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1

Physical and Chemical Properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruit in Maturation Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars obtained from different growing regions of Iran were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties. These properties included fruit fresh weight, volume and density, peel thickness, soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), EC, pH, vitamin C, ellagic acid content of juice and peel, total antioxidant activity of peel and juice and etc. Fruit weight

Vahid Akbarpour; Khodayar Hemmati; Mehdi Sharifani

2009-01-01

2

A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and the individual constituents responsible for them. This review provides an insight on the phytochemical components that contribute too antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect, and numerous other effects of wonderful, economic, and eco-friendly pomegranate peel extract (PP). PMID:23878603

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

2013-01-01

3

Wound healing activity of the fruit skin of Punica granatum.  

PubMed

The skin of the fruit and the bark of Punica granatum are used as a traditional remedy against diarrhea, dysentery, and intestinal parasites. The fruit skin extract of P. granatum was tested for its wound healing activity in rats using an excision wound model. The animals were divided into three groups of six each. The experimental group of animals was topically treated with P. granatum at a dose of 100 mg/kg every day for 15 days, while the controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of saponins, triterpenes, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides. Extract-treated animals exhibited 95% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls (84%), which was statistically significant (P<.01). The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelize faster compared with controls. The hydroxyproline content of extract-treated animals was significantly higher than controls (P<.05). The fruit skin extract did not show any antimicrobial activity against the microrganisms tested. P. granatum promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:24044494

Nayak, Shivananda B; Rodrigues, Vincent; Maharaj, Sandeep; Bhogadi, Venkata Sai

2013-09-01

4

Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum  

PubMed Central

Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG) and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, ?-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in ?-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25??g/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41??g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400?mg/kg, p.o.) and VAD (10, 25, and 50?mg/kg, p.o.) have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400?mg/kg, p.o.), VAD (10, 25, and 50?mg/kg, p.o.), and glibenclamide (10?mg/kg, p.o.) treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:22919408

Jain, Vishal; Viswanatha, G. L.; Manohar, D.; Shivaprasad, H. N.

2012-01-01

5

Assessment of the genotoxic risk of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) whole fruit extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) whole fruit extracts, have been used in Cuban traditional medicine as an effective drug for the treatment of respiratory diseases. This species showed interesting anti-viral activity, e.g. aqueous or hydroalcoholic extracts of whole fruits have proved highly active against the influenza virus. However, some toxic properties of this extract have also been reported and, to date,

Angel Sánchez-Lamar; Gladys Fonseca; Jorge Luis Fuentes; Renata Cozzi; Enrico Cundari; Mario Fiore; Ruggero Ricordy; Paolo Perticone; Francesca Degrassi; Rosella De Salvia

2008-01-01

6

Effect of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel powder (DPPP) on textural, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of biscuits.  

PubMed

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, hence could be used in the development of functional food formulations. Attempt was made to see the effect of dried pomegranate peel powder (DPPP) and emulsifiers on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of biscuits. Incorporation of DPPP from 0 to 10% increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability, increased amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity of wheat flour; increased hardness and decreased cohesiveness of biscuit dough; decreased spread ratio and increased breaking strength of biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 7.5% DPPP were acceptable. Among emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate significantly improved the quality characteristics of 7.5% DPPP incorporated biscuits. Addition of 7.5% DPPP increased the protein, dietary fibre, minerals, anti-oxidant activity and ?-carotene contents of biscuits. The studies indicated the possibility of utilizing DPPP to improve the nutritional characteristics of biscuits. PMID:25019979

Srivastava, Prateeti; Indrani, D; Singh, R P

2014-11-01

7

Changes in physical and chemical properties during pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical studies of pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum) variety Taifi, including total seed juice extracted from unripe, half-ripe and full-ripe stages are reported. Edible portion of pomegranate (57.51% of total fruit wt.) comprised 63.58% of juice and 36.21% of seeds. Fresh juice contained 84.57% moisture, 14.1% sugar, 1.05% protein and 0.33% ash. Total protein, ascorbic acid, fat and phenolic compounds in

Salah A Al-Maiman; Dilshad Ahmad

2002-01-01

8

Protective Effect of Punica granatum Peel and Vitis vinifera Seeds on DEN-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatocellular Damage in Rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues. PMID:25304489

Kumar, Ashok K; K, Vijayalakshmi

2015-01-01

9

Evaluation of Irradiation and Heat Treatment on Antioxidant Properties of Fruit Peel Extracts and Its Potential Application During Preservation of Goat Fish Parupenaeus indicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quenching capacities of Vitus vinifera seed extract, Citrus limon peel extract, Punica granatum peel extract, and Citrus sinensis peel extract were studied together with their antioxidant activity in goat fish (Parupenaeus indicus). The functionality of the extracts was evaluated using ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system, reducing power assay, DPPH,\\u000a hydroxyl, and nitrite radical scavenging assay. V. vinifera and P. granatum

Alagesan Paari; Hari Krishnam Naidu; Paulraj Kanmani; Ramraj Satishkumar; Neelakandan Yuvaraj; Vellaiyan Pattukumar; Venkatesan Arul

10

Protective role of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel and seed oil extracts on diethylnitrosamine and phenobarbital-induced hepatic injury in male rats.  

PubMed

The present study is an attempt to reveal the protective role of Punica granatum peel and seed oil extracts against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and phenobarbital (PB) induced hepatic injury in rats. DEN administration increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 and glutathione reductase (GSR) activities, while the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and total glutathione peroxidase (t-GPx) were decreased compared with the control. Treatment with peel and seed oil extracts pre, during and post DEN administration improved liver functions, decreased the levels of MDA, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 and GSR activities with an elevation in levels of GSH, SOD, GST and t-GPx activities. This indicates that these extracts reduced the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DEN. Also the effect of administration of PE and SOE separately for a long time (23 weeks) on healthy rats was studied. PMID:23870864

Shaban, Nadia Z; El-Kersh, Mohamed A L; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; Habashy, Noha H

2013-12-01

11

Differentiation-Promoting Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Fruit Extracts in HL60 Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation refers to the ability of cancer cells to revert to their normal counterparts, and its induction rep- resents an important noncytotoxic therapy for leukemia, and also breast, prostate, and other solid malignancies. Flavonoids are a group of differentiation-inducing chemicals with a potentially lower toxicology profile than retinoids. Flavonoid-rich polyphenol fractions from the pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit exert anti-proliferative, anti-invasive,

Satoru Kawaii; Ephraim P. Lansky

2004-01-01

12

Extraction of Citrus Oil from Peel Slurry of Japanese Citrus Fruits with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peel slurry of some Japanese citrus fruits, such as lemon, shikuwasa and daidai, was used as an alternative source of citrus oil and the extraction was conducted by using supercritical carbon dioxide at 333 K and 20 MPa in order to compare the compositions and the extraction efficiency of oils extracted from these slurries. The peel slurry of citrus fruits

Bhupesh C. Roy; M. Sasaki; M. Goto

2005-01-01

13

Original article Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel  

E-print Network

Original article Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis; Accepted in revised form 1 April 2008) Summary Pectin was extracted from passion fruit peel using threeH and extraction time had highly significant effects on the pectin yield. A central composite design with face

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

14

Antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of common fruits as determined by FRAP assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of 28 fruits commonly consumed in China were determined using the ferric reducing\\/antioxidant power assay (FRAP assay). The contribution of vitamin C to the antioxidant activity of fruit pulps was also calculated. The results showed that hawthorn pulp had the highest FRAP value among all fruit pulps and followed by date,

Changjiang Guo; Jijun Yang; Jingyu Wei; Yunfeng Li; Jing Xu; Yugang Jiang

2003-01-01

15

Essential and toxic elements in three Pakistan's medicinal fruits (Punica granatum, Ziziphus jujuba and Piper cubeba) analysed by INAA.  

PubMed

Three important medicinal fruits generally used by the people of Pakistan for the treatment of different diseases have been studied for their mineral contents. Twenty-two major and minor trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were identified in Punica granatum (pomegranate), Ziziphus jujuba (jujube) and Piper cubeba L. (cubeb) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The studied medicinal herbs are a good source of the essential elements while toxic elements are found in trace amounts. K is detected as a major element in pomegranate, jujube and cubeb with respective values of 1.20%, 1.18% and 2.01%. Pomegranate has significant concentrations of Na, Zn, Cr and Se; jujube has high Cl, Zn, Mn and Co contents while cubeb is a good source of K and Fe. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of mineral elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal herbs. PMID:22017565

Fatima, Ismat; Waheed, Shahida; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain

2012-05-01

16

Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: Grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus×aurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)

Rafaela Guimarães; Lillian Barros; João C. M. Barreira; Ana Maria Carvalho; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

2010-01-01

17

Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to elucidate the inhibitory potential of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract on mouse skin papillomagensis with the modulatory influence of biotransformation system enzymes. Topical application of Momordica whole fruit extract (100 microl/animal per day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and/or during the tumor promotion stage reduced the (i) tumor burden to 4.26, 3.72 and 3.11 (positive control value: 5.42); (ii) cumulative number of papillomas to 81, 67 and 53 (positive control value: 103); and (iii) percent incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 100, 94 and 94, respectively (positive control value: 100). In a comparison of the anticarcinogenic efficacy of Momordica peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract (100 microl/animal per day), after topical treatment during the peri-initiation and during the tumor promotion stage, revealed the modulation of the (i) tumor burden (tumors/mouse) to 3.06, 3.61, 3.17 and 3.11; (ii) cumulative number of papillomas to 49, 65, 54 and 53; and (iii) percent incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 84, 100, 94 and 94, respectively. Significant elevation in the sulfhydryl (-SH) level was observed in the liver and skin tissues by the topical treatment of Momordica peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract. Elevation in the hepatic levels of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and microsomal cytochrome b, was also observed by the topical treatment of Momordica peel, seed and whole fruit extract. The results suggest the maximum chemopreventive potential is in the Momordica peel. Equivocal efficacy is in the Momordica seed and whole fruit extract. Biotransformation system enzymes may be the cause of this reduced papillomagenesis. PMID:9544697

Singh, A; Singh, S P; Bamezai, R

1998-01-16

18

A New Hydroxy-acid in the Peel of Apple Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the examination of paper chromatograms of extracts from whole mature Edward VII apples, a faint acid spot appeared which did not correspond in position with any of the usual fruit acids. On chromatograms of extracts of peel tissue only, the unknown acid appeared to be present in an amount approximately one-quarter that of the malic acid present (the chief

A. C. Hulme

1953-01-01

19

Two Types of Sunburn in Apple Caused by High Fruit Surface (Peel) Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunburn of apple costs growers millions of dollars in economic losses annually. We have identified two types of sunburn in apple and their causes. The first (sunburn necrosis) is caused by thermal death of epidermal and subepidermal cells (peel), and causes a necrotic spot on the sun-exposed side of the fruit. Thermal death occurs at 126 ± 2°F (52 ±

Larry E. Schrader; Jianguang Zhang; William K. Duplaga

2001-01-01

20

Mass modeling of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit with some physical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among physical characteristics, dimensions, mass, volume and projected areas are important parameters in sizing and grading systems. Fruits with the similar weight and uniform shape are desirable in terms of marketing value. Therefore, grading fruit based on weight reduces packing and handling costs and also provides suitable packing patterns. The different grading systems require different fruit sizing based on particular

F. Khoshnam; A. Tabatabaeefar; M. Ghasemi Varnamkhasti; A. Borghei

2007-01-01

21

Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using  

E-print Network

passion fruit (P. edulis Sims), typically consumed fresh due to its sweeter taste, and the yellow passionOptimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis for extraction of high-ester yellow passion fruit pectin. Ã? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

22

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel.  

PubMed

In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction technology was employed to investigate and optimize the crude polysaccharide extraction from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel using three levels, four factors (LS ratio, ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time) Box-Behnken response surface design. The results showed that highest polysaccharide yield of 8.31% was obtained with an LS ratio of 32:1 ml:g, ultrasonic power of 110 W, extraction temperature of 53°C and extraction time of 41 min. The experimental yield of polysaccharide (8.29±0.03%) at optimal condition was well agreed with the predicted value. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the identification of functional groups present in the extracted polysaccharide. The results suggest that ultrasound-assisted extraction could be a good alternative for the extraction of polysaccharide from N. lappaceum L. fruit peel at industrial level. PMID:25064556

Maran, J Prakash; Priya, B

2014-09-01

23

A pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) WD40-repeat gene is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis TTG1 and is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins are the major pigments responsible for the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit skin color. The high variability in fruit external color in pomegranate cultivars reflects variations in anthocyanin\\u000a composition. To identify genes involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in the pomegranate fruit skin\\u000a we have isolated, expressed and characterized the pomegranate homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT

Zohar Ben-Simhon; Sylvie Judeinstein; Talia Nadler-Hassar; Taly Trainin; Irit Bar-Ya’akov; Hamutal Borochov-Neori; Doron Holland

24

Ethylene Induces de novo Synthesis of Chlorophyllase, a Chlorophyll Degrading Enzyme, in Citrus Fruit Peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyllase (Chlase; EC 3.1.1.14) was extracted from plastid fractions of ethylene-treated orange fruit peel and purified 400-fold to homogeneity by gel filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and preparative SDS\\/PAGE of nonheated protein. SDS\\/PAGE of nonheated purified enzyme indicated that Chlase activity is associated with a single protein band migrating at an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa whereas the heated purified enzyme

Tova Trebitsh; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt; Joseph Riov

1993-01-01

25

Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf  

PubMed Central

The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

2011-01-01

26

Involvement of ethylene in chlorophyll degradation in peel of citrus fruits.  

PubMed

The effect of ethylene on chlorophyll degradation in the peel of Robinson tangerine (X Citrus reticulata Blanco) and calamondin (X Citrofortunellamitis [Blanco] Ingram and Moore) fruits was studied. The chlorophyll degrading system in the peel of these two citrus species was not self-sustaining but required ethylene to function. Chlorophyll degradation ceased immediately when fruit were removed from ethylene and held in ethylene-free air at 0.2 atmospheric pressure. However, at atmospheric pressure, chlorophyll degradation continued for 24 hours in the absence of exogenous ethylene. Although chlorophyllase levels were negatively correlated with chlorophyll content in the peel (r = -0.981; P < 0.01), the level of chlorophyllase activity did not change when fruit were removed from ethylene, even though chlorophyll degradation had stopped. From these observations, it was concluded that ethylene is necessary for chlorophyll degradation in the two species of citrus studied, but its primary role is not solely for the induction of chlorophyllase activity. PMID:16662012

Purvis, A C; Barmore, C R

1981-10-01

27

Involvement of Ethylene in Chlorophyll Degradation in Peel of Citrus Fruits 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of ethylene on chlorophyll degradation in the peel of Robinson tangerine (X Citrus reticulata Blanco) and calamondin (X Citrofortunellamitis [Blanco] Ingram and Moore) fruits was studied. The chlorophyll degrading system in the peel of these two citrus species was not self-sustaining but required ethylene to function. Chlorophyll degradation ceased immediately when fruit were removed from ethylene and held in ethylene-free air at 0.2 atmospheric pressure. However, at atmospheric pressure, chlorophyll degradation continued for 24 hours in the absence of exogenous ethylene. Although chlorophyllase levels were negatively correlated with chlorophyll content in the peel (r = ?0.981; P < 0.01), the level of chlorophyllase activity did not change when fruit were removed from ethylene, even though chlorophyll degradation had stopped. From these observations, it was concluded that ethylene is necessary for chlorophyll degradation in the two species of citrus studied, but its primary role is not solely for the induction of chlorophyllase activity. PMID:16662012

Purvis, Albert C.; Barmore, Charles R.

1981-01-01

28

Inhibition of melanin content by Punicalagins in the super fruit pomegranate (Punica granatum).  

PubMed

Current efforts to develop effective skin lightening products through the inhibition of melanin production have focused on compounds that inhibit the function and activity of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the melanin biosynthesis pathway. Synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors, such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, and arbutin, have been reported to cause skin irritation or acute dermatitis, raising concerns about the safety of these compounds. As a result, there is a need for safe natural ingredients that show effective skin lightening. In this report, we have identified a natural ingredient, pomegranate fruit extract, that inhibits melanin production in melanocytes and shows potential for use as a cosmetic skin lightening agent. In addition, we have identified a polyphenolic compound, punicalagins, as the active melanin inhibitor in pomegranate fruit extract based on its capacity to directly inhibit melanin production. PMID:24397882

Rana, Jatinder; Diwakar, Ganesh; Saito, Lisa; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Mulder, Timothy

2013-01-01

29

Comparative analysis of polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tunisian pome fruit pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts.  

PubMed

Pome trees, apple, pear, and quince, are classified into the subfamily Pomoideae, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Their autumnal fruits are consumed worldwide in different forms, that is, fresh or transformed into jams, jelly, juices, etc. Their well-established beneficial properties to human health were found mainly related to their phenolic content. Pulp and peel aqueous acetone extracts obtained from Tunisian fruits at commercial maturity were comparatively evaluated for their phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials. The phenolic compounds present in the extracts were identified and quantified using RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS techniques. Significant differences in the chromatographic profiles among these fruits, as well as between pulp and peel extracts of each fruit, were observed. Quince, followed by 'Red Delicious', peel extracts showed the highest phenolic content (160.33 and 110.90 mg/100 g of fresh weight). The stronger inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals corresponded to those obtained from peel materials. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial potential against a range of microorganism strains was also carried out. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus were the most sensitive to the active extracts. Among the examined phenolic extracts, 'Red Delicious' and quince peels showed the highest effects for inhibiting bacteria growth. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(4) microg of polyphenol/mL. Red skin apple and quince peels could be of great interest as important antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenol sources. PMID:18181568

Fattouch, S; Caboni, P; Coroneo, V; Tuberoso, C; Angioni, A; Dessi, S; Marzouki, N; Cabras, P

2008-02-13

30

Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 ?g/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 ?g/ml and 15.88 ?g/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant comprising of more than 50% of total phenolic compounds detected in each cultivar. Conclusions The present study showed that the tested pomegranate peels exhibited strong antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities. These results suggest that pomegranate fruit peel could be exploited as a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents as well as tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:23110485

2012-01-01

31

Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic Activity of Citrus limetta Fruit Peel in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

The present paper aims to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of methanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peel (MECL) in streptozotocin-induced (STZ; 65?mg/kg b.w.) diabetic rats. Three days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received MECL orally at 200 and 400?mg kg?1 body weight daily for 15 days. Glibenclamide (0.5?mg kg?1 p. o.) was used as reference drug. Blood glucose levels were measured on 0th, 4th, 8th, and 15th days of study. Serum biochemical parameters namely, SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The TBARS and GSH levels of pancreas, kidney, and liver were determined. MECL significantly (P < 0.001) and dose dependently normalized blood glucose levels and serum biochemical parameters, decreased lipid peroxidation, and recovered GSH as compared to those of STZ control. The present paper infers that in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats, C. limetta fruit peel demonstrated a potential antihyperglycemic effect which may be attributed to its antioxidant property. PMID:22363893

KunduSen, Sriparna; Haldar, Pallab K.; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K.; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Kar, Biswakanth

2011-01-01

32

Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

2012-01-01

33

Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.  

PubMed

Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted. PMID:25129791

Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

2014-11-01

34

Ethylene induces de novo synthesis of chlorophyllase, a chlorophyll degrading enzyme, in Citrus fruit peel.  

PubMed

Chlorophyllase (Chlase; EC 3.1.1.14) was extracted from plastid fractions of ethylene-treated orange fruit peel and purified 400-fold to homogeneity by gel filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and preparative SDS/PAGE of nonheated protein. SDS/PAGE of nonheated purified enzyme indicated that Chlase activity is associated with a single protein band migrating at an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa whereas the heated purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 35 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the purified protein was determined. The purified enzyme was used as an immunogen for raising antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum was highly specific and on Western blots recognized both the heated and the nonheated form of Chlase. The antibodies also recognized the solubilized enzyme, as shown by an immunoprecipitation assay and by antigen-antibody capture assays in microtiter plates. Treatment with ethylene, which enhances degreening, increased Chlase activity 12-fold. Immunoblot analyses of crude extracts from ethylene-treated fruit detected a strong signal of the Chlase protein, while only a trace level of the enzyme protein could be detected in air. Gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine partly counteracted the ethylene-induced increase in Chlase activity as well as the immunodetected upsurge of the Chlase protein. Ethylene appears to enhance the degreening of citrus fruit through de novo synthesis of the Chlase protein, which in turn is inhibited by the senescence-delaying regulators, gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine. The Chlase enzyme protein may, therefore, serve as a model system for studying the hormonal molecular regulation of fruit ripening and senescence. PMID:11607429

Trebitsh, T; Goldschmidt, E E; Riov, J

1993-10-15

35

In vitro antioxidant activity and potential inhibitory action against ?-glucosidase of polysaccharides from fruit peel of tea (Camellia sinensis L.)* #  

PubMed Central

The conditions for extracting polysaccharides from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel (TFPPs) were studied. Three parameters (temperature, time, and liquid/solid ratio) affecting the extraction of TFPP were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions, the yield of TFPP was predicted to be 4.98%. The physicochemical properties, in vitro antioxidant activities, and inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase of fractionated TFPPs (TFPP-0, TFPP-20, TFPP-40, and TFPP-60) were investigated. We found that the TFPPs were all acid protein-bound heteropolysaccharides, although with different chemical compositions. They had not only remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing activity, but also excellent inhibitory potential against ?-glucosidase in vitro. Our results suggest that tea fruit peel could be treated as a potential bioresource for the development of polysaccharide antioxidants. PMID:24510710

Wang, Yue-fei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jing; Xu, Ping; Wang, Yi-qi; Gao, Jun-jie; Hochstetter, Danielle

2014-01-01

36

In vitro antioxidant activity and potential inhibitory action against ?-glucosidase of polysaccharides from fruit peel of tea (Camellia sinensis L.).  

PubMed

The conditions for extracting polysaccharides from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel (TFPPs) were studied. Three parameters (temperature, time, and liquid/solid ratio) affecting the extraction of TFPP were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions, the yield of TFPP was predicted to be 4.98%. The physicochemical properties, in vitro antioxidant activities, and inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase of fractionated TFPPs (TFPP-0, TFPP-20, TFPP-40, and TFPP-60) were investigated. We found that the TFPPs were all acid protein-bound heteropolysaccharides, although with different chemical compositions. They had not only remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing activity, but also excellent inhibitory potential against ?-glucosidase in vitro. Our results suggest that tea fruit peel could be treated as a potential bioresource for the development of polysaccharide antioxidants. PMID:24510710

Wang, Yue-fei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jing; Xu, Ping; Wang, Yi-qi; Gao, Jun-jie; Hochstetter, Danielle

2014-02-01

37

Phenylpropanoid metabolites and expression of key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the shaded peel of apple fruit in response to sun exposure.  

PubMed

The shaded peel of 'Fortune' (a red cultivar) and 'Mutsu' (a yellow/green cultivar) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) was exposed to full sun by turning fruit 180° at about one week before harvest to determine the expression of key genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis in response to sunlight exposure and their relationships with the levels of anthocyanins and other phenolics. For the unturned (control) fruit, the shaded peel had lower expression levels of MdMYB10 (a transcriptional factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis) and seven structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis (MdPAL, MdCHS, MdCHI, MdF3H, MdDFR1, MdLDOX, and MdUFGT), and lower levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than the sun-exposed peel in both cultivars. Exposure of the shaded peel to full sun caused marked up-regulation of the expression of MdMYB10 and all seven structural genes, which peaked between 6 h and 30 h after fruit turning, consequently leading to higher levels of anthocyanins, flavonols, and total phenolics than in the shaded peel and even in the sun-exposed peel of control fruit. Interestingly, the levels of flavonols were higher in the shaded peel of turned fruit (the original sun-exposed peel) than in the sun-exposed peel of both control and turned fruit in both cultivars, suggesting that competition for substrates exists in different branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway. These results indicate that sunlight exposure stimulates the expression of MdMYB10 and structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis, thereby elevating the levels of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds in both red and yellow/green cultivars. PMID:23727590

Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

2013-08-01

38

Utilization of waste fruit-peels to inhibit aflatoxins synthesis by Aspergillus flavus: a biotreatment of rice for safer storage.  

PubMed

Antifungal activity in lemon and pomegranate peels was considerable against Aspergillus flavus, higher in pomegranate (DIZ 37mm; MIC 135?g/mL). Powdered peels (5, 10, 20% w/w) were mixed in inoculated rice. The inhibitory effect on fungal-growth and production of aflatoxins by A. flavus was investigated at storage conditions - temperature (25, 30°C) and moisture (18%, 21%) for 9months. The maximum total aflatoxins accumulated at 30°C, 21% moisture and at 25°C, 18% moisture were 265.09 and 163.45ng/g, respectively in control. Addition of pomegranate-peels inhibited aflatoxins production to 100% during four month-storage of rice at 25°C and 18% moisture, while lemon-peels showed similar inhibitory effect for 3months at same conditions. However a linear correlation was observed in aflatoxins level with temperature and moisture. Studies showed that both fruit-wastes are potent preventer of aflatoxin production in rice, useful for a safer and longer storage of rice. PMID:25270080

Naseer, R; Sultana, Bushra; Khan, M Z; Naseer, D; Nigam, Poonam

2014-11-01

39

Attenuating effect of standardized fruit extract of punica granatum L in rat model of tibial and sural nerve transection induced neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Background Injury to a nerve is the most common reason of acquired peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, searching for effective substance to recover of nerve after injury is need of present era. The current study investigates the protective potential of Standardized Fruit Extract of Punica granatum L (PFE) [Ellagic acid (41.6%), Punicalagins (10%), Granatin (5.1%)] in Tibial & Sural Nerve Transection (TST) induced neuropathic pain in rats. Methods TST was performed by sectioning tibial and sural nerve portions of the sciatic nerve and leaving the common peroneal nerve intact. Acetone drop, pin-prick, hot plate, paint brush & Walking Track tests were performed to assess cold allodynia; mechanical heat, hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia & tibial functional index respectively. The levels of TNF-?, TBARS, GSH and Nitrite were measured in the sciatic nerve as an index of inflammation & oxidative stress. Results TST led to significant development of cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; dynamic mechanical allodynia; functional deficit in walking along with rise in the levels of TBARS, TNF-?, GSH and Nitrite. Administrations of PFE (100 & 300 mg/kg oral), significantly attenuate TST induced behavioral & biochemical changes. Pretreatments of BADGE (120 mg/kg IP) a PPAR-? antagonist and nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg IP) abolished the protective effect of PFE. Whereas, pretreatment of L-NAME (5 mg/kg IP) a NOS inhibitor significantly potentiated PFE’s protective effect of PFE. Conclusion PFE shown to have attenuating effect in TST induced neuropathic pain which may be attributed to potential PPAR-gamma agonistic activity, nitric oxide inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and anti oxidative actions. PMID:24499201

2013-01-01

40

Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage.  

PubMed

Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared with control fruits under both the storage conditions. Combined application of putrescine + carnauba wax showed better response in retaining functional properties than putrescine treated or nontreated fruits. The impacts of putrescine and carnauba wax treatments were found more pronounced after 30 days at 3-5 °C storage temperature in retaining functional and sensory qualities. After 60 days of storage, putrescine + carnauba wax retained about 25% higher antioxidant activity both at 3 and 5 °C storage temperatures. PMID:24426055

Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R K; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S K

2014-01-01

41

Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.  

PubMed

In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (?3) and omega-6 (?6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ?3 (linolenic acid) and ?6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. PMID:24909999

Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

2014-09-01

42

???????????????????????????????? ??? ??????????????? Study on Peel Morphology and Stomata of Mulberry (Morus spp.) Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus spp.) can be grown well in temperate and tropical regions. The mulberry fruit contains 0.21% calcium, vitamin B 6 930 mg.\\/kg, and folic acid 6.87 mg\\/kg. The fruit is in high demand for the world market for fresh consumption and for producing wine. However, after harvest, mulberry fruit loses water quickly and disease occurs. It has a short

David W. Turner; Kasawan Phaphom; Naul-anong Narkkong; Sucharit Suanphairoch; Sathaporn Wongareonwanakit

2006-01-01

43

Effects of 1-MCP on chlorophyll degradation pathway-associated genes expression and chloroplast ultrastructure during the peel yellowing of Chinese pear fruits in storage.  

PubMed

The peel yellowing is an important pigment physiological process of green fruit ripening, which mainly results from chlorophyll degradation in the fruit peel. In this work, two typical cultivars with different ripening speed, a slow ripening pear 'Emerald' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Emerald) and a fast ripening 'Jingbai' (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. cv. Jingbai) were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of chlorophyll degradation in pear yellowing/ripening during postharvest storage. The fruits after harvest were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor at 1.0 ?Ll(-1) to determine its effect on chloroplast ultrastructure and the expression of chlorophyll degradation associated genes in peel tissues. Our results show that the pears treated with 1-MCP had a lower ethylene production rate and higher chlorophyll content compared to those of untreated fruit. The more intact chloroplasts with well-organised grana thylakoids and small plastoglobuli were maintained in the peel of 1-MCP treated fruit for up to 30 and 15 d in 'Emerald' and 'Jingbai', respectively. The expression of chlorophyll degradation associated genes: pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), non-yellow colouring (NYC), NYC1-like (NOL), stay-green 1(SGR1), was suppressed, while no significant change was found in chlorophyllase 1 (CHL1) and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR) in both cultivar fruits treated with 1-MCP. These results suggest that 1-MCP can delay chlorophyll degradation by inhibiting ethylene production and suppressing the gene expression of PAO, NYC, NOL and SGR1, which are closely associated with chlorophyll catabolic pathway. PMID:22868108

Cheng, Yudou; Dong, Yu; Yan, Hongbo; Ge, Wenya; Shen, Chengguo; Guan, Junfeng; Liu, Liqin; Zhang, Yingying

2012-11-15

44

Fruit Preparation Apples Select crisp and firm apples. Wash, peel and core. Slice medium apples  

E-print Network

. Crumple a small piece of water-resistant paper on top to hold fruit down. Sugar Pack - To each quart. *Syrup Concentrations for Freezing Fruits Type of Syrup Sugar Water 10% (very light) ½ cup 4 cups 20 cups Directions: Dissolve sugar in lukewarm water. Mix until dissolved. Chill syrup before using

New Hampshire, University of

45

Light avoidance reduces ascorbic acid accumulation in the peel of Citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Citrus fruits are highly consumed worldwide and represent one of the most important sources of ascorbic acid (AsA). However, information about the molecular mechanisms regulating AsA accumulation in Citrus fruit and the effects of environmental factors is scarce. In this study we have investigated the effect of fruit shading on AsA content and the expression of AsA biosynthetic, degrading and recycling genes in fruits of different Citrus species. Immature-green fruits were covered at the end of the cell enlargement phase and AsA concentration in the flavedo declined and remained at low levels as compared with light-exposed fruits. Fruit shading marginally altered the expression of genes from the l-galactose pathway and this effect was variable in the four Citrus species. However, specific isoforms (GalUR8 or GalUR12) from the l-galacturonic acid pathway were significantly repressed paralleling the reduction in AsA concentration. No significant effect of shading was detected in transcription of genes of the myo-inositol and l-gulose pathways as well as recycling and degradation. Collectively, results indicate that light avoidance inhibited accumulation of AsA in the flavedo of Citrus fruits and suggest that the l-galacturonic acid pathway has a relevant contribution to AsA content in this tissue. PMID:25575999

Lado, Joanna; Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2015-02-01

46

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

47

Direct peel monitoring of xenobiotics in fruit by direct analysis in real time coupled to a linear quadrupole ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

Study of xenobiotics present in fruit peel by exposing it (without any pretreatment) to direct analysis in real time coupled to a high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer (DART-HRMS) is reported for the first time. Variables such as DART gas heater temperature and pressure, source-to-MS distance, and sample velocity are investigated. The analysis of one sample by DART-MS lasts ca. 1 min, and the benefits of both high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate nontarget or unknown compounds are combined. Identification of postharvest fungicides, antioxidants, and sugars in fruit peel is performed in the positive ion mode. A possible elemental formula is suggested for marker components. The lowest imazalil concentration that could be detected by this system is 1 ng (equivalent to a concentration of ca. 300 ?g kg(-1)), which is well below the maximum residue limit. For oranges and apples, direct peel exposition demonstrated good interday precision (within 20% for any concentration) and proper linearity (R(2) ? 0.99), with a dynamic range from 1 to 2500 ng for apple. A comparison of the results obtained using the direct peel screening DART-based method is made with those obtained by DART analysis of solvent extracts, as well as those obtained analyzing these extracts by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap). The results are in good agreement. Thus, the proposed method proves to be quantitatively accurate with indisputable identification specificity. As an independent method, the approach of direct scanning of peel is of high interest and of potential future within food analysis to guarantee safety, quality, and authenticity. PMID:23356415

Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

2013-03-01

48

Quantitative determination of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel, pulp, and fruit products by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Despite a number of serious case reports of mango dermatitis, no attempts at the identification and quantification of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango fruits have so far been made. Therefore, total alk(en)ylresorcinol content and relative homologue composition in 13 mango peel samples and 7 samples of mango pulp were determined by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Furthermore, mango puree and nectar prepared on pilot plant scale were also analyzed and compared with commercially available thermally preserved products. Depending on cultivar, alk(en)ylresorcinol contents ranged from 79.3 to 1850.5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) in mango peels and from 4.9 to 187.3 mg/kg of DM in samples of mango pulp. The profile of alk(en)ylresorcinols was found to be highly characteristic, with an average homologue composition of C15:0 (6.1%), C15:1 (1.7%), C17:0 (1.1%), C17:1 (52.5%), C17:2 (33.4%), C17:3 (2.4%), C19:1 (2.1%), and C19:2 (0.8%). Mango puree samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits revealed contents of 3.8 and 12.3 mg/kg of fresh weight, respectively. Content and homologue composition were not significantly affected during puree processing and thermal preservation. In nectar samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits, contents of 1.4 and 4.6 mg/L, respectively, were found. PMID:19338352

Knödler, Matthias; Reisenhauer, Katharina; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

2009-05-13

49

Chemical Peeling of Tomatoes.  

E-print Network

Frrrzts 41CkFw calded m 21 percent NaOH (230" F.) for 20 seconds, 4> percetlt CaCI, (a6 F.) JW seconds and water (212" F.) for 90 seconds, respectively. The fruits were photographed immediately after scalding. bical Peeling of Tomatoes... UNIVERSITY Summary I Tomato fruits of the Chico and Homestead varieties were scalded in solutions of water, NaOH and CaC12 at various concentrations, times and tem- peratures. Fruits were weighed before and after ' peeling to determine percent weight...

Heddins, Gerald C.; Burns, E. E.

1965-01-01

50

Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya (dragon fruit) peel  

PubMed Central

Background Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits, and pitaya fruits have gained popularity in many countries all over the world. However, studies on chemical composition and the nutritional quality of pitaya flesh peel are limited. Results Extracts of pitaya (H. polyrhizus and H. undatus) peel were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities were investigated. The main components of H. polyrhizus extract were ?-amyrin (15.87%), ?-amyrin (13.90%), octacosane (12.2%), ?-sitosterol (9.35%), octadecane (6.27%), 1-tetracosanol (5.19%), stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.65%), and campesterol (4.16%), whereas H. undatus were ?-amyrin (23.39%), ?-sitosterol (19.32%), and octadecane (9.25%), heptacosane (5.52%), campesterol (5.27%), nonacosane (5.02%), and trichloroacetic acid, hexadecyl ester (5.21%). Both of the two extracts possessed good cytotoxic activities against PC3, Bcap-37, and MGC-803 cells (IC50 values ranging from 0.61 to 0.73 mg/mL), and the activities of their main components were also studied. Furthermore, these extracts also presented some radical scavenging activities, with IC50 values of 0.83 and 0.91 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion This paper provides evidence for studying the chemical composition of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya peel and their biological activity. PMID:24386928

2014-01-01

51

Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp  

PubMed Central

Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 ?g/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms. PMID:24516425

Anibal, Paula Cristina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Foglio, Mary Ann; Höfling, José Francisco

2013-01-01

52

Study of optimal temperature, pH and stability of dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel for use as potential natural colorant.  

PubMed

The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT), 50, 80 and 100 degrees C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating samples at 100 degrees C for 5 min in a pH 5 citric acid solution. The next part of this study involved the stability test of the pigments obtained through the best method determined earlier. The pigments were dried and resuspended in distilled water. The samples were then exposed to light to monitor pigment changes. Initial resuspension of the dried pigments yielded a comparable high content of betacyanins to its juice counterpart. The results showed that resuspended pigments had high pigment retention and were stable up to 7 days. These initial findings must be further studied in more controlled conditions to understand the stability of betacyanin. Nevertheless, the results show that betacyanin obtained from the peel of dragon fruit has a high potential to be used as a natural dye. PMID:19137837

Harivaindaran, K V; Rebecca, O P S; Chandran, S

2008-09-15

53

Effect of the yellow passion fruit peel flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa deg.) in insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients  

PubMed Central

Background A study with the yellow passion fruit peel flour showed positive action in blood glucose control as therapies’ adjuvant in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we evaluated its effect on insulin sensitivity since there is a quest for studies that focus at better understanding of insulin resistance aspects in diabetic patients. Furthermore its relationship with chronic complications can also give good prospects for alternative treatments. Methods A total of 43 type 2 diabetes volunteers (28 females and 15 males) ingested 30 g/day of the yellow passion fruit peel flour for two months. The levels of blood glucose and fasting insulin, HOMA index and glycated hemoglobin were measured for each patient before and after dietary supplementation. Results There was a significant difference in the fasting blood glucose values (P?=?0.000) and glycated hemoglobin (P?=?0.032) after supplementation. It was also seen a reduction in HOMA IR (P?=?0.005) in the supplemented group, however it was not observed changes in insulin values for females. HOMA beta (P?=?0.000) showed significant increase in its values for the studied group. Conclusions The supplementation used decreased insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a positive action in blood glucose control as adjuvant therapy in conventional treatments. PMID:23088514

2012-01-01

54

Antioxidant activity of apple peels.  

PubMed

Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown to be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases. These benefits are often attributed to the high antioxidant content of some plant foods. Apples are commonly eaten and are large contributors of phenolic compounds in European and North American diets. The peels of apples, in particular, are high in phenolics. During applesauce and canned apple manufacture, the antioxidant-rich peels of apples are discarded. To determine if a useful source of antioxidants is being wasted, the phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of the peels of four varieties of apples (Rome Beauty, Idared, Cortland, and Golden Delicious) commonly used in applesauce production in New York state were investigated. The values of the peels were compared to those of the flesh and flesh + peel components of the apples. Within each variety, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were highest in the peels, followed by the flesh + peel and the flesh. Idared and Rome Beauty apple peels had the highest total phenolic contents (588.9 +/- 83.2 and 500.2 +/- 13.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Rome Beauty and Idared peels were also highest in flavonoids (306.1 +/- 6.7 and 303.2 +/- 41.5 mg of catechin equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Of the four varieties, Idared apple peels had the most anthocyanins, with 26.8 +/- 6.5 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g of peels. The peels all had significantly higher total antioxidant activities than the flesh + peel and flesh of the apple varieties examined. Idared peels had the greatest antioxidant activity (312.2 +/- 9.8 micromol of vitamin C equivalents/g of peels). Apple peels were also shown to more effectively inhibit the growth of HepG(2) human liver cancer cells than the other apple components. Rome Beauty apple peels showed the most bioactivity, inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% at the low concentration of 12.4 +/- 0.4 mg of peels/mL. The high content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of apple peels indicate that they may impart health benefits when consumed and should be regarded as a valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:12537430

Wolfe, Kelly; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

2003-01-29

55

Growth inhibitory effect of peel extract from Citrus junos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract from yuzu fruit peel (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) strongly suppressed the germination of lettuce seeds while that from the peel of other citrus fruits such as navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) had very little or no effect. The highest inhibitory activity was located in the peel followed by the segment but no significant

Shinsuke Fujihara; Tokurou Shimizu

2003-01-01

56

Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In...

57

Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review  

PubMed Central

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist’s arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

58

Glycolic acid peel therapy - a current review.  

PubMed

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

59

Antihypertensive effect of passion fruit peel extract and its major bioactive components following acute supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Extracts from leaves, peels or flowers of Passiflora are noted for their medicinal effects. Passiflora edulis peel extract (PFPE) has been proposed to lower blood pressure (BP); however, only indirect measurement techniques have been employed. To more accurately measure the effect of PFPE on hemodynamic parameters and determine the minimal effective dose, hemodynamic parameters were directly measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) implanted with radiotelemeters. PFPE was given orally at 0, 2.5, 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) to determine the minimal effective dose. Once this dose was determined, the potential active components, edulilic acid (EA), anthocyanin fraction (AF) or ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were tested to determine which may contribute to the reductions in BP. The 50 mg PFPE/kg BW dose was the lowest dose that significantly reduced all hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. When the potential actives were provided at equivalent doses to those found in 50 mg PFPE/kg BW, the EA and AF significantly reduced all measured hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. GABA did not significantly affect any hemodynamic parameters compared to control and significantly increased heart rate. These direct measurements indicate that PFPE can decrease hemodynamic parameters in SHR and indicate that EA and AF are active compounds that contribute to the antihypertensive effects of PFPE supplementation. While these results are encouraging, detailed mechanistic studies are needed to determine the putative value of PFPE for blood pressure control in humans. PMID:23333089

Lewis, Brandon J; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Craig, Teresa A; Mehring-Franklin, Cynthia E; Defreitas, Zoraida; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen

2013-07-01

60

Investigation of in vivo antioxidant property of Abelmoschus esculentus (L) moench. fruit seed and peel powders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. fruit is a commonly consumed vegetable in many countries due to its rich medicinal value. However, till date, in vivo antioxidant property of A. esculentus has not been scientifically documented in animal models. Objective: The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant property of A. esculentus (L.) Moench. peel and seed powder (AEPP and AESP) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In rats, acute toxicity assessment of AEPP and AESP at 2 g/kg did not show any toxicity. Diabetes was induced by STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) injection and diabetic rats received AEPP (100 and 200 mg/kg) as well as AESP (100 and 200 mg/ kg) orally up to 28 days. At the end of the 28 day, diabetic rats were killed and liver, kidney and pancreas were collected to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation level. Results: In diabetic rats, significant (P < 0.001) reduction of liver, kidney and pancreas SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH levels and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were observed as compared to normal control rats. Administration of both doses of AEPP and AESP significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) increased liver, kidney and pancreas SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH levels and decreased TBARS (P < 0.001) levels in diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that A. esculentus peel and seed powder has significant in vivo antioxidant property in diabetic rats. PMID:23326089

Sabitha, Vijayakumar; Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Naveen, Koikaramparambil Robert; Panneerselvam, Kaliyamoorthy

2012-01-01

61

Chemical Peeling  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin heals can cause unwanted side effects ranging from infection to scarring. If you have any ... Tanzi EL and Alster TS. “Skin Resurfacing: Ablative Lasers, Chemical Peels, and Dermabrasion.” In: Wolff K, Goldsmith ...

62

Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

63

Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

64

Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features.  

PubMed

The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements. PMID:25529700

Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Fraternale, Daniele; Sestili, Piero

2015-05-01

65

Punica granatum (pomegranate) flower extract possesses potent antioxidant activity and abrogates Fe-NTA induced hepatotoxicity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn., Punicaceae) fruit parts are known to possess enormous antioxidant activity. The present study evaluated antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of pomegranate flowers. Alcoholic (ethanolic) extract of flowers was prepared and used in the present study. The extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and exhibit enormous reducing ability, both indicative of potent antioxidant

Gurpreet Kaur; Zoobi Jabbar; Mohammad Athar; M. Sarwar Alam

2006-01-01

66

Fate of apple peel phenolics during cool storage.  

PubMed

Consumption of certain phenolics in the diet is considered beneficial to human health. In this study, individual phenolics were measured by diode-array HPLC at monthly intervals in the peel of Granny Smith, Lady Williams, and Crofton apple cultivars stored in air at 0 degrees C for 9 months. The concentrations of total phenolics significantly differed among the cultivars examined, with Lady Williams peel having significantly more phenolics (over 4000 microg x g(-1) peel fresh weight) than Crofton (2668 microg x g(-1) peel fresh weight) and Granny Smith, which had the lowest concentration of total phenolics (1275 microg x g(-1) peel fresh weight). There were also significant differences in individual phenolics among cultivars and during storage. Quercetin glycosides were the only flavonols identified, with quercetin rhamnoglucoside being the most abundant phenolic in the peel. Chlorogenic acid was the major cinnamic acid derivative, with high concentrations, up to 412 microg x g(-1)) peel fresh weight, in Crofton peel. A pre-storage diphenylamine (DPA) treatment had few significant effects on peel phenolic metabolism. Where differences did occur, fruit treated with DPA retained higher concentrations of total peel phenolics during storage than fruit not treated with DPA. Storage of all cultivars for up to 9 months in air at 0 degrees C induced few significant changes in the peel phenolic concentrations. This indicates that phenolic metabolism in apple peel is relatively stable, and the health benefits of phenolics in apple peel should be maintained during long-term storage. PMID:11368590

Golding, J B; McGlasson, W B; Wyllie, S G; Leach, D N

2001-05-01

67

Cell wall, cell membrane, and volatile metabolism are altered by antioxidant treatment, temperature shifts, and peel necrosis during apple fruit storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transition from cold storage to ambient temperature alters apple quality through accelerated softening, flavor and color changes, and symptom development of physiological peel disorders, such as superficial scald, in susceptible cultivars. To reveal global metabolism associated with the transit...

68

Emerging fruit crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

69

Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties.  

PubMed

The dried powdered fruit peels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ?60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 ?mol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 ?mol Trolox/g). PMID:24799227

Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana

2014-10-01

70

In vitro antioxidant properties of mangosteen peel extract.  

PubMed

The growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on the screening of plant-derived raw materials for identifying new antioxidants. The special attention of research today is focused on inexpensive or residual sources from agricultural industries. Fruit peels as sources of powerful natural antioxidants are often the waste parts of various fruits from consumption and food industry. Among the fruit peels, mangosteen peel is an important source of natural phenolic antioxidants. The mangosteen peel contains various bioactive substances, i.e., phenolic acids and flavonoids, which possess biological and medicinal properties, especially antioxidant properties. The aim of this review, after presenting analytical techniques for determining in vitro antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, is to summarize available data on the factors affecting antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract. In addition, the potential antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, the bioactive compounds identified from mangosteen peel extract and their antioxidant activity are presented. Potential applications of the mangosteen peel extract in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products are also discussed. PMID:25477623

Suttirak, Weerayuth; Manurakchinakorn, Supranee

2014-12-01

71

Toxic Effects of Lemon Peel Constituents on Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of lemon peel extracts incorporated into mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata diet. Extracts were obtained with different solvents: diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol. All three extracts were toxic to some extent; the diethyl ether extract was selected for further studies. Ether extracts of lemon peel were prepared weekly over

A. Salvatore; S. Borkosky; E. Willink; A. Bardón

2004-01-01

72

HPLC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHENOLS IN LONGAN (DIMOCARPUS LONGAN LOUR.) PEEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longan fruit are susceptible to chilling injury, where the peel exhibits discoloration (water-soaking and/or browning area on the peel). Two varieties of longan (Daw and Biew Kiew) were subjected to abusive cold storage to evaluate the changes in the phenolic compounds that occurred in peel exhibit...

73

Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164. Methods: Various parts of the herbs were extracted from fruit using ethanol as the solvent, and the cytotoxicity and cell viability of the ethanolic extract were determined by the MTT assay. To determine whether necrosis or apoptosis is the predominant cause of cell death, cell death detection was performed using the ELISA method. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- (TdT-) mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Moreover, a sensitive immunoblotting technique was used to examine the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins. Results: Our findings suggested that the ethalonic extract of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa altered cell morphology, decreased cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner in WEHI-164 cells (IC50 = 229.024?g/ml), when compared to a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, Toxol (Vesper Pharmaceuticals), with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the decrease of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and quantitatively confirmed by Immunoblotting analysis. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study have demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of Ethanol Extracts from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa, and clearly showed that apoptosis was the major mechanism of in-vitro cell death induced by the extract.

Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

2014-01-01

74

Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.  

PubMed

The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 ?g (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae. PMID:24906123

Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

2014-08-01

75

THE POMEGRANATE: A NEW LOOK AT THE FRUIT OF PARADISE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pomegranate, Punica granatum, is one of 2 members of the Punicaceae family. The plant was first domesticated approximately 10,000 years ago in Iran, where it is native, and Turkey. The fruit may have been the “apple” that Eve was deceived by the snake into partaking. Cultivation of the fruit q...

76

Chemistry with a Peel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

1997-01-01

77

Postharvest Biology and Technology 32 (2004) 7987 Postharvest peel pitting at non-chilling temperatures in  

E-print Network

, coating fruit with commercial waxes coupled with warm-temperature storage has been reported to promote surface fruit waxes by washing followed by storage at low RH had little effect on peel pitting and Technology 32 (2004) 79­87 value of fruit for fresh market (Petracek et al., 1995, 1998; Agusti et al., 2001

Burns, Jacqueline K.

78

Physiological changes associated with senescence and abscission in mature citrus fruit induced by 5-chloro-3-  

E-print Network

to mature citrus fruit reduced fruit detachment force and changed peel color from green to orange. More and ethephon induced color change in peel and advanced mature fruit abscission. However, CMNP but not ethephon such as senescence, fruit ripening and associated color change (Alonso et al. 1995), and abscission (Bleecker

Burns, Jacqueline K.

79

CHANGES IN ENZYME-ASSISTED PEELING EFFICIENCY AND QUALITY OF FRESH ‘VALENCIA’ ORANGE AND OF STORED ‘VALENCIA’ ORANGE AND ‘RUBY RED’ GRAPEFRUIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Valencia’ oranges were harvested at three-week intervals, beginning on February 11 and ending on June 17, 2002. Fruit were peeled after infusion with 0.25% to 0.50% Peelzyme using an automated citrus peeling machine developed by the Florida Department of Citrus. Greater than 50% peeling efficienc...

80

Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.  

PubMed

Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre. PMID:20725857

Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

2011-01-01

81

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using renewable Punica granatum juice and study of its catalytic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Punica granatum juice, a delicious multivitamin drink of great medicinal significance, is rich in different types of phytochemicals, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, sterols, polyphenols, sugars, fatty acids, aromatic compounds, amino acids, tocopherols, etc. We have demonstrated the use of the juice for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the AuNPs was complete in few minutes and no extra stabilizing or capping agents were necessary. The size of the nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the fruit extract. The AuNPs were characterized by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Catalytic activity of the synthesized colloidal AuNPs has also been demonstrated.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal

2014-01-01

82

The shaded side of apple fruit becomes more sensitive to photoinhibition with fruit development.  

PubMed

Developmental changes of photochemical and non-photochemical processes and the antioxidant system in the shaded peel vs the sun-exposed peel of 'Gala' apple and their responses to sudden exposure of high light were determined to understand the susceptibility of the shaded peel to high light damage with fruit development. As fruit developed, actual PSII efficiency of the shaded peel decreased, whereas non-photochemical quenching (mainly the slow component) increased at any given PFD. Photochemical quenching coefficient of the shaded peel decreased at any given PFD with fruit development. As fruit developed, the activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and dehydroascorbate reductase and the level of reduced ascorbate and total ascorbate decreased; the activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase remained low, whereas catalase activity and the level of reduced glutathione and total glutathione increased in the shaded peel. Exposure to high light (1500 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) for 2 h significantly decreased the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (F(V)/F(M)) in the shaded peel at each developmental stage, with the decrease being larger with fruit development. The F(V)/F(M) of the sun-exposed peel was also decreased by the high light treatment, but the decrease was much smaller than that in the shaded peel at each developmental stage. We conclude that the shaded peel of apple fruit becomes more sensitive to photoinhibition with fruit development, and this increased sensitivity is apparently related to the decease in the overall capacity for photosynthesis and photoprotection of the shaded peel with fruit development. PMID:18494860

Li, Pengmin; Cheng, Lailiang

2008-10-01

83

Diversity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) germplasm in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) accessions were studied to determine the overall degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities among genotypes. PCA and cluster analysis showed a considerable phenotypic and genetic diversity in the local pomegranate germplasm. Some polyclonal varieties were identified and cases of homonymy were detected. The geographic origin was not a determinant criterion for cultivars clustering. Parameters

Messaoud Mars; Mohamed Marrakchi

1999-01-01

84

Fresh Fruit with Cinnamon Yogurt Dip Ingredients  

E-print Network

Fresh Fruit with Cinnamon Yogurt Dip Ingredients: 1 apple 1 orange 1 banana 6 ounces nonfat yogurt slices. 2. Cut off both ends of orange. Starting at top, slide knife between skin and fruit and cut off into individual sections. 3. Peel banana, cut into slices. 4. Arrange fruit on a plate. Mix the yogurt

Liskiewicz, Maciej

85

Ultraviolet fluorescence to identify navel oranges with poor peel quality and decay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Navel oranges were sorted into four groups under ultraviolet (UV) illumination in commercial packinghouse black light rooms based upon the amount of fluorescence visible on each fruit to determine if fluorescence was predictive of peel quality. The groups corresponded to fruit with: 1) no fluorescen...

86

Individual phenolic response and peroxidase activity in peel of differently sun-exposed apples in the period favorable for sunburn occurrence.  

PubMed

Extreme weather events like high solar radiation can cause stress in apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh.). The aim of the study was to make a screening of individual phenols and peroxidase activity in apple peel as a response to sunburn and different sun-exposures in the period when weather conditions are suitable for sunburn occurrence. Apple fruits of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Braeburn' were sampled. Fruit temperature and color were measured prior HPLC-MS(2) and peroxidase activity analyses. Sunburned peel was darker and more yellow-red in comparison to healthy peel, which appeared yellow-green. Fruit temperature, total as well as individual flavonols and dihydrochalcones, total hydroxycinnamics and perixodase activity were highest in sunburned peel in comparison with healthy sun-exposed peel, furthermore both were different than shaded sides of both fruits and peel of apples inside the tree crown; moreover in sunburned peel dihydrochalcones were determined for the first time. Chlorogenic acid was up to 2.5 times higher, 3-hydroxy-phloretin-2'-O-xyloglucoside was up to 10 times higher and quercetin-3-galactoside was up to 33 times higher in sunburned peel, comparing to shaded sided peels. Flavanols did not show a distinct pattern. A deeper insight in phenolic response against environmental stress caused by high solar radiation and high air temperatures has been made. PMID:25209696

Zupan, Anka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

2014-11-15

87

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients: 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 1/2 pound grapes, seedless 2 bananas 1 3/4 cups skim milk 4 ounces instant pudding mix, lemon flavored Directions 1. Open can to bowl. 3. Wash and peel bananas, and slice. Add to bowl. Set aside. 4. In separate bowl, pour lemon

Liskiewicz, Maciej

88

Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients  

E-print Network

Fruit Chewy Cookies Ingredients: non stick cooking spray 3 bananas 1 cup raisins 2 cups rolled oats. Peel and coarsely mash bananas in mixing bowl. 3. Add raisins, oats, apple butter, walnuts, oil and vanilla extract with bananas and stir to mix well. 4. Let stand for 10 minutes. 5. Drop by teaspoonful

Liskiewicz, Maciej

89

In vitro induction of tetraploid in pomegranate ( Punica granatum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetraploid plants were obtained in pomegranate (Punica granatum L. var. `Nana') by colchicine treatment of shoots propagated in vitro. Shoots cultured on MS medium supplemented with 10 mg l-1 colchicine, 1.0 mg l-1 BA and 0.1 mg l-1 NAA for 30 days produced tetraploids at a high frequency of 20%. No tetraploids were detected by treating the shoots in 5000

Jianzhu Shao; Chunli Chen; Xiuxin Deng

2003-01-01

90

Factors limiting the intertidal distribution of the mangrove species Xylocarpus granatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tree species Xylocarpus granatum is commonly described as occurring in the upper intertidal zone of mangrove forests, but mature trees are occasionally found at lower elevations. In the Utwe River basin, on the Pacific island of Kosrae, we investigated the relative importance of several biotic and abiotic factors that may control the intertidal distribution of X. granatum. Factors we

James A. Allen; Ken W. Krauss; Robert D. Hauff

2003-01-01

91

Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last 7 years have seen over seven times as many publications indexed by Medline dealing with pomegranate and Punica granatum than in all the years preceding them. Because of this, and the virtual explosion of interest in pomegranate as a medicinal and nutritional product that has followed, this review is accordingly launched. The pomegranate tree, Punica granatum, especially its

Ephraim P. Lansky; Robert A. Newman

2007-01-01

92

The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms.  

PubMed

Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

2011-11-01

93

Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa×paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15min in water at 42°C, or in water at 25°C (control), and were then stored at 4°C. Hot water treatment for 15min delayed peel blackening during cold storage by about 4 days in

Surassawadee Promyou; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn

2008-01-01

94

Larry Stein, Jim Kamas & Monte Nesbitt Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension  

E-print Network

FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Pomegranates Introduction The pomegranate, Punica granatum, is na- tive from Iran-red flowers and dense, bushy growth habit make pomegranate an attractive ornamental. Pomegranate has re- newed level of antioxidants in the pulp or juice. Pomegranate is a member of the Lythraceae family which

Mukhtar, Saqib

95

Influence of nitrogen rate and drip application method on pomegranate fruit yield and quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. Developing more efficient methods of water and fertilizer application are important in reducing production costs. In 2012, a pomegranate orchard established in 2010 with a den...

96

Influence of white plastic and water replacement rates on pomegranate orchard phenology, fruit yield and quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. In 2013, a pomegranate orchard, established in 2010 with a density of 558 trees/ha, was irrigated at water replacement rates of 35, 50 and 100% based on rainfall, tree water r...

97

Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

98

Edible Coatings for Fresh-Cut Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and\\/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have

G. I. Olivas; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2005-01-01

99

A galactomannan polysaccharide from Punica granatum imparts in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity.  

PubMed

Galactomannan polysaccharide (PSP001) was isolated from the fruit rind of Punica granatum and was previously reported to have excellent antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The cytotoxicity of PSP001 was evaluated in the human cancer cell lines A375, HCT116, and HepG2 as well as the murine cancer cell lines DLA and EAC over a wide range of concentrations. PSP001 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis with no in vivo toxicity up to a concentration of 2000 mg/kg body weight when assessed in BALB/c mice. The antitumor efficacy of PSP001 was tested in DLA and EAC murine ascites and EAC solid tumor mouse models. PSP001 alone and in combination with doxorubicin produced a significant reduction in the tumor burden and increased life span in both models compared to the controls. The results suggest that PSP001 has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent either alone or as an adjuvant to chemotherapy. PMID:24053828

Joseph, Manu M; Aravind, S R; George, Suraj K; Varghese, Sheeja; Sreelekha, T T

2013-11-01

100

Photoprotection mechanism in the 'Fuji' apple peel at different levels of photooxidative sunburn.  

PubMed

The xanthophyll cycle, flavonoid metabolism, the antioxidant system and the production of active oxygen species were analyzed in the peel of 'Fuji' apples re-exposed to sunlight after extended periods of fruit bagging treatment, resulting in different levels of photooxidative sunburn. After re-exposing bagged fruits to sunlight, the production of active oxygen species and the photoprotective capacity in apple peels were both significantly enhanced. As sunburn severity increased, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased, while xanthophyll cycle pool size decreased. For the key genes involved in flavonoid synthesis, expressions of MdMYB10 and MdPAL were upregulated, whereas the expressions of MdCHS, MdANS, MdFLS and MdUFGT were downregulated in sunburnt fruit peel. Correspondingly, concentrations of both quercetin-3-glycoside and cyanidin-3-galactoside decreased. Total ascorbate concentrations decreased as sunburn severity increased, with the decrease being faster for oxidized than for reduced ascorbate. Transcription levels of MdGMP, MdGME, MdGGP, MdGPP, MdGalDH and MdGalLDH, the genes involved in ascorbate synthesis, were similar in non-sunburnt and sunburnt fruit peels, whereas activities of l-galactose dehydrogenase and l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase decreased in severely sunburnt peel. Although activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase increased, the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase decreased as sunburn severity increased. In summary, the occurrence of photooxidative sunburn in 'Fuji' apple peel is closely associated with a relatively lower xanthophyll cycle pool size, reduced levels of ascorbate reduction and synthesis and reduced flavonoid synthesis. Our data are consistent with the idea that ascorbate plays a key role in protecting apple fruit from photooxidative sunburn. PMID:25185895

Zhang, Jiangli; Niu, Junping; Duan, Ying; Zhang, Mengxia; Liu, Jingying; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang

2014-09-01

101

Improving the keeping quality of pomegranate fruit by intermittent warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mollar pomegranates (Punica granatum, Punicaceae) were stored at 0??°C or 5??°C and 95% relative humidity (RH) for 80 days. Intermittent warming (IW) cycles of\\u000a 1 day at 20??°C every 6 days, during which time the fruit had been stored at 0??°C or 5??°C, followed by a shelf-life period\\u000a of 7 days at 15??°C and 70% RH were applied. IW during

F. Artés; J. A. Tudela; M. I. Gil

1998-01-01

102

Peel LTP (Pru p 3)--the major allergen of peach--is methylated. A proteomic study.  

PubMed

Lipid transfer protein (LTP, Pru p 3) is the major allergen of peach (Prunus persica), and is in a greater abundance in the peel than in the pulp of the fruit. Peel LTP is more allergenic than pulp LTP, but it is not clear whether this is due to its specific allergenic properties or to its higher concentration. In this study, we have used a new one-step, rapid procedure for the purification of LTP from peel and pulp of four peach varieties [Gladys (white flesh), California (nectarine yellow flesh), Plusplus (yellow flesh), Red Fair (nectarine yellow flesh)] harvested in a field grown in Southern Italy. Purification was based on miniature reversed-phase chromatography, a procedure suitable for proteomic study. Proteomic analysis of purified LTPs revealed that the amino acid sequence of LTP was identical in all peach genotypes but, for the first time, peel LTP was found to be methylated. PMID:23871022

Larocca, Marilena; Martelli, Giuseppe; Grossi, Gerarda; Padula, Maria Carmela; Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco

2013-12-01

103

Volatile Components of Peel and Leaf Oils of Lemon and Lime Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peel and leaf oils of 43 taxa of lemons and limes were obtained from fruits and leaves collected from trees submitted to the same pedoclimatic and cultural conditions. Their chemical composition was investigated by capillary GC, GC-MS, and 13 C NMR, and the results were submitted to principal component analysis to check for chemical variability. Three major chemotypes were distinguished

Marie-Laure Lota; Dominique de Rocca Serra; FE Ä LIX TOMI; Camille Jacquemond; Joseph Casanova

2002-01-01

104

Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic contents of five citrus peels (Yen Ben lemon, Meyer lemon, grapefruit, mandarin and orange) extracted by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction were evaluated using the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The main parameters that affected the yield of phenolics include the condition of the peels, temperature of the extraction, types of enzymes, enzyme concentration and species of citrus. Generally, grapefruit peel had

B. B. Li; B. Smith

2006-01-01

105

Anthocyanin and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF?B pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD1 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoprevention has come of age as an effective cancer control modality; however, the search for novel agent(s) for the armamen- tarium of cancer chemoprevention continues. We argue that agents capable of intervening at more than one critical pathway in the carcinogenesis process will have greater advantage over other single-target agents. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) derived from the tree Punica granatum

Farrukh Afaq; Mohammad Saleem; Christian G. Krueger; Jess D. Reed; Hasan Mukhtar

2005-01-01

106

Patterning, prestress, and peeling dynamics of myocytes.  

PubMed

As typical anchorage-dependent cells myocytes must balance contractility against adequate adhesion. Skeletal myotubes grown as isolated strips from myoblasts on micropatterned glass exhibited spontaneous peeling after one end of the myotube was mechanically detached. Such results indicate the development of a prestress in the cells. To assess this prestress and study the dynamic adhesion strength of single myocytes, the shear stress of fluid aspirated into a large-bore micropipette was then used to forcibly peel myotubes. The velocity at which cells peeled from the surface, V(peel), was measured as a continuously increasing function of the imposed tension, T(peel), which ranges from approximately 0 to 50 nN/ micro m. For each cell, peeling proved highly heterogeneous, with V(peel) fluctuating between 0 micro m/s ( approximately 80% of time) and approximately 10 micro m/s. Parallel studies of smooth muscle cells expressing GFP-paxillin also exhibited a discontinuous peeling in which focal adhesions fractured above sites of strong attachment (when pressure peeled using a small-bore pipette). The peeling approaches described here lend insight into the contractile-adhesion balance and can be used to study the real-time dynamics of stressed adhesions through both physical detection and the use of GFP markers; the methods should prove useful in comparing normal versus dystrophic muscle cells. PMID:14747355

Griffin, Maureen A; Engler, Adam J; Barber, Thomas A; Healy, Kevin E; Sweeney, H Lee; Discher, Dennis E

2004-02-01

107

KAJIAN PENGGUNAAN LIMBAH BUAH NENAS LOKAL (Ananas comosus, L) SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PEMBUATAN NATA Fruit Waste of Local Pineapple (Ananas Comosus, L) as Nata Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producing nata from fruit waste of local pineapple fruit (A. comosus, L) i.e. fruit kernel, husk, husk containing seed and internal fruit, have been done. Pineapple sample was obtained from local marked on Klaten and was classified into three classes i.e. super, medium and small. The fruit was peeled to get four raw material and each of them was weighted.

Iqmal Tahir; Sri Sumarsih

108

Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.  

PubMed

The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape. PMID:25363615

Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

2014-12-28

109

Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

110

Inhibition of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins from defatted Canarium odontophyllum pericarp and peel using in vitro bioassays.  

PubMed

Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD(+) and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

2014-01-01

111

Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays  

PubMed Central

Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

2014-01-01

112

Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract.  

PubMed

The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250?mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid. PMID:23774607

Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana

2014-09-01

113

Molecular cloning and characterisation of banana fruit polyphenol oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) is the enzyme thought to be responsible for browning in banana [Musa cavendishii (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Williams] fruit. Banana flesh was high in PPO activity throughout growth and ripening. Peel showed high levels of activity early in development but activity declined until ripening started and then remained constant. PPO activity in fruit was

Paul S. Gooding; Colin Bird; Simon P. Robinson

2001-01-01

114

Fruit & Yogurt Parfait; 2 cups grapes, berries or peach slices  

E-print Network

, vanilla or Fruit-flavored 2 medium bananas 1 cup dry, crunchy cereal (granola type) Wash, peel and slice the bananas. Wash and prepare other fruit. Place about ½ cup of grapes (or berries or peaches) in each of four tall glasses. Add three tablespoons of yogurt on top of the grapes in each glass. Spoon sliced bananas

Florida, University of

115

Stomatal density and responsiveness of banana fruit stomates.  

PubMed

Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf.It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host. PMID:16656239

Johnson, B E; Brun, W A

1966-01-01

116

Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

2008-01-01

117

Nutritional Control of Regreening and Degreening in Citrus Peel Segments 1  

PubMed Central

A method for reversibly regreening and degreening citrus epicarp in vitro using peel segments was developed. Peel segments from mature degreened fruit promptly regreened when kept in light upon agar medium containing low (15 millimolar) concentrations of sucrose. Higher concentrations of sucrose inhibited this regreening, but NO3? and certain amino acids included in the media overcame the inhibition by sucrose. However, l-serine strongly inhibited regreening. In the presence of nitrogen, sucrose promoted regreening. Peel segments from green fruit remained green on media with low concentrations of sucrose and on media with high concentrations of sucrose and 60 millimolar KNO3, but degreened in response to high concentrations of sucrose in the absence of nitrogen. Nitrate overcame the degreening effects of high sucrose concentrations in both light and dark. Peel segments were reversibly degreened and regreened by transferring the segments between appropriate media. Nitrate in the media markedly reduced the levels of endogenous sugars in the epicarp and increased endogenous amino acid levels. Sucrose in the media increased endogenous sugar levels and, in the presence of nitrate, increased endogenous amino acid levels. In the absence of nitrogen, high sucrose concentrations reduced endogenous amino acid concentrations. PMID:16663202

Huff, Albert

1983-01-01

118

Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic contents of five citrus peels (Yen Ben lemon, Meyer lemon, grapefruit, mandarin and orange) extracted either by ethanol or by simple aqueous extraction were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and compared. The main parameters that affected the yield of phenolics included the condition of the peels, temperature of the extraction, solvent concentration and species of citrus. Generally,

B. B. Li; B. Smith

2006-01-01

119

Superficial and medium-depth chemical peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of chemicals for facial rejuvenation has been explored since ancient times. A sound knowledge of skin anatomy and wound healing is important for understanding the principles of chemical peeling. Chemical peels are classified according to the depth of skin resurfacing produced. The main clinical indications in the cosmetic field are photoaging, dyschromias, and acne scars, which are classified

Eileen Clark; Lawrence Scerri

2008-01-01

120

EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM NITRATE SPRAYING ON FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘MALAS YAZDI’ POMEGRANATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research was carried out to investigate the effects of potassium nitrate on pomegranate fruit quality. Treatments were: 1) control, distilled water was used; 2) potassium nitrate 250 mg L- plus Tween-20 and 3) potassium nitrate 500 mg L- plus Tween-20. All treatments were sprayed on fruits with a diameter of 30 mm. Juice, peel, seed characters, and fruit

M. Khayyat; A. Tehranifar; M. Zaree; Z. Karimian; M. H. Aminifard; M. R. Vazifeshenas; S. Amini; Y. Noori; M. Shakeri

2012-01-01

121

Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

122

Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.  

PubMed

The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus. PMID:25237738

Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia del Valle; Vera, Teresa

2014-10-15

123

Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the protective role of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) seed juice extract and its butanolic fraction on heart rate, electrocardiographic patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphologic and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and butanolic fraction of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg., p.o.) on cardiac parameters were studied. Isoproterenol hydrochloride was used to induce myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, heart rate, ECG, pressure rate index and cardiac marker enzyme levels were assessed. Results: Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate, ST elevation in ECG, pressure rate index and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with PJ (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, PRI, ECG patterns, levels of LDH, CK, SOD, CAT, and vascular reactivity changes. Treatment with PJ (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) alone did not alter any of the parameters as compared to vehicle-treated Wistar rats. Punica granatum-treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Conclusion: Punica granatum ameliorates cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI. PMID:21808588

Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Patankar, Pankaj; Ghadi, Prakash; Kasture, Sanjay

2010-01-01

124

Factors limiting the intertidal distribution of the mangrove species Xylocarpus granatum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tree species Xylocarpus granatum is commonly described as occurring in the upper intertidal zone of mangrove forests, but mature trees are occasionally found at lower elevations. In the Utwe River basin, on the Pacific island of Kosrae, we investigated the relative importance of several biotic and abiotic factors that may control the intertidal distribution of X. granatum. Factors we evaluated included differential seed predation across the lower, mid, and upper intertidal zones and seedling responses to salinity, tidal flooding, and shade. Seed predation was 22.4% over the first 34 days and varied little among zones or in gaps versus under the forest canopy. By day 161, there were still no differences in seed mortality, but a significant difference was found in seedling establishment, with much greater establishment in the upper intertidal plots. X. granatum seedlings in a greenhouse experiment exhibited greater growth in freshwater than seedlings in 23 ppt salinity, which is typical of salinity levels found in the mid intertidal zone in our field study sites in Micronesia, where mature X. granatum trees are generally absent. Seedlings grown in 23 ppt salinity, however, exhibited few visible signs of stress associated with patterns in growth. Seedlings grown in a simulated tidal flooding treatment (with 23 ppt salinity) also showed few signs of stress. Growth declined dramatically under 80% shade cloths, but there were few interactions of shading with either 23 ppt salinity or simulated tidal flooding. Differential seed predation is not likely to be the primary factor responsible for the intertidal distribution of X. granatum on Kosrae. However, seedling tolerance of flooding or salinity may be more important, especially relative to a potential contribution to secondary stress mortality. Other factors may ultimately prove to be more critical, such as physiological effects of salinity on seed germination, effects of tides on seed dispersal and rooting, or differential herbivory on seedlings.

Allen, J.A.; Krauss, K.W.; Hauff, R.D.

2003-01-01

125

Partitioning of absorbed light energy differed between the sun-exposed side and the shaded side of apple fruits under high light conditions.  

PubMed

Fractions of absorbed light energy consumed via photochemistry and different thermal dissipation processes was quantified and compared between the sun-exposed peel and the shaded peel of apple fruits at different developmental stages. During fruit development, the fraction of absorbed light consumed via photochemistry was no more than 7% in the sun-exposed peel and no more than 5% in the shaded peel under high light conditions. Under high light, the fraction of absorbed light energy consumed via light dependent thermal dissipation was higher whereas that via constitutive thermal dissipation was lower in the sun-exposed peel. The light dependent thermal dissipation in the sun-exposed peel mainly depended on the xanthophyll cycle, and the xanthophyll cycle pool size was significantly larger in the sun-exposed peel than in the shaded peel. The light dependent thermal dissipation in the shaded peel was dependent on both the xanthophyll cycle and the presence of inactivated reaction centers. Under high light conditions, the densities of both Q(A)-reducing reaction centers and Q(B)-reducing reaction centers decreased faster in the shaded peel than in the sun-exposed peel. The thermal dissipation related to photoinhibition increased and then kept unchanged in the sun-exposed peel but decreased in the shaded peel during fruit development. We conclude that under high light intensities, fruit peel looses the excess energy in order of predominance: first by the xanthophyll cycle, then the thermal dissipation related to photoinhibition, next through inactivated reaction centers, and finally by constitutive thermal dissipation. PMID:22892330

Chen, Changsheng; Zhang, Di; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang

2012-11-01

126

Differential Gene Expression Analysis of Yunnan Red Pear, Pyrus Pyrifolia , During Fruit Skin Coloration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color of fruit skin is an important quality parameter, and in many plants, it is the result of coordinative regulation\\u000a of the anthocyanin pathway. To characterize the mechanism involved in fruit peel coloration of Yunnan red pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), we constructed a subtractive cDNA library using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology. cDNA of red\\u000a peel exposed to sunlight

Xiaodong Zhang; Andrew C Allan; Qiong Yi; Limei Chen; Kunzhi Li; Qun Shu; Jun Su

2011-01-01

127

Patterning, Prestress, and Peeling Dynamics of Myocytes  

PubMed Central

As typical anchorage-dependent cells myocytes must balance contractility against adequate adhesion. Skeletal myotubes grown as isolated strips from myoblasts on micropatterned glass exhibited spontaneous peeling after one end of the myotube was mechanically detached. Such results indicate the development of a prestress in the cells. To assess this prestress and study the dynamic adhesion strength of single myocytes, the shear stress of fluid aspirated into a large-bore micropipette was then used to forcibly peel myotubes. The velocity at which cells peeled from the surface, Vpeel, was measured as a continuously increasing function of the imposed tension, Tpeel, which ranges from ?0 to 50 nN/?m. For each cell, peeling proved highly heterogeneous, with Vpeel fluctuating between 0 ?m/s (?80% of time) and ?10 ?m/s. Parallel studies of smooth muscle cells expressing GFP-paxillin also exhibited a discontinuous peeling in which focal adhesions fractured above sites of strong attachment (when pressure peeled using a small-bore pipette). The peeling approaches described here lend insight into the contractile-adhesion balance and can be used to study the real-time dynamics of stressed adhesions through both physical detection and the use of GFP markers; the methods should prove useful in comparing normal versus dystrophic muscle cells. PMID:14747355

Griffin, Maureen A.; Engler, Adam J.; Barber, Thomas A.; Healy, Kevin E.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Discher, Dennis E.

2004-01-01

128

Identification of two chilling-regulated 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate synthase genes from citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal change in the temperature below or above 12.5 °C hastens the degreening of citrus peel and elicits the phytohormone ethylene production in citrus fruit. Ethylene triggers the degradation of chlorophyll and synthesis of carotenoids in citrus peel. To investigate if ethylene is required for the degreening of citrus peel elicited by low temperatures, we studied the chilling-regulated gene expression of

Wai Shing Wong; Wen Ning; Pei Lin Xu; Shain Dow Kung; Shang Fa Yang; Ning Li

1999-01-01

129

Variations of antioxidant characteristics and mineral contents in pulp and peel of different apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars from Pakistan.  

PubMed

Variations of phenolics, antioxidant activity, and mineral contents in peel and pulp of five apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars from Pakistan, namely Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Kashmiri Amri, Kala Kulu and Sky Spur were appraised. The mean extract yield of antioxidant components obtained with 80:20 methanol-water (v/v), was found to be 22.1 g/100 g for peel and 14.2 g/100 g for pulp on a dry weight basis. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in peel and pulp of different cultivars of apple ranged from 1,907.5-2,587.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DW and 1,214.3-1,816.4 mg catechin equivalent/100 g DW and 1,185.2-1,475.5 mg GAE/100 g DW and 711.8-999.3 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively. The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 71.7-84.9 and 66.6-80.8% in peel, and 43.9-52.8 and 42.9-51.1% in pulp, respectively. Reducing power of the tested fruit part extracts at concentration 12.5 mg/mL ranged from 2.54-2.89 and 1.37-1.73, respectively. With regard to minerals analysis, both fruit parts showed the amount of K to be the highest, followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Na and Zn. The results revealed that peel of the tested apple cultivars in this study had superior antioxidant capacity and mineral concentration than the pulp, indicating significant variations between the parts tested. Thus, consumption of apple fruits along with peel might be recommended to gaining better nutritive benefits. PMID:22217553

Manzoor, Maleeha; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid; Ashraf, Muhammad

2012-01-01

130

The Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the department of physics of the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) has been involved in the Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary study. An appendix which presents the departmental approach to curriculum matters is also included. (HM)

Walker, Warren; Black, Ronald

1979-01-01

131

Antimicrobial activity of Tunisian quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) pulp and peel polyphenolic extracts.  

PubMed

Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit aqueous acetone extracts were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry were used for the identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds. The total phenolic content of the pulp and peel parts ranged from 37 to 47 and 105 to 157 mg/100 g of fresh weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) was the most abundant phenolic compound in the pulp (37%), whereas rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside) was the main one in the peel (36%). The radical scavenging potential of the extracts was determined and compared with that of synthetic antioxidants. The stronger properties corresponded to those obtained from peel material with a 70-80% inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts against different microorganism strains was also investigated. Quince peel extract was the most active for inhibiting bacteria growth with minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations in the range of 102-5 x 103 microg polyphenol/mL. It seems that chlorogenic acid acts in synergism with other components of the extracts to exhibit their total antimicrobial activities. PMID:17263500

Fattouch, Sami; Caboni, Pierluigi; Coroneo, Valentina; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Angioni, Alberto; Dessi, Sandro; Marzouki, Nejib; Cabras, Paolo

2007-02-01

132

Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L.) on blood glucose and ?-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas ?-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV) injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ). Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for ?-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS) and HbA1c, and decrease of ?-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The ?-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract.

Javidanpour, Somaye; Fatemi Tabtabaei, Seyed Reza; Siahpoosh, Amir; Morovati, Hasan; Shahriari, Ali

2012-01-01

133

Osteogenic potential of punica granatum through matrix mineralization, cell cycle progression and runx2 gene expression in primary rat osteoblasts.  

PubMed

BackgroundOsteoporosis is one of the prevalent diseases in ageing populations. Due to side effects of many chemotherapeutic agents, there is always a need to search for herbal products to treat the disorder. Punica granatum (PG) represent a potent fruit-bearing medicinal herb which exerted valuable anti-osteoporotic activities. The present study was carried out to validate the in vitro osteogenic effects of the PG seed extract in primary calvarial osteoblast cultures harvested from neonatal rats.MethodsThe ethanolic extract of PG was subjected to evaluate cell proliferation, regeneration, mineralization and formation of collagen matrix using MTT, alkaline phosphatase, Alizarin Red-S staining and Sirius Red dye, respectively. Cell cycle progression and osteogenic gene Runx2 expression were carried out by flow cytometry and real time PCR, respectively.ResultsExposure of different concentrations (10¿100 ¿g/ml) of the extract on osteoblastic cells showed characteristic morphological changes and increment in cell number. A significant growth in cell proliferation, ALP activity, collagen contents and matrix mineralization of osteoblasts in a dose dependent manner (p¿<¿0.05), suggested that PG has a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation or potential activity against osteoporosis. In addition, PG extract also enhanced DNA content in S phase of cell cycle and Runx2 gene expression level in osteoblasts.ConclusionThe data clearly indicated that PG promoting bone cell proliferation and differentiation in primary osteoblasts might be due to elevating the osteogenic gene Runx2 expression. The present study provides an evidence for PG could be a promising herbal medicinal candidate that able to develop drugs for osteoporosis. PMID:25409708

Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Arshad, Mohammad

2014-11-20

134

Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate ( Punica granatum ) for human breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh organically grown pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) of the Wonderful cultivar were processed into three components: fermented juice, aqueous pericarp extract and cold-pressed or supercritical CO2-extracted seed oil. Exposure to additional solvents yielded polyphenol-rich fractions (‘polyphenols’) from each of the three components. Their actions, and of the crude whole oil and crude fermented and unfermented juice concentrate, were assessed in

Nam Deuk Kim; Rajendra Mehta; Weiping Yu; Ishak Neeman; Talia Livney; Akiva Amichay; Donald Poirier; Paul Nicholls; Andrew Kirby; Wenguo Jiang; Robert Mansel; Cheppail Ramachandran; Thangaiyan Rabi; Boris Kaplan; Ephraim Lansky

2002-01-01

135

Assessing the Biosynthetic Capabilities of Secretory Glands in Citrus Peel1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cells (ECs) lining the secretory cavities of Citrus peel have been hypothesized to be responsible for the synthesis of essential oil, but direct evidence for such a role is currently sparse. We used laser-capture microdissection and pressure catapulting to isolate ECs and parenchyma cells (as controls not synthesizing oil) from the peel of young grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi ‘Duncan’), isolated RNA, and evaluated transcript patterns based on oligonucleotide microarrays. A Gene Ontology analysis of these data sets indicated an enrichment of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile terpenoids and nonvolatile phenylpropanoids in ECs (when compared with parenchyma cells), thus indicating a significant metabolic specialization in this cell type. The gene expression patterns in ECs were consistent with the accumulation of the major essential oil constituents (monoterpenes, prenylated coumarins, and polymethoxylated flavonoids). Morphometric analyses demonstrated that secretory cavities are formed early during fruit development, whereas the expansion of cavities, and thus oil accumulation, correlates with later stages of fruit expansion. Our studies have laid the methodological and experimental groundwork for a vastly improved knowledge of the as yet poorly understood processes controlling essential oil biosynthesis in Citrus peel. PMID:22452856

Voo, Siau Sie; Grimes, Howard D.; Lange, B. Markus

2012-01-01

136

Rapid large scale purification of ellagitannins from pomegranate husk, a by-product of the commercial juice industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed fresh and in processed forms as juice, jams and wine. Pomegranate fruit husk\\/peel is a rich source of hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins (ETs). In the commercial pomegranate juice (PJ) industry, these ETs are extracted from the husk in significant quantities into the juice due to their hydrophilic properties. Pomegranate husk, a by-product

N. Seeram; R. Lee; M. Hardy; D. Heber

2005-01-01

137

Adhesion and peeling forces of carbon nanotubes on a substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adhesion and peeling of a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on a substrate have been studied. Nanoscale and mesoscale intermittent adhesion and peeling, and a conformational transition of an MWCNT appear in the vertical force-distance curve, which depends strongly on the length of the MWCNT, substrate, and velocities of adhesion and peeling. The elastic bending feature of the MWCNT as a nanospring appears during the adhesion and peeling.

Ishikawa, Makoto; Harada, Ryuichi; Sasaki, Naruo; Miura, Kouji

2009-11-01

138

Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.).

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi; Yukitoshi Tanaka

2004-01-01

139

The Simulation of Paint Cracking and Peeling Eric Paquette  

E-print Network

The Simulation of Paint Cracking and Peeling Eric Paquette D´ep. I.R.O., Universit´e de Montr of time results in cracking and peeling of layers such as paint. To include these ef- fects in computer of paint peeling. We present a new approach which computes such a simulation on surfaces. Our simulation

Boyer, Edmond

140

Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

141

Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3-4 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practices, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability could be greatly improved if this amount of peel can be used to produce high...

142

Purification and Properties of a New Carboxypeptidase from Citrus Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has been found that a Carboxypeptidase (or a mixture of various carboxypeptidases) occurs in the peel of citrus fruit, for example, of the orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus medica), and grapefruit (Citrus maxima). This peptidase differs in specificity and in other properties from the known carboxypeptidases A (ref. 1) and B (ref. 2) of the pancreas and from the

H. Zuber

1964-01-01

143

An Ap"peel"ing Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a hands-on mathematics activity wherein students peel oranges to explore the surface area and volume of a sphere. This activity encourages students to make conjectures and hold mathematical discussions with both their peers and their teacher. Moreover, students develop formulas for the surface area and volume of a sphere…

Urich, Joshua A.; Sasse, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

144

Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

145

Peel resistance of adhesive bonds accurately measured  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strength of adhesive bond between layers of laminated material is tested by peel force to the facing with a tensile testing machine. Testing jig has stainless steel rollers which constrain material to move horizontally while maintaining free end of facing at constant 90 deg angle.

1965-01-01

146

Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial  

PubMed Central

The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women. PMID:24133616

Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

2013-01-01

147

Absolute configurations of new limonoids from a Krishna mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Four new limonoids, named granatumins V-Y (1-4), belonging to the small group of limonoids with a C1-C29 oxygen bridge and a ?(8,30) double bond, were isolated from the seeds of an Indian mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum, collected in the swamp of Krishna estuary, Andhra Pradesh. The constitutions and absolute configurations of these compounds were established by extensive NMR investigations, single-crystal X-ray crystallography using Cu K? radiation, and by the comparison of circular dichroism spectrum. PMID:24525299

Chen, Wenping; Shen, Li; Li, Minyi; Xiao, Qiang; Satyanandamurty, Tirumani; Wu, Jun

2014-04-01

148

Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant  

PubMed Central

Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

2012-01-01

149

Extension of the shelf life of banana fruit by 1-methylcyclopropene in combination with polyethylene bags  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the new anti-ethylene compound 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in combination with polyethylene bags on the ripening of harvested banana fruit was investigated. 1-MCP treatment delayed peel colour change and fruit softening, and extended shelf life in association with suppression of respiration and C2H4 evolution. Banana fruit ripening was delayed when exposed to 0.01–1.0 ?l 1-MCP\\/l for 24 h, and

Yueming Jiang; Daryl C Joyce; Andrew J Macnish

1999-01-01

150

Topical microemulsion containing Punica granatum extract: its control over skin erythema and melanin in healthy Asian subjects  

PubMed Central

Introduction Punica granatum is apotent source of polyphenolic compounds with strong free radicals scavenging activity. The skin lightening effects of Punica granatum are assumed due to ellagic acid which acts by chelating copper at the active site of tyrosinase. Aim To explore a topical microemulsion (O/W) of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract for its control on skin erythema and melanin. Material and methods Microemulsions were formulated using a polysorbate surfactant (Tween 80®) along with cosurfactant (propylene glycol) and were characterized regarding their stability. The placebo microemulsion (without extract) and the active microemulsion (containing Punica extract) were applied in a split face fashion by the volunteers (n = 11) for a period of 12 weeks. Skin erythema and melanin were measured at baseline and after every 15 days to determine any effect produced by these formulations. Results Active formulation showed a significant impact on skin erythema and melanin (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study reveals that a suitable topical formulation like microemulsion could employ the Punica granatum extract for conditions where elevated skin melanin and erythema have significantly prone skin physiology. PMID:25610348

Parveen, Rashida; Akhtar, Naveed

2014-01-01

151

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.  

PubMed

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

2011-08-01

152

Anticancer Activities of Citrus Peel Polymethoxyflavones Related to Angiogenesis and Others  

PubMed Central

Citrus is a kind of common fruit and contains multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Flavonoids, as a class of plant secondary metabolites, exist in citrus fruits abundantly. Due to their broad range of pharmacological properties, citrus flavonoids have gained increased attention. Accumulative in vitro and in vivo studies indicate protective effects of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) against the occurrence of cancer. PMFs inhibit carcinogenesis by mechanisms like blocking the metastasis cascade, inhibition of cancer cell mobility in circulatory systems, proapoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. This review systematically summarized anticarcinogenic effect of citrus flavonoids in cancer therapy, together with the underlying important molecular mechanisms, in purpose of further exploring more effective use of citrus peel flavonoids. PMID:25250322

Wang, Liwen; Wang, Jinhan; Fang, Lianying; Zheng, Zuliang; Zhi, Dexian; Wang, Suying; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhao, Hui

2014-01-01

153

Methods for the efficient quantification of fruit provitamin A contents.  

PubMed

As part of a screening program to identify micronutrient-rich banana and plantain (Musa) varieties, a simple, robust, and comparatively rapid protocol for the quantification of the provitamin A carotenoids contents of fruit pulp and peel tissues by HPLC and by spectrophotometry has been developed. Major points to note include the use lyophilisation and extensive tissue disruption procedures to ensure quantitative recoveries, and the avoidance of saponification and/or concentration steps which lead to significant losses of provitamin A carotenoids. The protocol showed excellent reproducibility between replicate extractions, without the need for an internal standard. Application of the methodology demonstrated that Musa fruit pulp has a relatively simple provitamin A carotenoids content, quite different from the overlying peel, and that the proportions of alpha- and beta-carotene are characteristic for each genotype. The protocol was also used to profile the provitamin A carotenoids of several other fruits. PMID:17049540

Davey, Mark W; Keulemans, Johan; Swennen, Rony

2006-12-15

154

Auraptene in the Peels of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachi Bankan) Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in the Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Examination of the dried peel powder of Citrus kawachiensis, one of the citrus products of Ehime, Japan, showed that it contained naringin (NGIN; 44.02?±?0.491?mg/g), narirutin (NRTN; 4.46?±?0.0563?mg/g), auraptene (AUR; 4.07?±?0.033?mg/g), and 3,5,6,7,8,3?,4?-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF; 0.27?±?0.0039?mg/g). When this dried peel powder was orally preadministered at the dose of 1.2 or 2.4?g/kg/day for 7 days into lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) injected mice, an animal model of systemic inflammation, it suppressed (1) LPS-induced loss of body weight and abnormal behavior in the open field, (2) LPS-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes in the hippocampus, and (3) LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, which were coexpressed in astrocytes of these mice. When NGIN or AUR was preadministered to LPS-injected mice at an amount similar to that in the peel powder, AUR, but not NGIN, had the ability to suppress the LPS-induced inflammation in the brain of these model mice. The dried powder of flavedo tissue (the outer colored layer of the mesocarp of a citrus fruit) and juice, which contained sufficient amounts of AUR, also had anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest that AUR was the main ingredient responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of the dried peels of C. kawachiensis. PMID:24955102

Okuyama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kana; Mori, Hirotomo; Toyoda, Nobuki; Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Sugawara, Kuniaki; Sudo, Masahiko; Nakajima, Mitsunari

2014-01-01

155

The role of peel stresses in cyclic debonding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When an adhesively bonded joint is undergoing cyclic loading, one of the possible damage modes that occurs is called cyclic debonding - progressive separation of the adherends by failure of the adhesive bond under cyclic loading. In most practical structures, both peel and shear stresses exist in the adhesive bonding during cyclic loading. The results of an experimental and analytical study to determine the role of peel stresses on cyclic debonding in a mixed mode specimen are presented. Experimentally, this was done by controlling the forces that create the peel stresses by applying a clamping force to oppose the peel stresses. Cracked lap shear joints were chosen for this study. A finite element analysis was developed to assess the effect of the clamping force on the strain energy release rates due to shear and peel stresses. The results imply that the peel stress is the principal stress causing cyclic debonding.

Everett, R. A., Jr.

1982-01-01

156

The peel test in experimental adhesive fracture mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several testing methods have been proposed for obtaining critical energy release rate or adhesive fracture energy in bond systems. These tests include blister, cone, lap shear, and peel tests. Peel tests have been used for many years to compare relative strengths of different adhesives, different surface preparation techniques, etc. The present work demonstrates the potential use of the peel test for obtaining adhesive fracture energy values.

Anderson, G. P.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

1974-01-01

157

Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions by cheaply available fruit waste and algal biomass.  

PubMed

This study compared the effectiveness of different biosorbents, viz. materials commonly present in natural treatment systems (Scenedesmus quadricauda and reed) and commonly produced fruit wastes (orange and banana peel) to remove Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from a synthetic wastewater simulating tannery wastewater. The Cr(III) removal efficiency followed the order S. quadricauda>orange peel>banana peel>reed, whereas the Cr(VI) removal followed the order banana peel>S. quadricauda>reed>orange peel. The chromium biosorption kinetics were governed by the intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Isotherm data obtained using the different biosorbents were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and SIPS models, revealing that the experimental data followed most closely the monolayer sorption theory-based Langmuir model than the other models. The maximum Cr(III) sorption capacity, calculated using the Langmuir model, was found to be 12 and 9 mg/g for S. quadricauda and orange peel, respectively, and the maximum Cr(VI) sorption capacity calculated for banana peel was 3 mg/g. The influence of biosorbent size, pH, solid-liquid ratio, and competing ions were examined for Cr(III) biosorption by S. quadricauda and orange peel and for Cr(VI) sorption by banana peel. The solution pH was found to be the most influential parameter affecting the biosorption process: whereas pH 5 was found to be optimum for maximum removal of Cr(III), Cr(VI) was best removed at a pH as low as 3. Interference to chromium sorption by various ions revealed that Cr(III) binding onto orange peel occurs through electrostatic forces, whereas Cr(VI) binding onto banana peel through non-electrostatic forces. PMID:23553106

Pakshirajan, Kannan; Worku, Alemayehu Netsanet; Acheampong, Mike A; Lubberding, Henk J; Lens, Piet N L

2013-06-01

158

Comparative analysis of Tunisian wild Crataegus azarolus (yellow azarole) and Crataegus monogyna (red azarole) leaf, fruit, and traditionally derived syrup: phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous-acetone extracts.  

PubMed

Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the yellow and red azarole phenolic extracts prepared from leaf, fruit peel/pulp, and syrup were comparatively investigated. The yellow azarole was found significantly richer in polyphenols than the red-fruit species. Hyperoside was the main phenolic in both yellow and red azarole leaves and only in yellow fruits, whereas procyanidin B2 was the major compound in red fruits. Yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities using DPPH (?168 and 79 ?mol TEAC/g fw, respectively) and FRAP (?378 and 161 ?mol Fe(2+)/g fw, respectively) assays. The highest antibacterial activities were recorded for the yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts, especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis . The low phenolic content of the syrups contrasted with their significant antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, which were correlated to their hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (furan derivative amounts) content. PMID:24070066

Belkhir, Manel; Rebai, Olfa; Dhaouadi, Karima; Congiu, Francesca; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Amri, Mohamed; Fattouch, Sami

2013-10-01

159

Structure-function relationship of the foam-like pomelo peel (Citrus maxima)-an inspiration for the development of biomimetic damping materials with high energy dissipation.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of artificial foams are mainly determined by the choice of bulk materials and relative density. In natural foams, in contrast, variation to optimize properties is achieved by structural optimization rather than by conscious substitution of bulk materials. Pomelos (Citrus maxima) have a thick foam-like peel which is capable of dissipating considerable amounts of kinetic energy and thus this fruit represents an ideal role model for the development of biomimetic impact damping structures. This paper focuses on the analysis of the biomechanics of the pomelo peel and on its structure-function relationship. It deals with the determination of the onset strain of densification of this foam-like tissue and on how this property is influenced by the arrangement of vascular bundles. It was found here that the vascular bundles branch in a very regular manner-every 16.5% of the radial peel thickness-and that the surrounding peel tissue (pericarp) attains its exceptional thickness mainly by the expansion of existing interconnected cells causing an increasing volume of the intercellular space, rather than by cell division. These findings lead to the discussion of the pomelo peel as an inspiration for fibre-reinforced cast metallic foams with the capacity for excellent energy dissipation. PMID:23648799

Thielen, M; Schmitt, C N Z; Eckert, S; Speck, T; Seidel, R

2013-06-01

160

Cystic fibrosis as a rare cause of apple peel syndrome.  

PubMed

Apple peel atresia is a special form of intestinal atresia with absence of mesentery. It is most likely due to an intrauterine intestinal vascular accident and has been described with other anomalies. Meconium ileus can compromise blood supply causing intestinal atresia. Therefore, cystic fibrosis needs to be ruled out in apple peel syndrome. PMID:24435787

Broekaert, I J; van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel, S; Rietschel, E

2014-01-01

161

Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

162

Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of pomegranate peel extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried pomegranate peels were powdered and extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol and water for 4 h each. The dried extracts were used to determine their antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex and antimutagenicity against the mutagenicity of sodium azide by the Ames test. All the peel extracts exhibited marked antioxidant capacity, but

P. S. Negi; G. K. Jayaprakasha; B. S. Jena

2003-01-01

163

Anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract of Punica granatum L. seed.  

PubMed

Objective: Various morphological parts of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) have extensively been used in the folk medicine to treat an array of human ailments. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the anticonvulsant potential of the ethanolic extract of P. granatum L. seed in chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. Method: The anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract was investigated in strychnine (STR)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure models in mice. Diazepam was used as reference anticonvulsant drug. Ethanolic extract (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg per os, p.o.), diazepam (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.), and distilled water (10 ml/kg, i.p.) were administered before induction of seizures by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or STR (2·5 mg/kg, i.p.). The latent time before the onset of convulsions, the duration of convulsions, the percentage of seizure protection, and mortality rate were recorded. Results: The seed ethanolic extract did not show any toxicity and did not protect the animals against seizures but demonstrated a significant increase in seizure latency at 300 and 600 mg/kg in both STR and PTZ seizure models (P < 0·001). It also showed a significant reduction in seizure duration at 300 mg/kg (P < 0·05) and 600 mg/kg (P < 0·001) in the STR seizure model and 600 mg/kg (P < 0·01) in the PTZ seizure model compared with the control group. Conclusion: Ethanol extract has dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity against STR- and PTZ-induced seizures. This activity might be due to its saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, and alkaloids ingredients. PMID:25413687

Mehrzadi, Saeed; Sadr, Samir; Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Gholamine, Babak; Shahbazi, Ali; FallahHuseini, Hasan; Ghaznavi, Habib

2014-11-21

164

Limonoids with an oxygen bridge between C(1) and C(29) from the seeds of a Krishna mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

Ten limonoids, named granatumins L-U (1-10, resp.), were isolated from the seeds of an Indian mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum, collected in the estuary of Krishna, Andhra Pradesh. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data. The relative configuration of granatumin L (1) was confirmed by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Granatumins L-T (1-9, resp.) belong to the small group of limonoids with an oxygen bridge between C(1) and C(29), while granatumin U (10) is a 28-Me-oxidized mexicanolide. This is the first report of limonoids with an O-bridge between C(1) and C(29) from the Indian X. granatum. The pronounced structural diversity of limonoids from this mangrove might originate from environmental factors. PMID:24591316

Li, Min-Yi; Xiao, Qiang; Satyanandamurty, Tirumani; Wu, Jun

2014-02-01

165

Frozen Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe reversible change while thinking about ways to make ice melt. Learners freeze a piece of fruit in an ice cube and then explore ways to get the fruit out of the ice (using warm water to melt the ice, microwaving the fruit cubes, or just waiting). After, learners can enjoy their healthy snack! This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

166

Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

PubMed

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-10-01

167

Exposure to Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Trees, Fruit, and Oil Enhances Mating Success of Male Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann])  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous laboratory tests revealed that exposure to oranges (Citrus sinensis L.) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (medfly). This advantage may have resulted from male exposure to a-copaene (a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and known male attractant) in the peel, as pure a-copaene has been shown to increase the mating success of male medflies. Working with

Todd Shelly; Charmian Dang; Susan Kennelly

2004-01-01

168

The absolute stereochemistry of protoxylogranatin A - a new protolimonoid from the seeds of Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum.  

PubMed

A new protolimonoid, named protoxylogranatin A, has been isolated from the seeds of a Chinese mangrove Xylocarpus granatum. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of modern spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration was determined by the application of the modified Mosher MTPA ester method. The first complete assignments of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data for this protolimonoid were achieved by means of 2D NMR techniques, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra. PMID:18470801

Li, Min-Yi; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Si; Xiao, Qiang; Li, Qing-Xin

2008-01-01

169

Antioxidant properties and hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS profiling of Chilean Pica mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueño).  

PubMed

Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu), 13 in Pica peel (ppe) 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu) and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe). Three procyanidin dimers (peaks 6, 9 and 10), seven acid derivatives (peaks 1-4, 11, 20 and 21) and four xanthones were identified, mainly mangiferin (peak 12) and mangiferin gallate, (peak 7), which were present in both peel and pulp of the two studied species from northern Chile. Homomangiferin (peak 13) was also present in both fruit pulps and dimethylmangiferin (peak 14) was present only in Tommy pulp. Pica fruits showed better antioxidant capacities and higher polyphenolic content (73.76/32.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 32.49/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay, for edible pulp and peel, respectively) than Tommy Atkins fruits (127.22/46.39 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 25.03/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay for pulp and peel, respectively). The peel of Pica mangoes showed also the highest content of phenolics (66.02 mg/100 g FW) measured by HPLC-PDA. The HPLC generated fingerprint can be used to authenticate Pica mango fruits and Pica mango food products. PMID:24384924

Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario J

2013-01-01

170

Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. PMID:25660857

Raduni?, Mira; Juki? Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

2015-06-15

171

Uptake of quercetin and quercetin 3-glucoside from whole onion and apple peel extracts by Caco-2 cell monolayers.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables may be responsible for this health benefit. However, there is limited knowledge on the bioavailability of specific phytochemicals from whole fruits and vegetables. This study used Caco-2 cells to examine uptake of quercetin aglycon and quercetin 3-glucoside as purified compounds and from whole onion and apple peel extracts. Pure quercetin aglycon was absorbed by the Caco-2 cells in higher concentrations than quercetin 3-glucoside (p < 0.05). Caco-2 cells treated with quercetin 3-glucoside accumulated both quercetin 3-glucoside and quercetin. Caco-2 cells absorbed more onion quercetin aglycon than onion quercetin 3-glucoside (p < 0.05), and the percentage of onion quercetin absorbed was greater than that of pure quercetin, most likely due to enzymatic hydrolysis of quercetin 3-glucoside and other quercetin glucosides found in the onion by the Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cells absorbed low levels of quercetin 3-glucoside from apple peel extracts, but quercetin aglycon absorption was not detected. Caco-2 cell homogenates demonstrated both lactase and glucosidase activities when incubated with lactose and quercetin 3-glucoside, respectively. This use of the Caco2 cell model appears to be a simple and useful system for studying bioavailability of whole food phytochemicals and may be used to assess differences in bioavailability between foods. PMID:15537334

Boyer, Jeanelle; Brown, Dan; Liu, Rui Hai

2004-11-17

172

Proteomics approach reveals mechanism underlying susceptibility of loquat fruit to sunburn during color changing period.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to investigate why loquat fruit peels are more sensitive to high temperature and strong sunlight, making them highly susceptible to sunburn, during the color changing period (CCP). Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the fruit peel proteins was performed over three developmental periods, namely green fruit period (GFP), color changing period and yellow ripening period (YRP). Fifty-five protein spots with at least 2-fold differences in abundance were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. The identified proteins were divided into categories related to heat-shock response, stress response and defense, energy metabolism, photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis. The results showed that expression of proteins related to anaerobic respiration and photorespiration were increased while the proteins related to ROS scavenging, polyamine biosynthesis, defense pathogens and photosynthesis were decreased during CCP under heat stress. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of loquat fruit susceptible to sunburn during CCP. PMID:25624247

Jiang, Ji-Mou; Lin, Yong-Xiang; Chen, Yi-Yong; Deng, Chao-Jun; Gong, Hui-Wen; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Zheng, Shao-Quan; Chen, Wei

2015-06-01

173

Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling  

E-print Network

We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependencies of the stick and slip phases durations with the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K.W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205--222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase.

Marie-Julie Dalbe; Stéphane Santucci; Pierre-Philippe Cortet; Loïc Vanel

2013-11-14

174

Complications of medium depth and deep chemical peels.  

PubMed

Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarring. In very rare cases, complications can be life-threatening. PMID:23378707

Nikalji, Nanma; Godse, Kiran; Sakhiya, Jagdish; Patil, Sharmila; Nadkarni, Nitin

2012-10-01

175

Effect of fruit harvest time on citrus canker detection using hyperspectral reflectance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus industry has need for effective and efficient approaches to remove fruit with canker before they are shipped to\\u000a selective international markets. The objective of this research was to study the effect of fruit harvest time on citrus canker\\u000a detection using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Ruby Red grapefruits with normal surface, canker, and five common peel\\u000a diseases including greasy spot,

Xuhui Zhao; Thomas F. Burks; Jianwei Qin; Mark A. Ritenour

2010-01-01

176

Purification and some properties of polyphenol oxidase of longan fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit peel, with a 46-fold purification of PPO by ammonium sulfate, Sephadex G-200 and Phenyl Sepharose being achieved. Pyrogallol, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol were good substrates for the enzyme, and activity with chlorogenic acid, p-cresol, resorcinol, or tyrosine was not observed. The optimal pH for PPO activity was 6.5 with 4-methylcatechol.

Yue-Ming Jiang

1999-01-01

177

Extraction of hiprose fruit by supercritical CO 2 and propane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of whole fruit, seeds and peel of hiprose were studied with carbon dioxide, propane + carbon dioxide and propane as solvents under super- and subcritical conditions. The percentage of extract recovered from seed, whole hipfruit and hippeel was found to be 5.7–6.7, 3.0–3.5 and 0.32–0.42, respectively. The ratios of solvent to plant material, required to attain a complete extraction,

V. Illés; O. Szalai; M. Then; H. Daood; S. Perneczki

1997-01-01

178

POSTHARVEST CALCIUM CHLORIDE DIPS OF WHOLE TOMATO FRUIT REDUCE POSTHARVEST DECAY UNDER COMMERCIAL CONDITIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research showed that mature green tomato fruit dipped 1 to 4 minutes in a 1% CaCl2 solutions before storage had significantly increased peel calcium content and reduced postharvest decay. The present experiments, conducted over 3-day periods (reps), evaluate treatment effectiveness under c...

179

Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry.  

PubMed

The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the peel extract was greatest and followed by that of the inside and seed extracts in all bioassays. Significant reductions in the root and shoot growth were observed as the extract concentration was increased. The concentrations of abscisic acid-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-GE) in peel, inside and seeds separated from the C. junos fruit waste were determined, since ABA-GE was found to be one of the main growth inhibitors in C. junos fruit. The concentration was greatest in the peel, followed by the inside and seeds; there was a good correspondence between these concentrations and the inhibitory activities of the extracts. This suggests that ABA-GE may also be involved in the growth inhibitory effect of C. junos waste. These results suggested that C. junos waste may possess allelopathic potential, and the waste may be potentially useful for weed management. PMID:15158515

Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Yukitoshi

2004-09-01

180

Changes in ascorbic acid, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in minimally processed cactus pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cv. ‘Gialla’) were manually peeled, then placed in plastic boxes sealed with a film with high permeability to gases, and kept at 4°C for 9 days. After 3, 6 and 9 days, chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters, total phenols, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity were determined. In-package gas concentrations were measured almost

A Piga; A. Del Caro; I Pinna; M Agabbio

2003-01-01

181

Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220?m wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ˜100m/s , which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

Thoroddsen, S. T.; Nguyen, H. D.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.

2010-10-01

182

Structure effect on the peel strength of polyurethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and 4,4'-dicyclohexylmethane (H12MDI)-based polyurethanes (PUs) with different molecular weights and hard segment contents were synthesized by solution polymerization. The peel strengths between these PUs and 3M-600 tape were measured. Surprisingly, PUs with the most hydrophobic composition showed the largest peel strength. The hydrogen bonding index (HBI) measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was

S. L. Huang; S. J. Yu; J. Y. Lai

1998-01-01

183

The hypocholesterolemic effect of lemon peels, lemon pectin, and the waste stream material of lemon peels in hybrid F 1 B hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background We found in preliminary studies with hamsters that citrus peels have a cholesterol lowering effect comparable to that of\\u000a pectin extracted from these peels. Aim of the study We wanted to examine whether the cholesterol lowering effect of the peels could be completely accounted for by the pectin\\u000a in the peels. Methods We fed cholesterol enriched (0.1 %,w\\/w)

A. H. M. Terpstra; J. A. Lapré; H. T. de Vries; A. C. Beynen

2002-01-01

184

SPECTRAL IMAGING OF THE AREA OF INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate a spectral imaging technique to detect the area of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling after vitrectomy for idiopathic macular hole. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, 15 eyes of 15 patients with idiopathic macular holes were tested. After vitrectomy with ILM peeling, retinal images were taken with color fundus photography, red-free fundus photography, and scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging at 488 nm, 514 nm, 633 nm, and 780 nm. We calculated the Michelson contrast at the margin of ILM peeling, and each image was rank ordered for the ability to discern the margin of ILM peeling. Results: The Michelson contrasts in scanning laser ophthalmoscope images at 488 nm and 514 nm were significantly larger than those in images at 633 nm and 780 nm and in the red-free fundus photograph. The scanning laser ophthalmoscope images at 488 nm and 514 nm were rated superior to images at 633 nm and 780 nm, the color fundus photograph, and the red-free fundus photograph. Conclusion: The scanning laser ophthalmoscope images at 488 nm and 514 nm provide a better tool than some of the common clinical means for detection of the area of ILM peeling. This may assist with rapid, noninvasive assessment of ILM peeling. PMID:15933594

MIURA, MASAHIRO; ELSNER, ANN E.; OSAKO, MASAHIRO; YAMADA, KUNIO; AGAWA, TETSUYA; USUI, MASAHIKO; IWASAKI, TAKUYA

2006-01-01

185

Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ? 0.1 MA m?2) and low magnetic field (B ? 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ? 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink.

Bongard, M. W.; Thome, K. E.; Barr, J. L.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

2014-11-01

186

Gene Expression and Metabolism in Tomato Fruit Surface Tissues1[C][W  

PubMed Central

The cuticle, covering the surface of all primary plant organs, plays important roles in plant development and protection against the biotic and abiotic environment. In contrast to vegetative organs, very little molecular information has been obtained regarding the surfaces of reproductive organs such as fleshy fruit. To broaden our knowledge related to fruit surface, comparative transcriptome and metabolome analyses were carried out on peel and flesh tissues during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development. Out of 574 peel-associated transcripts, 17% were classified as putatively belonging to metabolic pathways generating cuticular components, such as wax, cutin, and phenylpropanoids. Orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SHINE2 and MIXTA-LIKE regulatory factors, activating cutin and wax biosynthesis and fruit epidermal cell differentiation, respectively, were also predominantly expressed in the peel. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a flame ionization detector identified 100 metabolites that are enriched in the peel tissue during development. These included flavonoids, glycoalkaloids, and amyrin-type pentacyclic triterpenoids as well as polar metabolites associated with cuticle and cell wall metabolism and protection against photooxidative stress. Combined results at both transcript and metabolite levels revealed that the formation of cuticular lipids precedes phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression patterns of reporter genes driven by the upstream region of the wax-associated SlCER6 gene indicated progressive activity of this wax biosynthetic gene in both fruit exocarp and endocarp. Peel-associated genes identified in our study, together with comparative analysis of genes enriched in surface tissues of various other plant species, establish a springboard for future investigations of plant surface biology. PMID:18441227

Mintz-Oron, Shira; Mandel, Tali; Rogachev, Ilana; Feldberg, Liron; Lotan, Ofra; Yativ, Merav; Wang, Zhonghua; Jetter, Reinhard; Venger, Ilya; Adato, Avital; Aharoni, Asaph

2008-01-01

187

A Comprehensive Review of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) Properties in Toxicological, Pharmacological, Cellular and Molecular Biology Researches  

PubMed Central

Punica granatum (Pg), commonly known as pomegranate (Pg), is a member of the monogeneric family, Punicaceae, and is mainly found in Iran which is considered to be its primary centre of origin. Pg and its chemical components possess various pharmacological and toxicological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines), anti-cancer and anti-angiogenesis activities. They also show inhibitory effects on invasion/motility, cell cycle, apoptosis, and vital enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX), lipooxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 (CYP450), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), carbonic anhydrase (CA), 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSDs) and serine protease (SP). Furthermore, they can stimulate cell differentiation and possess anti-mutagenic effects. Pg can also interfere with several signaling pathways including PI3K/AKT, mTOR, PI3K, Bcl-X, Bax, Bad, MAPK, ERK1/2, P38, JNK, and caspase. However, the exact mechanisms for its pharmacological and toxicological properties remain to be unclear and need further evaluation. These properties strongly suggest a wide range use of Pg for clinical applications. This review will discuss the areas for which Pg has shown therapeutic properties in different mechanisms. PMID:24250463

Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Arastoo, Mohammad; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

2012-01-01

188

Antioxidant capacity changes of 3 cultivar Chinese pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and corresponding wines.  

PubMed

This study investigated the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH), ·OH and O(2·)(-)-scavenging abilities, total polyphenols (TP) and total anthocyanins (TA) in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) and pomegranate wine (PW). The correlations among them were also analyzed. Both PJ and PW showed significantly high TP and antioxidant capacities, but some differences existed among these cultivars. There was 1596.67 mg/L TP found in sweet PJ, while sour PJ showed the highest titratable acidity of 35.90 g/L and lowest pH value at 2.56. Red PJ was found to have the highest TA (82.26 mg/L) in the 3 cultivars. Sweet PJ showed higher DPPH-scavenging ability and higher FRAP than others. Both PJ and PW exhibited high and relatively stable ·OH-scavenging abilities, in which sour PJ and sour PW had higher O(2·)(-) scavenging capacity than others. Significant positive correlations were observed among TP, DPPH, and FRAP in both PJ and PW. A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and TP indicated that phenolic compounds were major contributors to the high antioxidant activity of PJ and PW. PMID:22417342

Zhuang, Huiting; Du, Jinhua; Wang, Yongmei

2011-05-01

189

Studying genetic variability of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) based on chloroplast DNA and barcode genes.  

PubMed

Chloroplast DNA has been used extensively to analyze plant phylogenies at different taxonomic levels because of its size, organization and sequence conservation. In the present research, two chloroplastic regions, petA–psaJ, trnC–trnD and four DNA barcodes (trnH–psbA, ITS, rbcL, matK), were used to introduce suitable regions for the assessment of genetic diversity among P. granatum L. genotypes. Analysis of psbE–petL in petA–psaJ region revealed 1,300 nucleotides with 4.29 % genetic diversity among genotypes, while trnC–petN in trnC–trnD region showed 1.8 % genetic diversity. Therefore, despite the results obtained from the study of other plants, the trnC–trnD region had a low potential for the evaluation of diversity among pomegranate genotypes. Analysis of DNA barcodes in pomegranate showed that trnH–psbA (genetic diversity 2.91 %) provides the highest intra-species variation, followed by ITS (genetic diversity 0.44 %). Eighteen genotypes from different geographical origins of Iran were used to investigate psbE–petL and trnH–psbA potential as novel barcodes to determine genetic polymorphism and characterize pomegranate genotypes. The results suggested that two regions, psbE–petL and trnH–psbA, were more suitable for determining intra-species relationships of pomegranate. PMID:23797804

Hajiahmadi, Zahra; Talebi, Majid; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim

2013-11-01

190

Long-term potentiation: peeling the onion  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), thousands of papers have been published on this phenomenon. With this massive amount of information, it is often difficult, especially for someone not directly involved in the field, not to be overwhelmed. The goal of this review is to peel away as many layers as possible, and probe the core properties of LTP. We would argue that the many dozens of proteins that have been implicated in the phenomenon are not essential, but rather modulate, often in indirect ways, the threshold and/or magnitude of LTP. What is required is NMDA receptor activation followed by CaMKII activation. The consequence of CaMKII activation is the rapid recruitment of AMPA receptors to the synapse. This recruitment is independent of AMPA receptor subunit type, but absolutely requires an adequate pool of surface receptors. An important unresolved issue is how exactly CaMKII activation leads to modifications in the PSD to allow rapid enrichment. PMID:23439383

Nicoll, Roger A.; Roche, Katherine W.

2013-01-01

191

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.  

PubMed

Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE/ml). Extracts (20 ?g/ml) of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis, Caesalpinia Mexicana, Emblica officinalis, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, were found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by Fenton’s reagent generated hydroxyl radicals. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through HPLC and MS/MS where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 48.5 to 2231 ?g/g, chlorogenic acid 63.8 to 912.1 ?g/g, ellagic acid 46.4 to 1429.1 ?g/g, ferulic acid 36.7 to 762.9 ?g/g, gallic acid 181.6 to 2831.6 ?g/g, protocatechuic acid 41.7 to 322.8 ?g/g, and quercetin 44.6 to 367.6 ?g/g. PMID:22754941

Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

2011-01-01

192

Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet ? cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the pancreas weight index and the histological changes in the pancreas, were also determined. The results showed that, after fours weeks of treatment with PPE, BBPE or PPE + BBPE, DM mice showed, to different degrees, a decrease in blood glucose, increases in insulin secretion and the pancreas weight index, and an increase in antioxidative activity. These changes were particularly evident in the DM mice subjected to the combined intervention strategy of PPE + BBPE. The histological findings indicated that the injury to the pancreatic islets in DM mice was also ameliorated following treatment. In conclusion, PPE and BBPE, particularly the combination of the two, have the ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced pancreatic damage; this finding may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM. PMID:25452774

Wang, Jian-Yun; Zhu, Chuang; Qian, Tian-Wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Xiaoxing

2015-01-01

193

What Do Mexican Fruit Flies Learn When They Experience Fruit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican fruit flies learn fruit characteristics that enable them to distinguish familiar fruits from novel fruits. We investigated whether mature Mexican fruit flies learn fruit color, size or odor. We found no evidence that female flies learn fruit color or size after experience with host fruit, including oviposition. However, green fruit and fruit models were more attractive than yellow and

David C. Robacker; Ivich Fraser

2005-01-01

194

Biological efficiency of polyphenolic extracts from pecan nuts shell ( Carya Illinoensis), pomegranate husk ( Punica granatum) and creosote bush leaves ( Larrea tridentata Cov.) against plant pathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds extracted from plants or agro-industrial residues have great potential as novel fungicide sources for controlling pathogenic fungi. In this study antifungal activity of polyphenolic extracts from Larrea tridentata leaves, Carya illinoensis shells and Punica granatum husk were evaluated in vitro against eight different plant pathogenic fungi and ten isolates of Fusarium oxysporum. Phenolic solutions of gallic and ellagic

Eduardo Osorio; Mariano Flores; Daniel Hernández; Janeth Ventura; Raúl Rodríguez; Cristóbal N. Aguilar

2010-01-01

195

Double peeling during vitrectomy for macular pucker: the Charles L. Schepens Lecture.  

PubMed

Epiretinal membranes are commonly encountered in retinal practice, and they result in decreased vision. The present work addresses whether peeling of the internal limiting membrane is necessary during vitrectomy for macular pucker. We performed a retrospective analysis to investigate the effects of "single peeling," in which only the epiretinal membrane was peeled, and "double peeling," in which the internal limiting membrane was also stained and peeled. Although significantly more patients in the single-peeling group had an epiretinal membrane remaining in the central fovea postoperatively, visual acuity was not found to differ between the 2 groups in the short term. Patients who had an epiretinal membrane for more than 18 months had significantly worse visual acuity outcomes. Unexpectedly, there was a greater proportional decrease in central macular thickness in the single-peeling group than in the double peeling group, a finding that deserves further study. PMID:23579603

Chang, Stanley; Gregory-Roberts, Emily M; Park, Sungpyo; Laud, Ketan; Smith, Scott D; Hoang, Quan V

2013-04-01

196

Onion Peeling for CDMA-Symmetric Rate Under RMS-Bandwidth Constraints  

E-print Network

Onion Peeling for CDMA- Symmetric Rate Under RMS-Bandwidth Constraints Tommy Guess and Mahesh K-theoretic arguments have shown that sequential decoding onion peeling can be used in such a way as to achieve maximum

Varanasi, Mahesh K.

197

Reflectance spectral features and non-destructive estimation of chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content in apple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit reflectance spectra of five apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars (Zhigulevskoe, Antonovka, Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Renet Simirenko) with a wide range of peel pigment (chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids and anthocyanins) content have been studied to develop non-destructive techniques for pigment assessment. In addition to chlorophylls, positions of in vivo absorption maxima were established for carotenoids (480, 455

Mark N. Merzlyak; Alexei E. Solovchenko; Anatoly A. Gitelson

2003-01-01

198

Application of 1-MCP and propylene to identify ethylene-dependent ripening processes in mature banana fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature green bananas (Musa sp., AAA group, Cavendish subgroup, cultivar `Williams') were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at a preclimacteric stage and at intervals of 6, 12 and 24 h after propylene treatment (HAPT) to initiate ripening. The fruit were then allowed to ripen in air or propylene. Ethylene production, respiration rates, peel colour and total volatiles production were monitored during

J. B Golding; D Shearer; S. G Wyllie; W. B McGlasson

1998-01-01

199

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling.  

PubMed

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20?kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50?kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions. PMID:24651648

Marston, Jeremy O; Riker, Paul W; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

2014-01-01

200

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling  

PubMed Central

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20?kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50?kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure “fracture” bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions. PMID:24651648

Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

2014-01-01

201

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure ``fracture'' bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

2014-03-01

202

CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1 are differentially induced during leaf and fruit abscission and diurnally regulated in Citrus sinensis  

PubMed Central

Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Valencia’. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLD?1 expression was reduced in leaves but unaltered in fruit peel tissue treated with an ethylene-releasing compound (ethephon), or a fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP). By contrast, CsPLD?1 expression was up-regulated within 6 h (leaves) and 24 h (fruit peel) after treatment with ethephon or CMNP, respectively. CsPLD?1 expression was diurnally regulated in leaf blade but not fruit peel. CsPLD?1 exhibited strong diurnal oscillation in expression in leaves and fruit peel with peak expression around midday. While diurnal fluctuation in CsPLD?1 expression appeared to be light-entrained in leaves, CsPLD?1 expression was regulated by light and the circadian clock. The diurnal expression of both genes was modulated by ethylene-signalling. The ethephon-induced leaf abscission and the ethephon- and CMNP-induced decrease in fruit detachment force were enhanced by application during rising diurnal expression of CsPLD?1. The results indicate differential regulation of CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1 in leaves and fruit, and suggest possible roles for PLD-dependent signalling in regulating abscission responses in citrus. PMID:18799715

Malladi, Anish; Burns, Jacqueline K.

2008-01-01

203

Peeling properties of lightlike signals in General Relativity  

E-print Network

The peeling properties of a lightlike signal propagating through a general Bondi-Sachs vacuum spacetime and leaving behind another Bondi-Sachs vacuum space-time are studied. We demonstrate that in general the peeling behavior is the conventional one which is associated with a radiating isolated system and that it becomes unconventional if the asymptotically flat space-times on either side of the history of the light-like signal tend to flatness at future null infinity faster than the general Bondi-Sachs space-time. This latter situation occurs if, for example, the space-times in question are static Bondi-Sachs space- times.

G. F. Bressange; P. A. Hogan

2000-02-14

204

Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part I. Model development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infrared (IR) dry-peeling has emerged as an effective non-chemical alternative to conventional lye and steam methods of peeling tomatoes. Successful peel separation induced by IR radiation requires the delivery of a sufficient amount of thermal energy onto tomato surface in a very short duration. Th...

205

A Thermomechanical Preprocessing For Pectin Extraction From Orange Peel. Optimisation by Response Surface Methodology.  

E-print Network

A Thermomechanical Preprocessing For Pectin Extraction From Orange Peel. Optimisation by Response to pectin acid extraction from orange peel. This process involves subjecting the orange peel for a short highly significant effect on the pectin yield. The quadratic effect of processing pressure as well

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Uni-dimensional double development HPTLC-densitometry method for simultaneous analysis of mangiferin and lupeol content in mango (Mangifera indica) pulp and peel during storage.  

PubMed

Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390nm, while lupeol at 610nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed. PMID:25624210

Jyotshna; Srivastava, Pooja; Killadi, Bharti; Shanker, Karuna

2015-06-01

207

The Fruit Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by fruit enthusiast Jeroen Goedhart, The Fruit Pages proclaim: "Everything you want to know about fruit." That claim may be a bit of a stretch, yet in over 150 pages, the Fruit Pages certainly serve up a sizeable amount of fruit information. From fruit nutrition facts to comparisons of acidic and sweet fruit to fruit selection, this website covers a fair amount of ground. Examples of website sections include: The Energy in Fruit, Fruit Sites For Kids, Fruit From All Over The World, and Fruit & Detoxification, just to name a few. A wide variety of individual fruits are profiled as well, with information about common, scientific, and family names, storage, recipes, and more.

Goedhart, Jeroen

208

The pharmacokinetics and health benefits of orange peel compounds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange peel is a resource rich in phenolic antioxidants, including several classes of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates. These compounds have been extensively studied for their biological actions particularly against chronic diseases in humans. Yet, full development of these materials as new, commerc...

209

Quantitative determination of the polyphenolic content of pomegranate peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative determination of total phenols, ellagic tannins and gallic and ellagic acids in the peel of the Tunisian pomegranate variety Chelfi, has been carried out. The ellagic tannin content is prominently less than the amount of total phenols, which led us to look for the presence of the condensed tannins. The determination of the content of catechic tannins in

C. Ben Nasr; N. Ayed; M. Metche

1996-01-01

210

DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOROPERATED PEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOR-OPERATED PEEL BAR PUSHER WITH PINCH ROLLS FOR MOVING BILLETS ENDWISE OUT THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE FURNACE TOWARD THE CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

211

Chemical constituents from the peels of Citrus sudachi.  

PubMed

A methanol extract of the peels of Citrus sudachi gave five new compounds (1-5) and 27 known compounds. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Several of these compounds were assayed for antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori, and sudachitin (6) and 3'-demethoxysudachitin (7) were the most active. PMID:16933871

Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Shibata, Hirofumi; Higuti, Tomihiko

2006-08-01

212

Fate of apple peel phenolics during cool storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of certain phenolics in the diet is considered beneficial to human health. In this study, individual phenolics were measured by diode-array HPLC at monthly intervals in the peel of Granny Smith, Lady Williams, and Crofton apple cultivars stored in air at 0 °C for 9 months. The concentrations of total phenolics significantly differed among the cultivars examined, with Lady

John B. Golding; W. Barry McGlasson; S. Grant Wyllie; David N. Leach

2001-01-01

213

Spectral characteristics of grapefruit oil peel furanocoumarins and coumarins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapefruit peel oil (GPO) contains numerous coumarins and furanocoumarins, many of which are uncharacterized. In this study, ten of these compounds were isolated and studied by UV, FTIR, and mass spectroscopy (MS). These isolations were achieved by silica gel chromatography, preparative TLC, and r...

214

Lesson 21: Fruits [Matunda  

E-print Network

/ matunda [fruit / fruits] penda [like] kula kununua hapendi hupendi [eat] [to buy] [he/she does not like fruits.] 2. Unapenda kununua matunda gani? [What fruits do you like to buy?] a). Ninapenda kununua ndizi. [I like to buy bananas.] b). Sipendi kununua matunda. [I do not like to buy fruits.] c). Sipendi

215

Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.  

PubMed

The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins. PMID:17931857

Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

2008-07-01

216

Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.  

PubMed

Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 ?m and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 ?g steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid ?g/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (E<5%) values. Predicted models were highly significant (p<0.05) for all parameters studied. This study indicates that UAE has strong potential as an extraction method for steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste. PMID:24582305

Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

2014-07-01

217

Individual and combined effects of postharvest dip treatments with water at 50 degrees C, soy lecithin and sodium carbonate on cold stored cactus pear fruits.  

PubMed

Objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prestorage dip treatments at 20 degrees C or 50 degrees C alone or with sodium carbonate (SC) and soy lecithin (LEC), either individually or in combination, on weight losses, peel disorders, overall appearance and decay of cactus pears. Fruits were subjected to a simulated Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) disinfestation by cold quarantine at 2 degrees C for 21 days followed by one week of shelf-life at 20 degrees C. Hot water alone was very effective in reducing peel disorders and decay both during cold storage and shelf-life. SC applied at 20 degrees C showed a weak control of decay and chilling injury, while its effectiveness significantly increased when the solution temperature was set to 50 degrees C. LEC was more effective in preserving freshness during cold storage, but after shelf-life decay incidence in fruit dipped in LEC at 20 degrees C or 50 degrees C was higher than in those dipped in water at 20 degrees C or 50 degrees C, respectively. Significant but moderate differences were detected among treatments in weight loss. After shelf-life, fruit dipped in the heated mixture of SC and LEC showed the lowest incidence of peel disorders and the highest percentage of marketable fruit, although decay incidence was slightly higher than in fruit treated with SC at 50 degrees C. SC and LEC used in combination at 50 degrees C improved fruit tolerance to chilling injury and reduced decay. PMID:23878975

D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Continella, A; La Malfa, S; Gentile, A; Schirra, M

2012-01-01

218

Phytochemicals content, antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of indigenous Garcinia parvifolia fruit.  

PubMed

Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as "asam kandis" or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1?mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0?mg ?-carotene equivalents (BC)/100?g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

2013-01-01

219

Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit  

PubMed Central

Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1?mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0?mg ?-carotene equivalents (BC)/100?g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R.

2013-01-01

220

Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.  

PubMed

The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate. PMID:16968082

Mattila, Pirjo; Hellström, Jarkko; Törrönen, Riitta

2006-09-20

221

Chemotaxonomic Study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella Genotypes Based on Peel Oil Volatile Compounds - Deciphering the Genetic Origin of Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro)  

PubMed Central

Volatile profiles yielded from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis provide abundant information not only for metabolism-related research, but also for chemotaxonomy. To study the chemotaxonomy of Mangshanyegan, its volatile profiles of fruit and leaf and those of 29 other genotypes of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results showed that 145 identified (including 64 tentatively identified) and 15 unidentified volatile compounds were detected from their peel oils. The phylogenetic analysis of peel oils based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) demonstrated a good agreement with the Swingle taxonomy system, in which the three genera of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were almost completely separated. As to Citrus, HCA indicated that Citrophorum, Cephalocitrus, and Sinocitrus fell into three subgroups, respectively. Also, it revealed that Mangshanyegan contain volatile compounds similar to those from pummelo, though it is genetically believed to be a mandarin. These results were further supported by the principal component analysis of the peel oils and the HCA results of volatile profiles of leaves in the study. PMID:23516475

Liu, Cuihua; Jiang, Dong; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Fang, Liu; Ma, Zhaocheng; Xu, Juan

2013-01-01

222

Antioxidant Enrichment and Antimicrobial Protection of Fresh-Cut Fruits Using Their Own Byproducts: Looking for Integral Exploitation  

PubMed Central

Fresh-cut fruit consumption is increasing due to the rising public demand for convenience and awareness of fresh-cut fruit's health benefits. The entire tissue of fruits and vegetables is rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and vitamins. The fresh-cut fruit industry deals with the perishable character of its products and the large percentage of byproducts, such as peels, seeds, and unused flesh that are generated by different steps of the industrial process. In most cases, the wasted byproducts can present similar or even higher contents of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds than the final produce can. In this context, this hypothesis article finds that the antioxidant enrichment and antimicrobial protection of fresh-cut fruits, provided by the fruit's own byproducts, could be possible. PMID:21535513

Ayala-Zavala, JF; Rosas-Domínguez, C; Vega-Vega, V; González-Aguilar, GA

2010-01-01

223

Decreased retinal sensitivity after internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery  

PubMed Central

Aims To compare the retinal sensitivity and frequency of microscotomas found by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) combined with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) microperimetry after idiopathic macular hole closure, in eyes that underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes that did not. Methods This was a retrospective, non-randomised, comparative study. Combined SD-OCT and SLO microperimetry was performed in 16 consecutive eyes after closure of an idiopathic macular hole. A customised microperimetry pattern with 29 measurement points was used. The ILM was peeled in 8/16 eyes. The main outcome measure was mean retinal sensitivity. Results Mean retinal sensitivity (in dB) was lower after peeling: 9.80±2.35?dB with peeling versus 13.19±2.92 without (p=0.0209). Postoperative microscotomas were significantly more frequent after ILM peeling: 11.3±6.6 points with retinal sensitivity below 10?dB in eyes that underwent peeling versus 2.9±4.6 in those that did not (p=0.0093). Conclusions These results suggest that ILM peeling may reduce retinal sensitivity, and significantly increase the incidence of microscotomas. Until a prospective trial confirming or not these results, it seems justified to avoid peeling the ILM when its potential benefit seems minor or unproved, and when peeling is carried out, to limit the surface peeled to the bare minimum. PMID:23077227

Tadayoni, Ramin; Svorenova, Ivana; Erginay, Ali; Gaudric, Alain; Massin, Pascale

2012-01-01

224

Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives.

Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Guerra, Claudia; Cohen, Caroline; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc

2013-02-01

225

A comparison of dynamic mechanical properties of processing-tomato peel as affected by hot lye and infrared radiation heating for peeling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the viscoelastic characteristics of tomato skins subjected to conventional hot lye peeling and emerging infrared-dry peeling by using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Three DMA testing modes, including temperature ramp, frequency sweep, and creep behavior test, were conduct...

226

Partial purification and some properties of polyphenol oxidase extracted from litchi fruit pericarp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit peel polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was partially purified 21 fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration. Pyrogallol, catechol, and 4-methylcatechol were good substrates for the enzyme; with no activity observed with chlorogenic acid, p-cresol, resorcinol, or tyrosine. The optimal pH for PPO activity was 7.0 with 4-methylcatechol, with the enzyme being most stable at pH

Jiang Yue-Ming; Giora Zauberman; Yoram Fuchs

1997-01-01

227

Inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the browning control of litchi fruit by glutathione and citric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.3.2) from litchi peel was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration, and a 16-fold purification of PPO achieved. The use of 10 mmol litre?1 glutathione and 100 mmol litre?1 citric acid was found to give good control of the browning of litchi fruit and 80–85% inhibition of PPO observed. Application of glutathione in

Yueming Jiang; Jiarui Fu

1998-01-01

228

Influence of Storage Temperature on Shelflife of Minimally Processed Cactus Pear Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cultivar Gialla) were manually peeled, placed in polystyrene trays and packaged with a heat-shrinkable film, then kept at 4 °C and 15 °C for 11 d. After 4, 8 and 11 d chemical-physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters were determined, while in-package gas concentrations were measured daily. Chemical-physical and sensorial parameters did not show

A. Piga; S. D'Aquino; M. Agabbio; G. Emonti; G. A. Farris

2000-01-01

229

Antioxidant, Sugar, Mineral and Phytonutrient Concentrations Across Edible Fruit Tissues of Orange-Fleshed HoneyDew Melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange-fleshed honey dew melon (Cucumis melo L.) equatorial mesocarp was segmented into hypodermal (sub-peel), outer, middle, and inner (near the seed cavity) tissues and assayed for enzymatic antioxidants, fruit sugars, minerals, phytonutrients, and total protein concentrations. Moving inwards fro...

230

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of pomegranate peel extracts.  

PubMed

Pomegranate peels of Ganesh variety were subjected to extraction using different solvents viz. water, methanol and ethanol either alone or in combination with water. The extraction yield, antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS inhibition) and total phenolic contents were evaluated. Highest yield was obtained from 50 % ethanol: 50 % water (16.3?±?1.99 %). The DPPH and ABTS inhibition activity was found to be the highest for methanol and 70 % ethanol: 30 % water extract (79.5?±?6.5; 94.6?±?6.10), respectively. The phenolic content was the highest in the aqueous extract (438.3?±?14.15). The antibacterial activity of peel extracts was tested against four bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the extracts demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activities against all the tested bacterial strains. The 70 % ethanol: 30 % water and 100 % water extract had a higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content and has the potential for nutraceutical application. PMID:25477693

Malviya, Shalini; Arvind; Jha, Alok; Hettiarachchy, Navam

2014-12-01

231

Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.  

PubMed

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm. PMID:24738409

Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

2014-06-01

232

Toughening and asymmetry in peeling of heterogeneous adhesives  

E-print Network

The effective adhesive properties of heterogeneous thin films are characterized through a combined experimental and theoretical investigation. By bridging scales, we show how variations of elastic or adhesive properties at the microscale can significantly affect the effective peeling behavior of the adhesive at the macroscale. Our study reveals three elementary mechanisms in heterogeneous systems involving front propagation: (i) patterning the elastic bending stiffness of the film produces fluctuations of the driving force resulting in dramatically enhanced resistance to peeling; (ii) optimized arrangements of pinning sites with large adhesion energy are shown to control the effective system resistance, allowing the design of highly anisotropic and asymmetric adhesives; (iii) heterogeneities of both types result in front motion instabilities producing sudden energy releases that increase the overall adhesion energy. These findings open potentially new avenues for the design of thin films with improved adhesion properties, and motivate new investigation of other phenomena involving front propagation.

Shuman Xia; Laurent Ponson; Guruswami Ravichandran; Kaushik Bhattacharya

2012-03-16

233

FRUIT & NUT Blackberries  

E-print Network

principles. Blackberries have very high production poten- tial, and fresh fruit commands good prices, makingTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Blackberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Brambles or caneberries are fruits in the Ru- bus genus

Mukhtar, Saqib

234

Retinal thickness after vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole and epiretinal membrane  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the retinal thickness (RT), after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, for an idiopathic macular hole (MH) or an epiretinal membrane (ERM). Also, to investigate the effect of a dissociated optic nerve fiber layer (DONFL) appearance on RT. Methods A non-randomized, retrospective chart review was performed for 159 patients who had successful closure of a MH, with (n = 148), or without (n = 11), ILM peeling. Also studied were 117 patients who had successful removal of an ERM, with (n = 104), or without (n = 13), ILM peeling. The RT of the nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study areas was measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In the MH-with-ILM peeling and ERM-with-ILM peeling groups, the RT of the operated eyes was compared to the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. The inner temporal/inner nasal ratio (TNR) was used to assess the effect of ILM peeling on RT. The effects of DONFL appearance on RT were evaluated in only the MH-with-ILM peeling group. Results In the MH-with-ILM peeling group, the central, inner nasal, and outer nasal areas of the retina of operated eyes were significantly thicker than the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. In addition, the inner temporal, outer temporal, and inner superior retina was significantly thinner than in the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. Similar findings were observed regardless of the presence of a DONFL appearance. In the ERM-with-ILM peeling group, the retina of operated eyes was significantly thicker in all areas, except the inner and outer temporal areas. In the MH-with-ILM peeling group, the TNR was 0.86 in operated eyes, and 0.96 in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). In the ERM-with-ILM peeling group, the TNR was 0.84 in operated eyes, and 0.95 in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). TNR in operated eyes of the MH-without-ILM peeling group was 0.98, which was significantly greater than that of the MH-with-ILM peeling group (P < 0.001). TNR in the operated eyes of the ERM-without-ILM peeling group was 0.98, which was significantly greater than that of ERM-with-ILM peeling group (P < 0.001). Conclusion The thinning of the temporal retina and thickening of the nasal retina after ILM peeling does not appear to be disease-specific. In addition, changes in RT after ILM peeling are not related to the presence of a DONFL appearance. PMID:22654493

Kumagai, Kazuyuki; Ogino, Nobuchika; Furukawa, Mariko; Hangai, Masanori; Kazama, Shigeyasu; Nishigaki, Shirou; Larson, Eric

2012-01-01

235

Microwave properties of peeled HEMT devices sapphire substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus of this research is to demonstrate the first full radio frequency characterization of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device parameters. The results of this research are used in the design of circuits with peeled HEMT devices, e.g. 10 GHz amplifiers. Devices were fabricated using two HEMT structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy methods. A 500 A AlAs release layer for 'peel off' was included under the active layers of the structure. The structures are a homogeneously doped Al(0.3)GA(0.7)As/GaAs and a delta doped square well Al(.23)Ga(.77)As/GaAs HEMT structure. Devices were fabricated using a mesa isolation process. Contacts were done by sequentially evaporating Au/Ge/Au/Ni/Au followed by rapid thermal anneal at 400 C for 15 seconds. Gates were wet etch recessed and 1 to 1.4 micron Ti/Au gate metal was deposited. Devices were peeled off the GaAs substrate using Apiezon wax to support the active layer and a HF:DI (1:10) solution to remove the AlAs separation layer. Devices were then attached to sapphire substrates using van der Waals bonding.

Young, Paul G.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mena, Rafael A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

1992-01-01

236

Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

2013-11-01

237

Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Construction PeelAway Great Smoky Mountains National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Construction Peel-Away - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

238

Detachment behavior of mushroom-shaped fibrillar adhesive surfaces in peel testing.  

PubMed

Synthetic dry adhesive surfaces with mushroom-shaped pillars have been the subject of recent research investigation. This study is the first to systematically investigate the effect of peel angle, pillar diameter, and pillar aspect ratio on the force required for peeling. Explicit emphasis was placed on relatively large pillar structures to allow for in situ optical visualization in order to gain insights into fundamental mechanisms which dictate peeling. Traditional molding techniques were used to fabricate optical-scale mushroom terminated structures with pillar diameters of 1 mm and 400 ?m and aspect ratios of 1, 3, and 5. Results were quantitatively compared to peel testing theory for conventional adhesives. It was convincingly demonstrated that the critical decohesion energy of a patterned surface changes as a function of angle and cannot be treated as a constant. Variability in the critical decohesion energy was linked to mechanistic differences in detachment through in situ observations and finite element analysis (FEA). Experimental results showed that smaller pillars do not necessarily lead to higher adhesion during peeling, and contact mechanics combined with optical observations were used to explain this phenomenon. Finally, unlike results from normal adhesion studies, aspect ratio was shown to play little role in peeling adhesive behavior due to the mechanics of peel testing. The results and conclusions from this study uncover the detachment mechanisms of mushroom-shape tipped dry adhesives under peel loading and serve as an outline for the design of these surfaces in peeling applications. PMID:24199989

Hossfeld, Craig K; Schneider, Andreas S; Arzt, Eduard; Frick, Carl P

2013-12-10

239

The flavonol glycosides in the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien  

PubMed Central

1. Two new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien. These were identified as isorhamnetin 3-rhamnogalactoside and a derivative of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside which was associated (possibly acylated) with an unknown aliphatic organic acid. 2. The melting point of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside isolated from Bon Chrétien pears is different from that of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside previously isolated from Argemone mexicana and Calendula officinalis. 3. Isorhamnetin 3-rhamnoglucoside was isolated from the fruit of Pyrus communis L. cultivar Bon Chrétien. This glycoside appears to be identical with narcissin, previously isolated from Narcissus tazetta and Lilium auratum. 4. Isoquercitrin, previously reported to be present in pear leaves, was isolated from the fruit of Bon Chrétien pears. 5. The isolated glycosides were present in the peels and flesh of the fruit, but were absent from the cores. PMID:16749105

Nortjé, B. K.; Koeppen, B. H.

1965-01-01

240

A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments  

PubMed Central

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

2013-01-01

241

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Punica granatum mesocarp, Nelumbo nucifera Leaf, Psidium guajava Leaf and Coffea Canephora Extract on Common Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Alternative therapies are increasingly being explored as extensive use of synthetic chemicals has led to the emergence of substantial side effects. Phytomedicine has been well practiced as traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of oral diseases. It has gained importance of late as an alternative to the conventional therapy. Various plant and fruit extracts have been monitored recently to assess their potential against the common oral pathogens. Aim of this study was to assess in-vitro efficacy of pomegranate peel, lotus leaf, guava leaf and coffee extracts on oral microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared for each, followed by efficacy testing using disc diffusion method against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans. Results: All the four extracts were found to be effective against S.mutans and S.mitis, with maximum efficacy against S.mutans and S.mitis displayed by pomegranate and lotus. Antifungal efficacy was demonstrated by coffee and pomegranate. Guava, lotus and coffee were effective against P.intermedia, while only coffee was found to be effective against P. gingivalis. All the results were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Interpretation & Conclusion: Pomegranate, guava, lotus and coffee displayed significant anticariogenic effect while coffee was found to be most effective against periodontal pathogens as well as Candida albicans. Results revealed that natural products may be used as economical and suitable adjuvant to synthetic medicines and compounds and their judicious use might not only help to inhibit the side effects of synthetic chemicals but also prove to be cost effective in developing economies. PMID:25177642

Mehta, Viral V.; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; B.H, Mithun Pai

2014-01-01

242

Submerged citric acid fermentation on orange peel autohydrolysate.  

PubMed

The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation. PMID:18321055

Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

2008-04-01

243

Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO3. Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4 h at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35 ± 5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation.

Kumar, Rajendran; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Chakroborty, Subhendu

2012-05-01

244

Xylogranatins F-R: antifeedants from the Chinese mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum, a new biogenetic pathway to tetranortriterpenoids.  

PubMed

Thirteen limonoids with a new carbon skeleton, the xylogranatins F-R (1-13), have been isolated from the seeds of a Chinese mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum; two recently reported compounds, xylogranatins C and D were also isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configurations of these compounds were determined by using the modified Mosher MTPA ester method and by quantum chemical circular dichroism (CD) calculations. Xylogranatins F-Q are the first aromatic B-ring limonoids found in nature. They belong to two substructural classes, of which one (1-3) contains a pyridine ring while the other one (4-12) contains a central furan core. Xylogranatins C and R can be considered to be key biosynthetic intermediates, while xylogranatin D, the only limonoid found so far with a carbon skeleton that conatains a C(30)-C(9) linkage, is apparently an artifact. The structures of these compounds suggest a new biogenetic pathway to tetranortriterpenoids. Xylogranatins F, G and R were found to exhibit marked antifeedant activity against the third instar larvae of Mythimna separata (Walker) at a concentration of 1 mg mL(-1). The most potent compound tested was xylogranatin G. Its AFC(50) (concentration for 50 % antifeedant activity) values at the exposure times of 24 and 48 h were 0.31 and 0.30 mg mL(-1), respectively. PMID:18046683

Wu, Jun; Zhang, Si; Bruhn, Torsten; Xiao, Qiang; Ding, Haixin; Bringmann, Gerhard

2008-01-01

245

Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions  

PubMed Central

Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg) rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1) or chitosan (F2) against Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods. We measured the acute (6?h) and subacute (8 days) effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks). In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA) was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications. PMID:24982685

Raafat, K.; Samy, W.

2014-01-01

246

In vitro propagation of two Iranian commercial pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) cvs. 'Malas Saveh' and 'Yusef Khani'.  

PubMed

An efficient in vitro propagation is described for Punica granatum L. using shoot tip and nodal explants. The influence of two basal medium, WPM and MS, and different plant growth regulators was investigated on micropropagation of the Iranian pomegranate cultivars, 'Malas Saveh' and 'Yousef Khani'. For proliferation stage, media supplemented with different concentrations (2.3, 4.7, 9.2 and 18.4 ?M) of kinetin along with 0.54 ?M NAA was used. WPM proved to be more efficient medium compared to MS. The best concentrations of kinetin were 4.7 ?M for 'Malas Saveh' and 9.2 ?M for 'Yousef Khani', resulting in the highest number of shoots per explants, shoot length and leaf number. For both cultivars, half-strength WPM medium supplemented with 5.4 ?M NAA was most effective for rooting of shoots. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred into soil. The micropropagated plants were morphologically uniform and exhibited similar growth characteristics and vegetative morphology to the mother plants. PMID:24431529

Valizadehkaji, Babak; Ershadi, Ahmad; Tohidfar, Masoud

2013-10-01

247

[Spontaneous peeling of the epimacular membrane after cryotherapy of retinal vasoproliferative tumors: report of a case].  

PubMed

Epimacular membranes when responsible for a significant loss of visual acuity, generally require treatment by vitrectomy and peeling of the membrane. We report the case of a spontaneous peeling of a macular pucker after cryotherapy of peripheral retinal vasoproliferative tumors. Review of the literature. PMID:24923082

Coulier, J; Gribomont, A C; De Potter, P

2013-01-01

248

Effects of infrared radiation heating on peeling performance and quality attributes of clingstone peaches  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salinity and wastewater disposal problems associated with the conventional wet-lye method for peeling clingstone peaches result in considerable negative environment impacts. This study investigated the efficacy of using infrared (IR) heating as an alternative method for peach peel removal without us...

249

Alteration of 'Granny Smith' Apple Peel Metabolic Profiles by Postharvest UV/Visable Irradiation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Light exposure stimulates an array of responses in apple peel including photosynthesis and pigment metabolism. While the specifics of many metabolic processes stimulated by light are known, impacts of light on primary metabolism in apple peel are relatively uncharacterized. ‘Granny Smith’ apples, ...

250

Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate is an important source of bioactive compounds and has been used for folk medicine for many centuries. Pomegranate juice has been demonstrated to be high in antioxidant activity and is effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. In a previous study, we found that pomegranate peel had the highest antioxidant activity among the peel, pulp and seed fractions of 28

Yunfeng Li; Changjiang Guo; Jijun Yang; Jingyu Wei; Jing Xu; Shuang Cheng

2006-01-01

251

Removal of Anionic Dyes from Water using Citrus limonum (Lemon) Peel: Equilibrium Studies and Kinetic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of Citrus limonum (lemon) peel as an adsorbent for the removal of two anionic dyes, Methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration, and temperature by batch method. The adsorption capacities of lemon peel adsorbent for

Amit Bhatnagar; Eva Kumar; A. K. Minocha; Byong-Hun Jeon; Hocheol Song; Yong-Chan Seo

2009-01-01

252

Using Apple Peel Sections To Study Plant Cells and Water Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests the cells of an apple peel as a plant species that can further enhance the plant cell laboratory. Describes the structure of apple peel cells and the benefits of including them in studies of plant cells. Suggests questions to stimulate further investigations for open-ended laboratories or independent studies. (PVD)

Silvius, John E.; Eckart, Christopher P.

1997-01-01

253

Calcium uptake by smooth endoplasmic reticulum of peeled retinal photoreceptors of the crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The localization and basic properties of Ca2+-accumulating sites in crayfish photoreceptors were studied with a novel preparation of peeled retinula cells in suspension. Peeled photoreceptors were obtained by gentle mechanical disruption of the retina, and incubated in media based on a Ca2+-EGTA buffer with ATP and oxalate. Electron microscopy of photoreceptors so treated showed the appearance of peculiar dense

Eugenio Frixione; Lourdes Ruiz

1988-01-01

254

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis) and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis) were applied in different forms (treatments) separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character

Sarfraz Hussain; Haq Nawaz; Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad; Mian Anjum Murtaza; Ali Jaffar Rizvi

2007-01-01

255

Structural changes and alkaline solubility of wood cellulose fibers after enzymatic peeling treatment  

E-print Network

1 Structural changes and alkaline solubility of wood cellulose fibers after enzymatic peeling in the improvement of the dissolution of wood cellulose fibers. At constant intrinsic viscosities of the cellulose keeping a good alkaline solubility. Keywords: cellulose, wood fiber, enzymatic peeling, dissolution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

256

Technical and economic assessments of ethanol production from citrus peel waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5-5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value p...

257

Fun Fruit: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math challenge, played with two players or a whole group, engages your problem solving skills. Remove pieces of fruit from the fruit bowl, trying to find a strategy to be the person to take the last piece of fruit. You can substitute different materials if you do not have fruit available. This activity guide contains a material list, game instructions, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2004-01-01

258

Functional analysis of unfermented and fermented citrus peels and physical properties of citrus peel-added doughs for bread making.  

PubMed

Several studies have indicated citrus peels (CP) contain specific methoxy flavones, e.g. nobiletin and tangeretin, which have been shown to prevent numerous diseases. However, research reports regarding their application as food additive in healthy baked products is scarce. In our study, both unfermented (UF) and fermented (F) citrus peels were processed under different dry hot-air temperatures to make four citrus peel powders , UF-100 °C,UF-150 °C, F-100 °C, F-150 °C, respectively. The analysis of the basic components and nutraceuticals as well as antioxidant activity were conducted. Various percentages of CP were added to dough and toast bread for physical property and sensory evaluations. The results indicated the contents of crude proteins (3.3-4.3 mg/g) and fibers (10.9-14.9 %) among the four samples were similar. The UF extracts showed better antioxidant activities than F extracts. HPLC analysis indicated the contents of hesperidine, nobiletin and tangeretin in CP extracts were UF-150 °C?>?UF-100 °C. Farinograph analysis indicated a linear relation between CP powder content and the parameters of the physical properties of dough. A high percentage of fibrous CP powder in dough increases the water adsorption capacity of the dough, resulting in a decrease in its stability The sensory evaluation results indicated a greater acceptability of UF-added toast bread relative to the F-added one. Among these, according to the statistical anaylsis, the UF-150 °C 4 % and UF-100 °C 6 % groups were the best and F-150 °C 2 % group was the poorest in overall acceptability. PMID:25477647

Shyu, Yung-Shin; Lu, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chuan-Chuan

2014-12-01

259

Characterization of orange peel pectin and effect of sugars, l-ascorbic acid, ammonium persulfate, salts on viscosity of orange peel pectin solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl, acetyl, ash contents and optical rotation of pectin obtained by a HCl extraction procedure (90°C, pH=2.5, 90min) were found to be 74.30, 12.15, 0.37, 6.07% (DM basis) and +252° respectively. The degree of methylation was found to be over 50%, indicating that the orange peel pectin had a high methoxyl content.The reduced viscosities of orange peel pectin

F Kar; N Arslan

1999-01-01

260

How Do Fruits Ripen?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

261

FUTURE FRUIT EXPLORATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fruits of the earth have nurtured and intrigued humanity throughout history. Genome complexities of cultivated fruit species combined with people’s increased nutritional needs insure that the future will be no different. Prospecting for wild fruit will continue. The global nature of science and ...

262

BREEDING FOR FRUIT QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While fruit breeding programs have many different goals, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, tree architecture, precocity, and productivity, they all have in common the need to develop high quality fruit. Fruits come in a wide spectrum of size, flavor, color, firmness, and texture. Qu...

263

FRUIT & NUT Rabbiteye Blueberries  

E-print Network

or machines, with the majority of fruit grown in Texas picked by hand and sold for fresh consump- tionTEXAS FRUIT & NUT PRODUCTION Rabbiteye Blueberries Monte Nesbitt, Jim Kamas, & Larry Stein Extension Fruit Specialists, Texas AgriLife Extension Introduction Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

Mukhtar, Saqib

264

Numerical implementation of multiple peeling theory and its application to spider web anchorages.  

PubMed

Adhesion of spider web anchorages has been studied in recent years, including the specific functionalities achieved through different architectures. To better understand the delamination mechanisms of these and other biological or artificial fibrillar adhesives, and how their adhesion can be optimized, we develop a novel numerical model to simulate the multiple peeling of structures with arbitrary branching and adhesion angles, including complex architectures. The numerical model is based on a recently developed multiple peeling theory, which extends the energy-based single peeling theory of Kendall, and can be applied to arbitrarily complex structures. In particular, we numerically show that a multiple peeling problem can be treated as the superposition of single peeling configurations even for complex structures. Finally, we apply the developed numerical approach to study spider web anchorages, showing how their function is achieved through optimal geometrical configurations. PMID:25657835

Brely, Lucas; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

2015-02-01

265

Destabilization of low-n peeling modes by trapped energetic particles  

SciTech Connect

The kinetic effect of trapped energetic particles (EPs), arising from perpendicular neutral beam injection, on the stable low-n peeling modes in tokamak plasmas is investigated, through numerical solution of the mode's dispersion relation derived from an energy principle. A resistive-wall peeling mode with m/n=6/1, with m and n being the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively, is destabilized by trapped EPs as the EPs' pressure exceeds a critical value ?{sub c}{sup *}, which is sensitive to the pitch angle of trapped EPs. The dependence of ?{sub c}{sup *} on the particle pitch angle is eventually determined by the bounce average of the mode eigenfunction. Peeling modes with higher m and n numbers can also be destabilized by trapped EPs. Depending on the wall distance, either a resistive-wall peeling mode or an ideal-kink peeling mode can be destabilized by EPs.

Hao, G. Z.; Wang, A. K.; Mou, Z. Z.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, PO Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, PO Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Matsunaga, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2013-06-15

266

Removal of lead (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution using pomegranate peel as a new adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective removal of heavy metals from aqueous wastes is among the most important issues for many industrialized countries. Removal of lead (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solutions were studied using pomegranate peel (raw), activated carbon prepared from pomegranate peel (AC1) and activated carbon prepared from chemically treated pomegranate peel (AC2 and AC3). Batch adsorption experiments were performed as

E.-S. Z. El-Ashtoukhy; N. K. Amin; O. Abdelwahab

2008-01-01

267

The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.  

PubMed

Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge. PMID:24723396

Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

2014-08-01

268

Fruit-Surface Flavonoid Accumulation in Tomato Is Controlled by a SlMYB12-Regulated Transcriptional Network  

PubMed Central

The cuticle covering plants' aerial surfaces is a unique structure that plays a key role in organ development and protection against diverse stress conditions. A detailed analysis of the tomato colorless-peel y mutant was carried out in the framework of studying the outer surface of reproductive organs. The y mutant peel lacks the yellow flavonoid pigment naringenin chalcone, which has been suggested to influence the characteristics and function of the cuticular layer. Large-scale metabolic and transcript profiling revealed broad effects on both primary and secondary metabolism, related mostly to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, particularly flavonoids. These were not restricted to the fruit or to a specific stage of its development and indicated that the y mutant phenotype is due to a mutation in a regulatory gene. Indeed, expression analyses specified three R2R3-MYB–type transcription factors that were significantly down-regulated in the y mutant fruit peel. One of these, SlMYB12, was mapped to the genomic region on tomato chromosome 1 previously shown to harbor the y mutation. Identification of an additional mutant allele that co-segregates with the colorless-peel trait, specific down-regulation of SlMYB12 and rescue of the y phenotype by overexpression of SlMYB12 on the mutant background, confirmed that a lesion in this regulator underlies the y phenotype. Hence, this work provides novel insight to the study of fleshy fruit cuticular structure and paves the way for the elucidation of the regulatory network that controls flavonoid accumulation in tomato fruit cuticle. PMID:20019811

Mintz-Oron, Shira; Venger, Ilya; Levy, Dorit; Yativ, Merav; Domínguez, Eva; Wang, Zhonghua; De Vos, Ric C. H.; Jetter, Reinhard; Schreiber, Lukas; Heredia, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

2009-01-01

269

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C received ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum (500 mg/kg/p.o.); and group D received glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg/day/p.o.). The extracts were given for 1 week in all groups. To induce diabetes, alloxan 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) single dose was administered to groups B, C, and D. Blood glucose and serum lipids [Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)] and the atherogenic index were estimated after one week. For mechanism of antidiabetic action glycogen estimation on the liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intestinal glucose absorption was done. Results: Group B showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in blood glucose as compared to group A. Groups C and D showed significant decrease (P<0.01) in blood glucose level in comparison to group B. The test drug showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in glycogen content in the liver, cardiac, and skeletal muscle; it significantly (P<0.01) reduced intestinal glucose absorption. Groups C and D showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in serum TC, TG, LDL, and AI as compared to Group B, which showed a significant (P<0.01) increase. Groups C and D showed significant (P<0.01) increase in serum HDL as compared to Group B, which showed a significant (P<0.01) decrease in all values. Conclusion: P. granatum leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:22529479

Das, Swarnamoni; Barman, Sarajita

2012-01-01

270

Pectin-rich fruit wastes as biosorbents for heavy metal removal: equilibrium and kinetics.  

PubMed

Biosorption can be used as a cost effective and efficient technique for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Waste materials from industries such as food processing and agriculture may act as biosorbents. This study investigates the removal of cadmium by fruit wastes (derived from several citrus fruits, apples and grapes). Citrus peels were identified as the most promising biosorbent due to high metal uptake in conjunction with physical stability. Uptake was rapid with equilibrium reached after 30-80 min depending on the particle size (0.18-0.9 mm). Sorption kinetics followed a second-order model. Sorption equilibrium isotherms could be described by the Langmuir model in some cases, whereas in others an S-shaped isotherm was observed, that did not follow the Langmuir isotherm model. The metal uptake increased with pH, with uptake capacities ranging between 0.5 and 0.9 meq/g of dry peel. Due to their low cost, good uptake capacity, and rapid kinetics, citrus peels are a promising biosorbent material warranting further study. PMID:17540559

Schiewer, Silke; Patil, Santosh B

2008-04-01

271

Effect of reddening-ripening on the antioxidant activity of polyphenol extracts from cv. 'Annurca' apple fruits.  

PubMed

Apple is among the most consumed fruits worldwide, and several studies suggest that apple polyphenols could play a role in the prevention of degenerative diseases. 'Annurca' apple fruit undergoes, after harvest, a typical reddening treatment to turn the apples' skin red, and it is noted for its high firmness. This paper reports the effect of reddening-ripening treatment on polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity of both peel and flesh extracts. The in vitro antioxidant properties have been compared with the protective effect against the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species using Caco-2 cells as model system. Pretreatment of cells with different polyphenolic apple extracts provides a remarkable protection against oxidative damage. This effect seems to be associated with the antioxidant activity of 'Annurca' apple polyphenolic compounds. The flesh has antioxidant properties comparable to those possessed by the peel. Neither the reddening nor the fruit conservation causes changes in the antioxidant properties possessed by this apple variety. The data indicate that polyphenolic compounds in 'Annurca' apples are relatively stable in the peel and also in the flesh; therefore, the health benefits of polyphenols should be maintained during long-term storage. Finally, a diet rich in apple antioxidants could exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of intestinal pathologies related to the production of reactive oxygen species. PMID:17960886

D'Angelo, Stefania; Cimmino, Amelia; Raimo, Marianna; Salvatore, Anna; Zappia, Vincenzo; Galletti, Patrizia

2007-11-28

272

Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.  

PubMed

An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of this information to the general public), on the chemistry and biological and physiological functions of these "superfoods" are necessary. PMID:18211023

Seeram, Navindra P

2008-02-13

273

Anthelmintic effects of citrus peels ethanolic extracts against Ascaridia galli.  

PubMed

The use of phytogenic bioactive compounds to control poultry helminthes is increasing in different production systems. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of citrus peels against Ascaridia galli was investigated. Ethanolic extracts of three citrus peels species were suspended in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to form an experimental composition (EC). EC was mainly composed of Limonene (96%), followed by ?-Pinene (1.5%), ?-Pinene (0.5%), and Sabinene (0.3%). For in vitro investigation, adult A. galli worms (n=225) were collected from naturally infected chickens and distributed to 3 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were exposed to Fenbendazole (0.5mg/ml), EC (50mg/ml), and 0.5% DMSO, respectively. For in vivo investigation, 200 Lohmann Selected Leghorns chicks were infected at 1-day old with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs. At 6 weeks of age, 150 A. galli infected birds were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were treated with 300, 600, and 1200 mg EC kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Group 4 was treated with Fenbendazole (50 mg kg(-1)). Group 5 was left as control. Birds were euthanized 2-weeks post-treatment, and all worms were collected from their intestines. EC possessed significant (P<0.001) in vitro anthelmintic properties on live worms. No significant (P>0.05) difference was quantified between number of motile worms exposed either to EC or Fenbendazole 7h post-exposure. A significant (P<0.0001) reduction in fecal egg count was observed 14 days post-treatment with 1200 mg kg(-1) EC. No significant differences were observed in worm burden of the 300 mg EC-treated group compared to the controls. In contrast, the 600 and 1200 mg EC-treated groups showed significant (P<0.0001) reduction in worm burden. Fenbendazole was the most effective in reducing A. galli burden (Efficacy=97%) followed by 1200 mg EC kg(-1) (68%), 600 mg EC kg(-1) (66%), and 300 mg EC kg(-1) (5%). It is concluded that citrus peels extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. PMID:22463876

Abdelqader, Anas; Qarallah, Bassam; Al-Ramamneh, Diya; Da?, Gürbüz

2012-08-13

274

Clinical Outcomes of Double Staining and Additional ILM Peeling during ERM Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the clinical outcomes in idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) patients after vitrectomy and ERM removal with or without additional indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Methods The medical records of 43 patients with an idiopathic ERM that underwent vitrectomy and ERM removal between July 2007 and April 2010 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: triamcinolone-assisted simple ERM peeling only (group A, n = 23) and triamcinolone-assisted ERM peeling followed by ICG staining and peeling of the remaining internal ILM (group B, n = 20). Results No difference was found between the two groups in terms of visual acuity, macular thickness, P1 amplitude or implicit time on multifocal-electroretinogram (mfERG) at six and 12 months postoperatively. In group B, ICG staining after ERM peeling demonstrated that the ILM had been removed together with the ERM in 12 eyes (60%), and all 12 eyes showed punctate retinal hemorrhages during ERM peeling. There was no recurrence of an ERM in either group. Conclusions Additional procedures involving ICG staining and ILM peeling during ERM surgery do not appear to have an additive effect on the clinical outcomes in terms of visual acuity, retinal function based on mfERG, or recurrence rate. PMID:23908571

Oh, Ha Na; Lee, Joo Eun; Kim, Hyun Woong

2013-01-01

275

Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.  

PubMed

This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, ?-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (P<0.05) bioactive content than their respective fruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry. PMID:24054258

Ribeiro da Silva, Larissa Morais; Teixeira de Figueiredo, Evania Altina; Silva Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes; Pinto Vieira, Icaro Gusmao; Wilane de Figueiredo, Raimundo; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

2014-01-15

276

Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: Activation of PPAR-{gamma} and identification of an active component  

SciTech Connect

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 6-week oral administration of methanol extract from PGF (500 mg/kg, daily) inhibited glucose loading-induced increase of plasma glucose levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes, whereas it did not inhibit the increase in Zucker lean rats (ZL). The treatment did not lower the plasma glucose levels in fasted ZDF and ZL rats. Furthermore, RT-PCR results demonstrated that the PGF extract treatment in ZDF rats enhanced cardiac PPAR-{gamma} mRNA expression and restored the down-regulated cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 (the insulin-dependent isoform of GLUTs) mRNA. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic activity of PGF extract may result from improved sensitivity of the insulin receptor. From the in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the PGF extract enhanced PPAR-{gamma} mRNA and protein expression and increased PPAR-{gamma}-dependent mRNA expression and activity of lipoprotein lipase in human THP-1-differentiated macrophage cells. Phytochemical investigation demonstrated that gallic acid in PGF extract is mostly responsible for this activity. Thus, our findings indicate that PPAR-{gamma} is a molecular target for PGF extract and its prominent component gallic acid, and provide a better understanding of the potential mechanism of the anti-diabetic action of PGF.

Huang, Tom H.W. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Peng Gang [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kota, Bhavani P. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, George Q. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto (Japan); Roufogalis, Basil D. [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li Yuhao [Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

2005-09-01

277

Effects of rhaponticum carthamoides versus glycyrrhiza glabra and punica granatum extracts on metabolic syndrome signs in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Rhaponticum cathamoides (RC) is an endemic wild Siberian herb with marked medicinal properties that are still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of RC extract (ERC) compared to the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (EGG) and Punica granatum extracts (EPG) in a rat model with high-fat diet-(HFD)-induced signs of metabolic syndrome; therefore, this study addresses a significant global public health problem. Methods Six-month-old male Wistar Albino Glaxo rats were subjected to eight weeks of a standard diet (SD), HFD, or HFD in which ERC, EGG, or EPG powders were incorporated at 300 mg/kg/day. The serum lipid profile, corticosterone and cytokine concentrations, glucose tolerance, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerol accumulation, and PPAR? DNA-binding activities in the liver samples were determined. Results In contrast to EGG and EPG, an ERC supplement significantly reduced the weight of epididymal tissue (19.0%, p?

2014-01-01

278

Intermittent Peel Front Dynamics and the Crackling Noise in an Adhesive Tape  

E-print Network

We report a comprehensive investigation of a model for peeling of an adhesive tape along with a nonlinear time series analysis of experimental acoustic emission signals in an effort to understand the origin of intermittent peeling of an adhesive tape and its connection to acoustic emission. The model represents the acoustic energy dissipated in terms of Rayleigh dissipation functional that depends on the local strain rate. We show that the nature of the peel front exhibits rich spatiotemporal patterns ranging from smooth, rugged and stuck-peeled configurations that depend on three parameters, namely, the ratio of inertial time scale of the tape mass to that of the roller, the dissipation coefficient and the pull velocity. The stuck-peeled configurations are reminiscent of fibrillar peel front patterns observed in experiments. We show that while the intermittent peeling is controlled by the peel force function, the model acoustic energy dissipated depends on the nature of the peel front and its dynamical evolution. Even though the acoustic energy is a fully dynamical quantity, it can be quite noisy for a certain set of parameter values suggesting the deterministic origin of acoustic emission in experiments. To verify this suggestion, we have carried out a dynamical analysis of experimental acoustic emission time series for a wide range of traction velocities. Our analysis shows an unambiguous presence of chaotic dynamics within a subinterval of pull speeds within the intermittent regime. Time series analysis of the model acoustic energy signals is also found to be chaotic within a subinterval of pull speeds.

Jagadish Kumar; Rumi De; G. Ananthakrishna

2008-12-01

279

Phenolic compound profiles and antioxidant capacity of Persea americana Mill. peels and seeds of two varieties.  

PubMed

Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p < 0.05). Overall these findings indicate that both the seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive. PMID:22494370

Kosi?ska, Agnieszka; Karama?, Magdalena; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña; Dykes, Gary A

2012-05-01

280

Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.  

PubMed

Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

Basiri, Shadi

2015-02-01

281

Physical and chemical characteristics of golden-yellow and purple-red varieties of tamarillo fruit (Solanum betaceum Cav.).  

PubMed

Golden-yellow and purple-red tamarillos (Solanum betaceum Cav.) cultivated in Ecuador were studied for their physical properties, proximate composition, pH, degrees Brix, acidity, sugars, organic acids, minerals, vitamin C and beta-carotene content in the edible part. Results were compared with those for Spanish fruits. The golden-yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian fruits were larger (107 and 188 g) than the respective Spanish fruits (43 and 63 g), softer but generally similar in chemical composition except for fat (0.72 and 0.6%) and malic acid (0.32 and 0.53%) contents in the golden-yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian fruits. Tamarillo fruits are a good source of potassium (approximately 400 mg/100 g fresh weight). Total phenolics in the golden-yellow and purple-red varieties were 125 and 187 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh weight, respectively. The golden-yellow variety had weaker anti-DPPH radical activity than the purple-red variety. Flavonols were only found in the peel of both varieties, while hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found in peel and pulp. PMID:19657848

Vasco, Catalina; Avila, Jenny; Ruales, Jenny; Svanberg, Ulf; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

2009-01-01

282

Antifungal properties of yam (Dioscorea alata) peel extract.  

PubMed

The extraction of natural antifungal compounds from the peels of yam (Dioscorea alata) and the effect of these compounds on both the vegetative and reproductive structures of some yam not pathogens were studied. Four prominent antifungal components were obtained; one of the components was fully characterized and identified as beta-sitosterol. The antifungal activity of the compounds toward the germination of spores of two yam pathogens showed an inhibition of less than 57% at a concentration of 50 mg/L while inhibition on the elongation of germ-tubes of Fusarium moniliforme was as high as 82% at the same concentration. However, the ED50 for inhibition of germ-tube elongation in the yam compounds for the same organism was below 32 mg/L. The role of the yam compounds at high concentrations in disease resistance is discussed. PMID:9173001

Aderiye, B I; Ogundana, S K; Adesanya, S A; Roberts, M F

1996-01-01

283

Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

2014-01-01

284

Influence of conventional and ultrasonic-assisted extraction on phenolic contents, betacyanin contents, and antioxidant capacity of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

2014-01-01

285

Dried Citrus Peel and Pulp as a Feed for Lactating Cows.  

E-print Network

peel and pulp yielded an average of 74 therms per hundred pounds. Citrus peel and pulp was found to be a palatable feed except when used in large quantities. No noticeable effects upon the flavor and aroma of milk could be detected as the result...TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATTnw A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas I DRIED CITRUS PEEL AND PuLP As r FEED FOR LACTATING COWS 0. C. COPELAND AND C. N. SHEPARDSON Division of Dairy Husbandry AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL...

Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas); Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah)

1944-01-01

286

The Exponentially Faster Stick-Slip Dynamics of the Peeling of an Adhesive Tape  

E-print Network

The stick-slip dynamics is considered from the nonlinear differential-algebraic equation (DAE) point of view and the peeling dynamics is shown to be a switching differential index DAE model. In the stick-slip regime with bifurcations, the differential index can be arbitrarily high. The time scale of the peeling velocity, the algebraic variable, in this regime is shown to be exponentially faster compared to the angular velocity of the spool and/or the stretch rate of the tape. A homogenization scheme for the peeling velocity which is characterized by the bifurcations is discussed and is illustrated with numerical examples.

Nachiketa Mishra; Nigam Chandra Parida; Soumyendu Raha

2014-04-20

287

Impact of Atmospheric Plasma Generated by a DBD Device on Quality-Related Attributes of "Abate Fetel" Pear Fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of gas plasma generated by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) device on "Abate Fetel" fresh pears were assessed following exposure times from 10 to 90 min. In particular the decontamination efficacy towards the indigenous microflora naturally occurring on the surface of the fruit was evaluated. The main results showed that total mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds had different inactivation dynamics. However, maximum cell decreases of 2.5 Log CFU/fruit were achieved for all the microbial groups after 90 min of treatment at a relative humidity level of 60% (22°C). Immediately after the treatments, no significant effects were observed on the measured quality traits. After storage for 5 days at 20°C significant changes were detected only in the peel (colour and antioxidant capacity) of fruit samples treated for 90 min. The Magness-Taylor flesh firmness (MTf), the soluble solid content (SSC) and the antioxidant capacity of fruits were unaffected by the tested treatments.

Berardinelli, Annachiara; Vannini, Lucia; Ragni, Luigi; Guerzoni, M. Elisabetta

288

New World Fruits Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, this database was developed as an information resource on fruits from the Americas. Based on a September 2004 assessment, the New Worlds Fruits Database contained information about "1253 fruit species belonging to 302 genera and 69 families." Species profiles include vernacular names, geographic distribution, uses, bibliographic references, and links to additional Internet resources. Text searches can be conducted by Genus, Species, and Vernacular Name. Drop-down menus are available for several search fields including Family, Fruit Part, Product, Floristic Region, and Region or Country of Origin. The Fruits Database is still under development, and scientists, fruit growers, and other knowledgeable persons are encouraged to submit information and suggestions.

2010-05-13

289

Preserving Fresh Fruit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

2000-01-01

290

Thermal stability of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and model solutions.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at a systematic assessment of the factors influencing the anthocyanin (AC) stability and colour retention of pomegranate juices and less complex model solutions with particular focus on the effects of colourless phenolic copigments (CP). The thermal stability of ACs in three pomegranate juices obtained from isolated arils and the entire fruit with and without previous steaming, in model solutions with AC:CP ratios ranging from 1:0 to 1:4 (m/m), and in two purified extracts from pomegranate juices characterised by different phenolic profiles, respectively, was investigated upon heating at 60, 70, 80 and 90°C for 15 min to 5h. The thermal impact on the AC and CP contents, and the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and AC degradation products were monitored using HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Total phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity and colour properties were determined spectrophotometrically. Heating at 90°C for 5h resulted in total AC losses ranging from 76% to 87% of the initial AC levels in the juices, 78% in both extracts as well as 57% and ?78% in the model solutions, showing the best stability at an AC:CP ratio of 1:2 and in juices having the highest initial AC contents, respectively. In contrast, the AC stability was independent of total phenolic contents, and low and high molecular pomegranate matrix components (such as organic acids and sugars). Good correlation of the AC contents with red colour (a(?)) was observed for all samples at elevated temperatures (70-90°C). The stability of putative health-promoting polyphenols of pomegranate juices was not markedly affected by the thermal treatment. Unexpectedly, the HMF contents only slightly increased upon forced heating. Therefore, the visual appearance does not adequately reflect the quality and storage stability of pomegranate juices. PMID:23411312

Fischer, Ulrike A; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

2013-06-01

291

Punica granatum (Pomegranate) juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide  

PubMed Central

Background For ? 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ? 30 million lives, causing ? 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vaccines, topical microbicides, expected to block virus transmission, offer hope for controlling the pandemic. Antiretroviral chemotherapeutics have decreased AIDS mortality in industrialized countries, but only minimally in developing countries. To prevent an analogous dichotomy, microbicides should be: acceptable; accessible; affordable; and accelerative in transition from development to marketing. Already marketed pharmaceutical excipients or foods, with established safety records and adequate anti-HIV-1 activity, may provide this option. Methods Fruit juices were screened for inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IIIB using CD4 and CXCR4 as cell receptors. The best juice was tested for inhibition of: (1) infection by HIV-1 BaL, utilizing CCR5 as the cellular coreceptor; and (2) binding of gp120 IIIB and gp120 BaL, respectively, to CXCR4 and CCR5. To remove most colored juice components, the adsorption of the effective ingredient(s) to dispersible excipients and other foods was investigated. A selected complex was assayed for inhibition of infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Results HIV-1 entry inhibitors from pomegranate juice adsorb onto corn starch. The resulting complex blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5 and inhibits infection by primary virus clades A to G and group O. Conclusion These results suggest the possibility of producing an anti-HIV-1 microbicide from inexpensive, widely available sources, whose safety has been established throughout centuries, provided that its quality is adequately standardized and monitored. PMID:15485580

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao; Debnath, Asim K

2004-01-01

292

Electricity: Fruit Batteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a battery from fruit. This activity helps learners explore electricity, electrochemistry, and series circuits as well as the process of scientific inquiry. Learners will use a voltmeter to measure voltage and a multimeter to measure how much work their fruit battery can do. They will record the measurements on a data table and compare voltage amongst different types of fruits. Learners will also link together multiple fruit batteries to create a series circuit. This lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary terms, blackline masters, and extension ideas.

Habib, Maria

2008-01-01

293

Home Fruit Production - Figs.  

E-print Network

-to-good crop on sucker wood the season after freeze injury. The fruit is medium to large with brown skin and light amber pulp. It is prominently swollen at the fruit base with a very open eye. Fruiting is spread over a long period if the tree is pruned... is yellow to green with seeds and amber pulp. The fruit is excellent canned or preserved. Do not plant this variety in drier areas of Texas. PLANTING Do not apply fertilizer at planting time. Fig trees survive better if set 2 to 4 inches deeper than...

Lyons, Calvin G.; McEachern, George Ray

1987-01-01

294

Fruit coloration difference between Fengwan, a late-maturing mutant and its original cultivar Fengjie72-1 of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck).  

PubMed

Fruit color is one of the most important external quality traits. Mutants with different color are useful for the study of regulating mechanism of coloration progress. A novel mutant, Fengwan, derived from Fengjie72-1 navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), has the distinctive characteristic of the coloration delay of 30 d or so, with the change in total soluble solid (TSS) and the ratio of TSS/acidity. In order to understand the mechanism underlying the difference of coloration between the mutant and the parental variety, the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in the peel of two cultivars at different maturation stages were analyzed. The expression of genes responsible for some carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes (phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, beta-lycopene cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase) and chlorophyllase using the RT-PCR technique were also studied. The distinct decrease of chlorophyll in the peel of Fengwan navel orange occurred from early November to late November, about three weeks later than that of its original cultivar. Obvious accumulation of carotenoid in the peel of the mutant began on Dec.12, while that of the original cultivar began on Nov. 3. Analysis of independent-samples t-test showed that the chlorophyll content of the peel of Fengwan navel orange from October to November was significantly higher, and the carotenoid content from December to January was significantly lower than that in the peel of the parental line, Fengjie72-1 navel orange. The expression of chlorophyllase gene in the peel of Fengwan navel orange reached a maximum in January and kept at a slightly lower level from October to December than that of Fengjie 72-1 orange, while the time of gene expression about some carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes reaching a maximum in the peel of the mutant were one month later than that of the original cultivar. PMID:16477128

Liu, Yong-Zhong; Tang, Peng; Tao, Neng-Guo; Xu, Qiang; Peng, Shu-Ang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Xiang, Ke-Shu; Huang, Ren-Hu

2006-02-01

295

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations and  

E-print Network

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations. The moths overwinter as full-grown larvae in cocoons in tree bark crevices, weed stems, trash on the ground. Are conditions right for Oriental fruit moth? Forecast models for Oriental fruit moth are available at Enviro

296

Quality of mini-peeled carrots as affected by genotype, minimal processing and edible coating  

E-print Network

TX30129 had the highest sugar and carotenoid levels. White surface discoloration on mini-peeled carrots was noted 7 days after processing. Total sugars, sucrose, total carotenoids and volatile terpenoid levels decreased during storage. Total soluble...

Dewi, Tjin Tjin

2012-06-07

297

Peeling-off of the external kink modes at tokamak plasma edge  

SciTech Connect

It is pointed out that there is a current jump between the edge plasma inside the last closed flux surface and the scrape-off layer and that the current jump can lead the external kink modes to convert to the tearing modes, due to the current interchange effects [L. J. Zheng and M. Furukawa, Phys. Plasmas 17, 052508 (2010)]. The magnetic reconnection in the presence of tearing modes subsequently causes the tokamak edge plasma to be peeled off to link to the divertors. In particular, the peeling or peeling-ballooning modes can become the “peeling-off” modes in this sense. This phenomenon indicates that the tokamak edge confinement can be worse than the expectation based on the conventional kink mode picture.

Zheng, L. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Furukawa, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

2014-08-15

298

PEELING/FALLING OF PROTECTIVE COVERING CONCRETE AND ITS OPTIMAL INSPECTION POLICY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to maintain and manage infrastructures appropriately under a budget constraint, it is necessary to grasp the processes of deterioration and damage, which are the targets of visual inspection, specify the criteria for risk management, and determine inspection cycle. This study is focused on the peeling/falling of the protective covering concrete of expressway bridge slabs, formulates its process with the Poisson model, and proposes a model that can take into account some effects on peeling/falling. This study proposes a random proportional Poisson model for discussing the heterogeneity of the peeling/falling of concrete of individual slabs. Then, the criteria for risk management regarding peeling/falling are specified, and a method for determining optimal inspection cycle that satisfies the criteria for risk management is proposed. Lastly, the appropriateness of the proposed model is discussed empirically, by applying it to actual expressways.

Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Okizuka, Ryosuke; Ito, Tetsuo; Hashizume, Kenji; Deguchi, Munehiro

299

A highly versatile convergent/divergent "onion peel" synthetic strategy toward potent multivalent glycodendrimers.  

PubMed

Both convergent and divergent strategies for the synthesis of "onion peel" glycodendrimers are reported which resulted in one of the best multivalent ligands known against the virulent factor from a bacterial lectin isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:25227948

Sharma, Rishi; Kottari, Naresh; Chabre, Yoann M; Abbassi, Leïla; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René

2014-11-11

300

Green method to form iron oxide nanorods in orange peels for chromium(VI) reduction.  

PubMed

A green method for synthesizing iron oxide nanorods within orange peel pith has been developed. Orange peel pith functions as both a support and a reducing agent for iron ions. The nanorods were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results of the characterization indicate that iron is deposited on the surface of orange peel primarily in the form of iron, iron(II) oxide and magnetite. The nanoparticles grow to form nanorods in the range of 20-40 nm of diameter. The biocomposite was then tested for Cr(VI) reduction and removal from aqueous solutions, exhibiting removals as high as 96% for concentrations of 10 mg/L and 76% for 50 mg/L, which is almost 4 times the removal capacity of orange peel alone. PMID:23755691

López-Téllez, G; Balderas-Hernández, P; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Roa-Morales, G; Bilyeu, Bryan

2013-03-01

301

Peeling-off of the external kink modes at tokamak plasma edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that there is a current jump between the edge plasma inside the last closed flux surface and the scrape-off layer and that the current jump can lead the external kink modes to convert to the tearing modes, due to the current interchange effects [L. J. Zheng and M. Furukawa, Phys. Plasmas 17, 052508 (2010)]. The magnetic reconnection in the presence of tearing modes subsequently causes the tokamak edge plasma to be peeled off to link to the divertors. In particular, the peeling or peeling-ballooning modes can become the "peeling-off" modes in this sense. This phenomenon indicates that the tokamak edge confinement can be worse than the expectation based on the conventional kink mode picture.

Zheng, L. J.; Furukawa, M.

2014-08-01

302

Micro-force Sensing in Robot Assisted Membrane Peeling for Vitreoretinal Surgery  

PubMed Central

Vitreoretinal surgeons use 0.5mm diameter instruments to manipulate delicate tissue inside the eye while applying imperceptible forces that can cause damage to the retina. We present a system which robotically regulates user-applied forces to the tissue, to minimize the risk of retinal hemorrhage or tear during membrane peeling, a common task in vitreoretinal surgery. Our research platform is based on a cooperatively controlled microsurgery robot. It integrates a custom micro-force sensing surgical pick, which provides conventional surgical function and real time force information. We report the development of a new phantom, which is used to assess robot control, force feedback methods, and our newly implemented auditory sensory substitution to specifically assist membrane peeling. Our findings show that auditory sensory substitution decreased peeling forces in all tests, and that robotic force scaling with audio feedback is the most promising aid in reducing peeling forces and task completion time. PMID:20879413

Balicki, Marcin; Uneri, Ali; Iordachita, Iulian; Handa, James; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell

2011-01-01

303

Pleiotropic Phenotypes of the sticky peel Mutant Provide New Insight into the Role of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 in Epidermal Cell Function in Tomato1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plant epidermal cells have evolved specialist functions associated with adaptation to stress. These include the synthesis and deposition of specialized metabolites such as waxes and cutin together with flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have important roles in providing a barrier to water loss and protection against UV radiation, respectively. Characterization of the sticky peel (pe) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) revealed several phenotypes indicative of a defect in epidermal cell function, including reduced anthocyanin accumulation, a lower density of glandular trichomes, and an associated reduction in trichome-derived terpenes. In addition, pe mutant fruit are glossy and peels have increased elasticity due to a severe reduction in cutin biosynthesis and altered wax deposition. Leaves of the pe mutant are also cutin deficient and the epicuticular waxes contain a lower proportion of long-chain alkanes. Direct measurements of transpiration, together with chlorophyll-leaching assays, indicate increased cuticular permeability of pe leaves. Genetic mapping revealed that the pe locus represents a new allele of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 (CD2), a member of the class IV homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family, previously only associated with cutin deficiency in tomato fruit. CD2 is preferentially expressed in epidermal cells of tomato stems and is a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ANTHOCYANINLESS2 (ANL2). Analysis of cuticle composition in leaves of anl2 revealed that cutin accumulates to approximately 60% of the levels observed in wild-type Arabidopsis. Together, these data provide new insight into the role of CD2 and ANL2 in regulating diverse metabolic pathways and in particular, those associated with epidermal cells. PMID:22623518

Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Pollard, Mike; Kosma, Dylan K.; Allen, Charles; Ohlrogge, John B.; Barry, Cornelius S.

2012-01-01

304

Viscous Control of Peeling an Elastic Sheet by Bending and Pulling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation of a viscous fluid beneath an elastic sheet is controlled by local dynamics at the peeling front, in close analogy with the capillary-driven spreading of drops over a precursor film. Here we identify propagation laws for a generic elastic peeling problem in the distinct limits of peeling by bending and peeling by pulling, and apply our results to the radial spread of a fluid blister over a thin prewetting film. For the case of small deformations relative to the sheet thickness, peeling is driven by bending, leading to radial growth as t7/22. Experimental results reproduce both the spreading behavior and the bending wave at the front. For large deformations relative to the sheet thickness, stretching of the blister cap and the consequent tension can drive peeling either by bending or by pulling at the front, both leading to radial growth as t3/8. In this regime, detailed predictions give excellent agreement and explanation of previous experimental measurements of spread in the pulling regime in an elastic Hele-Shaw cell.

Lister, John R.; Peng, Gunnar G.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

2013-10-01

305

Non GMO fruit factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple structural and regulatory genes modulate biosynthetic pathways, such as those leading to the accumulation and profile of sugars and carotenoids in the mature tomato fruit. Natural genetic variation among wild relatives of the cultivated tomato provides an important, non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO), resource for improving both horticultural and fruit quality traits of elite tomato varieties. Unfortunately, this natural resource

Ilan Levin; Avraham Lalazar; Moshe Bar; Arthur A. Schaffer

2004-01-01

306

Fruiting of Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several enzymes were assayed in extracts from mycelium-colonised compost during growth and fruiting of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. Comparison of changes of enzyme levels in axenic and nonaxenic cultures and in cultures of non-fruiting strains indicated that they were associated directly with the fungal mycelium. Large changes were found in the amounts of laccase and cellulase which were correlated with

D. A. Wood; P. W. Goodenough

1977-01-01

307

Mutant Fruit Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general audience discussion of common fruit fly mutations. The site includes simplified illustrations, and a discussion of fruit fly chromosomes. Presented by Exploratorium at the museum of science art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts San Francisco.

0000-00-00

308

Fresh Fruit Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practices recommended for the preservation of environmental quality and effective management of the bog physical plant (e. g., water control structures, erosion control, pesticide storage and handling) are universally applicable regardless of whether a bed is producing fruit for processing or for the fresh market. However, certain practices require modification to effectively produce abundant, high quality cranberries for fresh fruit.

Carolyn DeMoranville; Frank L. Caruso; Joseph DeVerna

2003-01-01

309

Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients  

E-print Network

instead of cups, making great "ice cubes" in fruit juice or diet soda. Try other fruits or juice. This material is partially funded by USDA's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program ­ SNAP. The Supple- mental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help you

Liskiewicz, Maciej

310

Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.  

PubMed

Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

2014-11-01

311

Photofragment image analysis using the Onion-Peeling Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the growing popularity of the velocity map imaging technique, a need for the analysis of photoion and photoelectron images arose. Here, a computer program is presented that allows for the analysis of cylindrically symmetric images. It permits the inversion of the projection of the 3D charged particle distribution using the Onion Peeling Algorithm. Further analysis includes the determination of radial and angular distributions, from which velocity distributions and spatial anisotropy parameters are obtained. Identification and quantification of the different photolysis channels is therefore straightforward. In addition, the program features geometry correction, centering, and multi-Gaussian fitting routines, as well as a user-friendly graphical interface and the possibility of generating synthetic images using either the fitted or user-defined parameters. Program summaryTitle of program: Glass Onion Catalogue identifier: ADRY Program Summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRY Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computer: IBM PC Operating system under which the program has been tested: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows NT Programming language used: Delphi 4.0 Memory required to execute with typical data: 18 Mwords No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9 911 434 Distribution format: zip file Keywords: Photofragment image, onion peeling, anisotropy parameters Nature of physical problem: Information about velocity and angular distributions of photofragments is the basis on which the analysis of the photolysis process resides. Reconstructing the three-dimensional distribution from the photofragment image is the first step, further processing involving angular and radial integration of the inverted image to obtain velocity and angular distributions. Provisions have to be made to correct for slight distortions of the image, and to verify the accuracy of the analysis process. Method of solution: The "Onion Peeling" algorithm described by Helm [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67 (6) (1996)] is used to perform the image reconstruction. Angular integration with a subsequent multi-Gaussian fit supplies information about the velocity distribution of the photofragments, whereas radial integration with subsequent expansion of the angular distributions over Legendre Polynomials gives the spatial anisotropy parameters. Fitting algorithms have been developed to centre the image and to correct for image distortion. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum image size (1280×1280) and resolution (16 bit) are restricted by available memory and can be changed in the source code. Initial centre coordinates within 5 pixels may be required for the correction and the centering algorithm to converge. Peaks on the velocity profile separated by less then the peak width may not be deconvolved. In the charged particle image reconstruction, it is assumed that the kinetic energy released in the dissociation process is small compared to the energy acquired in the electric field. For the fitting parameters to be physically meaningful, cylindrical symmetry of the image has to be assumed but the actual inversion algorithm is stable to distortions of such symmetry in experimental images. Typical running time: The analysis procedure can be divided into three parts: inversion, fitting, and geometry correction. The inversion time grows approx. as R3, where R is the radius of the region of interest: for R=200 pixels it is less than a minute, for R=400 pixels less then 6 min on a 400 MHz IBM personal computer. The time for the velocity fitting procedure to converge depends strongly on the number of peaks in the velocity profile and the convergence criterion. It ranges between less then a second for simple curves and a few minutes for profiles with up to twenty peaks. The time taken for the image correction scales as R2 and depends on the curve profile. It is on the order of a few minutes for images with R=500

Manzhos, Sergei; Loock, Hans-Peter

2003-07-01

312

Characterization of the intense pigment tomato genotype emphasizing targeted fruit metabolites and chloroplast biogenesis.  

PubMed

The tomato INTENSE PIGMENT (IP) genotype is characterized by intense visual pigmentation of unripe and ripe fruits, not thoroughly analyzed thus far. This study was therefore designed to analyze key morphologic, metabolomic, and photomorphogenic phenotypes of this genotype in comparison to its near-isogenic normal counterpart and to evaluate its significance relative to other tomato mutants known for increased fruit pigmentation. The IP genotype produced smaller and darker red fruits, and a substantially increased chloroplast biogenesis was found in its green fruit and leaf tissues. Ripe-red fruits of the IP genotype produced 34-38% more soluble solids and up to 62.6% more carotenoids, but no differences were found in the concentration of flavonoid compounds in its peel tissue. The IP genotype was found to display a greater hypocotyl inhibition response to blue and yellow light, but a more prominent and novel response to total darkness. As a whole, the IP genotype exhibited highly desirable traits, making it a valuable genotype for tomato breeders attempting to introduce functional and taste qualities into tomato fruits. PMID:19391624

Lavi, Noga; Tadmor, Yaakov; Meir, Ayala; Bechar, Avital; Oren-Shamir, Michal; Ovadia, Rinat; Reuveni, Moshe; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Levin, Ilan

2009-06-10

313

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

2012-01-01

314

Investigation on the antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stems bark, and kernel of mango (Mangifera indica L.).  

PubMed

Bioactive polyphenols, cartenoids, and anthocyanins present in fruits and vegetables are receiving much attention because of their potential antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stem bark, and kernel of mango varieties langra and chonsa. Total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs) in segments of langra ranged from 63.89 to 116.80 mg GAE/g DW and 45.56 to 90.89 mg CE/g DW, respectively, and that of chonsa were 69.24 to 122.60 mg GAE/g DW and 48.43 to 92.55 mg CE/g DW, respectively. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and linoleic inhibition capacity in segments of langra ranged from 53.30% to 61.10% and 40.0% to 47.20%, respectively, whereas for chonsa; 56.40% to 66.0% and 48.1% to 49.0%, respectively. The reducing potentials of different segments of langra and chonsa at concentration of 10 mg/mL were 0.512 to 0.850 and 0.595 to 0.665 mV, respectively. Comparison between both varieties showed chonsa exhibited better antioxidant activity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely randomised design (CRD) under factorial. PMID:22860576

Sultana, Bushra; Hussain, Zaib; Asif, Muhammad; Munir, Adil

2012-08-01

315

Friction, force chains, and falling fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction is of great concern from both a national security and quality-of-life point of view, and the economic impact of energy efficiency, wear, and manufacturing cannot be underestimated. Theorists have always believed that friction plays a great role in avalanche-like collapse of a granular piles, but the predictions have proven difficult to test. We devised an experimentally controlled way to prove it, accessible to all who dare try, and report on it here [1,2]. With the aid of a middle school assistant, we studied and filmed piles of apples, oranges, and onions as one or more pieces of fruit were removed. Among other things, we discovered that increasing the friction of the onions (by peeling them) vastly decreased the likelihood of collapse. Our work includes videos written by, produced, and starring our seventh grade assistant, some of which are posted on the Physics Today YouTube channel [1] and featured in the Sept. 2009 issue of Physics Today [2]. [4pt] [1] Youtube.com, keywords ``unpeeled onions'', with full set at www.dukefruit.info. [0pt] [2] J. Krim and R.P. Berhinger, Physics Today (Sept., 2009) volume 62, pp.66-67

Krim, Jacqueline; Behringer, Robert

2010-03-01

316

Effects of fruit ellagitannin extracts, ellagic acid, and their colonic metabolite, urolithin A, on Wnt signaling.  

PubMed

Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites, which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis, and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. This study investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET-rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method) and to EA content (by high-performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry = 20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry = 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate = 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET extracts (IC(50) = 28.0-30.0 microg/mL), EA (IC(50) = 19.0 microg/mL; 63 microM), and UA (IC(50) = 9.0 microg/mL; 39 microM) inhibited Wnt signaling, suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P

2010-04-14

317

High pressure extraction of antioxidants from Solanum stenotomun peel.  

PubMed

In the work described here, two techniques for the recovery of anthocyanins from potato peel were studied and compared. One of the techniques employed was supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 or with CO2 and ethanol as cosolvent and the other technique was pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), where the solvent used was ethanol in water acidified to pH 2.6. The effects of pressure and temperature were studied and the anthocyanin contents obtained were statistically analyzed. In SFE the use of low pressure (100 bar) and high temperature (65 °C) was desirable for the anthocyanin extraction. With PLE the anthocyanin contents are increased considerably, and the best yields were obtained at 100 bar and 80 °C. This result is in correspondence with antioxidant activity index values (1.66) obtained in a DPPH antioxidant activity assay. In the extracts obtained with PLE the phenolic compounds were also determined, but the main compounds presented in the extract are anthocyanins. PMID:23528996

Cardoso, Lourdes Casas; Serrano, Casimiro Mantell; Quintero, Edwin Torrez; López, Clara Pereyra; Antezana, Ruder Medrano; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

2013-01-01

318

Biohydrogen generation from jackfruit peel using anaerobic contact filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method of anaerobic digestion using contact filter was adopted for treating solid waste generated from the fruit processing industry, namely jackfruit, with the intention of generating energy free from greenhouse gases. A new source of microflora was isolated from cow dung by subjecting it to pH adjustment at 5±0.2 coupled with heat treatment at 105?C for 1h, and

Krishnan Vijayaraghavan; Desa Ahmad; Mohd Khairil Bin Ibrahim

2006-01-01

319

Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of the Bond Strength Under Peeling Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable applications of adhesively bonded joints require understanding of the stress distribution along the bond-line and the stresses that are responsible for the joint failure. To properly evaluate factors affecting peel strength, effects of defects such as voids on the stress distribution in the overlap region must be understood. In this work, the peel stress distribution in a single lap joint is derived using a strength of materials approach. The bonded joint is modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams, bonded together with an adhesive. which is modeled as an elastic foundation which can resist both peel and shear stresses. It is found that for certain adhesive and adherend geometries and properties, a central void with the size up to 50 percent of the overlap length has negligible effect on the peak peel and shear stresses. To verify the solutions obtained from the model, the problem is solved again by using the finite element method and by treating the adherends and the adhesive as elastic materials. It is found that the model used in the analysis not only predicts the correct trend for the peel stress distribution but also gives rather surprisingly close results to that of the finite element analysis. It is also found that both shear and peel stresses can be responsible for the joint performance and when a void is introduced, both of these stresses can contribute to the joint failure as the void size increases. Acoustic emission (AE) activities of aluminum-adhesive-aluminum specimens with different void sizes were monitored. The AE ringdown counts and energy were very sensitive and decreased significantly with the void size. It was observed that the AE events were shifting towards the edge of the overlap where the maximum peeling and shearing stresses were occurring as the void size increased.

Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Jawad, Oussama Cherkaoui

1997-01-01

320

GROWTH HABITS IN STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit tree architecture is an increasingly important aspect of fruit production. Pomologists and fruit growers are looking to tree architecture as a way to address various production issues and increase profitability. Stone fruits, particularly peaches, have perhaps the widest range of described g...

321

Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

1996-01-01

322

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Instant potatoes Beets Artichokes Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes Rice milk Boxed, evaporated or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies

O'Toole, Alice J.

323

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

O'Toole, Alice J.

324

Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.  

PubMed

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R

2012-01-01

325

Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan  

PubMed Central

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

Qasem, Jamal R.

2012-01-01

326

The influence of hydrogen peroxide on the growth, development and quality of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, [Blume] Merrill & L.M. Perry var. jambu madu) fruits.  

PubMed

The present study represents the first report of the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the growth, development and quality of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in South East Asia. The wax apple trees were spray treated with 0, 5, 20 and 50 mM H(2)O(2) under field conditions. Photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll and dry matter content of the leaves and total soluble solids and total sugar content of the fruits of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, var. jambu madu) were significantly increased after treatment with 5 mM H(2)O(2). The application of 20 mM H(2)O(2) significantly reduced bud drop and enhanced fruit growth, resulting in larger fruit size, increased fruit set, fruit number, fruit biomass and yield compared to the control. In addition, the endogenous level of H(2)O(2) in wax apple leaves increased significantly with H(2)O(2) treatments. With regard to fruit quality, 20 mM H(2)O(2) treatment increased the K(+), anthocyanin and carotene contents of the fruits by 65%, 67%, and 41%, respectively. In addition, higher flavonoid, phenol and soluble protein content, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between peel colour (hue) and TSS, between net photosynthesis and SPS activity and between phenol and flavonoid content with antioxidant activity in H(2)O(2)-treated fruits. It is concluded that spraying with 5 and 20 mM H(2)O(2) once a week produced better fruit growth, maximising the yield and quality of wax apple fruits under field conditions. PMID:22349652

Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza

2012-04-01

327

Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

328

Name That Fruit!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students, will read three informational texts about fruit. Students will identify key ideas and details in each text and use illustrations to help them identify the key ideas. This lesson also incorporates a science standard that asks students to sort objects by color, shape, and size. After reading each text, students will participate in several hands-on activities to sort fruit.

Lauri Christopher

2012-07-20

329

Investigation of radiation-induced free radicals and luminescence properties in fresh pomegranate fruits.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced free radicals and luminescence properties were investigated in ?-irradiated (0-3 kGy) pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruits. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) analysis showed limited applicability, and only 3 kGy-irradiated pomegranates showed positive PSL values (>5000 PCs). Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve features, such as intensity and the presence of maximum glow peak in radiation-specific temperature range (150-250 °C), provided definite proof of irradiation, and the TL ratios (TL1/TL2) also confirmed the reliability of TL results. Scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis of the separated minerals showed that feldspar and quartz minerals were responsible for the luminescence properties. Radiation-induced cellulose radicals were detected in the seeds and rinds by ESR analysis. The ESR results were better in freeze-dried samples than in alcohol-extracted ones. A positive correlation was found between the ESR and TL signal intensities and irradiation doses; however, the most promising detection of the irradiation status was possible through TL analysis. PMID:23565691

Shahbaz, Hafiz M; Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

2013-05-01

330

Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber

331

Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA

Navindra P. Seeram; Rupo Lee; David Heber

2004-01-01

332

Dynamics of stick-slip in peeling of an adhesive tape  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamics of peeling of an adhesive tape subjected to a constant pull speed. We derive the equations of motion for the angular speed of the roller tape, the peel angle and the pull force used in earlier investigations using a Lagrangian. Due to the constraint between the pull force, peel angle and the peel force, it falls into the category of differential-algebraic equations requiring an appropriate algorithm for its numerical solution. Using such a scheme, we show that stick-slip jumps emerge in a purely dynamical manner. Our detailed numerical study shows that these set of equations exhibit rich dynamics hitherto not reported. In particular, our analysis shows that inertia has considerable influence on the nature of the dynamics. Following studies in the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, we suggest a phenomenological peel force function which includes the influence of the pull speed. This reproduces the decreasing nature of the rupture force with the pull speed observed in experiments. This rich dynamics is made transparent by using a set of approximations valid in different regimes of the parameter space. The approximate solutions capture major features of the exact numerical solutions and also produce reasonably accurate values for the various quantities of interest.

Rumi De; Anil Maybhate; G. Ananthakrishna

2005-01-18

333

Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.  

PubMed

Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid. PMID:23107679

Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

2012-09-15

334

Peel-and-Stick: Fabricating Thin Film Solar Cell on Universal Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabrication of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) on substrates other than Si and glass has been challenging because these nonconventional substrates are not suitable for the current TFSC fabrication processes due to poor surface flatness and low tolerance to high temperature and chemical processing. Here, we report a new peel-and-stick process that circumvents these fabrication challenges by peeling off the fully fabricated TFSCs from the original Si wafer and attaching TFSCs to virtually any substrates regardless of materials, flatness and rigidness. With the peel-and-stick process, we integrated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFSCs on paper, plastics, cell phone and building windows while maintaining the original 7.5% efficiency. The new peel-and-stick process enables further reduction of the cost and weight for TFSCs and endows TFSCs with flexibility and attachability for broader application areas. We believe that the peel-and-stick process can be applied to thin film electronics as well.

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cho, In Sun; William, Nemeth; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiaolin

2012-12-01

335

Sequence of Chloroplast Degreening in Calamondin Fruit as Influenced by Ethylene and AgNO(3).  

PubMed

C(2)H(4) disrupts the internal membranes of the chloroplast and induces an increase in chlorophyllase activity in degreening calamondin [x Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) Ingram and Moore] fruit. Whether the loss of chlorophyll in the peel is causally related to breakdown of the chloroplast and/or chlorophyllase activity is not readily apparent. Chlorophyllase levels were inversely related to chlorophyll content, but electron micrographs also showed that internal membranes of the chloroplasts were disrupted simultaneously with the decrease in chlorophyll content. Silver, a potent inhibitor of C(2)H(4)-mediated effects, retarded the loss of chlorophyll in calamondin rind, reduced the C(2)H(4)-induced increase in chlorophyllase level, and prevented the disruption of the chloroplast membranes. The results do not permit the proposal of a mechanism of C(2)H(4) metabolism in the degreening of calamondin fruit. PMID:16661491

Purvis, A C

1980-10-01

336

Sequence of Chloroplast Degreening in Calamondin Fruit as Influenced by Ethylene and AgNO31  

PubMed Central

C2H4 disrupts the internal membranes of the chloroplast and induces an increase in chlorophyllase activity in degreening calamondin [x Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) Ingram and Moore] fruit. Whether the loss of chlorophyll in the peel is causally related to breakdown of the chloroplast and/or chlorophyllase activity is not readily apparent. Chlorophyllase levels were inversely related to chlorophyll content, but electron micrographs also showed that internal membranes of the chloroplasts were disrupted simultaneously with the decrease in chlorophyll content. Silver, a potent inhibitor of C2H4-mediated effects, retarded the loss of chlorophyll in calamondin rind, reduced the C2H4-induced increase in chlorophyllase level, and prevented the disruption of the chloroplast membranes. The results do not permit the proposal of a mechanism of C2H4 metabolism in the degreening of calamondin fruit. Images PMID:16661491

Purvis, Albert C.

1980-01-01

337

Response surface optimization of ultrasound-assisted polysaccharides extraction from pomegranate peel.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic technique was employed to extract polysaccharides from pomegranate peel. The optimal conditions for ultrasonic extraction of pomegranate peel polysaccharide (PPP) were determined by response surface methodology. Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of four independent variables (ratio of water to raw material, extraction time, extraction temperature, ultrasonic power) on the yield of PPP. The correlation analysis of mathematical-regression models indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the ultrasonic extraction of PPP. The optimum extraction parameters were as follows: ratio of water to raw material, 24ml/g; extraction time, 63min; extraction temperature, 55°C; and ultrasonic power, 148W. Under these conditions, the polysaccharide yield was 13.658±0.133% for the pomegranate peel, which well matches with the predicted value. PMID:25660869

Zhu, Cai-Ping; Zhai, Xi-Chuan; Li, Lin-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Bing

2015-06-15

338

Influence of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning instability and edge localized mode crash  

SciTech Connect

The E Multiplication-Sign B shear flow plays a dual role on peeling-ballooning modes and their subsequently triggered edge localized mode (ELM) crashes. On one hand, the flow shear can stabilize high-n modes and twist the mode in the poloidal direction, constraining the mode's radial extent and reducing the size of the corresponding ELM. On the other hand, the shear flow also introduces the Kelvin-Helmholtz drive, which can destabilize peeling-ballooning modes. The overall effect of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning modes and ELM crashes depends on the competition between these two effects. When the flow shear is either small or very large, it can reduce ELM size. However, for moderate values of flow shear, the destabilizing effect from the Kelvin-Helmholtz term is dominant and leads to larger ELM crashes.

Xi, P. W. [Fusion Simulation Center, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wang, X. G. [Fusion Simulation Center, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

2012-09-15

339

Investigation on CO2 laser irradiation inducing glass strip peeling for microchannel formation  

PubMed Central

The study investigates the use of CO2 laser to induce glass strip peeling off to form microchannels on soda lime gass substrate. The strip peeling exhibits a strong dependence on the energy deposition rate on the glass surface. In spite of the vast difference in the combination of laser power and scanning speed, when the ratio of the two makes the energy deposition rate in the range 3.0-6.0?J/(cm2?s), the temperature rising inside glass will be above the strain point and reach the softening region of the glass. As a result, glass strip peeling is able to occur and form microchannels with dimensions of 20-40??m in depth and 200-280??m in width on the glass surface. Beyond this range, higher energy depsotion rate would lead to surface melting associated with solidification cracks and lower energy deposition rate causes the generation of fragment cracks. PMID:22662087

Wang, Z. K.; Zheng, H. Y.

2012-01-01

340

Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology.  

PubMed

This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9°C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products. PMID:25038678

Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio

2014-12-15

341

Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in ruminants can be reduced by orange peel product feeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7 are threats to the safety of beef and are publically perceived as “hamburger diseases.” Fresh citrus peel and dried orange pulp are by-products from citrus juice production that have a relatively high nutritive value (high TDN). Orange peel and...

342

An analysis of the 180{degree} peel test for measuring sealant adhesion  

SciTech Connect

Sealant adhesion to different substrates is often assessed by using a 180{degree} peel test. It is known that the peel force is a function of the viscoelastic response of the adhesive joint coupled with the intrinsic strength of the interphase. Measurement of the fracture energy as a function of straining rate can yield material properties by separating the bulk effects from the interphase strength. The results of this study highlight some important deficiencies of the ASTM peel test method. In particular, the fracture energy of a silicone sealant to glass and aluminum was measured at different rates, peel thicknesses and sealant moduli using the 180 peel test. It was determined that the sealant failed cohesively when tested on glass. For instances of cohesive failure, a plot of fracture energy vs. strain rate fit a power law model. The rate dependence of the fracture energy was shown to be proportional to the amount of uncrosslinked polymer in the sealant and this suggested an increase in dissipation. It was further shown that as the modulus of the sealant decreases the fracture energy increases. However, at low strain rates, the trend reverses and the high modulus sealant has better adhesion to glass than some of the low modulus sealants. Tests on specimens with aluminum substrates failed in accordance with specific test conditions: adhesive failure was more likely to occur when the strained thickness was small: when the strain rates were slow; or when the modulus was high. This study clearly demonstrated that peel testing at one rate and thickness can not adequately compare one sealant to another.

Shephard, N.E.; Wightman, J.P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

343

Multiple minimally invasive Erbium:YAG laser mini-peels for skin rejuvenation: An objective assessment  

PubMed Central

Summary Background As the demand for minimally invasive rejuvenation is increasing, micro-peel resurfacing using Erbium:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG ) laser 2940 nm has been reported for the treatment of photoaged skin without ablation of the epidermis. However, little is known about the efficacy and underlying histologic changes associated with this type of treatment. Aims The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes in response to multiple sessions of Er:YAG laser 2940 nm mini-peels. Patients and methods Six female volunteers of Fitzpatrick skin type III-IV and Glogau’s class I-III wrinkles were subjected to six microresurfacing peels at 2-week intervals using Er:YAG 2940 nm laser at sub-ablative fluences of 2 - 3 J/cm2 to treat periorbital rhytides. Quantitative evaluation of collagen types I, III and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin and tropoelastin was performed by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry coupled with computerized morphometric analysis at base line, end of treatment, and three months post treatment. Results Compared to the base line, evaluation of volunteers revealed obvious clinical improvement in response to Er:YAG mini-peels. Collagen types I, III, and VII, as well as newly synthesized collagen, together with tropoelastin showed a statistically significant increase in response to treatment, while the mean level of total elastin was significantly decreased in response to treatment. However, this was followed by regression of improvement at 3 months post treatment, but was still better than baseline. Conclusions The present study revealed that multiple Er:YAG mini-peels is a promising treatment option for photoaging as it reverses the signs of photoaged skin with little downtime and side effects. However, to maintain the short term improvement achieved after treatment, continued Er:YAG 2940 nm laser mini-peels is required. PMID:22672276

El-Domyati, Moetaz; El-Ammawi, Tarek S.; Medhat, Walid; Moawad, Osama; Mahoney, M? G.; Uitto, Jouni

2012-01-01

344

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) on Eimeria papillata-Induced Infection in Mice.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis is the most prevalent disease causing widespread economic loss, especially in poultry farms. Here, we investigated the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the outcome of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria papillata in mice. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata and treated with PPE revealed a significant decrease in the output of oocysts in their faeces by day 5?p.i. Infection also induced inflammation and injury of the jejunum. This was evidenced (i) as increases in reactive oxygen species, (ii), as increased neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes in blood (ii) as increased mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Bcl-2 gene, and of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-?), tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and (iv) as downregulation of mucin gene MUC2 mRNA. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during PPE treatment. In particular, PPE counteracted the E. papillata-induced loss of the total antioxidant capacity. Our data indicated that PPE treatment significantly attenuated inflammation and injury of the jejunum induced by E. papillata infections. PMID:25654088

Amer, Omar S O; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Hikal, Wafaa M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

2015-01-01

345

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) on Eimeria papillata-Induced Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Coccidiosis is the most prevalent disease causing widespread economic loss, especially in poultry farms. Here, we investigated the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the outcome of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria papillata in mice. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata and treated with PPE revealed a significant decrease in the output of oocysts in their faeces by day 5?p.i. Infection also induced inflammation and injury of the jejunum. This was evidenced (i) as increases in reactive oxygen species, (ii), as increased neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes in blood (ii) as increased mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Bcl-2 gene, and of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-?), tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and (iv) as downregulation of mucin gene MUC2 mRNA. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during PPE treatment. In particular, PPE counteracted the E. papillata-induced loss of the total antioxidant capacity. Our data indicated that PPE treatment significantly attenuated inflammation and injury of the jejunum induced by E. papillata infections. PMID:25654088

Amer, Omar S. O.; Dkhil, Mohamed A.; Hikal, Wafaa M.

2015-01-01

346

Nanoscale Resolution, Multi-component Biomolecular Arrays Generated By Aligned Printing With Parylene Peel-Off  

PubMed Central

We present Print-and-Peel, a high-throughput method to generate multi-component biomolecular arrays with sub-100nm nanoscale feature width. An inkjet printer is first aligned to a parylene template containing nanoscale openings. After printing, the parylene is peeled off to reveal uniformly patterned nanoscale features, despite the imperfect morphologies of the original inkjet spots. We further patterned combinatorial nanoarrays by performing a second print-run superimposed over the first, thereby extending the multiplexing capability of the technique. PMID:20088589

Tan, Christine P.; Cipriany, Benjamin R.; Lin, David M.; Craighead, Harold G.

2010-01-01

347

Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Lemon Peels  

PubMed Central

Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from lemon peels by using ionic liquid as alternative solvent was investigated. The extracted pectin was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectra. The extraction conditions were optimized through the different experiments in conjunction with the response surface methodology. A pectin yield of 24.68 % was obtained under the optimal parameters: the extraction temperature of 88°C, the extraction time of 9.6?min, and a liquid-solid ratio of 22.7?ml · g?1. The structure of the pretreated lemon peel samples and the samples after microwave-assisted extraction were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope. PMID:22567554

Guolin, Huang; Jeffrey, Shi; Kai, Zhang; Xiaolan, Huang

2012-01-01

348

21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific...generally recognized as safe in food or covered by prior sanctions...of C11 -C486315 straight chain randomly substituted...

2012-04-01

349

21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific...generally recognized as safe in food or covered by prior sanctions...of C11 -C486315 straight chain randomly substituted...

2013-04-01

350

21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.  

...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific...generally recognized as safe in food or covered by prior sanctions...of C11 -C486315 straight chain randomly substituted...

2014-04-01

351

21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific...generally recognized as safe in food or covered by prior sanctions...of C11 -C486315 straight chain randomly substituted...

2011-04-01

352

An Extract of Pomegranate Fruit and Galangal Rhizome Increases the Numbers of Motile Sperm: A Prospective, Randomised, Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4–8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1?S-1?-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n?=?34; placebo: n?=?32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets containing preparations of pomegranate fruit extract and rhizome of greater galangal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01357044 PMID:25275520

Fedder, Maja D. K.; Jakobsen, Henrik B.; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P.; Parner, Erik T.; Fedder, Jens

2014-01-01

353

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2008-04-21

354

Home Fruit Production - Pears.  

E-print Network

System ? College Station, Texas (Blank Pa,ge -in Origi.aI BoHetiDl ' : . 1 r . .- HOME FRUIT PRODUCTION - PEARS John A. Upe, Calvin Lyons and Larry Stein* Pears are long-lived attractive trees for Texas land scapes. Selected varieties produce good... fruit with few management problems. The three basic types of pears grown in the United States are European or French pears, Oriental hybrids and Asian pears. The common pears include such popular varieties as Bartlett, Bosc and D...

Lipe, John A.; Lyons, Calvin; Stein, Larry

1988-01-01

355

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

356

Effect of UV-C irradiation and low temperature storage on bioactive compounds, antioxidant enzymes and radical scavenging activity of papaya fruit.  

PubMed

Mature green 'Maradol' papaya fruits were exposed to ultraviolet (UV)-C irradiation (1.48 kJ·m(-2)) and stored at 5 or 14 °C. Changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), as well as the scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals were investigated in peel and flesh tissues at 0, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. UV-C irradiation increased significantly (P < 0.05) the flavonoid content (2.5 and 26 %) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (5.7 and 6 %) in flesh and peel at 14 °C respectively; and CAT activity (16.7 %) in flesh at 5 °C. Flavonoid contents, CAT and SOD activities were positively affected under low storage temperature (5 °C). DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities increased in both control and UV-C treated papaya peel during storage at 5 °C. UV-C irradiation effect on radical scavenging of papaya peel could be attributed to increased flavonoid content. Papaya antioxidant system was activated by UV-C and cold storage by increasing phenolic content and antioxidant enzymatic activities as a defense response against oxidative-stress. PMID:25477649

Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Gardea, Alfonso A; Yahia, Elhadi M; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

2014-12-01

357

Pesticide residue dynamics in passion fruits: comparing field trial and modelling results.  

PubMed

We evaluated the exposure to pesticides from the consumption of passion fruits and subsequent human health risks by combining several methods: (i) experimental field studies including the determination of pesticide residues in/on passion fruits, (ii) dynamic plant uptake modelling, and (iii) human health risk assessment concepts. Eight commonly used pesticides were applied onto passion fruits cultivated in Colombia. Pesticide concentrations were measured periodically (between application and harvest) in whole fruits and fruit pulp. Measured concentrations were compared with predicted residues calculated with a dynamic and crop-specific pesticide uptake model, namely dynamiCROP. The model accounts for the time between pesticide application and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the amount of spray deposition on plant surfaces, uptake processes, dilution due to crop growth, degradation in plant components, and reduction due to food processing (peeling). Measured and modelled residues correspond well (r(2)=0.88-0.99), with all predictions falling within the 90% confidence interval of the measured values. A mean error of 43% over all studied pesticides was observed between model estimates and measurements. The fraction of pesticide applied during cultivation that is eventually ingested by humans is on average 10(-4)-10(-6), depending on the time period between application and ingestion and the processing step considered. Model calculations and intake fractions via fruit consumption based on experimental data corresponded well for all pesticides with a deviation of less than a factor of 2. Pesticide residues in fruits measured at recommended harvest dates were all below European Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) and therefore do not indicate any violation of international regulatory thresholds. PMID:22673401

Juraske, Ronnie; Fantke, Peter; Ramírez, Ana Cecilia Romero; González, Alonso

2012-10-01

358

Sensory properties of fruit skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory characteristics of fruit skins were determined for a range of produce including large fruit (apples, pears, and tomatoes) and small fruit (grapes, strawberries, blueberries, and cherry tomatoes). These results provided a context within which to study the sensory properties of skins from novel kiwifruit (Actinidia). The kiwifruit skins ranged from the edible skins of grape-sized Actinidia arguta through

Rachel L. Amos

2007-01-01

359

Pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of Platycodon grandiflorum peel and its cellulose extract.  

PubMed

The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of a biomass waste material, namely Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC (P. G.) peel and its cellulose extract were studied at heating rates of 10, 30 and 50 °C/min under a nitrogen flow atmosphere. The most probable mechanism function and activation energy pre-exponential factors were calculated by using the Popescu, FWO and KAS methods. The three stages appeared during pyrolysis include: moisture evaporation, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. Significant differences in the average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates of the P. G. peel and its cellulose extract were observed. Stage II of the P. G. peel and its cellulose extract could be described by the function Avrami-Erofeev [-ln(1-?)](3) and the function chemical reaction (1-?)(-0.5), respectively. The average activation energy of P. G. peel and its cellulose extract were 157 and 196 kJ/mol, respectively. Kinetic compensation effects of the pre-exponential factors and activation energy were also observed. PMID:25498683

Qiu, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Quan-Cheng; Geng, Jie

2015-03-01

360

Layer-peeling algorithm for reconstructing the birefringence in optical emulators  

E-print Network

Layer-peeling algorithm for reconstructing the birefringence in optical emulators Etgar C. Levy, for extracting the spatial distribu- tion of the birefringence parameters of an optical emulator. The method emulators are an im- portant tool for studying PMD and for improving the performance of optical

Horowitz, Moshe

361

Continuous and pulsed ultrasound-assisted extractions of antioxidants from pomegranate peel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a great demand for developing efficient extraction methods in order to reduce extraction time and increase the yield and activity of functional antioxidants. The yields, activities, and extraction kinetics of antioxidants from dry peel of pomegranate marc were studied using ultrasound assis...

362

Continuous and pulsed ultrasound-assisted extractions of antioxidants from pomegranate peel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a great demand for developing efficient extraction methods in order to reduce extraction time and increase the yield and activity of functional antioxidants. The yields, activities, and extraction kinetics of antioxidants from dry peel of pomegranate marc were studied using ultrasound-assis...

363

Dynamic response of adhesively bonded single-lap joints with a void subjected to harmonic peeling  

E-print Network

Dynamic response of adhesively bonded single-lap joints with a void subjected to harmonic peeling is evaluated. The bonded joint is modelled as a Euler­Bernoulli beam joined with an adhesive and constrained overall length of the bonded joint t adhesive thickness w width of the beams yi transverse displacement

Vaziri, Ashkan

364

Lemon peels mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antidermatophytic activity.  

PubMed

There is an increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various areas. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this work, The extract of lemon peel was prepared and mixed with 1 mM AgNO3 solution .The bioreduction of Ag(+) ion in solution was monitored using UV-visible spectrometer, FESEM and EDAX analysis. Skin scales were collected from patients with suspected dermatophytosis and the dermatophytes were isolated and identified. The AgNPs produced from lemon peels showed good activity against the isolated dermatophytes. The present research work emphasizes the use of lemon peels for the effective synthesize of AgNPs and could be used against the dermatophytes which are found to develop drug resistant towards broad-spectrum antibiotics. The biosynthesis of AgNPs using lemon peel extract is very simple and economic. The use of environmentally benign and renewable plant material offers enormous benefits of eco-friendliness. PMID:24486863

Najimu Nisha, S; Aysha, O S; Syed Nasar Rahaman, J; Vinoth Kumar, P; Valli, S; Nirmala, P; Reena, A

2014-04-24

365

Fat Fruit Flies  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Breaking news from South Korea's hi-tech frontline. With the help of drosophila, or the fruit fly, scientists here have discovered strands of genetic material that control growth in the body. They're called micro-RNA and people...

Hacker, Randi

2010-08-11

366

Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Apple Fruit Salad Ingredients: 2 Golden Delicious apples 2 Red Delicious apples 2 banana 1 1/2 cups Directions 1. Leave the skin on the apple and cut in half through the core. Then cut each piece in half again

Liskiewicz, Maciej

367

Dried Fruits and Nuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current control of postharvest insect pests of dried fruits and tree nuts relies heavily on fumigants such as methyl bromide or phosphine. There is mounting pressure against the general use of chemical fumigants due to atmospheric emissions, safety or health concerns, and an increased interest in or...

368

The Passiflora tripartita (Banana Passion) fruit: a source of bioactive flavonoid C-glycosides isolated by HSCCC and characterized by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS/MS.  

PubMed

The banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita Breiter, Passifloraceae) known as "tumbo" is very appreciated in tropical and subtropical countries of South America. Methanolic extracts from peel and the fruit juice of P. tripartita growing in Chile were analyzed for antioxidant capacity as well as for flavonoid and phenolic content. A chromatographic method was developed for the rapid identification of the main phenolics in the samples by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. The fast fingerprint analysis allowed the detection of eighteen flavonoid C-glycosides and four flavonoid O-glycoside derivatives which were characterized by UV spectra and ESI-MS-MS analysis. Several of the C-glycosides detected are structurally related to the orientin derivative 4'-methoxy-luteolin-8-C-(6"acetyl)-b-D-glucopyranoside (31), fully elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant derivative 31 along with schaftoside, vicenin II, orientin and vitexin were isolated from the fruit extract by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). A suitable method for the preparative isolation of flavonol C-glycosides from "tumbo" extracts by HSCCC is reported. The pulp of the fruits showed good antioxidant capacity (12.89 ± 0.02 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). The peel presented the highest content of flavonoids (56.03 ± 4.34 mg quercetin/100 g dry weight) which is related to the highest antioxidant power (10.41 ± 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). PMID:23358325

Simirgiotis, Mario J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Bórquez, Jorge; Kennelly, Edward J

2013-01-01

369

Peel strength of denture liner to PMMA and polyamide: laser versus air-abrasion  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study investigated the effect of laser parameters and air-abrasion on the peel strength of silicon-based soft denture liner to different denture resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS Specimens (N=180) were prepared out of three different denture base resins (Rodex, cross-linked denture base acrylic resin; Paladent, heat-cured acrylic resin; Deflex, Polyamide resin) (75 mm × 25 mm × 3 mm). A silicon-based soft denture liner (Molloplast B) was applied to the denture resins after the following conditioning methods: a) Air-abrasion (50 µm), b) Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase MD Turbo, Biolase Technology) at 2 W-20 Hz, c) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 2 W-30 Hz, d) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-20 Hz, e) Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-30 Hz. Non-conditioned group acted as the control group. Peel test was performed in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were evaluated visually. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=.05). RESULTS Denture liner tested showed increased peel strength after laser treatment with different parameters (3.9±0.4 - 5.58±0.6 MPa) compared to the control (3.64±0.5 - 4.58±0.5 MPa) and air-abraded groups (3.1±0.6 - 4.46±0.3 MPa), but the results were not statistically significant except for Paladent, with the pretreatment of Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3 W-20 Hz. Polyamide resin after air-abrasion showed significantly lower peel strength than those of other groups (3.1±0.6 MPa). CONCLUSION Heat-cured acrylic resin, PMMA, may benefit from Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment at 3 W-20 Hz irradiation. Air-abrasion of polyamide resins should be avoided not to impair their peel bond strengths to silicon-based soft denture liners. PMID:24049570

Bagis, Bora; Özcan, Mutlu; Durkan, Rukiye; Turgut, Sedanur; Ates, Sabit Melih

2013-01-01

370

Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among U.S. males, with a similar trend in many Western countries. One approach to control this malignancy is its prevention through the use of agents present in diet consumed by humans. Pomegranate from the tree Punica granatum possesses strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. We

Arshi Malik; Farrukh Afaq; Sami Sarfaraz; Vaqar M. Adhami; Deeba N. Syed; Hasan Mukhtar

2005-01-01

371

Therapeutic and nutraceutical potential of bioactive compounds extracted from fruit residues.  

PubMed

The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research in identifying new low-cost antioxidants having commercial potential. Fruits such as mango, banana, and those belonging to the citrus family leave behind a substantial amount of residues in the form of peels, pulp, seeds, and stones. Due to lack of infrastructure to handle a huge quantity of available biomass, lack of processing facilities, and high processing cost, these residues represent a major disposal problem, especially in developing countries. Because of the presence of phenolic compounds, which impart nutraceutical properties to fruit residues, such residues hold tremendous potential in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The biological properties such as anticarcinogenicity, antimutagenicity, antiallergenicity, and antiageing activity have been reported for both natural as well as synthetic antioxidants. Special attention is focused on extraction of bioactive compounds from inexpensive or residual sources. The purpose of this review is to characterize different phenolics present in the fruit residues, discuss the antioxidant potential of such residues and the assays used in determination of antioxidant properties, discuss various methods for efficient extraction of the bioactive compounds, and highlight the importance of fruit residues as potential nutraceutical resources and biopreservatives. PMID:24915390

Babbar, Neha; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur

2015-01-01

372

Potential anti-inflammatory effects of the hydrophilic fraction of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil on breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

In this work, we characterized conjugated linolenic acids (e.g., punicic acid) as the major components of the hydrophilic fraction (80% aqueous methanol extract) from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) and evaluated their anti-inflammatory potential on some human colon (HT29 and HCT116), liver (HepG2 and Huh7), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and prostate (DU145) cancer lines. Our results demonstrated that punicic acid and its congeners induce a significant decrease of cell viability for two breast cell lines with a related increase of the cell cycle G0/G1 phase respect to untreated cells. Moreover, the evaluation of a great panel of cytokines expressed by MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed that the levels of VEGF and nine pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IP-10, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, MCP-1 and TNF-?) decreased in a dose dependent way with increasing amounts of the hydrophilic extracts of PSO, supporting the evidence of an anti-inflammatory effect. Taken together, the data herein suggest a potential synergistic cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant role of the polar compounds from PSO. PMID:24962397

Costantini, Susan; Rusolo, Fabiola; De Vito, Valentina; Moccia, Stefania; Picariello, Gianluca; Capone, Francesca; Guerriero, Eliana; Castello, Giuseppe; Volpe, Maria Grazia

2014-01-01

373

Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.  

PubMed

The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12day at 15±1°C and 95±3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889mgGAE100g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532mgAA100mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-2881?molTroloxEq100g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses. PMID:25529669

Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

2015-05-01

374

Study of pineapple peelings processing into vinegar by biotechnology.  

PubMed

This study aimed to reduce post-harvest losses of pineapple local variety egbenana by the transformation of juice into vinegar through biotechnological process. Vinegar was produced through two successive fermentations: alcoholic and acetic fermentations. The alcohol fermentation was carried out at 30 degrees C using yeast. Biomass, pH and Brix were evaluated daily during the fermentation. Acetic fermentation was carried out at 30 degrees C using an acetic bacteria strain isolated from pineapple wine previously exposed to ambient temperature (28 degrees C) for 5 days. Biomass, pH and acid levels were monitored each 2 days. The performance of acetic bacteria isolated was also assessed by studying their glucose and ethanol tolerance. The study allowed the isolation of yeast coded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LAS01) and an acetic bacteria coded Acetobacter sp. (ASV03) both occurring in the pineapple juice. The monitoring of successive fermentations indicated that the pineapple juice with sugar concentration of 20 Brix, seeded with 10(6) cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LAS01) for alcoholic fermentation for 4 days and afterwards seeded with 10(6) cells of Acetobacter sp. resulted in 4.5 acetic degree vinegar at Brix 5.3% and pH 2.8 for 23 to 25 days. The study of glucose tolerance of the strain of Acetobacter sp. showed that the growth of acetic bacteria was important in a juice with high concentration of sugar. However, the concentration of ethanol did not effect on the acetic bacteria growth. These results enabled on one hand to improve the manufacturing technology of vinegar from fruits and on the other hand to produce a starter of yeast and acetic bacteria strains for this production. PMID:19803120

Sossou, Seyram K; Ameyapoh, Yaovi; Karou, Simplice D; de Souza, Comlan

2009-06-01

375

Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.  

PubMed

Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries. PMID:23587821

Mukhopadhyay, Arka; Dutta, Nalok; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

2013-06-01

376

Genetic analysis of metabolites in apple fruits indicates an mQTL hotspot for phenolic compounds on linkage group 16  

PubMed Central

Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) is among the main sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet. The genetic basis of the quantitative variations of these potentially beneficial phenolic compounds was investigated. A segregating F1 population was used to map metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). Untargeted metabolic profiling of peel and flesh tissues of ripe fruits was performed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS), resulting in the detection of 418 metabolites in peel and 254 in flesh. In mQTL mapping using MetaNetwork, 669 significant mQTLs were detected: 488 in the peel and 181 in the flesh. Four linkage groups (LGs), LG1, LG8, LG13, and LG16, were found to contain mQTL hotspots, mainly regulating metabolites that belong to the phenylpropanoid pathway. The genetics of annotated metabolites was studied in more detail using MapQTL®. A number of quercetin conjugates had mQTLs on LG1 or LG13. The most important mQTL hotspot with the largest number of metabolites was detected on LG16: mQTLs for 33 peel-related and 17 flesh-related phenolic compounds. Structural genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway were located, using the apple genome sequence. The structural gene leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1) was in the mQTL hotspot on LG16, as were seven transcription factor genes. The authors believe that this is the first time that a QTL analysis was performed on such a high number of metabolites in an outbreeding plant species. PMID:22330898

Khan, Sabaz Ali; Chibon, Pierre-Yves; de Vos, Ric C.H.; Schipper, Bert A.; Walraven, Evert; Beekwilder, Jules; van Dijk, Thijs; Finkers, Richard; Visser, Richard G.F.; van de Weg, Eric W.; Bovy, Arnaud; Cestaro, Alessandro; Velasco, Riccardo; Jacobsen, Evert; Schouten, Henk J.

2012-01-01

377

Genetic analysis of metabolites in apple fruits indicates an mQTL hotspot for phenolic compounds on linkage group 16.  

PubMed

Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) is among the main sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet. The genetic basis of the quantitative variations of these potentially beneficial phenolic compounds was investigated. A segregating F? population was used to map metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). Untargeted metabolic profiling of peel and flesh tissues of ripe fruits was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), resulting in the detection of 418 metabolites in peel and 254 in flesh. In mQTL mapping using MetaNetwork, 669 significant mQTLs were detected: 488 in the peel and 181 in the flesh. Four linkage groups (LGs), LG1, LG8, LG13, and LG16, were found to contain mQTL hotspots, mainly regulating metabolites that belong to the phenylpropanoid pathway. The genetics of annotated metabolites was studied in more detail using MapQTL®. A number of quercetin conjugates had mQTLs on LG1 or LG13. The most important mQTL hotspot with the largest number of metabolites was detected on LG16: mQTLs for 33 peel-related and 17 flesh-related phenolic compounds. Structural genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway were located, using the apple genome sequence. The structural gene leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1) was in the mQTL hotspot on LG16, as were seven transcription factor genes. The authors believe that this is the first time that a QTL analysis was performed on such a high number of metabolites in an outbreeding plant species. PMID:22330898

Khan, Sabaz Ali; Chibon, Pierre-Yves; de Vos, Ric C H; Schipper, Bert A; Walraven, Evert; Beekwilder, Jules; van Dijk, Thijs; Finkers, Richard; Visser, Richard G F; van de Weg, Eric W; Bovy, Arnaud; Cestaro, Alessandro; Velasco, Riccardo; Jacobsen, Evert; Schouten, Henk J

2012-05-01

378

Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’  

PubMed Central

Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4?-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; Bandara, B. M. R.

2013-01-01

379

Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.  

PubMed

Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

2013-10-01

380

Science 101: How do fruits ripen?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people love to eat fresh fruits, and today there are dozens to choose from--from "standard" fruits like apple, orange, and banana to more exotic fruits like mango, star fruit, and lychee. But how exactly do fruits ripen to taste so good?

Sargent, Steven A.

2005-01-01

381

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

382

Position-Based Virtual Fixtures for Membrane Peeling with a Handheld Micromanipulator  

PubMed Central

Peeling delicate retinal membranes, which are often less than 5 µm thick, is one of the most challenging retinal surgeries. Preventing rips and tears caused by tremor and excessive force can decrease injury and reduce the need for follow up surgeries. We propose the use of a fully handheld microsurgical robot to suppress tremor while enforcing helpful constraints on the motion of the tool. Using stereo vision and tracking algorithms, the robot activates motion-scaled behavior as the tip reaches the surface, providing finer control during the critical step of engaging the membrane edge. A hard virtual fixture just below the surface limits the total downward force that can be applied. Furthermore, velocity limiting during the peeling helps the surgeon maintain a smooth, constant force while lifting and delaminating the membrane. On a phantom consisting of plastic wrap stretched across a rubber slide, we demonstrate our approach reduces maximum force by 40–70%. PMID:24724041

Becker, Brian C.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Lobes, Louis A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

2012-01-01

383

Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.  

PubMed

Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data. PMID:24191439

Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

2013-01-01

384

Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

2015-02-01

385

Ultra-sonication-assisted solvent extraction of quercetin glycosides from 'Idared' apple peels.  

PubMed

Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated 'Idared' apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v) methanol in 1:50 (w:v) solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v) or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact. PMID:22117169

Vasantha Rupasinghe, H P; Kathirvel, Priya; Huber, Gwendolyn M

2011-01-01

386

Adverse reactions to vitamin E and aloe vera preparations after dermabrasion and chemical peel.  

PubMed

Three women and one man aged forty-one to sixty-five years experienced a severe burning sensation following the application of aloe vera or vitamin E preparations to a skin area that had been subjected to a chemical peel or dermabrasion. Subsequently, a severe dermatitis occurred that required hospitalization of one patient and intravenous administration of steroids. The dermatitis abated very slowly in all patients: full recovery took three months or more. One patient resumed the use of vitamin E creams two years after the episode of dermatitis and experienced no adverse effect. Patients undergoing dermabrasion or chemical peel procedures should be cautioned specifically against the use of aloe vera or vitamin E topically in the first weeks after surgery. PMID:2022130

Hunter, D; Frumkin, A

1991-03-01

387

Toward Robotically Assisted Membrane Peeling with 3-DOF Distal Force Sensing in Retinal Microsurgery*  

PubMed Central

Retinal microsurgery requires steady and precise manipulation of delicate eye tissues in a very small space. Physiological hand tremor and lack of force sensing are among the main technical challenges, limiting surgical performance. We present a system that consists of the cooperatively controlled Steady-Hand Eye Robot and a miniaturized 3-DOF force sensing instrument to address these limitations. While the robot can effectively suppress hand tremor, enable steady and precise tissue manipulation, the force sensing instrument can provide three dimensional force measurements at the tool tip with submillinewton resolution. Auditory sensory substitution is used to give the user real time force information. Evaluation experiments are conducted using artificial and biological membrane peeling phantoms. Experimental results show that the robotic assistance and force-to-audio sensory substitution can effectively control the magnitude of the tool-to-tissue force. The direction profiles of the membrane peeling forces reflect the different delaminating strategies for different membrane phantoms. PMID:25571572

He, Xingchi; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

2014-01-01

388

QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALOONING MODES  

SciTech Connect

A271 QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALOONING MODES. Several testable features of the working model of edge localized modes (ELMs) as intermediate toroidal mode number peeling-ballooning modes are evaluated quantitatively using DIII-D and JT-60U experimental data and the ELITE MHD stability code. These include the hypothesis that ELM sizes are related to the radial widths of the unstable MHD modes, the unstable modes have a strong ballooning character localized in the outboard bad curvature region, and ELM size generally becomes smaller at high edge collisionality. ELMs are triggered when the growth rates of the unstable MHD modes become significantly large. These testable features are consistent with many ELM observations in DIII-D and JT-60U discharges.

LAO,LL; SNYDER,PB; LEONARD,AW; OIKAWA,T; OSBORNE,TH; PETRIE,TW; FERRON,JR; GROEBNER,RJ; HORTON,LD; KAMADA,Y; MURAKAMI,M; SAARELMA,S; STJOHN,HE; TURNBULL,AD; WILSON,HR

2003-03-01

389

Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48h incubation with 7days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment. PMID:25228035

Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Saravanakumar, B; Joseph Nathanael, A; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V

2015-02-25

390

Coupled effects of applied load and surface structure on the viscous forces during peeling  

E-print Network

Tree frogs are able take advantage of an interconnected network of epithelial cells in their toe pads to modulate their adhesion to surfaces under dry, wet, and flooded environments. It has been hypothesized that these interconnected drainage channels reduce the hydrodynamic repulsion to facilitate contact under a completely submerged environment (flooded conditions). Using a custom-built apparatus we investigate the interplay between surface structure and loading conditions on the peeling force. By combining a normal approach and detachment by peeling we can isolate the effects of surface structure from the loading conditions. We investigate three surfaces: two rigid structured surfaces that consist of arrays of cylindrical posts and a flat surface as a control. We observe three regimes in the work required to separate the structured surface that depend on the fluid film thickness prior to pull out. These three regimes are based on hydrodynamics and our experimental results agree with a simple scaling argume...

Dhong, Charles

2015-01-01

391

Brilliant blue G-assisted peeling of the internal limiting membrane in macular hole surgery  

PubMed Central

Dye-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and gas tamponade is the surgery of choice for idiopathic macular holes. Indocyanine green and trypan blue have been extensively used to stain the ILM. However, the retinal toxicity of indocyanine green and non-uniform staining with trypan blue has necessitated development of newer vital dyes. Brilliant blue G has recently been introduced as one such dye with adequate ILM staining and no reported retinal toxicity. We performed a 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling in six patients with idiopathic macular holes, to assess the staining characteristics and short-term adverse effects of this dye. Adequate staining assisted in the complete removal of ILM and closure of macular holes in all cases. There was no evidence of intraoperative or postoperative dye-related toxicity. Brilliant blue G appears to be safe dye for ILM staining in macular hole surgery. PMID:21350290

Naithani, Prashant; Vashisht, Naginder; Khanduja, Sumeet; Sinha, Subijay; Garg, Satpal

2011-01-01

392

Reduction of Free Edge Peeling Stress of Laminated Composites Using Active Piezoelectric Layers  

PubMed Central

An analytical approach is proposed in the reduction of free edge peeling stresses of laminated composites using active piezoelectric layers. The approach is the extended Kantorovich method which is an iterative method. Multiterms of trial function are employed and governing equations are derived by taking the principle of complementary virtual work. The solutions are obtained by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. By this approach, the stresses automatically satisfy not only the traction-free boundary conditions, but also the free edge boundary conditions. Through the iteration processes, the free edge stresses converge very quickly. It is found that the peeling stresses generated by mechanical loadings are significantly reduced by applying a proper electric field to the piezoelectric actuators. PMID:25025088

Huang, Bin; Kim, Heung Soo

2014-01-01

393

Facial and Periorbital Cellulitis due to Skin Peeling with Jet Stream by an Unauthorized Person  

PubMed Central

Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a “beauty parlor” session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role. PMID:24822131

Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya

2014-01-01

394

Evaluation of adhesive properties of three resilient denture liners by the modified peel test method.  

PubMed

The characteristics of adhesive properties between a denture base and resilient denture liner were investigated by a modified peel test with an L-shaped metal attachment. Three commercially resilient denture lining materials, namely GC Reline Soft (S), GC Reline Extra Soft (ES), and GC Reline Ultra Soft (US), were evaluated. Acrylic resin (GC Acron) was used as denture base material. Peel specimens consisting of the denture base acrylic resin and resilient denture liner were tested after storage for 1 and 30 days in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The modified peel test method gave load-displacement curves and work of adhesion (W(A)) values of the denture base material and resilient denture liner. The W(A) of specimens after 1 day of storage ranged from 1.71 to 2.55 N mm(-1) and increased in the order from US to S to ES. On the other hand, the W(A) of specimens after 30 day of storage ranged from 1.44 to 2.47 N mm(-1) and increased in the order from US to ES to S. US had significantly lower W(A) after 1 and 30 days of storage than did S and ES (P<0.05). Comparison of the W(A) between 1 and 30 days, reveals large differences for ES and US, but not for S. This could be explained by the difference in failure modes. Within the limitations of this investigation, it was concluded the modified peel test is effective for evaluating the adhesion between denture base material and a resilient denture liner. PMID:18829404

Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Saeki, Hiroyuki; Kimoto, Suguru; Nishiwaki, Tsuyoshi; Nishiyama, Norihiro

2009-02-01

395

Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of Cu(II) by chemically modified orange peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu(II) biosorption by orange peel that was chemically modified with sodium hydroxide and calcium chloride was investigated. The effects of temperature, contact time, initial concentration of metal ions and pH on the biosorption of Cu(II) ions were assessed. Thermodynamic parameters including change of free energy), (?G?), enthalpy (?H?) and entropy (?S?) during the biosorption were determined. The results show that

Ning-chuan FENG; Xue-yi GUO; Sha LIANG

2009-01-01

396

Ecological Effects of Macroalgal Harvesting on Beaches in the Peel-Harvey Estuary, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophyte harvesting is used to manage macroalgal accumulations in eutrophic estuaries throughout the world. Despite the widespread use of harvesting as a management tool, little research has addressed the effects on beach ecosystems. This paper reports on experimental investigations into the short- and long-term effects of macroalgal harvesting on beaches in the Peel-Harvey estuarine system, Western Australia. The short-term effects

P. Lavery; S Bootle; M Vanderklift

1999-01-01

397

Magnetohydrodynamic stability at a separatrix. I. Toroidal peeling modes and the energy principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potentially serious impediment to the production of energy by nuclear fusion in large tokamaks, such as ITER [R. Aymar, V. A. Chuyanov, M. Huguet, Y. Shimomura, ITER Joint Central Team, and ITER Home Teams, Nucl. Fusion 41, 1301 (2001)] and DEMO [D. Maisonner, I. Cook, S. Pierre, B. Lorenzo, D. Luigi, G. Luciano, N. Prachai, and P. Aldo, Fusion Eng. Des. 81, 1123 (2006)], is the potential for rapid deposition of energy onto plasma facing components by edge localized modes (ELMs). The trigger for ELMs is believed to be the ideal magnetohydrodynamic peeling-ballooning instability, but recent numerical calculations have suggested that a plasma equilibrium with an X-point—as is found in all ITER-like tokamaks, is stable to the peeling mode. This contrasts with analytical calculations [G. Laval, R. Pellat, and J. S. Soule, Phys. Fluids 17, 835 (1974)] that found the peeling mode to be unstable in cylindrical plasmas with arbitrary cross-sectional shape. Here, we re-examine the assumptions made in cylindrical geometry calculations and generalize the calculation to an arbitrary tokamak geometry at marginal stability. The resulting equations solely describe the peeling mode and are not complicated by coupling to the ballooning mode, for example. We find that stability is determined by the value of a single parameter ?' that is the poloidal average of the normalized jump in the radial derivative of the perturbed magnetic field's normal component. We also find that near a separatrix it is possible for the energy principle's ?W to be negative (that is usually taken to indicate that the mode is unstable, as in the cylindrical theory), but the growth rate to be arbitrarily small.

Webster, A. J.; Gimblett, C. G.

2009-08-01

398

Randomized clinical efficacy of superficial peeling with 85% lactic acid versus 70% glycolic acid*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Peeling is a procedure which aims to accelerate the process of skin exfoliation. OBJECTIVES Development of formulations containing lactic acid at 85% or glycolic acid at 70% and the evaluation of these formulations on clinical efficacy in reduction of fine wrinkles. METHODS Preliminary stability tests were carried out and an in vivo study was performed with three groups with 9 representatives each. One was the control group, which used only sunscreen; another one used lactic acid+sunscreen, and the last group used acid glycolic+sunscreen. Clinical efficacy was assessed with a CCD color microscope, through the digitization of images before and after treatment. The applications were carried out by a dermatologist, once a mont h every 30 days, during 3 months. The area with wrinkles was calculated by planimetry point counting, in accordance with Mandarin-de-Lacerda. RESULTS The formulations were stable in the visual and Ph evaluation. There was no improvement in the control group; for lactic acid, there was significant improvement after the second peeling application on the outer lateral area of the right eye and after the third application on the outer lateral area of the left eye. For the glycolic acid group, there was significant improvement in the outer lateral area of the left eye after the first application, and of the right eye region, after three applications. The formulations used must be kept under refrigeration and should be manipulated every 30 days. CONCLUSIONS Both peelings were effective in reducing fine wrinkles of the outer lateral eye area after three applications (p?0.05%). It was observed that peeling efficacy in the external-lateral region of one eye might be different compared with that in skin of the external-lateral region of the other eye, relative to the speed of skin improvement. PMID:24474097

Prestes, Paula Souza; de Oliveira, Márcia Motta Maia; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci

2013-01-01

399

Robust Soft Shadow Mapping with Depth Peeling Louis Bavoil, Steven P. Callahan, Claudio T. Silva  

E-print Network

1 Robust Soft Shadow Mapping with Depth Peeling Louis Bavoil, Steven P. Callahan, Cl´audio T. Silva -- #1 i i i i i i Vol. [VOL], No. [ISS]: 1­10 Robust Soft Shadow Mapping with Backprojection and Depth/7/17 -- 17:59 -- page 2 -- #2 i i i i i i 2 journal of graphics tools shadow map depths to determine

Utah, University of

400

Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions by cellulosic waste orange peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of dyes such as congo red, procion orange and rhodamine-B by waste orange peel was examined at different concentrations of dyes, adsorbent dosage, agitation time and pH. The adsorption obeyed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the process of uptake followed first-order rate kinetics. Acidic pH was favourable for adsorption for all three dyes. Desorption studies showed

C. Namasivayam; N. Muniasamy; K. Gayatri; M. Rani; K. Ranganathan

1996-01-01

401

Indocyanine Green-Assisted Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling in Macular Hole Surgery: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The opinion of application of indocyanine green (ICG) in the macular hole surgery was contradictory. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of in internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for macular hole surgery. Methods and Findings We searched electronic databases for comparative studies published before July 2012 of ILM peeling with and without ICG. Twenty-two studies including 1585 eyes were included. Visual acuity (VA) improvement, including the postoperative rate of ?20/40 VA gained (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.97; P?=?0.033) and increased LogMAR (WMD, ?0.09; 95% CI, ?0.16 to ?0.02; P?=?0.011), was less in the ICG group. The risk of visual field defects was greater in the ICG group than in the non-ICG group. There was no significant difference in the rate of anatomical outcomes between ILM peeling procedures performed with and without ICG. RPE changes and other postoperative complications were not significantly different between the ICG and non-ICG groups. An additional analysis showed that the VA improvement of the ICG group was less than the non-ICG group only within the first year of follow up. A subgroup analysis showed that the rate of VA improvement was lower in the ICG group than in other adjuncts group. A higher rate of secondary closure and less VA improvement were observed in a high proportion (>0.1%) of the ICG group. A sensitivity analysis after the randomized-controlled trials were excluded from the meta-analysis demonstrated no differences compared with the overall results. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrated that there is no evidence of clinical superiority in outcomes for ICG-assisted ILM peeling procedure over the non-ICG one. The toxicity of ICG should be considered when choosing the various staining methods. PMID:23144875

Xu, Ding; Li, Yan-Hong; Ba, Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Fang; Yu, Jing

2012-01-01

402

Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid.  

PubMed

The focus of this article is treatments of the brow and upper lid, in the context of appreciating their relationship to the forehead and periorbital complex to best evaluate and treat. This material is focused on treatments designed to stimulate collagen synthesis, as well as improve fine lines, wrinkles, and overall appearance of the skin, by mechanical dermabrasion, application of chemical peels, laser surgery, and treatment with energy devices including radiofrequency and focused ultrasound. PMID:23186758

Brauer, Jeremy A; Patel, Utpal; Hale, Elizabeth K

2013-01-01

403

Discovery of a heparan sulfate 3-o-sulfation specific peeling reaction.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation determines the binding specificity of HS/heparin for antithrombin III and plays a key role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, the low natural abundance of HS 3-O-sulfation poses a serious challenge for functional studies other than the two cases mentioned above. By contrast, multiple distinct isoforms of 3-O-sulfotranserases exist in mammals (up to seven isoenzymes). Here we describe a novel peeling reaction that specifically degrades HS chains with 3-O-sulfated glucosamine at the reducing-end. When HS/heparin is enzymatically depolymerized for compositional analysis, 3-O-sulfated glucosamine at the reducing ends appears to be susceptible to degradation under mildly basic conditions. We propose a 3-O-desulfation initiated peeling reaction mechanism based on the intermediate and side-reaction products observed. Our discovery calls for the re-evaluation of the natural abundance and functions of HS 3-O-sulfation by taking into consideration the negative impact of this novel peeling reaction. PMID:25486437

Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert-Jan; Zaia, Joseph

2015-01-01

404

Association of Preoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Markers with Residual Inner Limiting Membrane in Epiretinal Membrane Peeling  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify preoperative markers on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for residual inner limiting membrane (ILM) in epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling. Methods In this retrospective case series the preoperative SD-OCTs from 119 eyes of 119 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for idiopathic ERM by a single surgeon were evaluated for markers predisposing for ILM persistence after ERM removal. ILM persistence was determined via intraoperative indocyanine green staining. The main outcome measures were correlation of central foveal thickness (CFT), ERM thickness, extent of elevated ERM and retinal folding, intraretinal cysts, and discontinuation of the ERM, with ILM persistence after ERM peeling. Results The persistence of the ILM was found in 50.4% (n?=?60). After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, a greater extent of elevated ERM and thicker ERMs were associated with persistence of the ILM (p<0.005). The other parameters showed no statistically significant correlations with the persistence of the ILM (p?0.005). Conclusion Residual ILM can be found in nearly half of the eyes after ERM peeling. A loose connection between the ERM and the retinal surface predisposes for ILM persistence. Preoperative SD-OCT is helpful in identifying risk markers for the persistence of the ILM in ERM surgery. PMID:23776634

Seidel, Gerald; Weger, Martin; Stadlmüller, Lisa; Pichler, Tamara; Haas, Anton

2013-01-01

405

Arthroscopic Repair of “Peel-Off” Lesion of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament at the Femoral Condyle  

PubMed Central

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are uncommon, and most occur in association with other lesions. The treatment of PCL injuries remains controversial; in addition, PCL injuries have been documented to have a propensity to heal. In the literature several different patterns of PCL injury have been described including midsubstance tears/injuries, tibial bony avulsions, femoral bony avulsions, and femoral “peel-off” injuries. A peel-off injury is a complete or incomplete soft-tissue disruption of the PCL at its femoral attachment site without associated bony avulsion. In recent years arthroscopic repair of femoral avulsion and peel-off lesions of the PCL has been reported. In most of these articles, a transosseous repair with sutures passed through 2 bone tunnels into the medial femoral condyle has been described. We present a case of a femoral PCL avulsion in a 20-year-old collegiate football player with an associated medial collateral ligament injury, and we report about a novel technique for PCL repair using 2 No. 2 FiberWire sutures and two 2.9-mm PushLock anchors (Arthrex) to secure tensioning the ligament at its footprint. PMID:24749037

Rosso, Federica; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Amendola, Annunziato

2014-01-01

406

Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase From Waste Potato Peel by Aqueous Two Phase Extraction.  

PubMed

Potato peel from food industrial waste is a good source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). This work illustrates the application of aqueous two phase system (ATPS) for the extraction and purification of PPO from potato peel. ATPS was composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and potassium phosphate buffer. Effect of different process parameters i.e., PEG, potassium phosphate buffer, NaCl concentration and pH of the system on partition coefficient, purification factor and yield of PPO enzyme were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized as a stastical tool for the optimization of ATPS. Optimized experimental conditions were found to be PEG1500 17.62% (W/W), potassium phosphate buffer 15.11% (W/W) and NaCl 2.08 mM at pH 7. At optimized condition maximum partition coefficient, purification factor and yield was found to be 3.7, 4.5 and 77.8% respectively. After partial purification of PPO from ATPS, further purification was done by gel chromatography where its purity was increased up to 12.6. The purified PPO enzyme was characterized by SDS-PAGE followed by Km value 3.3 mM, Vmax value 3333 U/mL, enzyme stable ranges for temperature and pH of PPO were determined. Above results revealed that ATPS would be an attractive option for obtaining purified PPO from waste potato peel. PMID:25036474

Niphadkar, Sonali S; Vetal, Mangesh D; Rathod, Virendra K

2014-07-18

407

Passiflora edulis peel intake and ulcerative colitis: approaches for prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic relapsing disease that affects millions of people worldwide; its pathogenesis is influenced by genetic, environmental, microbiological, and immunological factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short- and long-term Passiflora edulis peel intake on the antioxidant status, microbiota, and short-chain fatty acids formation in rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid-induced colitis using two "in vivo" experiments: chronic (prevention) and acute (treatment). The colitis damage score was determined using macroscopic and microscopic analyses. In addition, the antioxidant activity in serum and other tissues (liver and colon) was evaluated. Bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, aerobic bacteria and enterobacteria, and the amount of short-chain fatty acids (acetic, butyric, and propionic acids) in cecum content were counted. Differences in the colon damage scores were observed; P. edulis peel intake improved serum antioxidant status. In the treatment protocol, decreased colon lipid peroxidation, a decreased number of aerobic bacteria and enterobacteria, and an improvement in acetic and butyric acid levels in the feces were observed. An improvement in the bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was observed in the prevention protocol. These results suggested that P. edulis peel can modulate microbiota and could be used as source of fiber and polyphenols in the prevention of oxidative stress through the improvement of serum and tissue antioxidant status. PMID:24623393

Cazarin, Cinthia Bb; da Silva, Juliana K; Colomeu, Talita C; Batista, Angela G; Vilella, Conceição A; Ferreira, Anderson L; Junior, Stanislau Bogusz; Fukuda, Karina; Augusto, Fabio; de Meirelles, Luciana R; Zollner, Ricardo de L; Junior, Mário R Maróstica

2014-05-01

408

Removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution by adsorption on chemically modified muskmelon peel.  

PubMed

A cost-effective biosorbent was prepared by a green chemical modification process from muskmelon peel by saponification with alkaline solution of Ca(OH)2. Its adsorption behavior for lead ions was investigated and found to exhibit excellent adsorption properties. Results showed that the optimal equilibrium pH range for 100% adsorption is from 4 up to 6.4. Adsorption equilibrium was attained within 10 min. The adsorption process can be described well by Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order kinetics equation, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity for lead ions was found to be 0.81 mol/kg. Pectic acid contained in the muskmelon peel is the main factor responsible for the uptake of lead ions onto the gel, and the chemical modification process presented in this study can be assumed effective to prepare other similar biomaterials. The large adsorption capacity and the fast adsorption rate indicated that chemically saponified muskmelon peel gel in present study has great potential to be used as a cost-effective adsorbent for the removal of lead ions from the water. PMID:23212270

Huang, Kai; Zhu, Hongmin

2013-07-01

409

Chlorophyll catabolism in senescing plant tissues: In vivo breakdown intermediates suggest different degradative pathways for Citrus fruit and parsley leaves.  

PubMed

High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to separate chlorophyll derivatives in acetone extracts from senescing Citrus fruit peel, autumnal Melia azedarach L. leaves, and dark-held detached parsley (Petroselinum sativum L.) leaves. Chlorophyllide a and another polar, dephytylated derivative accumulated in large amounts in senescing Citrus peel, particularly in fruit treated with ethylene. Ethylene also induced a 4-fold increase in the specific activity of Citrus chlorophyllase (chlorophyll chlorophyllidohydrolase, EC 3.1.1.14). Detailed kinetics based on a hexane/acetone solvent partition system showed that the in vivo increase in dephytylated derivatives coincided with the decrease in total chlorophyll. Polar, dephytylated derivatives accumulated also in senescing Melia leaves. Senescing parsley leaves revealed a very different picture. The gradual disappearance of chlorophyll a was accompanied by an increase in pheophytin a and by the transient appearance of several phytylated derivatives. Only pheophytin a and an adjacent peak were left when all the chlorophyll a had disappeared. The pathways for breakdown of chlorophyll in the Citrus and parsley senescence systems are discussed. PMID:16593821

Amir-Shapira, D; Goldschmidt, E E; Altman, A

1987-04-01

410

Moulds and yeasts in fruit salads and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruit juice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruit juice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruit juices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069

Tournas, V H; Heeres, J; Burgess, L

2006-10-01

411

IONIZING RADIATION PROCESSING OF FRUITS AND FRUIT PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food irradiation is a physical treatment in which food is exposed to ionizing radiation, i.e., radiation of high enough energy to expel electrons from atoms and to ionize molecules. Irradiation may be used to control the physiology of fruits, or to eliminate harmful bacteria from fruit products. Thi...

412

Children's perception of fresh fruit and fruit snacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain children's perception of fruit and fruit snacks and the influences on their choice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – One hundred primary school children (the majority aged 7-11 years), from three schools, were surveyed or interviewed. A quota sample was taken with a balance of age and gender. A questionnaire survey (n = 50)

John A. Bower; Jessica Ferguson

2008-01-01

413

Fruit Xylophone: Fruit Salad Instrument of the Future!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a perfect summertime lunch activity! Pico Cricket is required (micro controller). First, get a bunch of cut up fruit, line them up, then plug a piece of fruit with a Pico Cricket sensor clip. Next, hold the other Pico Cricket sensor clip in your hand and touch each of the fruits with it to see what kind of music it makes! This activity contains the programming instructions you need to read the resistance in the fruit, which assigns that resistance number a sound. This activity is a great way to explore the conductivity of fruit and vegetables and their resistance. This activity is an easy programming activity for beginners. Note: an older version of the Pico Cricket is shown in this activity, please revise where necessary.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-26

414

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2014-04-01

415

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2012-04-01

416

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either...water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated...such standard. (2) Color additive mixtures made with fruit juice may contain as...

2013-04-01

417

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of the following citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus grandis, Osbeck, commonly called grapefruit, and (b) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called...

2010-01-01

418

Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.

419

Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.  

PubMed

It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(?); (?)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented. PMID:25053101

Lee, Jungmin

2015-01-01

420

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

421

Temperate fruit production in Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the adaptation, culture, and management of temperate fruit trees in the tropics of Guatemala are remarkable in comparison with fruit production developments observed in the tropical highlands of Mexico and other Central American countries. Several cultivars of apple (Malus domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica) have been adapted and form part of home

2006-01-01

422

Vegetables, Fruit, and Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon.

KRISTI A. STEINMETZ; JOHN D. POTTER

1996-01-01

423

Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.  

PubMed

This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models. PMID:25101926

Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

2014-08-27

424

Tucumã fruit extracts (Astrocaryum aculeatum Meyer) decrease cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide on human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

This study quantifies the bioactive molecules in and determines the in vitro protective effect of ethanolic extracts isolated from the peel and pulp of tucumã (Astrocaryum aculeatum, Mart.), an Amazonian fruit rich in carotenoids. The cytoprotective effect of tucumã was evaluated in lymphocyte cultures exposed to H2O2 using spectrophotometric, fluorimetric, and immunoassay assays. The results confirmed that tucumã pulp extract is rich in ?-carotene and quercetin, as previously described in the literature. However, high levels of these compounds were also found in tucumã peel extract. The extracts also contained significant amounts rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid. Despite quantitative differences in the concentration of these bioactive molecules, both extracts increased the viability of cells exposed to H2O2 in concentrations ranging from 300 to 900?g/mL. Caspases 1, 3, and 8 decreased significantly in cells concomitantly exposed to H2O2 and these extracts, indicating that tucumã cryoprotection involves apoptosis modulation. PMID:25466084

Sagrillo, Michele Rorato; Garcia, Luiz Filipe Machado; de Souza Filho, Olmiro Cezimbra; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; Cadoná, Francine Carla; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica

2015-04-15

425

Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat.  

PubMed

Antioxidant properties of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and Sapodilla/Chikoo (Manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat?+?2% salt), II.BHT (meat?+?2% salt?+?0.1% BHT), III. BPE (meat?+?2% salt?+?2% banana peel extract) and IV. SPE (meat?+?2% salt?+?2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract) were compared for changes in colour and lipid oxidation during 8 days refrigerated storage (4?±?°C). The average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per 10 g peel in BPE and SPE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 66.9 and 67.8% in BPE and SPE respectively. Banana peel extract had significantly (P?peel extract (0.91). During refrigerated storage period, all color parameters decreased significantly in all treatments. Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significantly (P?peels could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products. PMID:24493901

Devatkal, Suresh K; Kumboj, Ritu; Paul, Devosmita

2014-02-01

426

G-protein-coupled alpha2A-adrenoreceptor agonists differentially alter citrus leaf and fruit abscission by affecting expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase.  

PubMed

Temporal and spatial expression patterns of genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS1 and ACS2) and ACC oxidase (ACO), ACC concentration, and ethylene production in leaves and fruit of 'Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) were examined in relation to differential abscission after treatment with 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon) alone or in combination with guanfacine or clonidine, two G-protein-coupled alpha(2A)-adrenoreceptor selective agonists. Guanfacine and clonidine markedly reduced ethephon-enhanced leaf abscission, but had little effect on ethephon-enhanced fruit loosening. Ethephon-enhanced fruit and leaf ethylene production, and ACC concentration in fruit abscission zones, fruit peel, leaf abscission zones, and leaf blades were decreased by guanfacine. Guanfacine reduced ethephon-enhanced expression of ACS1 and ACO genes in leaf abscission zones and blades, but to a lesser extent in fruit abscission zones. The expression pattern of the ACS2 gene, however, was not associated with abscission. The results demonstrate that differential expression of ACS1 and ACO genes is associated with reduction of ethephon-enhanced leaf abscission by guanfacine, and suggest a link between G-protein-related signalling and abscission. PMID:15928018

Yuan, Rongcai; Wu, Zhencai; Kostenyuk, Igor A; Burns, Jacqueline K

2005-07-01

427

First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.  

PubMed

This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations. PMID:22512599

Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

2012-09-12

428

Fruit Set and Yield Patterns in Six Capsicum Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit set and yield patterns were studied in detail in six pepper cultivars. Fruit set differed largely between the cultivars: cultivars with small fruits (fruit fresh weight 20 to 40 g) showed higher fruit set (50%) than cultivars with large fruits (fruit fresh weight 120 to 200 g; 11% to 19%). The former showed continuous fruit set (four to five

A. M. Wubs; Y. T. Ma; L. Hemerik; E. Heuvelink

2009-01-01

429

A transcriptomic approach highlights induction of secondary metabolism in citrus fruit in response to Penicillium digitatum infection  

PubMed Central

Background Postharvest losses of citrus fruit due to green mold decay, caused by the fungus Penicillium digitaum, have a considerable economic impact. However, little is known about the molecular processes underlying the response of citrus fruit to P. digitatum. Results Here we describe the construction of a subtracted cDNA library enriched in citrus genes preferentially expressed in response to pathogen infection followed by cDNA macroarray hybridization to investigate gene expression during the early stages of colonization of the fruit's peel by P. digitatum. Sequence annotation of clones from the subtracted cDNA library revealed that induction of secondary and amino acid metabolisms constitutes the major response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. Macroarray hybridization analysis was conducted with RNA from either control, wounded, ethylene treated or P. digitatum infected fruit. Results indicate an extensive overlap in the response triggered by the three treatments, but also demonstrated specific patterns of gene expression in response to each stimulus. Collectively our data indicate a significant presence of isoprenoid, alkaloid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in the transcriptomic response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. About half of the genes that are up-regulated in response to pathogen infection are also induced by ethylene, but many examples of ethylene-independent gene regulation were also found. Two notable examples of this regulation pattern are the genes showing homology to a caffeine synthase and a berberine bridge enzyme, two proteins involved in alkaloid biosynthesis, which are among the most induced genes upon P. digitatum infection but are not responsive to ethylene. Conclusions This study provided the first global picture of the gene expression changes in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, emphasizing differences and commonalities with those triggered by wounding or exogenous ethylene treatment. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed that metabolism is redirected to the synthesis of isoprenes, alkaloids and phenylpropanoids. PMID:20807411

2010-01-01

430

Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits  

SciTech Connect

Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

1989-04-01

431

Contribution of fruit research in the developments in Dutch fresh fruit chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the poor financial results of the fruit industry in the last decade, the changing trade structures and more consumer-driven fruit chains, Dutch fruit growers change their market behaviour. In these circumstances, the fruit industry itself and the applied fruit research are also changing. Applied Plant Research (PPO-Fruit) is involved in different projects related to consumer-driven fruit chain development

M. J. Groot; G. Peppelman

2004-01-01

432

Fruits and vegetables dehydration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

2015-01-01

433

Fruit Development in Trillium1  

PubMed Central

Leaves are the main source of carbon for fruit maturation in most species. However, in plants seeing contrasting light conditions such as some spring plants, carbon fixed during the spring could be used to support fruit development in the summer, when photosynthetic rates are low. We monitored carbohydrate content in the rhizome (a perennating organ) and the aboveground stem of trillium (Trillium erectum) over the entire growing season (May–November). At the beginning of the fruiting stage, stems carrying a developing fruit were harvested, their leaves were removed, and the leafless stems were maintained in aqueous solution under controlled conditions up to full fruit maturation. These experiments showed that stem carbohydrate content was sufficient to support fruit development in the absence of leaves and rhizome. This is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of complete fruit development sustained only by a temporary carbohydrate reservoir. This carbohydrate accumulation in the stem during the spring enables the plant to make better use of the high irradiances occurring at that time. Many other species might establish short-term carbohydrate reservoirs in response to seasonal changes in growing conditions. PMID:9576787

Lapointe, Line

1998-01-01

434

Physical properties of kumquat fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some physical properties of kumquat were investigated. Physical properties which were measured included fruit dimensions, mass, volume, projected area, density, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area. Bulk density, porosity and also packaging coefficient were calculated. Mechanical properties such as the elasticity modulus, rupture force and energy required for initial rupture have been determined. The experiments were carried out at moisture content of 82.6% (w.b.). The results show that the kumquat fruit is one of the smallest fruit in the citrus family.

Jaliliantabar, F.; Lorestani, A. N.; Gholami, R.

2013-01-01

435

Washing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

are expensive and they are not recommend- ed by any federal agency to clean fresh produce. Fruit and vegetable waxes Some fruits and vegetables may have waxy coatings to keep them fresh, to protect them from bruising and to prevent the growth of mold. Waxes... also make fruits and vegetables more at- tractive. These waxes are safe to eat. Washing fresh produce with water may not remove the wax, but soap should not be used to wash fresh produce. If you prefer, you can remove the waxed skin before eating...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

436

Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

*Program Specialist, The Texas A&M System Fresh fruits and vegetables provide vita- mins, minerals and fiber to help keep your body healthy. To make sure that your fruits and vegetables are safe to eat, it is important to know how to select good...-quality produce. Occasionally, fresh fruits and vegetables can become contaminated by harmful bacteria or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. Examples of pathogens include Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7 and Hepatitis A. Produce can be contaminated at any...

Scott, Amanda

2008-09-05

437

Phytochemicals of apple peels: isolation, structure elucidation, and their antiproliferative and antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Red Delicious apple peels was used to determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents, which showed potent antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. Twenty-nine compounds, including triterpenoids, flavonoids, organic acids and plant sterols, were isolated using gradient solvent fractionation, Diaion HP-20, silica gel, and ODS columns, and preparative HPLC. Their chemical structures were identified using HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR. Antiproliferative activities of isolated pure compounds against HepG2 human liver cancer cells and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were evaluated. On the basis of the yields of isolated flavonoids (compounds 18- 23), the major flavonoids in apple peels are quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 20, 82.6%), then quercetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (compound 19, 17.1%), followed by trace amounts of quercetin (compound 18, 0.2%), (-)-catechin (compound 22), (-)-epicatechin (compound 23), and quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (compound 21). Among the compounds isolated, quercetin (18) and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (20) showed potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 and MCF-7 cells, with EC 50 values of 40.9 +/- 1.1 and 49.2 +/- 4.9 microM to HepG2 cells and 137.5 +/- 2.6 and 23.9 +/- 3.9 microM to MCF-7 cells, respectively. Six flavonoids (18-23) and three phenolic compounds (10, 11, and 14) showed potent antioxidant activities. Caffeic acid (10), quercetin (18), and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-arabinofuranoside (21) showed higher antioxidant activity, with EC 50 values of <10 microM. Most tested flavonoids and phenolic compounds had high antioxidant activity when compared to ascorbic acid and might be responsible for the antioxidant activities of apples. These results showed apple peel phytochemicals have potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. PMID:18828600

He, Xiangjiu; Liu, Rui Hai

2008-11-12

438

Fruit Salad with Light Whipped Topping Ingredients  

E-print Network

Fruit Salad with Light Whipped Topping Ingredients: 16 ounces fruit cocktail in juice 20 ounces fruit cocktail and pineapple chunks. 2. Place fruit in bowl. 3. Stir in yogurt and whipped topping. 4 Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex

Liskiewicz, Maciej

439

Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In September 2009, Trichoderma rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreening with 5...

440

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2011-04-01

441

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2010-04-01

442

Electrochemical Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Freshness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits and vegetables are natural sources of electrolytes. A voltaic cell consisting of a fruit or vegetable and two dissimilar electrodes may show a detectable potential difference. Seven different fruits and vegetables are studied for analyzing their freshness. At first, a few experiments are conducted on the vegetables and fruits using two different sets of electrodes, copper-iron probe and gold-iron

MOHAMMAD N. AMIN; PRADIP PETER DEY

443

Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ripening, fruits undergo many changes, which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances plus minerals and vitamins, the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening

Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-López

2011-01-01

444

Fruit Quality: New Insights for Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development.

Andrés Cruz-Hernández; Octavio Paredes-lópez

2012-01-01

445

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

2012-01-01

446

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 905.4 Section 905.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or all...

2013-01-01

447

7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...

2012-01-01

448

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 905.4 Section 905.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or all...

2011-01-01

449

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 905.4 Section 905.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or all...

2012-01-01

450

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 905.4 Section 905.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or all...

2014-01-01

451

7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...

2011-01-01

452

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

2014-01-01

453

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

2013-01-01

454

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of...

2011-01-01

455

7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...

2010-01-01

456

7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...

2014-01-01

457

7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product...

2013-01-01

458

Bioclimatology Optimization of water for fruit trees  

E-print Network

Bioclimatology Optimization of water for fruit trees by a computerized irrigation system R. Assaf1 load (the ratio of reproductive to vegetative growth - kg fruit/cm2 trunk growth) and fruit size penetration, improve fruit quality, and lower the cost of production. This method will permit the planting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

459

Fungal fruit rots of Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the symptoms, etiology, and control of the three main fungal fruit rots of kiwifruit in New Zealand is reviewed. Field rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, affects immature fruits on the vines. Storage rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, affects harvested fruits during cold storage. Ripe rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, affects harvested fruits during post-storage ripening.

S. R. Pennycook

1985-01-01

460

Influences of pyrolysis condition and acid treatment on properties of durian peel-based activated carbon.  

PubMed

Durian peel was used for the synthesis of activated carbon used for adsorption of Basic Green 4 dye. Activated carbon was synthesised under either nitrogen (N(2)) atmospheric or vacuum pyrolysis, followed by carbon dioxide (CO(2)) activation. The synthesised activated carbon then was treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. The results showed that activated carbon synthesised under vacuum pyrolysis exhibited better properties and adsorption capacities than that under nitrogen atmospheric pyrolysis. The HCl treatment improved properties and adsorption capacities of activated carbons. Pseudo-second-order kinetics well described the adsorption of Basic Green 4. PMID:19695874

Nuithitikul, Kamchai; Srikhun, Sarawut; Hirunpraditkoon, Samorn

2010-01-01

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