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Food-borne diseases such as listeriosis and diseases caused by the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) are globally recognized as environmental hazards to the food supply and human health. Natural inhibitors for pathogenic microorganisms have been explored in many plants. The antimicrobial activity against some food-borne pathogens by various extracts from pomegranate fruitpeels was evaluated using both in vitro (agar diffusion) and in situ (food) methods. The 80% methanolic extract of peels (WME) was a potent inhibitor for Listeria monocytogenes, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of WME against Salmonella enteritidis was the highest (4 mg/ml). WME afforded >1 log(10) reduction of L. monocytogenes in food (fish) during storage at 4 degrees C. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of active inhibitors in peels, including phenolics and flavonoids. The activity of WME was related to its higher content (262.5 mg/g) of total phenolics. PMID:19632734
Aqueous extracts of pomegranate peels were assayed in vitro for their antifungal activity against six rot fungi that cause fruit and vegetable decay during storage. The growth rates of Alternaria alternata , Stemphylium botryosum , and Fusarium spp. were significantly inhibited by the extracts. The growth rates were negatively correlated with the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in the extract and particularly with punicalagins, the major ellagitannins in pomegranate peels. Ellagitannins were also found to be the main compounds in the bioactive fractions using bioautograms, and punicalagins were identified as the main bioactive compounds using chromatographic separation. These results suggest that ellagitannins, and more specifically punicalagins, which are the dominant compounds in pomegranate peels, may be used as a control agent of storage diseases and to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides. PMID:22533815
The antioxidant properties of freeze-dried citrus fruitpeels (orange, lemon, grapefruit) and methanolic extracts from the peel were studied. Freeze-dried orange peel showed the highest, lemon peel somewhat less and grapefruit peel the lowest but still remarkable antioxidant activity. This could be significantly improved by preparing methanolic extracts of the peels. Comparative examinations and autoxidation studies with the flavanon glycosides hesperidin and naringin as well as with their aglycones hesperetin and naringenin showed that the former are mainly responsible for the antioxidative activity of the citrus peel and extracts. In order to compare their antioxidative activity with that of the commercially available natural antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and ascorbylpalmitate, the freeze-dried citrus peels and their methanolic extracts should be used in higher concentrations, in consideration of their peculiar properties and complex natural composition. Furthermore, aspects of the correlation between antioxidant activity and molecular structure of the flavanones were discussed. PMID:3727631
Antioxidants are compounds responsible for free radical scavenging in the body. They protect the organism from oxidative modification of cells and tissues. These modifications have been associated with degenerative diseases, atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis. Punica granatum displays high antioxidant potential due to the presence of phenolic compounds, which are capable of disease prevention. The present study showed the highest antioxidant activity in pomegranate peel than in seeds and pulp. Based on these results, pomegranate peel was used to produce dried extract that was added to commercial tomato juice and orange juice with strawberries. Analysis to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed on pomegranate pulp, seeds and peel and in juices enriched with dried extract of pomegranate peel. The dried extract was responsible for a significant increase in antioxidant activity of the juices, proportional to the concentrations added. However, although both flavors of enriched juices displayed high antioxidant levels, the samples with higher dried extract concentrations received the lowest scores from sensory analysis participants due to the characteristic astringent flavor of pomegranate peels. Therefore, to obtain greater acceptance in the consumer market, we concluded that the maximum addition of dried pomegranate peel extract is 0.5% in tomato juice and orange juice with strawberries. PMID:22392496
Mastrodi Salgado, Jocelem; Baroni Ferreira, Tânia Rachel; de Oliveira Biazotto, Fúvia; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu
Over the past few decades, scientific research has indicated a credible basis for some of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of pomegranate. This study aims to evaluate the broad spectrum antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of peel extracts of pomegranate. The sequentially extracted Punica granatumpeel fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe(3+) reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing ability) assays. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by all the four in vitro assays comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) followed by activity in ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate fractions. Based on the promising antioxidant activities, the methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic activity by Ames Salmonella/microsome assay against sodium azide (NaN(3)), methyl methane sulphonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102) tester strains. The methanol fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentration of 10-80?g/mL. This fraction showed antimutagenic activity against NaN(3) and MMS with percent inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 66.76% to 91.86% in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar trend of inhibition of mutagenicity (81.2-88.58%) against indirect mutagens (2-AF and B(a)P) was also recorded. Phytochemical analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and total phenolic content revealed high content of ellagitannins which might be responsible for promising antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of P. granatumpeel extract. Further, contribution of bioactive compounds detected in this study is to be explored to understand the exact mechanism of action as well as their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20708098
Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG) and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, ?-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in ?-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25??g/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41??g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400?mg/kg, p.o.) and VAD (10, 25, and 50?mg/kg, p.o.) have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400?mg/kg, p.o.), VAD (10, 25, and 50?mg/kg, p.o.), and glibenclamide (10?mg/kg, p.o.) treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models.
Jain, Vishal; Viswanatha, G. L.; Manohar, D.; Shivaprasad, H. N.
Punica granatum is commonly used in Korea as a traditional medicine for the treatment of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of P. granatumpeel EtOH extract (PGPE) against 16 strains of Salmonella. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of PGPE were in the range of 62.5–1000?x03BCg?mL?1. In addition, the in vivo antibacterial activity of the PGPE extract was examined in a S. typhimurium infection mouse model. Mice were initially infected with S. typhimurium and then with PGPE. The extract was found to have significant effects on mortality and the numbers of viable S. typhimurium recovered from feces. Although clinical signs and histological damage were rarely observed in the treated mice, the untreated controls showed signs of lethargy and histological damage in the liver and spleen. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that PGPE has the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis.
Choi, Jang-Gi; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Lee, Young-Seob; Chae, Hee-Sung; Oh, You-Chang; Brice, Obiang-Obounou; Kim, Min-San; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Hun-Soo; Park, Hyun; Shin, Dong-Won; Rho, Jung-Rae; Kwon, Dong-Yeul
This work was undertaken to explore the potential of fruit waste materials as sources of powerful natural antioxidants. The peels of eight kinds of fruits commonly consumed and grown in Thailand were used. The ethanolic fruitpeel extracts were subjected to the scavenging tests of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Results from both assays were in good agreement that the top
We studied the radical scavenging potential of several fruitpeel extracts using various standard chemical and biochemical in vitro methods. Peel extracts of C. sinensis (CS), P. granatum (PG), M. paradisiaca (MP), C. vulgaris (CV), C. melo (CM), M. indica (MI), and C. papaya (CP) were used in the present study and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) was used as a standard. Marked 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was observed with 25 ?g/mL of CS and MP and 50 ?g/mL of PG, while all the studied doses of CP were found to be pro-oxidative. ?-Carotene bleaching revealed a higher singlet oxygen scavenging potential of all the peel extracts except MI. High NO-radical scavenging activity was observed at 25 ?g/mL of PG and MP. Inhibition test of H2O2-induced LPO in erythrocytes or in liver tissue showed that all the peels tested were effective on peroxy-radicals at one or other doses. The present study revealed the radical scavenging activity of the test peel extracts in a manner that was dose- and radical/methodspecific. Therefore, evaluation of the efficacy of herbal extracts should be carried out using different methods and not merely a single in vitro method. PMID:22495477
Five novel cycloartane-type triterpenes were isolated from the nonsaponifiable lipids obtained from the methanol extract of the fruitpeel of Musa sapientum L. (banana). Their structures were determined to be 3-epicycloeucalenol, 3-epicyclomusalenol, 24-methylenepollinastanone, 28-norcyclomusalenone and 24-oxo-29-norcycloartanone by spectroscopic and chemical methods.
The quenching capacities of Vitus vinifera seed extract, Citrus limon peel extract, Punica granatumpeel extract, and Citrus sinensis peel extract were studied together with their antioxidant activity in goat fish (Parupenaeus indicus). The functionality of the extracts was evaluated using ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system, reducing power assay, DPPH,\\u000a hydroxyl, and nitrite radical scavenging assay. V. vinifera and P. granatum
Litchi pulp is very perishable and thus has a short shelf life, with marketers and consumers alike desiring a longer period. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of chitosan coating on quality maintenance and shelf life extension of peeledfruit of cv. Huaizhi. Manually peeled litchi fruits were treated with aqueous solutions of 0%, 1%, 2% or
Background. As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruitpeel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruitpeel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Methods. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruitpeel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ?-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. Results. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruitpeel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruitpeel were also lower compared to BHA and ?-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. Conclusion. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications. PMID:24887941
Wong, Yuh Shan; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Khoo, Hock Eng; Ang, Yee Kwang; Chang, Sui Kiat; Chang, Sui Kiat; Yim, Hip Seng
The peels of rambutan, durian, santol, longan, longong, Kaeo mango, and Chok Anan mango were evaluated for their potential to be used as dietary fiber (DF) for food enrichment. All DF samples prepared from selected fruitpeels showed high content of total dietary fiber (52–84 g\\/100 g dry matter) and also exhibited the significant difference in DF quality. All DF
Twenty-one free amino acids present in several samples of quince fruit (pulp and peel) and quince jam (homemade and industrially manufactured) were analyzed by GC/FID. The analyses showed some differences between quince pulps and peels. Generally, the highest content in total free amino acids and in glycine was found in peels. As a general rule, the three major free amino acids detected in pulps were aspartic acid, asparagine, and hydroxyproline. For quince peels, usually, the three most abundant amino acids were glycine, aspartic acid, and asparagine. Similarly, for quince jams the most important free amino acids were aspartic acid, asparagine, and glycine or hydroxyproline. This study suggests that the free amino acid analysis can be useful for the evaluation of quince jam authenticity. It seems that glycine percentage can be used for the detection of quince peel addition while high alanine content can be related to pear addition. PMID:14995121
Silva, Branca M; Casal, Susana; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A
Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of mango peel and pulp as well their peptidome content (the latter as captured with a C18 resin). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the mango proteome, but also to assess the potential presence of allergens and of peptides endowed with biological activities. The proteins of peel and pulp have been captured under both native and denaturing extraction techniques. A total of 334 unique protein species have been identified in the peel vs. 2855 in the pulp, via capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). PMID:24056186
To study the antioxidant activity of quince fruit (pulp, peel, and seed) and jam, methanolic extracts were prepared. Each extract was fractionated into a phenolic fraction and an organic acid fraction and was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detection and HPLC/UV, respectively. Antiradical activities of the extracts and fractions were evaluated by a microassay using 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The phenolic fraction always exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than the whole methanolic extract. Organic acid extracts were always the weakest in terms of antiradical activity, which seems to indicate that the phenolic fraction gives a higher contribution for the antioxidant potential of quince fruit and jam. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts showed that peel extract was the one presenting the highest antioxidant capacity. The IC50 values of quince pulp, peel, and jam extracts were correlated with the caffeoylquinic acids total content. Among the phenolic fractions, the seed extract was the one that exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. The IC50 values of quince pulp, peel, and jam phenolic extracts were strongly correlated with caffeoylquinic acids and phenolics total contents. For organic acid fractions, the peel extract was the one that had the strongest antiradical activity. The IC50 values of quince pulp, peel, and jam organic acid fractions were correlated with the ascorbic acid and citric acid contents. PMID:15264903
Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31?M Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01mg of vitamin C/100gDW, and 1579.04-1680.90?M Trolox/100gDW or 340.18-362.18mg of vitamin C/100gDW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25053022
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic compounds were carried out on quince fruit samples from seven different geographical origins in Portugal. For each origin, both pulp and peel were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/MS. The results revealed differences between the phenolic profiles of pulps and peels in all studied cases. The pulps contained mainly caffeoylquinic acids (3-, 4-, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) and one quercetin glycoside, rutin (in low amount). The peels presented the same caffeoylquinic acids and several flavonol glycosides: quercetin 3-galactoside, kaempferol 3-glucoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, and several unidentified compounds (probably kaempferol glycoside and quercetin and kaempferol glycosides acylated with p-coumaric acid). The highest content of phenolics was found in peels. PMID:12137485
Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Domingues, Ana L; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A
A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential. PMID:19770018
Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
Peel pitting is a disorder occurring mostly during postharvest storage at non-chilling temperatures in different varieties of citrus fruit and consists in collapse of flavedo and albedo tissues that may affect oil glands. It has been demonstrated that during postharvest, sharp variations in water potential of cells from flavedo and albedo are sufficient to provoke fractures in cell walls from external albedo resulting in tissue collapse. However, morphology and composition of cells and cell walls in flavedo and albedo varies during fruit maturation and this may affect water flow through the different fruitpeel layers and susceptibility of fruit to develop peel pitting. In this paper, we have studied the influence of the stage of maturation in the susceptibility of Navelina orange to develop peel pitting. Except in mature-green fruit, peel pitting increased with maturation after transferring fruit from 45% to 95% relative humidity and was also more severe as more dehydrated was the tissue before transference. Also, differences in water potential of fruit maintained at 45 or 95% relative humidity increased as fruit matured, suggesting that tissue reduces the ability of water adjustment during maturation. In this sense, only mature-green fruit flavedo was able to recover water potential when transferred from 45 to 95% relative humidity. Ethylene production upon transfer from low to high relative humidity increased only in mature tissue and was rapid and transient, and before initial symptoms of peel pitting. Flavedo and albedo water potential (?w) was substantially reduced during fruit maturation. As lower was the ?w of freshly harvested fruit, minor variations were observed by changes in the storage relative humidity and higher the induced damage. Therefore, the increasing susceptibility of Navelina fruits to develop peel pitting with fruit maturation may be related to a reduced ability to regulate peel evapotranspiration and osmotic adjustment during postharvest storage. PMID:23733827
The fresh green and yellow banana peel of, (Musa, cv. Cavendish) fruits were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned with chloroform (CHCl3) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), sequentially. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the thiocyanate method, ß-carotene bleaching method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical elimination. While, antimicrobial activities of the extracts and isolated components were
The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruitpeel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's 't' test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruitpeel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruitpeel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruitpeel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, and thyroid abnormalities are major health problems prevalent around the world and are responsible for a large portion of morbidity and mortality out of health problems overall. Advances in genomics and proteomics in recent years have led to an explosion in the number of possible therapeutic targets and drug candidates through use of molecular approaches, chemical synthesis, traditional medicinal chemistry, and phyto-chemistry and through the exploration of novel herbal preparations. However, virtually none of these candidates are devoid of potential adverse drug reaction(s) or undesirable side effects. Therefore, the clear need is to look to alternative ways to develop novel drug candidates with fewer side effects and less cost. Interestingly, the last few years have seen an increase in the number of available reports on fruits and vegetable peels, and particularly on their biological activity, their content of different bioactive compounds, their chemical characterization, understanding of their structure-activity relationships, isolation and purification of commercially important chemicals without using high throughput techniques, etc. Therefore, research in the field of fruit and vegetable peels should present immense possibilities for drug discovery and development of cost-effective therapies that have fewer or practically no side effects. This virtual explosion of interest in fruit and vegetable peels as a source of medicinal and nutritional value has led to the present review. PMID:22491234
Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 ?g mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 ?g mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruitpeel as a potential source of nutraceuticals. PMID:22699857
Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R
Anthocyanins are the major pigments responsible for the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit skin color. The high variability in fruit external color in pomegranate cultivars reflects variations in anthocyanin\\u000a composition. To identify genes involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in the pomegranate fruit skin\\u000a we have isolated, expressed and characterized the pomegranate homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT
Did you mean Chemical composition insect tidal activity ..of essential oil form Citrus aurantium (rates) fruitpeels against two greenhouse insects: Spodoptera literals (negated) ..Tutt absolute (Galchutt) ?
Antioxidant capacities of ethylacetate, butanol, and water fractions of peel, pulp, and seeds of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) were determined using various in vitro antioxidant models. Ethylacetate fraction of peel (EAFPE) exhibited the highest total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities compared to pulp, seeds, and other solvent fractions. Antioxidant capacities were assayed by total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hemoglobin oxidation assay. Total phenolic content of ethylacetate fractions was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant activities from CO fruit fractions. Thus, EAFPE can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible pharmaceutical supplement.
Prasad, K. Nagendra; Chew, Lye Yee; Khoo, Hock Eng; Kong, Kin Weng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin
The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against human cell lines of fruitpeel extracts from rambutan, mangosteen and coconut. The highest antioxidant activity was found from rambutan peel crude extract where the highest radical scavenging capacity via ABTS assay was from its ethyl acetate fraction with a TEAC value of 23.0mM\\/mg and the highest
Two new 4'-substituted flavones isolated from the fruitpeels of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Rutaceae) have been characterized as 4'-(9'-ethylene-16'-methylnon-9',15'-dien-7',11'-oate)-5,7-dimethoxyflavone (limonflavonyl lactone A, 1) and 4'-(9'-ethylene-16'-methylnon-9',15'-dien-7',11'-oate)-5,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone (limonflavonyl lactone B, 2) on the basis of spectral data and chemical analyses. Both the flavones are reported for the first time from a plant source. PMID:19031257
The objective of the present study was to assess the potential of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and light remission techniques for detection of senescence-induced changes in apple peel chlorophyll content and internal fruit quality characteristics under shelf-life conditions. Results obtained with ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ fruit indicate that fruit ground colour alterations due to chlorophyll breakdown can be successfully monitored by
The present paper aims to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of methanol extract of Citrus limetta fruitpeel (MECL) in streptozotocin-induced (STZ; 65?mg/kg b.w.) diabetic rats. Three days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received MECL orally at 200 and 400?mg kg?1 body weight daily for 15 days. Glibenclamide (0.5?mg kg?1 p. o.) was used as reference drug. Blood glucose levels were measured on 0th, 4th, 8th, and 15th days of study. Serum biochemical parameters namely, SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The TBARS and GSH levels of pancreas, kidney, and liver were determined. MECL significantly (P < 0.001) and dose dependently normalized blood glucose levels and serum biochemical parameters, decreased lipid peroxidation, and recovered GSH as compared to those of STZ control. The present paper infers that in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats, C. limetta fruitpeel demonstrated a potential antihyperglycemic effect which may be attributed to its antioxidant property.
Furanocoumarins (FCs) such as bergamottin (BG) and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHBG) contained in grapefruits are known to be cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors. These are contained in larger quantity in peel than in pulp, and therefore, processed peel products possibly have strong CYP3A4 inhibitory activity. The CYP3A4 inhibitory potency of these processed peel products, however, remains to be elucidated. The FC content and CYP3A inhibitory activities of various processed fruitpeel products were investigated. CYP3A inhibitory activities of crystallized grapefruit peel, grapefruit marmalade, lemon peel and bitter orange slice were close to that of 100% grapefruit juice, while the activities of yuzu slice, pomelo (buntan) marmalade and crystallized iyokan peel were very weak, 1/8-1/20 of 100% grapefruit juice. The maximum BG content was 5.6 µg/g in lemon peel. The maximum DHBG content was 7.2 µg/g in crystallized grapefruit peel, about 1/30 that of raw peel. Grapefruit marmalade and crystallized grapefruit peel contained similar amounts of FCs to 100% grapefruit juice, but FCs were not detected in pomelo (buntan) marmalade or crystallized iyokan peel. Good correlation (r=0.78) was observed between the FC contents of these peel products and those CYP3A inhibitory activities. Preparation of homemade grapefruit marmalade and crystallized peel revealed that considerably lower DHBG content in these products and lower CYP3A inhibitory activity than anticipated were attributable to outflow of DHBG to broth during boiling of the raw peel. PMID:21532264
Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029
Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo
Summary The Unshiu mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is the major Citrus crop in Croatia. Limit- ing factors for longer consumption of Unshiu mandarin are low storage performance and the appearance of chilling injuries during storage. Previous studies indicated that oxida- tive stress might be involved in cold-induced peel damage of harvested Citrus fruit. The aim of the present study was
Hrvoje Lepedu; Marko Jozi; Nikola Pavi; Branimir K. Hackenberger; Vera Cesar
Here, we report the shell thickness-dependent Raman enhancement of silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) for the identification and detection of pesticide residues at various fruitpeels. The Raman enhancement of Au@Ag NPs to a large family of sulfur-containing pesticides is ~2 orders of magnitude stronger than those of bare Au and Ag NPs, and there is a strong dependence of the Raman enhancement on the Ag shell thickness. It has been shown for the first time that the huge Raman enhancement is contributed by individual Au@Ag NPs rather than aggregated Au@Ag NPs with "hot spots" among the neighboring NPs. Therefore, the Au@Ag NPs with excellent individual-particle enhancement can be exploited as stand-alone-particle Raman amplifiers for the surface identification and detection of pesticide residues at various peels of fruits, such as apple, grape, mango, pear, and peach. By casting the particle sensors onto fruitpeels, several types of pesticide residues (e.g., thiocarbamate and organophosphorous compounds) have been reliably/rapidly detected, for example, 1.5 nanograms of thiram per square centimeter at apple peel under the current unoptimized condition. The surface-lifting spectroscopic technique offers great practical potentials for the on-site assessment and identification of pesticide residues in agricultural products. PMID:22122589
Chlorophyllase (Chlase; EC 18.104.22.168) was extracted from plastid fractions of ethylene-treated orange fruitpeel and purified 400-fold to homogeneity by gel filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and preparative SDS/PAGE of nonheated protein. SDS/PAGE of nonheated purified enzyme indicated that Chlase activity is associated with a single protein band migrating at an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa whereas the heated purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 35 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the purified protein was determined. The purified enzyme was used as an immunogen for raising antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum was highly specific and on Western blots recognized both the heated and the nonheated form of Chlase. The antibodies also recognized the solubilized enzyme, as shown by an immunoprecipitation assay and by antigen-antibody capture assays in microtiter plates. Treatment with ethylene, which enhances degreening, increased Chlase activity 12-fold. Immunoblot analyses of crude extracts from ethylene-treated fruit detected a strong signal of the Chlase protein, while only a trace level of the enzyme protein could be detected in air. Gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine partly counteracted the ethylene-induced increase in Chlase activity as well as the immunodetected upsurge of the Chlase protein. Ethylene appears to enhance the degreening of citrus fruit through de novo synthesis of the Chlase protein, which in turn is inhibited by the senescence-delaying regulators, gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine. The Chlase enzyme protein may, therefore, serve as a model system for studying the hormonal molecular regulation of fruit ripening and senescence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6
Chlorophyllase (Chlase; EC 22.214.171.124) was extracted from plastid fractions of ethylene-treated orange fruitpeel and purified 400-fold to homogeneity by gel filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and preparative SDS/PAGE of nonheated protein. SDS/PAGE of nonheated purified enzyme indicated that Chlase activity is associated with a single protein band migrating at an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa whereas the heated purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 35 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the purified protein was determined. The purified enzyme was used as an immunogen for raising antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum was highly specific and on Western blots recognized both the heated and the nonheated form of Chlase. The antibodies also recognized the solubilized enzyme, as shown by an immunoprecipitation assay and by antigen-antibody capture assays in microtiter plates. Treatment with ethylene, which enhances degreening, increased Chlase activity 12-fold. Immunoblot analyses of crude extracts from ethylene-treated fruit detected a strong signal of the Chlase protein, while only a trace level of the enzyme protein could be detected in air. Gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine partly counteracted the ethylene-induced increase in Chlase activity as well as the immunodetected upsurge of the Chlase protein. Ethylene appears to enhance the degreening of citrus fruit through de novo synthesis of the Chlase protein, which in turn is inhibited by the senescence-delaying regulators, gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine. The Chlase enzyme protein may, therefore, serve as a model system for studying the hormonal molecular regulation of fruit ripening and senescence. PMID:11607429
Three active components were identified by bioassay-guided fractionation of bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium L.) fruitpeel petroleum ether extract. Silica gel fractionation of the extract yielded a fraction that inflicted up to 96% mortality to adults of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) three days post-treatment. Subsequent HPLC purification of the active fraction resulted in the isolation of three components, eluted in fractions F 222, F 224, and F 226, that induced adult mortality. Considering the data obtained from UV, FTIR, MS, and (1)H NMR spectra, they were identified as 7-methoxy-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2 H-1-benzopyran-2-one (osthol), 4-methoxy-7 H-furo[3,2- g]benzopyran-7-one (bergapten), and 4-(( E)-3'-methyl-5'-(3'',3''-dimethyloxiran-2''-yl)pent-2'-enyloxy)-7 H-furo[3,2- g]benzopyran-7-one (6',7'-epoxybergamottin). Our results are in concordance with those reported in the literature and were further verified by direct comparison to authentic components. 6',7'-Epoxybergamottin was toxic when tested individually, while bergapten and osthol were found to act synergistically to 6',7'-epoxybergamottin. PMID:18578532
Siskos, Elias P; Mazomenos, Basilis E; Konstantopoulou, Maria A
Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruitspeels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine.
Martos, Maria A.; Zubreski, Emilce R.; Garro, Oscar A.; Hours, Roque A.
Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruitspeels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327
Martos, María A; Zubreski, Emilce R; Garro, Oscar A; Hours, Roque A
The fermentative production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297 was carried out by submerged fermentation using various cost-effective waste materials such as orange peelings,\\u000a carrot peel waste, lime peelings, coconut oil cake, and banana waste. The orange peel was found to be the best substrate generating\\u000a 9.18 g\\/l of rhamnolipid biosurfactant with a surface tension reduction up to 31.3 mN\\/m.
Fruits from many citrus cultivars develop depressed areas in the flavedo (outer part of the peel) and albedo (inner part) following detachment. Although ultrastructural analysis may provide important information about multiple plant responses to stresses and external stimuli at the cell and tissue levels, and despite the proved efficacy of ethylene in reducing peel damage in citrus fruit, cytological responses of this horticultural crop to protective ethylene concentrations have not yet been reported. We show that applying high ethylene levels (2 ?L L(-1) for 14 days) causes sublethal stress as it favored the alteration of cuticle, vacuole, middle lamella and primary wall, especially in the albedo cells, but reduced peel collapse in detached mature "Navelate" oranges (C. sinensis, L. Osbeck) held under nonstressful environmental conditions (22°C and 90-95% RH). Ethylene did not induce relevant changes in lignification but favored the deposition of pectic exudates and the release of sugars from degradation of cell polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, and pectins. In contrast, inhibiting ethylene perception by applying 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) reduced these ethylene-related responses and favored degradation of cell membranes and peel damage. The overall results reflect that mature oranges tolerate high ethylene levels that might favor the activation of defense responses involving oxidative-stress related mechanisms and recycling of nutrients and carbon supply to enable cells to sustain respiration and cope with carbon deprivation stress caused by detachment. PMID:21509903
Cajuste, Jacques F; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José; Lafuente, María T
Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruitpeel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruitpeel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298-328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384
Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon
Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruitpeel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruitpeel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents.
Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon
The conditions for extracting polysaccharides from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruitpeel (TFPPs) were studied. Three parameters (temperature, time, and liquid/solid ratio) affecting the extraction of TFPP were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions, the yield of TFPP was predicted to be 4.98%. The physicochemical properties, in vitro antioxidant activities, and inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase of fractionated TFPPs (TFPP-0, TFPP-20, TFPP-40, and TFPP-60) were investigated. We found that the TFPPs were all acid protein-bound heteropolysaccharides, although with different chemical compositions. They had not only remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing activity, but also excellent inhibitory potential against ?-glucosidase in vitro. Our results suggest that tea fruitpeel could be treated as a potential bioresource for the development of polysaccharide antioxidants.
The ability of fruitpeel of orange to remove Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cr from aqueous solution by adsorption was studied. The adsorption was in the order of Ni(II)>Cu(II)>Pb(II)>Zn(II)>Cr(II). The extent of removal of Ni(II) was found to be dependent on sorbent dose, initial concentration, pH and temperature. The adsorption follows first-order kinetics. The process is endothermic showing monolayer
Mohammad Ajmal; Rifaqat Ali Khan Rao; Rais Ahmad; Jameel Ahmad
Background Injury to a nerve is the most common reason of acquired peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, searching for effective substance to recover of nerve after injury is need of present era. The current study investigates the protective potential of Standardized Fruit Extract of Punica granatum L (PFE) [Ellagic acid (41.6%), Punicalagins (10%), Granatin (5.1%)] in Tibial & Sural Nerve Transection (TST) induced neuropathic pain in rats. Methods TST was performed by sectioning tibial and sural nerve portions of the sciatic nerve and leaving the common peroneal nerve intact. Acetone drop, pin-prick, hot plate, paint brush & Walking Track tests were performed to assess cold allodynia; mechanical heat, hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia & tibial functional index respectively. The levels of TNF-?, TBARS, GSH and Nitrite were measured in the sciatic nerve as an index of inflammation & oxidative stress. Results TST led to significant development of cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; dynamic mechanical allodynia; functional deficit in walking along with rise in the levels of TBARS, TNF-?, GSH and Nitrite. Administrations of PFE (100 & 300 mg/kg oral), significantly attenuate TST induced behavioral & biochemical changes. Pretreatments of BADGE (120 mg/kg IP) a PPAR-? antagonist and nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg IP) abolished the protective effect of PFE. Whereas, pretreatment of L-NAME (5 mg/kg IP) a NOS inhibitor significantly potentiated PFE’s protective effect of PFE. Conclusion PFE shown to have attenuating effect in TST induced neuropathic pain which may be attributed to potential PPAR-gamma agonistic activity, nitric oxide inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and anti oxidative actions.
Non-chilling peel pitting (NCPP), a storage disorder resulting in the formation of depressed areas in the peel of many citrus cultivars, is reduced by ethylene treatments. We hypothesized that this effect may be associated with biochemical changes of cell wall components. Therefore, we extracted cell wall material from albedo and flavedo tissues of 'Navelate' oranges stored in air, conditioned with ethylene (2?LL(-1)) for 4 days and subsequently transferred to air, or continuously stored in an ethylene-enriched atmosphere (2?LL(-1)). Uronic acids and neutral sugars were extracted into five fractions enriched in specific wall polymers namely water-, CDTA-, Na2CO3-, and 1 and 4M KOH-soluble fractions. Pectin insolubilization was found in control fruit at long storage times. Ethylene treatments, alleviating NCPP, increased polyuronide solubility in the albedo and had a slight effect on the flavedo. Ethylene-treated fruit showed greater content of water-soluble neutral sugars and a larger proportion of hemicelluloses readily extractable with 1M KOH, with a concomitant reduction in the 4M KOH-soluble fraction. This suggests that the protective role of ethylene on NCPP is associated with an increased solubilization of the wall of albedo cells. PMID:23849112
Vicente, Ariel R; Manganaris, George A; Minas, Ioannis S; Goulas, Vlasios; Lafuente, María T
The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.
Gozlekci, Sadiye; Saracoglu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa
Four new compounds, citrusosides A-D (1-4), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the hexanes and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of the peels of Citrus hystrix fruits. Compound 1 is a 1-O-isopropyl-6-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester of 5'',9''-dimethyl-2'',8''-decadienoic acid. Compounds 2-4 possess a 1-O-isopropyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl and a dihydroxyprenylfuranocoumarin moiety conjugated to the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid as diesters. Several furanocoumarins were evaluated for their cholinesterase inhibitory activity. (R)-(+)-6'-Hydroxy-7'-methoxybergamottin, (R)-(+)-6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and (+)-isoimparatorin showed IC(50) values of 11.2 ± 0.1, 15.4 ± 0.3, and 23 ± 0.2 ?M, respectively. Bioassay results indicated that the presence of a dioxygenated geranyl chain in the test compounds is crucial for the inhibitory activity. PMID:20964319
The peel yellowing is an important pigment physiological process of green fruit ripening, which mainly results from chlorophyll degradation in the fruitpeel. In this work, two typical cultivars with different ripening speed, a slow ripening pear 'Emerald' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Emerald) and a fast ripening 'Jingbai' (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. cv. Jingbai) were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of chlorophyll degradation in pear yellowing/ripening during postharvest storage. The fruits after harvest were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor at 1.0 ?Ll(-1) to determine its effect on chloroplast ultrastructure and the expression of chlorophyll degradation associated genes in peel tissues. Our results show that the pears treated with 1-MCP had a lower ethylene production rate and higher chlorophyll content compared to those of untreated fruit. The more intact chloroplasts with well-organised grana thylakoids and small plastoglobuli were maintained in the peel of 1-MCP treated fruit for up to 30 and 15 d in 'Emerald' and 'Jingbai', respectively. The expression of chlorophyll degradation associated genes: pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), non-yellow colouring (NYC), NYC1-like (NOL), stay-green 1(SGR1), was suppressed, while no significant change was found in chlorophyllase 1 (CHL1) and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR) in both cultivar fruits treated with 1-MCP. These results suggest that 1-MCP can delay chlorophyll degradation by inhibiting ethylene production and suppressing the gene expression of PAO, NYC, NOL and SGR1, which are closely associated with chlorophyll catabolic pathway. PMID:22868108
Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health promoting activity. Biological activities associated with mango fractions were assessed in cell-based assays to develop effective extraction and fractionation methodologies and to define sources of variability. Two techniques were developed for extraction and fractionation of mango fruitpeel and flesh. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to assess compositional differences between mango fractions in flesh extracts. Many of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. All fractions showed bioactivity in PPAR activation assays, but quantitative responses showed marked fruit-to-fruit variability, highlighting the need to bulk fruit prior to extraction for activity-guided fractionation of bioactive components. This study also suggests that combinations of diverse molecular components may be responsible for cell-level bioactivities from mango fractions, and that purification and activity profiling of individual components may be difficult to relate to whole fruit effects. Practical Application: Although the health benefits of fruits are strongly indicated from studies of diet and disease, it is not known what role individual fruit types can play, particularly for tropical fruits. This study shows that there is a diversity of potentially beneficial bioactivities within the flesh and peel of mango fruit, although fruit-to-fruit variation can be large. The results add to the evidence that the food approach of eating all components of fruits is likely to be more beneficial to health than consuming refined extracts, as the purification process would inevitably remove components with beneficial bioactivities. PMID:21535682
Wilkinson, Ashley S; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J
The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90-90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63-69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63-31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04-9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23-9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81-69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01-26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53-14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52-86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427
The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.
The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana (Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain) fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of propylene in pre-climacteric banana fruit, whereas treatment after the onset
Hitherto unknown efficacy of the peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Cucumis melo (CM) and Citrullus vulgaris (CV) fruits in ameliorating the diet-induced alterations in dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus have been investigated in rats. In one study, out of 4 different doses (50-300 mg/kg), 200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for other two peel extracts could inhibit lipidperoxidation (LPO) maximally in liver. In the second experiment rats were maintained on pre-standardized atherogenic diet CCT (supplemented with 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0.5% 2-thiouracil) to induce dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus and the effects of the test peel extracts (200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for CM and CV for 10 consecutive days) were studied by examining the changes in tissue LPO (in heart, liver and kidney), concentrations of serum lipids, thyroid hormones, insulin and glucose. Rats, treated simultaneously with either of the peel extracts reversed the CCT-diet induced increase in the levels of tissue LPO, serum lipids, glucose, creatinine kinase-MB and decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones and insulin indicating their potential to ameliorate the diet induced alterations in serum lipids, thyroid dysfunctions and hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus. A phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of a high amount of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the test peel extracts suggesting that the beneficial effects could be the result of the rich content of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the studied peels. PMID:19276533
Internal ethylene concentration, ability to convert 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene (ethylene-forming enzyme [EFE] activity) and ACC content in the peel of apples (Malus domestica Borkh., cv Golden Delicious) increased only slightly during fruit maturation on the tree. Treatment of immature apples with 100 microliters ethylene per liter for 24 hours increased EFE activity in the peel tissue, but did not induce an increase in ethylene production. This ability of apple peel tissue to respond to ethylene with elevated EFE activity increased exponentially during maturation on the tree. After harvest of mature preclimacteric apples previously treated with aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine, 0.05 microliter per liter ethylene did not immediately cause a rapid increase of development in EFE activity in peel tissue. However, 0.5 microliter per liter ethylene and higher concentrations did. The ethylene concentration for half-maximal promotion of EFE development was estimated to be approximately 0.9 microliter per liter. CO(2) partially inhibited the rapid increase of ethylene-promoted development of EFE activity. It is suggested that ethylene-promoted CO(2) production is involved in the regulation of autocatalytic ethylene production in apples. PMID:16664658
The transition from cold storage to ambient temperature alters apple quality through accelerated softening, flavor and color changes, and development of physiological peel disorders, such as superficial scald, in susceptible cultivars. To reveal global metabolism associated with this transition, the 'Granny Smith' peel metabolome was evaluated during storage of 6 months and shelf life periods. Treatment with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) reduced scald, creating a metabolic contrast with untreated fruit, which developed superficial scald. Superficial scald symptoms developed on control fruit after 120 days of storage, and symptoms progressed following transition to ambient-temperature shelf life. The metabolic profile of control and DPA-treated fruit was divergent after 30 days of cold storage due to differing levels of ?-farnesene oxidation products, methyl esters, phytosterols, and other compounds potentially associated with chloroplast integrity and oxidative stress response. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed coregulation within the volatile synthesis pathway including control of the availability of methyl, propyl, ethyl, acetyl, and butyl alcohol and/or acid moieties for ester biosynthesis. Overall, the application of metabolomics techniques lends new insight into physiological processes leading to cell death and ripening processes that affect fruit flavor, appearance, and overall quality. PMID:23311914
Leisso, Rachel; Buchanan, David; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James; Rudell, David
Abstract Context: Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl compound generated as an intermediate of glycolysis during the physical glycation in the diabetic condition. MG itself has been commonly implicated in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Several active compounds in Actinidia callosa have been found to inhibit glycation and MG-protein reaction. Objective: This study investigated the protective effects of A. callosa (kiwi fruits) peel ethanol extracts (ACE) on MG-induced Neuro-2A cell apoptosis. Materials and methods: The Neuro-2A cells pre-treated by ACE (50-200??g/mL) or allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) (50??M) for 6?h, in turn, the cells were treated with MG (250??M) for 24?h. Results: ACE or AITC treatment markedly inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the elevation of caspase-3 and capase-9 levels induced by MG in Neuro-2A cells. ACE and AITC elevated Bcl2 and inhibited Bax expressions in MG-induced Neuro-2A cells. ACE elevated Nrf2 transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation in MG-induced Neuro-2A cells. Nrf2 down-stream molecules including HO-1 and GCL were elevated by ACE or AITC treatment in MG-induced Neuro-2A cells. The protective effects of ACE on MG-induced Neuro-2A apoptosis were attenuated while Nrf2 knockdown. Discussion and conclusion: We established the first evidence that ACE might contribute to the prevention of the development of diabetic neuropathy by blocking the MG-mediated intracellular glycation system. PMID:24707974
The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT), 50, 80 and 100 degrees C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating samples at 100 degrees C for 5 min in a pH 5 citric acid solution. The next part of this study involved the stability test of the pigments obtained through the best method determined earlier. The pigments were dried and resuspended in distilled water. The samples were then exposed to light to monitor pigment changes. Initial resuspension of the dried pigments yielded a comparable high content of betacyanins to its juice counterpart. The results showed that resuspended pigments had high pigment retention and were stable up to 7 days. These initial findings must be further studied in more controlled conditions to understand the stability of betacyanin. Nevertheless, the results show that betacyanin obtained from the peel of dragon fruit has a high potential to be used as a natural dye. PMID:19137837
Background A study with the yellow passion fruitpeel flour showed positive action in blood glucose control as therapies’ adjuvant in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we evaluated its effect on insulin sensitivity since there is a quest for studies that focus at better understanding of insulin resistance aspects in diabetic patients. Furthermore its relationship with chronic complications can also give good prospects for alternative treatments. Methods A total of 43 type 2 diabetes volunteers (28 females and 15 males) ingested 30 g/day of the yellow passion fruitpeel flour for two months. The levels of blood glucose and fasting insulin, HOMA index and glycated hemoglobin were measured for each patient before and after dietary supplementation. Results There was a significant difference in the fasting blood glucose values (P?=?0.000) and glycated hemoglobin (P?=?0.032) after supplementation. It was also seen a reduction in HOMA IR (P?=?0.005) in the supplemented group, however it was not observed changes in insulin values for females. HOMA beta (P?=?0.000) showed significant increase in its values for the studied group. Conclusions The supplementation used decreased insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a positive action in blood glucose control as adjuvant therapy in conventional treatments.
... to Ask Before a Cosmetic Procedure Chemical Peeling (AAD pamphlet) The Lunchtime Peel: What It Can Do ... et al , editors. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine . 7 th edition. United States of America, McGraw Hill ...
The aim of this study is to improve the nutritional value of bergamot fruitpeel by solid-state fermentation with three strains of Penicillium camemberti and seven strains of Penicillium roqueforti. To assess the effect of their growth on the chemical composition of the substrate, the following analytical determinations were carried out before and after microbial colonization: crude protein, pure protein,
Extract from yuzu fruitpeel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant
Extracts from leaves, peels or flowers of Passiflora are noted for their medicinal effects. Passiflora edulis peel extract (PFPE) has been proposed to lower blood pressure (BP); however, only indirect measurement techniques have been employed. To more accurately measure the effect of PFPE on hemodynamic parameters and determine the minimal effective dose, hemodynamic parameters were directly measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) implanted with radiotelemeters. PFPE was given orally at 0, 2.5, 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) to determine the minimal effective dose. Once this dose was determined, the potential active components, edulilic acid (EA), anthocyanin fraction (AF) or ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were tested to determine which may contribute to the reductions in BP. The 50 mg PFPE/kg BW dose was the lowest dose that significantly reduced all hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. When the potential actives were provided at equivalent doses to those found in 50 mg PFPE/kg BW, the EA and AF significantly reduced all measured hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. GABA did not significantly affect any hemodynamic parameters compared to control and significantly increased heart rate. These direct measurements indicate that PFPE can decrease hemodynamic parameters in SHR and indicate that EA and AF are active compounds that contribute to the antihypertensive effects of PFPE supplementation. While these results are encouraging, detailed mechanistic studies are needed to determine the putative value of PFPE for blood pressure control in humans. PMID:23333089
Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist’s arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruitpeel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay.
Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruitpeel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dipping in pomegranate fruit juice phenolics (PFJP) solution on the shelf life of chicken meat held under refrigerated storage at 4°C. Breast muscle obtained from spent hens was dipped (1:2w/v; muscle: liquid) in sterile water or in sterile water with 0.02% (v/v) PFJP, packed, stored at 4°C for 28 days and samples were analyzed on 2 days of intervals. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values were lower in samples treated with PFJP. Total sulfhydryl and protein bound sulfhydryl content values were higher in samples treated with PFJP. Microbial quality evaluation showed that aerobic and psychrotrophic counts were higher in samples treated without PFJP. Sensory evaluation revealed that acceptability level of samples treated without PFJP decreased on 12th day of storage. It is concluded that spent hen breast meat samples dipped in 0.02% PFJP reduced protein oxidation and inhibited microbial growth and sensorily acceptable up to 12 days of refrigerated storage at 4°C. PMID:21345604
Vaithiyanathan, S; Naveena, B M; Muthukumar, M; Girish, P S; Kondaiah, N
Background: Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. fruit is a commonly consumed vegetable in many countries due to its rich medicinal value. However, till date, in vivo antioxidant property of A. esculentus has not been scientifically documented in animal models. Objective: The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant property of A. esculentus (L.) Moench. peel and seed powder (AEPP and AESP) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In rats, acute toxicity assessment of AEPP and AESP at 2 g/kg did not show any toxicity. Diabetes was induced by STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) injection and diabetic rats received AEPP (100 and 200 mg/kg) as well as AESP (100 and 200 mg/ kg) orally up to 28 days. At the end of the 28 day, diabetic rats were killed and liver, kidney and pancreas were collected to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation level. Results: In diabetic rats, significant (P < 0.001) reduction of liver, kidney and pancreas SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH levels and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were observed as compared to normal control rats. Administration of both doses of AEPP and AESP significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) increased liver, kidney and pancreas SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH levels and decreased TBARS (P < 0.001) levels in diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that A. esculentus peel and seed powder has significant in vivo antioxidant property in diabetic rats.
... a brow lift, eye lift or soft-tissue filler injection. Mild scarring and certain types of acne also can be treated with chemical peels. In addition, pigmentation of the skin in the form of sun spots, age spots, ...
The influence was evaluated of four rootstocks (Ishtara, Mr. S 2\\/5, GF 677 and Barrier 1) and of harvesting time (early, middle, late) on the quality characteristics and nutritional value (vitamin C, phenols, carotenoids, total antioxidant capacity) of ‘Flavorcrest’ peach. The better rootstocks were Mr. S 2\\/5 (low-vigour) and Barrier 1 (high-vigour). In particular, Flavorcrest fruit on Mr. S 2\\/5
D. Remorini; S. Tavarini; E. Degl’Innocenti; F. Loreti; R. Massai; L. Guidi
The dwarf pomegranate (Punica granatum L. var. nana) is a dwarf ornamental plant that has the potential to be the model plant of perennial fruit trees because it bears fruits\\u000a within 1 year of seedling. We established an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the dwarf pomegranate. Adventitious shoots regenerated from leaf segments were inoculated\\u000a with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the binary
The dried powdered fruitpeels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ?60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 ?mol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 ?mol Trolox/g). PMID:24799227
Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana
Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic
C. M. Ajila; L. Jaganmohan Rao; U. J. S. Prasada Rao
The microbial spoilage of peeled oranges was caused predominantly by Gram negative bacteriaEnterobacter agglomerans, andPseudomonasspp., and yeastsCryptococcus albidus, Rhodotorula glutinis, andSaccharomyces cerevisiae. Infusion of fruits with citric acid solution (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0% w\\/v) during the peeling process reduced the surface pH of peeledfruits (from 6.0 to <4.6) and extended their shelf life in comparison with fruits infused
Physical parameters of various citrus peel essential oils were determined in this study. Essential oils from the peels of Kinnow (C. reticulata, var. mandarin), Fewtrell's early (C. reticulata, var. tangerine), Malta (C. sinensis var. malta), Mousami (C. sinensis var. mousami), grape fruit (C. paradisi) and eureka lemon (C. limon) were extracted by applying cold expressing method. Eureka lemon had the
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ AHMAD; FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM; EHSAN ELAHI BAJWA
The development of new particleboards from tropical fruitpeels with low thermal conductivity as a component of construction panels for energy conservation of building is the main purpose of this study. Durian (Durio zibethinus) peels and coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers were used as the raw material to manufacture particleboards. Two main parameters were investigated namely binder types, (UF 12%,
Joseph Khedari; Sarocha Charoenvai; Jongjit Hirunlabh
The food and agricultural products processing industries generate substantial quantities of phenolics-rich subproducts, which could be valuable natural sources of polyphenols. In oranges, the peel represents roughly 30% of the fruit mass and the highest concentrations of flavonoids in citrus fruit occur in peel. In this work we have carried out the characterisation and quantification of citrus flavonoids in methanolic
Saleh M. S. Sawalha; David Arráez-Román; Antonio Segura-Carretero; Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez
The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID:24906123
The present study is aimed to evaluate antifilarial activity of Xylocarpus granatum (fruit from Andaman) against human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in vivo. The in vitro antifilarial activity has already been reported earlier for this mangrove plant which has traditionally\\u000a been used against several ailments. Aqueous ethanolic crude extract, four fractions (ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction, water-soluble fraction and
Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. The phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extracts of raw and ripe peels were tentatively identified by LC-MS. Gallic acid, syringic acid, mangiferin, ellagic acid, gentisyl-protocatechuic acid, quercetin were the phenolic compounds identified in both raw and ripe peels, while raw peel showed the presence of glycosylated iriflophenone and maclurin derivatives also. ?-Carotene was the major carotenoid followed by violaxanthin and lutein. Thus, both raw and ripe mango peel extracts have different phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which will have various pharmaceutical applications. PMID:20851730
Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)
Composition of essential oils and antioxidant activity of peel ethanol extract were analyzed in 18 local lemon cultivars. Essential oils composition was determined by GC\\/FID analysis, and antioxidant activity with the ABTS method. Fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameters, peel thickness, seed number, juice percentage, titratable acidity and juice pH were also determined for each cultivar. The main component in
C. Di Vaio; G. Graziani; A. Gaspari; G. Scaglione; S. Nocerino; A. Ritieni
Bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and anthocyanins present in fruits and vegetables are receiving increased attention because of their potential antioxidant activity. Consumption of such antioxidants offers health benefits including protection against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Mango peel is a major byproduct obtained during the processing of mango products such as mango pulp and amchur. In the present study,
C. M. Ajila; K. A. Naidu; S. G. Bhat; U. J. S. Prasada Rao
John Peel will be remembered mainly as the most influential British radio DJ of the last century, but he was in addition a successful and important presenter of speech radio. The transition from being a DJ on BBC Radio 1 to presenting the Radio 4 speech programmes, 'Offspring' and 'Home Truths' began when he started writing a column for 'Radio
The peel oil from mature (dark green), ripe (full yellow) and degreened ‘kagzi’ lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) fruit was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography for the aroma composition. Degreening did not affect the peel oil content to any great extent. However, it affected the oil composition. The relative amounts of the major compounds—namely limonene, ?-pinene and ?-terpinene—were found to be
Y. Selvaraj; G. Venkateshwarlu; K. S. Shivashankara; T. K. Roy
A method for reversibly regreening and degreening citrus epicarp in vitro using peel segments was developed.Peel segments from mature degreened fruit promptly regreened when kept in light upon agar medium containing low (15 millimolar) concentrations of sucrose. Higher concentrations of sucrose inhibited this regreening, but NO(3) (-) and certain amino acids included in the media overcame the inhibition by sucrose. However, l-serine strongly inhibited regreening. In the presence of nitrogen, sucrose promoted regreening.Peel segments from green fruit remained green on media with low concentrations of sucrose and on media with high concentrations of sucrose and 60 millimolar KNO(3), but degreened in response to high concentrations of sucrose in the absence of nitrogen. Nitrate overcame the degreening effects of high sucrose concentrations in both light and dark. Peel segments were reversibly degreened and regreened by transferring the segments between appropriate media.Nitrate in the media markedly reduced the levels of endogenous sugars in the epicarp and increased endogenous amino acid levels. Sucrose in the media increased endogenous sugar levels and, in the presence of nitrate, increased endogenous amino acid levels. In the absence of nitrogen, high sucrose concentrations reduced endogenous amino acid concentrations. PMID:16663202
Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruitpeels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers.
Rodriguez, Ana; Andres, Victoria San; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquezar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, Jose; Rodrigo, Maria; Zacarias, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluis; Lopez, Maria M.; Castanera, Pedro; Pena, Leandro
Extraction and use of pectins from ambarella peels could add value to the waste products arising from processing of the fruit. Dried alcohol-insoluble residues (AIR) of ambarella peels were treated separately with HCl, deionised water and oxalic acid\\/ammonium oxalate solutions, and the resulting pectin extracts analysed for some biochemical and physicochemical parameters. The results show that pectin yield (9–30% dry
B. B. Koubala; L. I. Mbome; G. Kansci; F. Tchouanguep Mbiapo; M.-J. Crepeau; J.-F. Thibault; M.-C. Ralet
Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa×paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15min in water at 42°C, or in water at 25°C (control), and were then stored at 4°C. Hot water treatment for 15min delayed peel blackening during cold storage by about 4 days in
Surassawadee Promyou; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn
The present study is aimed to evaluate antifilarial activity of Xylocarpus granatum (fruit from Andaman) against human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in vivo. The in vitro antifilarial activity has already been reported earlier for this mangrove plant which has traditionally been used against several ailments. Aqueous ethanolic crude extract, four fractions (ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction, water-soluble fraction and water-insoluble fraction) and pure molecule/s of X. granatum (fruit) were tested in vitro on adult worms and microfilariae (mf) of B. malayi and the active samples were further evaluated in vivo in B. malayi (intraperitoneally) i.p. transplanted in the jird model (Meriones unguiculatus) and Mastomys coucha subcutaneously infected with infective larvae (L3). The crude aqueous ethanolic extract was active in vitro (IC50: adult = 15.46 ?g/ml; mf = 13.17 ?g/ml) and demonstrated 52.8% and 62.7% adulticidal and embryostatic effect on B. malayi, respectively, in Mastomys at a dose of 5 × 50 mg/kg by oral route. The antifilarial activity was primarily localized in the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction which revealed IC50 of 8.5 and 6.9 ?g/ml in adult and mf, respectively. This fraction possessed moderate adulticidal and embryostatic action in vivo in Mastomys. Out of eight pure molecules isolated from the active fraction, two compounds gedunin (IC50 = 0.239 ?g/ml, CC50 = 212.5 ?g/ml, SI = 889.1) and photogedunin (IC50 = 0.213 ?g/ml, CC50 = 262.3 ?g/ml, SI = 1231.4) at 5 × 100 mg/kg by subcutaneous route revealed excellent adulticidal efficacy resulting in to the death of 80% and 70% transplanted adult B. malayi in the peritoneal cavity of jirds respectively in addition to noticeable microfilaricidalo action on the day of autopsy. The findings reveal that the extract from the fruit X. granatum contains promising in vitro and in vivo antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarial parasite B. malayi which could be attributed to the presence of two pure compounds gedunin and photogedunin. PMID:21523424
The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and\\/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have
Tetraploid plants were obtained in pomegranate (Punica granatum L. var. `Nana') by colchicine treatment of shoots propagated in vitro. Shoots cultured on MS medium supplemented with 10 mg l-1 colchicine, 1.0 mg l-1 BA and 0.1 mg l-1 NAA for 30 days produced tetraploids at a high frequency of 20%. No tetraploids were detected by treating the shoots in 5000
In the present study, the gastroprotective mechanism of Xylocarpus granatumfruit and its active constituents gedunin and photogedunin was investigated. Chloroform fraction (Fr-CHCl(3)) of X. granatumfruit was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats and histamine (HA) induced duodenal ulcer model in guinea pigs. Potential anti-ulcer activity of Fr-CHCl(3) was observed against CRU (58.28%), AS (67.81%), AL (84.38%), PL (65.66%) and HA (61.93%) induced ulcer models. The standard drug omeprazole (10mg/kg, p.o.) showed 68.25% protection against CRU, 57.08% against AS and 69.42% against PL model and 70.79% against HA induced duodenal ulcer. Sucralfate, another standard drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 62.72% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Fr-CHCl(3) significantly reduced free acidity (51.42%), total acidity (30.76%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 58.37% respectively. Phytochemical investigations of Fr-CHCl(3) yielded gedunin (36%), photogedunin (2%). Further, Fr-CHCl(3) and its compounds gedunin and photogedunin significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC(50) of 89.37, 56.86 and 66.54 microg/ml respectively as compared to the IC(50) value of omeprazole (30.24 microg/ml) confirming their anti-secretory activity. Conclusively, Fr-CHCl(3) of Xylocarpus granatum was found to possess anti-ulcerogenic activity which might be due to its anti-secretory activity and subsequent strengthening of the defensive mechanism. This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-secretory effect of gedunin and photogedunin. Therefore it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease. PMID:19962286
Lakshmi, V; Singh, N; Shrivastva, S; Mishra, S K; Dharmani, P; Mishra, V; Palit, G
Lipid transfer protein (LTP, Pru p 3) is the major allergen of peach (Prunus persica), and is in a greater abundance in the peel than in the pulp of the fruit. Peel LTP is more allergenic than pulp LTP, but it is not clear whether this is due to its specific allergenic properties or to its higher concentration. In this study, we have used a new one-step, rapid procedure for the purification of LTP from peel and pulp of four peach varieties [Gladys (white flesh), California (nectarine yellow flesh), Plusplus (yellow flesh), Red Fair (nectarine yellow flesh)] harvested in a field grown in Southern Italy. Purification was based on miniature reversed-phase chromatography, a procedure suitable for proteomic study. Proteomic analysis of purified LTPs revealed that the amino acid sequence of LTP was identical in all peach genotypes but, for the first time, peel LTP was found to be methylated. PMID:23871022
Kinnow peel, a waste rich in glycosylated phenolic substances, is the principal by-product of the citrus fruit processing industry and its disposal is becoming a major problem. This peel is rich in naringin and may be used for rhamnose production by utilizing ?-L-rhamnosidase (EC 126.96.36.199), an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal rhamnosyl groups from naringin to yield prunin and rhamnose. In this work, infrared (IR) spectroscopy confirmed molecular characteristics of naringin extracted from kinnow peel waste. Further, recombinant ?-L-rhamnosidase purified from Escherichia coli cells using immobilized metal-chelate affinity chromatography (IMAC) was used for naringin hydrolysis. The purified enzyme was inhibited by Hg2+ (1 mM), 4-hydroxymercuribenzoate (0.1 mM) and cyanamide (0.1 mM). The purified enzyme established hydrolysis of naringin extracted from kinnow peel and thus endorses its industrial applicability for producing rhamnose. PMID:20920523
Puri, Munish; Kaur, Aneet; Schwarz, Wolfgang H; Singh, Satbir; Kennedy, J F
The oils and extracts of the fruitpeels of pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr. cultivar ‘khao-yai’) were obtained by cold-pressing (CP), vacuum steam distillation (VSD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) and the extract of the flowers was obtained by SC-CO2. The composition of the oils and extracts of the peel and flower were determined by GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty, 53
... skin syndrome? Acral peeling skin syndrome is a skin disorder characterized by painless peeling of the top layer ... be mild and similar to those of other skin disorders, the condition is likely underdiagnosed. What genes are ...
Essential oil was extracted from peels of sweet orange fruits by supercritical technique and the resulting compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. After emulsifying with tween-20 in sterile water, the antibacterial efficacy against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, which were inoculated on the surfaces of samples of stainless steel and plastic cutting board pieces, was determined.
Mango peel is one of the major wastes from fruit processing industries, which poses considerable disposal problems and ultimately\\u000a leads to environmental pollution. The objective of the current research was to determine the significant parameters on the\\u000a production of polygalacturonase from mango peel which is a major industrial waste. Solid state culture conditions for polygalacturonase\\u000a production by Fusarium moniliforme from
Up to comparatively recently orange peel and the associated residual remnants of membranes resulting from juice extraction represented a significant disposal problem, especially in those regions where orange cultivation is a major industry. However, recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste represents a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products. These developments are critically reviewed in this article. This includes a summary of the chemical composition of the substrate and an assessment of the range of applications in which the peel is deployed. Utilization as a substrate to produce animal feed, fertilizer, essential oils, pectin, ethanol, methane, industrial enzymes, and single cell protein is discussed. The applications described together with those that will no doubt be developed in the future, represent great opportunities to harness the economical benefit of this agro-industrial waste and to develop even more efficient and sustainable systems. A scheme of integrated utilization of orange peel in a biorefinery approach is discussed together with some prediction of further necessary research. PMID:20148755
Angel Siles López, José; Li, Qiang; Thompson, Ian P
Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe and ripe mango fruits of two varieties namely, Raspuri and Badami on hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, degradation of membrane proteins and its morphological changes are reported. The oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide was inhibited by mango peel extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation inhibition on erythrocyte ghost membrane was found to be in the range of 4.5-19.3 microg gallic acid equivalents. The mango peel extract showed protection against membrane protein degradation caused by hydrogen peroxide. Morphological changes to erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by mango peel extract. The results demonstrated that mango peel extracts protected erythrocytes against oxidative stress and may impart health benefits and it could be used as a valuable food ingredient or a nutraceutical product. PMID:17919803
The germacrene composition of various citrus peel oils was investigated. Detection and quantification of the thermally sensitive germacrenes A and C was achieved by employing extremely gentle GC conditions with 100°C maximum in injector and GC-oven. Germacrene A was found in all analyzed citrus oils with values from trace level to 0.46% of the volatiles, depending on variety and provenance.
Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Results Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. Conclusion The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.
Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection.
A discrete peeled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was integrated into a 10 GHz amplifier. The discrete HEMT device interconnects were made using photo patterned metal, stepping from the 10 mil alumina host substrate onto the 1.3 microns thick peeled GaAs HEMT layer, eliminating the need for bond wires and creating a fully integrated circuit. Testing of devices indicate that the peeled device is not degraded by the peel off step but rather there is an improvement in the quantum well carrier confinement. Circuit testing resulted in a maximum gain of 8.5 dB and a return loss minimum of -12 dB.
Young, Paul G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Smith, Edwyn D.
Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf. It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host. Images
Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf.It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host. PMID:16656239
A method for reversibly regreening and degreening citrus epicarp in vitro using peel segments was developed. Peel segments from mature degreened fruit promptly regreened when kept in light upon agar medium containing low (15 millimolar) concentrations of sucrose. Higher concentrations of sucrose inhibited this regreening, but NO3? and certain amino acids included in the media overcame the inhibition by sucrose. However, l-serine strongly inhibited regreening. In the presence of nitrogen, sucrose promoted regreening. Peel segments from green fruit remained green on media with low concentrations of sucrose and on media with high concentrations of sucrose and 60 millimolar KNO3, but degreened in response to high concentrations of sucrose in the absence of nitrogen. Nitrate overcame the degreening effects of high sucrose concentrations in both light and dark. Peel segments were reversibly degreened and regreened by transferring the segments between appropriate media. Nitrate in the media markedly reduced the levels of endogenous sugars in the epicarp and increased endogenous amino acid levels. Sucrose in the media increased endogenous sugar levels and, in the presence of nitrate, increased endogenous amino acid levels. In the absence of nitrogen, high sucrose concentrations reduced endogenous amino acid concentrations.
A comparative study using native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(2+) has been proposed. Under the optimized pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosage, the adsorption capacity of garlic peel after mercerization was increased 2.1 times and up to 109.05 mg g(-1). The equilibrium sorption data for both garlic peels fitted well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the adsorbent-adsorbate kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model. These both garlic peels were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy, and the results indicated that mercerized garlic peel offers more little pores acted as adsorption sites than native garlic peel and has lower polymerization and crystalline and more accessible functional hydroxyl groups, which resulted in higher adsorption capacity than native garlic peel. The FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of both garlic peels before and after loaded with Pb(2+) further illustrated that lead was adsorbed on the through chelation between Pb(2+) and O atom existed on the surface of garlic peels. These results described above showed that garlic peel after mercerization can be a more attractive adsorbent due to its faster sorption uptake and higher capacity. PMID:24022100
Exotic fruit consumption and processing is increasing worldwide due to the improvement in preservation techniques, transportation, marketing systems and consumer awareness of health benefits. The entire body of tropical exotic fruits is rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenolic constituents, carotenoids, vitamins and dietary fiber. However, the fruit processing industry deals with the large percentage of byproducts, such as peels,
J. F. Ayala-Zavala; V. Vega-Vega; C. Rosas-Domínguez; H. Palafox-Carlos; J. A. Villa-Rodriguez; J. E. Dávila-Aviña; G. A. González-Aguilar
Recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste is a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products such as methane. Following a pre-treatment to extract D-limonene, the anaerobic digestion of orange peel waste was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. D-limonene removals of 70% were reached with pre-treatment. The results showed the convenience of thermophilic conditions for treating this waste as the methane production rate and biodegradability were higher than at mesophilic temperature. At pilot scale, a thermophilic continuously stirred-tank reactor working in semi-continuous mode was employed. The OLR was found to be in the range of 1.20-3.67 kg COD/m(3) d; the most appropriate range for working under stable conditions at SRT of 25 d. The methane yield coefficient was found to be 0.27-0.29 L(STP)CH(4)/g added COD and the biodegradability 84-90% under these conditions. However, acidification occurred at the highest OLR. PMID:20655741
This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.
The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-?-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds. PMID:24792924
Summary Inheritance of fruit acidity in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) was studied in 3 sweet or low acid (‘Ganesh’, ‘Ruby’ and ‘Kabul Yellow’) and 3 sour or high acid (‘Nana’, ‘Daru’ and\\u000a ‘Double Flower’) varieties and their progenies. The F1 and F2 data of ‘Ganesh’ × ‘Nana’ showed that fruit acidity is monogenically controlled and the sour nature is dominant over sweet.\\u000a Further,
When radiated with 0.5 kGy electron radiation, the peel structure kept normal, i.e. the waxy layer were thick, the oil cell and spongeous parenchyma cell arranged intensely, which results in plump fruits, lower rate of rot and weight loss during storage, and little bad influence on the flavour. The content of Vitamin C, total acid and total sugar were close to those of control.
The peel oil of Kagzi lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) was isolated by hydrodistillation at six ripening stages and analyzed by GC. Nineteen components were identified and some important aroma components were observed at higher concentrations than normally reported such as neral and geranial (7.8%), geraniol (7.3%) and citronellol (1.2%), particularly in green fruits. A decrease in oxygenated monoterpenes and an
An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruitpeel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg\\/kg of MI and 100mg\\/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic
Colletotrichum musae isolate CM100 is capable of producing ethylene in vitro on methionine-supplemented basal medium. This isolate also produced ethylene on peel extracts of banana fruit that contained\\u000a methionine at 0.31–0.42 ?mol\\/g fresh weight. Ethylene production rates by fresh banana peel strip explants and by whole fruit\\u000a were not significantly increased after C. musae infection compared with non-infected control tissues.
W. A. M. Daundasekera; D. C. Joyce; N. K. B. Adikaram; L. A. Terry
The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) scavenging activity, changes and accumulation of phenolic content were studied in the peel, seed and pulp of rambutan, Nephelium lappaceum L. (Rongrien and Seeechompoo cultivars) during fruit maturation. The IC50 values of the radical scavenging activity of the peels, in both cultivars remained low through fruit development (1.42–4.75?g\\/mL) but the values of the seed and pulps were
This paper presents results of peel tests with spinnable carbon nanotube webs. Peel tests were performed to study the effect of orientation angles on interface energies between nanotubes. In absence of any binding agent the interface energy represents the Van Der Waals energies between the interacting nanotubes. Therefore, the effect of the orientations on Van Der Waals energies between carbon nanotubes is obtained through the peel test. It is shown that the energy for crossed nanotubes at 90° angle is lower than the energy for parallel nanotubes at 0° angle. This experimental observation was validated by hypothetical theoretical calculations.
Khandoker, Noman; Hawkins, Stephen C.; Ibrahim, Raafat; Huynh, Chi P.
Diurnal change in the temperature below or above 12.5 °C hastens the degreening of citrus peel and elicits the phytohormone ethylene production in citrus fruit. Ethylene triggers the degradation of chlorophyll and synthesis of carotenoids in citrus peel. To investigate if ethylene is required for the degreening of citrus peel elicited by low temperatures, we studied the chilling-regulated gene expression of
Wai Shing Wong; Wen Ning; Pei Lin Xu; Shain Dow Kung; Shang Fa Yang; Ning Li
Variations of phenolics, antioxidant activity, and mineral contents in peel and pulp of five apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars from Pakistan, namely Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Kashmiri Amri, Kala Kulu and Sky Spur were appraised. The mean extract yield of antioxidant components obtained with 80:20 methanol-water (v/v), was found to be 22.1 g/100 g for peel and 14.2 g/100 g for pulp on a dry weight basis. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in peel and pulp of different cultivars of apple ranged from 1,907.5-2,587.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DW and 1,214.3-1,816.4 mg catechin equivalent/100 g DW and 1,185.2-1,475.5 mg GAE/100 g DW and 711.8-999.3 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively. The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 71.7-84.9 and 66.6-80.8% in peel, and 43.9-52.8 and 42.9-51.1% in pulp, respectively. Reducing power of the tested fruit part extracts at concentration 12.5 mg/mL ranged from 2.54-2.89 and 1.37-1.73, respectively. With regard to minerals analysis, both fruit parts showed the amount of K to be the highest, followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Na and Zn. The results revealed that peel of the tested apple cultivars in this study had superior antioxidant capacity and mineral concentration than the pulp, indicating significant variations between the parts tested. Thus, consumption of apple fruits along with peel might be recommended to gaining better nutritive benefits. PMID:22217553
Manzoor, Maleeha; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid; Ashraf, Muhammad
Papaya is a climacteric fruit that has high amounts of benzylglucosinolates (BG) and benzylisothiocyanates (BITC), but information regarding levels of BG or BITC during fruit development and ripening is limited. Because BG and BITC are compounds of importance from both a nutritional and a crop yield standpoint, the aim of this work was to access data on the distribution and changes of BG and BITC levels during fruit development and ripening. BG and BITC levels were quantified in peel, pulp, and seeds of papaya fruit. Volatile BITC was also verified in the internal cavity of the fruit during ripening. The influence of the ethylene in BG and BITC levels and mirosinase activity was tested by exposing mature green fruits to ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The highest BG levels were detected in seeds, followed by the peel and pulp being decreased in all tissues during fruit development. Similarly, the levels of BITC were much higher in the seeds than the peel and pulp. The levels of BG for control and ethylene-treated fruit were very similar, increasing in the pulp and peel during late ripening but not changing significantly in seeds. On the other hand, fruit exposed to 1-MCP showed a decrease in BG amount in the pulp and accumulation in seed. The treatments did not result in clear differences regarding the amount of BITC in the pulp and peel of the fruit. According to the results, ethylene does not have a clear effect on BITC accumulation in ripening papaya fruit. The fact that BG levels in the pulp did not decrease during ripening, regardless of the treatment employed, and that papaya is consumed mainly as fresh fruit, speaks in favor of this fruit as a good dietary source for glucosinolate and isothiocyanates. PMID:18826320
Rossetto, Maria Rosecler Miranda; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Fabi, João Paulo; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana
Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit aqueous acetone extracts were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry were used for the identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds. The total phenolic content of the pulp and peel parts ranged from 37 to 47 and 105 to 157 mg/100 g of fresh weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) was the most abundant phenolic compound in the pulp (37%), whereas rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside) was the main one in the peel (36%). The radical scavenging potential of the extracts was determined and compared with that of synthetic antioxidants. The stronger properties corresponded to those obtained from peel material with a 70-80% inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts against different microorganism strains was also investigated. Quince peel extract was the most active for inhibiting bacteria growth with minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations in the range of 102-5 x 103 microg polyphenol/mL. It seems that chlorogenic acid acts in synergism with other components of the extracts to exhibit their total antimicrobial activities. PMID:17263500
Fattouch, Sami; Caboni, Pierluigi; Coroneo, Valentina; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Angioni, Alberto; Dessi, Sandro; Marzouki, Nejib; Cabras, Paolo
Fruit extracts from apple, kiwifruit, feijoa, boysenberry, and blueberry were screened for the presence of lipase inhibitory compounds against lepidopteran larval midgut crude extracts. From 120 extracts, six showed significant inhibition with an extract from the peel of Malus × domestica cv. "Big Red" showing highest levels of inhibition. Because this sample was the only apple peel sample in the initial screen, a survey of peels from seven apple cultivars was undertaken and showed that, despite considerable variation, all had inhibitory activity. Successive solvent fractionation and LC-MS of cv. "Big Red" apple peel extract identified triterpene acids as the most important inhibitory compounds, of which ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were the major components and oxo- and hydroxyl-triterpene acids were minor components. When ursolic acid was incorporated into artificial diet and fed to Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera) larvae at 0.16% w/v, a significant decrease in larval weight was observed after 21 days. This concentration of ursolic acid is less than half the concentration reported in the skin of some apple cultivars. PMID:24753088
Christeller, John T; McGhie, Tony K; Poulton, Joanne; Markwick, Ngaire P
The use of boiled potato peel (PP) in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%), near complete epithelization at one site. There was no satisfactory response at three sites and at one site the result could not be evaluated. The mean duration of healing was one week for superficial wounds and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound healing process by providing and maintaining a moist environment. The PP dressing is easy to prepare, apply as well as remove. It is a comfortable dressing and is also cost effective. PMID:20948091
Patange, V S; Fernandez, R J; Motla, M U; Mahajan, S A
Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruitpeels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruitpeel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens.
Rodriguez, Ana; San Andres, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquezar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, Jose; Rodrigo, Maria Jesus; Zacarias, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluis; Lopez, Maria M.; Castanera, Pedro; Pena, Leandro
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative brain disorder that is characterized by neuronal loss, neurofibrillary tangles, and the abnormal deposition of senile plaque and amyloid ? peptide (A?). The brains of AD patients are under intense oxidative stress. The overproduction of A? leads to A?-associated free radical oxidative stress. In this study, the antioxidative and neuronal protective effects of Punica granatum extract were investigated against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. The ethanol extracts of P. granatum protected PC12 cells from hydrogen peroxide (H?O?-induced oxidative stress. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays revealed a significant increase in cell viability when oxidatively stressed PC12 cells were treated with the P. granatum extract. To examine the effects of P. granatum on A?????-induced learning and memory impairment in mice, in vivo behavioral tests were performed. Treatment with the extract of P. granatum increased step-through latency in mice injected with A?????. The results of this study suggest that the ethanol extract of P. granatum mitigated H?O?-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. In addition, the extract inhibited neuronal cell death caused by A?-induced oxidative stress and A?-induced learning and memory deficiency. PMID:21631359
Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Heo, Ho Jin; Cho, Hong Yon; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Myeong Ok; Suh, Soo Hwan; Shin, Dong-Hoon
Epithelial cells (ECs) lining the secretory cavities of Citrus peel have been hypothesized to be responsible for the synthesis of essential oil, but direct evidence for such a role is currently sparse. We used laser-capture microdissection and pressure catapulting to isolate ECs and parenchyma cells (as controls not synthesizing oil) from the peel of young grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi ‘Duncan’), isolated RNA, and evaluated transcript patterns based on oligonucleotide microarrays. A Gene Ontology analysis of these data sets indicated an enrichment of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile terpenoids and nonvolatile phenylpropanoids in ECs (when compared with parenchyma cells), thus indicating a significant metabolic specialization in this cell type. The gene expression patterns in ECs were consistent with the accumulation of the major essential oil constituents (monoterpenes, prenylated coumarins, and polymethoxylated flavonoids). Morphometric analyses demonstrated that secretory cavities are formed early during fruit development, whereas the expansion of cavities, and thus oil accumulation, correlates with later stages of fruit expansion. Our studies have laid the methodological and experimental groundwork for a vastly improved knowledge of the as yet poorly understood processes controlling essential oil biosynthesis in Citrus peel.
Voo, Siau Sie; Grimes, Howard D.; Lange, B. Markus
The current study describes differences in pomegranate fruit size and aril weight of 29 accessions grown in Israel. The contents of sugars and organic acids in their aril juices and peel homogenates, as well as color parameters, were determined. While the levels of total soluble solids (TSS) and soluble sugars in the aril juices differ only slightly, those of titratable acidity (TA) and citric acid changed significantly, suggesting that they are the main contributors to juice taste. In general, significant positive correlations were found between TA values and the red color parameters, and these two parameters, as well as TSS, appeared to be higher in the juices of accessions harvested late in the season. Peel homogenates exhibited lower levels of TSS, TA, soluble sugars and organic acids than aril juices. Some red color parameters, TA and citric acid were found to correlate significantly between the aril juices and peel homogenates. PMID:20232916
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p < 0.05). Tangerine's peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058
Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C
Solvent extracts of differing polarity from Citrus aurantium (L.) (Rutaceae) fruit, leaves, and shoots were evaluated for biological activity against adults of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using a petri dish residual exposure bioassay, we found that the petroleum ether extract from fruit alone showed insecticidal activity against the flies. The extract of the three fruit tissues (flavedo [peel], albedo, and flesh) indicated that bioactivity was limited to the flavedo, and this activity was significantly higher than that of the whole fruit extract. The most effective extract was obtained when fresh flavedo was used, whereas extracts of oven-dried flavedo were inactive. Fruit maturity also affected bioactivity; extracts of ripe fruit were more effective than those of unripe fruit. Our results suggest that C. aurantium flavedo contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against B. oleae adults. PMID:17849873
Siskos, E P; Konstantopoulou, M A; Mazomenos, B E; Jervis, M
The Capsule Report discusses the modified dry caustic process which uses rapidly rotating rubber discs to mechanically wipe the caustic treated peel from clingstone peaches. This report covers two-seasons of evaluation during which the dry caustic peeling...
An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruitpeel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg/kg of MI and 100mg/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic LPO, were administered to Wistar albino male rats for 10 consecutive days and the changes in tissue (heart, liver and kidney) LPO and in the concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)), insulin, glucose, alpha-amylase and different lipids were examined. Administration of three test peel extracts significantly increased both the thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) with a concomitant decrease in tissue LPO, suggesting their thyroid stimulatory and antiperoxidative role. This thyroid stimulatory nature was also exhibited in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid animals. However, only minor influence was observed in serum lipid profile in which CM reduced the concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), while CV decreased triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C). When the combined effects of either two (MI+CV) or three (MI+CV+CM) peel extracts were evaluated in euthyroid animals, serum T(3) concentration was increased in response to MI+CV and MI+CV+CM treatments, while T(4) level was elevated by the combinations of first two peels only. Interestingly, both the categories of combinations increased T(4) levels, but not T(3) in PTU treated hypothyroid animals. Moreover, a parallel increase in hepatic and renal LPO was observed in these animals, suggesting their unsafe nature in combination. In conclusion the three test peel extracts appear to be stimulatory to thyroid functions and inhibitory to tissue LPO but only when treated individually. PMID:19059228
alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088
The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.).
In this study, the fuel potential of residues from local fruit processing facilities in Northern Thailand was assessed. Facilities were surveyed to determine current processing and waste disposal strategies. In facilities handling large amounts of these fruits particularly, residues are currently disposed of in municipal dumps. Fresh processing refuse such as peels and seeds was sampled and analyzed for fuel
Marcus Nagle; Kennedy Habasimbi; Busarakorn Mahayothee; Methinee Haewsungcharern; Serm Janjai; Joachim Müller
. Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in
Yanhua Lu; Chongwei Zhang; Peter Bucheli; Dongzhi Wei
Fractionated extracts of Feijoa peels were studied for cytotoxic activity, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and antibacterial activity. Two most cytotoxic fractions A3 of acetone extract and M2 of methanol extract had potent inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi tested. Fraction A4 of acetone extract showed multidrug resistance (MDR)-reversal activity comparable with that of verapamil (positive control). These results indicate the therapeutic value of Feijoa peel extracts as potential antimicrobial and MDR-modulating agents. PMID:11205266
Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. PMID:24767054
Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; Ramírez de León, J A; Navarro-Ocaña, A
When a tape based on pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) is peeled from paper, either the tape comes off leaving a clean paper surface or the paper undergoes catastrophic cohesive failure which is the delamination of fiber layers in the paper sheet. The objectives of this work were to determine the links between paper properties and peel characteristics. Peel tests and
Robert Pelton; Wei Chen; Hong Li; Michael R. Engel
Anthocyanins belong to the flavonoid family and are ubiquitous in plants, especially in flower petals and fruitpeels. We established that anthocyanins isolated from fruits of Aronia melanocarpa markedly inhibited the mutagenic activity of benzo(a)pyrene and 2-amino fluorene in the Ames test. In the Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs) test with human blood-derived lymphocytes cultured in vitro, a significant decrease of
Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks. PMID:24224736
Ohmic plasmas in Pegasus are often initially unstable to peeling modes, an instability underlying deleterious edge localized mode (ELM) activity in fusion-grade plasmas. These edge-localized instabilities are observed under conditions of high parallel edge current density (J˜0.1 MA/m^2) and low magnetic field (B˜0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio, corresponding to high peeling instability drive (J/B). They generate electromagnetic MHD activity with low toroidal mode numbers n<=3 and ELM-like, field-aligned edge filaments with high poloidal coherence that detach from the plasma and propagate outward. The modest edge temperatures and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit time-resolved measurements of the edge current density profile Jedge using an insertable Hall probe. Peeling MHD fluctuation amplitudes scale strongly with measured J/B, consistent with theory. Ideal stability analysis of Hall-constrained equilibrium reconstructions with DCON finds instability to peeling modes. Filaments form from an initial Jedge ``current-hole'' perturbation and carry currents ˜100-250 A. Their radial trajectories feature transient acceleration due to magnetostatic repulsion followed by constant-velocity motion, consistent with models of ELM dynamics.
Bongard, M. W.; Barr, J. L.; Fonck, R. J.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.
Increasing recent interest in nutraceuticals and functional foods has led researchers to investigate the antioxidant potential of several fruits. This article evaluates the antioxidant potential and reactivity based on luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence capacity of peach extracts (peels and fleshes) and the contribution of a major compound present in these extracts to antioxidant potential and reactivity. The results obtained showed that the extracts of peels and fleshes of Maciel, Leonense, and Eldorado peach cultivars present free radical scavenging activity in all concentrations tested, with a concentration-dependent action. The immediate inhibition of chemiluminescence and the duration of this inhibition were significantly higher with the extracts than with the major compound (chlorogenic acid) alone, and it can be due to a synergistic or additive effect of other antioxidants present in the extracts. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values for peach extract and chlorogenic acid were 1.19 microg/mL and 8.43 microg/mL, respectively, when total radical-trapping antioxidant potential was evaluated, whereas IC(50) values of 0.41 microg/mL and 1.89 microg/mL was found when total antioxidant reactivity was evaluated in peach extract and chlorogenic acid, respectively. Chlorogenic acid presented a good contribution to antioxidant reactivity and potential, but the fruit extracts provide better antioxidant action. Peach could be of great interest as an important antioxidant source including chlorogenic acid, and it may provide health-promoting advantages to consumers by intake of this fruit or by utilization of its peels as antioxidant sources in industry. PMID:19857078
Rossato, Simone B; Haas, Clarissa; Raseira, Maria do Carmo B; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Zuanazzi, José Angelo S
The chilling conditions of apple cold storage can provoke an economically significant necrotic peel disorder called superficial scald (scald) in susceptible cultivars. Disorder development can be reduced by inhibiting ethylene action or oxidative stress as well as intermittent warming. It was previously demonstrated that scald is preceded by a metabolomic shift that results in altered levels of various classes of triterpenoids, including metabolites with mass spectral features similar to ?-sitosterol. In this study, a key class of phytosterol metabolites was identified. Changes in peel tissue levels of conjugates of ?-sitosterol and campesterol, including acylated steryl glycosides (ASG), steryl glycosides (SG) and steryl esters (SE), as well as free sterols (FS), were determined during the period of scald development. Responses to pre-storage treatment with the ethylene action inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene, or an antioxidant (diphenylamine), rapid temperature elevation, and cold acclimation using intermittent warming treatments were evaluated. Diphenylamine, 1-MCP, and intermittent warming all reduced or prevented scald development. ASG levels increased and SE levels decreased in untreated control fruit during storage. Removing fruit from cold storage to ambient temperature induced rapid shifts in ASG and SE fatty acyl moieties from unsaturated to saturated. FS and SG levels remained relatively stable during storage but SG levels increased following a temperature increase after storage. ASG, SE, and SG levels did not increase during 6 months cold storage in fruit subjected to intermittent warming treatment. Overall, the results show that apple peel phytosteryl conjugate metabolism is influenced by storage duration, oxidative stress, ethylene action/ripening, and storage temperature. PMID:21665233
Rudell, David R; Buchanan, David A; Leisso, Rachel S; Whitaker, Bruce D; Mattheis, James P; Zhu, Yanmin; Varanasi, Vijay
As part of a screening program to identify micronutrient-rich banana and plantain (Musa) varieties, a simple, robust, and comparatively rapid protocol for the quantification of the provitamin A carotenoids contents of fruit pulp and peel tissues by HPLC and by spectrophotometry has been developed. Major points to note include the use lyophilisation and extensive tissue disruption procedures to ensure quantitative
A natural Extract from whole Fruit of Banana (Musa Spp.), (including edible portion and peel), whether unripe or ripe, containing mainly natural Melatonin, Serotonin, Catecholamines and its precursors; amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine; minerals potassium, magnesium, phosphorous and antioxidants. The extract contains very minimal or no carbohydrates.
THE organic acids in citrus juices are chiefly citric and malic, although tartaric and oxalic acids also have been reported in grapefruit1. In our laboratory, succinic acid was found in frozen mature oranges. Wolf2 isolated citric, malic and an unidentified acid from citrus fruit. Sinclair and Eny3 reported that in the peel malic acid predominates while citric and oxalic acids
Free and bound-form phenolics were isolated from potato (cv. Toyoshiro) flesh and peel. The free and bound-form phenolics in the peel showed high DPPH radical scavenging activity, while those in the flesh showed low activity. The total amount of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the free-form phenolics from the peel was highly correlated with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. Ferulic acid was identified as the active radical scavenging compound in the bound-form phenolics from the peel. The potato peel may therefore offer an effective source of an antioxidative. PMID:16794331
The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women.
Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage.
Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, Maria J.; Alferez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Gonzalez-Candelas, Luis; Zacarias, Lorenzo; Lafuente, Maria T.
Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its climatic environment during growth could affect postharvest behaviour and quality. PMID:23267462
Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques
The effect of the new anti-ethylene compound 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in combination with polyethylene bags on the ripening of harvested banana fruit was investigated. 1-MCP treatment delayed peel colour change and fruit softening, and extended shelf life in association with suppression of respiration and C2H4 evolution. Banana fruit ripening was delayed when exposed to 0.01–1.0 ?l 1-MCP\\/l for 24 h, and
The phenolic composition of peel, pulp, and seed of the olive fruit was studied for several Italian cultivars used for oil extraction. The seed contained a compound never previously detected in peel and in pulp. The spectroscopic characterization of this compound proved, for the first time, the presence of nüzhenide in the olive seed. Study of the phenolic composition showed that oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, and verbascoside were present in all of the constitutive parts of the fruit; by contrast, nüzhenide was exclusively present in the seeds of all the cultivars at all ripening stages studied. PMID:10563841
Servili, M; Baldioli, M; Selvaggini, R; Macchioni, A; Montedoro, G
Instrumented hydraulic constrained blister-peel apparatus obtains data on degree of bonding between specimen of rubbery material and rigid plate. Growth of blister tracked by video camera, digital clock, pressure transducer, and piston-displacement sensor. Cylinder pressure controlled by hydraulic actuator system. Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) and float provide second, independent measure of change in blister volume used as more precise volume feedback in low-growth-rate test.
Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595
Few molecular studies have been devoted to the finger drop process that occurs during banana fruit ripening. Recent studies revealed the involvement of changes in the properties of cell wall polysaccharides in the pedicel rupture area. In this study, the expression of cell-wall modifying genes was monitored in peel tissue during post-harvest ripening of Cavendish banana fruit, at median area
D. Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie; O. Hubert; F. C. Baurens; T. Matsumoto; M. Chillet; B. Fils-Lycaon; S. Sidibe-Bocs
Examination of the dried peel powder of Citrus kawachiensis, one of the citrus products of Ehime, Japan, showed that it contained naringin (NGIN; 44.02?±?0.491?mg/g), narirutin (NRTN; 4.46?±?0.0563?mg/g), auraptene (AUR; 4.07?±?0.033?mg/g), and 3,5,6,7,8,3?,4?-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF; 0.27?±?0.0039?mg/g). When this dried peel powder was orally preadministered at the dose of 1.2 or 2.4?g/kg/day for 7 days into lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) injected mice, an animal model of systemic inflammation, it suppressed (1) LPS-induced loss of body weight and abnormal behavior in the open field, (2) LPS-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes in the hippocampus, and (3) LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, which were coexpressed in astrocytes of these mice. When NGIN or AUR was preadministered to LPS-injected mice at an amount similar to that in the peel powder, AUR, but not NGIN, had the ability to suppress the LPS-induced inflammation in the brain of these model mice. The dried powder of flavedo tissue (the outer colored layer of the mesocarp of a citrus fruit) and juice, which contained sufficient amounts of AUR, also had anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest that AUR was the main ingredient responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of the dried peels of C. kawachiensis.
Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.
In a series of experiments full thickness skin defects in 68 rats were covered with dressings made of boiled potato peels according to the method developed in Bombay. The wounds closed within 14 days and histologically complete repair of epidermis was found. The cork layer of the potato peel prevents dehydration of the wound and protects against exogenous agents. Experiments with homogenates revealed that a complete structure of the peel is necessary. Steroidal glycosides may have contributed to the favourable results. PMID:1930669
Dattatreya, R M; Nuijen, S; van Swaaij, A C; Klopper, P J
Peeling skin syndrome is a rare dermatosis characterized by spontaneous and painless peeling of the skin. The authors report two patients with history of spontaneous, asymptomatic, and noninflammatory peeling skin of the acral surfaces after soaking in water. On light microscopy, blisters were located in the mid layers of the stratum corneum, above the granular layer. Ultrastructural examination revealed increased intercellular lipids and abnormal, "moth-eaten," keratohyalin granules, but the authors were unable to determine whether the separation initiated within the horny cells or between adjacent cells. These patients represented a localized variant of peeling skin syndrome. PMID:15931780
García, Elena García; Carreño, Rosario Granados; Martínez González, Miguel A; Reyes, José Jiménez
Flavonol O- and xanthone C-glycosides were extracted from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. "Tommy Atkins") peels and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the fourteen compounds analyzed, seven quercetin O-glycosides, one kaempferol O-glycoside, and four xanthone C-glycosides were found. On the basis of their fragmentation pattern, the latter were identified as mangiferin and isomangiferin and their respective galloyl derivatives. A flavonol hexoside with m/z 477 was tentatively identified as a rhamnetin glycoside, which to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been reported in mango peels. The results obtained in the present study confirm that peels originating from mango fruit processing are a promising source of phenolic compounds that might be recovered and used as natural antioxidants or functional food ingredients. PMID:12903961
Schieber, Andreas; Berardini, Nicolai; Carle, Reinhold
The flowers of Malva sylvestris Linn. (Malvaceae) and Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani) whose have been used as remedy against edema, bum, wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The diethyl ether extract of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers were used to evaluate the wound healing activity at 200 mg/kg/day dose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Wounds were induced in Wister rats divided into six groups as following; Group I, normal rats were treated with simple ointment base. Group II, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control). Groups III and IV, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals), Groups V, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts (1:1), Group VI, diabetic rats received the standard drug (nitrofurazone). The efficacy of treatment was evaluated based on wound area relative and histopathological characteristics. The extract-treated diabetic animals showed significant reduction in the wound area when compared with control. Also, histological studies of the tissue obtained on days 9th and 18th from the extract-treated by extract of M. sylvestris showed increased well organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts and few inflammatory cells. These findings demonstrate that extract of M. sylvestis effectively stimulates wound contraction as compared to control group and other groups. M. sylvestris accelerated wound healing in rats and thus supports its traditional use. PMID:20873419
The study investigated the intensification and improvement of oil extraction from orange peel through a thermomechanical process: the instantaneous controlled pressure drop (briefly D.I.C. process). This process involves subjecting orange peel for a short time to steam pressure, followed by an instantaneous decompression to a vacuum at 50 mbar. Central composite design was used to study the combined effects of processing
The Capsule Report discusses the modified dry caustic process which uses rapidly rotating rubber discs to mechanically wipe the caustic treated peel from clingstone peaches. This report covers two-seasons of evaluation during which the dry caustic peeling system was operated in p...
Dried pomegranate peels were powdered and extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol and water for 4 h each. The dried extracts were used to determine their antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex and antimutagenicity against the mutagenicity of sodium azide by the Ames test. All the peel extracts exhibited marked antioxidant capacity, but
We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruitpeel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight. PMID:18613588
Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D
We report a sequence of behaviors exhibited by the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx while feeding on fruits of Mangifera indica. They peel off the outer skin to form a feeding area of about 3–6 cm diameter. Such food preparatory behaviors were more\\u000a pronounced on larger mangoes. Bats competed among themselves to feed on the mangoes that had such feeding areas
Micropatterning is becoming a powerful tool for studying morphogenetic and differentiation processes of cells. Here we describe a new micropatterning technique, which we refer to as microcontact peeling. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were treated with oxygen plasma, and the resulting hydrophilic layer of the surface was locally peeled off through direct contact with a peeling stamp made of aluminum, copper, or silicon. A hydrophobic layer of PDMS could be selectively exposed only at the places of the physical contact as revealed by water contact angle measurements and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which thus enabled successful micropatterning of cells with micro-featured peeling stamps. This new micropatterning technique needs no procedure for directly adsorbing proteins to bare PDMS in contrast to conventional techniques using a microcontact printing stamp. Given the several unique characteristics, the present technique based on the peel-off of inorganic materials may become a useful option for performing cell micropatterning.
In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.
Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817
Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C
Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Phenolic acids and flavonol O-glycosides were extracted from the peels of jocote fruits (Spondias purpurea L., Anacardiaceae) harvested in Costa Rica and characterized using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn). The analytical system allowed the separation of 21 phenolic compounds within less than 20min. Their characterization was based on retention time,
Christina Engels; Diana Gräter; Patricia Esquivel; Víctor M. Jiménez; Michael G. Gänzle; Andreas Schieber
In this activity, learners discover how a piece of fruit can act as an electrolyte, conducting electricity between two different metals. In this way, learners construct a simple battery and record their observations. Educators can use this activity to introduce circuits, electrodes, and electrolytes. After completing this activity, learners can explore other fruit and vegetable conductors.
The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of 1H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake.
Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon
The use of waste fruits of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) banana (Musa accuminata Colla) and pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) as biomas for production of wine was investigated. Ripe, soft pineapple, banana and pawpaw fruits weighing 5.8, 3.3 and 5.8 respectively were used for microbial analysis and nutritional composition. Fungi and bacteria were isolated from the peels, pulp and juice.
Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarring. In very rare cases, complications can be life-threatening.
An amylase enzyme from pitaya peel was purified 234.2-folds with 72.1% recovery using ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE revealed that the enzyme is monomeric with a molecular weight of 42.1kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax of the amylase were 2.7mg/ml and 34.30u/min/mg of protein, respectively. The enzyme was highly active and stable over a wide pH range from pH 3 to pH 11.0, with optimum activity being observed at pH 5.0. The enzyme was highly selective for soluble starch, amylopectin, glycogen and pulullan. The purified amylase did not require calcium and displayed extreme stability with regard to surfactants and oxidising agents. EDTA, a powerful chelating agent, did not have any significant effect on the stability of the enzyme. Such characteristics have not been previously reported for this type of enzyme from fruitpeel. This enzyme, which possesses unique properties, could be widely used in different types of industries, especially in food and biotechnological applications. PMID:25038694
A total of 20 volatile organic compounds from the peel of citrus fruit Ohshima no. 1 were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The amount of limonene in Ohshima no. 1 was lower than those in the parent cultivars, Miyauchi iyokan and Yoshiura ponkan, whereas those of gamma-terpinene, linalool, sabinene, p-cymene, and terpinolene in Ohshima no. 1 were somewhat higher. However, comparing the results, it was found that volatile components from both parent cultivars were present in the peel of Ohshima no. 1. Principal component analysis (PCA) of data obtained with an electronic nose indicated that the odor of Ohshima no. 1 showed a clear upward displacement as compared with those of parent cultivars in PC1. The oils of Miyauchi iyokan and Yoshiura ponkan showed displacement in a negative direction, and a positive one in PC2. By PCA analysis, it was found that the odor quality of Ohshima no. 1 was very different from those of the parent cultivars. PMID:18603774
Methanolic extract powders of acerola, passion fruit and pineapple industrial residues, including pulp, seeds and peel, altogether (except for acerola) devoid of seeds, were screened for antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents (TPCs) of the extract powders were compared with their radical-scavenging activities (RSA) against both DPPH• and superoxide anion (O2•-) radicals, and their protective effect against liposome peroxidation, triggered
Alane Cabral de Oliveira; Iara Barros Valentim; Cícero Alexandre Silva; Etelvino José Henriques Bechara; Marcelo Paes de Barros; Camila Marinho Mano; Marília Oliveira Fonseca Goulart
The bitter orange tree is used to obtain different products: essential oil cold pressed from the peel of the fruit, the neroli distilled from the flowers, the petitgrain distilled from the leaves and twigs, and different other products obtained by solvent extraction or by hydrodistillation. All these products are much appreciated for their odor properties. Their analytical characterization is important
Giovanni Dugo; Ivana Bonaccorsi; Danilo Sciarrone; Rosaria Costa; Paola Dugo; Luigi Mondello; Luca Santi; Hussein A. Fakhry
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 188.8.131.52) is the enzyme thought to be responsible for browning in banana [Musa cavendishii (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Williams] fruit. Banana flesh was high in PPO activity throughout growth and ripening. Peel showed high levels of activity early in development but activity declined until ripening started and then remained constant. PPO activity in fruit was not substantially induced after wounding or treatment with 5-methyl jasmonate. Banana flowers and unexpanded leaf roll had high PPO activities with lower activities observed in mature leaves, roots and stem. Four different PPO cDNA clones were amplified from banana fruit (BPO1, BPO11, BPO34 and BPO35). Full-length cDNA and genomic clones were isolated for the most abundant sequence (BPO1) and the genomic clone was found to contain an 85-bp intron. Introns have not been previously found in PPO genes. Northern analysis revealed the presence of BPO1 mRNA in banana flesh early in development but little BPO1 mRNA was detected at the same stage in banana peel. BPO11 transcript was only detected in very young flesh and there was no detectable expression of BPO34 or BPO35 in developing fruit samples. PPO transcripts were also low throughout ripening in both flesh and peel. BPO1 transcripts were readily detected in flowers, stem, roots and leaf roll samples but were not detected in mature leaves. BPO11 showed a similar pattern of expression to BPO1 in these tissues but transcript levels were much lower. BPO34 and BPO35 mRNAs were only detected at a low level in flowers and roots and BPO34 transcript was detected in mature leaves, the only clone to do so. The results suggest that browning of banana fruit during ripening results from release of pre-existing PPO enzyme, which is synthesised very early in fruit development. PMID:11678279
The experiment of Longan fruit cv. Biew Kiew, untreated (control) and treated with SO2 treatment were stored under 2 +/- 2 and 7 +/- 2 degrees C for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks were studied. The treatment of fresh longan fruit with SO2 fumigation combined with the suitable storage condition improved the overall longan fruit quality, especially on inner and outer peel tissue and aril color than no SO2 treatment. Treatment stabilizes peel color with no subsequent loss of color during storage (fruit color were bright-yellowish color). When the fruit showed during SO2 treatment, increasing of storage duration and temperatures, the dark color of inner and outer peel of longan fruit was appeared, this was correlated with the increasing of PPO activity. The activity of PPO enzyme in control fruit (no SO2 treatment) gradually lower than SO2 treatments. Fruit exposed to cool storage temperature (2 degrees C) exhibited a lower PPO enzymatic activity compared to those kept in high storage temperature (7 degrees C). Moreover, PPO enzymatic activity significantly increased over the storage durations The additional SO2 treatment no subsequent loss of weight of longan fruit during storage. However, the sulphite residues could detect immediately after SO2 treatment in all part of longan fruit, especially on aril tissue. The SEM evaluation found that the surface cracking was also impair the physiological function of the cuticle and increasing water permeability, which may cause water soaking at the inner side of the peel. The injured cell would accelerate the oxidation of phenolic substances and the oxidative products resulted in dark color of inner and outer peel. PMID:20180317
Chitbanchong, W; Sardsud, V; Whangchai, K; Koslanund, R; Thobunluepop, P
Environmentally and developmentally controlled rosette formation is welldocumented in certain crop species. But this report describes a geneticallyinduced rosetting observed in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.).Rosette genotypes were detected at a frequency of 0.12 in the F2 familiesof cv. Ganesh and a recessive rosette mutant clone of cv. Kabul Yellow. Therosetted seedlings had leaves almost touching the ground at emergence, whichwere
Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) from citrus genus are of particular interest because of their broad spectrum of biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-atherogenic properties. Recently, the exploration into the beneficial health properties of PMFs in citrus fruits has dramatically increased. However, the supply of pure PMFs in the in vivo study is a limiting factor due to the difficulties in large-scale isolation of the interested PMFs. Therefore, the development of an efficient and a scalable separation method of PMFs is necessary and significant. In this paper, we report a newly developed method for efficient and relatively large-scale isolation of four PMFs from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel by employing supercritical chromatography (SFC): nobiletin, tangeretin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone and 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone. PMID:17035106
Coumarins, a large group of polyphenols, play important roles in the defense mechanisms of plants, and they also exhibit various biological activities beneficial to human health, often enhanced by prenylation. Despite the high abundance of prenylated coumarins in citrus fruits, there has been no report on coumarin-specific prenyltransferase activity in citrus. In this study, we detected both O- and C-prenyltransferase activities of coumarin substrates in a microsome fraction prepared from lemon (Citrus limon) peel, where large amounts of prenylated coumarins accumulate. Bergaptol was the most preferred substrate out of various coumarin derivatives tested, and geranyl diphosphate (GPP) was accepted exclusively as prenyl donor substrate. Further enzymatic characterization of bergaptol 5-O-geranyltransferase activity revealed its unique properties: apparent K(m) values for GPP (9 µM) and bergaptol (140 µM) and a broad divalent cation requirement. These findings provide information towards the discovery of a yet unidentified coumarin-specific prenyltransferase gene. PMID:22785469
Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly ‘green material’. The boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce chloroauric acid. A variety of nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, chloroauric acid concentration and temperature of incubation. The reaction mixtures displayed
Ashok Bankar; Bhagyashree Joshi; Ameeta Ravi Kumar; Smita Zinjarde
Peel failure in PET-aluminium-PET laminates has been studied by dynamic scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanisms of failure are identified, and dynamic observations correlated with conventional SEM fractography. Plastic deformation is highly localized in a region several microns thick. In well-bonded regions the “peel crack” propagates by an advance microcracking mechanism, allowing changes of fracture plane which are accompanied by
D. J. Brown; A. H. Windle; D. G. Gilbert; P. W. R. Beaumont
Statistical studies using the randomised complete block design with four replicates showed that volatile extracts of two species of orange peel--Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) had insecticidal activity against mosquito, cockroach and housefly. Insecticidal activity was better after 60 min than at 30 min spraying of rooms. Volatile extracts of C. sinensis showed greater insecticidal potency, while the cockroach was the most susceptible to the orange peels among the three insects studied. PMID:11198181
The photoaging index has been developed to determine the level of skin rejuvenation required to reduce the visible signs of aging. Minor photoaging is reversed with free-radical avoidance and peeling with a topical skin care regimen consisting of buffing grains, alpha-hydroxy acid normalizing tonics and vitamin A conditioning lotions. The reversal of moderate photoaging requires the addition of light-to-moderate peels using alpha-hydroxy acids combined with microdermabrasion. For the more advanced case the Jessner/trichloroacetic acid (TCA) combination peel (Monheit peel) is used which can be repeated once to twice a year. Laser resurfacing is especially useful to shrink the collagen and produce a 'face-lift bypass'. The phenol peel remains the standard to reverse heavy lines. A new modified formula (Hetter) is used which contains less phenol and less croton oil. Dermabrasion is helpful for removing multiple actinic keratosis. With this combination of skin care, chemical peels, and dermabrasion it is possible to reverse the photoaging index. PMID:15186197
Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668
Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo
Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics.
Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo
Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, ?-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium.
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation. The carotenoid content in the peel and flesh of LYQ was approximately 68 ?g g(-1) and 13 ?g g(-1) fresh weight (FW), respectively, and for BS 19 ?g g(-1) and 0.27 ?g g(-1) FW. The mRNA levels of 15 carotenogenesis-related genes were analysed during fruit development and ripening. After the breaker stage (S4), the mRNA levels of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) and chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase (CYCB) were higher in the peel, and CYCB and ?-carotene hydroxylase (BCH) mRNAs were higher in the flesh of LYQ, compared with BS. Plastid morphogenesis during fruit ripening was also studied. The ultrastructure of plastids in the peel of BS changed less than in LYQ during fruit development. Two different chromoplast shapes were observed in the cells of LYQ peel and flesh at the fully ripe stage. Carotenoids were incorporated in the globules in chromoplasts of LYQ and BS peel but were in a crystalline form in the chromoplasts of LYQ flesh. However, no chromoplast structure was found in the cells of fully ripe BS fruit flesh. The mRNA level of plastid lipid-associated protein (PAP) in the peel and flesh of LYQ was over five times higher than in BS peel and flesh. In conclusion, the lower carotenoid content in BS fruit was associated with the lower mRNA levels of PSY1, CYCB, and BCH; however, the failure to develop normal chromoplasts in BS flesh is the most convincing explanation for the lack of carotenoid accumulation. The expression of PAP was well correlated with chromoplast numbers and carotenoid accumulation, suggesting its possible role in chromoplast biogenesis or interconversion of loquat fruit. PMID:21994170
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation. The carotenoid content in the peel and flesh of LYQ was approximately 68 ?g g?1 and 13 ?g g?1 fresh weight (FW), respectively, and for BS 19 ?g g?1 and 0.27 ?g g?1 FW. The mRNA levels of 15 carotenogenesis-related genes were analysed during fruit development and ripening. After the breaker stage (S4), the mRNA levels of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) and chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase (CYCB) were higher in the peel, and CYCB and ?-carotene hydroxylase (BCH) mRNAs were higher in the flesh of LYQ, compared with BS. Plastid morphogenesis during fruit ripening was also studied. The ultrastructure of plastids in the peel of BS changed less than in LYQ during fruit development. Two different chromoplast shapes were observed in the cells of LYQ peel and flesh at the fully ripe stage. Carotenoids were incorporated in the globules in chromoplasts of LYQ and BS peel but were in a crystalline form in the chromoplasts of LYQ flesh. However, no chromoplast structure was found in the cells of fully ripe BS fruit flesh. The mRNA level of plastid lipid-associated protein (PAP) in the peel and flesh of LYQ was over five times higher than in BS peel and flesh. In conclusion, the lower carotenoid content in BS fruit was associated with the lower mRNA levels of PSY1, CYCB, and BCH; however, the failure to develop normal chromoplasts in BS flesh is the most convincing explanation for the lack of carotenoid accumulation. The expression of PAP was well correlated with chromoplast numbers and carotenoid accumulation, suggesting its possible role in chromoplast biogenesis or interconversion of loquat fruit.
Mexican fruit flies learn fruit characteristics that enable them to distinguish familiar fruits from novel fruits. We investigated whether mature Mexican fruit flies learn fruit color, size or odor. We found no evidence that female flies learn fruit color or size after experience with host fruit, including oviposition. However, green fruit and fruit models were more attractive than yellow and
Fruits of 23 loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) cultivars, of which 11 were white-fleshed and 12 red-fleshed, were analyzed for color, carotenoid content, and vitamin A values. Color differences between two loquat groups were observed in the peel as well as in the flesh. beta-Carotene and lutein were the major carotenoids in the peel, which accounted for about 60% of the total colored carotenoids in both red- and white-fleshed cultivars. beta-Cryptoxanthin and, in some red-fleshed cultivars, beta-carotene were the most abundant carotenoids in the flesh, and in total, they accounted for over half of the colored carotenoids. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, 9- cis-violaxanthin, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeta-carotene were also identified, while zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and lycopene were undetectable. Xanthophylls were highly esterified. On average, 1.3- and 10.8-fold higher levels of colored carotenoids were observed in the peel and flesh tissue of red-fleshed cultivars, respectively. The percentage of beta-carotene among colored carotenoids was higher in both the peel and the flesh of red-fleshed cultivars. Correlations between the levels of total colored carotenoids and the color indices were analyzed. The a* and the ratio of a*/ b* were positively correlated with the total content of colored carotenoids, while L*, b*, and H degrees correlated negatively. Vitamin A values, as retinol equivalents (RE), of loquat flesh were 0.49 and 8.77 microg/g DW (8.46 and 136.41 microg/100 g FW) on average for white- and red-fleshed cultivars, respectively. The RE values for the red-fleshed fruits were higher than fruits such as mango, red watermelon, papaya, and orange as reported in the literature, suggesting that loquat is an excellent source of provitamin A. PMID:17708644
The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant activity of quince (Cydonia oblonga) fruit. For this purpose, fruits were separated into pulps, peels and seeds and methanolic extracts were prepared. The phenolic profiles were determined by HPLC/UV and antioxidant properties were studied for their ability to quench the stable free radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and to inhibit the 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The main phenolic compounds were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid for pulp and peel (57% and 29%, respectively) and stellarin-2 for seed (18%). Total phenolics content was 2.5, 6.3 and 0.4g/kg of methanolic extract for pulp, peel and seed, respectively. Pulp and peel extracts showed similar DPPH free radical scavenging activities (EC(50) of 0.6 and 0.8 mg/ml, respectively), while seed extract presented much lower antioxidant potential (EC(50) of 12.2mg/ml). Under the oxidative action of AAPH, pulp and peel extracts showed significant protection of the erythrocyte membrane from hemolysis, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Seed extracts by themselves induced extensive hemolysis. These results indicate higher antioxidant activity for certain parts of quince fruit, namely pulp and peel, that may therefore represent accessible sources of natural antioxidants with potential application in nutritional/pharmaceutical fields, as preventive or therapeutic agents in diseases in which free radicals are implicated. PMID:19306906
Magalhães, Ana S; Silva, Branca M; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Carvalho, Márcia
Potential sources of microbial contamination for persimmon fruit during growing and harvesting in the 2005 season were investigated to provide a baseline to design the good agricultural practices program for persimmons in Japan. Microbial counts in the peel of persimmon fruit during production season were close to or below 2.4 log CFU/g for bacteria and 3.0 log CFU/g for fungi but were above these values on harvested fruit. The counts in the flesh were below the detection level with all fruit. Bacteria and molds isolated from peel and flesh of persimmons during growing were phytopathogenic and soilborne organisms such as bacteria genera Enterobacter and Bacillus and mold genera Fusarium and Cladosporium, which were found in soil, weeds, agricultural water, and pesticide solution throughout the production season. The agricultural water was one of the most important potential preharvest sources, because Escherichia coli O157:H7 was identified from agricultural water in May, and Salmonella was detected in agricultural water, pesticide solution containing the agricultural water for the mixture, and soil after application of the pesticide solution in June. Neither of the two pathogenic bacteria was detected in any of the fruit samples. Microbial counts and diversity in the peel of persimmons at harvest increased after contact with plastic harvest basket and container, which could be sources of contamination during harvesting. Therefore, monitoring and management on-farm should focus on agricultural water and harvest equipment as important control points to reduce microbial contamination on persimmons. PMID:18236662
Punica granatum (Pg), commonly known as pomegranate (Pg), is a member of the monogeneric family, Punicaceae, and is mainly found in Iran which is considered to be its primary centre of origin. Pg and its chemical components possess various pharmacological and toxicological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines), anti-cancer and anti-angiogenesis activities. They also show inhibitory effects on invasion/motility, cell cycle, apoptosis, and vital enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX), lipooxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 (CYP450), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), carbonic anhydrase (CA), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSDs) and serine protease (SP). Furthermore, they can stimulate cell differentiation and possess anti-mutagenic effects. Pg can also interfere with several signaling pathways including PI3K/AKT, mTOR, PI3K, Bcl-X, Bax, Bad, MAPK, ERK1/2, P38, JNK, and caspase. However, the exact mechanisms for its pharmacological and toxicological properties remain to be unclear and need further evaluation. These properties strongly suggest a wide range use of Pg for clinical applications. This review will discuss the areas for which Pg has shown therapeutic properties in different mechanisms.
West Indian-type avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv. ‘Simmonds’) fruit were treated with two different concentrations (0.09 and 0.45 ?ll?1) of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for three exposure times (6, 12, and 24 h) at 20°C. The fruit were then stored at 20°C in ethylene-free air for ripening assessment. Firmness, weight loss, respiration and C2H4 production, peel color, cell-wall enzymes (polygalacturonase (PG), pectinmethylesterase,
This paper presents a large amount of data on the composition of quince fruit with regard to phenolic compounds, organic acids, and free amino acids. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried out to characterize this fruit. The main purposes of this study were (i) the clarification of the interactions among three factors-quince fruit part, geographical origin of the fruits, and harvesting year-and the phenolic, organic acid, and free amino acid profiles; (ii) the classification of the possible differences; and (iii) the possible correlation among the contents of phenolics, organic acids, and free amino acids in quince fruit. With these aims, quince pulp and peel from nine geographical origins of Portugal, harvested in three consecutive years, for a total of 48 samples, were studied. PCA was performed to assess the relationship among the different components of quince fruit phenolics, organic acids, and free amino acids. Phenolics determination was the most interesting. The difference between pulp and peel phenolic profiles was more apparent during PCA. Two PCs accounted for 81.29% of the total variability, PC1 (74.14%) and PC2 (7.15%). PC1 described the difference between the contents of caffeoylquinic acids (3-O-, 4-O-, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin 3-galactoside, rutin, kaempferol glycoside, kaempferol 3-glucoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, quercetin glycosides acylated with p-coumaric acid, and kaempferol glycosides acylated with p-coumaric acid). PC2 related the content of 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid with the contents of 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids. PCA of phenolic compounds enables a clear distinction between the two parts of the fruit. The data presented herein may serve as a database for the detection of adulteration in quince derivatives. PMID:15631517
Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Martins, Rui C; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A
Mature green bananas (Musa sp., AAA group, Cavendish subgroup, cultivar `Williams') were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at a preclimacteric stage and at intervals of 6, 12 and 24 h after propylene treatment (HAPT) to initiate ripening. The fruit were then allowed to ripen in air or propylene. Ethylene production, respiration rates, peel colour and total volatiles production were monitored during
J. B Golding; D Shearer; S. G Wyllie; W. B McGlasson
We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure ``fracture'' bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.
Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.
The peeling process and average peeling force of a graphene (GE) sheet on a corrugated surface are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the peeling behaviour varies with the substrate surface roughness and the peeling angle. Three kinds of typically peeling behaviours include (a) GE sheet directly passing the valley of the substrate roughness; (b) bouncing off from the substrate; and (c) continuously peeling off similarly to that on a flat substrate. As a result, the average peeling force is strongly dependent of the peeling behaviours. Furthermore, some interesting phenomena are caught, such as partial detaching and partial sliding of GE sheet in the valley of the substrate roughness, which are mainly due to the effects of pre-tension in GE sheet and the reduction of friction resistance. The results in this paper should be useful for the design of nano-film/substrate systems.
Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of lemon peels and pulp, of a home-made alcoholic infusion of peels and of a very popular Italian liqueur called "Limoncello", stated to be an infusion of the flavedo (the outer, yellow skin of lemons). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the lemon peel proteome but also to assess the genuineness of the commercial liqueur via a three-pronged attack. First, different extraction techniques have been used for the characterization of the peel (and additionally of the pulp) proteome, secondly a home-made infusion has been analysed and finally the proteome of the commercial drink was checked. The peel (the flavedo, not the underlying layer called albedo) proteome has been evaluated via prior capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). Via mass spectrometry analysis of the recovered fractions, after elution of the captured populations in 4% boiling SDS, we could identify a total of 1011 unique gene products in the peel extracts and 674 in the pulp, 264 proteins in the home-made infusion and just 8 proteins (and protein fragments), together with 12 peptides, in one Italian Limoncello produced in the Sorrento Region, thus proving the genuineness of this product. On the contrary, cheaper Limoncellos were devoid of any protein/peptide, casting doubts on their production from vegetable extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the genuineness and natural origin of commercial drinks in order to protect consumers from adulterated products. PMID:23681105
Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Valencia’. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLD?1 expression was reduced in leaves but unaltered in fruitpeel tissue treated with an ethylene-releasing compound (ethephon), or a fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP). By contrast, CsPLD?1 expression was up-regulated within 6 h (leaves) and 24 h (fruitpeel) after treatment with ethephon or CMNP, respectively. CsPLD?1 expression was diurnally regulated in leaf blade but not fruitpeel. CsPLD?1 exhibited strong diurnal oscillation in expression in leaves and fruitpeel with peak expression around midday. While diurnal fluctuation in CsPLD?1 expression appeared to be light-entrained in leaves, CsPLD?1 expression was regulated by light and the circadian clock. The diurnal expression of both genes was modulated by ethylene-signalling. The ethephon-induced leaf abscission and the ethephon- and CMNP-induced decrease in fruit detachment force were enhanced by application during rising diurnal expression of CsPLD?1. The results indicate differential regulation of CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1 in leaves and fruit, and suggest possible roles for PLD-dependent signalling in regulating abscission responses in citrus.
Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Valencia'. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLDalpha1 expression was reduced in leaves but unaltered in fruitpeel tissue treated with an ethylene-releasing compound (ethephon), or a fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP). By contrast, CsPLDgamma1 expression was up-regulated within 6 h (leaves) and 24 h (fruitpeel) after treatment with ethephon or CMNP, respectively. CsPLDalpha1 expression was diurnally regulated in leaf blade but not fruitpeel. CsPLDgamma1 exhibited strong diurnal oscillation in expression in leaves and fruitpeel with peak expression around midday. While diurnal fluctuation in CsPLDalpha1 expression appeared to be light-entrained in leaves, CsPLDgamma1 expression was regulated by light and the circadian clock. The diurnal expression of both genes was modulated by ethylene-signalling. The ethephon-induced leaf abscission and the ethephon- and CMNP-induced decrease in fruit detachment force were enhanced by application during rising diurnal expression of CsPLDgamma1. The results indicate differential regulation of CsPLDalpha1 and CsPLDgamma1 in leaves and fruit, and suggest possible roles for PLD-dependent signalling in regulating abscission responses in citrus. PMID:18799715
The use of orange peel oil in the biotransformation of d-limonene was investigated. The physicochemical properties of cold-pressed orange peel oil, used in this investigation were determined to define its identity. The chemical composition of orange peel oil was determined by using GC\\/MS. Monoterpene compounds amounted to 98.0%, followed by aldehdyde components 1.09%. The main component of orange peel oil
A. Z. M. Badee; Shahinaz A. Helmy; Nashwa F. S. Morsy
The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was
Thomas Happi Emaga; Christelle Robert; Sébastien N. Ronkart; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot
The inhibitory effect of Citrus junos peel on plant growth using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a bioassay material was investigated, since the powder of the peel had been found to inhibit growth of weeds. Basic, neutral and acidic fractions were separated from the aqueous fraction obtained from the methanol extract of C. junos peel. All fractions inhibited the growth
In this paper, a case of bondpad peeling was investigated. EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis) and AES (Auger electron spectroscopy) techniques were used to identify the possible root cause. Based on EDX and AES results, it is concluded that the bondpad peeling problem was due to significant carbon contamination on the peeled area of the bondpad, which might contribute to the
Objective: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common, painful ulcerative disorder of the oral cavity with unknown etiology. No documented cure exists and topical application of medications aims to reduce pain associated with this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Punica granatum (PG) extract on the clinical management of RAS. Methods: A total of 40 patients with RAS participated in this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. During three episodes of RAS, the efficacy of topical PG gel (10%) was evaluated. Patients were randomly assigned to use placebo gel or PG gel daily. The time of pain elimination and the time of complete healing were recorded and the pain degree was assessed and recorded by each patients in different time intervals including: Before using the oral gel (day 0), and on days 1, 3, 5, 7 after using the product. Data were analyzed using the repeated measures ANOVA, paired and independent t-test. Findings: Mean time of pain elimination showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between PG group (3.4 ± 1.09) and placebo group (5.9 ± 0.6). The mean duration of complete healing also showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between PG group (5.3 ± 0.81) and placebo group (8.6 ± 0.99). The visual analog scale score in PG group was significantly less than the placebo group in all time intervals (day 1 to day 7) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that PG extract in the form of oral gel (10%) may be beneficial in reducing RAS pain and has a positive effect in reducing the overall time period of complete healing. It was concluded that PG is an effective herbal medicine for the management of RAS.
Objective: All-trans retinoic acid is a well-established topical treatment of photodamaged skin. This study assessed the tolerance and efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid after full-face treatment with a chemical peel. Design: This was a split-face, randomized study. One side of each face was treated with peel and the other side with peel and all-trans retinoic acid (3%). Four treatments were given during the 10-week study period. Setting: Physician office. Participants: Fifteen female subjects 39 to 55 years of age. Measurements: Results were evaluated at Baseline; Weeks 4, 7, and 10; and at a 13-week follow-up visit by dermal grading of visual symptoms of irritation, subjective experiences of irritation, clinical grading of skin condition, and self-assessment questionnaires. Results: Both peel and peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatments achieved significant improvement in fine lines, radiance, roughness, skin tone clarity, skin tone evenness, and hyperpigmentation appearance. Improvement in wrinkles and firmness was not observed in the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid arm, while pore appearance failed to improve in either treatment arm. Improvement in overall facial appearance was greater in the peel alone arm. Peel alone and the addition of all-trans retinoic acid did not cause dryness, edema, or peeling, and the frequency of peel-induced erythema did not increase with the addition of all-trans retinoic acid. Subject-perceived improvements with the peel treatment did not differ significantly from subject-perceived improvements of the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatment. Adverse events requiring intervention or discontinuing treatment were not observed in either treatment arm. Conclusion: The addition of all-trans retinoic acid after peel treatment does not significantly enhance peel-induced improvement in photoaging parameters, peel-induced adverse effects, and subject-perceived improvements.
Biosorption of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution using orange peel biosorbent was experimentally investigated. The effects of dye concentration, solution pH, salt concentration and contact time were investigated in a batch model. The results showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached within one hour at two initial MB concentrations (200 and 1000 mg l). The uptake of MB was significantly
Enzymatic treatment during the industrial extraction of lemon-peel oil allows the aqueous discharges from centrifuges to be recycled towards the extractors. Emulsions with stabilized and reduced viscosity are essential for centrifuges to work efficiently. In citrus processing plants, enzyme is added in a manual operation with no viscosity control. However, the correct measurement of this parameter makes it possible to
L. Coll; D. Saura; M. P. Ruiz; J. M. Ros; J. A. Cánovas; J. Laencina
A phenol chemical face peel restores a clean, youthful appearance by removing the fine wrinkles of the tired, aged face. This procedure has the additional advantage of decreasing the rate of appearance of precancerous and probably early cancerous lesions of the photoaged skin of the face. Knowledge of the history, theory, histology, and technique are made current. A comprehensive review
Clyde Litton; Edward H. Szachowicz II; Griselda P. Trinidad
The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids of mature and immature calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) peel were investigated. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, and superoxide scavenging effect. 3',5'-Di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin, naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are the five major flavonoids found in hot water extract with the levels of 6888±522, 2333±157, 1350±94, 165±13, and 8±4 mg/100 g dry basis, respectively. The contents of nobiletin and tangeretin increased after ripening. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel was fractionated using a semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction VI showed the highest ORAC value (28.02±2.73 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g fraction) and two compounds, naringin and hesperidin, were identified as the major active components attributed to the antioxidant activity. Fraction V contained 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin, which revealed low ORAC value with 7.43 mmol TE/g fraction. However, it might also contribute to antioxidant activity in immature calamondin peel due to its greatest quantity. PMID:23194504
Using modified banana peel as a biosorbent to treat water containing ammonia-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) was studied. Related parameters in the sorptional process, such as chemical modification, pH, and contact time were investigated. The experimental results showed that banana peel modified by 30% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and mesothermal microwaves (NMBPs) can greatly improve the sorption removal for NH4(+)-N. The kinetics study revealed that the sorption behavior better fit the pseudo-second-order equation than the Lagergren first-order equation. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum analysis of banana peels and NMBPs before and after NH4(+)-N sorption revealed that the activity of hydroxyl groups at the surface of the banana peels was strengthened after modification, and nitrogenous groups appeared after biosorpting the NH4(+)-N. In the end, metallurgical wastewater containing a low concentration of NH4(+)-N was treated by NMBPs. The initial NH4(+)-N concentration of 138 mg/L was reduced to 13 mg/L in 25 minutes by 4 g/L NMBPs at pH 10. PMID:21553592
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) peeled film solar cells were fabricated, by Organo-Metallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE), incorporating an aluminum arsenide (AlAs) parting layer between the device structure and the GaAs substrate. This layer was selectively remove...
D. M. Wilt F. L. Deangelo R. D. Thomas S. G. Bailey G. A. Landis
The occurrence of oxygen heterocyclic compounds in the peel oils from different Citrus species has been investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The use of a photodiode array detector has facilitated the identification and quantification of the individual coumarins, psoralens and polymethoxyflavones present. Certain oxygen heterocyclic compounds are unique to a particular species, but the majority occur widely in the
Statistical studies using the randomised complete block design with four replicates showed that volatile extracts of two species of orange peel – Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) had insecticidal activity against mosquito, cockroach and housefly. Insecticidal activity was better after 60 min than at 30 min spraying of rooms. Volatile extracts of C. sinensis showed greater insecticidal
Argan oil is extracted from the kernels of argan fruits that have been sun-dried for either a few days or up to several weeks. The influence of the fruit drying time on the quantity, quality, and preservation of solvent-extracted argan oil was compared with press-extracted argan oil. Quantitatively, the time necessary for efficient fruitpeeling and the amount of extracted oil were determined with regard to the fruit drying time (0 to 28 days). Argan oil quality was studied using, as markers, moisture content, specific extinction, acid index, peroxide index, fatty acid composition, and Rancimat oxidative stability. Oil from fresh fruit presents a high moisture content, high acidity and peroxide values, and short shelf life. Ten to fourteen days of sun-drying is optimum to obtain high quality argan oil. PMID:21213985
Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Kartah, Badr Eddine; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dom
The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins. PMID:17931857
Initiation of abscission at the pedicel-fruit zone in the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) occurs near the transition of Stage II to Stage III of fruit growth. The preinitiation phase is characterized by a high fruit removal force (FRF) and explants prepared from fruits during this period do not undergo abscission as indexed by a reduction in FRF. Ethylene does not cause a significant reduction in FRF either in attached fruit or in explants prepared during this period. By contrast, after initiation (Stage III of fruit growth), there is a marked decrease in FRF with fruit development, explants prepared from fruits during this period undergo abscission, and ethylene markedly promotes the loss in break-strength. Neither the rate of evolution nor the internal concentration of ethylene in the fruit were correlated with fruit abscission. Similar abscission responses, as indexed by FRF and sensitivity to ethylene, were observed in attached fruit and in detached fruit explants.
Most botanical types in fig Ficus carica require pollination to fulfil their development and ensure quality onset of the fruit. Cell wall behaviour and composition was followed in fig fruit in response to pollination during maturity. Figs, when ripe, soften drastically and lose of their firmness and cell wall cohesion. Pollination increased peel thickness, flesh thickness, fresh weight and dry matter content of the fruit. Alcohol insoluble solids (AIS), more concentrated in the flesh tissue, were not influenced by the lack of pollination. Concentrations in uronic acids were higher in the AIS of the peel than that of the flesh and differences were significant between pollinated and non-pollinated fruits. Pectin polymers in figs were high methylated (DM>50). The methylation degree (DM) increased more with pollination affecting textural properties of the fig receptacle. The major neutral sugars from the AIS were glucose (Glc) from cellulose followed by arabinose (Ara). No significant changes in neutral sugars content could be allocated to pollination. Pollination is essential in fruit enlargement and softening. Minor changes were determined in the cell wall composition of the fruit at maturity. Fertile seeds resulting from pollination may possibly take place in hormonal activity stimulating many related enzymes of the wall matrix depolymerisation in particular polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME). PMID:24393459
Trad, Mehdi; Ginies, Christian; Gaaliche, Badii; Renard, Catherine M G C; Mars, Messaoud
This study describes the use of banana peel, a commonly produced fruit waste, for the removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature were investigated and the conditions resulting in rapid and efficient adsorption (95% within 10 min) were determined. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 2. The retained species were eluted with 5 mL of 2M H(2)SO(4). To elucidate the mechanism of the process, total amounts of chromium and Cr(VI) were analyzed using flame atomic absorption and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic techniques, respectively. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to describe the partitioning behavior for the system at different temperatures. Kinetics and thermodynamics of Cr(VI) removal by banana peel were also studied. The influence of diverse ions on the sorption behavior revealed that only Fe(II) ions (of those tested) suppressed the sorption of Cr(VI) ions to some extent. The method was applied for the removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater. PMID:19181491
Memon, Jamil R; Memon, Saima Q; Bhanger, Muhammad I; El-Turki, Adel; Hallam, Keith R; Allen, Geoffrey C
Papaya (Carica papaya) is a very important crop in many tropical countries but it is highly susceptible to parasitic diseases, physiological disorders, mechanical damage and fruit overripening. Here we report a study on ACC oxidase cosuppression and its effects on papaya fruit ripening. Papaya ACC oxidase was isolated using PCR and embriogenic cells transformed by biolistic using the CaMV 35S promoter to drive the expression of the PCR fragment in sense orientation. Fifty transgenic lines were recovered and 20 of those were grown under field conditions. Southern analysis showed incorporation of the transgene in different copy numbers in the papaya genome. Fruits were evaluated in terms of texture (firmness), colour development, respiration and ethylene production. A sharp reduction in ethylene and CO2 production was detected, whereas softening and colour development of the peel were also altered. Overall, transgenic fruits showed a delay in ripening rate. A reduction in mRNA level for ACC oxidase in transgenic fruit was clearly detectable by northern blot. More studies are necessary before this technology can be used to extend the shelf life of papaya fruit. PMID:18612838
López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Cabrera-Ponce, Jose Luis; Saucedo-Arias, Luis Jorge; Carreto-Montoya, Lorena; Villanueva-Arce, Ramon; Díaz-Perez, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel; Herrera-Estrella, Luis
In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies. PMID:24295704
Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N
In this paper, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and pyrethroid pesticides in peach was investigated by comparing their residual level in peach juice, pulps and peels using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO) combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Extraction conditions such as the type of extractant, volume of extractant and dispersant, salt effect and extraction time were optimized. For juice samples, the linearity of the method was obtained in the range of 10-2000 ng L(-1),with determination coefficients>0.99. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method were ranged between 2.8 and 18.5 ng L(-1). For pulp and peel samples, the developed method is linear over the range assayed, 1-20 ?g kg(-1),with coefficients also >0.99. The relative recoveries of compounds analyzed from juice, pulp and peel samples were in the range of 73-106% with a relative standard deviation between 2.6 and 11.8%. The proposed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of residues in real peach juice, pulp and peel samples. As a result, there were no target analytes found in peach juices and pulps while 3.3 ?g kg(-1) cyhalothrin and 3.5 ?g kg(-1) fenvalerate were found in peels. The experiment results revealed that the pyrethroid residues just deposited on the peels of the fruits, but did not move into pulps and juices. PMID:21703950
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency (?=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under
. Pectin methyl esterase (PME) from orange (Citrus sinensis L.) fruitpeels has been purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, and ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography.\\u000a Characterization of the enzyme revealed a 36-kDa protein with an isoelectric point >9, a pH optimum at 7 and temperature optimum\\u000a at 50?°C. The substrate specificity and kinetic experiments showed that the affinity of PME for
Tove M. I. E. Christensen; John E. Nielsen; Jette D. Kreiberg; Preben Rasmussen; Jørn D. Mikkelsen
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 184.108.40.206) from litchi peel was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration, and a 16-fold purification of PPO achieved. The use of 10 mmol litre?1 glutathione and 100 mmol litre?1 citric acid was found to give good control of the browning of litchi fruit and 80–85% inhibition of PPO observed. Application of glutathione in
Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm. PMID:24738409
In relation to banana ripening, banana peel was examined for carotenoid pigments by a combination of alumina column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Carotenoids and their fatty-acid esters were first separated by an alumina column into five fractions, of which each was further subfractionated by HPLC with different kinds of solvent. The carotenoid content of the banana peel was in the range of 3-4 micrograms per gram as lutein equivalent. The ingredients of the carotenoids were ascertained to consist of lutein, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, violaxanthin, auroxanthin, neoxanthin, isolutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and alpha-cryptoxanthin. Most of the oxygenated carotenoids were found to occur in the esterified form, mainly with myristate, and to a lesser extent with laurate, palmitate or caprate. PMID:9089481
This study investigated the effectiveness of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste as a reinforcement and vapor barrier additive. The nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel by alkali treatment and subsequently acid hydrolysis. TEM images revealed the average fiber length of the nanocrystals was 410nm with an aspect ratio of 41; its aspect ratio being considerably larger than cotton-derived nanocrystals prepared using similar reaction conditions. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were prepared by solution casting method to maintain uniform dispersion of the 1-2% (w/w) filler content. An increase of 19% and 33% (starch composite) and 38% and 49% (PVA composite) in tensile modulus was observed for the 1% and 2% CNC-reinforced composites, respectively. Water vapor transmission measurements showed a marginal reduction of water permeability for the PVA composite, whereas no effect was observed for the thermoplastic starch composite. PMID:24751097
It has been reported that gold lotion (GL), a formulated product made from the peels of six citrus fruits, has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of GL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived DC maturation and function. Our experimental results have shown that GL significantly impaired the pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion, suppressed the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I/II and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86), increased phagocytic capacity, and reduced propensity to stimulate the autologous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation of LPS-induced DCs. Furthermore, we found that oral administration of GL attenuated the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in animal models. Subsequently, our molecular mechanism studies showed that GL interfered with LPS-induced MAPK-JNK, p38 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65. In an essence, these findings are the first report to provide new insight in the immunopharmacological role of GL in terms of its effects on DC. PMID:24566093
Corn oil was submitted to dynamic headspace to eliminate volatile compounds remained after refining process. The optimization of extraction parameters leads to an important deodorization after 4h of extraction with residual aroma content of about 0.901?g\\/ml of deodorized corn oil. Different peel quantities and different incubation times were used during this experiment while oil volume, incubator temperature and shaking speed
The supercritical fluid extraction of orange essential oil was studied using dehydrated orange peel (0.0538 kg H2O kg?1 dm) from naveline cultivars as raw material and CO2 as solvent. The effect of operation conditions was analyzed in a series of experiments at 313 and 323 K and pressures between 1 and 25 MPa. Furthermore, the effect of CO2 flow rate
The peel-away introducer sheath set, originally designed for the antegrade insertion of the silicone rubber Universal stent, also is useful for antegrade or retrograde basketing of ureteral stones, negotiation of a dilated renal pelvis and tortuous ureter with minimal trauma, retrograde flushing of ureteral stones for percutaneous extraction, removal of dislodged stents from the renal pelvis and ureteral examination with a flexible endoscope or rigid ureteropyeloscope. PMID:3820373
Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (p<0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Apparent palatability issues decreased the consumption of OP in sheep fed 20% OP to intake levels below that of 10% OP (approximately 7% dry matter intake [DMI]/d feed refusal), thereby reducing the potential effects of OP feeding at this higher level. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme. PMID:21651339
Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Arthington, John D; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Rossman, Michelle L; Carr, Mandy A; Genovese, Ken J; Ricke, Steve C; Crandall, Phil; Nisbet, David J
The focus of this research is to demonstrate the first full radio frequency characterization of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device parameters. The results of this research are used in the design of circuits with peeled HEMT devices, e.g. 10 GHz amplifiers. Devices were fabricated using two HEMT structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy methods. A 500 A AlAs release layer for 'peel off' was included under the active layers of the structure. The structures are a homogeneously doped Al(0.3)GA(0.7)As/GaAs and a delta doped square well Al(.23)Ga(.77)As/GaAs HEMT structure. Devices were fabricated using a mesa isolation process. Contacts were done by sequentially evaporating Au/Ge/Au/Ni/Au followed by rapid thermal anneal at 400 C for 15 seconds. Gates were wet etch recessed and 1 to 1.4 micron Ti/Au gate metal was deposited. Devices were peeled off the GaAs substrate using Apiezon wax to support the active layer and a HF:DI (1:10) solution to remove the AlAs separation layer. Devices were then attached to sapphire substrates using van der Waals bonding.
Young, Paul G.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mena, Rafael A.; Smith, Edwyn D.
Circadian rhythms in stomatal aperture and in stomatal conductance have been observed previously. Here we investigate circadian rhythms in apertures that persist in functionally isolated guard cells in epidermal peels of Vicia faba, and we compare these rhythms with rhythms in stomatal conductance in attached leaves. Functionally isolated guard cells kept in constant light display a rhythmic change in aperture superimposed on a continuous opening trend. The rhythm free-runs with a period of about 22 hours and is temperature compensated between 20 and 30°C. Functionally isolated guard cell pairs are therefore capable of sustaining a true circadian rhythm without interaction with mesophyll cells. Stomatal conductance in whole leaves displays a more robust rhythm, also temperature-compensated, and with a period similar to that observed for the rhythm in stomatal aperture in epidermal peels. When analyzed individually, some stomata in epidermal peels showed a robust rhythm for several days while others showed little rhythmicity or damped out rapidly. Rhythmic periods may vary between individual stomata, and this may lead to desynchronization within the population.
Gorton, Holly L.; Williams, William E.; Binns, Mary Elizabeth; Gemmell, Craig N.; Leheny, Ellen A.; Shepherd, Andrew C.
We present an exposure technique, the "banana peel," that has been used exclusively for revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for more than 20 years. We retrospectively reviewed use of this technique in 102 consecutive patients (mean age, 62 years; range, 41-92 years) who underwent tibial-femoral stemmed revision TKA. There were 5 deaths, leaving 97 patients (98 knees) for the study. The technique involves peeling the patella tendon as a sleeve off the tibia, leaving the extensor mechanism intact with a lateral hinge of soft tissue. A quadriceps "snip" is also done proximally. Patients with a minimum follow-up of 24 months were included. Telephone interviews and chart reviews were conducted, and Knee Society scores were obtained. Mean follow-up was 39 months (range, 24-56 months). No patient reported disruption of the extensor mechanism or decreased ability to extend the operative knee. Mean Knee Society score was 176 (range, 95-200). Mean postoperative motion was 106 degrees. No patient reported pain over the tibial tubercle. The banana-peel technique for exposing the knee during revision TKA is a safe method that can be used along with a proximal quadriceps snip and does not violate the extensor mechanism, maintaining continuity of the knee extensors. PMID:18033563
We have developed and characterized a technique of patterning PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate) film with a Parylene peel-off method. PEDOT:PSS has characteristics of transparency and high conductivity which are expected to replace transparent ITO (indium tin oxide) electrodes for flat panel displays. But existing technology of inkjet printing decreased its conductivity by mixing a binder, while the other method with electrochemical etching could not completely remove PEDOT:PSS film. To solve these problems, we proposed a process which consisted of negative patterning of Parylene film, coating of PEDOT:PSS and peeling off of Parylene film with the undesired-area of PEDOT:PSS. To peel off the Parylene from the substrates, the control of heating process of PEDOT:PSS under Parylene glass transition temperature was found to be required. The proposed process revealed that the conductivity was almost the same even after the process and its resolution reached down to 20 ?m. Finally, the 300-?m-wide electrodes were fabricated through the process, which leads to replacement of ITO for displays.
Purpose To determine the retinal thickness (RT), after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, for an idiopathic macular hole (MH) or an epiretinal membrane (ERM). Also, to investigate the effect of a dissociated optic nerve fiber layer (DONFL) appearance on RT. Methods A non-randomized, retrospective chart review was performed for 159 patients who had successful closure of a MH, with (n = 148), or without (n = 11), ILM peeling. Also studied were 117 patients who had successful removal of an ERM, with (n = 104), or without (n = 13), ILM peeling. The RT of the nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study areas was measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In the MH-with-ILM peeling and ERM-with-ILM peeling groups, the RT of the operated eyes was compared to the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. The inner temporal/inner nasal ratio (TNR) was used to assess the effect of ILM peeling on RT. The effects of DONFL appearance on RT were evaluated in only the MH-with-ILM peeling group. Results In the MH-with-ILM peeling group, the central, inner nasal, and outer nasal areas of the retina of operated eyes were significantly thicker than the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. In addition, the inner temporal, outer temporal, and inner superior retina was significantly thinner than in the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. Similar findings were observed regardless of the presence of a DONFL appearance. In the ERM-with-ILM peeling group, the retina of operated eyes was significantly thicker in all areas, except the inner and outer temporal areas. In the MH-with-ILM peeling group, the TNR was 0.86 in operated eyes, and 0.96 in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). In the ERM-with-ILM peeling group, the TNR was 0.84 in operated eyes, and 0.95 in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). TNR in operated eyes of the MH-without-ILM peeling group was 0.98, which was significantly greater than that of the MH-with-ILM peeling group (P < 0.001). TNR in the operated eyes of the ERM-without-ILM peeling group was 0.98, which was significantly greater than that of ERM-with-ILM peeling group (P < 0.001). Conclusion The thinning of the temporal retina and thickening of the nasal retina after ILM peeling does not appear to be disease-specific. In addition, changes in RT after ILM peeling are not related to the presence of a DONFL appearance.
\\u000a The making of a fruit is a developmental process unique to plants. It requires a complex network of interacting genes and\\u000a signaling pathways. In fleshy fruit, it involves three distinct stages, namely, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening.\\u000a Of these, ripening has received most attention from geneticists and breeders, as this important process activates a whole\\u000a set of biochemical
The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278
The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1–MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein–protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes.
The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components. PMID:22888129
Summary Two ethanologenic yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus, were used to ferment sugar solutions modeling hydrolyzed Valencia orange peel waste at 37?C. Orange stripper oil produced\\u000a from orange peel was added in various amounts to determine its effect on ethanol production. The minimum peel oil concentration\\u000a that inhibited ethanol production was determined after 24, 48 and 72 h and the two
Mark R. Wilkins; Lilis Suryawati; Niels O. Maness; Donna Chrz
Citrus is an important fruit crop as regards accumulation of carotenoids. In plant carotenoid biosynthesis, phytoene synthase gene (Psy) plays a key role in catalyzing the head-to-head condensation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate molecules to produce colorless phytoene. In the present paper, we reported the phytoene contents determination and characterization of Psy during fruit ripening of "Washington" navel orange and its red-fleshed mutant "Cara Cara". Results showed that phytoene was exclusively accumulated in peel and pulp of "Cara Cara". Although phytoene was observed accumulating with fruit ripening of "Cara Cara", the contents in pulp were 10 times higher than those in peel. The isolated two Psy cDNAs were both 1520 bp in full length, containing 436 deduced amino acid residues, with a different amino acid at 412th. Genomic hybridization results showed that one or two copies might be present in "Cara Cara" and "Washington" genomes. During "Cara Cara" and "Washington" fruit coloration, expression of Psy was observed to be up-regulated, as revealed by tissue specific profiles in the flavedo, albedo, segment membrane and juice sacs. However, Psy expression in albedo of "Cara Cara" was higher than that in "Washington", as evidenced by phytoene accumulation in the peel. PMID:17226057
In this present work, we develop a new ultrasonic echo pulse method in order to study the feasibility of maturity assessment of orange fruit. This study concerns two varieties of orange (Navel and Mandarin) which are the most harvested in the region of Souss-Massa-Dr?a in Morocco. We worked in the range of high frequencies by the means of a focusing transducer with 20MHz as a central frequency. By taking into account the strong attenuation of the ultrasounds in the texture of fruits and vegetables, we limited our study only to the external layer of orange peel. This control is based mainly on the measure of the ultrasonic parameters eventually velocity and attenuation in order to check the aptitude of this technique to detect the maturity degree of the fruit without passing by penetrometric and biochemical measurements which are generally destructives but the mostly correlated with human perception concerning the firmness of the fruit.
Aboudaoud, I.; Faiz, B.; Aassif, E.; Moudden, A.; Izbaim, D.; Abassi, D.; Malainine, M.; Azergui, M.
A new sensing technique was investigated to nondestructively measure the peel thickness of oranges destined for fresh market consumption. Coherent polarized laser emissions diffused by the subcuticular layers of the peel were filtered and imaged into a matrix CCD camera. Images were analyzed using conventional high-speed pixel operations. Resulting correlations suggest that this method may be a successful tool in real-time food processing operations providing the packer and the consumer with an objective evaluation of peel thickness, and subsequently, edible volume, juice content, and the ease with which the peel can be removed.
Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C received ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum (500 mg/kg/p.o.); and group D received glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg/day/p.o.). The extracts were given for 1 week in all groups. To induce diabetes, alloxan 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) single dose was administered to groups B, C, and D. Blood glucose and serum lipids [Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)] and the atherogenic index were estimated after one week. For mechanism of antidiabetic action glycogen estimation on the liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intestinal glucose absorption was done. Results: Group B showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in blood glucose as compared to group A. Groups C and D showed significant decrease (P<0.01) in blood glucose level in comparison to group B. The test drug showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in glycogen content in the liver, cardiac, and skeletal muscle; it significantly (P<0.01) reduced intestinal glucose absorption. Groups C and D showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in serum TC, TG, LDL, and AI as compared to Group B, which showed a significant (P<0.01) increase. Groups C and D showed significant (P<0.01) increase in serum HDL as compared to Group B, which showed a significant (P<0.01) decrease in all values. Conclusion: P. granatum leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity.
Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645
Created by Mark Rieger, a Professor of Horticulture at the University of Georgia, Mark's Fruit Crops is a great educational website on the world's major fruit crops. The site features a Fruit Crops Encyclopedia containing links to information about different types of fruit. The separate fruit pages include attractive photographs intermingled with brief sections on Origin, History of Cultivation, Botanical Description, Production Statistics, and more. Site visitors can access more in-depth information by connecting to Professor Rieger's HORT 320, Introduction to Fruit Crops site which includes PDF files of the course text, a Glossary of Fruit Crops, and other resources. This website also contains links to Fruit Catalogs, and a list of relevant fruit links. [NL
A putative citrus vacuolar processing thiolprotease cDNA (Cit-vac) was isolated from a cDNA library of Citrus fruits (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck var Washington navel). The cDNA is 58 and 57% identical with vacuolar processing seed proteases from castor bean and soybean, respectively. The Citvac sequence shows a typical signal peptide for entering into the endoplasmic reticulum and two glycosylation signals. Using an in vitro transcription-translation system, we show that the Citvac precursor is able to enter a microsomal fraction and to undergo proteolytic processing and glycosylation. Transcript levels for the Citvac are developmentally regulated in the flavedo (outer colored part of the fruitpeel) and increase during fruit ripening and in the flower during opening. Exogenous treatment with ethylene induces Citvac mRNA expression in both fruits and leaves. Citvac is encoded by one or two genes in the Citrus genome. The possible role of the Citvac gene product during fruit ripening and other ethylene-mediated processes is discussed. PMID:7480346
A putative citrus vacuolar processing thiolprotease cDNA (Cit-vac) was isolated from a cDNA library of Citrus fruits (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck var Washington navel). The cDNA is 58 and 57% identical with vacuolar processing seed proteases from castor bean and soybean, respectively. The Citvac sequence shows a typical signal peptide for entering into the endoplasmic reticulum and two glycosylation signals. Using an in vitro transcription-translation system, we show that the Citvac precursor is able to enter a microsomal fraction and to undergo proteolytic processing and glycosylation. Transcript levels for the Citvac are developmentally regulated in the flavedo (outer colored part of the fruitpeel) and increase during fruit ripening and in the flower during opening. Exogenous treatment with ethylene induces Citvac mRNA expression in both fruits and leaves. Citvac is encoded by one or two genes in the Citrus genome. The possible role of the Citvac gene product during fruit ripening and other ethylene-mediated processes is discussed.
Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8'-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and Mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruitpeel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7',8' double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7',8' double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419
Rodrigo, María J; Alquézar, Berta; Alós, Enriqueta; Medina, Víctor; Carmona, Lourdes; Bruno, Mark; Al-Babili, Salim; Zacarías, Lorenzo
Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. It shows hypoglycemic, antiandrogenic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic and cynogenic activity. It is commonly present in plants especially coating of leaves and fruits, such as apple fruit, vinca leaves, rosemary leaves, and eucalyptus leaves. A simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of ursolic acid from apple peel (Malus domestica). The samples dissolved in methanol and linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber. The mobile phase was selected as toluene:ethyl acetate:glacial acetic acid (70:30:2). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2)=0.9982 in the concentration range 0.2-7 ?g/spot with respect to peak area. According to the ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of ursolic acid. PMID:24302805
Nikam, P H; Kareparamban, J A; Jadhav, A P; Kadam, V J
Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. It shows hypoglycemic, antiandrogenic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic and cynogenic activity. It is commonly present in plants especially coating of leaves and fruits, such as apple fruit, vinca leaves, rosemary leaves, and eucalyptus leaves. A simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of ursolic acid from apple peel (Malus domestica). The samples dissolved in methanol and linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber. The mobile phase was selected as toluene:ethyl acetate:glacial acetic acid (70:30:2). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2=0.9982 in the concentration range 0.2-7 ?g/spot with respect to peak area. According to the ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of ursolic acid.
Nikam, P. H.; Kareparamban, J. A.; Jadhav, A. P.; Kadam, V. J.
This study was intended to investigate the potential of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp as a raw material for the production of flour that could be used in composite blend with wheat flour or as a functional ingredient in food products. The peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp were soaked in sodium metabisulphite solution, sliced and dried overnight in a hot air oven, followed by milling into peeled pumpkin pulp flour (PPPF) and unpeeled pumpkin pulp flour (UPPF), respectively. The flours were then evaluated for physicochemical attributes (color, proximate compositions, and water activity) and functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity), in comparison to the commercial wheat flour. PPPF and UPPF were observed to be more attractive in terms of color than wheat flour, as indicated by the significantly higher results (P or= 0.05) was shown in water holding capacity of PPPF and wheat flour. However, the oil holding capacity of PPPF and UPPF was shown to be significantly higher (P
The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation. PMID:18321055
Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel
Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO3. Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4 h at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35 ± 5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation.
A phenol chemical face peel restores a clean, youthful appearance by removing the fine wrinkles of the tired, aged face. This procedure has the additional advantage of decreasing the rate of appearance of precancerous and probably early cancerous lesions of the photoaged skin of the face. Knowledge of the history, theory, histology, and technique are made current. A comprehensive review demonstrates that pigmentary changes, third degree scarring, and cardiac arrhythmias appear to be the main complications. The technique is safe and effective if used in a judicious manner. PMID:3521229
This study was aimed at developing activated carbon fingerprint powder derived from banana peel. The obtained powder was then examined for its latent fingerprint identifying capability. First, the banana peel activated carbon powder was ground into fine particles and consequently was sieved using a 400-mesh screen. The powder's adherent quality was evaluated by dusting it to the residue left by
Peel force measurements as a function of adherend thickness are reported for adhesively bonded specimens based on a cyanate ester resin and aluminium adherends. It has been demonstrated that by incorporating large diameter (0.28mm) PTFE monofilament within the adhesive bond then the peel force and associated fracture energy can be increased significantly over that for specimens based on adhesive alone.
Essential oils from citrus peels were extracted and separated with CO2 under supercritical conditions in a single process. The peels were placed together with ethanol, as an entraining solvent, inside a high pressure cell filled with carbon dioxide at a pressure < 130 bar and a temperature of 35°C. The extract was fractionated in various pressure ranges after achieving equilibrium,
The phenolic acid and flavonoid profiles in yam peel extract were determined by HPLC. Quercetin, hesperidin, and apigenin were predominant components in yam peel extract. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with yam peel extract (100.02, 266.72, and 433.42 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) daily, with administration of CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 20% CCl4 in olive oil) twice a week. Yam peel extract for 8 weeks significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The overall potential of the antioxidant system was significantly enhanced by the yam peel extract supplements as the plasma and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were lowered, whereas the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) protein level were elevated. Yam peel extract decreased the level of nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in CCl4. These results point out that yam peel extract can inhibit lipid peroxidation, enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and decrease the TNF-?/NF-?B level, nitric oxide production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions. Therefore, it was speculated that yam peel extract protects rats from liver damage through its anti-inflammation capacity. PMID:23841820
The main purpose of this study is to develop low thermal conductivity particleboards with optimized durian peel and coconut coir mixture ratio. To this end, two main parameters were investigated, namely, the mixture ratio of durian peel and coconut coir (by weight) and board density. The particleboards were prepared following common manufacturing technique. It was observed the mixture ratio and
Joseph Khedari; Noppanun Nankongnab; Jongjit Hirunlabh; Sombat Teekasap
This paper discusses the suitability of potato peel as a burn wound dressing in developing countries. Clinical trials have demonstrated that epithelial growth occurs under the potato peel dressing in superficial partial thickness skin loss burns. In deep partial, full skin thickness burns and in the late granulating burn wound the results are not so favourable. More experience is required. PMID:3986648
The peels of bitter cassava (Manihot utilissima) root, a major source of food carbohydrate in the tropics, though rich in nutrients, form toxic wastes lethal to soil invertebrates and can inhibit root growth. Recent investigations highlighted the ability of the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae (Eug) to partially detoxify the toxic wastes, and transform the cassava peels into valuable vermicompost. Vermicomposting and
The role of cassava peel as a cheap carbohydrate source capable of supplying adequate calories to Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings with improved protein value through fermentation with biomass from palm wine and other protein sources were investigated. The protein content of the cassava peel was enhanced by fermentation using a mixed culture of bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides)
Suggests the cells of an apple peel as a plant species that can further enhance the plant cell laboratory. Describes the structure of apple peel cells and the benefits of including them in studies of plant cells. Suggests questions to stimulate further investigations for open-ended laboratories or independent studies. (PVD)
Anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl, acetyl, ash contents and optical rotation of pectin obtained by a HCl extraction procedure (90°C, pH=2.5, 90min) were found to be 74.30, 12.15, 0.37, 6.07% (DM basis) and +252° respectively. The degree of methylation was found to be over 50%, indicating that the orange peel pectin had a high methoxyl content.The reduced viscosities of orange peel pectin
Eleven compounds were isolated from potato peels and identified. Their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. The main components of the potato peels were found to be chlorogenic acid and other phenolic compounds, accompanied by 2 glycoalkaloids, 3 low-molecular-weight amide compounds, and 2 unsaturated fatty acids, including an omega-3 fatty acid. The potato peels showed more potent radical scavenging activity than the flesh. The quantification of the 11 components indicated that the potato peels contained a higher amount of phenolic compounds than the flesh. These results suggest that peel waste from the industry of potato chips and fries may be a source of useful compounds for human health. PMID:22980823
Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green material'. The boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce chloroauric acid. A variety of nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, chloroauric acid concentration and temperature of incubation. The reaction mixtures displayed vivid colors and UV-vis spectra characteristic of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size of the nanoparticles under standard synthetic conditions was around 300nm. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) confirmed these results. A coffee ring phenomenon, led to the aggregation of the nanoparticles into microcubes and microwire networks towards the periphery of the air-dried samples. X-ray diffraction studies of the samples revealed spectra that were characteristic for gold. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the synthetic process. The BPE mediated nanoparticles displayed efficient antimicrobial activity towards most of the tested fungal and bacterial cultures. PMID:20620890
Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to
A mandrel peel test is established for measuring the adhesive fracture toughness of a metal\\/rubber-toughened epoxy laminate system. By adopting an energy balance analysis it is possible to determine directly both adhesive fracture toughness and plastic work in bending the peel arm around the mandrel. The suitability of the procedure is examined for various types of metal peel arms, which
Orange and potato peels were studied in terms of their chemical compositions and their ability to support the growth and extracellular hydrolytic enzyme production of Bacillus subtilis strain 11089. The orange and potato peel substrates were prepared by blending and removal of large particles by filtration. The chemical composition of the filtrates were similar to the crude peel ‘starting’ material
One of the oldest and most commonly used industrial processes for peeling potatoes is chemical peeling. Solute (NaOH) diffusion, energy transfer and chemical kinetics are involved in the process. The Shrinking Core Model and the second Fick's law were selected to formulate the mathematical model, according to mechanisms involved during the peeling process. Heats of reactions were neglected as a
This study describes the use of banana peel, a commonly produced fruit waste, for the removal of Cd(II) from environmental and industrial wastewater. The banana peel was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and found to be rapid ( approximately 97% within 10 min). The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was used to describe partitioning behavior for the system at room temperature. The value of Q(L) was found to be (35.52 mg g(-1)) higher than the previously reported materials. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH-dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 8. The retained species were eluted with 5 mL of 5 x 10(-3)M HNO(3) with the detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-3)mg L(-1). Kinetics of sorption followed the pseudo-first-order rate equation with the rate constant k, equal to 0.13+/-0.01 min(-1). Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy at 303K (-7.41+/-0.13 kJ mol(-1)) and enthalpy (40.56+/-2.34 kJ mol(-1)) indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. The developed method was utilized for the removal of Cd(II) ions from environmental and industrial wastewater samples using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). PMID:18760572
Memon, Jamil R; Memon, Saima Q; Bhanger, M I; Memon, G Zuhra; El-Turki, A; Allen, Geoffrey C
Two peach cultivars, Redhaven and Royal Glory, grafted on seven different rootstocks (Adesoto, Barrier 1, GF 677, Ishtara, Monegro, Penta, and peach seedling) were analyzed for tree vigor and yield. Fruit of similar ripeness (fruit firmness) was analyzed in terms of pomological (fruit weight, soluble solids content) and biochemical parameters (individual sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids in the flesh and peel, as well as flavonols and anthocyanins in the peel). A uniform effect of rootstock on tree size was evident in the cases of both cultivars. The Ishtara rootstock induced weak tree growth; Adesoto, Penta and peach seedling semivigorous growth; and Barrier 1, GF 677, and Monegro vigorous tree growth. We recorded higher yields in the Redhaven cultivar, while no significant differences in yield in the fourth growing season were found among the rootstocks for each cultivar. Rootstock had no effect on soluble solids in the Redhaven cultivar, while in the Royal Glory it did. Penta yielded the highest soluble solids content levels, while Adesoto and Monegro were associated with low levels. In the fruit from both cultivars, the rootstock had a significant influence on individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolic acids in the pulp. We also found that phenolic acids in the pulp and skin were more affected by the rootstock than other secondary metabolites analyzed, regardless of the cultivar. PMID:21819130
The composition of free primary alcohols in oils and waxes obtained from the germ, kernel, seed coat, shell and skin (peel)\\u000a of various nuts, seeds, fruits and cereals and from the chrysalis of silkworm was examined. These alcohols are usually present\\u000a in small amounts, along with large quantities of hydrocarbons, esters and glycerides in oils and waxes. Thus, it is
The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts of unripe pulp and peel of banana fruit 'Dwarf Cavendish' was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids, sterols, and steryl esters are the major families of lipophilic components present in banana tissues, followed by diacylglycerols, steryl glucosides, long chain fatty alcohols, and aromatic compounds. Fatty acids are more abundant in the banana pulp (29-90% of the total amount of lipophilic extract), with linoleic, linolenic, and oleic acids as the major compounds of this family. In banana peel, sterols represent about 49-71% of the lipophilic extract with two triterpenic ketones (31-norcyclolaudenone and cycloeucalenone) as the major components. The detection of high amounts of steryl esters (469-24405 mg/kg) and diacylglycerols (119-878 mg/kg), mainly present in the banana peel extract, explains the increase in the abundance of fatty acids and sterols after alkaline hydrolysis. Several steryl glucosides were also found in significative amounts (273-888 mg/kg), particularly in banana pulp (888 mg/kg). The high content of sterols (and their derivatives) in the 'Dwarf Cavendish' fruit can open new strategies for the valorization of the banana residues as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with nutraceutical and functional food additive applications. PMID:18817409
Oliveira, Lúcia; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Cordeiro, Nereida
During ripening, citrus fruit-peel undergoes 'colour break', a process characterized by the conversion of chloroplast to chromoplast. The process involves the progressive loss of chlorophylls and the gain of carotenoids, changing peel colour from green to orange. In the present work, the in vivo and in vitro effects of supplemented nutrients (sucrose and nitrogen) and phytohormones (gibberellins [GA] and ethylene) on colour change in fruit epicarp of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu (Mak.) Marc., cv. Okitsu), were studied. The rate of colour break was correlated positively with sucrose content and negatively with nitrogen content. The removal of leaves blocked natural sucrose build-up and nitrogen reduction in the peel. Defoliation also inhibited chlorophyll disappearance and carotenoid accumulation, thereby preventing colour break. In vivo sucrose supplementation promoted sucrose accumulation and advanced colour break. In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, colour change promoted by sucrose was unaffected by ethylene but delayed by GA3. In non-supplemented plants, ethylene accelerated colour break while GA3 had no detectable effects. Ethylene inhibitors effectively counteracted the sucrose effects on colour change. Collectively, these results suggest that the chloroplast to chromoplast conversion in citrus fruit epicarps is stimulated by sucrose accumulation. The sugar regulation appears to operate via ethylene, whereas GA may act as a repressor of the sucrose-ethylene stimulation. PMID:11454230
Iglesias, Domingo J.; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Legaz, Francisco; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Talon, Manuel
Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg) rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1) or chitosan (F2) against Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods. We measured the acute (6?h) and subacute (8 days) effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks). In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA) was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications.
Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg) rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1) or chitosan (F2) against Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods. We measured the acute (6?h) and subacute (8 days) effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks). In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA) was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications. PMID:24982685
The interlaminar peel strength of Al/AFRP (Aluminum alloy/Aramid Fiber Reinforced Plastic) hybrid composite is affected by the adhesive strength between the Al alloy layer and the aramid fiber layer. The study of the tensile strength and the T-peel strength of the Al/AFRP should be accomplished first. Therefore, this study focused on the effect of the resin mixture ratio as the Al/AFRP on the tensile strength and T-peel strength. In conclusions, the resin mixture ratio by equivalence ratio of equal to <1:1> of Al/AFRP-I and the resin mixture ratio by equivalence ratio of equal to <1:1:0.2> of Al/AFRP-II showed the highest ultimate tensile strength. After the T-peel test, it is found that the T-peel strength of Al/AFRP-II is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of Al/AFRP-I. Reviewing the characteristics of the tensile and T-peel strengths, the resin mixture ratio <1:1:0.2> of Al/AFRP-II showed the highest tensile strength and T-peel strength.
Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p < 0.05). Overall these findings indicate that both the seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive. PMID:22494370
Kosi?ska, Agnieszka; Karama?, Magdalena; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña; Dykes, Gary A
The extraction of natural antifungal compounds from the peels of yam (Dioscorea alata) and the effect of these compounds on both the vegetative and reproductive structures of some yam not pathogens were studied. Four prominent antifungal components were obtained; one of the components was fully characterized and identified as beta-sitosterol. The antifungal activity of the compounds toward the germination of spores of two yam pathogens showed an inhibition of less than 57% at a concentration of 50 mg/L while inhibition on the elongation of germ-tubes of Fusarium moniliforme was as high as 82% at the same concentration. However, the ED50 for inhibition of germ-tube elongation in the yam compounds for the same organism was below 32 mg/L. The role of the yam compounds at high concentrations in disease resistance is discussed. PMID:9173001
Aderiye, B I; Ogundana, S K; Adesanya, S A; Roberts, M F
We developed a lesson unit using an orange as a main ingredient to illustrate the concept of density of the system. The orange may be treated as a system comprised of two major components: pulp and peel. Teachers involved in the study tested whether they can average the densities of these components to find the value for the density of the system. The unit is flexible enough to be introduced in inquiry based classrooms at several grade bands and at different levels of sophistication: from basic qualitative description of the behavior of the orange in different liquids to quantitative calculations of the buoyant force which selected liquids exert on the orange. The activity has been implemented among several populations of pre and in service teachers through physical science courses and workshops. The impact of this activity on teachers’ and their K-12 students’ understanding of the density of the system will be discussed in this presentation.
In this work, we provide a general description of the so-called orange peel defect produced on polished steel surfaces. By characterizing a prototype set of samples with various degrees orange peel, we attempt to create a simple model that allows the classification of additional samples through the study of surface parameters. On those surfaces, the orange peel structure has roughness amplitudes in the nanometer range. Detecting surface features on that range requires the implementation of a high-precision technique, such as phase shifting interferometry (PSI). Therefore, we can contribute to the improvement of the manufacturing of polished steel surfaces as well as to the quality control by using optical techniques.
The processing parameters of pump speed, inlet air temperature, outlet air temperature and homogenization pressure were evaluated. Encapsulation efficiency is high with a satisfied releasing rate. Then, acute otitis media (AOM) animal model was built and diet containing orange peel essential oil microcapsules were administrated to AOM animals. Pharmacological test showed that orange peel essential oil treatment could decrease serum and cochlea malondialdehyde (MDA), immunoglobulins A (IgA), immunoglobulins G (IgG), immunoglobulins M (IgM) levels and increase antioxidant enzymes activities. It can be concluded that orange peel essential oil treatment could decrease oxidative injury in acute otitis media rats. PMID:22342737
Honey dressing was compared with boiled potato peel dressings as a cover for fresh partial-thickness burns in two groups of 50 randomly allocated patients. In the 50 patients treated with honey, 90 per cent of wounds were rendered sterile within 7 days. In the 50 patients treated with boiled potato peel dressings, persistent infection was noted within 7 days. Of the wounds treated with honey, 100 per cent healed within 15 days as against 50 per cent in the wounds treated with boiled potato peel dressings (mean 10.4 vs. 16.2 days). PMID:8884013
An assay was made on the bioactivity of the extracts of tangerine peel from Cinocitrus tangerina, orange peel from Citrus sinensis and mixed tangerine peel from Cinocitrus sp. against aphis Semia phis heraclei, Aphis craccivora, Uroleucon gobonis and Myzus persicae using residual film or topical method, and against mites Tetranychus viennensis and T. trancatus using slide-dip or immersion method. Test results show that these extracts have strong bioactivity against aphids and mites. The corrected mortality regression equations and LC50 (or LD50) of these extracts to pests are presented. PMID:7576134
Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.
The effect of shielding solar ultraviolet B radiation on the accumulation of some flavonoids and their precursor hydroxycinnamic acids in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was evaluated by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In particular, flesh and peel of two tomato hybrids, DRW 5981 and Esperanza, were separately analyzed. The hybrids have been chosen for their different responses to the light, since it was previously reported that they show different pigmentation and opposite behavior under UV-B in terms of carotenoids and ascorbic acid content at different ripening stages. To determine the effect of UV-B radiation during tomato ripening, we also measured the expression of some flavonoid biosynthetic genes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The results allowed us to conclude that UV-B radiation deeply and differentially affects the content of the considered flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids as well as the expression of some of their biosynthetic genes in both flesh and peel during the ripening process. On the other hand, the collected data clearly showed that this influence varies between different genotypes. We conclude that the use of specific plastic covers able to eliminate UV-B radiation may be an environmentally friendly approach to modulate the expression of structural genes and, in turn, to enhance healthy antioxidant compounds in fruits of specific tomato cultivars. PMID:18564848
In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.
Techniques are described for preparing acetate peels of sectioned valves of ocean quahogs, Artica islandica, for age determinations. The respective sequence of preparation begins by sectioning left valves oriented to include a single hinge tooth, bleachin...
trans-3-Methyl-4-decanolide has been identified in blood orange juice and in a mandarin peel extract, the spectral data and retention indices of the trans-3-methyl-4-decanolide and its cis-diastereoisomer are presented.
To evaluate the efficacy of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls. Retrospective study in a medical college hospital. Records of 217 eyes which underwent surgical peeling and aspiration for membranous PCO between 2006 and 2009, was reviewed. Peeling and aspiration was fashioned with a blunt tipped 20G cannula after stabilizing anterior chamber with anterior chamber maintainer. Post-operative vision and complications were analyzed. Mc Nemar and Chi square tests. The mean age was 56.84 years. 85.71% patients achieved best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20 at 3 m. Recurrence of pearls, uveitis and cystoid macular edema were the most common causes of reduced vision. Peeling and aspiration of pearls seem to be a viable alternative to Neodymium yttrium garner aluminium (Nd: YAG) laser capsulotomy for membranous PCO.
To evaluate the efficacy of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls. Retrospective study in a medical college hospital. Records of 217 eyes which underwent surgical peeling and aspiration for membranous PCO between 2006 and 2009, was reviewed. Peeling and aspiration was fashioned with a blunt tipped 20G cannula after stabilizing anterior chamber with anterior chamber maintainer. Post-operative vision and complications were analyzed. Mc Nemar and Chi square tests. The mean age was 56.84 years. 85.71% patients achieved best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20 at 3 m. Recurrence of pearls, uveitis and cystoid macular edema were the most common causes of reduced vision. Peeling and aspiration of pearls seem to be a viable alternative to Neodymium yttrium garner aluminium (Nd: YAG) laser capsulotomy for membranous PCO. PMID:24104714
In order to maintain and manage infrastructures appropriately under a budget constraint, it is necessary to grasp the processes of deterioration and damage, which are the targets of visual inspection, specify the criteria for risk management, and determine inspection cycle. This study is focused on the peeling/falling of the protective covering concrete of expressway bridge slabs, formulates its process with the Poisson model, and proposes a model that can take into account some effects on peeling/falling. This study proposes a random proportional Poisson model for discussing the heterogeneity of the peeling/falling of concrete of individual slabs. Then, the criteria for risk management regarding peeling/falling are specified, and a method for determining optimal inspection cycle that satisfies the criteria for risk management is proposed. Lastly, the appropriateness of the proposed model is discussed empirically, by applying it to actual expressways.
Histological and clinical studies have been made on comparable burn wounds covered with either boiled potato peels affixed to gauze bandages or gauze dressings alone; both dressings were applied over a thin layer of 5 per cent silver sulphadiazine. Compared with treatment with plain gauze dressings, the application of the potato peel dressing reduced or eliminated dessication, permitted the survival of superficial skin cells and hastened epithelial regeneration. Bacteriological studies showed that the potato peels had no intrinsic antibacterial activity, the wounds beneath both dressings showing either no growth or, on most occasions, the same bacterial species. The easy availability of potato peels and gauze bandages on to which they can be affixed, the simplicity of the preparation of this dressing, the ease of sterilization and its low cost of production make this the dressing of choice for burn wounds in our developing country. PMID:2350410
Summary Potato peel was found to be a superior substrate for solid state fermentation, compared to wheat bran, for the production\\u000a of ?-amylase by two thermophilic isolates of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. Under optimal conditions, B. licheniformis produced 270 units\\/ml and 175 units\\/ml of ?-amylase on potato peel and wheat bran, respectively, while the corresponding\\u000a values for B. subtilis were 600 units\\/ml and
Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of a novel, non-toxic, eco-friendly biological material namely, banana peel extract (BPE). Boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used for reducing silver nitrate. Silver nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, concentration of silver nitrate and incubation temperature. The colorless reaction mixtures
Ashok Bankar; Bhagyashree Joshi; Ameeta Ravi Kumar; Smita Zinjarde
Bio-inspired palladium nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE), a non-toxic eco-friendly material. Boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce palladium chloride. The palladium nanoparticles were characterized by using UV–Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectra (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed the average size of nanoparticles to
Ashok Bankar; Bhagyashree Joshi; Ameeta Ravi Kumar; Smita Zinjarde
Hyphomycetous (Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phycomycetous (Mucor hiemalis) moulds were cultivated in vitro at room temperature (28+20 °C) to examined their growth and biomass production on waste banana peel agar (BPA) and broth (BPB) using commercial malt extract agar (MEA) and broth (MEB) as control. The moulds grew comparatively well on banana peel substrates. No significant difference (p>0.05) in radial growth
Summary Aspergillus flavus andAspergillus niger produce extracellular amylase into the culture medium when grown on basal medium containing 2% (w\\/v) soluble starch or cassava peel as the sole carbon source. On soluble tarch the highest amylase activities were 1.6 and 5.2 mg of starch hydrolyzed\\/min per mg protein forA. flavus andA. niger, respectively. When grown on cassava peel, the highest
Alhassan Sani; Francis A. Awe; Joseph A. Akinyanju
The viscous-flow properties of pectin from the residue of orange peel after extraction of essential oil and flavonoid were\\u000a studied and the viscosity-average molecular mass (M\\u000a v, ave) of this kind of pectin was determined. Experimental results show that Arrhenius viscous-flow equation can be applied to\\u000a describing the effect of temperature on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin
The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio was 3.75±1.08 for spectrophotometric and 3.50±0.95 for HPLC measurements. Comparison of the results of lycopene
K. Markovic; I. Panjkota-Krbavcic; M. Krpan; D. D. Bicanic; N. Vahcic
Abstraet—For evaluating the adhesion of thin metallic films with thicknesses in the range of 50-1000 nm on polymeric substrates, the following variant of the peel test is often applied: a hot melt foil such as ethylene acrylic acid (EAA) is heat-laminated onto the metal side of the metal\\/polymer composite and subsequently this flexible auxiliary foil is peeled off from the
For potatoes grown in soil contaminated by Pb/Zn smelter smoke it was observed that Cd and Pb accumulated in the peel. When potatoes are baked both skin and tuber may be eaten. From an investigation of the relative contributions of peel and tuber to diet it was concluded that normally when both are eaten together there is no risk to health from ingesting excess of toxic metals. PMID:6648513
Extracts from Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.) peels were tested for their pectinesterase activity. A factorial design was applied in this study as a method for enzyme extraction in which the variables were the source of enzyme (prickly pear and Mexican lime peels) and the NaCl solution concentration (0–3.0M). In all cases, enzyme
J. C. Contreras-Esquivel; C. Correa-Robles; C. N. Aguilar; J Rodr??guez; J. Romero
This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had significantly higher (P?0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability than the bound phenolic extracts, except in orange peels where the bound phenolic extracts had significantly higher (P?0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability. Bound phenolics from orange peels had the highest ABTS* scavenging ability (6.09 mmol./TEAC g) and ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP) (71.99 mg/GAE 100 g), while bound phenolics from shaddock peels had the least ABTS* scavenging ability (1.35 mmol./TEAC g) and FRAP (2.58 mg/GAE 100 g) . Bound phenolics from grapefruit peels had the highest OH* scavenging ability (EC50?=?3.8 mg/ml), while bound phenolics from shaddock peels had the least (EC50?=?16.1 mg/ml). The phenolics chelated Fe(2+) and inhibited malondialdehyde production in rat's pancreas in a dose-dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of the free and bound phenolics could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the peels; therefore, the high antioxidant properties of the free and bound phenolic extracts from orange peels could be harness in the formulation of nutraceuticals and food preservatives. PMID:24293692
Gas exchange, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation/and subsequent photosynthate translocation were followed during a 24h light/dark period in green grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) detached after 2.5 mo. growth. Fruit photosynthesis could account for net fixation of less than 1% of the daily dry weight increase recorded for fruit at this stage of development, but a comparison of light/dark CO/sub 2/ exchange indicated that as much as 27% of this daily gain was maintained by refixation of respiratory CO/sub 2/ during daylight hours. Approximately 10% of photosynthates labeled in the outer peel (flavedo) were translocated to segment epidermis and juice vesicles of normal fruit during 1 + 23h pulse-chase experiments. This process typically continues for 4 to 5 days and refixation products would presumably follow the same path. In a low-acid mutant believed to differ only in acid/sugar ratio of juice vesicles, however, inward translocation of /sup 14/C-photosynthates from flavedo was restricted primarily to the inner peel (albedo).
Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) refers to afflicted inflammation of pancreas with unfavorable adverse effects and developed multiple organ failures. Unfortunately, there is not a certain therapeutic method for this disease. Oxidative stress has a serious role in the pathogenesis of AP. Thus, decreasing of oxidative stress may prevent induction and progression of AP. Punica granatum L. has been extensively used in traditional medicine and possesses various active biological elements. Due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate, it could be considered as a good candidate alternative medicine with beneficial effects on AP. In this study, we decided to study the protective effect of three fractions of pomegranate seeds on cerulein-induced AP. Methods: AP was induced in male Syrian mice by five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 ?g/kg) with 1 h intervals. Treatments with pomegranate freeze-dried powder (PFDP) and hydroalcoholic pomegranate seeds extract (PSE) at doses of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg (i.p.) were started 30 min before pancreatitis induction. Pomegranate seed oil fraction (PSOF) was orally administered (50, 100, 200 ?L/kg) and continued for 10 days. Pancreatic tissue was evaluated for histopathological parameters and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as lipase and amylase levels were measured in plasma. Results: The higher doses of three fractions (250 and 500 mg/kg for PFDP and PSE and doses of 100, 200 ?L/kg for PSOF) significantly reduced amylase and lipase activity in serum (at least P < 0.01), pancreatic MPO activity (P < 0.001), edema, leukocyte infiltration and vacuolization in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results propose that pomegranate seeds fractions can prevent and/or treat the AP.
Background Rhaponticum cathamoides (RC) is an endemic wild Siberian herb with marked medicinal properties that are still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of RC extract (ERC) compared to the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (EGG) and Punica granatum extracts (EPG) in a rat model with high-fat diet-(HFD)-induced signs of metabolic syndrome; therefore, this study addresses a significant global public health problem. Methods Six-month-old male Wistar Albino Glaxo rats were subjected to eight weeks of a standard diet (SD), HFD, or HFD in which ERC, EGG, or EPG powders were incorporated at 300 mg/kg/day. The serum lipid profile, corticosterone and cytokine concentrations, glucose tolerance, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerol accumulation, and PPAR? DNA-binding activities in the liver samples were determined. Results In contrast to EGG and EPG, an ERC supplement significantly reduced the weight of epididymal tissue (19.0%, p?0.01) and basal serum glucose level (19.4%, p?0.05). ERC improved glucose intolerance as well as dyslipidemia more efficiently than EGG and EPG. EGG but not ERC or EPG supplementation decreased systolic blood pressure by 12.0% (p?0.05). All of the tested extracts reduced serum IL6 and corticosterone levels induced by HFD. However, the lowering effects of ERC consumption on the serum TNF-? level and its restoring effect on the adrenal corticosterone level significantly exceeded the improvements induced by EGG and EPG. ERC intake also reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and increased the PPAR? DNA-binding activity in the liver more significantly than EGG and EPG. Conclusions ERC powder supplementation improved glucose and lipid metabolism more significantly than EGG and EPG in rats fed on HFD, supporting the strategy of R. carthamoides use for safe relief of metabolic syndrome and its related disturbances such as inflammation, stress, and hepatic steatosis.
A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.
With the growing popularity of the velocity map imaging technique, a need for the analysis of photoion and photoelectron images arose. Here, a computer program is presented that allows for the analysis of cylindrically symmetric images. It permits the inversion of the projection of the 3D charged particle distribution using the Onion Peeling Algorithm. Further analysis includes the determination of radial and angular distributions, from which velocity distributions and spatial anisotropy parameters are obtained. Identification and quantification of the different photolysis channels is therefore straightforward. In addition, the program features geometry correction, centering, and multi-Gaussian fitting routines, as well as a user-friendly graphical interface and the possibility of generating synthetic images using either the fitted or user-defined parameters. Program summaryTitle of program: Glass Onion Catalogue identifier: ADRY Program Summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRY Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computer: IBM PC Operating system under which the program has been tested: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows NT Programming language used: Delphi 4.0 Memory required to execute with typical data: 18 Mwords No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9 911 434 Distribution format: zip file Keywords: Photofragment image, onion peeling, anisotropy parameters Nature of physical problem: Information about velocity and angular distributions of photofragments is the basis on which the analysis of the photolysis process resides. Reconstructing the three-dimensional distribution from the photofragment image is the first step, further processing involving angular and radial integration of the inverted image to obtain velocity and angular distributions. Provisions have to be made to correct for slight distortions of the image, and to verify the accuracy of the analysis process. Method of solution: The "Onion Peeling" algorithm described by Helm [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67 (6) (1996)] is used to perform the image reconstruction. Angular integration with a subsequent multi-Gaussian fit supplies information about the velocity distribution of the photofragments, whereas radial integration with subsequent expansion of the angular distributions over Legendre Polynomials gives the spatial anisotropy parameters. Fitting algorithms have been developed to centre the image and to correct for image distortion. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum image size (1280×1280) and resolution (16 bit) are restricted by available memory and can be changed in the source code. Initial centre coordinates within 5 pixels may be required for the correction and the centering algorithm to converge. Peaks on the velocity profile separated by less then the peak width may not be deconvolved. In the charged particle image reconstruction, it is assumed that the kinetic energy released in the dissociation process is small compared to the energy acquired in the electric field. For the fitting parameters to be physically meaningful, cylindrical symmetry of the image has to be assumed but the actual inversion algorithm is stable to distortions of such symmetry in experimental images. Typical running time: The analysis procedure can be divided into three parts: inversion, fitting, and geometry correction. The inversion time grows approx. as R3, where R is the radius of the region of interest: for R=200 pixels it is less than a minute, for R=400 pixels less then 6 min on a 400 MHz IBM personal computer. The time for the velocity fitting procedure to converge depends strongly on the number of peaks in the velocity profile and the convergence criterion. It ranges between less then a second for simple curves and a few minutes for profiles with up to twenty peaks. The time taken for the image correction scales as R2 and depends on the curve profile. It is on the order of a few minutes for images with R=500
Polyphenols isolated from frozen and dried apple peels were studied as potential natural antioxidants to stabilize omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (?3 PUFA) enriched fish oil. The ethanolic extracts of apple peels were fractionated by reversed phase chromatography using gradient elution of 20-100% aqueous ethanol. The collected fractions were analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of each fraction were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assays. Inhibition of fish oil oxidation was studied using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Polyphenols fractionated using frozen apple peel extract had significantly higher FC, FRAP and DPPH(·) scavenging values than those of dried apple peel (p<0.05). The flavonol-rich fractions inhibited fish oil oxidation by 40-62% at a total phenolic concentration of 200 ?g/ml. The fractionated polyphenols from both dried and frozen apple peel showed higher inhibition of lipid oxidation compared to ?-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene and crude apple peel extracts. PMID:23578632
Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Shahidi, Fereidoon
The present study investigated the use of a novel hyaluronic acid serum in combination with a cream comprising a mixture of human growth factors in conjunction with the micro laser peel procedure for skin rejuvenation. After preconditioning the face with the hyaluronic acid serum followed by the cream twice daily for one month, 15 female volunteers between 35 to 65 years of age with demonstrable facial wrinkling received a micro laser peel on the entire face using an erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser. Immediately following the laser procedure, the subjects applied the test products twice daily until the second laser peel one month later. Immediately following the second procedure, the subjects reapplied the test products for another month. In the large majority of subjects, erythema or edema, crusts or erosions, and transitory stinging or burning sensations after the micro laser peel were minimal or mild when the skin was treated with the serum followed by the cream. The micro laser peel in conjunction with the test products helped to significantly improve hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and texture as compared to before treatment. This study with the micro laser peel device demonstrated that a novel hyaluronic acid serum combined with the human growth factor cream can be successfully used for skin rejuvenation in conjunction with light-to-medium invasive laser skin treatments.
An experiment was performed in which Ti(4+)-ascorbate was sprayed onto plum trees in several combinations with other commercial compounds containing Ca2+ and Mg2+ to study the effects on the commercial quality of fruits, with special focus on improving their resistance against postharvest handling damage. All the treatments containing titanium increased the tree performance (branch elongation, flowering and fruit setting intensities) and fruit size. At harvest fruits from the Ti-treated trees showed improved resistance to compression and penetration, as well as a decrease in weight-loss during postharvest storage. A similar response was obtained for the external colour, though all the treatments seemed to delay somewhat the apparent ripening status. Nevertheless, the fruits from Ti-treated trees showed a better behaviour in the evolution of the colour parameters during storage than did the control fruits. Titanium application significantly increased the calcium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in peel and flesh. This improvement in the calcium absorption is explained as a consequence of the beneficial effect of titanium on the absorption, translocation and assimilation processes. PMID:14717435
Alcaraz-Lopez, Carlos; Botia, Maria; Alcaraz, Carlos F; Riquelme, Fernando
The passion fruit hybrid cultivar 'Passion Dream' (PD) produces two cycles of fruiting per year, in the summer and winter. Self-hybridization of PD created various lines, including 'Ripens during Summer' (RS), which lacks the ability to abscise during winter, suggesting a seasonal nonclimacteric behavior. The two lines were characterized by several quality traits: PD produced high ethylene levels in both seasons; RS produced significantly less ethylene during summer and almost none during winter. The ratio of total soluble solids to titratable acidity (TSS/TA), and aroma volatiles production, as determined by solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (SPME/GC-MS) techniques, and taste indices were highest in PD summer fruits and lowest in RS winter fruits. Peel color in PD was affected by environmental and storage temperatures, whereas RS fruits always showed a strong purple color. The present findings suggest that ethylene production levels in passion fruit greatly influence various ripening processes, including acid degradation, increased TSS/TA ratio, accumulation of aroma volatiles, and tastiness. PMID:22248094
Background For ? 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ? 30 million lives, causing ? 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vaccines, topical microbicides, expected to block virus transmission, offer hope for controlling the pandemic. Antiretroviral chemotherapeutics have decreased AIDS mortality in industrialized countries, but only minimally in developing countries. To prevent an analogous dichotomy, microbicides should be: acceptable; accessible; affordable; and accelerative in transition from development to marketing. Already marketed pharmaceutical excipients or foods, with established safety records and adequate anti-HIV-1 activity, may provide this option. Methods Fruit juices were screened for inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IIIB using CD4 and CXCR4 as cell receptors. The best juice was tested for inhibition of: (1) infection by HIV-1 BaL, utilizing CCR5 as the cellular coreceptor; and (2) binding of gp120 IIIB and gp120 BaL, respectively, to CXCR4 and CCR5. To remove most colored juice components, the adsorption of the effective ingredient(s) to dispersible excipients and other foods was investigated. A selected complex was assayed for inhibition of infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Results HIV-1 entry inhibitors from pomegranate juice adsorb onto corn starch. The resulting complex blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5 and inhibits infection by primary virus clades A to G and group O. Conclusion These results suggest the possibility of producing an anti-HIV-1 microbicide from inexpensive, widely available sources, whose safety has been established throughout centuries, provided that its quality is adequately standardized and monitored.
Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao; Debnath, Asim K
Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) is a fruit tree native to the Brazilian Amazon. Cupuassu beans are extensively used in the Brazilian food industry. Fat from cupuassu beans, which are a rich source of triacylglycerols and fatty acids, is used extensively in the production of candies and confectionery in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. The potential use of the agro-industrial by-products of cupuassu has only slightly been addressed by the scientific community. Often, such by-products are sources of bioactive compounds with functional properties. Thus, the aims of this study were to characterize the use of cupuassu peel flour (CPF) and to examine the potential of CPF as a partial replacement in the preparation of breads through various means: chemical analyses, determination of protein digestibility, tannins, phytic acid and phenolic contents, pH, color, volume, and acceptance tests. The results show that CPF is a potential source of dietary fiber (79.81%), mainly insoluble fiber (78.29%), and breads made with added CPF present high dietary fiber content (5.40 and 6.15 g/100 g for inclusions with 6 and 9% CPF, respectively) and phytochemical values. The use of this by-product did not produce substantial changes in the physical, chemical or rheological characteristics of breads. Therefore, breads enhanced with CPF may be a convenient functional food, offering a good source of dietary fiber and phytochemicals. Breads prepared with 6% added CPF presented an acceptable overall quality to consumers. PMID:21948632
Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Rodrigues, Bruno Sanches; Donado-Pestana, Carlos Mario; dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira
Bioactive polyphenols, cartenoids, and anthocyanins present in fruits and vegetables are receiving much attention because of their potential antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stem bark, and kernel of mango varieties langra and chonsa. Total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs) in segments of langra ranged from 63.89 to 116.80 mg GAE/g DW and 45.56 to 90.89 mg CE/g DW, respectively, and that of chonsa were 69.24 to 122.60 mg GAE/g DW and 48.43 to 92.55 mg CE/g DW, respectively. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and linoleic inhibition capacity in segments of langra ranged from 53.30% to 61.10% and 40.0% to 47.20%, respectively, whereas for chonsa; 56.40% to 66.0% and 48.1% to 49.0%, respectively. The reducing potentials of different segments of langra and chonsa at concentration of 10 mg/mL were 0.512 to 0.850 and 0.595 to 0.665 mV, respectively. Comparison between both varieties showed chonsa exhibited better antioxidant activity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely randomised design (CRD) under factorial. PMID:22860576
Sultana, Bushra; Hussain, Zaib; Asif, Muhammad; Munir, Adil
Huanglongbing (HLB) or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433
Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My L; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E; Bowman, Kim D; Dandekar, Abhaya M
Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.
Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.
A detailed phenotypic analysis of fruit-quality traits was conducted among 46 mandarin varieties within the Israeli Citrus breeding collection, belonging to genetically different natural subgroups, including common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). Evaluated qualities included physical attributes (size, shape, color, peel thickness, and seed number); physiological properties (ripening period, peelability, and segmentation); nutritional and biochemical composition (vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid contents and total antioxidant activity); and sensory attributes (total soluble solids and acid levels, flavor preference, sweetness, sourness, and fruitiness). The results indicated wide genetic variability in fruit-quality traits among mandarin varieties and natural subgroups, and statistical and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed multiple correlations among attributes. Such phenomic analysis is an obligatory requirement for identification of molecular markers for distinct fruit-quality traits and for selection of appropriate parents for future breeding programs. PMID:24828369
Food allergies, including kiwi fruit allergy, have been the subject of extensive research in the last few years. The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between the developmental stage of kiwi fruit and its allergenic potency. The protein and allergen patterns of kiwi fruit extracts in September, October, November and December fruit in the period from
Marija Gavrovic-Jankulovic; Natalija Polovic; Sladjana Prisic; Ratko M. Jankov; Marina Atanaskovic-Markovic; Olga Vuckovic; Tanja Cirkovic Velickovic
A response surface method was used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction parameters such as extraction time (t) (min), solvent (methanol) concentration (S) (v/v) and microwave power level (MP) for extraction of antioxidants from potato peels. Max. total phenolics content of 3.94 mg g?¹ dry weight (dw) was obtained at S of 67.33%, t of 15 min and a MP of 14.67%. For ascorbic acid (1.44 mg g?¹ dw), caffeic acid (1.33 mg g?¹ dw), ferulic acid (0.50 mg g?¹ dw) max contents were obtained at S of 100%, t of 15 min, and MP of 10%, while the max chlorogenic acid content (1.35 mg g?¹ dw) was obtained at S of 100%, t of 5 min, and MP of 10%. The radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated by using the DPPH assay and optimum antioxidant activity was obtained at S of 100%, t of 5 min, and MP of 10%. PMID:21383659
Singh, Ashutosh; Sabally, Kebba; Kubow, Stan; Donnelly, Danielle J; Gariepy, Yvan; Orsat, Valérie; Raghavan, G S V
Prostate cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among U.S. males, with a similar trend in many Western countries. One approach to control this malignancy is its prevention through the use of agents present in diet consumed by humans. Pomegranate from the tree Punica granatum possesses strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. We recently showed that pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) possesses remarkable antitumor-promoting effects in mouse skin. In this study, employing human prostate cancer cells, we evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties of PFE. PFE (10-100 ?g/ml; 48 h) treatment of highly aggressive human prostate cancer PC3 cells resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth/cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis revealed that PFE treatment of PC3 cells resulted in (i) induction of Bax and Bak (proapoptotic); (ii) down-regulation of Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic); (iii) induction of WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27; (iv) a decrease in cyclins D1, D2, and E; and (v) a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2, cdk4, and cdk6 expression. These data establish the involvement of the cyclin kinase inhibitor-cyclin-cdk network during the antiproliferative effects of PFE. Oral administration of PFE (0.1% and 0.2%, wt/vol) to athymic nude mice implanted with androgen-sensitive CWR22R?1 cells resulted in a significant inhibition in tumor growth concomitant with a significant decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen levels. We suggest that pomegranate juice may have cancer-chemopreventive as well as cancer-chemotherapeutic effects against prostate cancer in humans.
Malik, Arshi; Afaq, Farrukh; Sarfaraz, Sami; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Syed, Deeba N.; Mukhtar, Hasan
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) peel, an agricultural solid waste material, was utilized as a novel non-conventional sorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous phase. The effects of sorbent dose, pH, ionic strength, temperature, stirring speed, initial concentration and contact time on the sorption of cadmium were evaluated. Results indicate an increase in uptake by the sorbent with increasing initial
The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white
Reliable applications of adhesively bonded joints require understanding of the stress distribution along the bond-line and the stresses that are responsible for the joint failure. To properly evaluate factors affecting peel strength, effects of defects such as voids on the stress distribution in the overlap region must be understood. In this work, the peel stress distribution in a single lap joint is derived using a strength of materials approach. The bonded joint is modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams, bonded together with an adhesive. which is modeled as an elastic foundation which can resist both peel and shear stresses. It is found that for certain adhesive and adherend geometries and properties, a central void with the size up to 50 percent of the overlap length has negligible effect on the peak peel and shear stresses. To verify the solutions obtained from the model, the problem is solved again by using the finite element method and by treating the adherends and the adhesive as elastic materials. It is found that the model used in the analysis not only predicts the correct trend for the peel stress distribution but also gives rather surprisingly close results to that of the finite element analysis. It is also found that both shear and peel stresses can be responsible for the joint performance and when a void is introduced, both of these stresses can contribute to the joint failure as the void size increases. Acoustic emission (AE) activities of aluminum-adhesive-aluminum specimens with different void sizes were monitored. The AE ringdown counts and energy were very sensitive and decreased significantly with the void size. It was observed that the AE events were shifting towards the edge of the overlap where the maximum peeling and shearing stresses were occurring as the void size increased.
A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...
d'Anjou cv. pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) exposed at harvest to 0, 0.42, 4.2, or 42 micromol m(-)(3) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 12 h at 20 degrees C were stored at 1 degrees C for up to 8 months. After storage, half of the fruit was continuously exposed to ethylene (0.45 or 4-18 mmol m(-)(3)) for 7 days at 20 degrees C. All fruit treated with 1-MCP had lower respiration and ethylene production compared to untreated controls. Fruit quality changes were delayed following 1-MCP treatment, as was development of superficial scald and peel yellowing. The duration of 1-MCP-induced responses was dependent on 1-MCP treatment concentration. When 1-MCP-treated fruit began to ripen, softening and production of volatile compounds proceeded similar to that of untreated fruit. Post-storage ethylene exposure did not consistently stimulate ripening of fruit previously treated with 1-MCP. Efficacy of ethylene treatment depended on 1-MCP concentration and storage duration. PMID:12797756
The discovery and development of natural products with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties have been one of the most interesting and promising approaches in the search for the treatment of many neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has served as an excellent in vitro model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia and for the development of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies suggested that pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) or its active constituents exert pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, in this study we investigated the possible protective effects of different extracts of pomegranate against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Initially, the cells were pretreated with different concentrations of pulp hydroalcoholic extract (PHE), pulp aqueous extract (PAE) and pomegranate juice (PJ) for 2?h and then deprived of serum/glucose (SGD) for 6 and 12?h. SGD caused a significant reduction in cell viability (measured by the MTT assay) after 6 and 12?h, as compared with control cells (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with PHE, PAE, and PJ significantly and concentration-dependently increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6 and 12?h. A significant increase in DNA damage (measured by the comet assay) was seen in nuclei of cells following SGD for 12?h (P < 0.001). In control groups, no significant difference was seen in DNA damage between PHE, PAE, and PJ-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated PC12 cells (P > 0.05). PHE, PAE, and PJ pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage following ischemic insult (P < 0.001). This suppression of DNA damage by PHE, PAE and PJ was found to be concentration dependent. These data indicate that there is a cytoprotective property in PHE, PAE, and PJ under SGD condition in PC12 cells, suggesting that pomegranate has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders.
Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid. PMID:23107679
Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu
The use of slack-water sediments as palaeostage indicators in palaeoflood hydrological analysis requires detailed sedimentological description. Conventional descriptions have relied mainly on field descriptions of slack-water profiles. However, this method often fails to reveal important detail. By employing the well-established technique of relief peels, modified for use in slack-water sediment studies, the problem of insufficient data recovery from slack-water deposits was successfully overcome during a palaeoflood hydrological investigation of South African rivers. The use of relief peels showed that this technique is a useful, and in some cases, indispensable aid in the description and interpretation of palaeoflood deposits. For example, relief peels have shown that slack-water sediments are for the most part not massive exhibiting mainly flat lamination. This indicates that slack-water sedimentation was characterised by moderate rates of deposition rather than sudden or rapid rates. Relief peels have also shown that the base of tributary back-flooded slack-water sediments often contain intraformational rip-up clasts. This indicates that reworking of the existing slack-water sediments is a common process during tributary back-flooding. The technique was particularly effective in enhancing sedimentary structure and in differentiating between interpalaeoflood, non-palaeoflood and intraflood pulses. Relief peels can also be stored permanently as a surface sample of the slack-water sequence to be retrieved for later study.
Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel. PMID:23957402
We investigate the influence of viscoelastic nature of the adhesive on the intermittent peel front dynamics by extending a recently introduced model for peeling of an adhesive tape. As time and rate-dependent deformation of the adhesives are measured in stationary conditions, a crucial step in incorporating the viscoelastic effects applicable to unstable intermittent peel dynamics is the introduction of a dynamization scheme that eliminates the explicit time dependence in terms of dynamical variables. We find contrasting influences of viscoelastic contribution in different regions of tape mass, roller inertia, and pull velocity. As the model acoustic energy dissipated depends on the nature of the peel front and its dynamical evolution, the combined effect of the roller inertia and pull velocity makes the acoustic energy noisier for small tape mass and low-pull velocity while it is burstlike for low-tape mass, intermediate values of the roller inertia and high-pull velocity. The changes are quantified by calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent and analyzing the statistical distributions of the amplitudes and durations of the model acoustic energy signals. Both single and two stage power-law distributions are observed. Scaling relations between the exponents are derived which show that the exponents corresponding to large values of event sizes and durations are completely determined by those for small values. The scaling relations are found to be satisfied in all cases studied. Interestingly, we find only five types of model acoustic emission signals among multitude of possibilities of the peel front configurations.
Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well.
Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin
Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well. PMID:23277871
Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin
Chilling at 4°C in the dark induced lipid degradation in cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) fruit upon rewarming at 14°C. Rates of ethane evolution by fruits rewarmed after 3 days of chilling were up to four-fold higher than those evolved by unchilled (14°C) fruits (0.02-0.05 picomoles gram fresh weight?1 hour?1). This potentiation of lipid peroxidation occurred prior to irreversible injury (requiring 3 to 7 days of chilling) as indicated by increases in ethylene evolution and visual observations. Decreases in unsaturation of peel tissue glycolipids were observed in fruits rewarmed after 3 days of chilling, indicating the plastids to be the site of the early phases of chilling-induced peroxidation. Losses in unsaturation of tissue phospholipids were first observed only after chilling for 7 days. Phospholipase D activity appeared to be potentiated in fruits rewarmed after 7 days of chilling as indicated by a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (and secondarily phosphatidylethanolamine) with a corresponding increase in phosphatidic acid. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation may have a role in conferring chilling injury.
Volatile organosulfur compounds (VOSCs) are high impact aroma chemicals characteristic of tropical fruits which are active as both free thiols and the respective thioesters. Using a simple and sensitive colorimetric enzyme assay, a thioesterase activity toward VOSCs has been identified in ripening purple passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis Sims). The assay was based on determining the release of free thiols from 2-methyl-3-furanthiol acetate using Ellman's reagent. The major thioesterase in the fruit was found to be a wall-bound protein in the mesocarp. The extracted enzyme activity was purified 150-fold and shown to be associated with a 43 kDa monomeric serine hydrolase which was selectively labeled with a fluorophosphonate suicide probe. MS-MS sequencing identified the thioesterase as a class 13 glycoside hydrolase, most similar to pectin acetylesterase, an enzyme involved in cell wall modifications in the peel of a number of fruit. Our results suggest that cell wall hydrolases in tropical fruit may have additional useful roles in biotransforming VOSCs. PMID:18613689
Tapp, Edward J; Cummins, Ian; Brassington, David; Edwards, Robert
The array of comorbidities that comes with obesity and the propelling surge of this disease globally today make the urgent need for treatment vital. Although promoting a healthy physical regimen and controlled diet to affected patients are the main bulk of present treatment, prescriptions of weight-loss medications have also been introduced to complement this treatment. However, the use of synthetic medications may produce adverse side effects and consequently affect the patient's quality of life. In view of these problems, the use of natural sources as alternative remedies has recently become very popular. Tropical fruit "waste components", namely, the seed, flower, leaf, peel, and part of the fruit, which are often discarded after consumption, have recently been studied and showed evidence suggesting their potential as promising future alternative sources of remedy. The high amounts of phytochemicals present in these components were believed to be responsible for the antiobesity effect observed experimentally. This review aims to introduce some of the recently discussed tropical fruit waste components that have been discovered to possess antiobesity effects. The major bioactive compounds of the respective fruit components identified and deduced to be responsible for the overall bioactivity will be evaluated. Following this, the subsequent need for the development of an effective processing or recycling technique required to effectively tap the maximum potential of these fruit parts will also be addressed. PMID:24670153
A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.
C(2)H(4) disrupts the internal membranes of the chloroplast and induces an increase in chlorophyllase activity in degreening calamondin [x Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) Ingram and Moore] fruit. Whether the loss of chlorophyll in the peel is causally related to breakdown of the chloroplast and/or chlorophyllase activity is not readily apparent. Chlorophyllase levels were inversely related to chlorophyll content, but electron micrographs also showed that internal membranes of the chloroplasts were disrupted simultaneously with the decrease in chlorophyll content. Silver, a potent inhibitor of C(2)H(4)-mediated effects, retarded the loss of chlorophyll in calamondin rind, reduced the C(2)H(4)-induced increase in chlorophyllase level, and prevented the disruption of the chloroplast membranes. The results do not permit the proposal of a mechanism of C(2)H(4) metabolism in the degreening of calamondin fruit. PMID:16661491
This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9°C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products. PMID:25038678
Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio
Lemon peel wastes were extracted with water to remove free sugars and other soluble compounds, and the insoluble solid was employed as a substrate for the manufacture of pectin-derived oligosaccharides by processing with hot, compressed water. When water-extracted lemon peel wastes were treated with water at 160 °C, the oligomer concentration reached the maximum value (31 g/L). Autohydrolysis liquors were subjected to two membrane filtration stages (diafiltration followed by concentration), yielding a refined product containing about 98 wt % of oligomers at a global yield of 14 kg/100 kg oven-dry lemon peel. The concentrate contained oligogalacturonides (with DP in the range of 2-18) and arabinooligosaccharides (with DP in the range of 2-8). PMID:24066740
Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Parajó, Juan C; Alonso, Jose L
In this paper, chufa peels (Eleocharis tuberosa) were researched for the flavonoid profile for the first time. Twenty flavonoids were isolated and identified, including six new ones, named eleocharins A-F (1-6). Their structures were characterised by spectroscopic methods and compared with published data. The antioxidant activity of the acetone extract, EtOAc fraction, and nBuOH fraction of chufa peels as well as the isolated flavonoids were assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical bioassay. The results showed that chufa peels can be regarded as an excellent source of natural antioxidants (mainly flavonoids) and a good additive in the beverage and canning. PMID:24996301
Luo, Yanghe; Li, Xingren; He, Juan; Su, Jia; Peng, Liyan; Wu, Xingde; Du, Runan; Zhao, Qinshi
Antioxidant activities of wampee peel extracts using five different solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water) were determined by using in-vitro antioxidant models including total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and superoxide scavenging activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions, even higher than synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). In addition, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901), human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG-2) and human lung adenocarcinoma (A-549) cancer cell lines, higher than cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug. The total phenolic content of wampee fraction was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant and anticancer activities of the wampee peel extract. Thus, wampee peel can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.
The E Multiplication-Sign B shear flow plays a dual role on peeling-ballooning modes and their subsequently triggered edge localized mode (ELM) crashes. On one hand, the flow shear can stabilize high-n modes and twist the mode in the poloidal direction, constraining the mode's radial extent and reducing the size of the corresponding ELM. On the other hand, the shear flow also introduces the Kelvin-Helmholtz drive, which can destabilize peeling-ballooning modes. The overall effect of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning modes and ELM crashes depends on the competition between these two effects. When the flow shear is either small or very large, it can reduce ELM size. However, for moderate values of flow shear, the destabilizing effect from the Kelvin-Helmholtz term is dominant and leads to larger ELM crashes.
Xi, P. W. [Fusion Simulation Center, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wang, X. G. [Fusion Simulation Center, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)
The conversion of monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 has been investigated in pH-controlled batch fermentations at 32 and 37 degrees C. pH values and concentration of peel hydrolysate were varied to determine approximate optimal conditions and limitations of these fermentations. Very high yields of ethanol were achieved by this microorganism at reasonable ethanol concentrations (28-48 g/L). The pH range between 5.8 and 6.2 appears to be optimal. The microorganism can convert all major monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol and to smaller amounts of acetic and lactic acids. Acetic acid is coproduced in equimolar amounts with ethanol by catabolism of salts of galacturonic acid. PMID:7668848
BACKGROUND The main protective role of antioxidants in the progression of atherosclerosis has been shown in some studies. Therefore, this project evaluated the effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel on antioxidant activity and atherosclerosis progression in rabbits receiving a hypercholesterolemic diet. METHODS Forty white New Zealand male rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups. All groups were on hypercholesterolemic diet for two months. While the first group was considered as the hypercholesterolemic control, groups 2 and 3 (intervention groups) received 5 ml/day lime juice and 1 g/day dried lime peel powder, respectively. Group 4 was fed a normal diet (normal control). Before and after the study, weight was measured and a fasting blood specimen was taken from the rabbits. Serum lipids analyses and antioxidant activity evaluations were then performed. The rabbits’ aorta and coronary arteries were separated and the presence of fatty streaks was studied. RESULTS Comparing to the hypercholesterolemic control group (-25.2 ± 7.0), only the plasma total antioxidant capacity change was significantly more in rabbits supplemented with lime juice (16.3 ± 14.7) and peel (8.6 ± 7.1) (P = 0.008). The presence of fatty streaks in coronary arteries and aorta of the intervention groups [juice (0.2 ± 0.01); peel (0.0 ± 0.00)] was significantly decreased compared to the hypercholesterolemic control group (1.2 ± 0.4) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Based on our findings, Citrus aurantifolia peel and juice increase plasma antioxidant capacity in rabbits, and can thus prevent or decelerate the process of atherogenesis. However, lime peel is more effective than lime juice.
The influence of the height of the particle bed on the kinetics of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of essential oil from orange peel is analyzed in this article. Peel of dehydrated oranges of the satsuma and naveline cultivars was used. A series of experiments were designed wherein, for the same conditions, particle height varied widely. These experiments were also carried
Enzymatic hydrolysates of orange peel contain relatively high levels of galacturonic acid and arabinose which are not fermentable to ethanol by yeasts. We observed complete utilization of both sugars during fermentation of peel hydrolysates by the ethanologenic construct of E. coli KO11. The bacterium exhibits a novel pattern of galacturonic acid fermentation producing equimolar amounts of acetate and ethanol accompanied
K. Grohmann; E. A. Baldwin; B. S. Buslig; L. O'Neal Ingram
The effect of feeding poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on the nutrient intake and digestibility were evaluated using four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks. The animals were confined individually in metabolism cages and offered the treatment diets (A-D) in a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone
Cassava pulp was fermented with pure strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae and two bacteria namely Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis for 3 days. The squeezed liquid from the fermented pulp was used to ferment cassava peels for 7 days. Analysis of the dried fermented peels revealed that there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the protein content of the
The essential oil profiles of peel and leaf oils of a new Citrus hybrid and its parents, the triploid seedless lime and the diploid Kagzi lime, were established after resolving the oil using capillary GC. The chemical composition of hybrid oil was discussed in comparison with that of its parents. The analytical properties of hybrid peel oil were found to
Y. Selvaraj; M. B. N. V. Prasad; G. Venkateshwarlu
Four, rumen fistulated cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experiment was to study effects of crude saponins and condensed tannins in mangosteen peel on rumen microorganisms and fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in cattle. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = Control (without Mangosteen peel supplementation, MSP); T2 =
Summary The number, its dependence on dose and the life time of radicals, as induced by high energy electron irradiation in potatoe peels, have been measured. The results obtained are discussed as far as the identification of irradi-ation or radiation — induced chemical substances and the structure of the potatoe peel is concerned. Electron spin resonance spectrometry sub sequent to
This paper analyses the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of biological hydrogen production from sugarcane and potato peels using life cycle assessment methodology for the Portuguese scenario. Potato peels are assumed to be produced locally from Portuguese potato cultivation. Sugarcane is assumed to be imported from Brazil and fermented in Portugal. The uncertainty is quantified by a Monte Carlo approach.
Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from lemon peels by using ionic liquid as alternative solvent was investigated. The extracted pectin was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectra. The extraction conditions were optimized through the different experiments in conjunction with the response surface methodology. A pectin yield of 24.68 % was obtained under the optimal parameters: the extraction temperature of 88°C, the extraction time of 9.6?min, and a liquid-solid ratio of 22.7?ml · g?1. The structure of the pretreated lemon peel samples and the samples after microwave-assisted extraction were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope.
We present Print-and-Peel, a high-throughput method to generate multi-component biomolecular arrays with sub-100nm nanoscale feature width. An inkjet printer is first aligned to a parylene template containing nanoscale openings. After printing, the parylene is peeled off to reveal uniformly patterned nanoscale features, despite the imperfect morphologies of the original inkjet spots. We further patterned combinatorial nanoarrays by performing a second print-run superimposed over the first, thereby extending the multiplexing capability of the technique.
Tan, Christine P.; Cipriany, Benjamin R.; Lin, David M.; Craighead, Harold G.
The cost of carbon substrates for microbial reduction of perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is central to the success and competitiveness of a sustainable bioremediation strategy for ClO(4)(-). This study explored the potential application of starch in combination with an amylolytic bacterial consortia and potato peel waste for ClO(4)(-) bioreduction. We obtained a potent amylolytic bacterial consortium that consisted of a Citrobacter sp. S4, Streptomyces sp. S2, Flavobacterium sp. S6, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. S5, Streptomyces sp. S7, and an Aeromonas sp. S8 identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. ClO(4)(-) concentration substantially decreased in purified starch medium inoculated with the amylolytic bacterial consortium and Dechlorosoma sp. perclace. Potato peel waste supported ClO(4)(-) reduction by perclace with the rate of ClO(4)(-) reduction being dependent on the amount of potato peels. Over 90% ClO(4)(-) removal was achieved in 4 days in a single time point experiment with 2% (w/v) potato peels waste. ClO(4)(-) reduction in a non-sterile 0.5% potato peel media inoculated with perclace occurred with an initial concentration of 10.14+/-0.04 mg L(-1) to 2.87+/-0.4 mg L(-1) (71.7% reduction) within 5 days. ClO(4)(-) was not detected in the cultures in 6 days. In a non-sterile 0.5% potato media without perclace, ClO(4)(-) depletion occurred slowly from an initial value of 9.99+/-0.15 mg L(-1) to 6.33+/-0.43 mg L(-1) (36.63% reduction) in 5 days. Thereafter, ClO(4)(-) was rapidly degraded achieving 77.1% reduction in 7 days and not detected in 9 days. No susbstantial reduction of ClO(4)(-) was observed in the sterile potato peel media without perclace in 7 days. Redox potential of the potato peel cultures was favorable for ClO(4)(-) reduction, decreasing to as low as -294 mV in 24 h. Sugar levels remained very low in cultures effectively reducing ClO(4)(-) and was substantially higher in sterilized controls. Our results indicate that potato peel waste in combination with amylolytic microorganisms and Dechlorosoma sp. perclace can be economically used to achieve complete ClO(4)(-) removal from water. PMID:16084965
The effects of wounding oil glands of lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] fruit were investigated. Young mature-green lemons demonstrated significantly lower decay incidence than older yellow fruit when their oil glands were punctured in the presence of postharvest wound pathogen Penicillium digitatum Sacc. Contact with the released gland content on the green lemon surface reduced the viability of P. digitatum spores approximately twice. Wounding caused rapid production of limonene hydroperoxides that persisted for only a few minutes. The magnitude depended on the physiological maturity of the fruit; mature-green fruit produced much higher levels than did yellow lemons. Furthermore, wounding of the oil glands or injection of limonene hydroperoxides into the lemon peel elicited the production of the citrus fruit phytoalexins, scoparone and scopoletin, to levels known to be effective in reducing decay caused by P. digitatum. The mature-green fruit produced about twice as much of these phytoalexins as the older yellow fruit. This induced defensive elicitation of phytoalexin production, as well as the direct effects of these antifungal compounds, markedly inhibited the pathogen in mature-green fruits but was ineffective in older yellow ones. PMID:18298064
Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above
This problem requires a sound understanding of the fraction relationship between part and whole and can be used for finding fractions of numbers and quantities. Students are given the fractional amount of apples in a fruit bowl and the specific number of other fruit in the bowl in order to figure out how many apples are in the bowl. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension, a link to a worksheet which provides student support, and a downloadable pdf of the puzzle.
The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.
We evaluated the exposure to pesticides from the consumption of passion fruits and subsequent human health risks by combining several methods: (i) experimental field studies including the determination of pesticide residues in/on passion fruits, (ii) dynamic plant uptake modelling, and (iii) human health risk assessment concepts. Eight commonly used pesticides were applied onto passion fruits cultivated in Colombia. Pesticide concentrations were measured periodically (between application and harvest) in whole fruits and fruit pulp. Measured concentrations were compared with predicted residues calculated with a dynamic and crop-specific pesticide uptake model, namely dynamiCROP. The model accounts for the time between pesticide application and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the amount of spray deposition on plant surfaces, uptake processes, dilution due to crop growth, degradation in plant components, and reduction due to food processing (peeling). Measured and modelled residues correspond well (r(2)=0.88-0.99), with all predictions falling within the 90% confidence interval of the measured values. A mean error of 43% over all studied pesticides was observed between model estimates and measurements. The fraction of pesticide applied during cultivation that is eventually ingested by humans is on average 10(-4)-10(-6), depending on the time period between application and ingestion and the processing step considered. Model calculations and intake fractions via fruit consumption based on experimental data corresponded well for all pesticides with a deviation of less than a factor of 2. Pesticide residues in fruits measured at recommended harvest dates were all below European Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) and therefore do not indicate any violation of international regulatory thresholds. PMID:22673401
Juraske, Ronnie; Fantke, Peter; Ramírez, Ana Cecilia Romero; González, Alonso
The avocado grown most commonly in New Zealand is the dark skinned variety, 'Hass'. Fungal rots are one of the most important factors which have a detrimental effect on post- harvest fruit quality, and in this variety are usually only apparent when the consumer cuts the fruit open preparatory to eating. Rot fungi have been shown to infect fruit in
Classifications for fruits and vegetables are most helpful for dietary assessment and guidance if they are based on the composition of these foods. This work determined whether levels of food components in fruits and vegetables correlated with classification criteria based on botanic family, color, part of plant, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A database of 104 commonly consumed fruits and
The optimal conditions for preparation of rambutan peel based activated carbon (RPAC) for removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) reactive dye from aqueous solution were investigated. The RPAC was prepared using physiochemical activation method which consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment and carbon dioxide (CO2) gasification. The central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effects of the
Composite wind turbine blades are often attached to a metallic structure with an adhesive bond. The objective of this investigation is to determine which parameters affect the durability of these adhesively bonded joints. The composite-to-steel joint considered in this study typically fails when the adhesive debonds from the steel adherend. Previously, this joint was monotonically loaded in either compression or tension. Compressive and tensile axial loads of the same magnitude produce adhesive stresses with very similar magnitudes but opposite signs. (For the joint considered, tensile loads produce compressive peeh stresses in the adhesive at the location where debonding initiates.) The tensile specimens failed at much higher loads, establishing that the sign of the adhesive peel stresses strongly influences the single-cycle strength of these joints. Building on this earlier work, this study demonstrates that the adhesive peel stresses are also critical for fatigue loading. The results of low-cycle (axial) and high- cycle (bending) fatigue tests are presented. To complement the test results, finite element analyses demonstrate the localized nature of the peel stresses that develop in the adhesive. In addition, these analyses are used to investigate some of the causes of these peel stresses.
Attention is drawn to the development of a new and green alternative technique for the extraction of essential oil from citrus peels. The process uses the hydro-diffusion phenomenon generated by microwaves to extract essential oil from the inside to the outside of the biological material and gravity to collect and separate them. The present apparatus permits fast and efficient extraction,
Nabil Bousbia; Maryline Abert Vian; Mohamed A. Ferhat; Brahim Y. Meklati; Farid Chemat
Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has
Mohamed A. Ferhat; Brahim Y. Meklati; Jacqueline Smadja; Farid Chemat
This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics\\u000a were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had
Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect
In order to manage phosphorus (P) losses from soils to waterbodies, knowledge of the mechanisms through which P is retained or released from the soil is essential. Sandy soils of the Peel-Harvey catchment (Western Australia) were subjected to a range of environmental and management factors in the laboratory and field in order to gain an understanding of the mechanisms that
The principles of building energy simulation and its relationship with heating and cooling energy calculation help to make an integrated evaluation of building energy consumption. This is used to achieve a better and more energy efficient building. The sensitivity analysis of energy efficient HVAC design was used to create an energy efficient Peel Region Headquarters Building. An energy audit was
Seven different extracts, fractions and residues of Navel sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity by the DPPH and luminol induced chemiluminescence methods. Also, the Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. High phenolic content and radical scavenging activities were found for the ethyl acetate fraction. Comparison was made with reference compounds,
Maria A. Anagnostopoulou; Panagiotis Kefalas; Vassilios P. Papageorgiou; Andreana N. Assimopoulou; Dimitrios Boskou
Hyphomycetous (Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phycomycetous (Mucor hiemalis) moulds were cultivated in vitro at room temperature (28 + 20 degrees C) to examined their growth and biomass production on waste banana peel agar (BPA) and broth (BPB) using commercial malt extract agar (MEA) and broth (MEB) as control. The moulds grew comparatively well on banana peel substrates. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in radial growth rates was observed between moulds cultivated on PBA and MEA, although growth rates on MEA were slightly better. Slight variations in sizes of asexual spores and reproductive hyphae were also observed between moulds grown on MEA and BPA. Smaller conidia and sporangiospores, and shorter aerial hyphae (conidiophores and sporangiophores) were noticed in moulds grown on BPA than on MEA. The biomass weight of the test moulds obtained after one month of incubation with BPB were only about 1.8 mg and 1.4 mg less than values recorded for A. fumigatus and M. hiemalis respectively, grown on MEB. The impressive performance of the moulds on banana peel substrate may be attributed to the rich nutrient (particularly the crude protein 7.8% and crude fat 11.6% contents) composition of banana peels. The value of this agricultural waste can therefore be increased by its use not only in the manufacture of mycological medium but also in the production of valuable microfungal biomass which is rich in protein and fatty acids. PMID:15939272
BACKGROUND: Phenol-croton oil formulas for facial peeling contain a mixture of phenol, croton oil, hexachlorophene foam (Septisol; Steris Corp., Mentor, OH), and water. For years, it was felt that the active ingredient of the solution was phenol, with the view that croton oil was little more than an irritant. Hetter reported, based on clinical experience, that the addition of tiny
The objective of this paper is to develop a new mechanistic understanding of moisture affected debonding failures in carbon fiber reinforced polymer CFRP plated concrete systems by mechanically testing accelerated moisture conditioned mesoscale peel and shear interface fracture specimens. Central to the investigation is the use of interface fracture toughness as the quantification parameter of the CFRP-epoxy-concrete trilayer system, which
IT is naturally difficult to obtain direct evidence as to how birds rid themselves of the indigestible parts of the fruit they eat. It is a question to which I have given some attention from its bearing on the dispersal of seeds. I have found large quantities of the seeds of hawthorn, dog-rose, mistletoe, and ivy evidently voided by birds,
In this activity, compare the effectiveness of different traps to catch fruit flies. Is apple cider vinegar or white vinegar better at trapping these little insects? Use this activity to practice the scientific method or as a science fair project. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.
Sugar is the main source of energy for the activities of mosquitoes; however, information on the vital sugar feeding of Aedes albopictus in the field is scanty and often anecdotal. Using glue traps and baits, we evaluated the attraction of Ae. albopictus to 28 different, potential sugar sources. Control traps were baited with either sugar-water solution or water alone, and since there was no significant difference between these controls, the water control was used as the standard for comparison. The total catch amounted to 1347 females and 1127 males. An attraction index (mean number of mosquitoes attracted to the baits/mean number of mosquitoes attracted to the control) was used to compare the relative attraction of the baits. The attraction index of significantly attractive baits ranged from 2.5 to 50.0 and the index of others ranged from 0.50 to 2.75. None of the baits were repellent. Significantly high attraction was observed for four of six ornamental flowers (Tamarix chinensis, Vitex agnus-castus, Polygonum baldchuanicum, Buddleja davidii), four of eleven wild flowers (Prosopis farcta, Ziziphus spina-christi, Polygonum equisetiforme, Ceratonia siliqua), the only tested seed pod when damaged and fermenting (C. siliqua), and all five of the tested fruits: Opuntia ficus indica (sabra), Ficus carica (fig), Punica granatum (pomegranate, damaged), Eriobotyra japonica (loquat), and Rubus sanctus (raspberry). Unlike damaged, fermenting carob seed pods and pomegranates, the fresh fruits were not attractive. Attraction to foliage soiled with honeydew excretion of three different aphid species was also not significant. The potential to use attractive sugar sources for mosquito control is discussed. PMID:21310142
MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruitpeel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936
The banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita Breiter, Passifloraceae) known as "tumbo" is very appreciated in tropical and subtropical countries of South America. Methanolic extracts from peel and the fruit juice of P. tripartita growing in Chile were analyzed for antioxidant capacity as well as for flavonoid and phenolic content. A chromatographic method was developed for the rapid identification of the main phenolics in the samples by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. The fast fingerprint analysis allowed the detection of eighteen flavonoid C-glycosides and four flavonoid O-glycoside derivatives which were characterized by UV spectra and ESI-MS-MS analysis. Several of the C-glycosides detected are structurally related to the orientin derivative 4'-methoxy-luteolin-8-C-(6"acetyl)-b-D-glucopyranoside (31), fully elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant derivative 31 along with schaftoside, vicenin II, orientin and vitexin were isolated from the fruit extract by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). A suitable method for the preparative isolation of flavonol C-glycosides from "tumbo" extracts by HSCCC is reported. The pulp of the fruits showed good antioxidant capacity (12.89 ± 0.02 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). The peel presented the highest content of flavonoids (56.03 ± 4.34 mg quercetin/100 g dry weight) which is related to the highest antioxidant power (10.41 ± 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). PMID:23358325
Simirgiotis, Mario J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Bórquez, Jorge; Kennelly, Edward J
PURPOSE This study investigated the effect of laser parameters and air-abrasion on the peel strength of silicon-based soft denture liner to different denture resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS Specimens (N=180) were prepared out of three different denture base resins (Rodex, cross-linked denture base acrylic resin; Paladent, heat-cured acrylic resin; Deflex, Polyamide resin) (75 mm × 25 mm × 3 mm). A silicon-based soft denture liner (Molloplast B) was applied to the denture resins after the following conditioning methods: a) Air-abrasion (50 µm), b) Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase MD Turbo, Biolase Technology) at 2 W-20 Hz, c) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 2 W-30 Hz, d) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-20 Hz, e) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-30 Hz. Non-conditioned group acted as the control group. Peel test was performed in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were evaluated visually. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=.05). RESULTS Denture liner tested showed increased peel strength after laser treatment with different parameters (3.9±0.4 - 5.58±0.6 MPa) compared to the control (3.64±0.5 - 4.58±0.5 MPa) and air-abraded groups (3.1±0.6 - 4.46±0.3 MPa), but the results were not statistically significant except for Paladent, with the pretreatment of Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-20 Hz. Polyamide resin after air-abrasion showed significantly lower peel strength than those of other groups (3.1±0.6 MPa). CONCLUSION Heat-cured acrylic resin, PMMA, may benefit from Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment at 3 W-20 Hz irradiation. Air-abrasion of polyamide resins should be avoided not to impair their peel bond strengths to silicon-based soft denture liners.
The main components of citrus fruit quality (organic acids, sugars, and aromatic compounds) were studied in fruits of a somatic hybrid allotetraploid between Willow leaf mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Ten.) + Eureka lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] and the two diploid parents. The somatic hybrid (WLM + EUR) combined both nuclear genomes of the parents, with chloroplasts and mitochondria of mandarin. Variations in sugar and acid content were studied in fruit pulp during the maturing period, and the chemical composition of peel oils was investigated by capillary gas chromatography (GC), GC/mass spectrometry (MS), and (13)C NMR. The somatic hybrid was close to the lemon parent in the synthesis of organic acids and close to the mandarin parent in fructose content, while sucrose and glucose contents were between the two parents. The aromatic compounds of WLM + EUR were close to mandarin with a non-negligible effect of lemon, which inhibits the methyl N-methylanthranilate, a mandarin-specific compound. Our results lead us to conclude that biosynthesis of compounds involved in citrus fruit quality is not inherited in an additive way in the allotetraploid hybrid. We observed mandarin dominance for fructose and most of the aromatic compounds, lemon dominance for organic acid and methyl N-methylanthranilate, and codominance for sucrose and glucose. PMID:19425535
Wound ethylene formation induced in flavede tissue of citrus fruit (Citrus paradisi MacFad. cv. Ruby Red) by slicing was almost completely inhibited by exogenous ethylene. The inhibition lasted for at least 6 hours after removal of exogenous ethylene and was then gradually relieved. The extent of inhibition was dependent upon the concentration of ethylene (1 to 10 microliters/liter) and the duration of treatment. The increase in wound ethylene production in control discs was paralleled by an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (AAC) content, whereas in ethylene-treated discs there was little increase in ACC content. Application of ACC completely restored ethylene production in ethylene-pretreated discs, indicating that the conversion of ACC to ethylene is not impaired by the presence of ethylene. Thus, autoinhibition of ethylene synthesis was exerted by reducing the availability of ACC. Ethylene treatment resulted in a decrease in extractable ACC synthase activity, but this decrease was too small to account for the marked inhibition of ACC formation. The data indicate that autoinhibition of ethylene production in citrus flavede discs results from suppression of ACC formation through repression of the synthesis of ACC synthase and inhibition of its activity.
Natural rubber latex immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity is probably one of the most relevant challenges that has been faced in the treatment of allergies during recent years. Additionally, allergen cross-reactivity has arisen as another very important problem, in the difficulty in diagnosing it and in its clinical implications. It is clear that some latex allergens cross-react with plant-derived food allergens, the so-called latex-fruit syndrome, with evident clinical consequences. Although the foods most frequently involved are banana, avocado, kiwi, and chestnut, several others are also implicated. Investigations point to a group of defense-related plant proteins, class I chitinases, which cross-react with a major latex allergen, hevein, as the panallergens responsible for the syndrome. This review focuses on our current understanding of the latex-fruit syndrome. PMID:12542994
Bergamot peel is an underutilized byproduct of the essential oil and juice-processing industry. As with other Citrus peels, it still contains exploitable components, such as pectins and flavonoids. Commercial glycoside hydrolases, specifically a combination of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, solubilized a high percentage of the material (81.94%). The flavonoid profile of the peel consisted of characteristic Citrus species flavanone rutinosides and neohesperosides derived from naringenin, eriodictyol, and hesperetin. In addition, a number of minor flavanone and flavone glycosides, not found in orange and lemon peels, were identified. The majority of flavonoids were extracted in the two 70% v/v EtOH extractions. Processing this material clearly has economic potential leading to low environmental impact. PMID:16390199
Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bennett, Richard N; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Saija, Antonella; Dugo, Giacomo; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W
...manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel-apart film articles. 723.175...2604). (8) The term instant photographic film article means a self-developing...identify and describe the instant photographic film article(s) or...
...manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel-apart film articles. 723.175...2604). (8) The term instant photographic film article means a self-developing...identify and describe the instant photographic film article(s) or...
Most people love to eat fresh fruits, and today there are dozens to choose from--from "standard" fruits like apple, orange, and banana to more exotic fruits like mango, star fruit, and lychee. But how exactly do fruits ripen to taste so good?
Prostate cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among U.S. males, with a similar trend in many Western countries. One approach to control this malignancy is its prevention through the use of agents present in diet consumed by humans. Pomegranate from the tree Punica granatum possesses strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. We
Arshi Malik; Farrukh Afaq; Sami Sarfaraz; Vaqar M. Adhami; Deeba N. Syed; Hasan Mukhtar
The aim of this work is to determine the potential of application of banana peel as a biosorbent for removing phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewaters. The effect of adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the increase in the banana peel dosage from 10 to 30g\\/L significantly increased the phenolic compounds adsorption rates from
M. Achak; A. Hafidi; N. Ouazzani; S. Sayadi; L. Mandi
Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste\\u000a orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using\\u000a a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains d-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85
The main aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity ultrasound (US) on the drying kinetics of orange peel\\u000a as well as its influence on the microstructural changes induced during drying. Convective drying kinetics of orange peel slabs\\u000a were carried out at a relative humidity of 26.5?±?0.9%, 40 °C and 1 m\\/s with (AIR+US) and without (AIR) ultrasound application.
Jose Vicente Garcia-Perez; Carmen Ortuño; Ana Puig; Juan A. Carcel; Isabel Perez-Munuera
The influence of supplementati on of poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on milk yield and composition of White Fulani (Bunaji) cows were evaluated in this study. Four cows in 2nd parity and mid- lactation stage were fed 4 concentrate diets (A, B, C, D) consecutively in a 4x4 latin square arrangement. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel,
Unacceptable hard tissue can be detected in pre-peeled potatoes after cooking. Pectin methyl esterase (PME) has been suspected to facilitate formation of Ca-bridges between pectin molecules by deesterification of the uronic acids. But this has also been questioned, due to the low storage temperature of the peeled tubers, optimum of PME being 50–70°C. Hardness in tubers was induced by several
Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.
Diurnal change in the temperature below or above 12.5 degrees C hastens the degreening of citrus peel and elicits the phytohormone ethylene production in citrus fruit. Ethylene triggers the degradation of chlorophyll and synthesis of carotenoids in citrus peel. To investigate if ethylene is required for the degreening of citrus peel elicited by low temperatures, we studied the chilling-regulated gene expression of ACC synthase, one of the key enzymes catalyzing ethylene biosynthesis. We isolated and characterized a chilling-inducible 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase) gene, CS-ACS1, and a chilling-repressible gene, CS-ACS2, from citrus peel. The CS-ACS1 transcript 1.7 kb in length encodes a polypeptide of 483 amino acids (Mr 54,115, pI 6.63), whereas the CS-ACS2 transcript of 1.8 kb encodes a polypeptide of 477 amino acids (Mr 53,291, pI 6.72). Both genes showed a rapid but transient induction (within 2.4 h) of transcripts upon rewarming after the chilling (4 degrees C) treatment. After 24 h of incubation at room temperature, CS-ACS1 mRNA diminished to an undetectable level, whereas the CS-ACS2 mRNA regained its basal level of expression attained prior to the chilling treatment. Chilling-induced ethylene production and ACC accumulation were also observed upon rewarming. Both genes were also induced by the wound stress (excision). The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide super-enhances the accumulation of both ACS transcripts at room temperature. Molecular analysis of the 3.3 kb genomic DNA of CS-ACS1 revealed that this gene consists of three introns and four exons. The intron 3 is exceptionally large ( 1.2 kb) and shares significant homology with mitochondrial DNA, supporting the intron-late theory. PMID:10645719
Wong, W S; Ning, W; Xu, P L; Kung, S D; Yang, S F; Li, N
A271 QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALOONING MODES. Several testable features of the working model of edge localized modes (ELMs) as intermediate toroidal mode number peeling-ballooning modes are evaluated quantitatively using DIII-D and JT-60U experimental data and the ELITE MHD stability code. These include the hypothesis that ELM sizes are related to the radial widths of the unstable MHD modes, the unstable modes have a strong ballooning character localized in the outboard bad curvature region, and ELM size generally becomes smaller at high edge collisionality. ELMs are triggered when the growth rates of the unstable MHD modes become significantly large. These testable features are consistent with many ELM observations in DIII-D and JT-60U discharges.
Liquid-phase adsorption removal of Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Pb2+ in the concentration range of 5-25 mg/L using low-cost banana and orange peel wastes was examined at 30 degrees C. Under comparable conditions, the amount of adsorption decreased in the order Pb2+ > Ni2+ > Zn2+ > Cu2+ > Co2+ for both adsorbents. The adsorption isotherms could be better described by the Freundlich equation. The amount of adsorption increased with increasing pH and reached a plateau at pH > 7, which was confirmed by the variations of zeta potentials. The application potential of such cellulose-based wastes for metal removal (up to 7.97 mg Pb2+ per gram of banana peel at pH 5.5) at trace levels appeared to be promising. PMID:12578193
An analytical approach is proposed in the reduction of free edge peeling stresses of laminated composites using active piezoelectric layers. The approach is the extended Kantorovich method which is an iterative method. Multiterms of trial function are employed and governing equations are derived by taking the principle of complementary virtual work. The solutions are obtained by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. By this approach, the stresses automatically satisfy not only the traction-free boundary conditions, but also the free edge boundary conditions. Through the iteration processes, the free edge stresses converge very quickly. It is found that the peeling stresses generated by mechanical loadings are significantly reduced by applying a proper electric field to the piezoelectric actuators.
Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472
Serrano, Antonio; Siles López, José Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martín, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan
This paper details part of an effort focused on the development of a standardized facesheet/core peel debonding test procedure. The purpose of the test is to characterize facesheet/core peel in sandwich structure, accomplished through the measurement of the critical strain energy release rate associated with the debonding process. The specific test method selected for the standardized test procedure utilizes a single cantilever beam (SCB) specimen configuration. The objective of the current work is to develop a method for establishing SCB specimen dimensions. This is achieved by imposing specific limitations on specimen dimensions, with the objectives of promoting a linear elastic specimen response, and simplifying the data reduction method required for computing the critical strain energy release rate associated with debonding. The sizing method is also designed to be suitable for incorporation into a standardized test protocol. Preliminary application of the resulting sizing method yields practical specimen dimensions.
Dye-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and gas tamponade is the surgery of choice for idiopathic macular holes. Indocyanine green and trypan blue have been extensively used to stain the ILM. However, the retinal toxicity of indocyanine green and non-uniform staining with trypan blue has necessitated development of newer vital dyes. Brilliant blue G has recently been introduced as one such dye with adequate ILM staining and no reported retinal toxicity. We performed a 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling in six patients with idiopathic macular holes, to assess the staining characteristics and short-term adverse effects of this dye. Adequate staining assisted in the complete removal of ILM and closure of macular holes in all cases. There was no evidence of intraoperative or postoperative dye-related toxicity. Brilliant blue G appears to be safe dye for ILM staining in macular hole surgery. PMID:21350290
Peeling delicate retinal membranes, which are often less than 5 µm thick, is one of the most challenging retinal surgeries. Preventing rips and tears caused by tremor and excessive force can decrease injury and reduce the need for follow up surgeries. We propose the use of a fully handheld microsurgical robot to suppress tremor while enforcing helpful constraints on the motion of the tool. Using stereo vision and tracking algorithms, the robot activates motion-scaled behavior as the tip reaches the surface, providing finer control during the critical step of engaging the membrane edge. A hard virtual fixture just below the surface limits the total downward force that can be applied. Furthermore, velocity limiting during the peeling helps the surgeon maintain a smooth, constant force while lifting and delaminating the membrane. On a phantom consisting of plastic wrap stretched across a rubber slide, we demonstrate our approach reduces maximum force by 40–70%.
Becker, Brian C.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Lobes, Louis A.; Riviere, Cameron N.
Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a “beauty parlor” session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role.
Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya
The growing demand for citric acid and the current need for alternative sources have encouraged biotechnologists to search for novel and economical substrates. Koji fermentation was conducted using the peels of banana (Musa acuminata) as an inexpensive substrate for the production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger. Various crucial parameters that affect citric acid production such as moisture content, temperature, pH, inoculum level and incubation time were quantified. Moisture (70%), 28 degrees C temperature, an initial pH 3, 10(8) spores/ml as inoculum and 72h incubation was found to be suitable for maximum citric acid production by A. niger using banana peel as a substrate. PMID:20219361
The effective utilization of potato peel, a waste generated in large quantities by the food industry, as an antioxidant was investigated. Potato peel extract (PPE) exhibited high phenolic content (70.82 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), chlorogenic acid (27.56 mg/100 g of sample) being the major component. The yield of total phenolics and chlorogenic acid increased by 26 and 60%, respectively, when the extract was prepared from gamma irradiated (150 Gy) potatoes. PPE showed excellent antioxidant activity as determined by beta-carotene bleaching and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The suitability of PPE for controlling lipid oxidation of radiation processed lamb meat was also investigated. PPE (0.04%) when added to meat before radiation processing was found to retard lipid peroxidation of irradiated meat as measured by TBA number and carbonyl content. The antioxidant activity of PPE was found to be comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). PMID:15740031
Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a "beauty parlor" session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role. PMID:24822131
Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya
Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonene found to inhibit succinate and acetate generation and bacterial growth were 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.06% (v/v), respectively. Both pre-treated orange peel by steam distillation to remove D: -limonene and intact wheat straw were used as feedstocks. Increasing the substrate concentrations of both feedstocks, from 5 to 60 g/L, elevated succinate concentration and productivity but lowered the yield. In addition, pre-treated orange peel generated greater succinate productivities than wheat straw but had similar resultant titres. The greatest succinate titres were 1.9 and 2.0 g/L for pre-treated orange peel and wheat straw, respectively. This work demonstrated that agricultural waste such as wheat straw and orange peel can be biotransformed to succinic acid by a one-step consolidated bioprocessing. Measures to increase fermentation efficiency are also discussed. PMID:20645087
The effects of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) on waste banana peels for copper adsorption were evaluated. Supercritical CO2 was employed both in a solvent extraction for antioxidant compound recovery and in an emerging biomass treatment to increase the subsequent heavy metal-removal step; the latter is termed “explosion with supercritical CO2”. This lignocellulosic biomass was analyzed before and after being subjected
Juliana Q. Albarelli; Rodrigo B. Rabelo; Diego T. Santos; Marisa M. Beppu; M. Angela A. Meireles
An experimental design was used to study the influence of pH (1.5 and 2.0), temperature (80 and 90°C) and time (1 and 4h) on extraction of pectin from banana peels (Musa AAA). Yield of extracted pectins, their composition (neutral sugars, galacturonic acid, and degree of esterification) and some macromolecular characteristics (average molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity) were determined. It was found
Thomas Happi Emaga; Sébastien N. Ronkart; Christelle Robert; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot
Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) peel extracts obtained in this work had a high capacity to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+) free radicals, and they were also good lipid peroxidation inhibitors. Acetone:water extracts were considerably more effective (compared with met