysis and used databases and in silico prediction tools. PMID:25644735

  19. Utilization of an agricultural waste material, melon (Cucumis melo L.) peel peel, as a sorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oualid Hamdaoui; Fethi Saoudi; Mahdi Chiha

    2010-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) peel, an agricultural solid waste material, was utilized as a novel non-conventional sorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous phase. The effects of sorbent dose, pH, ionic strength, temperature, stirring speed, initial concentration and contact time on the sorption of cadmium were evaluated. Results indicate an increase in uptake by the sorbent with increasing initial

  20. Quantification of patulin in fruit leathers by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA).

    PubMed

    Maragos, Chris M; Busman, Mark; Ma, Liang; Bobell, John

    2015-07-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin commonly found in certain fruit and fruit products. For this reason many countries have established regulatory limits pertaining to, in particular, apple juice and apple products. Fruit leathers are produced by dehydrating fruit puree, leaving a sweet product that has a leathery texture. A recent report in the literature described the detection of patulin at substantial levels in fruit leathers. To investigate this further, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA) method was developed for the sensitive detection of patulin in fruit leathers. Investigations were also made of the suitability of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for detection of patulin from the surface of fruit leathers. Results indicated DART-MS was insufficiently sensitive for quantification from the surface of home-style apple leathers, although patulin spiked onto the surface of leather or peel could be detected. The UPLC-PDA method was used to determine the fate of patulin during the preparation of home-made fruit leathers. Interestingly, when a home-style process was used, the patulin was not destroyed, but rather increased in concentration as the puree was dehydrated. The UPLC-PDA method was also used to screen for patulin in commercial fruit leathers. Of the 36 products tested, 14 were above the limit of detection (3.5 ?g kg(-1)) and nine were above the limit of quantification (12 ?g kg(-1)). Positive samples were confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS. Only one sample was found above the US regulatory limit for single-strength apple juice products (50 ?g kg(-1)). These results suggest patulin can be concentrated during preparation and can be found in fruit leathers. The limited survey suggests that patulin is fairly prevalent in such commercial products, but that the levels are usually low. PMID:25832782

  1. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of the Bond Strength Under Peeling Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Jawad, Oussama Cherkaoui

    1997-01-01

    Reliable applications of adhesively bonded joints require understanding of the stress distribution along the bond-line and the stresses that are responsible for the joint failure. To properly evaluate factors affecting peel strength, effects of defects such as voids on the stress distribution in the overlap region must be understood. In this work, the peel stress distribution in a single lap joint is derived using a strength of materials approach. The bonded joint is modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams, bonded together with an adhesive. which is modeled as an elastic foundation which can resist both peel and shear stresses. It is found that for certain adhesive and adherend geometries and properties, a central void with the size up to 50 percent of the overlap length has negligible effect on the peak peel and shear stresses. To verify the solutions obtained from the model, the problem is solved again by using the finite element method and by treating the adherends and the adhesive as elastic materials. It is found that the model used in the analysis not only predicts the correct trend for the peel stress distribution but also gives rather surprisingly close results to that of the finite element analysis. It is also found that both shear and peel stresses can be responsible for the joint performance and when a void is introduced, both of these stresses can contribute to the joint failure as the void size increases. Acoustic emission (AE) activities of aluminum-adhesive-aluminum specimens with different void sizes were monitored. The AE ringdown counts and energy were very sensitive and decreased significantly with the void size. It was observed that the AE events were shifting towards the edge of the overlap where the maximum peeling and shearing stresses were occurring as the void size increased.

  2. Expression profiles of a MhCTR1 gene in relation to banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huei-Lin; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2012-07-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) is a typical climacteric fruit of high economic importance. The development of bananas from maturing to ripening is characterized by increased ethylene production accompanied by a respiration burst. To elucidate the signal transduction pathway involved in the ethylene regulation of banana ripening, a gene homologous to Arabidopsis CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) was isolated from Musa spp. (Hsien Jin Chiao, AAA group) and designated as MhCTR1. MhCTR1 spans 11.5 kilobases and consists of 15 exons and 14 introns with consensus GT-AG nucleotides situated at their boundaries. MhCTR1 encodes a polypeptide of 805 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 88.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of MhCTR1 demonstrates 55%, 56% and 55% homology to AtCTR1, RhCTR1, and LeCTR1, respectively. MhCTR1 is expressed mostly in the mature green pulp and root organs. During fruit development MhCTR1 expression increases just before ethylene production rises. Moreover, MhCTR1 expression was detected mainly in the pulps at ripening stage 3, and correlated with the onset of peel yellowing, while MhCTR1 was constitutively expressed in the peels. MhCTR1 expression could be induced by ethylene treatment (0.01 ?L L(-1)), and MhCTR1 expression decreased in both peel and pulp 24 h after treatment. Overall, changes observed in MhCTR1 expression in the pulp closely related to the regulation of the banana ripening process. PMID:22584359

  3. Biohydrogen generation from jackfruit peel using anaerobic contact filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishnan Vijayaraghavan; Desa Ahmad; Mohd Khairil Bin Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    A novel method of anaerobic digestion using contact filter was adopted for treating solid waste generated from the fruit processing industry, namely jackfruit, with the intention of generating energy free from greenhouse gases. A new source of microflora was isolated from cow dung by subjecting it to pH adjustment at 5±0.2 coupled with heat treatment at 105?C for 1h, and

  4. Differential attraction of Aedes albopictus in the field to flowers, fruits and honeydew.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter C; Xue, Rui-De; Schlein, Yosef

    2011-04-01

    Sugar is the main source of energy for the activities of mosquitoes; however, information on the vital sugar feeding of Aedes albopictus in the field is scanty and often anecdotal. Using glue traps and baits, we evaluated the attraction of Ae. albopictus to 28 different, potential sugar sources. Control traps were baited with either sugar-water solution or water alone, and since there was no significant difference between these controls, the water control was used as the standard for comparison. The total catch amounted to 1347 females and 1127 males. An attraction index (mean number of mosquitoes attracted to the baits/mean number of mosquitoes attracted to the control) was used to compare the relative attraction of the baits. The attraction index of significantly attractive baits ranged from 2.5 to 50.0 and the index of others ranged from 0.50 to 2.75. None of the baits were repellent. Significantly high attraction was observed for four of six ornamental flowers (Tamarix chinensis, Vitex agnus-castus, Polygonum baldchuanicum, Buddleja davidii), four of eleven wild flowers (Prosopis farcta, Ziziphus spina-christi, Polygonum equisetiforme, Ceratonia siliqua), the only tested seed pod when damaged and fermenting (C. siliqua), and all five of the tested fruits: Opuntia ficus indica (sabra), Ficus carica (fig), Punica granatum (pomegranate, damaged), Eriobotyra japonica (loquat), and Rubus sanctus (raspberry). Unlike damaged, fermenting carob seed pods and pomegranates, the fresh fruits were not attractive. Attraction to foliage soiled with honeydew excretion of three different aphid species was also not significant. The potential to use attractive sugar sources for mosquito control is discussed. PMID:21310142

  5. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

    2012-09-15

    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid. PMID:23107679

  6. Side effects assessment in glicolyc acid peelings in patients with acne type I

    PubMed Central

    Peri?, Sanja; Bubanj, Maja; Bubanj, Saša; Jan?i?, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Chemical peeling implies the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The present study was directed toward safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with glycolic acid (GA) in different concentrations at patients with acne tip I. A sample of 90 patients of either sex, aged between 17 to 21 years, were included in the study and submitted to superficial chemical peeling for acne vulgaris. The study lasted eight weeks and peeling sessions were carried out in each patient. Tolerance to the procedure and any undesirable effects noted during these sessions were recorded. For data statistical analysis and interpretation of results, software program “SPSS version 13” was used. Results were expressed through the descriptive statistics, as simple frequencies and percentages, while for establishing of statistically significant differences, in use was Friedman’s test of significance. Almost all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Of totally 90 patients, only six, at the end of therapy experienced hard erythema, only ten, at the end of therapy experienced hard desquamation and only eleven, at the end of therapy experienced hard sensation of pulling of facial skin. Chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well tolerated and safe treatment modality in acne type I. PMID:21342143

  7. Dynamics of stick-slip in peeling of an adhesive tape.

    PubMed

    De, Rumi; Maybhate, Anil; Ananthakrishna, G

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the dynamics of peeling of an adhesive tape subjected to a constant pull speed. We derive the equations of motion for the angular speed of the roller tape, the peel angle and the pull force used in earlier investigations using a Lagrangian. Due to the constraint between the pull force, peel angle and the peel force, it falls into the category of differential-algebraic equations requiring an appropriate algorithm for its numerical solution. Using such a scheme, we show that stick-slip jumps emerge in a purely dynamical manner. Our detailed numerical study shows that these set of equations exhibit rich dynamics hitherto not reported. In particular, our analysis shows that inertia has considerable influence on the nature of the dynamics. Following studies in the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, we suggest a phenomenological peel force function which includes the influence of the pull speed. This reproduces the decreasing nature of the rupture force with the pull speed observed in experiments. This rich dynamics is made transparent by using a set of approximations valid in different regimes of the parameter space. The approximate solutions capture major features of the exact numerical solutions and also produce reasonably accurate values for the various quantities of interest. PMID:15600511

  8. Dynamics of stick-slip in peeling of an adhesive tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Rumi; Maybhate, Anil; Ananthakrishna, G.

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the dynamics of peeling of an adhesive tape subjected to a constant pull speed. We derive the equations of motion for the angular speed of the roller tape, the peel angle and the pull force used in earlier investigations using a Lagrangian. Due to the constraint between the pull force, peel angle and the peel force, it falls into the category of differential-algebraic equations requiring an appropriate algorithm for its numerical solution. Using such a scheme, we show that stick-slip jumps emerge in a purely dynamical manner. Our detailed numerical study shows that these set of equations exhibit rich dynamics hitherto not reported. In particular, our analysis shows that inertia has considerable influence on the nature of the dynamics. Following studies in the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, we suggest a phenomenological peel force function which includes the influence of the pull speed. This reproduces the decreasing nature of the rupture force with the pull speed observed in experiments. This rich dynamics is made transparent by using a set of approximations valid in different regimes of the parameter space. The approximate solutions capture major features of the exact numerical solutions and also produce reasonably accurate values for the various quantities of interest.

  9. Peel-and-Stick: Fabricating Thin Film Solar Cell on Universal Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-12-01

    Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well.

  10. Influence of large strain rheology on the peeling performances of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villey, Richard; Ciccotti, Matteo; Creton, Costantino; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Yarusso, David J.

    2015-03-01

    The dependence of adhesion energy of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (PSA) on peeling velocity reduces to a master curve using a time-temperature superposition principle, usually verified by the linear rheology of polymers. This result has guided models predicting peeling energy of PSA to consider the small strain rheology of the glue only, despite it can experience very large strains before debonding. The argument of the time-temperature superposition principle can actually also be applied to large strains and is thus not a stringent one. To clarify the role of large strain rheology during the peeling of PSA, we present experiments on commercial and custom-made tapes supplied by 3M Company. Small and large strain rheology differences are obtained by changing the glass transition temperature, the cross-linking density and the density of entanglements, yet remaining close to commercial PSA. The rheology influence is decoupled from geometrical effects, by examining the nontrivial dependence of the adhesion energy on the peeling angle. Finally, adhesion energy measurements and visualizations of the process zone, over a large range of peeling velocities, are discussed, in the perspective of building a model for the adherence considering the complete rheology of the glue.

  11. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) on Eimeria papillata-induced infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Amer, Omar S O; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Hikal, Wafaa M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the most prevalent disease causing widespread economic loss, especially in poultry farms. Here, we investigated the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the outcome of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria papillata in mice. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata and treated with PPE revealed a significant decrease in the output of oocysts in their faeces by day 5?p.i. Infection also induced inflammation and injury of the jejunum. This was evidenced (i) as increases in reactive oxygen species, (ii), as increased neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes in blood (ii) as increased mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Bcl-2 gene, and of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-?), tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and (iv) as downregulation of mucin gene MUC2 mRNA. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during PPE treatment. In particular, PPE counteracted the E. papillata-induced loss of the total antioxidant capacity. Our data indicated that PPE treatment significantly attenuated inflammation and injury of the jejunum induced by E. papillata infections. PMID:25654088

  12. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) on Eimeria papillata-Induced Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Omar S. O.; Dkhil, Mohamed A.; Hikal, Wafaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the most prevalent disease causing widespread economic loss, especially in poultry farms. Here, we investigated the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the outcome of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria papillata in mice. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata and treated with PPE revealed a significant decrease in the output of oocysts in their faeces by day 5?p.i. Infection also induced inflammation and injury of the jejunum. This was evidenced (i) as increases in reactive oxygen species, (ii), as increased neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes in blood (ii) as increased mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Bcl-2 gene, and of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-?), tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and (iv) as downregulation of mucin gene MUC2 mRNA. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during PPE treatment. In particular, PPE counteracted the E. papillata-induced loss of the total antioxidant capacity. Our data indicated that PPE treatment significantly attenuated inflammation and injury of the jejunum induced by E. papillata infections. PMID:25654088

  13. Dried Fruits and Nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current control of postharvest insect pests of dried fruits and tree nuts relies heavily on fumigants such as methyl bromide or phosphine. There is mounting pressure against the general use of chemical fumigants due to atmospheric emissions, safety or health concerns, and an increased interest in or...

  14. IMPROVING FRUIT-SET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit-drop in pecan can occur due to insufficient nickel nutrition. Timely foliar sprays of Ni can prevent loss. Nut yield loss to pollination related factors is likely far more significant in many orchards than commonly recognized. Pollination studies in the southeastern U.S. pecan belt, where t...

  15. Anthocyanins in Blackcurrant Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Chandler; K. A. Harper

    1958-01-01

    Robinson and Robinson1 investigated the anthocyanin pigments of the fruit of the blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and stated that the skins contained a cyanidin-3-bioside. Gyanidin was the only aglycone found; but it was thought possible that small amounts of delphinidin were present. Fouassin2 has recently examined blackcurrant pigments by paper chromatography and has found two glycosides of cyanidin and two glycosides

  16. Fruits and vegetables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2007-07-23

    Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods. Humans need to consume these in order to get the nutrients they need to grow and maintain their bodies. People with anorexia would probably not eat these foods or any other foods. Anorexia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted with anorexia doesn't eat or eats very little food.

  17. Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients: 2 Golden Delicious apples 2 Red Delicious apples 2 banana 1 1/2 cups Directions 1. Leave the skin on the apple and cut in half through the core. Then cut each piece in half again

  18. Developmental and varietal differences in volatile ester formation and acetyl-CoA: alcohol acetyl transferase activities in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Holland, Doron; Larkov, Olga; Bar-Ya'akov, Irit; Bar, Einat; Zax, Alon; Brandeis, Ester; Ravid, Uzi; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2005-09-01

    Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars differ in their aroma and composition of volatile acetates in their fruit flesh and peel. Cv. Fuji flesh contains substantial levels of 2-methyl butyl acetate (fruity banana-like odor), while the flesh of cv. Granny Smith apples lacks this compound. Granny Smith apples accumulate mainly hexyl acetate (apple-pear odor) in their peel. Feeding experiments indicated that Fuji apples were able to convert hexanol and 2-methyl butanol to their respective acetate derivatives in vivo, while Granny Smith apples could only convert exogenous hexanol to hexyl acetate. Differential substrate specificities of the in vitro acetyl-CoA:alcohol acetyl transferase (AAT) activities were also detected among cultivars. In Granny Smith apples, the AAT activity was detected only in the peel, and its specificity was almost exclusively restricted to hexanol and cis-3-hexenol. In Fuji apples, the AAT activity was detected in both peel and flesh and apparently accepted a broader range of alcohols as substrates than the Granny Smith enzyme activity. Our data strongly suggest that different AAT activities are operational in apple tissues and cultivars and that these differences contribute to the variation observed in the accumulation of volatile acetates. PMID:16131130

  19. Isolation, characterisation, and antioxidant activities of flavonoids from chufa (Eleocharis tuberosa) peels.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanghe; Li, Xingren; He, Juan; Su, Jia; Peng, Liyan; Wu, Xingde; Du, Runan; Zhao, Qinshi

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, chufa peels (Eleocharis tuberosa) were researched for the flavonoid profile for the first time. Twenty flavonoids were isolated and identified, including six new ones, named eleocharins A-F (1-6). Their structures were characterised by spectroscopic methods and compared with published data. The antioxidant activity of the acetone extract, EtOAc fraction, and nBuOH fraction of chufa peels as well as the isolated flavonoids were assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical bioassay. The results showed that chufa peels can be regarded as an excellent source of natural antioxidants (mainly flavonoids) and a good additive in the beverage and canning. PMID:24996301

  20. 'Potato peel dressing': a novel adjunctive in the management of necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, K S; Bhandage, Supriya; Kamat, Shishir

    2015-03-01

    Management of necrotizing fasciitis, a rare and potentially fatal, polymicrobial disease comprises of aggressive debridement, intravenous antibiotics and application of various adjunctives. So far adjunctives like hyperbaric oxygen therapy, intravenous immunoglobulins, vacuum assisted or foam dressing, and guided tissue regeneration with amniotic dressing have been put to use. Each of these adjunctives has faced criticism for their shortcomings. Potato peel has been used as a dressing for chronic wounds but there is no literature available on its application over wounds afflicted with necrotizing fasciitis. Owing to various medicinal properties of potato peel and its use as a dressing in other medical conditions, same was used as an adjunctive in the present case. Here we present a case of cervical necrotizing fasciitis of dentogenous origin, treated by mainstay surgical treatment with debridement, drainage in combination with broad spectrum antibiotics and a novel adjunctive, 'potato peel dressing', which has shown promising results. PMID:25848140

  1. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of West African Dwarf Bucks Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peels Based Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Ukanwoko; J. A. Ibeawuchi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on the nutrient intake and digestibility were evaluated using four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks. The animals were confined individually in metabolism cages and offered the treatment diets (A-D) in a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone

  2. EQUILIBRIUM STUDY OF METHYLENE BLUE SORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY A LOW-COST WASTE MATERIAL: ALMOND PEEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Benaïssa

    ABSTRACT In the present work, the usefulness of almond peel as a sorbent material has been investigated for the removal of methylene blue from synthetic aqueous solutions in batch conditions. Isotherm of dye sorption was measured. The influence of different experimental parameters such as: almond peel mass, particles size, temperature, initial pH of solution and NaCl concentration on this isotherm

  3. Comparison of batch, fed-batch and continuous well-mixed reactors for enzymatic hydrolysis of orange peel wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Asghar Ghorbanpour Khamseh; Michele Miccio

    An alternative potential feedstock for bioethanol in the automotive sector is citrus peel waste (CPW), which can be processed through enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The present work considers mathematical modeling of orange peel wastes (OPW) hydrolysis with the use of free enzymes and compares the performance of batch, fed-batch and continuous well-mixed reactors after introducing appropriate rate equations in dynamic

  4. Characterization of Volatile Compounds and Aroma Profiles of Malaysian Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Blossom and Peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mun-Wai Cheong; Xiu-Qing Loke; Shao-Quan Liu; Kiki Pramudya; Philip Curran; Bin Yu

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of the chemical compositions and sensory profiles of their peels and blossoms could lead to better understanding of two cultivars of Malaysian pomelo. This work was to determine the volatile compositions of Malaysian pomelo blossoms and peels through HS-SPME-GC\\/MS analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) approach as well as to identify their key aroma profiles by sensory evaluation.

  5. Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in ruminants can be reduced by orange peel product feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7 are threats to the safety of beef and are publically perceived as “hamburger diseases.” Fresh citrus peel and dried orange pulp are by-products from citrus juice production that have a relatively high nutritive value (high TDN). Orange peel and...

  6. Fruit composition and patterns of fruit dispersal of two Cornus spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Borowicz; A. G. Stephenson

    1985-01-01

    Fruiting phenology and pattern of fruit removal of two shrubby dogwoods were examined in relation to fruit composition. It was predicted that fruit of the species bearing high fat fruit would disappear more rapidly and fall to the ground sooner than fruit of the species bearing low fat fruit. Field observation at two sites in central Pennsylvania contradicts these predictions.

  7. The Passiflora tripartita (Banana Passion) fruit: a source of bioactive flavonoid C-glycosides isolated by HSCCC and characterized by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Bórquez, Jorge; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    The banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita Breiter, Passifloraceae) known as "tumbo" is very appreciated in tropical and subtropical countries of South America. Methanolic extracts from peel and the fruit juice of P. tripartita growing in Chile were analyzed for antioxidant capacity as well as for flavonoid and phenolic content. A chromatographic method was developed for the rapid identification of the main phenolics in the samples by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. The fast fingerprint analysis allowed the detection of eighteen flavonoid C-glycosides and four flavonoid O-glycoside derivatives which were characterized by UV spectra and ESI-MS-MS analysis. Several of the C-glycosides detected are structurally related to the orientin derivative 4'-methoxy-luteolin-8-C-(6"acetyl)-b-D-glucopyranoside (31), fully elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant derivative 31 along with schaftoside, vicenin II, orientin and vitexin were isolated from the fruit extract by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). A suitable method for the preparative isolation of flavonol C-glycosides from "tumbo" extracts by HSCCC is reported. The pulp of the fruits showed good antioxidant capacity (12.89 ± 0.02 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). The peel presented the highest content of flavonoids (56.03 ± 4.34 mg quercetin/100 g dry weight) which is related to the highest antioxidant power (10.41 ± 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). PMID:23358325

  8. Analysis of interfacial peeling in IC chip pick-up process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo; Huang, YongAn; Yin, ZhouPing; Xiong, YouLun

    2011-10-01

    The IC chip-ejecting and pick-up process plays a critical role in advanced packages since the success ratio and productivity are determined by the delamination of the chip-on-substrate structure. The paper investigates analytically the interfacial peeling mechanism of a chip-on-substrate structure subjected to a transverse concentrated load resulting from ejecting needle from the fracture mechanics point of view. The effects of key factors, including chip size, initial crack length, and substrate material, are uncovered. Finite element calculations are performed to obtain the interfacial peeling energy-release rate by using virtual crack-closure technique with dummy nodes. Analytical formulas and numerical results match fairly well for the entire range of the chip length and the crack length. It is shown that the greater the ratio of length to thickness of the chip is, the smaller the energy-release rate is, and length is the more important factor than thickness to affect the peeling. It implies the interfacial peeling gets tougher for thin or big chips during the pick-up process. Second, as the crack grows, the peeling energy-release rate increases. Third, the softer the substrate is, the greater the peeling energy-release rate is under the action of a constant transverse load. For the pick-up of thin or big chips, in order to achieve high success rate and suppress damage to the chip, it is suggested that more compliant and thinner substrate be adopted, weaker adhesive strength be chosen, and multiple needles be used.

  9. An analysis of the 180{degree} peel test for measuring sealant adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, N.E.; Wightman, J.P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Sealant adhesion to different substrates is often assessed by using a 180{degree} peel test. It is known that the peel force is a function of the viscoelastic response of the adhesive joint coupled with the intrinsic strength of the interphase. Measurement of the fracture energy as a function of straining rate can yield material properties by separating the bulk effects from the interphase strength. The results of this study highlight some important deficiencies of the ASTM peel test method. In particular, the fracture energy of a silicone sealant to glass and aluminum was measured at different rates, peel thicknesses and sealant moduli using the 180 peel test. It was determined that the sealant failed cohesively when tested on glass. For instances of cohesive failure, a plot of fracture energy vs. strain rate fit a power law model. The rate dependence of the fracture energy was shown to be proportional to the amount of uncrosslinked polymer in the sealant and this suggested an increase in dissipation. It was further shown that as the modulus of the sealant decreases the fracture energy increases. However, at low strain rates, the trend reverses and the high modulus sealant has better adhesion to glass than some of the low modulus sealants. Tests on specimens with aluminum substrates failed in accordance with specific test conditions: adhesive failure was more likely to occur when the strained thickness was small: when the strain rates were slow; or when the modulus was high. This study clearly demonstrated that peel testing at one rate and thickness can not adequately compare one sealant to another.

  10. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific...generally recognized as safe in food or covered by prior sanctions...of C11 -C486315 straight chain randomly substituted...

  11. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific...generally recognized as safe in food or covered by prior sanctions...of C11 -C486315 straight chain randomly substituted...

  12. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific...generally recognized as safe in food or covered by prior sanctions...of C11 -C486315 straight chain randomly substituted...

  13. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific...generally recognized as safe in food or covered by prior sanctions...of C11 -C486315 straight chain randomly substituted...

  14. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific...generally recognized as safe in food or covered by prior sanctions...of C11 -C486315 straight chain randomly substituted...

  15. Adhesion of thermally sprayed hydroxyapatite-bond-coat systems measured by a novel peel test.

    PubMed

    Kurzweg, H; Heimann, R B; Troczynski, T

    1998-01-01

    Ti6Al4V foils, 100 microm thick, were coated with thin (10-15 microm) bond coats based on titania and zirconia, and subsequently coated with a thick (100-120 microm) hydroxyapatite layer, using atmospheric plasma spraying. Peel adhesion tests of the coating systems performed on the foils showed that titania, and mixed titania/non-stabilized zirconia bond coats improved the adhesion of the ceramic layers to the metallic substrate in a statistically significant way, while a partially CaO-stabilized zirconia bond coat led to a decrease of the peel adhesion strength when compared to hydroxyapatite coatings without a bond coat. PMID:15348696

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of naringin from the peel of Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Giannuzzo, Amelia N; Boggetti, Héctor J; Nazareno, Mónica A; Mishima, Horacio T

    2003-01-01

    The highest yield (14.4 g/kg) of naringin, the major flavonoid from the peel of Citrus paradisi L., that could be achieved by supercritical fluid extraction was obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with 15% ethanol and fresh (rather than dried) peels at 95 bar and 58.6 degrees C. This yield is higher than that attained by the conventional technique of maceration, and close to those obtained by reflux and Soxhlet methods. Furthermore, supercritical fluid extraction consumes less solvent and provides a shorter extraction time than conventional extraction methods. PMID:12892417

  17. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Lemon Peels

    PubMed Central

    Guolin, Huang; Jeffrey, Shi; Kai, Zhang; Xiaolan, Huang

    2012-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from lemon peels by using ionic liquid as alternative solvent was investigated. The extracted pectin was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectra. The extraction conditions were optimized through the different experiments in conjunction with the response surface methodology. A pectin yield of 24.68 % was obtained under the optimal parameters: the extraction temperature of 88°C, the extraction time of 9.6?min, and a liquid-solid ratio of 22.7?ml · g?1. The structure of the pretreated lemon peel samples and the samples after microwave-assisted extraction were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope. PMID:22567554

  18. Use of starch and potato peel waste for perchlorate bioreduction in water.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Benedict C; Frankenberger, William T

    2005-07-15

    The cost of carbon substrates for microbial reduction of perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is central to the success and competitiveness of a sustainable bioremediation strategy for ClO(4)(-). This study explored the potential application of starch in combination with an amylolytic bacterial consortia and potato peel waste for ClO(4)(-) bioreduction. We obtained a potent amylolytic bacterial consortium that consisted of a Citrobacter sp. S4, Streptomyces sp. S2, Flavobacterium sp. S6, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. S5, Streptomyces sp. S7, and an Aeromonas sp. S8 identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. ClO(4)(-) concentration substantially decreased in purified starch medium inoculated with the amylolytic bacterial consortium and Dechlorosoma sp. perclace. Potato peel waste supported ClO(4)(-) reduction by perclace with the rate of ClO(4)(-) reduction being dependent on the amount of potato peels. Over 90% ClO(4)(-) removal was achieved in 4 days in a single time point experiment with 2% (w/v) potato peels waste. ClO(4)(-) reduction in a non-sterile 0.5% potato peel media inoculated with perclace occurred with an initial concentration of 10.14+/-0.04 mg L(-1) to 2.87+/-0.4 mg L(-1) (71.7% reduction) within 5 days. ClO(4)(-) was not detected in the cultures in 6 days. In a non-sterile 0.5% potato media without perclace, ClO(4)(-) depletion occurred slowly from an initial value of 9.99+/-0.15 mg L(-1) to 6.33+/-0.43 mg L(-1) (36.63% reduction) in 5 days. Thereafter, ClO(4)(-) was rapidly degraded achieving 77.1% reduction in 7 days and not detected in 9 days. No susbstantial reduction of ClO(4)(-) was observed in the sterile potato peel media without perclace in 7 days. Redox potential of the potato peel cultures was favorable for ClO(4)(-) reduction, decreasing to as low as -294 mV in 24 h. Sugar levels remained very low in cultures effectively reducing ClO(4)(-) and was substantially higher in sterilized controls. Our results indicate that potato peel waste in combination with amylolytic microorganisms and Dechlorosoma sp. perclace can be economically used to achieve complete ClO(4)(-) removal from water. PMID:16084965

  19. Effect of chemical peeling on the processing quality of long-green mild chile (Capasicum annuum) 

    E-print Network

    Tillman, Richard Erland

    1980-01-01

    emeroed from the other end of the drum. The skins of the roasted peppers were then squeezed off and the core and seed pulled out by hand. Sitting (1937) continued by stating this method results in a 40% or more waste in peel and core. He also mentioned...EFFECT OF CHEMICAL PEELING ON THE PROCESSING QUALITY OF LONG-GREEN MILD CHILE (CAPAS ICUM ANNUUM) A Thesis by RICHARD ERLAND TILLMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AfM University 1n Partial fulf1llment of the requirement...

  20. Endoilluminator phototoxic maculopathy associated with combined ICG-assisted epiretinal membrane and internal limiting membrane peeling

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Abbey, Ashkan M; Shah, Ankoor R; Thomas, Benjamin J; Capone, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Phototoxic maculopathy caused by endoillumination during macular surgery is uncommon. Previously identified risk factors have included intensity of the light source, proximity to the retinal surface, and length of exposure. In the era of indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, the use of ICG, and the technique of ILM peeling may both contribute to subsequent phototoxic maculopathy. We present cases of routine chromovitrectomy who developed phototoxic maculopathy in the precise discrete distribution of the ILM rhexes, and discuss potential mechanisms and implications. PMID:25525328

  1. Tomato allergy: detection of IgE-binding lipid transfer proteins in tomato derivatives and in fresh tomato peel, pulp, and seeds.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Valerio; Primavesi, Laura; Farioli, Laura; Brenna, Oreste V; Pompei, Carlo; Conti, Amedeo; Scibilia, Joseph; Piantanida, Marta; Mascheri, Ambra; Pastorello, Elide A

    2009-11-25

    There is an increasing consumption of tomatoes worldwide: fresh in salads, cooked in household sauces, or industrially processed. Although many tomato allergens have been identified, there is no information in the literature on the allergenic components found in commercial tomato products. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the allergenic profile of commercial tomato products by skin prick tests (SPTs) and IgE/immunoblotting in tomato-allergic subjects. The secondary end point was the study of the IgE-binding profile of tomato peel, pulp, and seeds. Forty tomato-allergic patients, reporting oral allergy syndrome (OAS) at different grades of severity for fresh and, in some cases, also for cooked tomato, were selected on the basis of positive tomato allergy history or open food challenge (OFC). They were evaluated by SPTs with different experimental tomato extracts. SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting was performed to detect tomato allergens, which were then identified by Edman degradation. Twenty-three patients (57.5%) presented first-grade OAS at the OFC, whereas 17 (42.5%) reported severe symptoms. Ten of these 17 patients (25%) reported allergic reactions to cooked tomatoes; in immunoblotting tests, their sera reacted only to lipid transfer protein (LTP). In commercial products, LTP was the only detectable allergen. In contrast to other LTP-containing fruits, in tomato, an IgE-binding LTP was identified not only in the peel but also in the pulp and seeds. This study demonstrates that, in fresh tomato, different LTP isoforms are present and allergenic. Industrial tomato derivatives still contain LTP, thus presenting a problem for LTP-allergic patients. PMID:19919119

  2. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from cherimoya fruit: properties, kinetics and effects of high CO(2).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, T; Escribano, M I; Merodio, C

    2001-12-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) regulatory properties were studied in non-photosynthetic (mesocarp) and photosynthetic (peel) tissues from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) fruit stored in air, in order to gain a better understanding of in vivo enzyme regulation. Analyses were also performed with fruit treated with 20% CO(2)-20% O(2) to define the role of PEPC as part of an adaptive mechanism to high external carbon dioxide levels. The results revealed that the special kinetic characteristics of the enzyme from mesocarp--high V(max) and low sensibility to L-malate inhibition - are related to the active acid metabolism of these fruits and point to a high rate of reassimilation of respired CO(2) into keto-acids. With respect to fruit stored in air, PEPC in crude extracts from CO(2)-treated cherimoyas gave a similar V(max) (1.12+/-0.03 microkat x mg(-1) protein), a lower apparent K(m) (68+/-9 microM for PEP) and a higher I(50) of L-malate (5.95+/-0.3 mM). These kinetic values showed the increase in the affinity of this enzyme toward one of its substrate, PEP, by elevated external CO(2) concentrations. The lower K(m) value and lower sensitivity to L-malate are consistent with higher in vivo carboxylation reaction efficiency in CO(2)-treated cherimoyas, while pointing to an additional enzyme regulation system via CO(2). PMID:11730863

  3. Therapeutic and nutraceutical potential of bioactive compounds extracted from fruit residues.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research in identifying new low-cost antioxidants having commercial potential. Fruits such as mango, banana, and those belonging to the citrus family leave behind a substantial amount of residues in the form of peels, pulp, seeds, and stones. Due to lack of infrastructure to handle a huge quantity of available biomass, lack of processing facilities, and high processing cost, these residues represent a major disposal problem, especially in developing countries. Because of the presence of phenolic compounds, which impart nutraceutical properties to fruit residues, such residues hold tremendous potential in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The biological properties such as anticarcinogenicity, antimutagenicity, antiallergenicity, and antiageing activity have been reported for both natural as well as synthetic antioxidants. Special attention is focused on extraction of bioactive compounds from inexpensive or residual sources. The purpose of this review is to characterize different phenolics present in the fruit residues, discuss the antioxidant potential of such residues and the assays used in determination of antioxidant properties, discuss various methods for efficient extraction of the bioactive compounds, and highlight the importance of fruit residues as potential nutraceutical resources and biopreservatives. PMID:24915390

  4. Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arshi Malik; Farrukh Afaq; Sami Sarfaraz; Vaqar M. Adhami; Deeba N. Syed; Hasan Mukhtar

    2005-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among U.S. males, with a similar trend in many Western countries. One approach to control this malignancy is its prevention through the use of agents present in diet consumed by humans. Pomegranate from the tree Punica granatum possesses strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. We

  5. Improvement of flavor and viscosity in hot and cold break tomato juice and sauce by peel removal.

    PubMed

    Mirondo, Rita; Barringer, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are typically not peeled before being made into juice but the peels contain enzymes that affect the odor, flavor, and viscosity of the juice. The peels are removed in the finisher, but their presence during the break process may affect quality. Juice was processed from peeled and unpeeled tomatoes using hot or cold break. The juices were pasteurized by high temperature short time (HTST), low temperature long time (LTLT), or with a retort. The control samples were treated with 10% calcium chloride to stop enzymatic activity in the juice. Sauce was made from juice and the tomato products were analyzed for volatiles, color, viscosity, and by sensory. Cold break juice made with peel contained higher levels of some lipoxygenase-, carotenoid-, and amino acid-derived volatiles, than the juice made without peel. Because of the lack of enzyme activity, hot break juices had lower levels of these volatiles and there was no significant difference between hot break juices made with and without peel. CaCl2 -treated and HTST juice had higher levels of most of the volatiles than LTLT, including the lipoxygenase-derived volatiles. The presence of peel produced a significant decrease in the viscosity of the cold break juice and sauce. There was no significant difference in the hue angle, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and vitamin C for most of the treatments. The texture, flavor, and overall liking of cold break juice made without peel were preferred over cold break juice made with peel whereas the color was less preferred. Between the sauces no significant differences in preference were obtained. PMID:25603846

  6. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits UVB-induced inflammation and proliferation by modulating NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways in mouse skin†

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N.; Pal, Harish Chandra; Mukhtar, Hasan; Afaq, Farrukh

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the identification of natural agents capable of affording protection to skin from the adverse effects of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) fruit possess strong anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Recently, we have shown that oral feeding of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) to mice afforded substantial protection from the adverse effects of single UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the photochemopreventive effects of PFE (0.2%, w/v) after multiple UVB irradiations (180 mJ/cm2; on alternative day; for a total of seven treatments) to the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice. Oral feeding of PFE to SKH-1 mice inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration of leukocytes, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that oral feeding of PFE to mice inhibited UVB-induced (i) nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of NF-?B/p65, (ii) phosphorylation and degradation of I?B?, (iii) activation of IKK?/IKK?, and (iv) phosphorylation of MAPK proteins and c-Jun. PFE consumption also inhibited UVB-induced protein expression of (i) COX-2 and iNOS, (ii) PCNA and cyclin D1, and (iii) matrix metalloproteinases-2,-3 and -9 in mouse skin. Taken together, these data show that PFE consumption afforded protection to mouse skin against the adverse effects of UVB radiation by modulating UVB-induced signaling pathways. PMID:22181855

  7. Microbial safety of tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Strawn, Laura K; Schneider, Keith R; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2011-02-01

    There are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. Tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. Tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. Documented outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tropical fruits have occurred. Norovirus and Salmonella are the leading viral and bacterial pathogens, respectively, documented to have caused outbreaks of infections associated with consumption of tropical fruits. Sources of contamination of tropical fruit have been identified in the production environment and postharvest handling, primarily related to sanitation issues. Limited data exist on the specific route of transmission from these sources. Research on the microbial safety of tropical fruits is minimal; with the growing market for tropical fruit expected to increase by 33% in 2010 this research area needs to be addressed. The aim of this review is to discuss the foodborne pathogen outbreaks associated tropical fruit consumption, research previously completed on pathogen behavior on tropical fruits, preventive strategies for pathogen contamination, and research needs. PMID:21328109

  8. The Effect of Two Methods of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) Juice Extraction on Quality During Storage at 4°C

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Dulce

    2004-01-01

    The effect of two extraction methods of pomegranate juice on its quality and stability was evaluated. The first method consisted of separation of the seeds from fruits and centrifugation. The second method consisted of squeezing fruit halves with an electric lemon squeezer. During a period of 72 hours of cold storage at 4°C, the juices were evaluated for the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins. Delphinidin 3-glucoside was identified to be the major anthocyanin present at the level of 45–69?mg/L. Among the organic acids, oxalic and tartaric acids dominated. The major sugars detected in pomegranate juice were glucose and sucrose. No significant differences in the content of sugars, organic acids, or anthocyanins in juices obtained through application of the two different extraction methods were detected, with the exception of the drastic decrease of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside level in juice obtained by seed centrifugation. The pH did not show differences between treatments. Titrable acidity and the level of sugars expressed as °Brix decreased after 32 and 15 hours after extraction, respectively, when juice was obtained by centrifuging the seeds. PMID:15577198

  9. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. PMID:24001814

  10. Cloud stabilizing properties of pectin from pomelo peel in carrot juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phanuphong Phuangsinoun; Sudarat Harnkham; Prasong Siriwongwilaichat

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for stabilizing clouding in carrot juice by using pectin extracted from pomelo peel. Six commercial pectins including CU 701, CU020, CU 501, CU 201, AYD and CJ 201 were used for comparison. The properties of carrot juice were measured for O.D., sedimentation, viscosity and sensory test. It was found that

  11. In situ scanning electron microscope peeling to quantify surface energy between multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene.

    PubMed

    Roenbeck, Michael R; Wei, Xiaoding; Beese, Allison M; Naraghi, Mohammad; Furmanchuk, Al'ona; Paci, Jeffrey T; Schatz, George C; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2014-01-28

    Understanding atomic interactions between constituents is critical to the design of high-performance nanocomposites. Here, we report an experimental-computational approach to investigate the adhesion energy between as-produced arc discharge multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene. An in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) experiment is used to peel MWCNTs from graphene grown on copper foils. The force during peeling is obtained by monitoring the deflection of a cantilever. Finite element and molecular mechanics simulations are performed to assist the data analysis and interpretation of the results. A finite element analysis of the experimental configuration is employed to confirm the applicability of Kendall's peeling model to obtain the adhesion energy. Molecular mechanics simulations are used to estimate the effective contact width at the MWCNT-graphene interface. The measured surface energy is ? = 0.20 ± 0.09 J·m(-2) or ? = 0.36 ± 0.16 J·m(-2), depending on the assumed conformation of the tube cross section during peeling. The scatter in the data is believed to result from an amorphous carbon coating on the MWCNTs, observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the surface roughness of graphene as characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). PMID:24341540

  12. One-dimensional tomography - A comparison of Abel, onion-peeling, and filtered backprojection methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron J. Dasch

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the Abel inversion, onion-peeling, and filtered backprojection methods can be intercompared without assumptions about the object being deconvolved. If the projection data are taken at equally spaced radial positions, the deconvolved field is given by weighted sums of the projections divided by the data spacing. The weighting factors are independent of the data spacing. All the

  13. A composite time integration scheme for dynamic adhesion and its application to gecko spatula peeling

    E-print Network

    A composite time integration scheme for dynamic adhesion and its application to gecko spatula of the peeling of a gecko spatula from a rigid substrate it is shown that the proposed scheme and the Bathe- ing; gecko adhesion. 1 Introduction The focus of the current work is on modeling and simulation

  14. Chemical optimization of protein extraction from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) have been shown to possess antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties. The objective of this study was to chemically optimize a process for extracting proteins from sweet potato peel. The extraction procedure involved mixing pe...

  15. Studies on mould growth and biomass production using waste banana peel.

    PubMed

    Essien, J P; Akpan, E J; Essien, E P

    2005-09-01

    Hyphomycetous (Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phycomycetous (Mucor hiemalis) moulds were cultivated in vitro at room temperature (28 + 20 degrees C) to examined their growth and biomass production on waste banana peel agar (BPA) and broth (BPB) using commercial malt extract agar (MEA) and broth (MEB) as control. The moulds grew comparatively well on banana peel substrates. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in radial growth rates was observed between moulds cultivated on PBA and MEA, although growth rates on MEA were slightly better. Slight variations in sizes of asexual spores and reproductive hyphae were also observed between moulds grown on MEA and BPA. Smaller conidia and sporangiospores, and shorter aerial hyphae (conidiophores and sporangiophores) were noticed in moulds grown on BPA than on MEA. The biomass weight of the test moulds obtained after one month of incubation with BPB were only about 1.8 mg and 1.4 mg less than values recorded for A. fumigatus and M. hiemalis respectively, grown on MEB. The impressive performance of the moulds on banana peel substrate may be attributed to the rich nutrient (particularly the crude protein 7.8% and crude fat 11.6% contents) composition of banana peels. The value of this agricultural waste can therefore be increased by its use not only in the manufacture of mycological medium but also in the production of valuable microfungal biomass which is rich in protein and fatty acids. PMID:15939272

  16. Economic Valuation of Fortified Cassava Peels for Goat Feeding in South-western, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The

  17. Evaluation of yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) grown on cotton waste and cassava peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grillo Joseph Adebayo; Banjo Nusirat Omolara; Abikoye Elizabeth Toyin

    2009-01-01

    This work evaluated the yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius on different mixtures of cotton waste and cassava peel. P. pulmonarius demonstrated significantly higher colonization rate on cotton waste substrate (100 g cotton waste) 3 weeks after inoculation of spawn than any other substrate mixtures. Cotton waste had the shortest time for full mycelial ramification (3 weeks) and mushroom primodial appearance (3

  18. REMOVAL OF ACID DYES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING ORANGE PEEL AS A SORBENT MATERIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Benaïssa

    2005-01-01

    An agricultural by-product waste: orange peel was tested for the removal of four acid dyes from aqueous solutions in batch conditions. As results obtained, kinetics of dyes sorption was time of contact, initial dyes concentration and dyes type dependent. The pseudo second-order reaction rate model adequately described the kinetics of dyes sorption with high correlation coefficients. Langmuir model gave a

  19. Kinetics studies on ethanol production from banana peel waste using mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Manikandan; V Saravanan; T Viruthagiri

    Five different mutant strains were developed from the wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC No.287) using UV irradiation technique by varying the exposure timings. All the mutant cultures were used for ethanol production using banana peel as a substrate in a batch fermenter. The effect of temperature, pH and initial substrate concentration on ethanol production were studied and optimized. The

  20. Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harinder Singh Oberoi; Praveen V. Vadlani; Lavudi Saida; Sunil Bansal; Joshua D. Hughes

    2011-01-01

    Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.92 for ethanol

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel.

    PubMed

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bennett, Richard N; Kirby, Andrew R; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Waldron, Keith W; Faulds, Craig B

    2006-10-18

    Pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzymes (Pectinase 62L, Pectinase 690L, and Cellulase CO13P) were used to evaluate the solubilization of carbohydrates and low molecular weight flavonoids from bergamot peel, a major byproduct of the essential oil industry. The enzymes were characterized for main-chain and side-chain polysaccharide hydrolyzing activities and also against pure samples of various flavonoids previously identified in bergamot peel to determine various glycosidase activities. The addition of Pectinase 62L or 690L alone, or the combination of Pectinase 62L and Cellulase CO13P, was capable of solubilizing between 70 and 80% of the bergamot peel, and up to 90% of the flavonoid glycosides present were cleaved to their aglycones. Cellulase CO13P alone solubilized 62% of the peel but had no deglycosylating effect on the flavonoid glycosides. Over a 24-h time course, a rapid release of cell wall carbohydrates was observed after treatment with Pectinase 62L, with a concurrent gradual hydrolysis of the flavonoid glycosides. Size-exclusion chromatography of the solubilized extract showed that after 24-h incubation, the majority of the solubilized carbohydrates were present as monosaccharides with a smaller proportion of oligosaccharides. PMID:17032044

  2. Repeated salicylic acid peels for the treatment of hyperplastic sebaceous glands in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Sgontzou, Themis; Armyra, Kalliopi; Kouris, Anargyros; Bokotas, Charalampos; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2014-12-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Hypertrophic sebaceous glands (HSGs) are rarely present but they cause an aesthetic problem. We report a case of a patient suffering from hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, treated with salicylic acid peels for the hyperplastic sebaceous glands. PMID:25065417

  3. Phenolics of pomegranate peels: extraction optimization by central composite design and alpha glucosidase inhibition potentials.

    PubMed

    Çam, Mustafa; ?çyer, Necattin Cihat

    2015-03-01

    Optimum water extraction conditions for phenolics of pomegranate peels were investigated by fractional factorial and face-centered central composite designs. Five potential factors were selected for the fractional factorial design: extraction technique, extraction temperature, extraction time, particle size and solvent to solid ratio. After eliminating statistically unimportant factors, a face-centered central composite design was set up with two controllable factors and with two responses: total phenolics and ?-glucosidase inhibition activity. Optimum conditions were found as 100 °C for extraction temperature and 1 min for extraction time. There were no statistically significant differences (p?>?0.05) between water extracts at optimized conditions and classical methanol extracts. Total phenolic content by HPLC was192.0 mg/g of pomegranate peels on dry matter basis. Phenolics of pomegranate peels showed ?-glucosidase inhibition activity with an IC50 (concentration of phenolics required to inhibit 50 % of the enzyme activity) value of 5.56?±?2.23 ?g/ml. Pomegranate peel phenolics with its antioxidant and ?-glucosidase inhibition properties might be a suitable ingredient for functional food applications. PMID:25745217

  4. Information System: Analysis for the Peel Board of Education. Volume I: Description. Volume II: Technical Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padro, Susan

    Interviews with central office superintendents in the academic and business divisions, identification of user needs, and analysis of major management levels provided the data for designing an integrated information system for the Peel Board of Education in Ontario. A synthesis of the data into an overall framework representing the information…

  5. An Assessment of Adolescent Comprehension of Some Geographical Concepts Using Peel's Theoretical Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghuman, Paul A. S.; Davis, R.

    1981-01-01

    This inquiry had two aims: to assess children's ability to interpret maps in geography; to relate the assessed ability to maturity of thought as proposed by Peel, general intelligence, and age. It was found that performance on four tests depended more on intelligence than on maturity of thought or age. (Author/SJL)

  6. Inhibitory effect on foodborne pathogens by native microflora associated with fresh peeled baby carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inhibitory effect of fresh peeled baby carrot and associated microflora on the viability and growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas marginalis in vitro and in situ was investigated. The population of viable L. mo...

  7. Lemon peels mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antidermatophytic activity.

    PubMed

    Najimu Nisha, S; Aysha, O S; Syed Nasar Rahaman, J; Vinoth Kumar, P; Valli, S; Nirmala, P; Reena, A

    2014-04-24

    There is an increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various areas. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this work, The extract of lemon peel was prepared and mixed with 1 mM AgNO3 solution .The bioreduction of Ag(+) ion in solution was monitored using UV-visible spectrometer, FESEM and EDAX analysis. Skin scales were collected from patients with suspected dermatophytosis and the dermatophytes were isolated and identified. The AgNPs produced from lemon peels showed good activity against the isolated dermatophytes. The present research work emphasizes the use of lemon peels for the effective synthesize of AgNPs and could be used against the dermatophytes which are found to develop drug resistant towards broad-spectrum antibiotics. The biosynthesis of AgNPs using lemon peel extract is very simple and economic. The use of environmentally benign and renewable plant material offers enormous benefits of eco-friendliness. PMID:24486863

  8. Evaluation of Processed Cassava Peel Meals as Substitutes for Maize in the Diets of Layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    The response of Isa Brown layers during 56 to 72 weeks of age to cassava peel meal (CPM) processed by different methods i.e. ensiling (ECPM), parboiling (PCPM), retting (RCPM) and sun-drying alone (SCPM) as substitutes for maize was investigated. The control diet (CD) contained 40% maize and each of ECPM, PCPM, RCPM and SCPM were used to substitute 50, 75

  9. Energy performance analysis of Region of Peel Headquarters Building as a sustainable building using the \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afzal Siraj Siddique

    2008-01-01

    The principles of building energy simulation and its relationship with heating and cooling energy calculation help to make an integrated evaluation of building energy consumption. This is used to achieve a better and more energy efficient building. The sensitivity analysis of energy efficient HVAC design was used to create an energy efficient Peel Region Headquarters Building. An energy audit was

  10. Sorption of basic dye from aqueous solution by pomelo ( Citrus grandis) peel in a batch system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Hameed; D. K. Mahmoud; A. L. Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    A new, low-cost, locally available sorbent, pomelo (Citrus grandis) peel (PP), was tested for its ability to remove basic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous on PP were studied in a batch process. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models. Sorption equilibrium studies demonstrated

  11. Y-peel characterization of adhesively-bonded carton board: an objective method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Korin; Magnus Lestelius; Johan Tryding; Nils Hallbäck

    2007-01-01

    Carton board packages are often closed with an adhesive. The adhesive joint thus formed has to meet the demands during the entire product life from converting to end-use. The adhesive joint has to be characterized if it is good or bad for the actual application. Today such characterization is done by manually peeling the joint, immediately after the adhesive application

  12. Annealing History Dependence of Young's Modulus in Thin Polymer Films Using an Axisymmetric Peel Test Apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam N. Raegen; Kari Dalnoki-Veress

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of chain relaxation in thin spincast films above the glass transition temperature. We employ a novel axi-symmetric peel test, which uses the deformation of a thin spincast polymer film brought into contact with a flat substrate. The use of a thin membrane minimises uncertainty in the contact radius while the use of spincast films provides very

  13. A Convex Hull Peeling Depth Approach to Nonparametric Massive Multivariate Data

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    center (median) by the Convex Hull Peeling Process. Barnett (1976): Ordering based on Depth ^pth quantiles are 1 - ^pth CHPDs. Hyper-polygons of 1 - ^pth depth obtainable from any dimensional data. QHULL robustness of this estimator later) pth Quantile: Level set whose central region contains 100p% data (will

  14. Ripening, storage temperature, ethylene action, and oxidative stress alter apple peel phytosterol metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chilling conditions of apple cold storage can provoke an economically significant necrotic peel disorder called superficial scald (scald) in susceptible cultivars. Disorder development can be reduced by inhibiting ethylene action or oxidative stress. We found previously that scald is preceded b...

  15. Robust Soft Shadow Mapping with Depth Peeling Louis Bavoil, Steven P. Callahan, Claudio T. Silva

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    for all scenes. First, parameter tuning is required to avoid surface acne. Second, gaps between shadow map algorithm, that uses depth peeling to address the problems of surface acne and light bleeding. Our algorithm for all scenes. First, parameter tuning is required to avoid surface acne. Second, gaps between shadow map

  16. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols (flavanone glycosides) from orange ( Citrus sinensis L.) peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Kamran Khan; Maryline Abert-Vian; Anne-Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier; Olivier Dangles; Farid Chemat

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of polyphenols especially flavanones from orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel by using ethanol as a food grade solvent. After a preliminary study showing that the best yield of extraction was reached for a particle size of 2cm2, a response surface methodology (RSM) was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the

  17. PUBLISHED VERSION Destabilization of low-n peeling modes by trapped energetic particles

    E-print Network

    PUBLISHED VERSION Destabilization of low-n peeling modes by trapped energetic particles G. Z. Hao/v20/i6 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Phys. Plasmas Journal May 2013; published online 18 June 2013) The kinetic effect of trapped energetic particles (EPs

  18. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Oboh; A. O. Ademosun

    This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics\\u000a were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had

  19. Dynamic response of adhesively bonded single-lap joints with a void subjected to harmonic peeling

    E-print Network

    Vaziri, Ashkan

    Dynamic response of adhesively bonded single-lap joints with a void subjected to harmonic peeling is evaluated. The bonded joint is modelled as a Euler­Bernoulli beam joined with an adhesive and constrained overall length of the bonded joint t adhesive thickness w width of the beams yi transverse displacement

  20. Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

  1. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.

    PubMed

    Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

    2013-03-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  2. Genetic analysis of metabolites in apple fruits indicates an mQTL hotspot for phenolic compounds on linkage group 16

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sabaz Ali; Chibon, Pierre-Yves; de Vos, Ric C.H.; Schipper, Bert A.; Walraven, Evert; Beekwilder, Jules; van Dijk, Thijs; Finkers, Richard; Visser, Richard G.F.; van de Weg, Eric W.; Bovy, Arnaud; Cestaro, Alessandro; Velasco, Riccardo; Jacobsen, Evert; Schouten, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) is among the main sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet. The genetic basis of the quantitative variations of these potentially beneficial phenolic compounds was investigated. A segregating F1 population was used to map metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). Untargeted metabolic profiling of peel and flesh tissues of ripe fruits was performed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS), resulting in the detection of 418 metabolites in peel and 254 in flesh. In mQTL mapping using MetaNetwork, 669 significant mQTLs were detected: 488 in the peel and 181 in the flesh. Four linkage groups (LGs), LG1, LG8, LG13, and LG16, were found to contain mQTL hotspots, mainly regulating metabolites that belong to the phenylpropanoid pathway. The genetics of annotated metabolites was studied in more detail using MapQTL®. A number of quercetin conjugates had mQTLs on LG1 or LG13. The most important mQTL hotspot with the largest number of metabolites was detected on LG16: mQTLs for 33 peel-related and 17 flesh-related phenolic compounds. Structural genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway were located, using the apple genome sequence. The structural gene leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1) was in the mQTL hotspot on LG16, as were seven transcription factor genes. The authors believe that this is the first time that a QTL analysis was performed on such a high number of metabolites in an outbreeding plant species. PMID:22330898

  3. Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon 

    E-print Network

    Isakeit, Thomas

    1999-06-28

    Bacterial fruit blotch is a disease occurring sporadically in almost all areas of Texas where watermelons are grown. This publication discusses symptoms, diagnosis and disease development and management....

  4. QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALLOONING MODES

    SciTech Connect

    LAO, LL; SNYDER, PB; LEONARD, AW; OSBORNE, TH; PETRIE, TW; FERRON, JR; GROEBNER, RJ; HORTON, LD; KAMADA, Y; MURAKAMI, M; OIKAWA, T; PEARLSTEIN, LD; SAARELMA, S; STJOHN, HE; THOMAS, DM; TURNBULL, AD; WILSON, HR

    2002-07-01

    OAK A271 QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALLOONING MODES. Two of the major issues crucial for the design of the next generation tokamak burning plasma devices are the predictability of the edge pedestal height and control of the divertor heat load in H-mode configurations. Both of these are strongly impacted by edge localized modes (ELMs) and their size. A working model for ELMs is that they are intermediate toroidal mode number, n {approx} 5-30, peeling-ballooning modes driven by the large edge pedestal pressure gradient P{prime} and the associated large edge bootstrap current density J{sub BS}. the interplay between P{prime} and J{sub BS} as a discharge evolves can excite peeling-ballooning modes over a wide spectrum of n. The pedestal current density plays a dual role by stabilizing the high n ballooning modes via opening access to second stability but providing free energy to drive the intermediate n peeling modes. This makes a systematic evaluation of this model particularly challenging. This paper describes recent quantitative tests of this model using experimental data from the DIII-D and the JT-60U tokamaks. These tests are made possible by recent improvements to the ELITE MHD stability code, which allow an efficient evaluation of the unstable peeling-ballooning modes, as well as by improvements to other diagnostic and analysis techniques. Some of the key testable features of this model are: (1) ELMs are triggered when the growth rates of intermediate n MHD modes become significantly large; (2) ELM sizes are related to the radial widths of the unstable modes; (3) the unstable modes have a strong ballooning character localized in the outboard bad curvature region; (4) at high collisionality, ELM size generally becomes smaller because J{sub BS} is reduced.

  5. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the following kinds...

  6. 69 FR 4845 - Cold Treatment of Fruits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-02-02

    ...regulations for importing fruits and vegetables to provide that inspectors...regulations for importing fruits and vegetables to provide that inspectors...import requests for fresh fruits and vegetables from disease and pest-infested...

  7. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-08-27

    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. PMID:22807397

  8. Structures of Chlorophyll Catabolites in Bananas (Musa acuminata) Reveal a Split Path of Chlorophyll Breakdown in a Ripening Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. PMID:22807397

  9. Autoinhibition of Ethylene Production in Citrus Peel Discs 1

    PubMed Central

    Riov, Joseph; Yang, Shang Fa

    1982-01-01

    Wound ethylene formation induced in flavede tissue of citrus fruit (Citrus paradisi MacFad. cv. Ruby Red) by slicing was almost completely inhibited by exogenous ethylene. The inhibition lasted for at least 6 hours after removal of exogenous ethylene and was then gradually relieved. The extent of inhibition was dependent upon the concentration of ethylene (1 to 10 microliters/liter) and the duration of treatment. The increase in wound ethylene production in control discs was paralleled by an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (AAC) content, whereas in ethylene-treated discs there was little increase in ACC content. Application of ACC completely restored ethylene production in ethylene-pretreated discs, indicating that the conversion of ACC to ethylene is not impaired by the presence of ethylene. Thus, autoinhibition of ethylene synthesis was exerted by reducing the availability of ACC. Ethylene treatment resulted in a decrease in extractable ACC synthase activity, but this decrease was too small to account for the marked inhibition of ACC formation. The data indicate that autoinhibition of ethylene production in citrus flavede discs results from suppression of ACC formation through repression of the synthesis of ACC synthase and inhibition of its activity. PMID:16662276

  10. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

  11. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  12. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Carle, Reinhold; Astudillo, Luis; Guzmán, Luis; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9 ± 0.8, 33.3 ± 00.5, and 17.6 ± 0.9?mg GAE/100?g, respectively (P < 0.05). Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9 ± 0.9??mol Fe+2/g, P < 0.05) and the DPPH assays (97.4 ± 0.2%, 1000??g/mL, P < 0.05). Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities. PMID:23476707

  13. Phenological variation in fruit characteristics in vertebrate-dispersed plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ove Eriksson; Johan Ehrlén

    1991-01-01

    We investigated inter-specific variation in fruit characteristics — fruit size, seed number per fruit, seed weight, nutritional content, fruit persistence, and fruit synchronization — in relation to flowering and fruiting phenology in 34 species of fleshy fruited plants. Except for aspects of fruit synchrony and persistence, the results in general were inconsistent with previous suggestions about adaptive variation in phenologically

  14. An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.

    PubMed

    Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer. PMID:22608289

  15. Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Arka; Dutta, Nalok; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

    2013-06-01

    Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries. PMID:23587821

  16. Preparation and tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene/rambutan peels (Nephelium chryseum Blum.) flour blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadhirah, A. Ainatun.; Sam, S. T.; Noriman, N. Z.; Voon, C. H.; Samera, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of rambutan peels flour (RPF) content on the tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene filled with rambutan peel flour was studied. RPF was melt blended with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE). LLDPE/RPF blends were prepared by using internal mixer (brabender) at 160 °C with the flour content ranged from 0 to 15 wt%. The tensile properties were tested by using a universal testing machine (UTM) according to ASTM D638. The highest tensile strength was observed for pure LLDPE while the tensile strength LLDPE/RPF decreased gradually with the addition of rambutan peels flour content from 0% to 15%. Young's modulus of 63 µm to 250 µm rambutan peels blends with LLDPE with the fiber loading of 0 - 15 wt% increased with increasing fiber loading.

  17. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment on Surface Characteristics and Adhesive Bond Quality of Peel Ply Prepared Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracey, Ashley C.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate if atmospheric pressure plasma treatment could modify peel ply prepared composite surfaces to create strong adhesive bonds. Two peel ply surface preparation composite systems previously shown to create weak bonds (low fracture energy and adhesion failure) that were potential candidates for plasma treatment were Toray T800/3900-2 carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) prepared with Precision Fabrics Group, Inc. (PFG) 52006 nylon peel ply and Hexcel T300/F155 CFRP prepared with PFG 60001 polyester peel ply. It was hypothesized that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment could functionalize and/or remove peel ply remnants left on the CFRP surfaces upon peel ply removal. Surface characterization measurements and double cantilever beam (DCB) testing were used to determine the effects of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on surface characteristics and bond quality of peel ply prepared CFRP composites. Previous research showed that Toray T800/3900-2 carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites prepared with PFG 52006 peel ply and bonded with Cytec MetlBond 1515-3M structural film adhesive failed in adhesion at low fracture energies when tested in the DCB configuration. Previous research also showed that DCB samples made of Hexcel T300/F155 carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites prepared with PFG 60001 peel ply and bonded with Henkel Hysol EA 9696 structural film adhesive failed in adhesion at low fracture energies. Recent research suggested that plasma treatment could be able to activate these "un-bondable" surfaces and result in good adhesive bonds. Nylon peel ply prepared 177 °C cure and polyester peel ply prepared 127 °C cure CFRP laminates were treated with atmospheric pressure plasma after peel ply removal prior to bonding. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was capable of significantly increasing fracture energies and changing failure modes. For Toray T800/3900-2 laminates prepared with PFG 52006 and bonded with MetlBond 1515-3M, plasma treatment increased fracture energies from 460 J/m 2. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment also increased fracture energies of Hexcel T300/F155 laminates prepared with PFG 60001 and bonded with EA 9696 from 1500 J/m2. It was demonstrated that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was able to transform poor bonding surfaces into acceptable ones by reversing the negative effects of incorrect peel ply usage. To determine if the primary reason for adhesion was functionalization or removal, a number of experiments were performed. Surface characteristics of peel ply only and plasma treated samples were determined using contact angle (CA) measurements, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CA was used to assess solid surface energy that was useful to determine wetting of the adhesive on the adherend, one requirement of adhesion. FTIR and XPS were used to analyze composite surface chemistry, including the identification of functional groups that were a product of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, as well as contaminants that can inhibit adhesive bonding. SEM was used to capture surface morphology to identify peel ply remnants and whether these remnants were physically removed or modified due to plasma treatment. This research supported that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment resulted in adhesion primarily due to functionalization of peel ply remnants, though a removal mechanism was not disproven. It was also shown that surface energy exhibited potential for predicting adhesion. Lastly, this research indicated that plasma treatment is a robust surface preparation, as strong bonds were observed up to 30 days after treatment.

  18. Tucumã fruit extracts (Astrocaryum aculeatum Meyer) decrease cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide on human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sagrillo, Michele Rorato; Garcia, Luiz Filipe Machado; de Souza Filho, Olmiro Cezimbra; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; Cadoná, Francine Carla; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica

    2015-04-15

    This study quantifies the bioactive molecules in and determines the in vitro protective effect of ethanolic extracts isolated from the peel and pulp of tucumã (Astrocaryum aculeatum, Mart.), an Amazonian fruit rich in carotenoids. The cytoprotective effect of tucumã was evaluated in lymphocyte cultures exposed to H2O2 using spectrophotometric, fluorimetric, and immunoassay assays. The results confirmed that tucumã pulp extract is rich in ?-carotene and quercetin, as previously described in the literature. However, high levels of these compounds were also found in tucumã peel extract. The extracts also contained significant amounts rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid. Despite quantitative differences in the concentration of these bioactive molecules, both extracts increased the viability of cells exposed to H2O2 in concentrations ranging from 300 to 900 ?g/mL. Caspases 1, 3, and 8 decreased significantly in cells concomitantly exposed to H2O2 and these extracts, indicating that tucumã cryoprotection involves apoptosis modulation. PMID:25466084

  19. Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.

    PubMed

    Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models. PMID:25101926

  20. Bioactive compounds and phenolic-linked functionality of powdered tropical fruit residues.

    PubMed

    Correia, Roberta T P; Borges, Kátia C; Medeiros, Maria F; Genovese, Maria I

    2012-12-01

    Tropical fruit residues consisting of seeds, peels and residual pulp generated as by-products of fruit processing industry were investigated for bioactive compounds, the in vitro antioxidant capacity as well as alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. Cyanidin, quercetin, ellagic acid (EA) and proanthocyanidins were found in acerola, jambolan, pitanga and cajá-umbu residue powders. Acerola powder had the highest phenolic content (8839.33?mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100?g) and also high-ascorbic acid (AA) concentration (2748.03?mg/100?g), followed by jambolan and pitanga. The greatest 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition was observed for jambolan (436.76?mmol Trolox eq/g) followed by pitanga (206.68?mmol Trolox eq/g) and acerola (192.60?mmol Trolox eq/g), while acerola had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay result (7.87?mmol Trolox eq/g). All fruit powders exhibited enzymatic inhibition against alpha-amylase (IC50 ranging from 3.40 to 49.5?mg CE/mL) and alpha-glucosidase (IC50 ranging from 1.15 to 2.37?mg CE/mL). Therefore, acerola, jambolan and pitanga dried residues are promising natural ingredients for food and nutraceutical manufacturers, due to their rich bioactive compound content. PMID:23014856