These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Effects of aqueous extracts from Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba-alba Asso leaves on ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats.  

PubMed

The gastroprotective effect of tannic acid and the aqueous extract of Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba-alba Asso leaves was investigated in the rat against ethanol-induced damage. Tannic acid, Q. ilex and P. granatum extracts gave 100% precipitation of ovine haemoglobin in vitro, whereas A. herba-alba extract was devoid of any protein-binding property. Oral administration of these plant extracts or tannic acid induced a significant decrease in gastric lesions (47.7%-76%). The observed protection was more pronounced when the test solution was given at the same time with ethanol, except for Q. ilex extract. The acid content of the stomach was significantly increased by P. granatum (368%) and A. herba-alba (251%) extracts prepared in ethanol. It is suggested that monomeric and polymeric polyphenols can strengthen the gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:10189949

Gharzouli, K; Khennouf, S; Amira, S; Gharzouli, A

1999-02-01

2

Study on wound healing activity of Punica granatum peel.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels showed the presence of a high content of phenolic compounds (44.0%) along with other constituents. This extract was formulated as a 10% (wt/wt) water-soluble gel and was studied for its wound healing property against an excision wound on the skin of Wistar rats. The activity was compared with that of a commercial topical antibacterial applicant. The wound healing activity was assessed by measuring the percent contraction in skin and estimation of collagen content in terms of hydroxyproline content. Healed skin was also subjected to histopathological studies to examine the microscopic changes. The animals treated with 2.5% gel showed moderate healing (55.8% and 40.8% healing compared with negative and positive controls, respectively), whereas the group treated with 5.0% gel showed good healing (59.5% and 44.5% healing compared with negative and positive controls, respectively). The amount of hydroxyproline increased by twofold in the group treated with 5.0% gel. Histopathological studies also supported the wound healing on application of the gels. The group of rats that received 5.0% gel showed complete healing after 10 days, whereas in rats treated with 2.5% gel, healing was observed on day 12, in contrast to the positive control animals receiving the blank gel, which took 16-18 days for complete healing. The results of this study may be extended to different types of wounds so that the formulation could be exploited to develop it as a topical dermatological formulation. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the extract showed the presence of gallic acid and catechin as major components. PMID:15298776

Murthy, K N Chidambara; Reddy, Vittal K; Veigas, Jyothi M; Murthy, Uma D

2004-01-01

3

Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum  

PubMed Central

Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG) and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, ?-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in ?-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25??g/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41??g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400?mg/kg, p.o.) and VAD (10, 25, and 50?mg/kg, p.o.) have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400?mg/kg, p.o.), VAD (10, 25, and 50?mg/kg, p.o.), and glibenclamide (10?mg/kg, p.o.) treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:22919408

Jain, Vishal; Viswanatha, G. L.; Manohar, D.; Shivaprasad, H. N.

2012-01-01

4

Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300?mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

2014-01-01

5

Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Punica Granatum Peel Extracts Against Oral Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective: Punica granatum has been used for many years in folk medicine due to several purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Punica granatum peel (MEPGP) against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Actynomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the mentioned oral organisms were cultured in blood agar and mueller-hinton media and then paper disks containing MEPGP at concentrations of 4 mg/ml, 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml were inserted on medias. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. The effects of three different concentrations of MEPGP against microorganisms were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: All concentrations of MEPGP had antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Only at concentration of 8 mg/ml and 12 mg/ml MEPGP was effective against L. acidophilus, S. mutans and S. salivarius. Furthermore; no concentrations of MEPGP inhibited A. viscosus and C. albicans. Conclusion: This study suggests that MEPGP might be used as an antibacterial agent in controlling oral infections. PMID:21998800

Abdollahzadeh, Sh.; Mashouf, RY.; Mortazavi, H.; Moghaddam, MH.; Roozbahani, N.; Vahedi, M.

2011-01-01

6

Seasonal and cultivar variations in antioxidant and sensory quality of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of diverse pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars were analyzed for soluble phenolics content, antioxidant activity, soluble solid concentration, acidity and internal red color intensity. Analysis was carried out at various dates throughout the harvest season, corresponding to different climatic conditions during fruit ripening. Values obtained varied with cultivar and ripening date. In three cultivars of different sensory properties and

Hamutal Borochov-Neori; Sylvie Judeinstein; Effi Tripler; Moti Harari; Amnon Greenberg; Ilan Shomer; Doron Holland

2009-01-01

7

Effect of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel powder (DPPP) on textural, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of biscuits.  

PubMed

Abstract Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, hence could be used in the development of functional food formulations. Attempt was made to see the effect of dried pomegranate peel powder (DPPP) and emulsifiers on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of biscuits. Incorporation of DPPP from 0 to 10% increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability, increased amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity of wheat flour; increased hardness and decreased cohesiveness of biscuit dough; decreased spread ratio and increased breaking strength of biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 7.5% DPPP were acceptable. Among emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate significantly improved the quality characteristics of 7.5% DPPP incorporated biscuits. Addition of 7.5% DPPP increased the protein, dietary fibre, minerals, anti-oxidant activity and ?-carotene contents of biscuits. The studies indicated the possibility of utilizing DPPP to improve the nutritional characteristics of biscuits. PMID:25019979

Srivastava, Prateeti; Indrani, D; Singh, R P

2014-11-01

8

Changes in physical and chemical properties during pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical studies of pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum) variety Taifi, including total seed juice extracted from unripe, half-ripe and full-ripe stages are reported. Edible portion of pomegranate (57.51% of total fruit wt.) comprised 63.58% of juice and 36.21% of seeds. Fresh juice contained 84.57% moisture, 14.1% sugar, 1.05% protein and 0.33% ash. Total protein, ascorbic acid, fat and phenolic compounds in

Salah A Al-Maiman; Dilshad Ahmad

2002-01-01

9

Protective role of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel and seed oil extracts on diethylnitrosamine and phenobarbital-induced hepatic injury in male rats.  

PubMed

The present study is an attempt to reveal the protective role of Punica granatum peel and seed oil extracts against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and phenobarbital (PB) induced hepatic injury in rats. DEN administration increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 and glutathione reductase (GSR) activities, while the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and total glutathione peroxidase (t-GPx) were decreased compared with the control. Treatment with peel and seed oil extracts pre, during and post DEN administration improved liver functions, decreased the levels of MDA, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 and GSR activities with an elevation in levels of GSH, SOD, GST and t-GPx activities. This indicates that these extracts reduced the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DEN. Also the effect of administration of PE and SOE separately for a long time (23 weeks) on healthy rats was studied. PMID:23870864

Shaban, Nadia Z; El-Kersh, Mohamed A L; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; Habashy, Noha H

2013-12-01

10

Evaluation of Irradiation and Heat Treatment on Antioxidant Properties of Fruit Peel Extracts and Its Potential Application During Preservation of Goat Fish Parupenaeus indicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quenching capacities of Vitus vinifera seed extract, Citrus limon peel extract, Punica granatum peel extract, and Citrus sinensis peel extract were studied together with their antioxidant activity in goat fish (Parupenaeus indicus). The functionality of the extracts was evaluated using ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system, reducing power assay, DPPH,\\u000a hydroxyl, and nitrite radical scavenging assay. V. vinifera and P. granatum

Alagesan Paari; Hari Krishnam Naidu; Paulraj Kanmani; Ramraj Satishkumar; Neelakandan Yuvaraj; Vellaiyan Pattukumar; Venkatesan Arul

11

Embryo protective effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit extract in adriamycin-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The possible protective role of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit extract which has shown antioxidant capacity higher than that of red wine and green tea was evaluated against adriamycin-induced oxidative stress in chick embryos. Adriamycin (ADR), an anthracycline broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drug is used for the treatment of variety of cancers; however, its prolonged use is limited by an irreversible, dose-dependant and progressive cardiomyopathy, hepatotoxicity and general toxicity to other organs in human beings, due to oxidative stress. The morphological changes (malformation of different organs), changes in body weight, volume of amniotic fluid (AF) and biochemical parameters of AF were studied after 24 and 48 h of incubation by comparing ADR alone and pomegranate fruit extract pretreated groups with their respective controls of 12 days old chick embryos. ADR alone at a dose of 70 microg/egg showed a significant dose versus time- dependent reduction in body weight, volume of AF. A dose-related increase in embryo gross morphological deformities and significant changes in the levels of biochemical parameters in AF were observed in ADR-treated group. These changes were significantly ameliorated to normal by pre-administration of pomegranate fruit extract at a dose of 200 microg/egg. Thus, the present study demonstrated the embryo protective nature of pomegranate fruit extract against ADR-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19374262

Kishore, R Krishna; Sudhakar, D; Parthasarathy, P R

2009-02-01

12

Original article Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel  

E-print Network

Original article Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis; Accepted in revised form 1 April 2008) Summary Pectin was extracted from passion fruit peel using three different acids (citric, hydrochloric or nitric) at different temperatures (40­90 °C), pH (1

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

13

POTENTIAL OF SELECTED TROPICAL FRUIT PEELS AS DIETARY FIBER IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peels of rambutan, durian, santol, longan, longong, Kaeo mango, and Chok Anan mango were evaluated for their potential to be used as dietary fiber (DF) for food enrichment. All DF samples prepared from selected fruit peels showed high content of total dietary fiber (5284 g\\/100 g dry matter) and also exhibited the significant difference in DF quality. All DF

Sorada Wanlapa; Kulaphat Wachirasiri; Damrongchai Sithisam-ang; Thitichaya Suwannatup

2011-01-01

14

Fruit Preparation Apples Select crisp and firm apples. Wash, peel and core. Slice medium apples  

E-print Network

on top to hold fruit down. Sugar Pack - To prevent darkening, dissolve ½ teaspoon (1500 mg) ascorbic acidFreezing Fruit Fruit Preparation Apples Select crisp and firm apples. Wash, peel and core. Slice, add ½ tsp. (1500 mg) ascorbic acid to each quart of syrup. Start with ½ cup cold syrup in a pint

New Hampshire, University of

15

Essential and toxic elements in three Pakistan's medicinal fruits (Punica granatum, Ziziphus jujuba and Piper cubeba) analysed by INAA.  

PubMed

Three important medicinal fruits generally used by the people of Pakistan for the treatment of different diseases have been studied for their mineral contents. Twenty-two major and minor trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were identified in Punica granatum (pomegranate), Ziziphus jujuba (jujube) and Piper cubeba L. (cubeb) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The studied medicinal herbs are a good source of the essential elements while toxic elements are found in trace amounts. K is detected as a major element in pomegranate, jujube and cubeb with respective values of 1.20%, 1.18% and 2.01%. Pomegranate has significant concentrations of Na, Zn, Cr and Se; jujube has high Cl, Zn, Mn and Co contents while cubeb is a good source of K and Fe. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of mineral elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal herbs. PMID:22017565

Fatima, Ismat; Waheed, Shahida; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain

2012-05-01

16

The peel and pulp of mango fruit: a proteomic samba.  

PubMed

Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of mango peel and pulp as well their peptidome content (the latter as captured with a C18 resin). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the mango proteome, but also to assess the potential presence of allergens and of peptides endowed with biological activities. The proteins of peel and pulp have been captured under both native and denaturing extraction techniques. A total of 334 unique protein species have been identified in the peel vs. 2855 in the pulp, via capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). PMID:24056186

Fasoli, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

2013-12-01

17

Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, Mxico: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 ?M Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 ?M Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25053022

Moo-Huchin, Vctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-Len, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Ivn A; Ortiz-Vzquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

2015-01-01

18

Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Th e aim of this study was to determine total fl avonoids and individually fl avanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch) cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine) cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total fl avonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection

Branka LEVAJ

2009-01-01

19

Influence of fruit maturity in the susceptibility of Navelina oranges to develop postharvest non-chilling peel pitting.  

PubMed

Peel pitting is a disorder occurring mostly during postharvest storage at non-chilling temperatures in different varieties of citrus fruit and consists in collapse of flavedo and albedo tissues that may affect oil glands. It has been demonstrated that during postharvest, sharp variations in water potential of cells from flavedo and albedo are sufficient to provoke fractures in cell walls from external albedo resulting in tissue collapse. However, morphology and composition of cells and cell walls in flavedo and albedo varies during fruit maturation and this may affect water flow through the different fruit peel layers and susceptibility of fruit to develop peel pitting. In this paper, we have studied the influence of the stage of maturation in the susceptibility of Navelina orange to develop peel pitting. Except in mature-green fruit, peel pitting increased with maturation after transferring fruit from 45% to 95% relative humidity and was also more severe as more dehydrated was the tissue before transference. Also, differences in water potential of fruit maintained at 45 or 95% relative humidity increased as fruit matured, suggesting that tissue reduces the ability of water adjustment during maturation. In this sense, only mature-green fruit flavedo was able to recover water potential when transferred from 45 to 95% relative humidity. Ethylene production upon transfer from low to high relative humidity increased only in mature tissue and was rapid and transient, and before initial symptoms of peel pitting. Flavedo and albedo water potential (?w) was substantially reduced during fruit maturation. As lower was the ?w of freshly harvested fruit, minor variations were observed by changes in the storage relative humidity and higher the induced damage. Therefore, the increasing susceptibility of Navelina fruits to develop peel pitting with fruit maturation may be related to a reduced ability to regulate peel evapotranspiration and osmotic adjustment during postharvest storage. PMID:23733827

Alferez, Fernando; Zacaras, Lorenzo

2014-04-01

20

A New Hydroxy-acid in the Peel of Apple Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the examination of paper chromatograms of extracts from whole mature Edward VII apples, a faint acid spot appeared which did not correspond in position with any of the usual fruit acids. On chromatograms of extracts of peel tissue only, the unknown acid appeared to be present in an amount approximately one-quarter that of the malic acid present (the chief

A. C. Hulme

1953-01-01

21

Differential feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in pulp and peel tissues of banana fruit.  

PubMed

The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana [Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain] fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of propylene in pre-climacteric banana fruit, whereas treatment after the onset of ripening stimulated ethylene production. In pre-climacteric fruit, higher concentrations of propylene suppressed ethylene production more strongly, despite their earlier ethylene-inducing effect. Exposure of the fruit ripened by propylene to 1-MCP increased ethylene production concomitantly with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase activity and ACC content, and prevented a transient decrease in MA-ACS1 transcripts in the pulp tissues. In contrast, in the peel of ripening fruit, 1-MCP prevented the increase in ethylene production and subsequently the ripening process by reduction of the increase in MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 transcripts and of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities. These results suggest that ethylene biosynthesis in ripening banana fruit may be controlled negatively in the pulp tissue and positively in the peel tissue. This differential regulation by ethylene in pulp and peel tissues was also observed for MA-PL, MA-Exp, and MA-MADS genes. PMID:17185740

Inaba, Akitsugu; Liu, Xuejun; Yokotani, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Lu, Wang-Jin; Nakano, Ryohei; Kubo, Yasutaka

2007-01-01

22

Biomechanics and anatomy of Lycopersicon esculentum fruit peels and enzyme-treated samples.  

PubMed

We report the biomechanics and anatomy of fruit wall peels (before and after cellulase/pectinase treatment) from two Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars (i.e., Inbred 10 and Sweet 100 cherry tomatoes). Samples were tested before and after enzyme treatment in uniaxial tension to determine their rate of creep, plastic and instantaneous elastic strains, breaking stress (strength), and work of fracture. The fruit peels of both cultivars exhibited pronounced viscoelastic and strain-hardening behavior, but differed significantly in their rheological behavior and magnitudes of material properties, e.g., Inbred 10 peels crept less rapidly and accumulated more plastic strains (but less rapidly), were stiffer and stronger, and had a larger work of fracture than Sweet 100 peels. The cuticular membrane (CM) also differed; e.g., Sweet 100 CM strain-softened at forces that caused Inbred 10 to strain-harden. The mechanical behavior of peels and their CM correlated with anatomical differences. The Inbred 10 CM develops in subepidermal cell layers, whereas the Sweet 100 CM is poorly developed below the epidermis. Based on these and other observations, we posit that strain-hardening involves the realignment of CM fibrillar elements and that this phenomenon is less pronounced for Sweet 100 because fewer cell walls contribute to its CM compared to Inbred 10. PMID:21653391

Matas, Antonio J; Cobb, Edward D; Bartsch, James A; Paolillo, Dominick J; Niklas, Karl J

2004-03-01

23

Inhibition of melanin content by Punicalagins in the super fruit pomegranate (Punica granatum).  

PubMed

Current efforts to develop effective skin lightening products through the inhibition of melanin production have focused on compounds that inhibit the function and activity of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the melanin biosynthesis pathway. Synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors, such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, and arbutin, have been reported to cause skin irritation or acute dermatitis, raising concerns about the safety of these compounds. As a result, there is a need for safe natural ingredients that show effective skin lightening. In this report, we have identified a natural ingredient, pomegranate fruit extract, that inhibits melanin production in melanocytes and shows potential for use as a cosmetic skin lightening agent. In addition, we have identified a polyphenolic compound, punicalagins, as the active melanin inhibitor in pomegranate fruit extract based on its capacity to directly inhibit melanin production. PMID:24397882

Rana, Jatinder; Diwakar, Ganesh; Saito, Lisa; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Mulder, Timothy

2013-01-01

24

Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Banana (Musa, AAA cv. Cavendish) Fruits Peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fresh green and yellow banana peel of, (Musa, cv. Cavendish) fruits were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned with chloroform (CHCl3) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), sequentially. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the thiocyanate method, -carotene bleaching method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical elimination. While, antimicrobial activities of the extracts and isolated components were

Matook Saif Mokbel; Fumio Hashinaga

25

Changes in alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activity in peel and pulp of banana (Musa sp.) fruits during ripening and softening.  

PubMed

Arabinose is one of the most dynamic cell wall glycosyl residues released during fruit ripening, alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase (alpha-Arab) are major glycosidases that may remove arabinose units from fruit cell wall polysaccharides. To find out whether alpha-Arab plays important roles in banana fruit softening, the enzyme activities in peel and pulp, fruit firmness, respiration rate and ethylene release rate were assayed during banana softening. The results showed that alpha-Arab activities in banana pulp and peel increased slightly at the beginning of storage and reached their maxima when the fruit firmness decreased drastically, alpha-Arab activity increased by more than ten folds in both pulp and peel during ripening and alpha-Arab activities were higher in pulp than in peel. Treatment of banana fruits with ethylene absorbent postponed the time of reaching of its maxima of respiration and ethylene, enhanced the firmness of pup and decreased alpha-Arab activity in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that alpha-Arab induced the decrease of fruit firmness and played an important role in banana fruit softening, and its activity was regulated by ethylene. PMID:17452798

Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Su, Jing; Li, Xue-Ping; Chen, Wei-Xin

2007-04-01

26

New 4?-substituted flavones from the fruit peels of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new 4?-substituted flavones isolated from the fruit peels of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Rutaceae) have been characterized as 4?-(9?-ethylene-16?-methylnon-9?,15?-dien-7?,11?-oate)-5,7-dimethoxyflavone (limonflavonyl lactone A, 1) and 4?-(9?-ethylene-16?-methylnon-9?,15?-dien-7?,11?-oate)-5,7,3?-trimethoxyflavone (limonflavonyl lactone B, 2) on the basis of spectral data and chemical analyses. Both the flavones are reported for the first time from a plant source.

Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Shahid Hussain Ansari; Priyanka Bagri

2008-01-01

27

Hepatoprotective Effect of Soapworts (Saponaria officinalis), Pomegranate Peel (Punica granatum L) and Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum linn) on Mice with CCl Hepatic Intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soapworts, pomegranate peel and cloves are widely used in Egypt as a herbal medicine. However, their action as hepatoprotcetional agents still remains to be elucidated. To clarify its effect on liver functions, Eight-week-old male mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl ) at the single dose of 0.5 ml\\/kg body 4 weight intraperitonially for 30 days, 3 groups of mice

Manal K Abdel-Rahman; Ashraf A. Abd El-Megeid

28

Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.  

PubMed

Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

Als, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Mara J; Zacaras, Lorenzo

2014-05-01

29

Accumulation of soluble sugars in peel at high temperature leads to stay-green ripe banana fruit.  

PubMed

Bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA group) fail to develop a yellow peel and stay green when ripening at temperatures >24 degrees C. The identification of the mechanisms leading to the development of stay-green ripe bananas has practical value and is helpful in revealing pathways involved in the regulation of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. In the present study, the Chl degradation pathway was characterized and the progress of ripening and senescence was assessed in banana peel at 30 degrees C versus 20 degrees C, by monitoring relevant gene expression and ripening and senescence parameters. A marked reduction in the expression levels of the genes for Chl b reductase, SGR (Stay-green protein), and pheophorbide a oxygenase was detected for the fruit ripening at 30 degrees C, when compared with fruit at 20 degrees C, indicating that Chl degradation was repressed at 30 degrees C at various steps along the Chl catabolic pathway. The repressed Chl degradation was not due to delayed ripening and senescence, since the fruit at 30 degrees C displayed faster onset of various ripening and senescence symptoms, suggesting that the stay-green ripe bananas are of similar phenotype to type C stay-green mutants. Faster accumulation of high levels of fructose and glucose in the peel at 30 degrees C prompted investigation of the roles of soluble sugars in Chl degradation. In vitro incubation of detached pieces of banana peel showed that the pieces of peel stayed green when incubated with 150 mM glucose or fructose, but turned completely yellow in the absence of sugars or with 150 mM mannitol, at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The results suggest that accumulation of sugars in the peel induced by a temperature of 30 degrees C may be a major factor regulating Chl degradation independently of fruit senescence. PMID:19700495

Yang, Xiaotang; Pang, Xuequn; Xu, Lanying; Fang, Ruiqiu; Huang, Xuemei; Guan, Peijian; Lu, Wangjin; Zhang, Zhaoqi

2009-01-01

30

Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using  

E-print Network

Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using response surface methodology Eloi´sa Rovaris Pinheiro a , Iolanda M to optimize the extraction of pectin with citric acid. The independent variables were citric acid

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

31

Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

2012-01-01

32

Report: Protective effect of Cucurbita pepo fruit peel against CCl4 induced neurotoxicity in rat.  

PubMed

Cucurbita pepo is a common vegetable used all over the world. In folk medicine it is used in gastroenteritis, hepatorenal and in brain anomalies. In the present study, protective effect of Cucurbita pepo fruit peel against CCl4-induced neurotoxicity in rats was investigated. In this study, 36 Sprague-Dawley female rats (19015 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. Group I was given 1 ml/kg bw (body weight) of corn oil intraperotoneally (i.p); Group II, III and IV were treated with 20% CCl4 in corn oil (1ml/kg bw i.p.). However, animals of Group III and IV were also treated with CPME (methanol extract of C. pepo fruit peel) at 200 and 400mg/kg bw respectively. Animals of Group V and VI were administered only with CPME at 200 and 400mg/kg bw respectively. These treatments were administered 3 days a week for two weeks. Administration of CCl4 cause acute neurotoxicity as depicted by significant depletion (p<0.05) in the activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, quinone reductase, while enhanced the ?-glutamyl transferase level in brain samples. CCl4 intoxication decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level whereas markedly (p<0.05) enhanced lipid peroxidation in brain samples. Co-treatment of CPME significantly (p<0.05) protected the brain tissues against CCl4 constituted injuries by restoring activities of antioxidant enzymes and ameliorated lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent fashion. These neuroprotective effects might be due to the presence of antioxidant constituents. PMID:25362619

Zaib, Sania; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

2014-11-01

33

Manipulation of ruminal fermentation and methane production by dietary saponins and tannins from mangosteen peel and soapberry fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four fistulated Holstein Friesian heifers were used in a 4נ4 Latin square design with a 2נ2 factorial arrangement. The main factors were two roughage-to-concentrate ratios (R:C, 70:30 and 30:70) and two supplementation levels of soapberry fruit-mangosteen peel (SM) pellets (0 and 4% tannins-saponins of total diets). Rice straw was used as a roughage source. The diet was fed ad libitum

Onanong Poungchompu; Metha Wanapat; Chalong Wachirapakorn; Sadudee Wanapat; Anusorn Cherdthong

2009-01-01

34

Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage.  

PubMed

Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5C) after treatment with 2mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared with control fruits under both the storage conditions. Combined application of putrescine + carnauba wax showed better response in retaining functional properties than putrescine treated or nontreated fruits. The impacts of putrescine and carnauba wax treatments were found more pronounced after 30days at 3-5C storage temperature in retaining functional and sensory qualities. After 60days of storage, putrescine + carnauba wax retained about 25% higher antioxidant activity both at 3 and 5C storage temperatures. PMID:24426055

Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R K; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S K

2014-01-01

35

Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.  

PubMed

Pectins, recovered from the peels of four mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by mimicking industrial techniques, were evaluated in terms of yield, composition, macromolecular properties, and technofunctional quality. Freeze-dried peels of mature-green fruits, after major mesocarp softening, and at full ripeness were extracted using hot acid. The pectins were precipitated in propan-2-ol and their crude yields quantified as alcohol-insoluble substance. Like apple pomace, the dried peels provided hardly acetylated (DAc < 6.3%) rapid-set to ultrarapid-set high-methoxyl pectins at starch-adjusted yields of 11-21 g/100 g. However, despite similar high molecular weight fractions and galacturonic acid/rhamnose ratios, their average molecular weight was markedly reduced by a characteristic, almost monodisperse fraction of 16000-19000. Expanded galactans, indicated by galactose/rhamnose ratios of 15-24 mol/mol, probably represented arabinogalactan side-chain fragments withstanding hot-acid extraction at pH 1.5 and 2.0, as implied by arabinose/galactose ratios of 8-15 and 33-56 mol/100 mol, respectively. Limited galacturonic acid contents made the mango peel pectins less valuable than commercial apple pectins with regard to gelling capacity and thickening properties. Whereas starch and matrix glycan fragments almost completely degraded during ripening, depolymerization of pectins and galactans was insignificant. Technofunctional properties, modulated by extraction at different pH values, were ascribed to structural differences influencing macromolecular entanglements. PMID:18980323

Sirisakulwat, Suparat; Nagel, Andreas; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Carle, Reinhold; Neidhart, Sybille

2008-11-26

36

Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.  

PubMed

In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (?3) and omega-6 (?6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ?3 (linolenic acid) and ?6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. PMID:24909999

Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

2014-09-01

37

Orange peeling technologies.  

PubMed

Consumer demand for ready-to-eat products has stimulated the development of peeling techniques to prepare fresh-cut fruit and vegetables. The total peeling of oranges, that is, the removal of flavedo and albedo is difficult due to the adherence of the albedo to the segment membrane. Therefore, treatments which make peeling easier have been studied. This review comprehends patents and publications about orange peeling. PMID:20653542

de Arruda, Maria C; Jacomino, Angelo P; Pinheiro, Ana L; Iuamoto, Marcia Y

2009-11-01

38

Analysis of rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced through submerged fermentation using orange fruit peelings as sole carbon source.  

PubMed

The fermentative production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297 was carried out by submerged fermentation using various cost-effective waste materials such as orange peelings, carrot peel waste, lime peelings, coconut oil cake, and banana waste. The orange peel was found to be the best substrate generating 9.18 g/l of rhamnolipid biosurfactant with a surface tension reduction up to 31.3 mN/m. The production was growth independent, and optimum conditions were standardized. The emulsifying activity was highest against kerosene (73.3%). Rhamnolipid components were purified and separated by ethyl acetate extraction, preparative silica gel column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. The major rhamnolipid components were characterized, by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, as a mixture of dirhamnolipids and monorhamnolipids. PMID:18716921

George, Seba; Jayachandran, K

2009-09-01

39

Chemical Peeling of Tomatoes.  

E-print Network

desired scalding treatments ac- ,, ,& cording to variety and chemical in terms of percent; 3. peel removed and percent weight lost. 4 , " Both NaOH and CaC12 solutions were more - : effective for peeling tomatoes than the standard% .? water... treatment. More complete peel removal was j.' obtained with equal or less weight loss and the ' fruits generally were firmer and possessed a more% attractive red color. The CaCktreated fruits were_ . particularly firm and attractive after thermal...

Heddins, Gerald C.; Burns, E. E.

1965-01-01

40

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (Lefan, Katirbasi, Cekirdeksiz-IV, and Asinar) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the FolinCiocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. Lefan displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

Gozlekci, Sadiye; Saracoglu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

41

Comparing physicochemical properties of banana pulp and peel flours prepared from green and ripe fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana pulp and peel flour prepared from green and ripe Cavendish banana were assessed for physicochemical properties such as pH, total soluble solids (TSS), water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC) at 40, 60 and 80C, colour values L?, a? and b?, back extrusion force (BEF) and viscosity. Data obtained were analysed by MANOVA, discriminant analysis and cluster

Abbas F. M. Alkarkhi; Saifullah bin Ramli; Yeoh Shin Yong; Azhar Mat Easa

2011-01-01

42

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.9090.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.6369.71%), ?-pinene (0.6331.49%), ?-terpinene (0.049.96%), and p-cymene (0.239.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.8169.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.0126.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.5314.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.5286.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saidani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

43

Cell wall, cell membrane, and volatile metabolism are altered by antioxidant treatment, temperature shifts, and peel necrosis during apple fruit storage.  

PubMed

The transition from cold storage to ambient temperature alters apple quality through accelerated softening, flavor and color changes, and development of physiological peel disorders, such as superficial scald, in susceptible cultivars. To reveal global metabolism associated with this transition, the 'Granny Smith' peel metabolome was evaluated during storage of 6 months and shelf life periods. Treatment with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) reduced scald, creating a metabolic contrast with untreated fruit, which developed superficial scald. Superficial scald symptoms developed on control fruit after 120 days of storage, and symptoms progressed following transition to ambient-temperature shelf life. The metabolic profile of control and DPA-treated fruit was divergent after 30 days of cold storage due to differing levels of ?-farnesene oxidation products, methyl esters, phytosterols, and other compounds potentially associated with chloroplast integrity and oxidative stress response. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed coregulation within the volatile synthesis pathway including control of the availability of methyl, propyl, ethyl, acetyl, and butyl alcohol and/or acid moieties for ester biosynthesis. Overall, the application of metabolomics techniques lends new insight into physiological processes leading to cell death and ripening processes that affect fruit flavor, appearance, and overall quality. PMID:23311914

Leisso, Rachel; Buchanan, David; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James; Rudell, David

2013-02-13

44

Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya (dragon fruit) peel  

PubMed Central

Background Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits, and pitaya fruits have gained popularity in many countries all over the world. However, studies on chemical composition and the nutritional quality of pitaya flesh peel are limited. Results Extracts of pitaya (H. polyrhizus and H. undatus) peel were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis. Their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities were investigated. The main components of H. polyrhizus extract were ?-amyrin (15.87%), ?-amyrin (13.90%), octacosane (12.2%), ?-sitosterol (9.35%), octadecane (6.27%), 1-tetracosanol (5.19%), stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.65%), and campesterol (4.16%), whereas H. undatus were ?-amyrin (23.39%), ?-sitosterol (19.32%), and octadecane (9.25%), heptacosane (5.52%), campesterol (5.27%), nonacosane (5.02%), and trichloroacetic acid, hexadecyl ester (5.21%). Both of the two extracts possessed good cytotoxic activities against PC3, Bcap-37, and MGC-803 cells (IC50 values ranging from 0.61 to 0.73mg/mL), and the activities of their main components were also studied. Furthermore, these extracts also presented some radical scavenging activities, with IC50 values of 0.83 and 0.91mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion This paper provides evidence for studying the chemical composition of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya peel and their biological activity. PMID:24386928

2014-01-01

45

Effect of the yellow passion fruit peel flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa deg.) in insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients  

PubMed Central

Background A study with the yellow passion fruit peel flour showed positive action in blood glucose control as therapies adjuvant in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we evaluated its effect on insulin sensitivity since there is a quest for studies that focus at better understanding of insulin resistance aspects in diabetic patients. Furthermore its relationship with chronic complications can also give good prospects for alternative treatments. Methods A total of 43 type 2 diabetes volunteers (28 females and 15 males) ingested 30 g/day of the yellow passion fruit peel flour for two months. The levels of blood glucose and fasting insulin, HOMA index and glycated hemoglobin were measured for each patient before and after dietary supplementation. Results There was a significant difference in the fasting blood glucose values (P?=?0.000) and glycated hemoglobin (P?=?0.032) after supplementation. It was also seen a reduction in HOMA IR (P?=?0.005) in the supplemented group, however it was not observed changes in insulin values for females. HOMA beta (P?=?0.000) showed significant increase in its values for the studied group. Conclusions The supplementation used decreased insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a positive action in blood glucose control as adjuvant therapy in conventional treatments. PMID:23088514

2012-01-01

46

Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa and its compounds against blood-feeding parasites.  

PubMed

Plant products may be alternative sources of parasitic control agents, since they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are eco-friendly and nontoxic products. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) extracted by immersion method exhibited adulticidal activity against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae) and the hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and larvicidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of A. squamosa fruit peel aqueous extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent of peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa was identified as 1H- cycloprop[e]azulen-7-ol decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-[1ar-(1a?,4a?, 7?, 7 a, ?, 7b?)] (28.55%) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The other major constituents present in the aqueous extract were retinal 9-cis- (12.61%), 3,17-dioxo-4-androsten-11alpha-yl hydrogen succinate (6.86%), 1-naphthalenepentanol decahydro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-5,8a-dimethyl-y,2-bis(methylene)-(1?,4a?,5?,8a?) (14.83%), 1-naphthalenemethanol decahydro -5-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-pentenyl)- 1,4a-di methyl - 6-methylene -(1S-[1?, 4a?, 5?(E), 8a?] (4.44%), (-)-spathulenol (20.75%), podocarp-7-en-3-one13?-methyl-13-vinyl- (5.98%), and 1-phenanthrene carboxaldehyde 7-ethenyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydro-1,4a,7-trimethyl-[1R-(1?,4a?.4b?,7?, 10a?)]-(5.98%). The adult and larval parasitic mortalities observed in fruit peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa were 31, 59, 80, 91, and100%; 27, 42, 66, 87, and 100%; and 33, 45, 68, 92, and 100% at the concentrations of 250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm, respectively, against Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Hippobosca maculata, and R. microplus. The observed larvicidal efficacies were 36, 55, 72, 92, 100% and 14, 34, 68, 89, and 100% at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 ppm, respectively, against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. The highest parasite mortality was found after 24 h of exposure against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (LC(50)?=?404.51 ppm, r (2)?=?0.890), Hippobosca maculata (LC(50)?=?600.75 ppm, r (2)?=?0.983), the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?=?548.28 ppm, r (2)?=?0.975), fourth-instar larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50)?=?327.27 pm, r (2)?=?0.970), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=?456.29 ppm, r (2)?=?0.974), respectively. The control (distilled water) showed nil mortality in the concurrent assay. The ? (2) values were significant at p?fruit peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa may be an alternative to conventional synthetic chemicals, particularly in integrated approach for the control of Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Hippobosca maculata, R. microplus, and the medically important vectors A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:22006187

Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Priya, Kanagaraj Mohana; Saral, Antoneyraj Mary; Khan, Fazlur Rahman Nawaz; Khanna, Venkatesh Gopiesh; Velayutham, Kannaiyaram; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

2012-11-01

47

Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

2003-01-01

48

Comprehensive thin-layer chromatography mass spectrometry of flavanols from Juniperus communis L. and Punica granatum L.  

PubMed

The coupling of thin-layer chromatography with mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) for the analysis of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins in samples presented as complex matrices has been studied. The elution conditions for TLC-MS were optimised and full scans were compared with selected reaction monitoring for the MS detection of compounds. The performance of silica gel and cellulose plates with different developing solvents in TLC-MS was assessed. Cellulose plates provided superior sensitivity while ionisation suppression was encountered with silica plates. The use of a HILIC guard column beyond the elution head was found to facilitate detection of monomer compounds on silica plates. A new comprehensive TLCMS procedure for screening flavanols in the entire chromatogram was developed as an alternative to the use of 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to determine the locations of compounds on the plate. This new procedure was applied to detect flavanols in the peel of Punica granatum L. fruits and in seeds of Juniperus communis L., in which flavanols and proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers were detected for the first time. PMID:23566918

Smrke, Samo; Vovk, Irena

2013-05-10

49

Novel phenotypes related to the breeding of purple-fruited tomatoes and effect of peel extracts on human cancer cell proliferation.  

PubMed

The production of anthocyanins in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit is normally absent or poor, but a number of mutants or introgression lines are known to increase anthocyanin levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Through conventional breeding, a genetic combination was obtained with the remarkable phenotype of a deep purple fruit pigmentation, due to an accumulation of anthocyanins on the peel. Such a genotype was named Sun Black (SB) as a consequence of its sensitivity to light induction. When characterized for morpho-agronomic traits, SB plants showed increased fertility. Purple fruits displayed an arrangement of the epicarp cells different from normal tomatoes, a feature that could account for different mechanical properties and shelf-life potential. The SB genotype and, to a lesser extent, its single mutant parents showed the capacity to accumulate anthocyanins in the seedling root when grown under light. This phenotype, which was greatly improved by the addition of sucrose to the germination medium, proved to be useful as selection index and gave new insights for in vitro production of anthocyanin extracts. To assess the nutraceutical potential of purple tomatoes, we tested the activity of SB skin extracts on the proliferation of two human cancer cells lines. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by SB extract in a dose-dependent manner. When the bioactivity of SB extracts was compared with that of other anthocyanin-containing fruits or vegetables, a significant "Extract*Line" interaction was evidenced, suggesting a crucial role for the extract composition in terms of anthocyanidins and other eventual cell growth-inhibiting compounds. PMID:23769702

Mazzucato, Andrea; Willems, Daniela; Bernini, Roberta; Picarella, Maurizio E; Santangelo, Enrico; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Tilesi, Francesca; Soressi, Gian Piero

2013-11-01

50

Chemical peels.  

PubMed

Chemical peels are a method of resurfacing with a long-standing history of safety in the treatment of various skin conditions. This article reviews the classification of different chemical agents based on their depth of injury. The level of injury facilitates cell turnover, epidermal thickening, skin lightening, and new collagen formation. Preprocedural, periprocedural, and postprocedural skin care are briefly discussed. To select the appropriate chemical peel, the provider should evaluate the patient's expectations, medical history, skin type, and possible complications to determine the best chemical peel to achieve the desired results. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI have increased risk of dyspigmentation, hypertrophic, and keloid scarring. These individuals respond well to superficial and medium-depth chemical peels. Advances in the use of combination peels allow greater options for skin rejuvenation with less risk of complications. PMID:24488634

Jackson, Adrianna

2014-02-01

51

Chemical peel.  

PubMed

Chemical face peeling as described in this article produces gross and microscopic changes in the skin which are permanent. The most important aspect in assuring the success of this procedure is the proper selection of patients. The primary use of this procedure is for the purpose of eliminating wrinkles, whether as the primary or ancillary procedure, such as regional peeling. Chemical peeling of the face is a valuable adjunct in the treatment of the aging face and can produce some rather dramatic results with the careful selection of patients and meticulous attention to detail in carrying out the peel, as well as the exact adherence to the post peel instructions by the patient. PMID:639446

Mosienko, P; Baker, T J

1978-01-01

52

Glycolic acid peel therapy - a current review  

PubMed Central

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologists arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types IIV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

53

Chemical composition and biotechnological properties of a polysaccharide from the peels and antioxidative content from the pulp of Passiflora liguralis fruits.  

PubMed

A new polysaccharide with a high molecular weight (greater than 1 x 106 Da) was extracted and characterized from the peels of Passiflora liguralis (granadilla) fruits. Chemical composition of the biopolymer, performed by using a high pressure anion exchange-pulsed amperometric detector (HPAE-PAD), showed the presence of six different sugar residues: xylose, glucose, galactose, galactosamine, an unknown component, and fucose in the relative ratio of 1:0.5:0.2:0.06:0.05:trace. The optical rotation of this xyloglucan was [alpha](D)(25) degrees C = -186.42 (concentration of 1.4 mg/mL of H(2)O), and the viscosity was dependent on the concentration and pH, showing a maximum value of 1.4 eta at a concentration of 3% in distilled water and a maximum value of 7.0 eta in citrate buffer solution. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that this biopolymer was very stable at high temperatures, showing a degradation temperature at 280 degrees C. The characterization of the polysaccharide was also investigated by spectroscopic methods (1H NMR and IR) pointing out the complexity of this biopolymer and the presence of sugar residues in alpha-manno, alpha-gluco-galacto, and beta-gluco-galacto configurations. The formation of a biodegradable film using this novel xyloglucan was reported, and the anticytotoxic activity of the polysaccharide was studied in a brine shrimp bioassay. Considerable antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 0.32 microM/mg fresh product) was noted in the lipophilic extracts of Passiflora liguralis fruits, indicating, in this fruit, an alternative source of bioactive compounds. PMID:17676862

Tommonaro, G; Rodrguez, C S Segura; Santillana, M; Immirzi, B; Prisco, R De; Nicolaus, B; Poli, A

2007-09-01

54

Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes  

E-print Network

Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes Saves Energy Energy Efficiency Research Office PIER for peeling tomatoes and other canned fruits, such as peaches, pears, and apricots. The waste chemicals has become a critical production issue to tomato and related processors. Due to cost

55

Evaluation of the chemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil of Citrus reticulata fruit (Tangerine fruit peel) from South West Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile oil of tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata) was extracted by steam distillation and assessed for antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The volatile oil was tested against some Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi, Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter spp); Gram-positive organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and a

G. A. Ayoola; O. O. Johnson; T. Adelowotan; I. E. Aibinu; E. Adenipekun; A. A. Adepoju; H. A. B. Coker; T. O. Odugbemi

56

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of secondary metabolites in citrus fruits peels using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with advanced chemometric methods.  

PubMed

Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) and multivariate clustering methods along with other chemometric methods are proposed to improve the analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprints of secondary metabolites in citrus fruits peels. In this way, chromatographic problems such as baseline/background contribution, low S/N peaks, asymmetric peaks, retention time shifts, and co-elution (overlapped and embedded peaks) occurred during GC-MS analysis of chromatographic fingerprints are solved using the proposed strategy. In this study, first, informative GC-MS fingerprints of citrus secondary metabolites are generated and then, whole data sets are segmented to some chromatographic regions. Each chromatographic segment for eighteen samples is column-wise augmented with m/z values as common mode to preserve bilinear model assumption needed for MCR analysis. Extended multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) is used to obtain pure elution and mass spectral profiles for the components present in each chromatographic segment as well as their relative concentrations. After finding the best MCR-ALS model, the relative concentrations for resolved components are examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) clustering methods to explore similarities and dissimilarities among different citrus samples according to their secondary metabolites. In general, four clear-cut clusters are determined and the chemical markers (chemotypes) responsible to this differentiation are characterized by subsequent discriminate analysis using counter-propagation artificial neural network (CPANN) method. It is concluded that the use of proposed strategy is a more reliable and faster way for the analysis of large data sets like chromatographic fingerprints of natural products compared to conventional methods. PMID:22766429

Parastar, Hadi; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Sereshti, Hassan; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad

2012-08-17

57

Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the\\u000a variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed\\u000a using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in

Thomas Happi Emaga; Jrme Bindelle; Richard Agneesens; Andr Buldgen; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot

2011-01-01

58

Comparative Antioxidant Activity and Total Flavonoid Content of Persian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Lythraceae, is mainly grown in Mediterranean region. It is one of the major cultivated productions of Iran, which have been used in folk medicine for many centuries. It has been proved that pomegranate has a high antioxidant activity and is effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. This study compares the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of nine different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran. Aqueous solutions of known Fe+2 concentration, vitamin E, vitamin C, gallic acid and catechin were used for calibration. The results showed that Sour summer pulp cultivar had the most antioxidant effect with significant difference with the other cultivar (p < 0.05) which can be introduced as a potent source of natural antioxidants, and the peel of three cultivars (Sweet saveh malas, Sour summer and Black peel) as a suitable source for extraction and purification of phenolic and flavonoid compound. The antioxidant capacity of pomegranate peel extract is 10 times higher than the pulp extract. PMID:24250384

Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Gholam, Narges; Moridi, Tahereh

2011-01-01

59

New insulating particleboards from durian peel and coconut coir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new particleboards from tropical fruit peels with low thermal conductivity as a component of construction panels for energy conservation of building is the main purpose of this study. Durian (Durio zibethinus) peels and coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers were used as the raw material to manufacture particleboards. Two main parameters were investigated namely binder types, (UF 12%,

Joseph Khedari; Sarocha Charoenvai; Jongjit Hirunlabh

2003-01-01

60

The chemical peel.  

PubMed

Chemical peeling of facial skin has become a valuable adjunct in the armamentarium of the facial aesthetic surgeon. Among the various techniques available, phenol solutions are the most commonly used. Peeling produces a controlled, partial-thickness chemical burn of the epidermis and the outer dermis. Several techniques are available to "fine tune" the depth of the peel. Regeneration of peeled skin results in a fresh, orderly, organized epidermis. In the dermis, a new 2- to 3-mm band of dense, compact, orderly collagen is formed between the epidermis and the underlying damaged dermis, which results in effective ablation of the fine wrinkles in the skin and a reduction of pigmentation. These clinical and histological changes are long lasting (15-20 years) and may be permanent in some patients. Because of the metabolism and systemic complications of phenol, patient selection should involve systemic evaluation of liver, renal, and cardiac function, as well as an evaluation of the skin quality and medication status of the patient. Because of potential cardiac arrhythmias, peeling must be performed in a medically supervised environment, with continuous cardiac monitoring. The local complications of peeling include pigmentation changes, scarring, milia, ectropion, infection, activation of herpes simplex, and toxic shock syndrome. PMID:1883165

Peters, W

1991-06-01

61

Fruit & Yogurt Parfait; 2 cups grapes, berries or peach slices  

E-print Network

, vanilla or Fruit-flavored 2 medium bananas 1 cup dry, crunchy cereal (granola type) Wash, peel and slice, drain and add to the bowl. Peel and slice bananas. Pour the milk over the fruit.While slowly stirring the bananas. Wash and prepare other fruit. Place about ½ cup of grapes (or berries or peaches) in each of four

Florida, University of

62

Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.  

PubMed

Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre. PMID:20725857

Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jrme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, Andr; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

2011-01-01

63

Effects of the stage of maturation and varieties on the chemical composition of banana and plantain peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the chemical composition of six varieties of fruit peels of the banana and plantain: dessert banana (Musa AAA), plantain (Musa AAB) cooking banana (Musa ABB) and hybrid (Musa AAAB) at three stages of ripeness, was carried out in order to explore their potential applications. The varieties did not affect chemical constituents in a consistent manner. Peel of

Thomas Happi Emaga; Rado Herinavalona Andrianaivo; Bernard Wathelet; Jean Tchango Tchango; Michel Paquot

2007-01-01

64

Apotirucallane protolimonoids from the Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum Koenig.  

PubMed

A series of previously unreported compounds including seven new apotirucallane protolimonoids, xylogranatumines A-G (1-7), were isolated together with three known analogues (8-10) from the twigs and leaves of the Chinese mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and by comparison with those of related known compounds in the literature. Xylogranatumine F (6) exhibited cytotoxic activity against A549 tumor cell in vitro. PMID:24956494

Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Liu, Hai-Li; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kong, Ling-Yi; Guo, Yue-Wei

2014-09-01

65

The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms.  

PubMed

Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

Rodrguez, Ana; San Andrs, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquzar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, Jos; Rodrigo, Mara; Zacaras, Lorenzo; Palou, Llus; Lpez, Mara M; Castaera, Pedro; Pea, Leandro

2011-11-01

66

HLB related fruit drop Fall 2013 PGR trials  

E-print Network

for fruit thinning Gibberellic acid � delays peel color change & retains firmness (delays senescenceHLB related fruit drop � Fall 2013 PGR trials L.G. Albrigo Professor Emeritus Citrus Research & Education Center #12;#12;Background � Fruit Drop Fruit drop very high in 2012-13 Weak trees (HLB?) more loss

Florida, University of

67

Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musaparadisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15min in water at 42C, or in water at 25C (control), and were then stored at 4C. Hot water treatment for 15min delayed peel blackening during cold storage by about 4 days in

Surassawadee Promyou; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn

2008-01-01

68

Edible Coatings for Fresh-Cut Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and\\/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have

G. I. Olivas; G. V. Barbosa-Cnovas

2005-01-01

69

Page 1 of 4 Canning Fruits  

E-print Network

slices and hot syrup or water. Pint or Quarts 20 Minutes Applesauce Wash, peel, core. Slice into antiPage 1 of 4 Canning Fruits & Tomatoes In a Boiling Water Bath Canner General Directions: Follow indicated. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a boiling water bath canner. Fruit

New Hampshire, University of

70

Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Results Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. Conclusion The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases. PMID:24884677

2014-01-01

71

Sampling potato tubers to determine peel loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple marker was fabricated for the purpose of rapidly labeling tubers that are to be used for determining the amount of\\u000a peel loss. The effect of tuber size and shape on quantity of peel removed, and its significance to continuous in-plant monitoring\\u000a of peel loss, is discussed. A standardized peel removal testing procedure for plant use is described.

M. L. Weaver; K. C. Ng; C. C. Huxsoll

1979-01-01

72

Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

2000-01-01

73

Senescent spotting of banana peel is inhibited by modified atmosphere packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana fruit (Musa cavendishii [Musa acuminata] AA Group cv. Sucrier) were placed in trays and held at 2930C. Covering the trays with Sun wrap polyvinyl chloride film prevented the early senescent peel spotting, typical for this cultivar. Carbon dioxide and ethylene concentrations within the packages increased, but inclusion of carbon dioxide scrubbers or ethylene absorbents, which considerably affected gas composition,

Rujira Choehom; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn

2004-01-01

74

Characterization of banana peel by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy and its use for cadmium removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the use of banana peel, a commonly produced fruit waste, for the removal of Cd(II) from environmental and industrial wastewater. The banana peel was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and found to be rapid

Jamil R. Memon; Saima Q. Memon; M. I. Bhanger; G. Zuhra Memon; A. El-Turki; Geoffrey C. Allen

2008-01-01

75

Biorefinery of waste orange peel.  

PubMed

Up to comparatively recently orange peel and the associated residual remnants of membranes resulting from juice extraction represented a significant disposal problem, especially in those regions where orange cultivation is a major industry. However, recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste represents a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products. These developments are critically reviewed in this article. This includes a summary of the chemical composition of the substrate and an assessment of the range of applications in which the peel is deployed. Utilization as a substrate to produce animal feed, fertilizer, essential oils, pectin, ethanol, methane, industrial enzymes, and single cell protein is discussed. The applications described together with those that will no doubt be developed in the future, represent great opportunities to harness the economical benefit of this agro-industrial waste and to develop even more efficient and sustainable systems. A scheme of integrated utilization of orange peel in a biorefinery approach is discussed together with some prediction of further necessary research. PMID:20148755

Angel Siles Lpez, Jos; Li, Qiang; Thompson, Ian P

2010-03-01

76

Assessment of antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark in mice model.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark was studied for its antidiarrhoeal properties in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per oral, the methanol extract showed significant and dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity in both models. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg; i.m.). The results showed that the extracts of Xylocarpus granatum bark have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine. PMID:16997521

Rouf, Razina; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal; Shilpi, Jamil Ahmad; Alamgir, Mahiuddin

2007-02-12

77

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF XYLOCARPUS GRANATUM STEM BARKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial effect of the crude organic extract of Xylocarpus granatum stem barks was studied in the Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh, during the period from October to December 2003. Disc diffusion method has been adopted in this study and petri dishes (120 mm in diameter) containing nutrient agar medium seeded with the test organism was used for

M. A. Alam; M. Sarder; M. A. Awal; M. M. H. Sikder; K. A. Daulla

2006-01-01

78

Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays  

PubMed Central

Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

2014-01-01

79

Linked dominant alleles or inter-locus interaction results in a major shift in pomegranate fruit acidity of GaneshנKabul Yellow  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryInheritance of fruit acidity in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) was studied in 3 sweet or low acid (Ganesh, Ruby and Kabul Yellow) and 3 sour or high acid (Nana, Daru and\\u000a Double Flower) varieties and their progenies. The F1 and F2 data of GaneshנNana showed that fruit acidity is monogenically controlled and the sour nature is dominant over sweet.\\u000a Further,

S. H. Jalikop

2007-01-01

80

Antioxidant activity and protective effect of banana peel against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocyte at different stages of ripening.  

PubMed

Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and cytoprotective activities and their therapeutic properties. Banana peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids, and others. In the present study, effect of ripening, solvent polarity on the content of bioactive compounds of crude banana peel and the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe banana fruit on hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis and their antioxidant capacity were investigated. Banana (Musa paradisica) peel at different stages of ripening (unripe, ripe, leaky ripe) were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned in order of polarity with water, ethyl acetate, chloroform (CHCl?), and hexane sequentially. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated by the red cell hemolysis assay, free radical scavenging (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical elimination) and superoxide dismutase activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent assay was used to estimate the phenolic content of extracts. The findings of this investigation suggest that the unripe banana peel sample had higher antioxidant potency than ripe and leaky ripe. Further on fractionation, ethyl acetate and water soluble fractions of unripe peel displayed high antioxidant activity than CHCl? and hexane fraction, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavenging capacity and the content of phenolic compound were found in unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe stages of banana peel. PMID:21369778

Sundaram, Shanthy; Anjum, Shadma; Dwivedi, Priyanka; Rai, Gyanendra Kumar

2011-08-01

81

Development of a kolanut peeling device.  

PubMed

A kolanut peeling machine was designed, constructed and evaluated for the postharvest processing of the seed. The peeling machine consists of a standing frame, peeling unit and hopper. The peeling unit consists of a special paddle, which mixes the kolanut, rubs them against one another and against the wall of the barrel and also conveys the kolanut to the outlet. The performance of the kolanut peeling machine was evaluated for its peeling efficiency at different moisture content (53.0, 57.6, 61.4% w.b.) and speeds of operation of the machine. The result of the analysis of variance shows that the main factors and their interaction had significant effects (p?peeling efficiency of the machine. The result also shows that the peeling efficiency of the machine increased as the moisture content increase and decreased with increase in machine speed. The highest efficiency of the machine was 60.3% at a moisture content of 61.4% w.b. and speed of 40rpm. PMID:25328224

Kareem, I; Owolarafe, O K; Ajayi, O A

2014-10-01

82

Antimicrobial activity of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract in milk.  

PubMed

Citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peels were extracted with hot water and then acid-hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid. Antimicrobial activities of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract were evaluated against pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Antilisterial effect was also determined by adding extracts at 1, 2, and 4% to whole, low-fat, and skim milk. The cell numbers of B. cereus, Staph. aureus, and L. monocytogenes cultures treated with acid-hydrolyzed extract for 12h at 35C were reduced from about 8log cfu/mL to <1log cfu/mL. Bacillus cereus was more sensitive to acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract than were the other bacteria. The addition of 4% acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu extracts to all types of milk inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes within 1d of storage at 4C. The results indicated that Citrus unshiu peel extracts, after acid hydrolysis, effectively inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These findings indicate that acid hydrolysis of Citrus unshiu peel facilitates its use as a natural antimicrobial agent for food products. PMID:24534507

Min, Keun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-04-01

83

Biomethanization of orange peel waste.  

PubMed

Recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste is a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products such as methane. Following a pre-treatment to extract D-limonene, the anaerobic digestion of orange peel waste was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. D-limonene removals of 70% were reached with pre-treatment. The results showed the convenience of thermophilic conditions for treating this waste as the methane production rate and biodegradability were higher than at mesophilic temperature. At pilot scale, a thermophilic continuously stirred-tank reactor working in semi-continuous mode was employed. The OLR was found to be in the range of 1.20-3.67 kg COD/m(3) d; the most appropriate range for working under stable conditions at SRT of 25 d. The methane yield coefficient was found to be 0.27-0.29 L(STP)CH(4)/g added COD and the biodegradability 84-90% under these conditions. However, acidification occurred at the highest OLR. PMID:20655741

Martn, M A; Siles, J A; Chica, A F; Martn, A

2010-12-01

84

Molecular cloning and characterisation of banana fruit polyphenol oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) is the enzyme thought to be responsible for browning in banana [Musa cavendishii (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Williams] fruit. Banana flesh was high in PPO activity throughout growth and ripening. Peel showed high levels of activity early in development but activity declined until ripening started and then remained constant. PPO activity in fruit was

Paul S. Gooding; Colin Bird; Simon P. Robinson

2001-01-01

85

The pectin of the rind of the fruit of Punica granatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

and chloroform, was treated with a 1% solution of formalin (4C, 16 h) to free it from polyphenolic compounds. The residue of the raw material was extracted twice with a mixture of equal volumes of 1% solutions of oxalic acid and ammonium oxalate at 75C. The extract obtained (2 liters) was dialyzed against distilled water, evaporated to I liter, and

N. P. Yuldasheva; D. A. Rakhimov; Z. F. Ismailov

1978-01-01

86

Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in tomato peel, seeds, and byproducts.  

PubMed

The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-?-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds. PMID:24792924

Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

2014-06-11

87

Toxic Effect of Citrus Peel Constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann Immature Stages.  

PubMed

The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus. PMID:25237738

Ruiz, Mara J; Jurez, Mara L; Alzogaray, Ral A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardn, Alicia Del Valle; Vera, Teresa

2014-10-15

88

Agroindustrial potential of exotic fruit byproducts as a source of food additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic fruit consumption and processing is increasing worldwide due to the improvement in preservation techniques, transportation, marketing systems and consumer awareness of health benefits. The entire body of tropical exotic fruits is rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenolic constituents, carotenoids, vitamins and dietary fiber. However, the fruit processing industry deals with the large percentage of byproducts, such as peels,

J. F. Ayala-Zavala; V. Vega-Vega; C. Rosas-Domnguez; H. Palafox-Carlos; J. A. Villa-Rodriguez; J. E. Dvila-Avia; G. A. Gonzlez-Aguilar

2011-01-01

89

Localization of 9- and 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acids in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

We previously reported that the two peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonists, 9- and 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acids (oxo-ODAs), were found in the tomato fruit. However, their localization remains unknown. Herein, we showed that oxo-ODAs localize primarily in the fruit peel and their amount increases after the homogenization of the tomato fruit. PMID:25060034

Takahashi, Haruya; Kamakari, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Mohri, Shinsuke; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Matsumura, Yasuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Kawada, Teruo

2014-10-01

90

Patterning, Prestress, and Peeling Dynamics of Myocytes  

PubMed Central

As typical anchorage-dependent cells myocytes must balance contractility against adequate adhesion. Skeletal myotubes grown as isolated strips from myoblasts on micropatterned glass exhibited spontaneous peeling after one end of the myotube was mechanically detached. Such results indicate the development of a prestress in the cells. To assess this prestress and study the dynamic adhesion strength of single myocytes, the shear stress of fluid aspirated into a large-bore micropipette was then used to forcibly peel myotubes. The velocity at which cells peeled from the surface, Vpeel, was measured as a continuously increasing function of the imposed tension, Tpeel, which ranges from ?0 to 50 nN/?m. For each cell, peeling proved highly heterogeneous, with Vpeel fluctuating between 0 ?m/s (?80% of time) and ?10 ?m/s. Parallel studies of smooth muscle cells expressing GFP-paxillin also exhibited a discontinuous peeling in which focal adhesions fractured above sites of strong attachment (when pressure peeled using a small-bore pipette). The peeling approaches described here lend insight into the contractile-adhesion balance and can be used to study the real-time dynamics of stressed adhesions through both physical detection and the use of GFP markers; the methods should prove useful in comparing normal versus dystrophic muscle cells. PMID:14747355

Griffin, Maureen A.; Engler, Adam J.; Barber, Thomas A.; Healy, Kevin E.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Discher, Dennis E.

2004-01-01

91

Preliminary investigation into the uneven ripening of banana peel after 1-MCP treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peel appearance of banana fruit is an important quality criteria that influences consumer acceptability. Many studies have\\u000a shown promising results with the use of the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on extending green life and shelf\\u000a life of bananas (Macnish et al. 1997, 2000; Golding et al. 1998; Jiang et al. 1999; Harris et al. 2000).

G. Martino; J. Golding

92

Effect of Time and Number of Cycles on Yield and Peeling Quality of Steam Peeled Potatoes and Asparagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of time and number of cycles used on yield and peeling quality of steam peeled potatoes (Ballenera variety) and asparagus (Argentuil variety) at 158 C was studied. Heat penetration of potatoes and peroxidase residual activity of asparagus were also assessed. Best peeling quality, acceptable heat penetration and a yield of 90% were achieved for potatoes with a peeling

Ral L. Garrote; Enrique R. Silva; Ricardo A. Bertone; Adriana Avalle

1997-01-01

93

Anticancer Activities of Citrus Peel Polymethoxyflavones Related to Angiogenesis and Others  

PubMed Central

Citrus is a kind of common fruit and contains multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Flavonoids, as a class of plant secondary metabolites, exist in citrus fruits abundantly. Due to their broad range of pharmacological properties, citrus flavonoids have gained increased attention. Accumulative in vitro and in vivo studies indicate protective effects of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) against the occurrence of cancer. PMFs inhibit carcinogenesis by mechanisms like blocking the metastasis cascade, inhibition of cancer cell mobility in circulatory systems, proapoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. This review systematically summarized anticarcinogenic effect of citrus flavonoids in cancer therapy, together with the underlying important molecular mechanisms, in purpose of further exploring more effective use of citrus peel flavonoids.

Wang, Liwen; Wang, Jinhan; Fang, Lianying; Zheng, Zuliang; Zhi, Dexian; Wang, Suying; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhao, Hui

2014-01-01

94

Pathogen-produced ethylene and the Colletotrichum musae -banana fruit pathosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colletotrichum musae isolate CM100 is capable of producing ethylene in vitro on methionine-supplemented basal medium. This isolate also produced ethylene on peel extracts of banana fruit that contained\\u000a methionine at 0.310.42 ?mol\\/g fresh weight. Ethylene production rates by fresh banana peel strip explants and by whole fruit\\u000a were not significantly increased after C. musae infection compared with non-infected control tissues.

W. A. M. Daundasekera; D. C. Joyce; N. K. B. Adikaram; L. A. Terry

2008-01-01

95

Development of an ingredient containing apple peel, as a source of polyphenols and dietary fiber.  

PubMed

Apple peel is a waste product from dried apple manufacture. The content of phenolic compounds, dietary fiber, and mineral are higher in apple peel, compared to other edible parts of this fruits. The objective of this study was to develop an ingredient from Granny Smith apple peel, using a pilot scale double drum-dryer, as drying technology. The control of all steps to maximize the retention of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber was considered. Operational conditions, such as drying temperature and time were determined, as well as important preprocessing steps like grinding and PPO inhibition. In addition, the physical-chemical characteristics, mineral and sugar content, and technological functional properties such as water retention capacity, solubility index, and dispersability among others, were analyzed. A simple, economical, and suitable pilot scale process, to produce a powder ingredient from apple peel by-product, was obtained. The drying process includes the application of ascorbic acid at 0.5% in the fresh apple peel slurry, drum-dryer operational conditions were 110 degrees C, 0.15 rpm and 0.2 mm drum clearance. The ingredient developed could be considered as a source of phenolic compounds (38.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry base) and dietary fiber (39.7% dry base) in the formulation of foods. Practical Application: A method to develop an ingredient from Granny Smith apple peel using a pilot scale double drum-dryer as drying technology was developed. The method is simple, economical, feasible, and suitable and maximizes the retention of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber present in the raw matter. The ingredient could be used in the formulation of foods. PMID:20722929

Henrquez, Carolina; Speisky, Hernn; Chiffelle, Italo; Valenzuela, Tania; Araya, Manuel; Simpson, Ricardo; Almonacid, Sergio

2010-08-01

96

Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple wastes studied at various HRTs showed a higher rate of gas production at lower retention time. The lowest possible HRT for banana peel was 25 days, resulting in a maximum rate of gas production of 0.76 vol\\/vol\\/day with 36% substrate utilization, while pineapple-processing waste digesters could be operated at 10 days HRT, with a

Nirmala Bardiya; Deepak Somayaji; Sunil Khanna

1996-01-01

97

Dermatology procedures: microdermabrasion and chemical peels.  

PubMed

Microdermabrasion and chemical peels are exfoliation procedures used to treat various cosmetic and medical skin conditions. Microdermabrasion involves mechanical abrasion of the skin with a handheld motorized device. Chemical peels involve applying acids directly to the skin. After partial destruction of the skin, these modalities rejuvenate the skin by stimulating production of new skin as well as inducing changes such as increasing production of collagen. Patients planning to undergo one of these procedures should be screened for absolute or relative contraindications, including recent use of retinoids, active skin infection, and immunosuppression. In addition, patients with histories of herpes simplex virus infection in or near the area to be treated should receive antiviral prophylaxis. Microdermabrasion is performed by passing a handheld abrasion device over the skin. Chemical peels are performed by applying liquid acid to the skin. After a chemical peel, patients treated with strong acids may require acid neutralization to protect the skin from sun exposure and reduce pain. Patients should receive aftercare instructions about application of topical agents to reduce pain, erythema, and itching. Patients undergoing chemical peels should be instructed specifically not to remove peeling skin but to let it shed spontaneously. PMID:25373032

Nguyen, Tam

2014-11-01

98

Clinico-Immunological Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Allergy Indicates Preponderance of Allergens in the Peel  

PubMed Central

Background Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergy in some Asian countries but detailed studies on eggplant allergy are lacking. Objective The objective is to investigate sensitization to different parts of eggplant fruit, and detection of the allergens. Methods Six eggplant-allergic subjects were assessed for sensitization to eggplant (peel/pulp, and raw/cooked) by skin prick test, allergen-specific IgE, and immunoblots. Allergens were analyzed for glycoprotein nature by staining/lectinoblots, and in vitro stability in simulated gastric fluid. Results All the eggplant-sensitized subjects showed positive skin prick test with peel, pulp, raw, and cooked eggplant extracts; allergen-specific IgE to all these was positive. Raw eggplant contains 5 allergens in the range 36-71 kD. Most allergens are localized in the eggplant peel (9 allergens; 26-71 kD range) than the pulp (3 allergens; 52-71 kD); among these, the 26, 28, 36, and 71 kD allergens seem to be heat-stable. The 43, 45, 64, and 71 kD allergens are detected as glycoproteins; the 26, 64, and 71 kD allergens are stable displaying retention of IgE-binding ability in simulated gastric fluid digestion. Conclusions Eggplant is a multiallergenic vegetable in the context of presence of allergens in all edible parts of eggplant having preponderance in the peel. PMID:23283148

2009-01-01

99

Report of phenol peel for Asians.  

PubMed

With the advancement of trichloroacetic acid peel technology and wound care, trichloroacetic acid peeling has become very successful in Korea. Its success has opened studies on the possibility of using phenol on Korean skin. Dr. Mee's phenol formula (molding mask technique) was chosen for experiments on Korean skin because of the presumed safety of use on non-Caucasian skin. Between January of 1996 and January of 1998, 30 cases of significant small pox scars were treated with phenol at the Korea University Anam Hospital. The age range was from 43 to 60 years, with a mean of 49 years. The average follow-up period was 13 months, ranging from 1 month to 2 years. All of the procedures were performed in the operating room while the patient was under deep i.v. sedation. After the entire face was peeled, it was covered with an occlusive tape mask. During the recovery period, the patients underwent a post-peel skin care program. All 30 patients showed significant improvement of the severe pox marks with a marked rejuvenation effect. There was no sign of hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation. As a complication, two patients developed hypertrophic scars on the perioral area, which responded well to steroid injections. Another pair of patients had herpetic infection, which left minimal scarring. Five patients developed cardiac arrhythmia with this rapid technique, but this was safely managed by an anesthesiologist during the procedure. Korean skin belongs to Fitzpatrick types IV and V and occasionally to type III or VI. It is common knowledge that performing chemical peeling on the latter types of skin is dangerous, but in this report, excellent results were obtained from all 30 patients, even though the peeling itself was very deep. With more knowledge and experience, phenol peel can be safely conducted on Asian skin. PMID:9915186

Yoon, E S; Ahn, D S

1999-01-01

100

Effect of chemical peeling on photocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photo-aged skin. We assessed the photo-chemopreventive effect of several clinically used chemical peeling agents on the ultraviolet-irradiated skin of hairless mice. Chemical peeling was done using 35% glycolic acid dissolved in distilled water, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, and 10% or 35% trichloroacetic acid in distilled water at the right back of ultraviolet-irradiated hairless mice every 2 weeks for glycolic acid, salicylic acid and 10% trichloroacetic acid, and every 4 weeks for 35% trichloroacetic acid for a total of 18 weeks after the establishment of photo-aged mice by irradiation with ultraviolet B range light three times a week for 14 weeks at a total dose of 6.66 J/cm(2) . Tumor formation was assessed every week. Skin specimens were taken from treated and non-treated area for evaluation under microscopy, evaluation of p53 expression and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Serum level of prostaglandin E(2) was also evaluated. All types of chemical peeling reduced tumor formation in treated mice, mostly in the treated area but also in the non-treated area. Peeling suppressed retention of p53-positive abnormal cells and reduced mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in treated skin. Further, serum prostaglandin E(2) level was decreased in chemical peeling treated mice. These results indicate that chemical peeling with glycolic acid, salicylic acid and trichloroacetic acid could serve tumor prevention by removing photo-damaged cells. PMID:20860736

Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Funasaka, Yoko; Kamo, Tsuneyoshi; Ooe, Masahiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Nishigori, Chikako

2010-10-01

101

Influence of cultivar, harvest time, storage conditions, and peeling on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of apples and pears.  

PubMed

Apple and pear fruits are important sources of secondary plant metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolics consumed all year round. The aim of this work was to identify the main variables influencing phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in apples. Higher phenolic and antioxidant contents were observed in some varieties (such as the Delbar Estival apple and Durondeau pear). Storage conditions were important. Our results also showed that fruits should be consumed rapidly after purchase and with their peel. After one week of domestic storage, the ascorbic acid content was found to decrease by 75%. Peeling led to a more than 25% decrease in total phenolics and ascorbic acid. The harvest time (at normal ripeness) had only a limited impact, but significant year-to-year variations were observed. In conclusion, well-chosen and well-stored apples and pears may contribute to an antioxidant-rich diet if consumed rapidly and with their peel. PMID:21548601

Kevers, Claire; Pincemail, Jol; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques

2011-06-01

102

Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.  

PubMed

alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088

Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

2010-04-01

103

Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of a Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) phytotherapeutic gel and miconazole (Daktarin oral gel) against three standard streptococci strains (mutans ATCC 25175, sanguis ATCC 10577 and mitis ATCC 9811), S. mutans clinically isolated and Candida albicans either alone or in association. The effect of minimum inhibitory concentrations of the gels

Maria do Socorro; Vieira PEREIRA; Maria Helena Pereira; Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira; Jane Sheila Higino; Maria Helena Pereira Peixoto

2006-01-01

104

Radical scavenging, antioxidant and metal chelating activities of Annona cherimola Mill. (cherimoya) peel and pulp in relation to their total phenolic and total flavonoid contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid content, radical scavenging activity (by DPPH and ABTS tests) and antioxidant capacity (by ?-carotene bleaching test) of Annona cherimola (cherimoya) fruits cultivated in Italy for human consumption. The metal chelating activity and ferric reducing power were also determined. A. cherimola peel and pulp were characterized by a total phenolic content

Monica R. Loizzo; Rosa Tundis; Marco Bonesi; Federica Menichini; Vincenzo Mastellone; Luigi Avallone; Francesco Menichini

105

An Ap"peel"ing Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a hands-on mathematics activity wherein students peel oranges to explore the surface area and volume of a sphere. This activity encourages students to make conjectures and hold mathematical discussions with both their peers and their teacher. Moreover, students develop formulas for the surface area and volume of a sphere

Urich, Joshua A.; Sasse, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

106

Palmoplantar Peeling Secondary to Sirolimus Therapy  

PubMed Central

Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks. PMID:24224736

Liu, L. S.; McNiff, J. M.; Colegio, O. R.

2014-01-01

107

THE ROLE OF SURFACE RIDGING AND PROTUBERANCES ON AVOCADO FRUIT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RIPE ROTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raised surface deformities of avocado fruit, which includes ridges and protuberances, are prone to mechanical damage as a result of their exposed nature. This mechanical damage manifests itself as peel bruising and may contribute to rot development. The extent to which ridging and protuberances influences the extent of rot development in ripe fruit was investigated in two separate experiments. The

H. A. PAK; D. BETTESWORTH; H. M. DAWES

108

Citrus Flavonoids in Fruit and Traditional Chinese Medicinal Food Ingredients in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

.Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in

Yanhua Lu; Chongwei Zhang; Peter Bucheli; Dongzhi Wei

2006-01-01

109

Banana peel: A green and economical sorbent for the selective removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the use of banana peel, a commonly produced fruit waste, for the removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature were investigated and the conditions resulting in rapid and efficient adsorption (95% within 10min) were determined. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with

Jamil R. Memon; Saima Q. Memon; Muhammad I. Bhanger; Adel El-Turki; Keith R. Hallam; Geoffrey C. Allen

2009-01-01

110

Chemical Peels for Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients  

PubMed Central

Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results. PMID:23378706

Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

2012-01-01

111

Ripening, storage temperature, ethylene action, and oxidative stress alter apple peel phytosterol metabolism.  

PubMed

The chilling conditions of apple cold storage can provoke an economically significant necrotic peel disorder called superficial scald (scald) in susceptible cultivars. Disorder development can be reduced by inhibiting ethylene action or oxidative stress as well as intermittent warming. It was previously demonstrated that scald is preceded by a metabolomic shift that results in altered levels of various classes of triterpenoids, including metabolites with mass spectral features similar to ?-sitosterol. In this study, a key class of phytosterol metabolites was identified. Changes in peel tissue levels of conjugates of ?-sitosterol and campesterol, including acylated steryl glycosides (ASG), steryl glycosides (SG) and steryl esters (SE), as well as free sterols (FS), were determined during the period of scald development. Responses to pre-storage treatment with the ethylene action inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene, or an antioxidant (diphenylamine), rapid temperature elevation, and cold acclimation using intermittent warming treatments were evaluated. Diphenylamine, 1-MCP, and intermittent warming all reduced or prevented scald development. ASG levels increased and SE levels decreased in untreated control fruit during storage. Removing fruit from cold storage to ambient temperature induced rapid shifts in ASG and SE fatty acyl moieties from unsaturated to saturated. FS and SG levels remained relatively stable during storage but SG levels increased following a temperature increase after storage. ASG, SE, and SG levels did not increase during 6 months cold storage in fruit subjected to intermittent warming treatment. Overall, the results show that apple peel phytosteryl conjugate metabolism is influenced by storage duration, oxidative stress, ethylene action/ripening, and storage temperature. PMID:21665233

Rudell, David R; Buchanan, David A; Leisso, Rachel S; Whitaker, Bruce D; Mattheis, James P; Zhu, Yanmin; Varanasi, Vijay

2011-08-01

112

Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial  

PubMed Central

The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women. PMID:24133616

Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

2013-01-01

113

Anaerobic digestion of pineapple pulp and peel in a plug-flow reactor.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to study the production of biogas by using pineapple pulp and peel, the by-products from fruit processing plants, in a plug-flow reactor (17.5 L total volume). The effects of feed concentration, total solids (TS) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on degradation of the waste were investigated. The increase of pineapple pulp and peel of 2% (wt/vol) at HRT 7 d to 4% (wt/vol) at HRT 10 d showed increases in biogas production rate, biogas yield and methane yield - from 0.12 v/v-d, 0.26 m(3)/kg COD removed and 0.11 m(3)/kg COD removed, with COD removal at 64.1%, to 0.25 v/v-d, 0.43 m(3)/kg COD removed and 0.14 m(3)/kg COD removed, with COD removal at 60.41%. The methanogenic fermentation was more active in the middle and final parts of the reactor. The recirculation of fermentation effluent at 40% (vol/vol) of the working volume into the reactor could increase the biogas production rate and biogas yield up to 52% and 12%, respectively. The results showed technological potential for waste treatment of pineapple pulp and peel in a plug-flow reactor. PMID:22705859

Namsree, Pimjai; Suvajittanont, Worakrit; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

2012-11-15

114

Print-and-peel fabrication of microelectrodes.  

PubMed

We describe a facile and expedient approach for the fabrication of arrays of microelectrodes on smooth substrates. A sequence of print-and-peel procedures allowed for the microfabrication of capacitance microsensors using office equipment and relatively simple wet chemistry. Microfluidic assemblies with reversibly adhered elastomer components allowed for the transfer of patterns of metallic silver, deposited via Tollens' reaction, onto the substrate surfaces. Electroplating of the silver patterns produced an array of micrometer-thick copper electrodes. Capacitance sensors were assembled by placing nonlithographically fabricated flow chambers over the microelectrode arrays. Triangular-waveform current-voltage (I/V) measurements showed a linear correlation between the capacitance of the print-and-peel fabricated devices and the dielectric constant of the samples injected into their flow chambers. PMID:18646733

Hong, Connie; Bao, Duoduo; Thomas, Marlon S; Clift, Joseph M; Vullev, Valentine I

2008-08-19

115

Cardiac arrhythmias during phenol face peeling.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine percent of 54 phenol face peel patients treated rapidly developed some form of cardiac arrhythmia. When half the face was treated on consecutive days, only 22 percent of 100 patients developed cardiac arrhythmias and these were less severe. Serum phenol levels varied from 4.4 to 337.1 mg/L. Neither age, sex, nor previous cardiac history were accurate predictors of cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility. There was no predictable relationship between serum phenol level and the appearance of cardiac arrhythmia. The duration of the cardiac arrhythmias (2 to 19 minutes) suggests that the risk of cardiac arrhythmia in phenol peeling can be reduced by dividing the face into several units and spacing the application of phenol to each unit 20 minutes apart. PMID:6709740

Gross, B G

1984-04-01

116

Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant.  

PubMed

Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, Mara J; Alfrez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Gonzlez-Candelas, Luis; Zacaras, Lorenzo; Lafuente, Mara T

2012-04-01

117

Identification of seven water-soluble non-storage proteins from pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

As pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) processing is fast growing, the usage of pomegranate processing wastes containing seeds has been receiving great attention. The protein component accounts for 100-130?g/kg of the seeds in weight. However, so far, there is no information on the composition and function of the pomegranate seed proteins. In this study, a global view of water-soluble non-storage proteins isolated from mature pomegranate seeds were studied using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. With the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach, over 120 protein spots were resolved, of which 7 abundant protein spots showing low molecular mass were identified. These identified proteins may be linked to seed development and metabolism, but more importantly, the occurrence of these proteins provides the possibility of conversion the pomegranate processing wastes into useful products or raw material for food industry. PMID:22859647

Yang, Haixia; Li, Meiliang; Qi, Xin; Lv, Chenyan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhao, Guanghua

2012-08-01

118

Relationship between Viscoelastic and Peeling Properties of Model Adhesives. Part 1. Cohesive Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viscoelastic and peeling properties of polybutadiene\\/tackifying resin compatible blends have been studied in detail. Viscoelastic properties have been described through the variations of the complex shear modulus, G*(?), as a function of frequency, ? and peeling properties through the variations of peeling force (F) as a function of peeling rate (V).After showing the objective character of the peeling curves

C. Derail; A. Allal; G. Marin; Ph. Tordjeman

1997-01-01

119

Extension of the shelf life of banana fruit by 1-methylcyclopropene in combination with polyethylene bags  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the new anti-ethylene compound 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in combination with polyethylene bags on the ripening of harvested banana fruit was investigated. 1-MCP treatment delayed peel colour change and fruit softening, and extended shelf life in association with suppression of respiration and C2H4 evolution. Banana fruit ripening was delayed when exposed to 0.011.0 ?l 1-MCP\\/l for 24 h, and

Yueming Jiang; Daryl C Joyce; Andrew J Macnish

1999-01-01

120

Structural Changes in the Minimal Processing of Fruits: Some Effects of Blanching and Sugar Impregnation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The minimal processing of fruits includes a wide range of methods and technologies for preserving short shelf-life fruit products\\u000a while minimizing changes to their fresh-like characteristics, and the improvement in quality of long shelf-life fruit products\\u000a (Ohlsson, 1994). Examples involve combinations of various treatments such as slicing and peeling, washing, disinfection with chemicals or\\u000a gamma irradiation, soaking in several solutions

Stella M. Alzamora; La N. Gerschenson; Susana L. Vidales; Andrea Nieto

121

Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma  

PubMed Central

Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma. PMID:23130283

Puri, Neerja

2012-01-01

122

Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.  

PubMed

Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its climatic environment during growth could affect postharvest behaviour and quality. PMID:23267462

Lchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Flicie; Vidal, Vronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

2013-04-15

123

Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: Effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of Punica granatum aqueous extract (PgAq) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats by measuring fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles (atherogenic index), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of both non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60mg\\/kg) to albino Wistar rats. The increase in blood glucose level, total cholesterol

Priyanka Bagri; Mohd. Ali; Vidhu Aeri; Malay Bhowmik; Shahnaz Sultana

2009-01-01

124

Salicylic acid peels for the treatment of photoaging.  

PubMed

Several chemical agents are currently used to perform superficial chemical peels of the face. These include trichloracetic acid (15-30%), alpha-hydroxy acids (e.g., glycolic acid, 40-70%), and Jessner's solution (14% lactic acid, 14% resorcinol, and 14% salicylic acid). We have developed salicylic acid, a beta-hydroxy acid, at a higher strength (30% in a hydro-ethanolic vehicle) as an alternative peel. This peel has distinct advantages for resurfacing moderately photodamaged facial skin. We have peeled patients singly and multiply at 4-week intervals. The benefits are fading of pigment spots, decreased surface roughness, and reduction of fine lines. PMID:9537006

Kligman, D; Kligman, A M

1998-03-01

125

Methods for the efficient quantification of fruit provitamin A contents.  

PubMed

As part of a screening program to identify micronutrient-rich banana and plantain (Musa) varieties, a simple, robust, and comparatively rapid protocol for the quantification of the provitamin A carotenoids contents of fruit pulp and peel tissues by HPLC and by spectrophotometry has been developed. Major points to note include the use lyophilisation and extensive tissue disruption procedures to ensure quantitative recoveries, and the avoidance of saponification and/or concentration steps which lead to significant losses of provitamin A carotenoids. The protocol showed excellent reproducibility between replicate extractions, without the need for an internal standard. Application of the methodology demonstrated that Musa fruit pulp has a relatively simple provitamin A carotenoids content, quite different from the overlying peel, and that the proportions of alpha- and beta-carotene are characteristic for each genotype. The protocol was also used to profile the provitamin A carotenoids of several other fruits. PMID:17049540

Davey, Mark W; Keulemans, Johan; Swennen, Rony

2006-12-15

126

Key findings from Year 2 of Full-Day Early Learning Kindergarten in Peel  

E-print Network

Kindergarten in Peel I'm playing with my friends at school (F-DAY EARLY LEARNING KINDERGARTEN IN PEEL REVIEW: PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH services, specifically kindergarten, child care and parenting support in the Peel

Sokolowski, Marla

127

Identification of flavonol and xanthone glycosides from mango (Mangifera indica L. Cv. "Tommy Atkins") peels by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Flavonol O- and xanthone C-glycosides were extracted from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. "Tommy Atkins") peels and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the fourteen compounds analyzed, seven quercetin O-glycosides, one kaempferol O-glycoside, and four xanthone C-glycosides were found. On the basis of their fragmentation pattern, the latter were identified as mangiferin and isomangiferin and their respective galloyl derivatives. A flavonol hexoside with m/z 477 was tentatively identified as a rhamnetin glycoside, which to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been reported in mango peels. The results obtained in the present study confirm that peels originating from mango fruit processing are a promising source of phenolic compounds that might be recovered and used as natural antioxidants or functional food ingredients. PMID:12903961

Schieber, Andreas; Berardini, Nicolai; Carle, Reinhold

2003-08-13

128

Subcritical water extraction of phenolic compounds from potato peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato peel, a waste generated from potato processing, is a disposal problem. But, potato peel is a good source of functional ingredients such as phenolic compounds. This study investigated the extraction of eight phenolic compounds (Gallic acid, GAC; Chlorogenic acid, CGA; Caffeic acid, CFA; Protocatechuic acid, PCA; Syringic acid, SGA; p-hydroxyl benzoic acid, PBA; Ferulic acid, FRA and Coumaric acid,

Pushp Pal Singh; Marleny D. A. Saldaa

2011-01-01

129

Structure-function relationship of the foam-like pomelo peel (Citrus maxima)-an inspiration for the development of biomimetic damping materials with high energy dissipation.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of artificial foams are mainly determined by the choice of bulk materials and relative density. In natural foams, in contrast, variation to optimize properties is achieved by structural optimization rather than by conscious substitution of bulk materials. Pomelos (Citrus maxima) have a thick foam-like peel which is capable of dissipating considerable amounts of kinetic energy and thus this fruit represents an ideal role model for the development of biomimetic impact damping structures. This paper focuses on the analysis of the biomechanics of the pomelo peel and on its structure-function relationship. It deals with the determination of the onset strain of densification of this foam-like tissue and on how this property is influenced by the arrangement of vascular bundles. It was found here that the vascular bundles branch in a very regular manner-every 16.5% of the radial peel thickness-and that the surrounding peel tissue (pericarp) attains its exceptional thickness mainly by the expansion of existing interconnected cells causing an increasing volume of the intercellular space, rather than by cell division. These findings lead to the discussion of the pomelo peel as an inspiration for fibre-reinforced cast metallic foams with the capacity for excellent energy dissipation. PMID:23648799

Thielen, M; Schmitt, C N Z; Eckert, S; Speck, T; Seidel, R

2013-06-01

130

Microcontact peeling as a new method for cell micropatterning.  

PubMed

Micropatterning is becoming a powerful tool for studying morphogenetic and differentiation processes of cells. Here we describe a new micropatterning technique, which we refer to as microcontact peeling. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were treated with oxygen plasma, and the resulting hydrophilic layer of the surface was locally peeled off through direct contact with a peeling stamp made of aluminum, copper, or silicon. A hydrophobic layer of PDMS could be selectively exposed only at the places of the physical contact as revealed by water contact angle measurements and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which thus enabled successful micropatterning of cells with micro-featured peeling stamps. This new micropatterning technique needs no procedure for directly adsorbing proteins to bare PDMS in contrast to conventional techniques using a microcontact printing stamp. Given the several unique characteristics, the present technique based on the peel-off of inorganic materials may become a useful option for performing cell micropatterning. PMID:25062030

Yokoyama, Sho; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Deguchi, Shinji

2014-01-01

131

Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

PubMed

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-10-01

132

The use of principal component and cluster analysis to differentiate banana peel flours based on their starch and dietary fibre components.  

PubMed

Banana peel flour (BPF) prepared from green or ripe Cavendish and Dream banana fruits were assessed for their total starch (TS), digestible starch (DS), resistant starch (RS), total dietary fibre (TDF), soluble dietary fibre (SDF) and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that only 1 component was responsible for 93.74% of the total variance in the starch and dietary fibre components that differentiated ripe and green banana flours. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to similar data obtained two statistically significant clusters (green and ripe bananas) to indicate difference in behaviours according to the stages of ripeness based on starch and dietary fibre components. We concluded that the starch and dietary fibre components could be used to discriminate between flours prepared from peels obtained from fruits of different ripeness. The results were also suggestive of the potential of green and ripe BPF as functional ingredients in food. PMID:24575193

Ramli, Saifullah; Ismail, Noryati; Alkarkhi, Abbas Fadhl Mubarek; Easa, Azhar Mat

2010-08-01

133

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

134

Efficacy of Punica granatum L. hydroalcoholic extract on properties of dyed hair exposed to UVA radiation.  

PubMed

The solar radiation promotes color fading of natural and dyed hair by free radical generation, which oxidize the pigments, and it has been proposed the incorporation of antioxidants in order to reduce the alterations of hair color. Due to its high content of polyphenols and tannins, which are potent antioxidants, the hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) was used in this research. Hair care formulations containing pomegranate extract were applied to red dyed hair tresses, and these were exposed to UVA radiation. Non-ionic silicone emulsion presenting color protection properties were also used for comparison purpose between the results obtained with different treatments, including silicone in combination with the pomegranate extract. The pomegranate extract at 5.0% and 10.0%w/w was effective in preventing the hair color fading in 37.6% and 60.8%, respectively, but the association of hydroalcoholic extract and non-ionic silicone emulsion is not encouraged. Mechanical properties were not affected by UVA radiation, since significant differences in breaking strength were not observed. Considering the conditions which the tresses have been exposed, it was concluded that the pomegranate extract at 10.0% w/w in hair care formulations are effective in reducing color fading of red dyed hair. PMID:23380541

Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Pahl, Richard; de Castro, Jordana Rodrigues; de Lima, Fernando Soares; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Pinto, Claudinia A S O; Baby, Andr Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valria Robles

2013-03-01

135

A Comprehensive Review of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) Properties in Toxicological, Pharmacological, Cellular and Molecular Biology Researches  

PubMed Central

Punica granatum (Pg), commonly known as pomegranate (Pg), is a member of the monogeneric family, Punicaceae, and is mainly found in Iran which is considered to be its primary centre of origin. Pg and its chemical components possess various pharmacological and toxicological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines), anti-cancer and anti-angiogenesis activities. They also show inhibitory effects on invasion/motility, cell cycle, apoptosis, and vital enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX), lipooxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 (CYP450), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), carbonic anhydrase (CA), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSDs) and serine protease (SP). Furthermore, they can stimulate cell differentiation and possess anti-mutagenic effects. Pg can also interfere with several signaling pathways including PI3K/AKT, mTOR, PI3K, Bcl-X, Bax, Bad, MAPK, ERK1/2, P38, JNK, and caspase. However, the exact mechanisms for its pharmacological and toxicological properties remain to be unclear and need further evaluation. These properties strongly suggest a wide range use of Pg for clinical applications. This review will discuss the areas for which Pg has shown therapeutic properties in different mechanisms. PMID:24250463

Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Arastoo, Mohammad; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

2012-01-01

136

Triterpenes as uncompetitive inhibitors of ?-glucosidase from flowers of Punica granatum L.  

PubMed

The ?-glucosidase and maltase inhibitory effects of Punica granatum L. flowers (PGF) were investigated. The methanol extract (PGFMe), n-hexane extract (PGFH), chloroform extract (PGFC) and the remaining water fraction (PGFW) were assayed for their ?-glucosidase and maltase inhibitory effects. PGFW showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 of 0.8?g/mL followed by PGFMe (IC50 of 4.0?g/mL) then PGFC (IC50 of 5.21?g/mL) in comparison to acarbose (0.9?M). Due to its selectivity towards ?-glucosidase, PGFC was subjected to bioactivity-guided isolation of its main active constituents. Five known compounds (1-5) were identified as ?-sitosterol (1), oleanolic acid (2), ursolic acid (3), p-coumaric acid (4) and apigenin (5). Ursolic and oleanolic acids showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibition (IC50 of 39.0 and 35.0?M, respectively), while they did not show significant maltase inhibition. Kinetic study using the double Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that ursolic acid uncompetitively inhibited ?-glucosidase in comparison with acarbose as a competitive inhibitor. PMID:24956202

Salah El Dine, Riham; Ma, Qiong; Kandil, Zeinab A; El-Halawany, Ali M

2014-12-01

137

Antioxidant properties and hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS profiling of Chilean Pica mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueo).  

PubMed

Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu), 13 in Pica peel (ppe) 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu) and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe). Three procyanidin dimers (peaks 6, 9 and 10), seven acid derivatives (peaks 1-4, 11, 20 and 21) and four xanthones were identified, mainly mangiferin (peak 12) and mangiferin gallate, (peak 7), which were present in both peel and pulp of the two studied species from northern Chile. Homomangiferin (peak 13) was also present in both fruit pulps and dimethylmangiferin (peak 14) was present only in Tommy pulp. Pica fruits showed better antioxidant capacities and higher polyphenolic content (73.76/32.23 g/mL in the DPPH assay and 32.49/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay, for edible pulp and peel, respectively) than Tommy Atkins fruits (127.22/46.39 g/mL in the DPPH assay and 25.03/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay for pulp and peel, respectively). The peel of Pica mangoes showed also the highest content of phenolics (66.02 mg/100 g FW) measured by HPLC-PDA. The HPLC generated fingerprint can be used to authenticate Pica mango fruits and Pica mango food products. PMID:24384924

Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Seplveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario J

2013-01-01

138

Optical properties and contribution of cuticle to UV protection in plants: experiments with apple fruit.  

PubMed

To assess the UV-screening capacity of plant surface structures, the optical properties of isolated cuticle and detached peel of apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh., cv. Antonovka) have been studied. It was found that the cuticle exhibits considerable scattering of UV radiation, negligible absorption between 500-800 nm and attenuates UV radiation: on average, cuticular transmittance of non-reflected light amounts to 35.7 +/- 20.2 and 14.2 +/- 7.1% at 375 and 300 nm, respectively. The principal UV-A absorbers in the cuticle were identified as quercetin glycosides with an in vivo absorption maximum near 375 nm and content ranging from 10 to 70 nmol cm(-2). On the shaded side of apple fruit, both UV-A and UV-B absorption by the peel is, to a large extent, governed by cuticular phenolics, whereas on the sunlit surface, the absorption of the peel in the UV-A range is determined mainly by vacuolar peel flavonoids. It is concluded that a massive build-up of flavonoids in the peel cells located just below the cuticle, resulting in trapping of radiation in a broad spectral range, plays a dominant role in the long-term adaptation of apple fruit to elevated levels of solar radiation. PMID:14521223

Solovchenko, Alexei; Merzlyak, Mark

2003-08-01

139

Inhibition of melanin production by a combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts.  

PubMed

In an effort to find botanicals containing polyphenolic compounds with the capacity to inhibit melanin biosynthesis, we identified a novel combination of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) extract, standardized to 80% taxifolin, and pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) extract, containing 20% punicalagins, that demonstrates a synergistic reduction of melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells. The combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts (1:1) produced a 2-fold reduction in melanin content compared to Siberian larch or pomegranate extracts alone with no corresponding effect on cell viability. Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts inhibited expression of melanocyte specific genes, tyrosinase (Tyr), microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf), and melanosome structural proteins (Pmel17 and Mart1) but did not inhibit tyrosinase enzyme activity. These results suggest that the mechanism of inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts, alone and in combination, is through downregulation of melanocyte specific genes and not due to inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity. PMID:22714008

Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Scholten, Jeffrey D

2012-09-01

140

Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling.  

PubMed

We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependence of the stick and slip phase durations on the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K. W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205-222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such a model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase. PMID:24651387

Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stphane; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loc

2014-01-01

141

Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependencies of the stick and slip phases durations with the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K.W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205--222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase.

Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stphane; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loc

142

Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling  

PubMed Central

The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of 1H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake. PMID:21562641

Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

2011-01-01

143

Triterpenoid saponins from the fruits of Caryocar villosum.  

PubMed

Fourteen new triterpenoid saponins (1-14) were isolated from the methanol extract of the fruits of Caryocar villosum along with 10 known saponins. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) and ESIMS studies. The toxicity of the methanolic extracts of the peel and the pulp of fruits and the crude saponin fraction of the peel was assessed using the Artemia salina test. The antimicrobial activities of caryocarosides IV-21 (14), II-1 (16), III-1 (17), and IV-9 (20) and of saponin 23 were also studied in vitro on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. PMID:16792411

Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Voutquenne, Laurence; Harakat, Dominique; Pouny, Isabelle; Caron, Catherine; Moretti, Christian; Lavaud, Catherine

2006-06-01

144

Implementation and testing of a parallel layer peeling algorithm  

E-print Network

events into account. Two different implementations of the above mentioned serial algorithm viz., Layer Peeling and Characteristic Tracing have been previously described, and the characteristic tracing method has been implemented in parallel...

Gandapur, Tasneem Kausar

2012-06-07

145

Simultaneous deep-plane face lift and trichloroacetic acid peel.  

PubMed

Many patients seeking facial rejuvenation require a combination of face lift and chemical peel to achieve optimal results. These procedures traditionally have been separated in time because of fear of skin slough after simultaneous peel and face lift. The recent evolution to deep-plane face lift and peeling agents other than phenol led to this reexamination of the subject. Forty-seven porcine flaps were treated with a variety of chemabrasion agents. As a result, 35% trichloroacetic acid was determined to be a safe agent for use on thick flaps. Thirty-five patients underwent simultaneous modified deep-plane face lift and immediate trichloroacetic acid peel, with 35% being the maximum strength used on undermined areas. This combination proved to be successful, with no complications related to the combination treatment. PMID:8278488

Dingman, D L; Hartog, J; Siemionow, M

1994-01-01

146

Extraction of hiprose fruit by supercritical CO 2 and propane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of whole fruit, seeds and peel of hiprose were studied with carbon dioxide, propane + carbon dioxide and propane as solvents under super- and subcritical conditions. The percentage of extract recovered from seed, whole hipfruit and hippeel was found to be 5.76.7, 3.03.5 and 0.320.42, respectively. The ratios of solvent to plant material, required to attain a complete extraction,

V. Ills; O. Szalai; M. Then; H. Daood; S. Perneczki

1997-01-01

147

Structure effect on the peel strength of polyurethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and 4,4'-dicyclohexylmethane (H12MDI)-based polyurethanes (PUs) with different molecular weights and hard segment contents were synthesized by solution polymerization. The peel strengths between these PUs and 3M-600 tape were measured. Surprisingly, PUs with the most hydrophobic composition showed the largest peel strength. The hydrogen bonding index (HBI) measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was

S. L. Huang; S. J. Yu; J. Y. Lai

1998-01-01

148

Banana peel extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly green material. The boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce chloroauric acid. A variety of nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, chloroauric acid concentration and temperature of incubation. The reaction mixtures displayed

Ashok Bankar; Bhagyashree Joshi; Ameeta Ravi Kumar; Smita Zinjarde

2010-01-01

149

Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry.  

PubMed

The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the peel extract was greatest and followed by that of the inside and seed extracts in all bioassays. Significant reductions in the root and shoot growth were observed as the extract concentration was increased. The concentrations of abscisic acid-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-GE) in peel, inside and seeds separated from the C. junos fruit waste were determined, since ABA-GE was found to be one of the main growth inhibitors in C. junos fruit. The concentration was greatest in the peel, followed by the inside and seeds; there was a good correspondence between these concentrations and the inhibitory activities of the extracts. This suggests that ABA-GE may also be involved in the growth inhibitory effect of C. junos waste. These results suggested that C. junos waste may possess allelopathic potential, and the waste may be potentially useful for weed management. PMID:15158515

Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Yukitoshi

2004-09-01

150

Physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of fruits xoconostle (Opuntia matudae) pears from Central-Mxico Region.  

PubMed

Xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeo (Opuntia matudae) has attracted domestic and international industry attention; however, variations of composition from xoconostle structures have not been evaluated. Industries discard the pulp (endocarp) and peel (pericarp) as wastes and utilize the skin (mesocarp), which is the edible portion. The physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of structures from xoconostle pear from 3 major sites of production in Mexico were assessed. Skin yield ranged from 58% to 64% and was higher to that of peel (22% to 24%) and pulp (12% to 18%) yields. pH, degrees Brix, and acidity were similar among xoconostle structures. Total fiber showed by peel (18.23% to 20.37%) was 2-fold higher than that of skin. Protein and ether extract were higher in xoconostle pulp compared to that showed by peel and skin. Iron content of xoconostle peel (6 to 9.6 mg/100 g, DWB) was higher to that of skin and pulp and prickly pear pulp. Soluble phenols of peel (840 to 863 mg GAE/100 g, DWB) were almost similar to that of skin (919 to 986 mg GAE/100 g, dry weigh basis); meanwhile, ascorbic acid concentration of skin was 2-fold higher compared to that of peel. The phenolic fraction of xoconostle structures consisted of gallic, vanillic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids; catechin, epicatechin, and vanillin were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-didoe array detection (HPLC-DAD). Xoconostle peel showed higher antioxidant activity (TEAC) compared to that of skin (2-fold) and pulp (6-fold) of commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The potential of xoconostle peel and pulp for the production of feed or food is promissory. Practical Application: Outstanding nutritional and functional properties of xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeo fruits are demonstrated. Increased consumption could contribute positively to improve the diet of rural and urban consumers. The high fiber, mineral, and antioxidant components of xoconostle peel and pulp suggest that these fruit structures, which are currently discarded as waste, have promissory use as feed or food by industry. PMID:20722901

Guzmn-Maldonado, Salvador H; Morales-Montelongo, Ana L; Mondragn-Jacobo, Candelario; Herrera-Hernndez, Guadalupe; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia

2010-08-01

151

Volumetric depth peeling for medical image display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volumetric depth peeling (VDP) is an extension to volume rendering that enables display of otherwise occluded features in volume data sets. VDP decouples occlusion calculation from the volume rendering transfer function, enabling independent optimization of settings for rendering and occlusion. The algorithm is flexible enough to handle multiple regions occluding the object of interest, as well as object self-occlusion, and requires no pre-segmentation of the data set. VDP was developed as an improvement for virtual arthroscopy for the diagnosis of shoulder-joint trauma, and has been generalized for use in other simple and complex joints, and to enable non-invasive urology studies. In virtual arthroscopy, the surfaces in the joints often occlude each other, allowing limited viewpoints from which to evaluate these surfaces. In urology studies, the physician would like to position the virtual camera outside the kidney collecting system and see inside it. By rendering invisible all voxels between the observer's point of view and objects of interest, VDP enables viewing from unconstrained positions. In essence, VDP can be viewed as a technique for automatically defining an optimal data- and task-dependent clipping surface. Radiologists using VDP display have been able to perform evaluations of pathologies more easily and more rapidly than with clinical arthroscopy, standard volume rendering, or standard MRI/CT slice viewing.

Borland, David; Clarke, John P.; Fielding, Julia R.; TaylorII, Russell M.

2006-01-01

152

Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

2014-01-01

153

Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

2014-01-01

154

Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet ? cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the pancreas weight index and the histological changes in the pancreas, were also determined. The results showed that, after fours weeks of treatment with PPE, BBPE or PPE + BBPE, DM mice showed, to different degrees, a decrease in blood glucose, increases in insulin secretion and the pancreas weight index, and an increase in antioxidative activity. These changes were particularly evident in the DM mice subjected to the combined intervention strategy of PPE + BBPE. The histological findings indicated that the injury to the pancreatic islets in DM mice was also ameliorated following treatment. In conclusion, PPE and BBPE, particularly the combination of the two, have the ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced pancreatic damage; this finding may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM.

WANG, JIAN-YUN; ZHU, CHUANG; QIAN, TIAN-WEI; GUO, HAO; WANG, DONG-DONG; ZHANG, FAN; YIN, XIAOXING

2015-01-01

155

Molecular and morphological characterization of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genotypes sampled from Coruh Valley in Turkey.  

PubMed

The pomegranate is one of the oldest fruits that are traditionally consumed by the local inhabitants of the Coruh Valley, Turkey. In this study, the molecular and morphological characteristics of 19 promising pomegranate genotypes selected from the Coruh Valley were evaluated. For the morphological evaluation, 22 quantitative fruit characteristics were used. For the molecular evaluation, 47 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were used for polymerase chain reaction analysis. The principle component analysis of 22 quantitative fruit characteristics revealed that fruit weight and skin color are dominant traits for genotype discrimination. The unweighted average distance cluster of fruit characteristics revealed 3 distinct groups. Among the 47 RAPD primers, 9 exhibited reliable polymorphic patterns, and generated a total of 63 RAPD bands, of which 49.2% were polymorphic. The similarity matrix showed that the highest (0.920) and lowest (0.556) genetic similarities occurred between the APS13 and APS28 genotypes and the APS12 and APS42 genotypes, respectively. We determined clear discrepancies between the morphological and molecular data; consequently, the differences obtained among genotypes for fruit characteristics did not support genetic relationships among genotypes. In conclusion, molecular data provided the most reliable results at the DNA level. PMID:24446337

Orhan, E; Ercisli, S; Esitken, A; Sengul, M

2014-01-01

156

Peeling off an adhesive layer with spatially varying modulus.  

PubMed

We analyze here displacement controlled peeling of a flexible adherent off a thin layer of elastic adhesive, the elastic modulus of which does not remain uniform but varies periodically along the direction of peeling. Calculation shows that with progressive peeling, the crack front does not propagate continuously at the interface but intermittently with crack arrests and subsequent initiations. The crack gets arrested close to the location of the minimum shear modulus of the layer and initiates again only at a sufficiently large peel off load. This effect is very similar to the peeling experiment off surface patterned and microchannel embedded adhesives which results in significant enhancement of fracture toughness of the interface over smooth adhesive layers. The fracture toughness of the interface increases with the increase in thickness of the layer and the amplitude of variation in modulus. Fracture toughness is calculated to be high also for the larger value of critical stress at the opening of the crack. With the wavelength of modulus variation, it varies nonmonotonically, maximizing at an intermediate value. These results define the criterion for designing adhesive layers with spatially modulated physical properties useful for variety of applications. PMID:20365570

Ghatak, Animangsu

2010-02-01

157

Comparison of tensile and peel bond strengths of resilient liners.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown little agreement between the test methods used to assess the bond strength and the mode of failure of resilient liners. This study evaluated the bond strength characteristics of resilient liners by means of 180-degree peeling and butt tensile strength testing. Seventy-two specimens were divided into peel bond and tensile bond specimen groups and were then subdivided into four test groups to evaluate each resilient liner. Tests were conducted with an Instron universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 2 mm/minute for the tensile specimens and 5 mm/min for the peel specimens. Tensile bond strength and peel bond strength varied significantly among resilient liners except between Novus and Palasiv-62 liners in tensile testing. The mode of failure of Molloplast-B and Novus liners was significantly different between the tensile bond and peel bond test methods. It was concluded that bond strength characteristics can vary according to the test method used. PMID:8006851

Kutay, O

1994-05-01

158

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.  

PubMed

Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fentons reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

2011-01-01

159

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling  

PubMed Central

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20?kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50?kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure fracture bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions. PMID:24651648

Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

2014-01-01

160

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure ``fracture'' bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

2014-03-01

161

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling.  

PubMed

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20?kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50?kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions. PMID:24651648

Marston, Jeremy O; Riker, Paul W; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

2014-01-01

162

Effect of Tensile Strength by Variations in Peel Strength in Laminated Film for Liquid Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good tensile strength of a laminated film for packaging is an indispensable property in preventing leakage. It is known that the peel strength between laminated film layers is closely related to the tensile strength of the film. In this study, we have measured the tensile strength for various peel strengths of two kinds of three layered laminated film; Nylon + Aluminum + Polyethylene and Nylon + Polyester + Polyethylene. These films have two peel layers, so we escalated one peel strength and fix another one. Then we found that the peel strength between the sealant and the boundaries strongly influences the tensile strength. About Nylon + Polyester + Polyethylene film, we researched applied amount of adhesive and observed cross section of specimen at measurement of peel strength. Then we found that there is difference in specimen condition at measurement of peel strength, and examined about relationship of peel strength and stiffness of specimen.

Machida, Yukihiko; Shimamoto, Akira; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Futase, Katsunori

163

An experimental investigation of deformation and fatigue behavior of coach peel riveted joints  

E-print Network

and more riveting is being applied to substitute for resistance spot welding when sheets of aluminum.04.003 Abbreviations CPPR, Coach Peel Pop Rivet; CPSPR, Coach Peel Self- Piercing Rivet; RSW, Resistance Spot Wel

Fatemi, Ali

164

Tretinoin accelerates healing after trichloroacetic acid chemical peel.  

PubMed

We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective, randomized study to assess the effects of tretinoin pretreatment on healing after trichloroacetic acid (TCA) chemical peel. Sixteen male patients (mean age, 67 years) with actinically damaged skin were treated daily with 0.1% tretinoin and placebo creams to the left and right halves of the face and the left and right forearms and hands, respectively, for 14 days prior to the 35% TCA peel. We subjectively noted that during the peel, "frosting" was more pronounced and uniform and occurred earlier in tretinoin-pretreated skin in 94% of the patients. Healed skin was measured planimetrically, and the healed area was determined with point stereology. Regardless of pretreatment, the face healed twice as fast as the forearm or hand. In all regions, the mean area healed was significantly greater in skin that had been pretreated with tretinoin. The differences between tretinoin and placebo, respectively, in healed skin were maximal after 5 days for the face (68% vs 52%), after 11 days for the forearms (72% vs 24%), and after 9 days for the hands (61% vs 29%). After 7 days, 75% of the tretinoin-pretreated hemifaces were completely healed, as opposed to 31% of the placebo-pretreated hemifaces. By visual inspection, we could not appreciate a cosmetic difference between tretinoin- and placebo-pretreated skin 2 weeks and 3 months after the TCA peel. We conclude that 0.1% tretinoin pretreatment for 2 weeks prior to the TCA peel will significantly speed healing, which may result in greater patient satisfaction. Patients presently being treated with tretinoin who later undergo a TCA peel might be expected to have similar results. PMID:2024986

Hevia, O; Nemeth, A J; Taylor, J R

1991-05-01

165

Relationship Between Viscoelastic and Peeling Properties of Model Adhesives. Part 2. The Interfacial Fracture Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viscoelastic and peeling properties of polybutadiene\\/tackifying resin compatible blends have been studied in detail. Viscoelastic properties have been described through the variations of the complex shear modulus, G*(w), as a function of frequency, W, and peeling properties through the variations of peeling force (F) as a function of peeling rate (V).The first paper of this series presented the cohesive

C. Derail; A. Allal; G. Marin; Ph. Tordjeman

1998-01-01

166

A Generalized Cohesive Zone Model of Peel Test for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives  

E-print Network

The peel test is a commonly used testing method for adhesive strength evaluation. The test involves peeling a pressure sensitive tape away from a substrate and measuring the peel force that is applied to rupture the adhesive bond. In the present...

Zhang, Liang

2010-01-16

167

Comparison of three drying processes to obtain an apple peel food ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple peel, a waste product from dried apple manufacture, has a high content of bioactive phenolic compounds. In Chile ca. 9000 ton of apple peel are generated each year. To obtain a novel food ingredient, we compared three drying processes on Granny Smith apple peel: oven (60C), drum dryer (110C), and freeze drying. The influence of each drying technology on

M. Henrquez; S. Almonacid; M. Lutz; R. Simpson; M. Valdenegro

2012-01-01

168

Water sorption isotherms for lemon peel at different temperatures and isosteric heats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon peel constitutes a potential source of dietary fiber to formulate new and healthier products, as well as a source of essential oils. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for lemon peel processing, especially for drying and storage. Water sorption isotherms of lemon peel were obtained using a standardized conductivity hygrometer at four different temperatures

J. V. Garca-Prez; J. A. Crcel; G. Clemente; A. Mulet

2008-01-01

169

Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was

Thomas Happi Emaga; Christelle Robert; Sbastien N. Ronkart; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot

2008-01-01

170

Application of 1-MCP and propylene to identify ethylene-dependent ripening processes in mature banana fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature green bananas (Musa sp., AAA group, Cavendish subgroup, cultivar `Williams') were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at a preclimacteric stage and at intervals of 6, 12 and 24 h after propylene treatment (HAPT) to initiate ripening. The fruit were then allowed to ripen in air or propylene. Ethylene production, respiration rates, peel colour and total volatiles production were monitored during

J. B Golding; D Shearer; S. G Wyllie; W. B McGlasson

1998-01-01

171

Iron Deficiency, Fruit Yield and Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is a major constraint for many fruit crops grown on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency is often assumed tacitly to affect negatively both fruit yield and fruit quality, but to our knowledge no review has been done so far on these specific issues. This review discusses first the negative effects of Fe deficiency in fruit yield, including as an

Ana lvarez-Fernndez; Javier Abada; Anunciacin Abada

172

Star fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carambola or star fruit belongs to the Oxalidaceae family, species Averrhoa carambola. Slices cut in cross-section have the form of a star (Figure 1). It is believed to have originated in Ceylon and the Moluccas\\u000a but it has been cultivated in southeast Asia and Malaysia for many centuries. It is commonly grown in some provinces in southern\\u000a China, in

Miguel M. Neto; Ruither O. Carolino; Norberto P. Lopes; Norberto Garcia-Cairasco

173

Dynamic Manipulation Inspired by the Handling of a Pizza Peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses dynamic manipulation inspired by the handling mechanism of a pizza chef. The chef handles a tool called ldquopizza peel,rdquo where a plate is attached at the tip of a bar, and he remotely manipulates a pizza on the plate. We found that he aggressively utilizes only two degrees of freedom (DOFs) from the remote handling location during

Mitsuru Higashimori; Keisuke Utsumi; Yasutaka Omoto; Makoto Kaneko

2009-01-01

174

ANTHELMINTIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF PEELS OF CITRUS SINENSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objective of the present investigation was to determine the anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether extract of the peels of Citrus sinensis. Anthelmintic activity of this extract was evaluated on Indian adult earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, and exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis), and evoked responses to pin-prick, and the effects were comparable with that

A. T. Rajarajan; V. G. Vijayasree; W. Kenichi; S. Vijaya Kumar; G. Narasimman; S. Sadish

2009-01-01

175

Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oils of Some Iranian Citrus Peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been efforts to overcome the problem in treatment of cancer using medicinal plants. It has been shown that Citrus essential oil of contains different terpens with antitumor activities. In this study we sought to determine the cytotoxicity of essential oils of Iranian Citrus limon (L.), C. medica (L.), C. sinsensis (L.) peels on cancer cell lines. Essential oils

Ramesh Monajemi; Shahrbanoo Oryan; Ali Haeri-Roohani; Alireza Ghannadi; Abbas Jafariane

176

Ammonia-nitrogen sorptional properties of banana peels.  

PubMed

Using modified banana peel as a biosorbent to treat water containing ammonia-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) was studied. Related parameters in the sorptional process, such as chemical modification, pH, and contact time were investigated. The experimental results showed that banana peel modified by 30% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and mesothermal microwaves (NMBPs) can greatly improve the sorption removal for NH4(+)-N. The kinetics study revealed that the sorption behavior better fit the pseudo-second-order equation than the Lagergren first-order equation. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum analysis of banana peels and NMBPs before and after NH4(+)-N sorption revealed that the activity of hydroxyl groups at the surface of the banana peels was strengthened after modification, and nitrogenous groups appeared after biosorpting the NH4(+)-N. In the end, metallurgical wastewater containing a low concentration of NH4(+)-N was treated by NMBPs. The initial NH4(+)-N concentration of 138 mg/L was reduced to 13 mg/L in 25 minutes by 4 g/L NMBPs at pH 10. PMID:21553592

Chen, Yunnen; Ding, Lichao; Fan, Jingbiao

2011-04-01

177

Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.  

PubMed

Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 ?m and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 ?g steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid ?g/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (E<5%) values. Predicted models were highly significant (p<0.05) for all parameters studied. This study indicates that UAE has strong potential as an extraction method for steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste. PMID:24582305

Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

2014-07-01

178

Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.  

PubMed

The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins. PMID:17931857

Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sbastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

2008-07-01

179

Banana peel: a green and economical sorbent for the selective removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

This study describes the use of banana peel, a commonly produced fruit waste, for the removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature were investigated and the conditions resulting in rapid and efficient adsorption (95% within 10 min) were determined. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 2. The retained species were eluted with 5 mL of 2M H(2)SO(4). To elucidate the mechanism of the process, total amounts of chromium and Cr(VI) were analyzed using flame atomic absorption and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic techniques, respectively. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to describe the partitioning behavior for the system at different temperatures. Kinetics and thermodynamics of Cr(VI) removal by banana peel were also studied. The influence of diverse ions on the sorption behavior revealed that only Fe(II) ions (of those tested) suppressed the sorption of Cr(VI) ions to some extent. The method was applied for the removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater. PMID:19181491

Memon, Jamil R; Memon, Saima Q; Bhanger, Muhammad I; El-Turki, Adel; Hallam, Keith R; Allen, Geoffrey C

2009-05-01

180

Phytochemicals content, antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of indigenous Garcinia parvifolia fruit.  

PubMed

Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as "asam kandis" or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 0.3?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 0.1?mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 0.3 and 3.0 0.0?mg ?-carotene equivalents (BC)/100?g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

2013-01-01

181

Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit  

PubMed Central

Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as asam kandis or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 0.3?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 0.1?mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 0.3 and 3.0 0.0?mg ?-carotene equivalents (BC)/100?g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R.

2013-01-01

182

Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification  

PubMed Central

Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruits iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 ?g iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plants health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs. PMID:23818889

Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

2013-01-01

183

Monoterpenes released from fruit, plant, and vegetable systems.  

PubMed

To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs) from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST)-thermal desorption (TD) method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID), consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99). This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V) samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris), tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice) marked ?-pinene, ?-pinene, myrcene, ?-terpinene, R-limonene, ?-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, ?-pinene was the most abundant MT (37%) for carrot, while it was myrcene (31%) for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed ?-pinene, ?-pinene, myrcene, ?-terpinene, and ?-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants. PMID:25268921

Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Hyeon

2014-01-01

184

Monoterpenes Released from Fruit, Plant, and Vegetable Systems  

PubMed Central

To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs) from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST)-thermal desorption (TD) method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID), consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99). This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V) samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris), tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice) marked ?-pinene, ?-pinene, myrcene, ?-terpinene, R-limonene, ?-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, ?-pinene was the most abundant MT (37%) for carrot, while it was myrcene (31%) for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed ?-pinene, ?-pinene, myrcene, ?-terpinene, and ?-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants. PMID:25268921

Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Hyeon

2014-01-01

185

Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives.

Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Guerra, Claudia; Cohen, Caroline; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stphane; Vanel, Loc

2013-02-01

186

Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller.  

PubMed

We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives. PMID:23496538

Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Guerra, Claudia; Cohen, Caroline; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stphane; Vanel, Loc

2013-02-01

187

Assimilation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues  

SciTech Connect

Assimilation and metabolism of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was compared to that of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the /sup 14/C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO/sub 2/ assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose.

Tomlinson, P.T.; Koch, K.E.

1987-04-01

188

Heavy metals in apple orchard soils and fruits and their health risks in Liaodong Peninsula, Northeast China.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the heavy metal concentrations in soils and fruits and their possible human health risk in apple orchards of Liaodong Peninsula-a well-known fruit-producing area of China. The soil pollution index (PI) and health risk assessment methods (daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI)) were employed to explore the soil pollution levels and the potential health hazards of heavy metals in fruits. The results showed that all orchard soils were with low PI values (PI ?1) for Cd and Zn, while 2.78 and 5.56% of the soil samples exceeded the allowable levels of Cr and Cu for orchard soil, respectively. The Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations for the apple flesh samples were all lower than the national maximum permissible concentrations. While 6.34% of apple peel samples for Cd, 76.5% of apple peel samples and 65.6% of apple flesh samples for Cr, and 28.1% of apple peel samples for Zn exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. Furthermore, both the DIM and the HRI values for all the apple flesh samples were within the safe limits, indicating that no health risk was found for heavy metals in the fruits of the study area. In order to protect the consumers from fruits that might cause health risks, results from this study suggested that the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be conducted for the orchards of Liaodong Peninsula. PMID:25433544

Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Cheng, Shuai

2015-01-01

189

The use of modified phenol for chemical face peeling.  

PubMed

This article reviews the results of 59 consecutive, modified phenol facial peels on 627 anatomic areas for the purpose of reducing fine to coarse rhytides, hyperpigmentation, and actinic keratoses. This work discusses the Venner-Kellson concentrated Lysol saponated formula containing 62.5% phenol; the Maschek-Truppman 53% phenol, nonsaponated glycerin formula; and the previously unpublished Grad formulae I, II, and III with 49.5%, 60%, and 70% phenol, respectively. The new Stone formulae I, II, and III are introduced here. These new formulae are mixed from available reagents, thus obviating the need to melt potentially toxic phenol crystals, and are designed to achieve a range of clinical peel results on a wide variety of skin types. The ingredients, methods of preparation and application, as well as three postpeel occlusion techniques are presented. Clinical data including pH measurements, croton oil ratios, phenol concentrations, and preliminary biopsy data also are presented. PMID:9507794

Stone, P A

1998-01-01

190

Laserpeel: a peeling concept revolution with laser resurfacing protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author who is inventor of EasyPeel then Laserpeel wants to introduce new ways to choose the right indications for patients asking for cosmetic surgery. A lifting is as if you take a shirt and want to reduce its size cutting it. A resurfacing is as if you put a shirt and want to iron it. A peeling was as if you changed the color and grain of the shirt. Laserpeel is as if you iron the shirt treated with amidon, transform the second hand shirt as new, up to date on with glance effect sand give it then a stretching disco new wave effect. So, indications of facial lifting decrease at the same speed at the increase of indications of 'LASERPEEL'. Laser CO2 resurfacing should reborn because the post redness appearance decreases in intensity and duration due to LASERPEEL. LASERPEEL should be considered too as a preventive therapy coupled with preventive treatment resulting from longevity tests.

Tenenbaum, Alain

2000-06-01

191

Biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effectiveness of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste as a reinforcement and vapor barrier additive. The nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel by alkali treatment and subsequently acid hydrolysis. TEM images revealed the average fiber length of the nanocrystals was 410 nm with an aspect ratio of 41; its aspect ratio being considerably larger than cotton-derived nanocrystals prepared using similar reaction conditions. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were prepared by solution casting method to maintain uniform dispersion of the 1-2% (w/w) filler content. An increase of 19% and 33% (starch composite) and 38% and 49% (PVA composite) in tensile modulus was observed for the 1% and 2% CNC-reinforced composites, respectively. Water vapor transmission measurements showed a marginal reduction of water permeability for the PVA composite, whereas no effect was observed for the thermoplastic starch composite. PMID:24751097

Chen, D; Lawton, D; Thompson, M R; Liu, Q

2012-09-01

192

Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.  

PubMed

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm. PMID:24738409

Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

2014-06-01

193

Surface roughness of peeled adhesive tape: A mystery?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the surface roughness of adhesive tape peeled in stick-slip. We find two regions: a smooth surface region associated with fast crack propagation and a rough surface region associated with slow crack propagation. In both regions the surfaces may be self-affine fractal-like with the fractal dimension Df?2.3. This fractal dimension is typical for surfaces produced by crack propagation, but unexpected in the present case.

Persson, B. N. J.; Kovalev, A.; Wasem, M.; Gnecco, E.; Gorb, S. N.

2010-11-01

194

Interface characteristics of peeling-off damages of laser coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coating stacks of HfO2/SiO2 and Ta2O5/SiO2 were separately prepared by electron beam evaporation and dual ion beam sputtering. Damage characteristics at the interlayer interfaces were analyzed after irradiation of the coatings by a 1064 nm laser. The cross-sectional morphologies of damage spots indicated that peeling-off damages always occurred at the interface where the low refractive index material (SiO2) was deposited on the high refractive index material (HfO2 or Ta2O5). The effects of interface microstructure and components on peeling-off damages were also discussed. The microstructure of the interface was not a major factor that influenced peeling-off damages. Incomplete oxides (SiOx) and Na, K, Li ions accumulated near the interface and caused the formation of micro-defects layers with nano-sized thicknesses. Micro-defects layers maybe reduced adhesion of different interfaces and formed plasmas by absorbing laser energy. Finally stripping damages happened from micro-defects layers during irradiation by a 1064 nm laser.

Cui, Yun; Yi, Kui; Guohang, Hu; Shao, Jianda

2014-01-01

195

Microwave properties of peeled HEMT devices sapphire substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus of this research is to demonstrate the first full radio frequency characterization of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device parameters. The results of this research are used in the design of circuits with peeled HEMT devices, e.g. 10 GHz amplifiers. Devices were fabricated using two HEMT structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy methods. A 500 A AlAs release layer for 'peel off' was included under the active layers of the structure. The structures are a homogeneously doped Al(0.3)GA(0.7)As/GaAs and a delta doped square well Al(.23)Ga(.77)As/GaAs HEMT structure. Devices were fabricated using a mesa isolation process. Contacts were done by sequentially evaporating Au/Ge/Au/Ni/Au followed by rapid thermal anneal at 400 C for 15 seconds. Gates were wet etch recessed and 1 to 1.4 micron Ti/Au gate metal was deposited. Devices were peeled off the GaAs substrate using Apiezon wax to support the active layer and a HF:DI (1:10) solution to remove the AlAs separation layer. Devices were then attached to sapphire substrates using van der Waals bonding.

Young, Paul G.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mena, Rafael A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

1992-01-01

196

The "banana peel" exposure method in revision total knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

We present an exposure technique, the "banana peel," that has been used exclusively for revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for more than 20 years. We retrospectively reviewed use of this technique in 102 consecutive patients (mean age, 62 years; range, 41-92 years) who underwent tibial-femoral stemmed revision TKA. There were 5 deaths, leaving 97 patients (98 knees) for the study. The technique involves peeling the patella tendon as a sleeve off the tibia, leaving the extensor mechanism intact with a lateral hinge of soft tissue. A quadriceps "snip" is also done proximally. Patients with a minimum follow-up of 24 months were included. Telephone interviews and chart reviews were conducted, and Knee Society scores were obtained. Mean follow-up was 39 months (range, 24-56 months). No patient reported disruption of the extensor mechanism or decreased ability to extend the operative knee. Mean Knee Society score was 176 (range, 95-200). Mean postoperative motion was 106 degrees. No patient reported pain over the tibial tubercle. The banana-peel technique for exposing the knee during revision TKA is a safe method that can be used along with a proximal quadriceps snip and does not violate the extensor mechanism, maintaining continuity of the knee extensors. PMID:18033563

Lahav, Amit; Hofmann, Aaron A

2007-10-01

197

Quantitative and qualitative effects of chemical peeling on photo-aged skin: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Chemical peel reverses the visible stigmata of photo aging in human skin. The qualitative and, in particular, the quantitative changes in the dermis that effect this transformation are unclear. This study used a recognized photo-aged animal model, the Skh:HR-1 hairless mouse, to quantify and qualify the changes that occurred in collagen and glycosaminoglycan content after chemical peel. One hundred Skh:HR-1 hairless mice were photo-aged by use of chronic ultraviolet B irradiation for 14 weeks. After irradiation the animals were randomly distributed into five groups of 20 mice each: group 1, control; group 2, 50% glycolic acid peel; group 3, 30% trichloroacetic acid peel; group 4, 50% trichloroacetic acid peel; group 5, phenol peel (Baker-Gordon formula). The respective peeling agent was applied to the dorsal skin of each animal while it was fully anesthetized. Punch biopsies were taken at several times after peel for histological and biochemical analysis. Glycosaminoglycan content was assessed at 14, 28, and 60 days using a colorimetric assay. Collagen content per unit volume increased initially 3 days after the procedure in all chemical peel groups, declining on day 7, and peaking again on day 28. Significant elevations (p < 0.04) were seen in the 30% trichloroacetic acid, 50% trichloroacetic acid, and phenol peels on days 3 and 28 in comparison with controls. This increase in collagen content was not maintained and returned to control values by 60 days. Glycosaminoglycan content per unit volume was elevated initially after peel with significant elevation (p < 0.02) in the 50% trichloroacetic acid and phenol groups on days 14 and 28. This increase in glycosaminoglycan content was not maintained beyond 28 days and declined to control values by day 60 in all groups. Histological examination demonstrated an increase in dermal thickness in the 50% trichloroacetic acid and phenol groups in comparison with controls by day 60. Under polarized light all chemical peel groups at day 60 demonstrated a reorganization of collagen in the reticular and papillary dermis. The elastotic masses that are pathognomonic of photo aging were present in the control group but were absent in the peel groups and demonstrated a reorganization of the elastic fibers in the dermis. This effect was deeper in the dermis in the deeper peel groups (50% trichloroacetic acid and phenol peel). The beneficial effects of chemical peel were due to a combination of two findings; a reorganization in dermal structural elements and an increase in dermal volume. These effects were more pronounced in the deeper peel groups. PMID:11176627

Butler, P E; Gonzalez, S; Randolph, M A; Kim, J; Kollias, N; Yaremchuk, M J

2001-01-01

198

Antioxidant enrichment and antimicrobial protection of fresh-cut fruits using their own byproducts: looking for integral exploitation.  

PubMed

Fresh-cut fruit consumption is increasing due to the rising public demand for convenience and awareness of fresh-cut fruit's health benefits. The entire tissue of fruits and vegetables is rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and vitamins. The fresh-cut fruit industry deals with the perishable character of its products and the large percentage of byproducts, such as peels, seeds, and unused flesh that are generated by different steps of the industrial process. In most cases, the wasted byproducts can present similar or even higher contents of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds than the final produce can. In this context, this hypothesis article finds that the antioxidant enrichment and antimicrobial protection of fresh-cut fruits, provided by the fruit's own byproducts, could be possible. PMID:21535513

Ayala-Zavala, J F; Rosas-Domnguez, C; Vega-Vega, V; Gonzlez-Aguilar, G A

2010-10-01

199

Formulated extract from multiple citrus peels impairs dendritic cell functions and attenuates allergic contact hypersensitivity.  

PubMed

It has been reported that gold lotion (GL), a formulated product made from the peels of six citrus fruits, has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of GL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived DC maturation and function. Our experimental results have shown that GL significantly impaired the pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion, suppressed the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I/II and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86), increased phagocytic capacity, and reduced propensity to stimulate the autologous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation of LPS-induced DCs. Furthermore, we found that oral administration of GL attenuated the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in animal models. Subsequently, our molecular mechanism studies showed that GL interfered with LPS-induced MAPK-JNK, p38 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65. In an essence, these findings are the first report to provide new insight in the immunopharmacological role of GL in terms of its effects on DC. PMID:24566093

Li, Shiming; Lin, Yi-Chin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lin, Ping-Yi; Suzawa, Michiko; Wang, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Chi-Chen

2014-05-01

200

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Punica granatum mesocarp, Nelumbo nucifera Leaf, Psidium guajava Leaf and Coffea Canephora Extract on Common Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Alternative therapies are increasingly being explored as extensive use of synthetic chemicals has led to the emergence of substantial side effects. Phytomedicine has been well practiced as traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of oral diseases. It has gained importance of late as an alternative to the conventional therapy. Various plant and fruit extracts have been monitored recently to assess their potential against the common oral pathogens. Aim of this study was to assess in-vitro efficacy of pomegranate peel, lotus leaf, guava leaf and coffee extracts on oral microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared for each, followed by efficacy testing using disc diffusion method against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans. Results: All the four extracts were found to be effective against S.mutans and S.mitis, with maximum efficacy against S.mutans and S.mitis displayed by pomegranate and lotus. Antifungal efficacy was demonstrated by coffee and pomegranate. Guava, lotus and coffee were effective against P.intermedia, while only coffee was found to be effective against P. gingivalis. All the results were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Interpretation & Conclusion: Pomegranate, guava, lotus and coffee displayed significant anticariogenic effect while coffee was found to be most effective against periodontal pathogens as well as Candida albicans. Results revealed that natural products may be used as economical and suitable adjuvant to synthetic medicines and compounds and their judicious use might not only help to inhibit the side effects of synthetic chemicals but also prove to be cost effective in developing economies. PMID:25177642

Mehta, Viral V.; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; B.H, Mithun Pai

2014-01-01

201

Influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on sebum secretion in ageing women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Azelaic acid and mandelic acid are superficial peels commonly applied in people of various age groups. As they are mild and do not cause any side effects, they are also often used in elderly people. Aim To compare the influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on facial sebum secretion in mature women aged 49-71 years. Material and methods The level of secreted sebum was measured in 28 women. Eleven women were treated with azelaic acid peel and 17 with mandelic acid peel. Each of the peels was applied five times with 2-week intervals. The measurements were made on the cheeks and chin with the use of Sebumeter SM 15 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany). The last measurement, i.e. the sixth one, was made 2 weeks after the treatment. Results We observed a significant increase in sebum secretion in the U-zone after the application of 20% azelaic peel and 40% mandelic peel. Neither peel significantly affected sebum secretion in the T-zone. Conclusions Peels with 20% azelaic acid and 40% mandelic acid might be considered treatments which contribute to an increase in sebum secretion in ageing women. PMID:24278065

Wjcik, Aneta; Kubiak, Marlena

2013-01-01

202

Temperature-dependent autoxidation of conjugated trienols from apple peel yields 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, a volatile implicated in induction of scald.  

PubMed

Conjugated triene (CT) oxidation products of alpha-farnesene have long been thought to be involved in development of superficial scald in apple fruit. Early studies found that CT hydroperoxides and the volatile 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (MHO) are major in vitro autoxidation products of alpha-farnesene. However, it was recently shown that > or =99% of the oxidation products of alpha-farnesene that accumulate in apple peel are conjugated trienols (CTols), isomers of 2,6,10-trimethyldodeca-2,7,9,11-tetraene-6-ol. HPLC-purified CTols from fruit of two scald-susceptible cultivars, Granny Smith (GS) and Red Delicious (RD), were used to study autoxidation of these compounds in vitro. Incubation of CTols in sealed glass vials under air resulted in accumulation of MHO. Oxygen enrichment did not increase the amount of MHO produced. Regardless of which cultivar CTols were derived from, at 0 degrees C autoxidation yielding MHO was quite slow and linear, whereas at 20 degrees C MHO production was much more rapid, and after several hours the rate increased abruptly. However, CTols isolated from GS and RD fruit differed in the duration of the initial lag phase and the overall level of MHO generated at 20 degrees C. The sharp increase in MHO production occurred after 3 h with GS CTols and at about 12 h with RD CTols. Also, the yield of MHO from GS CTols after 6 h at 20 degrees C was nearly 6-fold greater than that from RD CTols after 20 h at 20 degrees C. The antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and diphenyamine reduced the yield of MHO by about 97%. Recent work has shown that MHO can induce scald-like symptoms in apple peel and that tissue sensitivity increases with time in storage. This may explain the correlation between high CTol levels and scald development, and why symptoms rapidly intensify when fruits are removed from cold storage. PMID:10888495

Whitaker, B D; Saftner, R A

2000-06-01

203

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C received ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum (500 mg/kg/p.o.); and group D received glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg/day/p.o.). The extracts were given for 1 week in all groups. To induce diabetes, alloxan 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) single dose was administered to groups B, C, and D. Blood glucose and serum lipids [Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)] and the atherogenic index were estimated after one week. For mechanism of antidiabetic action glycogen estimation on the liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intestinal glucose absorption was done. Results: Group B showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in blood glucose as compared to group A. Groups C and D showed significant decrease (P<0.01) in blood glucose level in comparison to group B. The test drug showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in glycogen content in the liver, cardiac, and skeletal muscle; it significantly (P<0.01) reduced intestinal glucose absorption. Groups C and D showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in serum TC, TG, LDL, and AI as compared to Group B, which showed a significant (P<0.01) increase. Groups C and D showed significant (P<0.01) increase in serum HDL as compared to Group B, which showed a significant (P<0.01) decrease in all values. Conclusion: P. granatum leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:22529479

Das, Swarnamoni; Barman, Sarajita

2012-01-01

204

Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening  

PubMed Central

The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components. PMID:22888129

Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

2012-01-01

205

Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.  

PubMed

The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components. PMID:22888129

Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

2012-09-01

206

Pathway engineering for healthy phytochemicals leading to the production of novel flavonoids in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are a large family of plant polyphenolic secondary metabolites. Although they are widespread throughout the plant kingdom, some flavonoid classes are specific for only a few plant species. Due to their presumed health benefits there is growing interest in the development of food crops with tailor-made levels and composition of flavonoids, designed to exert an optimal biological effect. In order to explore the possibilities of flavonoid engineering in tomato fruits, we have targeted this pathway towards classes of potentially healthy flavonoids which are novel for tomato. Using structural flavonoid genes (encoding stilbene synthase, chalcone synthase, chalcone reductase, chalcone isomerase and flavone synthase) from different plant sources, we were able to produce transgenic tomatoes accumulating new phytochemicals. Biochemical analysis showed that the fruit peel contained high levels of stilbenes (resveratrol and piceid), deoxychalcones (butein and isoliquiritigenin), flavones (luteolin-7-glucoside and luteolin aglycon) and flavonols (quercetin glycosides and kaempferol glycosides). Using an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) antioxidant detection system, we demonstrated that, due to the presence of the novel flavonoids, the transgenic tomato fruits displayed altered antioxidant profiles. In addition, total antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit peel with high levels of flavones and flavonols increased more than threefold. These results on genetic engineering of flavonoids in tomato fruit demonstrate the possibilities to change the levels and composition of health-related polyphenols in a crop plant and provide more insight in the genetic and biochemical regulation of the flavonoid pathway within this worldwide important vegetable. PMID:17177808

Schijlen, Elio; Ric de Vos, C H; Jonker, Harry; van den Broeck, Hetty; Molthoff, Jos; van Tunen, Arjen; Martens, Stefan; Bovy, Arnaud

2006-07-01

207

Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes.  

PubMed

The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278

Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

2013-05-01

208

Submerged citric acid fermentation on orange peel autohydrolysate.  

PubMed

The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation. PMID:18321055

Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domnguez, Jos Manuel

2008-04-01

209

Physicochemical and functional properties of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin flour.  

PubMed

This study was intended to investigate the potential of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp as a raw material for the production of flour that could be used in composite blend with wheat flour or as a functional ingredient in food products. The peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp were soaked in sodium metabisulphite solution, sliced and dried overnight in a hot air oven, followed by milling into peeled pumpkin pulp flour (PPPF) and unpeeled pumpkin pulp flour (UPPF), respectively. The flours were then evaluated for physicochemical attributes (color, proximate compositions, and water activity) and functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity), in comparison to the commercial wheat flour. PPPF and UPPF were observed to be more attractive in terms of color than wheat flour, as indicated by the significantly higher results (P or= 0.05) was shown in water holding capacity of PPPF and wheat flour. However, the oil holding capacity of PPPF and UPPF was shown to be significantly higher (P

Noor Aziah, A A; Komathi, C A

2009-09-01

210

Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.  

PubMed

The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed. PMID:23519009

Szakiel, Anna; P?czkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

2012-06-01

211

Peeling of Dirac and Maxwell fields on a Schwarzschild background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the peeling of Dirac and Maxwell fields on a Schwarzschild background following the approach developed by the authors in Mason and Nicolas (2009) [12] for the wave equation. The method combines a conformal compactification with vector field techniques in order to work out the optimal space of initial data for a given transverse regularity of the rescaled field across null infinity. The results show that analogous decay and regularity assumptions in Minkowski and Schwarzschild produce the same regularity across null infinity. The results are valid also for the classes of asymptotically simple spacetimes constructed by Corvino-Schoen/Chru?ciel-Delay.

Mason, Lionel J.; Nicolas, Jean-Philippe

2012-04-01

212

Carbazole alkaloids from the peels of Clausena lansium.  

PubMed

A new carbazole alkaloid, claulansine K (1), together with six known carbazole alkaloids (2-7), was isolated from the peels of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels. The new compound was elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, COSY, and ROESY) techniques, and HR-EI-MS analyses. Compound 1 showed in vitro ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 value of 0.11mM. Compound 2 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with the diameter of inhibition zone of 14.2mm. PMID:24993293

Deng, Hui-Dong; Mei, Wen-Li; Wang, Hui; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Dong, Wen-Hua; Wang, Hao; Li, Shao-Peng; Dai, Hao-Fu

2014-10-01

213

Amelioration of diabetic nephropathy by orange peel extract in rats.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of alcoholic orange peel extract (OPE) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, treatment with OPE (100 and 200mg/kg) was further given for 4 weeks. Treatment with OPE 200 improved renal functions and significantly prevented the increase in creatinine, urea and blood urea nitrogen levels. Histological analysis of the kidneys revealed that tubulointerstitial fibrosis index was significantly decreased in OPE 200-treated group. The results indicated the prevention of diabetic nephropathy in rats by OPE treatment and suggest OPE as a potential treatment option. PMID:25103218

Parkar, Nishad; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu

2014-12-01

214

Present day status of the chemical face peel.  

PubMed

A phenol chemical face peel restores a clean, youthful appearance by removing the fine wrinkles of the tired, aged face. This procedure has the additional advantage of decreasing the rate of appearance of precancerous and probably early cancerous lesions of the photoaged skin of the face. Knowledge of the history, theory, histology, and technique are made current. A comprehensive review demonstrates that pigmentary changes, third degree scarring, and cardiac arrhythmias appear to be the main complications. The technique is safe and effective if used in a judicious manner. PMID:3521229

Litton, C; Szachowicz, E H; Trinidad, G P

1986-01-01

215

The flavonol glycosides in the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrtien.  

PubMed

1. Two new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrtien. These were identified as isorhamnetin 3-rhamnogalactoside and a derivative of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside which was associated (possibly acylated) with an unknown aliphatic organic acid. 2. The melting point of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside isolated from Bon Chrtien pears is different from that of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside previously isolated from Argemone mexicana and Calendula officinalis. 3. Isorhamnetin 3-rhamnoglucoside was isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrtien. This glycoside appears to be identical with narcissin, previously isolated from Narcissus tazetta and Lilium auratum. 4. Isoquercitrin, previously reported to be present in pear leaves, was isolated from the fruit of Bon Chrtien pears. 5. The isolated glycosides were present in the peels and flesh of the fruit, but were absent from the cores. PMID:16749105

Nortj, B K

1965-10-01

216

Preventive Effect of Three Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seeds Fractions on Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) refers to afflicted inflammation of pancreas with unfavorable adverse effects and developed multiple organ failures. Unfortunately, there is not a certain therapeutic method for this disease. Oxidative stress has a serious role in the pathogenesis of AP. Thus, decreasing of oxidative stress may prevent induction and progression of AP. Punica granatum L. has been extensively used in traditional medicine and possesses various active biological elements. Due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate, it could be considered as a good candidate alternative medicine with beneficial effects on AP. In this study, we decided to study the protective effect of three fractions of pomegranate seeds on cerulein-induced AP. Methods: AP was induced in male Syrian mice by five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 ?g/kg) with 1 h intervals. Treatments with pomegranate freeze-dried powder (PFDP) and hydroalcoholic pomegranate seeds extract (PSE) at doses of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg (i.p.) were started 30 min before pancreatitis induction. Pomegranate seed oil fraction (PSOF) was orally administered (50, 100, 200 ?L/kg) and continued for 10 days. Pancreatic tissue was evaluated for histopathological parameters and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as lipase and amylase levels were measured in plasma. Results: The higher doses of three fractions (250 and 500 mg/kg for PFDP and PSE and doses of 100, 200 ?L/kg for PSOF) significantly reduced amylase and lipase activity in serum (at least P < 0.01), pancreatic MPO activity (P < 0.001), edema, leukocyte infiltration and vacuolization in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results propose that pomegranate seeds fractions can prevent and/or treat the AP. PMID:24829726

Minaiyan, Mohsen; Zolfaghari, Behzd; Taheri, Diana; Gomarian, Mahdi

2014-01-01

217

Antispasmodic Effects of Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Punica granatum Flower Extracts on the Uterus of Non-pregnant Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Punica granatum Linn. (PG) is native to the Mediterranean region. Its flower exhibited antioxidant activity. The present study attempt to investigate the effect of these extract on uterine contraction and its possible mechanism(s). Methods Thirty five female Wistar rats (200300 g) at estrous phases of cycle was examined in this study; pieces of virgin adult rat uterus (1.5 cm) were suspended in an organ bath containing 10 ml of De Jalon solution at 29 C. Tissue contractility was isometrically recorded. KCl (60 mM), BaCl2 (4 mM) and oxytocin (10 mU/ml) were applied to the tissue in the presence and absence of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the plant (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/ml). Propranolol (1 M) and naloxane (1 M) were added in KCl induced contractions. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and p < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results Cumulative concentration of extracts reduced uterine contractions induced by KCl dose-dependently (p < 0.01). Extracts in a dose dependent (p < 0.05) reduced uterine contractions decreased dose-dependently after of addition oxytocin. The extracts added cumulatively to the organ bath reduced contractions but they did not affect uterine contractions induced by BaCl2 except the last dose. Spasmolytic effects of the extracts were not affected by propranolol or naloxane in KCl induced contractions. Conclusion Extracts diminished K+-induced contraction in uterus, therefore it seems that substances that decrease K+-induced contraction can also block voltage dependent calcium channel. The extracts did not have any effect on ?-adrenoceptors or potassium channels. PMID:23926538

Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Razieh; Abdolahzadeh, Mahsa; Oroojan, Ali Akbar

2012-01-01

218

Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: Activation of PPAR-{gamma} and identification of an active component  

SciTech Connect

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 6-week oral administration of methanol extract from PGF (500 mg/kg, daily) inhibited glucose loading-induced increase of plasma glucose levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes, whereas it did not inhibit the increase in Zucker lean rats (ZL). The treatment did not lower the plasma glucose levels in fasted ZDF and ZL rats. Furthermore, RT-PCR results demonstrated that the PGF extract treatment in ZDF rats enhanced cardiac PPAR-{gamma} mRNA expression and restored the down-regulated cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 (the insulin-dependent isoform of GLUTs) mRNA. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic activity of PGF extract may result from improved sensitivity of the insulin receptor. From the in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the PGF extract enhanced PPAR-{gamma} mRNA and protein expression and increased PPAR-{gamma}-dependent mRNA expression and activity of lipoprotein lipase in human THP-1-differentiated macrophage cells. Phytochemical investigation demonstrated that gallic acid in PGF extract is mostly responsible for this activity. Thus, our findings indicate that PPAR-{gamma} is a molecular target for PGF extract and its prominent component gallic acid, and provide a better understanding of the potential mechanism of the anti-diabetic action of PGF.

Huang, Tom H.W. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Peng Gang [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kota, Bhavani P. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, George Q. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto (Japan); Roufogalis, Basil D. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li Yuhao [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

2005-09-01

219

Development and Validation of High-performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Method for Ursolic Acid in Malus domestica Peel  

PubMed Central

Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. It shows hypoglycemic, antiandrogenic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic and cynogenic activity. It is commonly present in plants especially coating of leaves and fruits, such as apple fruit, vinca leaves, rosemary leaves, and eucalyptus leaves. A simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of ursolic acid from apple peel (Malus domestica). The samples dissolved in methanol and linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber. The mobile phase was selected as toluene:ethyl acetate:glacial acetic acid (70:30:2). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2=0.9982 in the concentration range 0.2-7 ?g/spot with respect to peak area. According to the ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of ursolic acid. PMID:24302805

Nikam, P. H.; Kareparamban, J. A.; Jadhav, A. P.; Kadam, V. J.

2013-01-01

220

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis) and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis) were applied in different forms (treatments) separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character

Sarfraz Hussain; Haq Nawaz; Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad; Mian Anjum Murtaza; Ali Jaffar Rizvi

2007-01-01

221

Removal of Anionic Dyes from Water using Citrus limonum (Lemon) Peel: Equilibrium Studies and Kinetic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of Citrus limonum (lemon) peel as an adsorbent for the removal of two anionic dyes, Methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration, and temperature by batch method. The adsorption capacities of lemon peel adsorbent for

Amit Bhatnagar; Eva Kumar; A. K. Minocha; Byong-Hun Jeon; Hocheol Song; Yong-Chan Seo

2009-01-01

222

Treated-cassava peel vermicomposts enhanced earthworm activities and cowpea growth in field plots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peels of bitter cassava (Manihot utilissima) root, a major source of food carbohydrate in the tropics, though rich in nutrients, form toxic wastes lethal to soil invertebrates and can inhibit root growth. Recent investigations highlighted the ability of the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae (Eug) to partially detoxify the toxic wastes, and transform the cassava peels into valuable vermicompost. Vermicomposting and

1996-01-01

223

Structural changes and alkaline solubility of wood cellulose fibers after enzymatic peeling treatment  

E-print Network

1 Structural changes and alkaline solubility of wood cellulose fibers after enzymatic peeling peeling protocol and the changes in terms of structure and alkaline solubility were analyzed destructured, as seen by the absence of birefringence. The alkaline solubility of the different treated samples

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

New low-cost insulation particleboards from mixture of durian peel and coconut coir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study is to develop low thermal conductivity particleboards with optimized durian peel and coconut coir mixture ratio. To this end, two main parameters were investigated, namely, the mixture ratio of durian peel and coconut coir (by weight) and board density. The particleboards were prepared following common manufacturing technique. It was observed the mixture ratio and

Joseph Khedari; Noppanun Nankongnab; Jongjit Hirunlabh; Sombat Teekasap

2004-01-01

225

Coloured intensity enhancement of latent fingerprint powder obtained from banana peel activated carbon with methylene blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at developing activated carbon fingerprint powder derived from banana peel. The obtained powder was then examined for its latent fingerprint identifying capability. First, the banana peel activated carbon powder was ground into fine particles and consequently was sieved using a 400-mesh screen. The powder's adherent quality was evaluated by dusting it to the residue left by

Sumrit Mopoung

2009-01-01

226

A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments  

PubMed Central

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

Rodrigo, Maria J.; Alquezar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

2013-01-01

227

Utility of Metabolomics toward Assessing the Metabolic Basis of Quality Traits in Apple Fruit with an Emphasis on Antioxidants  

PubMed Central

A gas chromatographymass spectrometry approach was employed to evaluate the use of metabolite patterns to differentiate fruit from six commercially grown apple cultivars harvested in 2008. Principal component analysis (PCA) of apple fruit peel and flesh data indicated that individual cultivar replicates clustered together and were separated from all other cultivar samples. An independent metabolomics investigation with fruit harvested in 2003 confirmed the separate clustering of fruit from different cultivars. Further evidence for cultivar separation was obtained using a hierarchical clustering analysis. An evaluation of PCA component loadings revealed specific metabolite classes that contributed the most to each principal component, whereas a correlation analysis demonstrated that specific metabolites correlate directly with quality traits such as antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins, which are important parameters in the selection of breeding germplasm. These data sets lay the foundation for elucidating the metabolic basis of commercially important fruit quality traits. PMID:22881116

Cuthbertson, Daniel; Andrews, Preston K.; Reganold, John P.; Davies, Neal M.; Lange, B. Markus

2012-01-01

228

Isolation, identification and quantification of unsaturated fatty acids, amides, phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids from potato peel.  

PubMed

Eleven compounds were isolated from potato peels and identified. Their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. The main components of the potato peels were found to be chlorogenic acid and other phenolic compounds, accompanied by 2 glycoalkaloids, 3 low-molecular-weight amide compounds, and 2 unsaturated fatty acids, including an omega-3 fatty acid. The potato peels showed more potent radical scavenging activity than the flesh. The quantification of the 11 components indicated that the potato peels contained a higher amount of phenolic compounds than the flesh. These results suggest that peel waste from the industry of potato chips and fries may be a source of useful compounds for human health. PMID:22980823

Wu, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Ma, Qiong; Cao, Ye; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chao-Mei

2012-12-15

229

Destabilization of low-n peeling modes by trapped energetic particles  

SciTech Connect

The kinetic effect of trapped energetic particles (EPs), arising from perpendicular neutral beam injection, on the stable low-n peeling modes in tokamak plasmas is investigated, through numerical solution of the mode's dispersion relation derived from an energy principle. A resistive-wall peeling mode with m/n=6/1, with m and n being the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively, is destabilized by trapped EPs as the EPs' pressure exceeds a critical value ?{sub c}{sup *}, which is sensitive to the pitch angle of trapped EPs. The dependence of ?{sub c}{sup *} on the particle pitch angle is eventually determined by the bounce average of the mode eigenfunction. Peeling modes with higher m and n numbers can also be destabilized by trapped EPs. Depending on the wall distance, either a resistive-wall peeling mode or an ideal-kink peeling mode can be destabilized by EPs.

Hao, G. Z.; Wang, A. K.; Mou, Z. Z.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, PO Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, PO Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Matsunaga, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2013-06-15

230

[Optimal forehead rejuvenation. Combining endoscopy-peel-botulinum toxin].  

PubMed

The combining of a traditional resurfacing technique (trichloracetic or phenol peel) with 2 recent technological advances (endoscopic forehead plasty, botulinum toxin) may enhance the forehead rejuvenation in a more natural way. The disappointing results of some of our earlier results on a serie of 70 consecutive foreheadplasties can probably be attributed to the weakness of the suspension through percutaneous sutures. This has been remedied since 1998 by the systematic use of transosseous suspensions. The growing success of botulinum toxin explains the noticeable decrease of endoscopic surgery. This type of procedure is now used to correct significant frontal ptosis requiring an uplifting of no more than 1,5 cm, thereby avoiding the unnatural results encountered in many publications. Some benefits can be obtained by the way of a transpalpebral approach without using the endoscope; nowadays, upper blepharoplasties are almost systematically done in the majority of our cases in order to obtain the most natural result. Light peels and botulinum toxin injections can maintain this result relatively easily. PMID:12837634

Mle, B

2003-06-01

231

Banana peel extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green material'. The boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce chloroauric acid. A variety of nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, chloroauric acid concentration and temperature of incubation. The reaction mixtures displayed vivid colors and UV-vis spectra characteristic of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size of the nanoparticles under standard synthetic conditions was around 300nm. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) confirmed these results. A coffee ring phenomenon, led to the aggregation of the nanoparticles into microcubes and microwire networks towards the periphery of the air-dried samples. X-ray diffraction studies of the samples revealed spectra that were characteristic for gold. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the synthetic process. The BPE mediated nanoparticles displayed efficient antimicrobial activity towards most of the tested fungal and bacterial cultures. PMID:20620890

Bankar, Ashok; Joshi, Bhagyashree; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

2010-10-01

232

The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to

Patomsok Wilaipon

2009-01-01

233

Fun Fruit: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2004-01-01

234

Characterization of banana peel by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy and its use for cadmium removal.  

PubMed

This study describes the use of banana peel, a commonly produced fruit waste, for the removal of Cd(II) from environmental and industrial wastewater. The banana peel was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and found to be rapid ( approximately 97% within 10 min). The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was used to describe partitioning behavior for the system at room temperature. The value of Q(L) was found to be (35.52 mg g(-1)) higher than the previously reported materials. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH-dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 8. The retained species were eluted with 5 mL of 5 x 10(-3)M HNO(3) with the detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-3)mg L(-1). Kinetics of sorption followed the pseudo-first-order rate equation with the rate constant k, equal to 0.13+/-0.01 min(-1). Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy at 303K (-7.41+/-0.13 kJ mol(-1)) and enthalpy (40.56+/-2.34 kJ mol(-1)) indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. The developed method was utilized for the removal of Cd(II) ions from environmental and industrial wastewater samples using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). PMID:18760572

Memon, Jamil R; Memon, Saima Q; Bhanger, M I; Memon, G Zuhra; El-Turki, A; Allen, Geoffrey C

2008-10-15

235

An examination of the phenol-croton oil peel: Part I. Dissecting the formula.  

PubMed

This article investigates which ingredients are the active ones in the most popular peel formula. The benefits of the "phenol" peel have been attributed to the effects of phenol on the dermis. Baker published a simple peel formula in 1962 that became a classic that has been used since by almost all plastic surgeons and dermatologists. Brown et al., in 1960, passed along a set of dogmas: (1) phenol is the active ingredient; (2) phenol peels more deeply in lower concentrations; and (3) adding a surface tension-lowering agent increases the peel. This article seeks to dissect the Baker formula by removing the croton oil. A patient was peeled serially with 18% phenol, 35% phenol, and 50% phenol solutions containing Septisol (surface tension-lowering agent) but no croton oil. This showed that increasing concentrations of phenol caused more clinical tissue reaction as evidenced by edema and erythema, but no significant dermal injury was seen. USP 88% phenol without Septisol did cause injury to the dermis. To test the effect of croton oil in the formula, the patient's face was peeled with two variations: the perioral area was peeled with 50% phenol to which croton oil was added to a strength of 2.1% and the remainder with 50% phenol without croton oil. The perioral area showed vesiculation, slough, and dermal exposure characteristic of a deep peel requiring 11 days to heal. The remainder of the face treated with 50% phenol without croton oil showed only edema and erythema without significant dermal injury. This experiment shows that the main postulates of Brown et al.--that phenol in lesser concentrations peels more than in higher concentrations and that phenol is the sole agent--are not true. In a fourth peel, a 0.7% concentration of croton oil in 50% phenol was applied to the parts of the face not peeled with croton oil in the third peel. The areas peeled with 50% phenol with 0.7% croton oil healed in 7 days, whereas the treatment with 50% phenol with 2.1% croton oil required 11 days. Deconstructing the Baker formula reveals fallacies in the four-decade-long belief system regarding these peels. The serial peels performed in this study show that increasing concentrations of phenol without croton oil cause increasing skin reaction but insignificant peeling effect. The addition of croton oil to 50% phenol, however, causes a marked increase in the depth of peeling into the dermis. Lowering the concentration of croton oil caused a lesser burn, as evidenced by fewer days to heal. The depth of the peel, therefore, seems to be more dependent on the concentration of croton oil than phenol. This will be further explored in Parts II, III, and IV. PMID:10626996

Hetter, G P

2000-01-01

236

An examination of the phenol-croton oil peel: part IV. Face peel results with different concentrations of phenol and croton oil.  

PubMed

In Part IV of this examination of the phenol-croton oil peel, the author presents peeling solutions using phenol in concentrations between 16% and 50% as the carrier for croton oil. Previously, in Part I, the author showed that phenol alone in concentrations of less than 50% has no significant peeling effect on the skin in the absence of taping. All of these formulas are dependent on the addition of croton oil for their peeling action. A topographic map of the face is presented that divides the face into the zones that the author believes are best treated with different strengths of croton oil. Five patients peeled between late 1992 and late 1995 were chosen as examples to illustrate the effect of different strengths of croton oil between 0.25% and 2.78%. The author has documented their immediate postoperative course photographically to show the effect of the different concentrations. It is clinically apparent that peels using croton oil between 0.25% and 0.5% generally heal within 7 days; peels between 0.6% and 1.0% usually heal within 9 or 10 days, and peels using concentrations higher than 1% heal later and have some risk of pigmentation loss. Peels using croton oil concentrations at 2% and above almost always have pigmentation loss and have healing delays in areas other than the thick skin of the lower nose and perioral area. The practical clinical formulas distributed at the time of the presentation of this article at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery in Orlando, Florida, entitled "Heresy Phenol Formulas--1996," are provided here. These have been used in both the United States and Europe over the past few years. A metric standard for drop size is suggested at 0.04 ml. This relates to the drop size used clinically over the years to measure croton oil. The adoption of this unit will make formulas around the world easier to calculate and compare. The author has produced a metric formula using the suggested standard size drop for croton oil. This uses 35% phenol as the carrier and provides the same range of treatment dilutions as the 1996 "Heresy Phenol Formulas." The need for research into "carriers" and solvents for croton oil is pointed out. Despite what is not known about how it works, the combination of croton seed extract and phenol has been a success story in providing facial rejuvenation from the 1920s to the present. The croton oil-phenol peel in its many formulas still sets the standard for facial rejuvenation. PMID:10724270

Hetter, G P

2000-03-01

237

The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.  

PubMed

Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinad

2014-08-01

238

Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.  

PubMed

An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian aa berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of this information to the general public), on the chemistry and biological and physiological functions of these "superfoods" are necessary. PMID:18211023

Seeram, Navindra P

2008-02-13

239

Overexpression of petunia chalcone isomerase in tomato results in fruit containing increased levels of flavonols.  

PubMed

Tomatoes are an excellent source of the carotenoid lycopene, a compound that is thought to be protective against prostate cancer. They also contain small amounts of flavonoids in their peel ( approximately 5-10 mg/kg fresh weight), mainly naringenin chalcone and the flavonol rutin, a quercetin glycoside. Flavonols are very potent antioxidants, and an increasing body of epidemiological data suggests that high flavonoid intake is correlated with a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. We have upregulated flavonol biosynthesis in the tomato in order to generate fruit with increased antioxidant capacity and a wider range of potential health benefit properties. This involved transformation of tomato with the Petunia chi-a gene encoding chalcone isomerase. Resulting transgenic tomato lines produced an increase of up to 78 fold in fruit peel flavonols, mainly due to an accumulation of rutin. No gross phenotypical differences were observed between high-flavonol transgenic and control lines. The phenotype segregated with the transgene and demonstrated a stable inheritance pattern over four subsequent generations tested thus far. Whole-fruit flavonol levels in the best of these lines are similar to those found in onions, a crop with naturally high levels of flavonol compounds. Processing of high-flavonol tomatoes demonstrated that 65% of flavonols present in the fresh fruit were retained in the processed paste, supporting their potential as raw materials for tomato-based functional food products. PMID:11329019

Muir, S R; Collins, G J; Robinson, S; Hughes, S; Bovy, A; Ric De Vos, C H; van Tunen, A J; Verhoeyen, M E

2001-05-01

240

Lipophilic extracts from banana fruit residues: a source of valuable phytosterols.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts of unripe pulp and peel of banana fruit 'Dwarf Cavendish' was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids, sterols, and steryl esters are the major families of lipophilic components present in banana tissues, followed by diacylglycerols, steryl glucosides, long chain fatty alcohols, and aromatic compounds. Fatty acids are more abundant in the banana pulp (29-90% of the total amount of lipophilic extract), with linoleic, linolenic, and oleic acids as the major compounds of this family. In banana peel, sterols represent about 49-71% of the lipophilic extract with two triterpenic ketones (31-norcyclolaudenone and cycloeucalenone) as the major components. The detection of high amounts of steryl esters (469-24405 mg/kg) and diacylglycerols (119-878 mg/kg), mainly present in the banana peel extract, explains the increase in the abundance of fatty acids and sterols after alkaline hydrolysis. Several steryl glucosides were also found in significative amounts (273-888 mg/kg), particularly in banana pulp (888 mg/kg). The high content of sterols (and their derivatives) in the 'Dwarf Cavendish' fruit can open new strategies for the valorization of the banana residues as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with nutraceutical and functional food additive applications. PMID:18817409

Oliveira, Lcia; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Cordeiro, Nereida

2008-10-22

241

Carbon nanotubes adhesion and nanomechanical behavior from peeling force spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications based on single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) are good example of the great need to continuously develop metrology methods in the field of nanotechnology. Contact and interface properties are key parameters that determine the efficiency of SWNT functionalized nanomaterials and nanodevices. In this work we have taken advantage of a good control of the SWNT growth processes at an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip apex and the use of a low noise (10-13 m/?Hz) AFM to investigate the mechanical behavior of a SWNT touching a surface. By simultaneously recording static and dynamic properties of SWNT, we show that the contact corresponds to a peeling geometry, and extract quantities such as adhesion energy per unit length, curvature and bending rigidity of the nanotube. A complete picture of the local shape of the SWNT and its mechanical behavior is provided.

Buchoux, J.; Bellon, L.; Marsaudon, S.; Aim, J.-P.

2011-11-01

242

Cellulose extraction from orange peel using sulfite digestion reagents.  

PubMed

Orange peel (OP) was used as raw material for cellulose extraction. Two different pulping reagents were used, sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite. The effect of the main process parameters, sulfite agent dosage and reaction duration, on cellulose yield was investigated. A central composite rotatable design involving two variables at five levels and response surface methodology were used for the optimization of cellulose recovery. Other two invariable parameters were reaction temperature and hydromodulus. The optimum yields, referred to the weight of double extracted OP, were 40.4% and 45.2% for sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite digestions, respectively. The crude celluloses were bleached with hypochlorite and oxygen. The physicochemical characterization data of these cellulose materials indicate good levels of purity, low crystallinities, good whitenesses, good water retention and moderate molecular weights. According to these specific properties the recovered celluloses could be used as fillers, water absorbents, or as raw materials for cellulose derivatives. PMID:21893413

Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

2011-11-01

243

Intermittent Peel Front Dynamics and the Crackling Noise in an Adhesive Tape  

E-print Network

We report a comprehensive investigation of a model for peeling of an adhesive tape along with a nonlinear time series analysis of experimental acoustic emission signals in an effort to understand the origin of intermittent peeling of an adhesive tape and its connection to acoustic emission. The model represents the acoustic energy dissipated in terms of Rayleigh dissipation functional that depends on the local strain rate. We show that the nature of the peel front exhibits rich spatiotemporal patterns ranging from smooth, rugged and stuck-peeled configurations that depend on three parameters, namely, the ratio of inertial time scale of the tape mass to that of the roller, the dissipation coefficient and the pull velocity. The stuck-peeled configurations are reminiscent of fibrillar peel front patterns observed in experiments. We show that while the intermittent peeling is controlled by the peel force function, the model acoustic energy dissipated depends on the nature of the peel front and its dynamical evolution. Even though the acoustic energy is a fully dynamical quantity, it can be quite noisy for a certain set of parameter values suggesting the deterministic origin of acoustic emission in experiments. To verify this suggestion, we have carried out a dynamical analysis of experimental acoustic emission time series for a wide range of traction velocities. Our analysis shows an unambiguous presence of chaotic dynamics within a subinterval of pull speeds within the intermittent regime. Time series analysis of the model acoustic energy signals is also found to be chaotic within a subinterval of pull speeds.

Jagadish Kumar; Rumi De; G. Ananthakrishna

2008-12-01

244

Histopathologic changes of the eyelid skin following trichloroacetic acid chemical peel.  

PubMed

The use of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as a periorbital and eyelid peel for skin rejuvenation is gaining significant acceptance among oculoplastic surgeons, dermatologists, and other surgery groups. In spite of the current enthusiasm, there remain potentially serious complications resulting from any periorbital peel. Cases of cicatricial ectropion have been reported in phenol-peeled patients, and lower eyelid ectropion has reportedly occurred in patients undergoing deep eyelid peel in conjunction with a blepharoplasty (1,2). To avoid this complication, it is necessary to better understand the depth of the wound produced by different strengths and combinations of peeling agents applied to living eyelid tissue and, more important, to determine the concentrations of TCA that are likely to lead to cicatricial ectropion when applied in a consistent fashion. We chose upper-eyelid skin because it is easier to obtain for histopathologic study than lower-eyelid skin and, in our experience, is more sensitive to hypertrophic changes after chemical peeling or carbon dioxide laser resurfacing. We applied TCA to the preseptal skin of 10 patients 48 h before standard upper-eyelid blepharoplasty. The acid was applied to produce a "frost," using varying concentrations of acid, ranging from 20 to 50%. The treated skin removed at the time of blepharoplasty was reviewed in a masked fashion by a dermatopathologist to determine the depth of necrosis. We found that superficial peels with necrosis involving 30% of the epidermis were produced by the lowest-concentration combination of TCA applied (20% followed by 0%). As the strength increased, so did the depth of peel. The combination of 50% followed by a second application of 50% produced the deepest peel, with necrosis into the papillary dermis. This finding would indicate that the chance of developing cicatricial ectropion with any of the tested combinations of TCA should be very remote. PMID:9513236

Dailey, R A; Gray, J F; Rubin, M G; Hildebrand, P L; Swanson, N A; Wobig, J L; Wilson, D J; Speelman, P

1998-01-01

245

The Exponentially Faster Stick-Slip Dynamics of the Peeling of an Adhesive Tape  

E-print Network

The stick-slip dynamics is considered from the nonlinear differential-algebraic equation (DAE) point of view and the peeling dynamics is shown to be a switching differential index DAE model. In the stick-slip regime with bifurcations, the differential index can be arbitrarily high. The time scale of the peeling velocity, the algebraic variable, in this regime is shown to be exponentially faster compared to the angular velocity of the spool and/or the stretch rate of the tape. A homogenization scheme for the peeling velocity which is characterized by the bifurcations is discussed and is illustrated with numerical examples.

Nachiketa Mishra; Nigam Chandra Parida; Soumyendu Raha

2014-04-20

246

Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

2014-01-01

247

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

248

Peeling-off of the external kink modes at tokamak plasma edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that there is a current jump between the edge plasma inside the last closed flux surface and the scrape-off layer and that the current jump can lead the external kink modes to convert to the tearing modes, due to the current interchange effects [L. J. Zheng and M. Furukawa, Phys. Plasmas 17, 052508 (2010)]. The magnetic reconnection in the presence of tearing modes subsequently causes the tokamak edge plasma to be peeled off to link to the divertors. In particular, the peeling or peeling-ballooning modes can become the "peeling-off" modes in this sense. This phenomenon indicates that the tokamak edge confinement can be worse than the expectation based on the conventional kink mode picture.

Zheng, L. J.; Furukawa, M.

2014-08-01

249

Quality of mini-peeled carrots as affected by genotype, minimal processing and edible coating  

E-print Network

Minimally processed vegetables provide convenience, fresh characteristics and human health benefits. Some fresh carrots are minimally processed by abrasive peelers and washed to remove cellular fluids to produce carrot sticks, mini peeled carrots...

Dewi, Tjin Tjin

2012-06-07

250

Peeling and aspiration of elschnig pearls! An effective alternative to Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy!  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the efficacy of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls. Retrospective study in a medical college hospital. Records of 217 eyes which underwent surgical peeling and aspiration for membranous PCO between 2006 and 2009, was reviewed. Peeling and aspiration was fashioned with a blunt tipped 20G cannula after stabilizing anterior chamber with anterior chamber maintainer. Post-operative vision and complications were analyzed. Mc Nemar and Chi square tests. The mean age was 56.84 years. 85.71% patients achieved best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20 at 3 m. Recurrence of pearls, uveitis and cystoid macular edema were the most common causes of reduced vision. Peeling and aspiration of pearls seem to be a viable alternative to Neodymium yttrium garner aluminium (Nd: YAG) laser capsulotomy for membranous PCO. PMID:24104714

Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Sharma, Shiv K; Sharma, Sumat; Mehra, Namrata; Mishra, Anuraag

2013-01-01

251

Impact of Atmospheric Plasma Generated by a DBD Device on Quality-Related Attributes of "Abate Fetel" Pear Fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of gas plasma generated by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) device on "Abate Fetel" fresh pears were assessed following exposure times from 10 to 90 min. In particular the decontamination efficacy towards the indigenous microflora naturally occurring on the surface of the fruit was evaluated. The main results showed that total mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds had different inactivation dynamics. However, maximum cell decreases of 2.5 Log CFU/fruit were achieved for all the microbial groups after 90 min of treatment at a relative humidity level of 60% (22C). Immediately after the treatments, no significant effects were observed on the measured quality traits. After storage for 5 days at 20C significant changes were detected only in the peel (colour and antioxidant capacity) of fruit samples treated for 90 min. The Magness-Taylor flesh firmness (MTf), the soluble solid content (SSC) and the antioxidant capacity of fruits were unaffected by the tested treatments.

Berardinelli, Annachiara; Vannini, Lucia; Ragni, Luigi; Guerzoni, M. Elisabetta

252

Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5103 to 0.7108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

Torrado, Ana Maria; Cortes, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, Jose; Max, Belen; Rodriguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Dominguez, Jose

2011-01-01

253

Captan residue reduction in apples as a result of rinsing and peeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apples, treated with captan for disease control in a commercial orchard in Quebec, Canada, were collected and sorted into post-harvest preparation types (no preparation; rinse; rinse and peel). Captan residues were greatest (25.55100ng\\/g) in apples with no post-harvest preparation and lowest (0.146136ng\\/g) in apples that had been rinsed and peeled prior to extraction and analysis. Residues were significantly lower (p=0.003)

Dorothea F. K. Rawn; Sue C. Quade; Wing-Fung Sun; Andr Fouguet; Andr Blanger; Mark Smith

2008-01-01

254

Studies on mould growth and biomass production using waste banana peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyphomycetous (Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phycomycetous (Mucor hiemalis) moulds were cultivated in vitro at room temperature (28+20 C) to examined their growth and biomass production on waste banana peel agar (BPA) and broth (BPB) using commercial malt extract agar (MEA) and broth (MEB) as control. The moulds grew comparatively well on banana peel substrates. No significant difference (p>0.05) in radial growth

J. P. Essien; E. J. Akpan; E. P. Essien

2005-01-01

255

Banana peel extract mediated novel route for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-inspired palladium nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE), a non-toxic eco-friendly material. Boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce palladium chloride. The palladium nanoparticles were characterized by using UVVisible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectra (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed the average size of nanoparticles to

Ashok Bankar; Bhagyashree Joshi; Ameeta Ravi Kumar; Smita Zinjarde

2010-01-01

256

Utilization of banana peel as a functional ingredient in yellow noodle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana peel (BP) noodles prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with green Cavendish banana peel flour were characterized for physicochemical properties and in-vitro starch hydrolysis. Cooked noodles were assessed for pH, colour, tensile strength and elasticity and in-vitro hydrolysis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (GI). BP noodles had lower L* (darker) and b* values (less yellow) than the

Saifullah Ramli; Abbas F. M. Alkarkhi; Yeoh Shin Yong; Azhar Mat Easa

257

Banana peel extract mediated novel route for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of a novel, non-toxic, eco-friendly biological material namely, banana peel extract (BPE). Boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used for reducing silver nitrate. Silver nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, concentration of silver nitrate and incubation temperature. The colorless reaction mixtures

Ashok Bankar; Bhagyashree Joshi; Ameeta Ravi Kumar; Smita Zinjarde

2010-01-01

258

Photofragment image analysis using the Onion-Peeling Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the growing popularity of the velocity map imaging technique, a need for the analysis of photoion and photoelectron images arose. Here, a computer program is presented that allows for the analysis of cylindrically symmetric images. It permits the inversion of the projection of the 3D charged particle distribution using the Onion Peeling Algorithm. Further analysis includes the determination of radial and angular distributions, from which velocity distributions and spatial anisotropy parameters are obtained. Identification and quantification of the different photolysis channels is therefore straightforward. In addition, the program features geometry correction, centering, and multi-Gaussian fitting routines, as well as a user-friendly graphical interface and the possibility of generating synthetic images using either the fitted or user-defined parameters. Program summaryTitle of program: Glass Onion Catalogue identifier: ADRY Program Summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRY Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computer: IBM PC Operating system under which the program has been tested: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows NT Programming language used: Delphi 4.0 Memory required to execute with typical data: 18 Mwords No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9 911 434 Distribution format: zip file Keywords: Photofragment image, onion peeling, anisotropy parameters Nature of physical problem: Information about velocity and angular distributions of photofragments is the basis on which the analysis of the photolysis process resides. Reconstructing the three-dimensional distribution from the photofragment image is the first step, further processing involving angular and radial integration of the inverted image to obtain velocity and angular distributions. Provisions have to be made to correct for slight distortions of the image, and to verify the accuracy of the analysis process. Method of solution: The "Onion Peeling" algorithm described by Helm [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67 (6) (1996)] is used to perform the image reconstruction. Angular integration with a subsequent multi-Gaussian fit supplies information about the velocity distribution of the photofragments, whereas radial integration with subsequent expansion of the angular distributions over Legendre Polynomials gives the spatial anisotropy parameters. Fitting algorithms have been developed to centre the image and to correct for image distortion. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum image size (12801280) and resolution (16 bit) are restricted by available memory and can be changed in the source code. Initial centre coordinates within 5 pixels may be required for the correction and the centering algorithm to converge. Peaks on the velocity profile separated by less then the peak width may not be deconvolved. In the charged particle image reconstruction, it is assumed that the kinetic energy released in the dissociation process is small compared to the energy acquired in the electric field. For the fitting parameters to be physically meaningful, cylindrical symmetry of the image has to be assumed but the actual inversion algorithm is stable to distortions of such symmetry in experimental images. Typical running time: The analysis procedure can be divided into three parts: inversion, fitting, and geometry correction. The inversion time grows approx. as R3, where R is the radius of the region of interest: for R=200 pixels it is less than a minute, for R=400 pixels less then 6 min on a 400 MHz IBM personal computer. The time for the velocity fitting procedure to converge depends strongly on the number of peaks in the velocity profile and the convergence criterion. It ranges between less then a second for simple curves and a few minutes for profiles with up to twenty peaks. The time taken for the image correction scales as R2 and depends on the curve profile. It is on the order of a few minutes for images with R=500

Manzhos, Sergei; Loock, Hans-Peter

2003-07-01

259

Chemical peels for acne and acne scars in asians: evidence based review.  

PubMed

Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars, but there are very few studies on Asian populations who are more prone to develop hyper pigmentation. This article aims to summarize and evaluate the existing studies on the role of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars among Asians. An online search was conducted to identify prospective studies published in English that evaluated the use of chemical peels in active acne and acne scars in Asian populations. There were six studies for acne and eight studies for acne scars that were identified using our search parameters. Most were single-centre, open label and with small sample sizes. Acne severity was not uniformly reported and the objective outcome measures of some studies were not explicitly reported as well. The general trend of the results of the studies support the safety and efficacy of chemical peels for acne and acne scars including those of darker skin types. The existing studies support the use of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars in Asians. Further clinical trials with better study design and more subjects are needed to further establish the role of chemical peels in Asian acne patients. PMID:23378705

Handog, Evangeline B; Datuin, Maria Suzanne L; Singzon, Ivan A

2012-10-01

260

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes.) Peanut or other nut butters Seeds (pumpkin, sunflower, sesame) Grains: Dry cereal (boxed or bagged

O'Toole, Alice J.

261

Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) peel as potential source of dietary fiber and phytochemicals in whole-bread preparations.  

PubMed

Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) is a fruit tree native to the Brazilian Amazon. Cupuassu beans are extensively used in the Brazilian food industry. Fat from cupuassu beans, which are a rich source of triacylglycerols and fatty acids, is used extensively in the production of candies and confectionery in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. The potential use of the agro-industrial by-products of cupuassu has only slightly been addressed by the scientific community. Often, such by-products are sources of bioactive compounds with functional properties. Thus, the aims of this study were to characterize the use of cupuassu peel flour (CPF) and to examine the potential of CPF as a partial replacement in the preparation of breads through various means: chemical analyses, determination of protein digestibility, tannins, phytic acid and phenolic contents, pH, color, volume, and acceptance tests. The results show that CPF is a potential source of dietary fiber (79.81%), mainly insoluble fiber (78.29%), and breads made with added CPF present high dietary fiber content (5.40 and 6.15g/100g for inclusions with 6 and 9% CPF, respectively) and phytochemical values. The use of this by-product did not produce substantial changes in the physical, chemical or rheological characteristics of breads. Therefore, breads enhanced with CPF may be a convenient functional food, offering a good source of dietary fiber and phytochemicals. Breads prepared with 6% added CPF presented an acceptable overall quality to consumers. PMID:21948632

Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Rodrigues, Bruno Sanches; Donado-Pestana, Carlos Mario; dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

2011-11-01

262

Effects of Fruit Ellagitannin Extracts, Ellagic Acid, and Their Colonic Metabolite, Urolithin A, on Wnt Signaling  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin-A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. Here we investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin Ciocalteau method) and to EA content (by high performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry=20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry= 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate= 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET-extracts (IC50=28.0-30.0 ?g/mL), EA (IC50=19.0 ?g/mL; 63 ?M) and UA (IC50=9.0 ?g/mL; 39 ?M) inhibited Wnt signaling suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P.

2010-01-01

263

Non GMO fruit factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple structural and regulatory genes modulate biosynthetic pathways, such as those leading to the accumulation and profile of sugars and carotenoids in the mature tomato fruit. Natural genetic variation among wild relatives of the cultivated tomato provides an important, non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO), resource for improving both horticultural and fruit quality traits of elite tomato varieties. Unfortunately, this natural resource

Ilan Levin; Avraham Lalazar; Moshe Bar; Arthur A. Schaffer

2004-01-01

264

Genetic diversity among mandarins in fruit-quality traits.  

PubMed

A detailed phenotypic analysis of fruit-quality traits was conducted among 46 mandarin varieties within the Israeli Citrus breeding collection, belonging to genetically different natural subgroups, including common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata C. paradisi). Evaluated qualities included physical attributes (size, shape, color, peel thickness, and seed number); physiological properties (ripening period, peelability, and segmentation); nutritional and biochemical composition (vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid contents and total antioxidant activity); and sensory attributes (total soluble solids and acid levels, flavor preference, sweetness, sourness, and fruitiness). The results indicated wide genetic variability in fruit-quality traits among mandarin varieties and natural subgroups, and statistical and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed multiple correlations among attributes. Such phenomic analysis is an obligatory requirement for identification of molecular markers for distinct fruit-quality traits and for selection of appropriate parents for future breeding programs. PMID:24828369

Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Kaplunov, Tatiana; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

2014-05-28

265

Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.  

PubMed

Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

Nordey, Thibault; Lchaudel, Mathieu; Gnard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

2014-11-01

266

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

2012-01-01

267

Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan  

PubMed Central

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 20082010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R.

2012-01-01

268

Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.  

PubMed

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R

2012-01-01

269

Persistence of [14C] gibberellin A3 and [3H] gibberellin A1 in senescing, ethylene treated Citrus and tomato fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of [14C] gibberellin A3 and [3H] gibberellin A1 was examined in senescing fruit of Shamouti orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Gibberellin A3 was highly persistent in Citrus peel (t 1\\/2=18 days) and to a lesser degree in tomato (t 1\\/2=5.5 days). Ethylene and ethephon caused a slight enhancement of gibberellin A3 metabolism in

Shaul Shechter; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt; David Galili

1989-01-01

270

Cloning and characterization of two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase genes, differentially regulated during fruit maturation and under stress conditions, from orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now biochemical and genetic evidence that oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoids by 9-cis- epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the critical step in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis in higher plants. The peel of Citrus fruit accumulates large amounts of ABA during maturation. To under- stand the regulation of ABA biosynthesis in Citrus, two full-length cDNAs (CsNCED1 and CsNCED2)

Maria-Jesus Rodrigo; Berta Alquezar; Lorenzo Zacarias

2006-01-01

271

Peel-and-Stick: Fabricating Thin Film Solar Cell on Universal Substrates  

PubMed Central

Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well. PMID:23277871

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin

2012-01-01

272

Peel-and-Stick: Fabricating Thin Film Solar Cell on Universal Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well.

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin

2012-12-01

273

Guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) as a new source of antioxidant dietary fiber.  

PubMed

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit, widely consumed fresh and also processed (beverages, syrup, ice cream, and jams). Pulp and peel fractions were tested, and both showed high content of dietary fiber (48.55-49.42%) and extractable polyphenols (2.62-7.79%). The antioxidant activity of polyphenol compounds was studied, using three complementary methods: (i) free radical DPPH* scavenging, (ii) ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and (iii) inhibition of copper-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. All fractions tested showed a remarkable antioxidant capacity, and this activity was correlated with the corresponding total phenolic content. A 1-g (dry matter) portion of peel contained DPPH* activity, FRAP activity, and inhibition of copper-induced in vitro LDL oxidation, equivalent to 43 mg, 116 mg, and 176 mg of Trolox, respectively. These results indicate that guava could be a suitable source of natural antioxidants. Peel and pulp could also be used to obtain antioxidant dietary fiber (AODF), a new item which combines in a single natural product the properties of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds. PMID:11714349

Jimnez-Escrig, A; Rincn, M; Pulido, R; Saura-Calixto, F

2001-11-01

274

Assessment of the effect of Punica granatum (pomegranata) on the bioavailability of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (99mTc) in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The many desirable characteristics of technetium-99m (99mTc) have stimulated the development of labeling techniques for different molecular and cellular structures. It is generally accepted that a variety of factors other than disease can alter the bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals and one such factor is the drug therapy. The use of medicinal plants has increased in the last decades all over the world. Punica granatum (pomegranata) is used as food or as medication in folk medicine for antiviral, anthelmintic, antifungal, antibacterial and antimicrobial activity. We have studied in rats, the effect of the medicinal plant Punica granatum on the bioavailability of the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-sodium pertechnetate (Na(99m)TcO4). The infusion of pomegranata was administered by intragastric via into Wistar rats during seven days. After that, the animals received by ocular plexus via, 0.1 ml of the Na(99m)TcO4 (3.7MBq) and the animals were rapidly sacrificed after 5, 20 and 40 min. The organs were isolated (brain, heart, thyroid, liver, lungs, kidneys, stomach, testis, intestines, pancreas, spleen, bladder, muscle and bone), the radioactivity determined in a well counter, the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in the organs were calculated and statistical analyses were performed by Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). The results have shown a significant (p < 0.05) increase of the activity of the Na(99m)TcO4 in spleen, heart, stomach, liver, stout bowel, pancreas, lungs and testis at 5 min. Twenty minutes after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical, the analysis of the results reveals a significant (p < 0.05) increase of the %ATI in heart, stomach, femur, pancreas, lungs and kidneys. Forty minutes after the administration of the Na(99m)TcO4, the results show a significant (p < 0.05) increase in spleen, brain, heart, stomach, liver, stout bowel, muscle, femur, lungs, pancreas, kidneys and testis. These results can be justified by therapeutic effect of this extract and/or by generation of active metabolites capable to interfere with the biodistribution of the studied radiopharmaceutical. PMID:12899440

Amorim, L F; Catanho, M T J A; Terra, D A; Brando, K C; Holanda, C M C X; Jales-Jnior, L H; Brito, L M L; Gomes, M L; De Melo, V G B; Bernardo-Filho, M; Cavalcanti Jales, R L

2003-06-01

275

FRUIT & NUT Blackberries  

E-print Network

for harvesting fruit is very high, which restricts most commercial plant- ings to small acreage ventures. Machine climate crop and can be grown anywhere in USDA Hardi- ness Zone 7, 8, or 9. Regular irrigation is needed

Mukhtar, Saqib

276

The anti-biofilm potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract against human bacterial and fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi are the major cause of morbidity and mortality across the globe. Multi-drug resistance in these pathogens augments the complexity and severity of the diseases. Various studies have shown the role of biofilms in multi-drug resistance, where the pathogen resides inside a protective coat made of extracellular polymeric substances. Since biofilms directly influence the virulence and pathogenicity of a pathogen, it is optimal to employ a strategy that effectively inhibits the formation of biofilm. Pomegranate is a common food and is also used traditionally to treat various ailments. This study assessed the anti-biofilm activity of a methanolic extract of pomegranate against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methanolic extract of pomegranate was shown to inhibit the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Apart from inhibiting the formation of biofilm, pomegranate extract disrupted pre-formed biofilms and inhibited germ tube formation, a virulence trait, in C. albicans. Characterization of the methanolic extract of pomegranate revealed the presence of ellagic acid (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy-chromeno[5,4,3-cde]chromene-5,10-dione) as the major component. Ellagic acid is a bioactive tannin known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. Further studies revealed the ability of ellagic acid to inhibit the growth of all species in suspension at higher concentrations (>75??g?ml(-1)) and biofilm formation at lower concentrations (<40??g?ml(-1)) which warrants further investigation of the potential of ellagic acid or peel powders of pomegranate for the treatment of human ailments. PMID:23906229

Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Nandhini, Janarthanam Rathna; Malathy, Balakumar; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

2013-09-01

277

Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Wampee (Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels) Peel  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant activities of wampee peel extracts using five different solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water) were determined by using in-vitro antioxidant models including total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and superoxide scavenging activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions, even higher than synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). In addition, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901), human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG-2) and human lung adenocarcinoma (A-549) cancer cell lines, higher than cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug. The total phenolic content of wampee fraction was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant and anticancer activities of the wampee peel extract. Thus, wampee peel can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement. PMID:19657451

Prasad, K. Nagendra; Hao, Jing; Yi, Chun; Zhang, Dandan; Qiu, Shengxiang; Jiang, Yueming; Zhang, Mingwei; Chen, Feng

2009-01-01

278

Long-term histologic follow-up of phenol face peels.  

PubMed

Deep phenol peels were done on 11 middle-aged white women with severe actinic damage. Subsequently, face lifts were carried out after periods of 1.5 to 20 years. This made it possible to obtain a full-thickness specimen extending several centimeters on either side of the border between peeled and unpeeled skin. In contrast to the markedly abnormal elastotic appearance of unpeeled skin, a new band of connective tissue 2 to 3 mm in width was laid down in the subepidermal region. Fine elastic fibers formed a dense network in the band of regenerated collagen. The disarray and cytologic abnormalities of sun-damaged epidermis were also largely corrected. Melanocytes were not eliminated, but melanin synthesis was evidently impaired, accounting for the bleaching effects. The effects of a phenol peel are very long lasting and adequately account for the effacement of wrinkles and obliteration of actinic keratoses, mottling, and freckling. PMID:3983273

Kligman, A M; Baker, T J; Gordon, H L

1985-05-01

279

Pectic oligosacharides from lemon peel wastes: production, purification, and chemical characterization.  

PubMed

Lemon peel wastes were extracted with water to remove free sugars and other soluble compounds, and the insoluble solid was employed as a substrate for the manufacture of pectin-derived oligosaccharides by processing with hot, compressed water. When water-extracted lemon peel wastes were treated with water at 160 C, the oligomer concentration reached the maximum value (31 g/L). Autohydrolysis liquors were subjected to two membrane filtration stages (diafiltration followed by concentration), yielding a refined product containing about 98 wt % of oligomers at a global yield of 14 kg/100 kg oven-dry lemon peel. The concentrate contained oligogalacturonides (with DP in the range of 2-18) and arabinooligosaccharides (with DP in the range of 2-8). PMID:24066740

Gmez, Beln; Gulln, Beatriz; Yez, Remedios; Paraj, Juan C; Alonso, Jose L

2013-10-23

280

Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology.  

PubMed

This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products. PMID:25038678

Amado, Isabel Rodrguez; Franco, Daniel; Snchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vzquez, Jos Antonio

2014-12-15

281

An analysis of the 180{degree} peel test for measuring sealant adhesion  

SciTech Connect

Sealant adhesion to different substrates is often assessed by using a 180{degree} peel test. It is known that the peel force is a function of the viscoelastic response of the adhesive joint coupled with the intrinsic strength of the interphase. Measurement of the fracture energy as a function of straining rate can yield material properties by separating the bulk effects from the interphase strength. The results of this study highlight some important deficiencies of the ASTM peel test method. In particular, the fracture energy of a silicone sealant to glass and aluminum was measured at different rates, peel thicknesses and sealant moduli using the 180 peel test. It was determined that the sealant failed cohesively when tested on glass. For instances of cohesive failure, a plot of fracture energy vs. strain rate fit a power law model. The rate dependence of the fracture energy was shown to be proportional to the amount of uncrosslinked polymer in the sealant and this suggested an increase in dissipation. It was further shown that as the modulus of the sealant decreases the fracture energy increases. However, at low strain rates, the trend reverses and the high modulus sealant has better adhesion to glass than some of the low modulus sealants. Tests on specimens with aluminum substrates failed in accordance with specific test conditions: adhesive failure was more likely to occur when the strained thickness was small: when the strain rates were slow; or when the modulus was high. This study clearly demonstrated that peel testing at one rate and thickness can not adequately compare one sealant to another.

Shephard, N.E.; Wightman, J.P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

282

Effects of Mangosteen Peel (Garcinia mangostana) Supplementation on Rumen Ecology, Microbial Protein Synthesis, Digestibility and Voluntary Feed Intake in Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four, rumen fistulated cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experiment was to study effects of crude saponins and condensed tannins in mangosteen peel on rumen microorganisms and fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in cattle. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = Control (without Mangosteen peel supplementation, MSP); T2 =

2006-01-01

283

Relationship between browning and the activities of polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in banana peel during low temperature storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kluai Khai (Musa AA Group) and Kluai Hom Thong (Musa AAA Group) bananas were stored at 6 and 10C. Visible chilling injury (CI) in the peel, mainly browning, occurred at both temperatures, but more so at 6C, and without significant differences between the cultivars. At the time of harvest, total free phenolics in the peel were three times lower in

Thi Bich Thuy Nguyen; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn

2003-01-01

284

Adhesion of thermally sprayed hydroxyapatite-bond-coat systems measured by a novel peel test.  

PubMed

Ti6Al4V foils, 100 microm thick, were coated with thin (10-15 microm) bond coats based on titania and zirconia, and subsequently coated with a thick (100-120 microm) hydroxyapatite layer, using atmospheric plasma spraying. Peel adhesion tests of the coating systems performed on the foils showed that titania, and mixed titania/non-stabilized zirconia bond coats improved the adhesion of the ceramic layers to the metallic substrate in a statistically significant way, while a partially CaO-stabilized zirconia bond coat led to a decrease of the peel adhesion strength when compared to hydroxyapatite coatings without a bond coat. PMID:15348696

Kurzweg, H; Heimann, R B; Troczynski, T

1998-01-01

285

Effect of chemical peeling on the processing quality of long-green mild chile (Capasicum annuum)  

E-print Network

and shape of fresh chiles, 8 Textural attributes of fresh and processed chiles . . 9 Effects of peeling treatment on texture of processed chiles. 1O Effect of variety on sensory panel scores of processed chiles on a 9 point hedonic scale . 11 Effects... of peeling treatment on sensory panel scores of processed chiles on a 9 point hedonic scale 50 51 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Chile with portion of fru1t wall removed. Page 10 Sections through pepper pericarp in differ- ent stages of development...

Tillman, Richard Erland

2012-06-07

286

Modified phenol chemical face peels: recognizing the role of application technique.  

PubMed

The use of phenol to achieve chemexfoliation of facial tissue, following the standard Baker-Gordon formula or modifications of that formula, can produce a range of results depending on a variety of factors. This article-based on 16 new cases of modified phenol peels, three human biopsy studies, and one triple-blind study-examines the relative roles of phenol concentration, croton oil concentration, and application technique in the production of the chemical peel result. Results of this data suggest that the application technique is more important than the concentration of phenol or croton oil and underscore the importance of standardizing the application process. PMID:11457700

Stone, P A; Lefer, L G

2001-08-01

287

Use of starch and potato peel waste for perchlorate bioreduction in water.  

PubMed

The cost of carbon substrates for microbial reduction of perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is central to the success and competitiveness of a sustainable bioremediation strategy for ClO(4)(-). This study explored the potential application of starch in combination with an amylolytic bacterial consortia and potato peel waste for ClO(4)(-) bioreduction. We obtained a potent amylolytic bacterial consortium that consisted of a Citrobacter sp. S4, Streptomyces sp. S2, Flavobacterium sp. S6, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. S5, Streptomyces sp. S7, and an Aeromonas sp. S8 identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. ClO(4)(-) concentration substantially decreased in purified starch medium inoculated with the amylolytic bacterial consortium and Dechlorosoma sp. perclace. Potato peel waste supported ClO(4)(-) reduction by perclace with the rate of ClO(4)(-) reduction being dependent on the amount of potato peels. Over 90% ClO(4)(-) removal was achieved in 4 days in a single time point experiment with 2% (w/v) potato peels waste. ClO(4)(-) reduction in a non-sterile 0.5% potato peel media inoculated with perclace occurred with an initial concentration of 10.14+/-0.04 mg L(-1) to 2.87+/-0.4 mg L(-1) (71.7% reduction) within 5 days. ClO(4)(-) was not detected in the cultures in 6 days. In a non-sterile 0.5% potato media without perclace, ClO(4)(-) depletion occurred slowly from an initial value of 9.99+/-0.15 mg L(-1) to 6.33+/-0.43 mg L(-1) (36.63% reduction) in 5 days. Thereafter, ClO(4)(-) was rapidly degraded achieving 77.1% reduction in 7 days and not detected in 9 days. No susbstantial reduction of ClO(4)(-) was observed in the sterile potato peel media without perclace in 7 days. Redox potential of the potato peel cultures was favorable for ClO(4)(-) reduction, decreasing to as low as -294 mV in 24 h. Sugar levels remained very low in cultures effectively reducing ClO(4)(-) and was substantially higher in sterilized controls. Our results indicate that potato peel waste in combination with amylolytic microorganisms and Dechlorosoma sp. perclace can be economically used to achieve complete ClO(4)(-) removal from water. PMID:16084965

Okeke, Benedict C; Frankenberger, William T

2005-07-15

288

Temperature and shelf-life studies with pre-peeled potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryCooling of 30-pound bags of pre-peeled and sulfited whole potatoes or cut strips was found to be slow under commercial and\\u000a laboratory conditions.\\u000a \\u000a The shelf-life of whole, pre-peeled potatoes was found to be about 1 day at 70, 3 to S days at 45, and 8 to 11 days at 35F.\\u000a For cut strips the shelf-life was less than 1

M. J. Ceponis; B. A. Friedman

1957-01-01

289

Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Lemon Peels  

PubMed Central

Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from lemon peels by using ionic liquid as alternative solvent was investigated. The extracted pectin was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectra. The extraction conditions were optimized through the different experiments in conjunction with the response surface methodology. A pectin yield of 24.68 % was obtained under the optimal parameters: the extraction temperature of 88C, the extraction time of 9.6?min, and a liquid-solid ratio of 22.7?ml g?1. The structure of the pretreated lemon peel samples and the samples after microwave-assisted extraction were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope. PMID:22567554

Guolin, Huang; Jeffrey, Shi; Kai, Zhang; Xiaolan, Huang

2012-01-01

290

Banana peel extract suppressed prostate gland enlargement in testosterone-treated mice.  

PubMed

A methanol extract of banana peel (BPEx, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the regrowth of ventral prostates and seminal vesicles induced by testosterone in castrated mice. Further studies in the androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line showed that BPEx inhibited dose-dependently testosterone-induced cell growth, while the inhibitory activities of BPEx did not appear against dehydrotestosterone-induced cell growth. These results indicate that methanol extract of banana peel can inhibit 5alpha-reductase and might be useful in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. PMID:19734683

Akamine, Kiichiro; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

2009-09-01

291

Tissue specialization at the metabolite level is perceived during the development of tomato fruit.  

PubMed

Fruit maturation and tissue differentiation are important topics in plant physiology. These biological phenomena are accompanied by specific alterations in the biological system, such as differences in the type and concentration of metabolites. The secondary metabolism of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit was monitored by using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to photo-diode array (PDA) detection, fluorescence detection (FD), and mass spectrometry (MS). Through this integrated approach different classes of compounds were analysed: carotenoids, xanthophylls, chlorophylls, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolic acids, glycoalkaloids, saponins, and other glycosylated derivatives. Related metabolite profiles of peel and flesh were found between several commercial tomato cultivars indicating similar metabolite trends despite the genetic background. For a single tomato cultivar, metabolite profiles of different fruit tissues (vascular attachment region, columella and placenta, epidermis, pericarp, and jelly parenchyma) were examined at the green, breaker, turning, pink, and red stages of fruit development. Unrelated to the chemical nature of the metabolites, behavioural patterns could be assigned to specific ripening stages or tissues. These findings suggest spatio-temporal specificity in the accumulation of endogenous metabolites from tomato fruit. PMID:18065765

Moco, Sofia; Capanoglu, Esra; Tikunov, Yury; Bino, Raoul J; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Vervoort, Jacques; De Vos, Ric C H

2007-01-01

292

21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY...4) for use in flume water for washing sugar beets prior to the slicing operation...required to accomplish their intended effect. (c) The use of the...

2014-04-01

293

Isolation of banana lectin-a practical scale procedure from ripe banana fruit.  

PubMed

Banana lectin (BanLec) was isolated from slightly overripe bananas (PCI 6-7) by homogenation in NaCl solution, followed by extraction in the presence of glucose, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and affinity chromatography. Yields were approximately 10-fold greater that those of previously published methods using acidic extraction from very overripe fruit (Peel Color Index [PCI] 7+). By dilution of added isotopically labeled recombinant lectin, the content of total exchangeable BalLec was shown to be constant or to slightly decrease with increasing stage of ripeness, even though extractable BanLec increased, followed by rapid decrease in overripened fruit. In the course of this study we observed that recombinant BanLec expressed in Escherichia coli, although chemically and functionally identical to native BanLec, differed slightly in its apparent molecular size on gel filtration, probably due to differences in its native folding. PMID:23379275

Wearne, Kimberly; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J

2013-01-01

294

An Extract of Pomegranate Fruit and Galangal Rhizome Increases the Numbers of Motile Sperm: A Prospective, Randomised, Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 48 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1?S-1?-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n?=?34; placebo: n?=?32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets containing preparations of pomegranate fruit extract and rhizome of greater galangal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01357044 PMID:25275520

Fedder, Maja D. K.; Jakobsen, Henrik B.; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P.; Parner, Erik T.; Fedder, Jens

2014-01-01

295

FRUIT & NUT Plums, Nectarines, Apricots,  

E-print Network

May to early June. It is small to medium size with a mottled purple peel and juicy red flesh be big issues as well. Since they are indeed a peach, culture is like a peach, but more in- tense because Princess' ripens in mid July and is a freestone that has firm white flesh. `ArmKing' has a medium to large

Mukhtar, Saqib

296

Expression profiles of a MhCTR1 gene in relation to banana fruit ripening.  

PubMed

The banana (Musa spp.) is a typical climacteric fruit of high economic importance. The development of bananas from maturing to ripening is characterized by increased ethylene production accompanied by a respiration burst. To elucidate the signal transduction pathway involved in the ethylene regulation of banana ripening, a gene homologous to Arabidopsis CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) was isolated from Musa spp. (Hsien Jin Chiao, AAA group) and designated as MhCTR1. MhCTR1 spans 11.5 kilobases and consists of 15 exons and 14 introns with consensus GT-AG nucleotides situated at their boundaries. MhCTR1 encodes a polypeptide of 805 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 88.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of MhCTR1 demonstrates 55%, 56% and 55% homology to AtCTR1, RhCTR1, and LeCTR1, respectively. MhCTR1 is expressed mostly in the mature green pulp and root organs. During fruit development MhCTR1 expression increases just before ethylene production rises. Moreover, MhCTR1 expression was detected mainly in the pulps at ripening stage 3, and correlated with the onset of peel yellowing, while MhCTR1 was constitutively expressed in the peels. MhCTR1 expression could be induced by ethylene treatment (0.01 ?L L(-1)), and MhCTR1 expression decreased in both peel and pulp 24 h after treatment. Overall, changes observed in MhCTR1 expression in the pulp closely related to the regulation of the banana ripening process. PMID:22584359

Hu, Huei-Lin; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

2012-07-01

297

Incidence and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit.  

PubMed

The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes on persimmon (Diospyros kaki) surface of 'Fuyu' and 'Rama Forte' was evaluated during a 5-month-period (from March to July) of two seasons periods (years 2005 and 2006). The fruits were collected in wholesale and street markets and retail in Sao Paulo and Campinas City, Brazil. A total of 582 fruits were analyzed using the Bax System which is based on the Polymerase Chain Reaction. The ability of this pathogen to grow on the peel and pulp of the two persimmon varieties was also verified at different incubation periods at the temperatures of 10, 20 and 30 degrees C. The growth parameters were obtained by modeling the experimental data using the Gompertz function. The incidence survey showed the absence of L. monocytogenes. The growth curves showed that L. monocytogenes can grow on the peel as well as in the pulp of the two persimmon varieties studied incubated at 10, 20 and 30 degrees C and that low temperatures can reduce the generation rate but does not inhibit its growth. PMID:18599141

Uchima, C A; de Castro, M F P M; Gallo, C R; Rezende, A C B; Benato, E R; Penteado, A L

2008-08-15

298

Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits  

MedlinePLUS

... at breakfast At breakfast, top your cereal with bananas, peaches, or strawberries; add blueberries to pancakes; drink ... fruit at lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from ...

299

Individually packaged snacks (crackers, fruit, chips, fruit cups, etc)  

E-print Network

Supplies � Other Foil Febreeze Dishwasher Tablets Food Service Gloves Kleenex Cleaning/Laundry Supplies - Priority Clorox Wipes Laundry Detergent Fabric Softener Sheets Hand sanitizer Liquid HandFood Items Individually packaged snacks (crackers, fruit, chips, fruit cups, etc) Individually

Hutcheon, James M.

300

CLUSTERING VIA NORMAL MIXTURE MODELS G.J. McLachlan, D. Peel, and P. Prado  

E-print Network

CLUSTERING VIA NORMAL MIXTURE MODELS G.J. McLachlan, D. Peel, and P. Prado G.J. Mc mixture models; Maximum likelihood; EM algorithm; Likelihood ratio test ABSTRACT We consider a model mixture of a finite number of distributions. The number of components in this mixture model corresponds

McLachlan, Geoff

301

Lemon peels mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antidermatophytic activity.  

PubMed

There is an increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various areas. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this work, The extract of lemon peel was prepared and mixed with 1 mM AgNO3 solution .The bioreduction of Ag(+) ion in solution was monitored using UV-visible spectrometer, FESEM and EDAX analysis. Skin scales were collected from patients with suspected dermatophytosis and the dermatophytes were isolated and identified. The AgNPs produced from lemon peels showed good activity against the isolated dermatophytes. The present research work emphasizes the use of lemon peels for the effective synthesize of AgNPs and could be used against the dermatophytes which are found to develop drug resistant towards broad-spectrum antibiotics. The biosynthesis of AgNPs using lemon peel extract is very simple and economic. The use of environmentally benign and renewable plant material offers enormous benefits of eco-friendliness. PMID:24486863

Najimu Nisha, S; Aysha, O S; Syed Nasar Rahaman, J; Vinoth Kumar, P; Valli, S; Nirmala, P; Reena, A

2014-04-24

302

Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel.  

PubMed

Pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzymes (Pectinase 62L, Pectinase 690L, and Cellulase CO13P) were used to evaluate the solubilization of carbohydrates and low molecular weight flavonoids from bergamot peel, a major byproduct of the essential oil industry. The enzymes were characterized for main-chain and side-chain polysaccharide hydrolyzing activities and also against pure samples of various flavonoids previously identified in bergamot peel to determine various glycosidase activities. The addition of Pectinase 62L or 690L alone, or the combination of Pectinase 62L and Cellulase CO13P, was capable of solubilizing between 70 and 80% of the bergamot peel, and up to 90% of the flavonoid glycosides present were cleaved to their aglycones. Cellulase CO13P alone solubilized 62% of the peel but had no deglycosylating effect on the flavonoid glycosides. Over a 24-h time course, a rapid release of cell wall carbohydrates was observed after treatment with Pectinase 62L, with a concurrent gradual hydrolysis of the flavonoid glycosides. Size-exclusion chromatography of the solubilized extract showed that after 24-h incubation, the majority of the solubilized carbohydrates were present as monosaccharides with a smaller proportion of oligosaccharides. PMID:17032044

Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bennett, Richard N; Kirby, Andrew R; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Waldron, Keith W; Faulds, Craig B

2006-10-18

303

Coming Up to Speed: Investigating a learning community for the Peel region, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project was to identify characteristics of a learning community and the type of vision, and values, that have been associated with effective lifelong learning, and to consider how these might enmesh with existing planning and priorities of the City of Mandurah and the wider Peel region. A second feature of the investigation was to identify how

Jennifer Nevard; Challenger TAFE; Dorothy Lucks

304

A facile process for soak-and-peel delamination of CVD graphene from substrates using water  

E-print Network

by the mechanical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) has opened doors for new innovations to few-layer graphene3 especially on large area substrates. These methods include reduction of graphiteA facile process for soak-and-peel delamination of CVD graphene from substrates using water Priti

Deshmukh, Mandar M.

305

Y-peel characterization of adhesively-bonded carton board: an objective method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carton board packages are often closed with an adhesive. The adhesive joint thus formed has to meet the demands during the entire product life from converting to end-use. The adhesive joint has to be characterized if it is good or bad for the actual application. Today such characterization is done by manually peeling the joint, immediately after the adhesive application

Christer Korin; Magnus Lestelius; Johan Tryding; Nils Hallbck

2007-01-01

306

Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics\\u000a were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had

G. Oboh; A. O. Ademosun

307

The Effect of Peel Stress on the Strength of Adhesively Bonded Joints  

SciTech Connect

Composite wind turbine blades are often attached to a metallic structure with an adhesive bond. The objective of this investigation is to determine which parameters affect the durability of these adhesively bonded joints. The composite-to-steel joint considered in this study typically fails when the adhesive debonds from the steel adherend. Previously, this joint was monotonically loaded in either compression or tension. Compressive and tensile axial loads of the same magnitude produce adhesive stresses with very similar magnitudes but opposite signs. (For the joint considered, tensile loads produce compressive peeh stresses in the adhesive at the location where debonding initiates.) The tensile specimens failed at much higher loads, establishing that the sign of the adhesive peel stresses strongly influences the single-cycle strength of these joints. Building on this earlier work, this study demonstrates that the adhesive peel stresses are also critical for fatigue loading. The results of low-cycle (axial) and high- cycle (bending) fatigue tests are presented. To complement the test results, finite element analyses demonstrate the localized nature of the peel stresses that develop in the adhesive. In addition, these analyses are used to investigate some of the causes of these peel stresses.

Guess, T.R.; Metzinger, K.E.

1998-10-14

308

Clinical and Instrumental Evaluation of Skin Improvement after Treatment with a New 50% Pyruvic Acid Peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND Pyruvic acid is an a-keto acid that presents keratolytic, antimicrobial, and sebostatic properties as well as the ability to stimulate new collagen production and elastic fibers formation. Because of its low pKa and its small dimension, it penetrates rapidly and deeply through the skin, so far as to be considered a potent chemical peel agent. It has proven its

ENZO BERARDESCA; NORMA CAMELI; GRAZIA PRIMAVERA; MANUELA CARRERA

2006-01-01

309

Extension of shelf life of whole and peeled shrimp with organic acid salts and bifidobacteria.  

PubMed

Microbiological and sensory characteristics of treated whole and peeled shrimp from the east coast of Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Shrimp samples were treated with organic acid salts with or without Bifidobacterium breve culture and stored in ice. Peeling alone extended the microbiological shelf life by 4 days. Treatment of whole shrimp with sodium acetate alone or potassium sorbate with bifidobacteria prolonged the microbiological shelf life by 3 days and increased the microbial generation time from 12.8 h (control) to 30.1 h or 31.4 h, respectively. The microbiological and sensory shelf life of peeled shrimp treated with sodium acetate was more than 17 days. Sodium acetate extended the microbial lag phase and lengthened the generation time (38.7 h compared to 15.8 h for the control). Micrococci and coryneforms were the predominant microorganisms in whole shrimp during storage. Treatment with sodium acetate maintained better sensory characteristics for peeled shrimp than potassium sorbate combined with bifidobacteria. PMID:9921829

Al-Dagal, M M; Bazaraa, W A

1999-01-01

310

Repeated salicylic acid peels for the treatment of hyperplastic sebaceous glands in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.  

PubMed

Abstract Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Hypertrophic sebaceous glands (HSGs) are rarely present but they cause an aesthetic problem. We report a case of a patient suffering from hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, treated with salicylic acid peels for the hyperplastic sebaceous glands. PMID:25065417

Sgontzou, Themis; Armyra, Kalliopi; Kouris, Anargyros; Bokotas, Charalampos; Kontochristopoulos, George

2014-12-01

311

In situ scanning electron microscope peeling to quantify surface energy between multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene.  

PubMed

Understanding atomic interactions between constituents is critical to the design of high-performance nanocomposites. Here, we report an experimental-computational approach to investigate the adhesion energy between as-produced arc discharge multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene. An in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) experiment is used to peel MWCNTs from graphene grown on copper foils. The force during peeling is obtained by monitoring the deflection of a cantilever. Finite element and molecular mechanics simulations are performed to assist the data analysis and interpretation of the results. A finite element analysis of the experimental configuration is employed to confirm the applicability of Kendall's peeling model to obtain the adhesion energy. Molecular mechanics simulations are used to estimate the effective contact width at the MWCNT-graphene interface. The measured surface energy is ? = 0.20 0.09 Jm(-2) or ? = 0.36 0.16 Jm(-2), depending on the assumed conformation of the tube cross section during peeling. The scatter in the data is believed to result from an amorphous carbon coating on the MWCNTs, observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the surface roughness of graphene as characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). PMID:24341540

Roenbeck, Michael R; Wei, Xiaoding; Beese, Allison M; Naraghi, Mohammad; Furmanchuk, Al'ona; Paci, Jeffrey T; Schatz, George C; Espinosa, Horacio D

2014-01-28

312

Sorption of basic dye from aqueous solution by pomelo ( Citrus grandis) peel in a batch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low-cost, locally available sorbent, pomelo (Citrus grandis) peel (PP), was tested for its ability to remove basic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous on PP were studied in a batch process. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models. Sorption equilibrium studies demonstrated

B. H. Hameed; D. K. Mahmoud; A. L. Ahmad

2008-01-01

313

Dynamic response of adhesively bonded single-lap joints with a void subjected to harmonic peeling  

E-print Network

Dynamic response of adhesively bonded single-lap joints with a void subjected to harmonic peeling is evaluated. The bonded joint is modelled as a Euler­Bernoulli beam joined with an adhesive and constrained overall length of the bonded joint t adhesive thickness w width of the beams yi transverse displacement

Vaziri, Ashkan

314

Optimization of extraction of novel pectinase enzyme discovered in red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel.  

PubMed

Plant peels could be a potential source of novel pectinases for use in various industrial applications due to their broad substrate specificity with high stability under extreme conditions. Therefore, the extraction conditions of a novel pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel was optimized in this study. The effect of extraction variables, namely buffer to sample ratio (2:1 to 8:1, X?), extraction temperature (-15 to +25 C, X?) and buffer pH (4.0 to 12.0, X?) on specific activity, temperature stability, storage stability and surfactant agent stability of pectinase from pitaya peel was investigated. The study demonstrated that the optimum conditions for the extraction of pectinase from pitaya sources could improve the enzymatic characteristics of the enzyme and protect its activity and stability during the extraction procedure. The optimum extraction conditions cause the pectinase to achieve high specific activity (15.31 U/mg), temperature stability (78%), storage stability (88%) and surfactant agent stability (83%). The most desirable conditions to achieve the highest activity and stability of pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel were the use of 5:1 buffer to sample ratio at 5 C and pH 8.0. PMID:24264138

Zohdi, Nor Khanani; Amid, Mehrnoush

2013-01-01

315

Citric acid production by Koji fermentation using banana peel as a novel substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing demand for citric acid and the current need for alternative sources have encouraged biotechnologists to search for novel and economical substrates. Koji fermentation was conducted using the peels of banana (Musa acuminata) as an inexpensive substrate for the production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger. Various crucial parameters that affect citric acid production such as moisture content, temperature,

Alagarsamy Karthikeyan; Nallusamy Sivakumar

2010-01-01

316

Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.92 for ethanol

Harinder Singh Oberoi; Praveen V. Vadlani; Lavudi Saida; Sunil Bansal; Joshua D. Hughes

2011-01-01

317

Kinetics studies on ethanol production from banana peel waste using mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different mutant strains were developed from the wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC No.287) using UV irradiation technique by varying the exposure timings. All the mutant cultures were used for ethanol production using banana peel as a substrate in a batch fermenter. The effect of temperature, pH and initial substrate concentration on ethanol production were studied and optimized. The

K Manikandan; V Saravanan; T Viruthagiri

318

Statistical optimization of hydrolysis process for banana peels using cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried and ground banana peels (BP) were pretreated and hydrolyzed using a combination of cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes. Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize cellulase, ?-glucosidase and pectinase concentrations and hydrolysis time for production of glucose and reducing sugars. Design expert software was used to analyze and evaluate the data. The interactions between filter paper cellulase and ?-glucosidase

Harinder Singh Oberoi; Simranjeet Kaur Sandhu; Praveen V. Vadlani

319

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-04-21

320

Home Fruit Production - Figs.  

E-print Network

TDOC Z TA245.7 B873 NO.1591 B-1591 Texas Agricultural Extension Service HOM? FRUIT PRODUCTION FIGS LIBRARY SEP 2 7 1988 ( A&M Univer it Texas Agricultural Extension Service. Zerle L. Carpenter, Director. The Texas A&M University System.... Dooryard trees can be grown in any section of Texas. Figs grow extremely well along the Texas Gulf Coast. However, trees require cold protection in the far northern and western areas and supplemental irrigation in the state's drier areas. The fig fruit...

Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

1987-01-01

321

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

bean/chick peas Dried/Canned Lentils Kidney or Black beans Soy Products (shelf-stable tofu, canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo

O'Toole, Alice J.

322

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

323

Peel strength of denture liner to PMMA and polyamide: laser versus air-abrasion  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study investigated the effect of laser parameters and air-abrasion on the peel strength of silicon-based soft denture liner to different denture resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS Specimens (N=180) were prepared out of three different denture base resins (Rodex, cross-linked denture base acrylic resin; Paladent, heat-cured acrylic resin; Deflex, Polyamide resin) (75 mm 25 mm 3 mm). A silicon-based soft denture liner (Molloplast B) was applied to the denture resins after the following conditioning methods: a) Air-abrasion (50 m), b) Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase MD Turbo, Biolase Technology) at 2 W-20 Hz, c) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 2 W-30 Hz, d) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-20 Hz, e) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-30 Hz. Non-conditioned group acted as the control group. Peel test was performed in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were evaluated visually. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=.05). RESULTS Denture liner tested showed increased peel strength after laser treatment with different parameters (3.90.4 - 5.580.6 MPa) compared to the control (3.640.5 - 4.580.5 MPa) and air-abraded groups (3.10.6 - 4.460.3 MPa), but the results were not statistically significant except for Paladent, with the pretreatment of Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-20 Hz. Polyamide resin after air-abrasion showed significantly lower peel strength than those of other groups (3.10.6 MPa). CONCLUSION Heat-cured acrylic resin, PMMA, may benefit from Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment at 3 W-20 Hz irradiation. Air-abrasion of polyamide resins should be avoided not to impair their peel bond strengths to silicon-based soft denture liners. PMID:24049570

Bagis, Bora; Ozcan, Mutlu; Durkan, Rukiye; Turgut, Sedanur; Ates, Sabit Melih

2013-01-01

324

Classification of fruits and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classifications for fruits and vegetables are most helpful for dietary assessment and guidance if they are based on the composition of these foods. This work determined whether levels of food components in fruits and vegetables correlated with classification criteria based on botanic family, color, part of plant, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A database of 104 commonly consumed fruits and

Jean A. T. Pennington; Rachel A. Fisher

2009-01-01

325

Fruits and vegetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fruits and vegetables are healthy foods. Humans need to consume these in order to get the nutrients they need to grow and maintain their bodies. People with anorexia would probably not eat these foods or any other foods. Anorexia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted with anorexia doesn't eat or eats very little food.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-07-23

326

FRUIT & NUT Rabbiteye Blueberries  

E-print Network

.5 and the irrigation water has little to no calcium bicarbonate. Rabbiteye plants are also extremely sensitive or machines, with the majority of fruit grown in Texas picked by hand and sold for fresh consump- tion are shallow and fibrous, thus sandy soils pose problems with- out drip irrigation. Soil drying should be pre

Mukhtar, Saqib

327

The Passiflora tripartita (Banana Passion) fruit: a source of bioactive flavonoid C-glycosides isolated by HSCCC and characterized by HPLCDADESI/MS/MS.  

PubMed

The banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita Breiter, Passifloraceae) known as "tumbo" is very appreciated in tropical and subtropical countries of South America. Methanolic extracts from peel and the fruit juice of P. tripartita growing in Chile were analyzed for antioxidant capacity as well as for flavonoid and phenolic content. A chromatographic method was developed for the rapid identification of the main phenolics in the samples by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. The fast fingerprint analysis allowed the detection of eighteen flavonoid C-glycosides and four flavonoid O-glycoside derivatives which were characterized by UV spectra and ESI-MS-MS analysis. Several of the C-glycosides detected are structurally related to the orientin derivative 4'-methoxy-luteolin-8-C-(6"acetyl)-b-D-glucopyranoside (31), fully elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant derivative 31 along with schaftoside, vicenin II, orientin and vitexin were isolated from the fruit extract by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). A suitable method for the preparative isolation of flavonol C-glycosides from "tumbo" extracts by HSCCC is reported. The pulp of the fruits showed good antioxidant capacity (12.89 0.02 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). The peel presented the highest content of flavonoids (56.03 4.34 mg quercetin/100 g dry weight) which is related to the highest antioxidant power (10.41 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). PMID:23358325

Simirgiotis, Mario J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Brquez, Jorge; Kennelly, Edward J

2013-01-01

328

An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer. PMID:22608289

Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

2012-12-01

329

Fruitful DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, learners get to see and touch the genetic material they extract from the cells of a kiwi fruit - no high tech equipment required! After extraction and precipitation, learners will be able to collect the DNA with a wire hook. A facilitator's guide is included for helping educators run the activity, and background information is provided about what's going on, discussion questions, and ideas for inquiry. Biochemistry has never been so accessible - and fun!

Kalamuck, Karen; Exploratorium

2000-01-01

330

Effect of sodium tripolyphosphate treatment on the moisture content of peeled and deveined shrimp during frozen storage  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE TREATMENT ON THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP DURING FROZEN STORAGE A Thesis by CHYI CHIENG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECT OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE TREATMENT ON THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP DURING FROZEN STORAGE A Thesis by CHYI CHIENG...

Chieng, Chyi

2012-06-07

331

Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste\\u000a orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using\\u000a a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains d-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85

Qiang Li; Jose A. Siles; Ian P. Thompson

2010-01-01

332

Joint effects of citrus peel use and black tea intake on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Differences in tea drinking habits and\\/or citrus peel use are likely to vary by populations and could contribute to the inconsistencies found between studies comparing their consumption and cancer risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was used to evaluate the relationships between citrus peel use and black tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Moreover, we

Iman A Hakim; Robin B Harris

2001-01-01

333

Low cost biosorbent banana peel for the removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater: Kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to determine the potential of application of banana peel as a biosorbent for removing phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewaters. The effect of adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the increase in the banana peel dosage from 10 to 30g\\/L significantly increased the phenolic compounds adsorption rates from

M. Achak; A. Hafidi; N. Ouazzani; S. Sayadi; L. Mandi

2009-01-01

334

Harnessing of biohydrogen by acidogenic fermentation of Citrus limetta peelings: Effect of extraction procedure and pretreatment of biocatalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracts of Citrus limetta (sweet lime) peelings were evaluated as a fermentable substrate for hydrogen (H2) production by dark-fermentation (acidogenic) using both anaerobic mixed consortia and selectively enriched acidogenic mixed consortia. Extraction was carried by pretreating sweet lime peelings at 121C (1bar pressure) at variable pH (6and 7) and digestion time (20 and 40min). Maximum organic matter extraction was

S. Venkata Mohan; M. Lenin Babu; M. Venkateswar Reddy; G. Mohanakrishna; P. N. Sarma

2009-01-01

335

Optimization of fermentation parameters for production of ethanol from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was taken up to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters like inoculum concentration, temperature, incubation\\u000a period and agitation time on ethanol production from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation\\u000a using cellulase and co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae G and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077. Steam pretreated kinnow waste and banana peels were used as substrate

Naresh Sharma; K. L. Kalra; Harinder Singh Oberoi; Sunil Bansal

2007-01-01

336

Ultra-sonication-assisted solvent extraction of quercetin glycosides from 'Idared' apple peels.  

PubMed

Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated 'Idared' apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v) methanol in 1:50 (w:v) solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v) or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact. PMID:22117169

Vasantha Rupasinghe, H P; Kathirvel, Priya; Huber, Gwendolyn M

2011-01-01

337

Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and orange peel waste.  

PubMed

Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472

Serrano, Antonio; Siles Lpez, Jos Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martn, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan

2014-01-01

338

Potato peel extract-a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in radiation processed lamb meat.  

PubMed

The effective utilization of potato peel, a waste generated in large quantities by the food industry, as an antioxidant was investigated. Potato peel extract (PPE) exhibited high phenolic content (70.82 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), chlorogenic acid (27.56 mg/100 g of sample) being the major component. The yield of total phenolics and chlorogenic acid increased by 26 and 60%, respectively, when the extract was prepared from gamma irradiated (150 Gy) potatoes. PPE showed excellent antioxidant activity as determined by beta-carotene bleaching and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The suitability of PPE for controlling lipid oxidation of radiation processed lamb meat was also investigated. PPE (0.04%) when added to meat before radiation processing was found to retard lipid peroxidation of irradiated meat as measured by TBA number and carbonyl content. The antioxidant activity of PPE was found to be comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). PMID:15740031

Kanatt, Sweetie R; Chander, Ramesh; Radhakrishna, P; Sharma, Arun

2005-03-01

339

Position-Based Virtual Fixtures for Membrane Peeling with a Handheld Micromanipulator  

PubMed Central

Peeling delicate retinal membranes, which are often less than 5 m thick, is one of the most challenging retinal surgeries. Preventing rips and tears caused by tremor and excessive force can decrease injury and reduce the need for follow up surgeries. We propose the use of a fully handheld microsurgical robot to suppress tremor while enforcing helpful constraints on the motion of the tool. Using stereo vision and tracking algorithms, the robot activates motion-scaled behavior as the tip reaches the surface, providing finer control during the critical step of engaging the membrane edge. A hard virtual fixture just below the surface limits the total downward force that can be applied. Furthermore, velocity limiting during the peeling helps the surgeon maintain a smooth, constant force while lifting and delaminating the membrane. On a phantom consisting of plastic wrap stretched across a rubber slide, we demonstrate our approach reduces maximum force by 4070%. PMID:24724041

Becker, Brian C.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Lobes, Louis A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

2012-01-01

340

Alu-mediated large deletion of the CDSN gene as a cause of peeling skin disease.  

PubMed

Peeling skin disease (PSD) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder caused by mutations in CDSN and is characterized by superficial peeling of the upper epidermis. Corneodesmosin (CDSN) is a major component of corneodesmosomes that plays an important role in maintaining epidermis integrity. Herein, we report a patient with PSD caused by a novel homozygous large deletion in the 6p21.3 region encompassing the CDSN gene, which abrogates CDSN expression. Several genes including C6orf15, PSORS1C1, PSORS1C2, CCHCR1, and TCF19 were also deleted, however, the patient showed only clinical features typical of PSD. The deletion size was 59.1?kb. Analysis of the sequence surrounding the breakpoint showed that both telomeric and centromeric breakpoints existed within Alu-S sequences that were oriented in opposite directions. These results suggest an Alu-mediated recombination event as the mechanism underlying the deletion in our patient. PMID:24116970

Wada, T; Matsuda, Y; Muraoka, M; Toma, T; Takehara, K; Fujimoto, M; Yachie, A

2014-10-01

341

Missing physics in stick-slip dynamics of a model for peeling of an adhesive tape.  

PubMed

It is now known that the equations of motion for the contact point during peeling of an adhesive tape mounted on a roll introduced earlier are singular and do not support dynamical jumps across the two stable branches of the peel force function. By including the kinetic energy of the tape in the Lagrangian, we derive equations of motion that support stick-slip jumps as a natural consequence of the inherent dynamics. In the low mass limit, these equations reproduce solutions obtained using a differential-algebraic algorithm introduced for the earlier equations. Our analysis also shows that the mass of the ribbon has a strong influence on the nature of the dynamics. PMID:16089587

De, Rumi; Ananthakrishna, G

2005-05-01

342

Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.  

PubMed

Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data. PMID:24191439

Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

2013-01-01

343

Sizing Single Cantilever Beam Specimens for Characterizing Facesheet/Core Peel Debonding in Sandwich Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details part of an effort focused on the development of a standardized facesheet/core peel debonding test procedure. The purpose of the test is to characterize facesheet/core peel in sandwich structure, accomplished through the measurement of the critical strain energy release rate associated with the debonding process. The specific test method selected for the standardized test procedure utilizes a single cantilever beam (SCB) specimen configuration. The objective of the current work is to develop a method for establishing SCB specimen dimensions. This is achieved by imposing specific limitations on specimen dimensions, with the objectives of promoting a linear elastic specimen response, and simplifying the data reduction method required for computing the critical strain energy release rate associated with debonding. The sizing method is also designed to be suitable for incorporation into a standardized test protocol. Preliminary application of the resulting sizing method yields practical specimen dimensions.

Ratcliffe, James G.

2010-01-01

344

Effects of irradiation in combination with waxing on the essential oils in orange peel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study evaluated the effects of waxing and irradiation dose on the essential oils in orange peel. Mature oranges ( Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0-2 kGy radiation. Volatiles in the peel were extracted and analyzed by G.C. D-limonene was significantly lower ( P?0.05) in waxed oranges; levels in samples treated with 2 kGy were higher than those treated with 0 or 1 kGy. Linalool, methyl anthranilate and 3.7-dimethyl-2.6-octadienal decreased as the dose increased. The analysis of variance indicates that only linalool was influenced by post-irradiation storage time. The level of this compound increased with storage time.

Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

2000-03-01

345

Citric acid production by Koji fermentation using banana peel as a novel substrate.  

PubMed

The growing demand for citric acid and the current need for alternative sources have encouraged biotechnologists to search for novel and economical substrates. Koji fermentation was conducted using the peels of banana (Musa acuminata) as an inexpensive substrate for the production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger. Various crucial parameters that affect citric acid production such as moisture content, temperature, pH, inoculum level and incubation time were quantified. Moisture (70%), 28 degrees C temperature, an initial pH 3, 10(8) spores/ml as inoculum and 72h incubation was found to be suitable for maximum citric acid production by A. niger using banana peel as a substrate. PMID:20219361

Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Sivakumar, Nallusamy

2010-07-01

346

Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Tunisian Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Peel and Juice and Determination of Their Antioxidant Activities  

PubMed Central

Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23841062

Jabri karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

2013-01-01

347

Enhanced production of triterpenoid in submerged cultures of Antrodia cinnamomea with the addition of citrus peel extract.  

PubMed

In recent years, Antrodia cinnamomea has become a well-known medicinal mushroom in Taiwan. Triterpenoids are considered one of the most biologically active components found in A. cinnamomea. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of enhancing triterpenoid production in shake flask cultures of A. cinnamomea by adding citrus peel extract. As a result of its containing essential oils, citrus peel extract is inhibitory to mycelial growth. In the experiments, the appropriate adding time is determined to be on day 7. Of the various citrus peel extracts tested, tangerine proves to be the most effective in enhancing polyphenol and triterpenoid production. With an addition of 2% (v/v), the content and production of total polyphenols rises from 5.95mg/g DW of the control and 56.73mg/L to 23.52mg/g DW and 224.39mg/L, respectively, on day 28. The production of triterpenoids also increases from 99.93 to 1,028.02mg/L, for more than a tenfold increase. An optimal level of tangerine peel additive is determined to be around 4%. Furthermore, when compared with the mycelia of the control culture, the profiles of the HPLC analysis show that the mycelia cultured with the tangerine-peel addition contain more kinds of triterpenoids. This study demonstrates that the addition of citrus peel extract effectively enhances the production of bioactive metabolites in the submerged cultures of A. cinnamomea. PMID:24803141

Ma, Te-Wei; Lai, Yueting; Yang, Fan-Chiang

2014-11-01

348

Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.  

PubMed

The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles < banana pulp noodles < control noodles. Since the peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered. PMID:19757248

Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

2009-01-01

349

Finite Mixture Models G.J. McLACHLAN and D. PEEL  

E-print Network

Finite Mixture Models G.J. McLACHLAN and D. PEEL A Wiley­Interscience Publication JOHN WILEY & SONS Method of Modeling 1 1.1.2 Initial Approach to Mixture Analysis 2 1.1.3 Impact of EM Algorithm 3 1.2 Overview of Book 4 1.3 Basic Definition 6 1.4 Interpretation of Mixture Models 7 1.5 Shapes of Some

McLachlan, Geoff

350

Effect of pH and Temperature on the Activity of Enzymatic Extracts from Pineapple Peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to characterize a crude extract from pineapple peel after precipitation by three methods with the\\u000a aim of obtaining an enzymatic extract from agro-industrial waste. The characterization of these extracts involved the determination\\u000a of both protein content and specific protease activities. The effects of pH and temperature on specific protease activity\\u000a and on the stability of

Marialice Pinto Coelho Silvestre; Raquel Linhares Carreira; Mauro Ramalho Silva; Flvia Campos Corgosinho; Mrcia Regina Pereira Monteiro; Harriman Aley Morais

351

Combined effect of sepia soaking and temperature on the shelf life of peeled shrimp Penaeus kerathurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sepia ink (Sepia officinalis) extract solutions with concentrations of 0.0%, 0.01%, 0.2% and 2% on the microbial flora and the chemical composition of stored peeled shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) were examined at two temperatures (?2 and 0 C). The quantification of aerobic and psychotrophic bacteria was performed by a plate count after each 3 days of storage.

Saloua Sadok; Abdelwahed Abdelmoulah; Amor El Abed

2004-01-01

352

Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized on orange peel as biocatalyst for alcoholic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biocatalyst was prepared by immobilizing a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (bakers yeast) on orange peel pieces for use in alcoholic fermentation and for fermented food applications. Cell immobilization was shown by electron microscopy and by the efficiency of the immobilized biocatalyst for alcoholic fermentation of various carbohydrate substrates (glucose, molasses, raisin extracts) and at various temperatures (3015C). Fermentation times

S. Plessas; A. Bekatorou; A. A. Koutinas; M. Soupioni; I. M. Banat; R. Marchant

2007-01-01

353

QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALLOONING MODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

OAK A271 QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALLOONING MODES. Two of the major issues crucial for the design of the next generation tokamak burning plasma devices are the predictability of the edge pedestal height and control of the divertor heat load in H-mode configurations. Both of these are strongly impacted by edge localized modes (ELMs) and their size.

L. L. Lao; P. B. Snyder; A. W. Leonard; T. H. Osborne; J. R. Ferron; R. J. Groebner; LD HORTON; M. Murakami; M MURAKAMI; L. D. Pearlstein; S. Saarelma; AD TURNBULL; DM THOMAS; HR WILSON

2002-01-01

354

Bio-Processing of Banana Peel for ?-Amylase Production by Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha amylase was produced by Bacillus subtilis utilizing banana peel in a solid state fermentation (SSF). The effect of varying incubation period, substrate level, pH of the medium, incubation temperature, peptone (nitrogen source) and micronutrients on the production of ?-amylase was investigated. The maximum activity of ?-amylase (9.06 IU\\/mL\\/min) was recorded after 24 hours of SSF at pH 7 and

SHAISTA KOKAB; M. ASGHAR; K. REHMAN; M. J. ASAD; O. ADEDYO

355

Efficient production of glutathione using hydrolyzate of banana peel as novel substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolyzate of banana peels containing abundant fermentable sugars as glucose, xylose, mannose, and arabinose was successfully\\u000a used as a novel substrate for the efficient production of glutathione by Candida utilis SZU 07-01. Xylose was first selected as the sole carbon source for glutathione production, medium optimization for better\\u000a cell growth and higher glutathione using response surface methodology consisting of

Xue-Dong Chen; Gong-Yuan Wei; Jun-Li Zhang; Ying-Ying Dong

356

Development of banana peel jelly and its antioxidant and textural properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objectives of this study were to develop a functional jelly product that possesses antioxidant activity and\\u000a contains dietary fiber, utilizing banana peel, a common banana byproduct, and to evaluate its physicochemical and antioxidant\\u000a properties to verify the maintenance of its antioxidant property even after cooking for jelly-production. The jelly was produced\\u000a under the identical conditions of cooking time,

Eun-Hye Lee; Hye-Jung Yeom; Mi-Sun Ha; Dong-Ho Bae

2010-01-01

357

Antioxidant activity in banana peel extracts: Testing extraction conditions and related bioactive compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) peel extracts obtained in this work had a high capacity to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+) free radicals, and they were also good lipid peroxidation inhibitors. Acetone:water extracts were considerably more effective (compared with methanol, ethanol, acetone, water, methanol:water or ethanol:water) at inhibiting the peroxidation of lipids in the ?-carotene\\/linoleic acid system or

Rafaela Gonzlez-Montelongo; M. Gloria Lobo; Mnica Gonzlez

2010-01-01

358

Effects of supercritical carbon dioxide on waste banana peels for heavy metal removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) on waste banana peels for copper adsorption were evaluated. Supercritical CO2 was employed both in a solvent extraction for antioxidant compound recovery and in an emerging biomass treatment to increase the subsequent heavy metal-removal step; the latter is termed explosion with supercritical CO2. This lignocellulosic biomass was analyzed before and after being subjected

Juliana Q. Albarelli; Rodrigo B. Rabelo; Diego T. Santos; Marisa M. Beppu; M. Angela A. Meireles

2011-01-01

359

Preliminary investigation into the uneven ripening of banana (Musa sp.) peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature green bananas (Musa sp., AAA group, Cavendish subgroup, cultivar Williams') were used to examine the uneven de?greening of banana peel treated with 1?methylcyclopropene (1?MCP). After ethylene treatment (200 ?l litre for 24h at 20C) bananas were allocated different treatment units: 1?MCP treatment (200 nl litre, 20C, 24h); nitrogen treatment (O2<0.1%, 20C, 24h); ethanol treatment (0.3 ml litre, 20C, 24h);

Giovanni de Martino; Fabio Mencarelli; John B. Golding

2007-01-01

360

Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels ( Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental design was used to study the influence of pH (1.5 and 2.0), temperature (80 and 90C) and time (1 and 4h) on extraction of pectin from banana peels (Musa AAA). Yield of extracted pectins, their composition (neutral sugars, galacturonic acid, and degree of esterification) and some macromolecular characteristics (average molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity) were determined. It was found

Thomas Happi Emaga; Sbastien N. Ronkart; Christelle Robert; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot

2008-01-01

361

The citrus fruit proteome: insights into citrus fruit metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit development and ripening are key processes in the production of the phytonutrients that are essential for a balanced\\u000a diet and for disease prevention. The pathways involved in these processes are unique to plants and vary between species. Climacteric\\u000a fruit ripening, especially in tomato, has been extensively studied; yet, ripening of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood.\\u000a Although the different species

E. Katz; M. Fon; Y. J. Lee; B. S. Phinney; A. Sadka; E. Blumwald

2007-01-01

362

Antioxidative properties of defatted dabai pulp and peel prepared by solid phase extraction.  

PubMed

Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak cyanopropyl and C?? cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants. PMID:22893021

Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah

2012-01-01

363

Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE. PMID:23666412

Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; Gonzlez, Mnica

2013-06-01

364

Environmentally friendly lycopene purification from tomato peel waste: enzymatic assisted aqueous extraction.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and anticancer properties of lycopene make it an ideal component for daily food supplements. For this reason this study investigated the possibility of extracting lycopene from tomato waste peels using a green chemistry protocol devoid of organic solvent. Cells are lysed thanks to a combination of pH changes and hydrolytic enzyme treatments. The lycopene-containing chromoplasts are then precipitated by lowering the pH and isolated through a centrifugation step. At this stage the lycopene content of the isolated chromoplasts shows a 10-fold increase (3-5% w/w, dry basis) with respect to untreated tomato peels. A further improvement in lycopene concentration is obtained by a second enzymatic treatment using a protease cocktail. This catalytic step eliminates unwanted proteins, bound to the chromoplasts, but not essential for their stability. The final product shows a lycopene content around 8-10% (w/w, dry basis), which represents a 30-fold increase with respect to the lycopene concentration of the untreated peels. PMID:23002991

Cuccolini, Stefano; Aldini, Antonio; Visai, Livia; Daglia, Maria; Ferrari, Davide

2013-02-27

365

Passiflora edulis peel intake and ulcerative colitis: approaches for prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic relapsing disease that affects millions of people worldwide; its pathogenesis is influenced by genetic, environmental, microbiological, and immunological factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short- and long-term Passiflora edulis peel intake on the antioxidant status, microbiota, and short-chain fatty acids formation in rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid-induced colitis using two "in vivo" experiments: chronic (prevention) and acute (treatment). The colitis damage score was determined using macroscopic and microscopic analyses. In addition, the antioxidant activity in serum and other tissues (liver and colon) was evaluated. Bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, aerobic bacteria and enterobacteria, and the amount of short-chain fatty acids (acetic, butyric, and propionic acids) in cecum content were counted. Differences in the colon damage scores were observed; P. edulis peel intake improved serum antioxidant status. In the treatment protocol, decreased colon lipid peroxidation, a decreased number of aerobic bacteria and enterobacteria, and an improvement in acetic and butyric acid levels in the feces were observed. An improvement in the bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was observed in the prevention protocol. These results suggested that P. edulis peel can modulate microbiota and could be used as source of fiber and polyphenols in the prevention of oxidative stress through the improvement of serum and tissue antioxidant status. PMID:24623393

Cazarin, Cinthia Bb; da Silva, Juliana K; Colomeu, Talita C; Batista, Angela G; Vilella, Conceio A; Ferreira, Anderson L; Junior, Stanislau Bogusz; Fukuda, Karina; Augusto, Fabio; de Meirelles, Luciana R; Zollner, Ricardo de L; Junior, Mrio R Marstica

2014-05-01

366

Preventive effects of Citrus unshiu peel extracts on bone and lipid metabolism in OVX rats.  

PubMed

Dried Citrus unshiu peel has been widely used for various medicinal purposes in Oriental Medicine. This study evaluated the metabolic effects of dried C. unshiu peel in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The OVX rats were divided into five groups treated with distilled water, 17?-estradiol (E2 10 ?g/kg, once daily, i.p.) and dried C. unshiu peel extracts (DCPE 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, once daily, p.o.) for eight weeks. The treatments with high-dose DCPE significantly decreased the bone mineral density (BMD) loss in the femur, which was reflected by the decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), telopeptides of collagen type I (CTx) and osteocalcin (OC) serum levels. It also inhibited the increase in lipoprotein levels compared to the OVX-control group without elevating the serum levels of estradiol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Furthermore, DCPE exhibits a hepatoprotective effect in OVX-induced hepatic steatosis, indicated by reduced hepatic lipid contents. Taken together, our findings suggest that DCPE has the potential to improve both lipid and bone metabolism without influencing hormones such as estrogen in OVX rats. PMID:24413833

Lim, Dong Wook; Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Yun Tai

2014-01-01

367

Protective effect of potato peel powder in ameliorating oxidative stress in streptozotocin diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The potential of dietary potato peel (PP) powder in ameliorating oxidative stress (OS) and hyperglycemia was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In a 4-week feeding trial, incorporation of potato peel powder (5 and 10%) in the diet of diabetic rats was found to significantly reduce the plasma glucose level and also reduce drastically the polyuria of STZ diabetic rats. The total food intake was significantly reduced in the diabetic rats fed 10% PP powder compared to the control diabetic rats. However, the body weight gain over 28 days was nearly four times greater in PP powder supplemented diabetic rats (both at 5 and 10%) compared to the control diabetic rats. PP powder in the diet also decreased the elevated activities of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and nearly normalized the hepatic MDA and GSH levels as well as the activities of specific antioxidant enzymes in liver of diabetic rats. The result of these studies clearly establishes the modulatory propensity of PP against diabetes induced alterations. Considering that potato peels are discarded as waste and not effectively utilized, these results suggest the possibility that PP waste could be effectively used as an ingredient in health and functional food to ameliorate certain disease states such as diabetes. PMID:16021831

Singh, Nandita; Kamath, Vasudeva; Rajini, P S

2005-06-01

368

Preparation of an novel botanic biopreservative and its efficacy in keeping quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

A novel botanic biopreservative was successfully prepared by the combination of the bamboo leaves extracts and ebony extracts, designated as ebony-bamboo leaves complex extracts (EBLCE), whose antimicrobial activity was assessed according to an inhibition zone method against 10 common pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It was found that EBLCE was more effective from all the chosen microorganisms, as compared by potassium sorbate. Due to its excellent antimicrobial activity, and some additional properties like edibility, safety and economy, EBLCE was selected for further study to evaluate the efficacy in prolonging shelf life and improving the quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei during storage at 4?C, based on periodical microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis. As a result, EBLCE was observed to prevent spoilage of peeled P. vannamei efficiently as reflected by a distinct decrease in total viable count, pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, as well as a slower decline in the sensory evaluation scores. Therefore, a prolonged shelf life of 16 days was obtained for EBLCE pre-treated peeled shrimps with comparison of 6 days for the control group, demonstrating EBLCE as a promising alternative for preserving food. PMID:23463785

Chen, Jing; Deng, Shanggui; Li, Jianrong

2013-06-01

369

Experiments and viscoelastic analysis of peel test with patterned strips for applications to transfer printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer printing is an exceptionally sophisticated approach to assembly and micro-/nanofabrication that relies on a soft, elastomeric 'stamp' to transfer solid, micro-/nanoscale materials or device components from one substrate to another, in a large-scale, parallel fashion. The most critical control parameter in transfer printing is the strength of adhesion between the stamp and materials/devices. Conventional peel tests provide effective and robust means for determining the interfacial adhesion strength, or equivalently the energy release rate, and its dependence on peel speed. The results presented here provide analytic solutions for tests of this type, performed using viscoelastic strips with and without patterns of relief on their surfaces, and validated by systematic experiments. For a flat strip, a simple method enables determination of the energy release rate as a function of the peel speed. Patterned strips can be designed to achieve desired interfacial properties, with either stronger or weaker adhesion than that for a flat strip. The pattern spacing influences the energy release rate, to give values that initially decrease to levels smaller than those for a corresponding flat strip, as the pattern spacing increases. Once the spacing reaches a critical value, the relief self-collapses onto the substrate, thereby significantly increasing the contact area and the strength of adhesion. Analytic solutions capture not only these behaviors, as confirmed by experiment, but also extend to strips with nearly any pattern geometry of cylindrical pillars.

Chen, Hang; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yin; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

2013-08-01

370

Phenolic profiling in the pulp and peel of nine plantain cultivars (Musa sp.).  

PubMed

The present study investigated the phenolic profiles of the pulp and peel of nine plantain cultivars and compared them to those of two dessert bananas of commercial interest (Grand Nain and Gros Michel), alongside a newly created hybrid, resistant to black sigatoka disease (F568). Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds were performed by means of HPLC-ESI-HR-MS and HPLC-DAD. Hydroxycinnamic acids, particularly ferulic acid-hexoside with 4.4-85.1?g/g of dry weight, dominated in the plantain pulp and showed a large diversity among cultivars. Flavonol glycosides were predominant in plantain peels, rutin (242.2-618.7?g/g of dry weight) being the most abundant. A principal component analysis on the whole data revealed that the phenolic profiles of the hybrid, the dessert bananas and the pure plantains differed from each other. Plantain pulps and peels appeared as good sources of phenolics, which could be involved in the health benefits associated with their current applications. PMID:25148979

Passo Tsamo, Claudine Valrie; Herent, Marie-France; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Happi Emaga, Thomas; Quetin-Leclercq, Jolle; Rogez, Herv; Larondelle, Yvan; Andre, Christelle

2015-01-15

371

Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'  

PubMed Central

Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar Embul (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4?-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; Bandara, B. M. R.

2013-01-01

372

Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.  

PubMed

Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

2013-03-01

373

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

2007-08-02

374

Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

375

Pollinating Fruit Crops Most tree fruits and many small fruits grown in New Hampshire require cross pollination to produce a  

E-print Network

-fruitful varieties are especially useful in home gardens where space available for growing fruit is often limited-fruitful. European types and Japanese types generally won't cross pollinate each other. Sweet Cherries Most sweet

New Hampshire, University of

376

The fruits of selectivity: how birds forage on Goupia glabra fruits of different ripeness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have been published on avian fruit selection, few have addressed the effects of fruit scarcity on the patterns of fruit choice. Here, we compared the consumption of seven bird species for six simultaneously present maturation stages of Goupia glabra fruits. Ripe G. glabra fruits contain more lipids, carbohydrates and energy, and fewer phenols, than unripe fruits. All

H. Martin Schaefer; Veronika Schaefer

2006-01-01

377

Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat.  

PubMed

Antioxidant properties of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and Sapodilla/Chikoo (Manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat?+?2% salt), II.BHT (meat?+?2% salt?+?0.1% BHT), III. BPE (meat?+?2% salt?+?2% banana peel extract) and IV. SPE (meat?+?2% salt?+?2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract) were compared for changes in colour and lipid oxidation during 8days refrigerated storage (4??C). The average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8mg gallic acid equivalent per 10g peel in BPE and SPE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 66.9 and 67.8% in BPE and SPE respectively. Banana peel extract had significantly (P?peel extract (0.91). During refrigerated storage period, all color parameters decreased significantly in all treatments. Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significantly (P?peels could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products. PMID:24493901

Devatkal, Suresh K; Kumboj, Ritu; Paul, Devosmita

2014-02-01

378

Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.

379

The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The

Nyhuis, Jane

380

Fruits of two seabuckthorn varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of two varieties of Hippophae rhamnoides L. collected in Kyrgyzstan (I) and Uzbekistan (II) were investigated. Differences in their morphological and biochemical properties were demonstrated. Titrable acids, ascorbic acid, and protein dominated in the fruits of I. Pulp oil of II contained more free fatty acids (acid number 2.9 mg KOH) and carotinoids (419.3 mg%). The principal pulp acid

T. V. Chernenko; N. T. Ulchenko; A. I. Glushenkova

2004-01-01

381

Thermophysical Properties of Stone Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophysical properties of the stone fruits plum, peach, and nectarine were modeled from experimental data as functions of moisture content. Samples were dried to preset moistures in a laboratory cabinet dryer, and the thermal conductivity, specific heat, apparent density, bulk density, and porosity of the fruit were determined. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were found to be linear

W. Phomkong; G. Srzednicki; R. H. Driscoll

2006-01-01

382

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

383

Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.  

PubMed

It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

Lee, Jungmin

2015-01-01

384

Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing.  

PubMed

The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9 0.8, 33.3 00.5, and 17.6 0.9?mg GAE/100?g, respectively (P < 0.05). Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9 0.9? ? mol Fe(+2)/g, P < 0.05) and the DPPH assays (97.4 0.2%, 1000? ? g/mL, P < 0.05). Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities. PMID:23476707

Fuentes, Eduardo; Carle, Reinhold; Astudillo, Luis; Guzmn, Luis; Gutirrez, Margarita; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Ivn

2013-01-01

385

Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing  

PubMed Central

The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9 0.8, 33.3 00.5, and 17.6 0.9?mg GAE/100?g, respectively (P < 0.05). Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9 0.9??mol Fe+2/g, P < 0.05) and the DPPH assays (97.4 0.2%, 1000??g/mL, P < 0.05). Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities. PMID:23476707

Fuentes, Eduardo; Carle, Reinhold; Astudillo, Luis; Guzman, Luis; Gutierrez, Margarita; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Ivan

2013-01-01

386

Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.  

PubMed

This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models. PMID:25101926

Valrie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Grard; Rogez, Herv; Larondelle, Yvan

2014-08-27

387

Meristematic sculpting in fruit development.  

PubMed

The diversity of shape in life is astounding, and this is particularly vivid when the varied forms observed in our fruit bowls are examined. How some of the tissues of the Arabidopsis fruit are moulded is starting to be understood, revealing how plants may sculpt plant form by modulating the degree of meristematic properties. In this fruit the KNOX I and BLH meristem identity genes promote medial tissue proliferation by maintaining these tissues in a 'quasi-meristematic' fate. The action of these genes is opposed by ASYMMETRIC LEAVES activity that promotes valve formation together with JAGGED/FILAMENTOUS FLOWER and FRUITFULL activities. This is reminiscent of the function of these genes in the shoot apical meristem and in leaf development. In this review, the aim is to present the medial tissues of the Arabidopsis fruit as a modified meristem and extrapolate our knowledge from other plant organs to fruit development. PMID:19246597

Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Ostergaard, Lars

2009-01-01

388

Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits  

SciTech Connect

Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

1989-04-01

389

A Thermomechanical Preprocessing For Pectin Extraction From Orange Peel. Optimisation by Response Surface Methodology.  

E-print Network

of Food Engineering 4, 1 (2008) Art10" #12;1. INTRODUCTION Citrus fruit processing produces many by products, essential oils, seed oil, pectin and dietary fibres. These by-products are considered to be rich agent in jam and jellies, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer in dairy products, fruits

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

390

First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.  

PubMed

This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations. PMID:22512599

Speisky, Hernan; Lpez-Alarcn, Camilo; Gmez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acua, Cristian

2012-09-12

391

Toroidal Rotation and 3D Nonlinear Dynamics in the Peeling-Ballooning Model of ELMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximizing the height of the edge transport barrier (or ``pedestal'') while maintaining acceptably small edge localized modes (ELMs) is a critical issue for tokamak performance. The peeling-ballooning model proposes that intermediate wavelength MHD instabilities are responsible for ELMs and impose constraints on the pedestal. Recent studies of linear peeling-ballooning stability have found encouraging agreement with observations [e.g. 1]. To allow more detailed prediction of mode characteristics, including eventually predictions of the ELM energy loss and its deposition, we consider effects of sheared toroidal rotation, as well as 3D nonlinear dynamics. An eigenmode formulation for toroidal rotation shear is developed and incorporated into the framework of the ELITE stability code [2], resolving the low rotation discontinuity in previous high-n results. Rotation shear is found to impact the structure of peeling-ballooning modes, causing radial narrowing and mode shearing. The calculated mode frequency is found to agree with observed rotation in the edge region in the early stages of the ELM crash. Nonlinear studies with the 3D BOUT and NIMROD codes reveal detailed characteristics of the early evolution of these edge instabilities, including the impact of non-ideal effects. The expected linear growth phase is followed by a fast crash event in which poloidally narrow, filamentary structures propagate radially outward from the pedestal region, closely resembling observed ELM events. Comparisons with ELM observations will be discussed. \\vspace0.25em [1] P.B. Snyder et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 320 (2004); P.B. Snyder et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2037 (2002). [2] H.R. Wilson et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1277 (2002).

Snyder, P. B.

2004-11-01

392

PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: TOROIDAL ROTATION AND 3D NONLINEAR DYNAMICS  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the physics of the H-Mode pedestal and edge localized modes (ELMs) is very important to next-step fusion devices for two primary reasons: (1) The pressure at the top of the edge barrier (''pedestal height'') strongly impacts global confinement and fusion performance, and (2) large ELMs lead to localized transient heat loads on material surfaces that may constrain component lifetimes. The development of the peeling-ballooning model has shed light on these issues by positing a mechanism for ELM onset and constraints on the pedestal height. The mechanism involves instability of ideal coupled ''peeling-ballooning'' modes driven by the sharp pressure gradient and consequent large bootstrap current in the H-mode edge. It was first investigated in the local, high-n limit [1], and later quantified for non-local, finite-n modes in general toroidal geometry [2,3]. Important aspects are that a range of wavelengths may potentially be unstable, with intermediate n's (n {approx} 3-30) generally limiting in high performance regimes, and that stability bounds are strongly sensitive to shape [Fig l(a)], and to collisionality (i.e. temperature and density) [4] through the bootstrap current. The development of efficient MHD stability codes such as ELITE [3,2] and MISHKA [5] has allowed detailed quantification of peeling-ballooning stability bounds (e.g. [6]) and extensive and largely successful comparisons with observation (e.g. [2,6-9]). These previous calculations are ideal, static, and linear. Here we extend this work to incorporate the impact of sheared toroidal rotation, and the non-ideal, nonlinear dynamics which must be studied to quantify ELM size and heat deposition on material surfaces.

SNYDER,P.B; WILSON,H.R; XU,X.Q; WEBSTER,A.J

2004-06-01

393

Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels  

PubMed Central

Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA) and oleanolic acids (OA), as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v), the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji) peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days). The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) with a reversed phase column and isocratic elution (CH3CN/H2O/H3PO4) against calibration curves (R2 > 0.9995). The total phenol content in the extracts was evaluated spectrophotometrically at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteau method referencing gallic acid. Results: UA and OA in the hydroethanolic extracts ranged from 3.63-6.12 mg/g and 2.12-3.30 mg/g, corresponding to 1.72-3.07 and 1.00-1.66 mg/g in the raw material, respectively. Higher values of triterpene acid content corresponded to maceration periods of 10 or 30 days. The residual phenol and polyphenol content ranged from 6.97 to 11.6 mg/g. The UA and OA yields, as well as the total phenol content, versus the maceration time were plotted in Control Charts within confidence intervals (95%) and were unaffected during the assayed period. Conclusion: Apple peel tinctures from 10% solids obtained at room temperature exhibited the highest content of triterpene acids when employing a maceration period of 10 to 30 days. Extracts prepared using this procedure contained an average of 7.33 mg/g of total triterpene acids and 10.6 mg/g phenolic compounds. These results establish supporting data for apple peel tinctures and their derived phytopharmaceuticals that are standardized on the ursolic-oleanolic acid content. PMID:24991096

Siani, Antonio C.; Nakamura, Marcos J.; dos Santos, Daniel S.; Mazzei, Jose L.; do Nascimento, Adriana C.; Valente, Ligia M. M.

2014-01-01

394

Hidden Order in Crackling Noise during Peeling of an Adhesive Tape  

E-print Network

We address the long standing problem of recovering dynamical information from noisy acoustic emission signals arising from peeling of an adhesive tape subject to constant traction velocity. Using phase space reconstruction procedure we demonstrate the deterministic chaotic dynamics by establishing the existence of correlation dimension as also a positive Lyapunov exponent in a mid range of traction velocities. The results are explained on the basis of the model that also emphasizes the deterministic origin of acoustic emission by clarifying its connection to sticks-slip dynamics.

Jagadish Kumar; M. Ciccotti; G. Ananthakrishna

2008-04-08

395

A phenomenological model of coating/substrate adhesion and interfacial bimetallic peeling stress in composite mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adhesion and interfacial stress between metal films and structural composite material substrates is discussed. A theoretical and conceptual basis for selecting coating materials for composite mirror substrates is described. A phenomenological model that interrelates cohesive tensile strength of thin film coatings and interfacial peeling stresses is presented. The model serves as a basis in determining gradiated materials response and compatibility of composite substrate and coating combinations. Parametric evaluation of material properties and geometrical factors such as coating thickness are used to determine the threshold stress levels for maintaining adhesion at the different interfaces.

Mcelroy, Paul M.; Lawson, Daniel D.

1990-01-01

396

Dried Citrus Peel and Pulp as a Feed for Lactating Cows.  

E-print Network

of the peel, rag and seed of grapefruit and about 159'0 composed of the refu~e from oranges. Before the machinery was installed for the de- I~ydration of this material, representatives of the industry contacted 1 livestock men at the College relative... palatable, had slightly 1 creater laxative effect, and gains and degree of finish were not so ' .atisfactory as with the ear corn chop:. Neal, et al., (5) at the Florida I Station found both grapefruit and orange refuse a satisfactory calxbo- I hydrate...

Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas); Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah)

1944-01-01

397

Influences of pyrolysis condition and acid treatment on properties of durian peel-based activated carbon.  

PubMed

Durian peel was used for the synthesis of activated carbon used for adsorption of Basic Green 4 dye. Activated carbon was synthesised under either nitrogen (N(2)) atmospheric or vacuum pyrolysis, followed by carbon dioxide (CO(2)) activation. The synthesised activated carbon then was treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. The results showed that activated carbon synthesised under vacuum pyrolysis exhibited better properties and adsorption capacities than that under nitrogen atmospheric pyrolysis. The HCl treatment improved properties and adsorption capacities of activated carbons. Pseudo-second-order kinetics well described the adsorption of Basic Green 4. PMID:19695874

Nuithitikul, Kamchai; Srikhun, Sarawut; Hirunpraditkoon, Samorn

2010-01-01

398

Changes in enzymes involved in photosynthesis and other metabolic processes in the fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica during growth and ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the abundance of a number of enzymes in the peel, core and seeds of fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller during development. The enzymes studied were phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC: 4.1.1.31), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (RUBISCO; EC: 4.1.1.39), aldolase (EC: 4.1.2.13), pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK; EC: 2.7.9.1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK; EC: 4.1.1.49)

Robert P. Walker; Franco Famiani; Alessandro Baldicchi; Juan G. Cruz-Castillo; Paolo Inglese

2011-01-01

399

Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O2?) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O2? was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O2?. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical (OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H2O2 induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O2? and OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant. The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance. PMID:21297917

Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

2011-01-01

400

Peel-and-stick: mechanism study for efficient fabrication of flexible/transparent thin-film electronics.  

PubMed

Peel-and-stick process, or water-assisted transfer printing (WTP), represents an emerging process for transferring fully fabricated thin-film electronic devices with high yield and fidelity from a SiO2/Si wafer to various non-Si based substrates, including papers, plastics and polymers. This study illustrates that the fundamental working principle of the peel-and-stick process is based on the water-assisted subcritical debonding, for which water reduces the critical adhesion energy of metal-SiO2 interface by 70 ~ 80%, leading to clean and high quality transfer of thin-film electronic devices. Water-assisted subcritical debonding is applicable for a range of metal-SiO2 interfaces, enabling the peel-and-stick process as a general and tunable method for fabricating flexible/transparent thin-film electronic devices. PMID:24108063

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Jae-Han; Zou, Chenyu; Cho, In Sun; Weisse, Jeffery M; Nemeth, William; Wang, Qi; van Duin, Adri C T; Kim, Taek-Soo; Zheng, Xiaolin

2013-01-01

401

MdCOP1 Ubiquitin E3 Ligases Interact with MdMYB1 to Regulate Light-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Red Fruit Coloration in Apple1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936

Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

2012-01-01

402

Access to Educational and Community Activities for Young Children with Disabilities: Selected Findings from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS). NCSER 2011-3000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report uses data from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS) to describe access for young children with disabilities in two specific domains: community activities, including extracurricular activities and family recreation, and kindergarten classroom experiences. While PEELS is a broad, descriptive study, the analyses

Carlson, Elaine; Bitterman, Amy; Daley, Tamara

2010-01-01

403

Supercritical fluid extraction from dried banana peel ( Musa spp., genomic group AAB): Extraction yield, mathematical modeling, economical analysis and phase equilibria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction from dried banana peel (Musa spp., subgroup Prata, genomic group AAB, popularly known in Brazil as Enxerto) was studied. The aspects investigated were: overall extraction curve (OEC), mass transfer modeling of the yield curves, economical analysis of the process and phase equilibrium data for the pseudo-ternary system of banana peel extract, carbon dioxide and ethanol. The extraction

S. R. Rosso Comim; K. Madella; J. V. Oliveira; S. R. S. Ferreira

2010-01-01

404

Casca de banana: uma possvel fonte de infeco no tratamento de fissuras mamilares Banana peel: a possible source of infection in the treatment of nipple fissures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: the objective of the present investigation is to study the microbiology of banana peel being sold in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in an attempt to determine the possibility that the peel may represent a source of infection for women who use it to treat nipple fissures.

Franz Reis Novak; Joo Aprgio; Guerra de Almeida; Rosana de Souza

2003-01-01

405

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF GUAVA FRUIT: COMPARISON WITH SOME LOCAL FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two varieties of guava fruit were a nalyzed for total phenol contents, ascorbic ac id contents and antioxidant activities. The a ntioxidant activities were a ssessed b ased on the a bility of the fruit extracts in 50 % ethanol t o scavenge DPPH, reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to bind to Fe(II) ion. The results were compared to several

LIM YAU; LIM THENG; TENG TEE; JING JHI

406

Apple flavonols during fruit adaptation to solar radiation: spectral features and technique for non-destructive assessment.  

PubMed

Spectral properties of flavonols of three varieties (Golden Delicious, Antonovka, and Renet Simirenko) of anthocyanin-free apple fruit were investigated with reflectance spectroscopy. The results of spectral and biochemical analyses suggested that fruit reflectance in a broad spectral range 365-430 nm is strongly dependent on and, in sunlit fruit surfaces, governed by flavonols. The build up of peel flavonols (mainly rutin and other quercetin glycosides) resulted in a dramatic decrease of fruit reflectance in this range, flattening of the spectrum, and extending the region with low reflectance (4-5%) to ca. 410 nm. The spectral features observed suggest that flavonols contribute significantly to screening of excessive radiation, not only UV-A, but in the short-wave bands of chlorophyll and carotenoid absorption in the visible part of the spectrum as well. To retrieve quantitatively flavonol content from reflectance spectra, we tested the applicability of an inversion technique developed for non-destructive leaf pigment assessment. The model for flavonol content assessment was suggested in the form (R(-1)410 - R(-1)460)R800, where Rlambda is reflectance at wavelength lambda. The model was linearly related to flavonol content between 8 and 220nmol/cm2 with the coefficient of determination r2=0.92 and root mean square error of flavonol estimation of 20 nmol/ cm2 regardless of cultivar, chlorophyll, and carotenoid content. PMID:15779825

Merzlyak, Mark N; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Smagin, Alexei I; Gitelson, Anatoly A

2005-02-01

407

Salicylic acid ointment peeling of the hands and forearms. Effective nonsurgical removal of pigmented lesions and actinic damage.  

PubMed

A methyl salicylate-buffered, croton oil-containing 50% salicylic acid ointment peel, following pretreatment with topical tretinoin and localized 20% trichloroacetic acid, is extremely effective for removal of lentigines, pigmented keratoses, and actinically damaged skin from the dorsum of the hands and forearms. The ease of application, uniform results, decreased risk of scarring, and one-time application of this peel, in comparison with other methods used for treatment of these aging-skin changes, warrants consideration by the dermatologic surgeon. PMID:1534332

Swinehart, J M

1992-06-01

408

Disturbance and the Dispersal of Fleshy Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of Prunus serotina, Phytolacca americana, and Vitis vulpina were placed during separate trials in forest sites that varied in the degree to which the forest canopy was disturbed. Removal rates of fruits were consistently faster in the forest edge and light gap sites than in sites under closed canopy. Rapid removal of fruits from species that ripen fruit in

John N. Thompson; Mary F. Willson

1978-01-01

409

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2010-04-01

410

Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ripening, fruits undergo many changes, which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances plus minerals and vitamins, the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening

Andrs Cruz-Hernndez; Octavio Paredes-Lpez

2011-01-01

411

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2010-04-01

412

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2013-04-01

413

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2014-04-01

414

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2012-04-01

415

27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dried fruit to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content...degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration...addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may...to reduce the natural fixed acid level of the mixture...

2011-04-01

416

Review article Tomato fruit quality in relation  

E-print Network

/ sugar concentration / acid concentration / BER / water status / fruit cracking Résumé ­ Qualité du fruit fruit / concentration en sucres / concentration en acide / nécrose apicale / BER / état hydriqueReview article Tomato fruit quality in relation to water and carbon fluxes Soraya GUICHARDa, Nadia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01mg kg(-1) after 9days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 < 30 d), and the observed dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits. PMID:23452212

Zhu, Jie; Dai, Xian J; Fang, Jian J; Zhu, Hua M

2013-01-01

418

Sustainable production of pectin from lime peel by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.  

PubMed

The application of high hydrostatic pressure technology for enzymatic extraction of pectin was evaluated. Cellulase and xylanase under five different combinations (cellulase/xylanase: 50/0, 50/25, 50/50, 25/50, and 0/50 U/g lime peel) at ambient pressure, 100 and 200 MPa were used to extract pectin from dried lime peel. Extraction yield, galacturonic acid (GalA) content, average molecular weight (M(w,ave)), intrinsic viscosity [?](w), and degree of esterification (DE) were compared to those parameters obtained for pectins extracted using acid and aqueous processes. Pressure level, type and concentration of enzyme significantly (p<0.05) influenced yield and DE of pectin. Enzyme and high pressure extraction resulted in yields which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those using acid and aqueous extraction. Although pressure-induced enzymatic treatment improves pectin yield, it does not have any significant effect on M(w,ave) and [?](w) of pectin extracts indicating the potential of high pressure treatment for enzymatic pectin production as a novel and sustainable process. PMID:23122086

Naghshineh, Mahsa; Olsen, Karsten; Georgiou, Constantinos A

2013-01-15

419

Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel  

PubMed Central

Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

2012-01-01

420

Selective removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by adsorption on mangosteen peel.  

PubMed

Mangosteen peel, rich in polyphenolic compounds, was used to prepare the adsorbent exhibiting highly selective adsorption for Cr(VI) over other metal ions such as Pb(2+), Fe(3+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Cr(3+) at the pH values of 1?4. The chemical modification method proposed by using calcium hydroxide is quite cost-effective and ecofriendly without using any toxic reagents or causing any secondary pollution. The adsorption isotherm results revealed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) on the gel fit well the Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) at pH levels 1, 2, 3, and 4 was evaluated to be 2.46, 2.44, 1.99, and 2.14mol/kg, respectively. The adsorption mechanism for Cr(VI) on the saponified gel was verified to follow an esterifiaction reaction coupled with the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in which H(+) plays a role of promoter. Thus, modified mangosteen peel gel has the prominent selectivity and low cost for Cr(VI) removal. PMID:23397175

Huang, Kai; Xiu, Yifan; Zhu, Hongmin

2013-09-01

421

Can retinal microtrauma by internal limiting membrane peeling cause retinal angiomatosis proliferans?  

PubMed Central

A 32-year-old male presented with decreased vision in right eye since 1 month following trauma with plastic ball. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/160 in right eye and 20/20 in left. Right eye examination revealed angle recession, choroidal rupture, and macular hole. He underwent vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, and 14% C3F8 gas injection. After 6 weeks, BCVA was 20/30; fundus showed macular hole closure. Six months after surgery, fundus revealed retinal vascular lesions suggestive of stage I RAP-like lesions; vision was maintained. Clinical findings were confirmed on Video ICGA, FFA, and OCT. The patient was periodically reviewed and lesions were nonprogressive until last follow-up, 13 months after surgery. It seems quite probable that ILM peeling may have caused retinal microtrauma leading to the formation of RAP-like lesions. What factors lead to such an event is as yet not clearly understood. Hence, larger studies with a longer follow-up are warranted to better understand these findings. PMID:22279405

Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhupper, Maneesh; Rishi, Ekta

2011-01-01

422

Intraocular Microsurgical Forceps (20, 23, and 25 gauge) Membrane Peeling Forces Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background. To assess the peeling forces exerted by different calibers of microsurgical forceps on an experimental model of epiretinal membrane. Methods. A model of epiretinal membrane was constructed using thin cellulose paper and heptanes-isopropyl alcohol 1% mixture. The model was mounted on a force censoring device. Subsequently, flaps were created with three different microsurgical forceps of different calibers. We recorded the number of attempts, the duration of the event, and the pushing and the pulling forces during the peeling. The results were compared by a one-way ANOVA and a Fisher unprotected least significant difference test with an alpha value of 0.05 for statistically significance. Results. There was a statistical significant difference on the pulling and pushing forces between the 25 gauge (13.79?mN; ?13.27?mN) and the 23 (6.63?mN; ?5.76?mN) and 20 (5.02?mN; ?5.30?mN) gauge, being greater in the first (P < 0.001). There were no differences in the duration of all events, meaning that all the forces were measured within the same period of time. Conclusions. The 25 gauge microsurgical forceps exerted the greatest mechanical stress over our simulated epiretinal membrane model and required more attempts to create a surgical suitable flap. The clinical implication of this finding is still to be determined. PMID:23956842

Patel, Chirag; Oliver, Scott C. N.; Mandava, Naresh; Olson, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01

423

Sizing Single Cantilever Beam Specimens for Characterizing Facesheet/Core Peel Debonding in Sandwich Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This technical publication details part of an effort focused on the development of a standardized facesheet/core peel debonding test procedure. The purpose of the test is to characterize facesheet/core peel in sandwich structure, accomplished through the measurement of the critical strain energy release rate associated with the debonding process. Following an examination of previously developed tests and a recent evaluation of a selection of these methods, a single cantilever beam (SCB) specimen was identified as being a promising candidate for establishing such a standardized test procedure. The objective of the work described here was to begin development of a protocol for conducting a SCB test that will render the procedure suitable for standardization. To this end, a sizing methodology was developed to ensure appropriate SCB specimen dimensions are selected for a given sandwich system. Application of this method to actual sandwich systems yielded SCB specimen dimensions that would be practical for use. This study resulted in the development of a practical SCB specimen sizing method, which should be well-suited for incorporation into a standardized testing protocol.

Ratcliffe, James G.

2010-01-01

424

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry. PMID:22489157

Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

2012-01-01

425

Tyrosinase inhibitory effects and inhibition mechanisms of nobiletin and hesperidin from citrus peel crude extracts.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of nobiletin and hesperidin from citrus peel crude extracts on tyrosinase diphenolase activity are evaluated. IC50 of nobiletin and hesperidin is 1.49 mM and 16.08mM, respectively and their inhibition mechanism is competitive type with Ki = 2.82 mM and noncompetitive with Ki = 9.16 mM, respectively. Crude extracts from citrus peel (C. unshiu Marc.) were extracted with 95% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether (PCPE). The ethanol phase (ECPE) was further desorbed from macroporous adsorption resin (FGRE). Their IC50 values were 8.09 mg/mL, 7.53 mg/mL and 4.80 mg/mL, respectively. Their inhibition on melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells was also evaluated. FGRE showed a significant inhibition (42.5% at 31.25 microg/mL, p < 0.01) while hesperidin showed almost no inhibition. Nobiletin and PCPE give efficacious antiproliferation effects on B16 mouse melanoma cell with IC50 values 88.6 microM and 62.96 microg/mL, respectively, by the MTT test. Hesperidin and other crude extracts showed very low cytotoxity to the B16 cell. PMID:17373552

Zhang, Chongwei; Lu, Yanhua; Tao, Lin; Tao, Xinyi; Su, Xiaochun; Wei, Dongzhi

2007-02-01

426

Tyrosinase inhibitory effects and inhibition mechanisms of nobiletin and hesperidin from citrus peel crude extracts.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of nobiletin and hesperidin from citrus peel crude extracts on tyrosinase diphenolase activity have been evaluated. IC50 of nobiletin and hesperidin were 1.49 mM and 16.08 mM, respectively and their inhibition mechanisms are competitive type with inhibition constant (Ki) 2.82 mM and noncompetitive type with Ki 9.16 mM, respectively. Crude extracts from citrus peel (C. unshiu Marc.) were extracted with 95% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether (PCPE). The ethanol phase (ECPE) was further desorbed from macroporous adsorption resin (FGRE). Their IC50 values were 8.09 mg/mL, 7.53 mg/mL and 4.80 mg/mL, respectively. Their inhibition of melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells was also evaluated. FGRE showed a significant inhibition (42.48% at 31.25 microg/mL, p < 0.01) while hesperidin showed almost no inhibition. Nobiletin and PCPE gave efficacious antiproliferation effects on the B16 mouse melanoma cell with IC50 values 88.6 microM and 62.96 microg/mL, respectively, through the MTT test. Hesperidin and other crude extracts showed very low cytotoxity to the B16 cell. PMID:17373553

Zhang, Chongwei; Lu, Yanhua; Tao, Lin; Tao, Xinyi; Su, Xiaochun; Wei, Dongzhi

2007-02-01

427

Intraocular Microsurgical Forceps (20, 23, and 25 gauge) Membrane Peeling Forces Assessment.  

PubMed

Background. To assess the peeling forces exerted by different calibers of microsurgical forceps on an experimental model of epiretinal membrane. Methods. A model of epiretinal membrane was constructed using thin cellulose paper and heptanes-isopropyl alcohol 1% mixture. The model was mounted on a force censoring device. Subsequently, flaps were created with three different microsurgical forceps of different calibers. We recorded the number of attempts, the duration of the event, and the pushing and the pulling forces during the peeling. The results were compared by a one-way ANOVA and a Fisher unprotected least significant difference test with an alpha value of 0.05 for statistically significance. Results. There was a statistical significant difference on the pulling and pushing forces between the 25 gauge (13.79?mN; -13.27?mN) and the 23 (6.63?mN; -5.76?mN) and 20 (5.02?mN; -5.30?mN) gauge, being greater in the first (P < 0.001). There were no differences in the duration of all events, meaning that all the forces were measured within the same period of time. Conclusions. The 25 gauge microsurgical forceps exerted the greatest mechanical stress over our simulated epiretinal membrane model and required more attempts to create a surgical suitable flap. The clinical implication of this finding is still to be determined. PMID:23956842

Velez-Montoya, Raul; Patel, Chirag; Oliver, Scott C N; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Mandava, Naresh; Olson, Jeffrey L

2013-01-01

428

Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.  

PubMed

Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.92 for ethanol production. On the basis of model graphs and numerical optimization, the validation was done in a laboratory batch fermenter with cellulase, pectinase, temperature and time of nine cellulase filter paper unit/gram cellulose (FPU/g-cellulose), 72 international units/gram pectin (IU/g-pectin), 37 C and 15 h, respectively. The experiment using optimized parameters in batch fermenter not only resulted in higher ethanol concentration than the one predicted by the model equation, but also saved fermentation time. This study demonstrated that both hydrothermal pretreatment and SSF could be successfully carried out in a single vessel, and use of optimized process parameters helped achieve significant ethanol productivity, indicating commercial potential for the process. To the best of our knowledge, ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity of 28.2 g/l and 2.3 g/l/h, respectively from banana peels have not been reported to date. PMID:21376555

Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen V; Saida, Lavudi; Bansal, Sunil; Hughes, Joshua D

2011-07-01

429

Fruiting organs of Cladosporium werneckii.  

PubMed

Submerged mycelia of a strain of Cladosporium werneckii isolated from tinea nigra palmaris, when cultured on enriched corn-meal agar media, developed fruiting bodies resembling perithecia. PMID:986694

Volcn, G; Godoy, G A; Battistini, F; Alvarez, A

1976-07-01

430

Constituents from Piper marginatum fruits.  

PubMed

The hexane extract of the dried fruits of Piper marginatum yielded 1-(1Z-propenyl)-2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene, a new natural product, besides 3-farnesyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:12385887

de Oliveira Chaves, M C; de Oliveira Santos, B V

2002-10-01

431

Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

time. Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Amanda Scott* E-197 9/08 This publication was sponsored by a grant from the Initiative for Future Agriculture Food Systems, a program of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, which... time. Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Amanda Scott* E-197 9/08 This publication was sponsored by a grant from the Initiative for Future Agriculture Food Systems, a program of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, which...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

432

Chemical Peels  

MedlinePLUS

... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ...