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1

Proposed Motel Resort Complex, Grand Portage Band of Chippewa, Grand Portage Reservation, Grand Portage, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the proposal for construction of the motel and camping facilities proposed by the Grand Portage Band of the Chippewa on the Grand Portage Reservation, Cook County, Minnesota. Facilities proposed include the following items and approxi...

1972-01-01

2

Novel Distribution of Influenza Vaccine in Grand Forks, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISSUE: In 2001, only 56.2% of Grand Forks (GF) County residents >65 years of age received influenza vaccination (Medicare data).PROJECT: Vaccine availability, parking, appointments, waiting, and weather are barriers to influenza vaccination. For 2 years, the Greater Grand Forks Immunization Coalition has collaborated with its partners, including GF Public Health and Altru Health System, to sponsor Drive-Through Flu Shot Clinics.

K. Dunn

2004-01-01

3

Environmental Assessment: Demolish 934 of Grand Forks Air Force Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Air Force (USAF) proposes to demolish building 934 belonging to Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB), North Dakota. The purpose of the proposed action is to demolish 608 square feet of excess facility space in building 934, known as the boos...

W. A. Koop

2006-01-01

4

Flood Obelisk, Red River of the North, Grand Forks, North Dakota  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flood obelisk marking the greatest floods from 1882-1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota. This has become a famous landmark to compare current conditions to past events. This picture was taken on March 15, 2010, just before the Red River began to flood at Grand Forks....

2010-03-19

5

Archaeological Excavations at the Northwest Company's Fur Trade Post, Grand Portage, Minnesota, in 1936-1937.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to describe the archeological remains found during the excavation of the Northwest Company's Post at Grand Portage, Minnesota by the Minnesota Historical Society in 1936-1937.

A. R. Woolworth

2006-01-01

6

Environmental Assessment: Construct Fire Station at Grand Forks Air Force Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 319 Air Refueling Wing proposes to construct a fire station at Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB), North Dakota. A Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for constructing a fire station, a radar approach control facility, and an air traffic control tower w...

D. Rodebaugh A. Erickson

2006-01-01

7

In-Depth Survey Report: Styrene Exposures during Fiber Reinforced Wind Blade Manufacturing at LM Glasfiber, Grand Forks, ND.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In December 2007, NIOSH researchers conducted an in-depth survey at LM Glasfiber in Grand Forks, ND and sampled for styrene, noise, and total particulate. LM Glasfiber manufactures wind blades for utility scale wind energy applications and had previously ...

A. Garcia B. Johnson C. A. Kardous D. Farwick D. R. Hammond D. V. L. Myers T. C. Morata

2009-01-01

8

Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time component also was a statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating chloride. The regression equations for chloride at the Red River at Fargo provided a fair relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.66 and the equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a relatively good relation between chloride concentrations and the explanatory variables, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.77. Turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and turbidity was the only statistically significant explanatory variable for estimating nitrate plus nitrite concentrations at Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively poor relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations, turbidity, and streamflow, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.46. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a fair relation between nitrate plus nitrite concentrations and turbidity, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.73. Some of the variability that was not explained by the equations might be attributed to different sources contributing nitrates to the stream at different times. Turbidity, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating total phosphorus at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equation for the Red River at Fargo provided a relatively fair relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.74. The regression equation for the Red River at Grand Forks provided a good relation between total phosphorus concentrations, turbidity, streamflow, and season, with an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.87. For the Red River at Fargo, turbidity and streamflow were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimatin

Galloway, Joel M.

2014-01-01

9

Resort Motel Complex. Water Service Lines, Sewage Collection Service, Sewage Treatment Plant, Grand Portage Reservation, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is for the development of a 100 unit resort motel for the Grand Portage Band of the Chippewa on the Grand Portage Reservation, Cook County, Minnesota. As a result of the project, new sources of revenue and employment will be provided by the de...

1973-01-01

10

Control Technology Assessment for Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes, Solvent Refined Lignite Process Development Unit, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, March 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control technology assessment was conducted at the Solvent Refined Lignite Process Development Unit (PDU) of the University of North Dakota (SIC-3312), Grand Forks, North Dakota, on March 5, 1980. The survey was conducted to study the control technology...

D. R. Telesca

1982-01-01

11

Assessment of conservation easements, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids in West Fork Beaver Creek, Minnesota, 1999-2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined conservation easements and their effectiveness at reducing phosphorus and solids transport to streams. The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources and worked collaboratively with the Hawk Creek Watershed Project to examine the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin in Renville County, which has the largest number of Reinvest In Minnesota land retirement contracts in the State (as of 2013). Among all conservation easement programs, a total of 24,218 acres of agricultural land were retired throughout Renville County, and 2,718 acres were retired in the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin from 1987 through 2012. Total land retirement increased steadily from 1987 until 2000. In 2000, land retirement increased sharply because of the Minnesota River Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, then leveled off when the program ended in 2002. Streamflow data were collected during 1999 through 2011, and total phosphorus and total suspended solids data were collected during 1999 through 2012. During this period, the highest peak streamflow of 1,320 cubic feet per second was in March 2010. Total phosphorus and total suspended solids are constituents that tend to increase with increases in streamflow. Annual flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.140 to 0.759 milligrams per liter, and annual flow-weighted mean total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 217 milligrams per liter. Annual flow-weighted mean total phosphorus and total suspended solids concentrations decreased steadily during the first 4 years of water-quality sample collection. A downward trend in flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations was significant from 1999 through 2008; however, flow-weighted total-phosphorus concentrations increased substantially in 2009, and the total phosphorus trend was no longer significant. The high annual flow-weighted mean concentrations for total phosphorus and total suspended solids in 2009 were affected by outlier concentrations documented in March 2009. Agricultural land-retirement data only were available through 2008; therefore, it was not possible to compare total phosphorus and total suspended solids concentrations to agricultural land-retirement data for 2009–11. A downward trend in annual flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations was related significantly to annual land retirement for 1999–2008. The relation between annual flow-weighted mean total suspended solids concentration and annual land retirement was not statistically significant for 1999–2008. If land-retirement data had been available for 2009–11, it is possible that the relation between total phosphorus and land retirement would no longer be evident because of the marked increase in flow-weighted concentrations during 2009. Alternatively, the increase in annual flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations during 2009–11 may be because of other factors, including industrial discharges, increases in drain tile installation, changes in land use including decreases in agricultural land retirement after 2008, increases in erosion, increases in phosphorus applications to fields, or unknown causes. Inclusion of land-retirement effects in agency planning along with other factors adds perspective with regard to the broader picture of interdependent systems and allows agencies to make informed decisions on the benefits of perpetual easements compared to limited duration easements.

Christensen, Victoria G.; Kieta, Kristen A.

2014-01-01

12

Water Quality (2000-08) and Historical Phosphorus Concentrations from Palelimnological Studies of Swamp and Speckled Trout Lakes, Grand Portage Reservation, Northeastern Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A paleolimnological approach was taken to aid the Grand Portage Reservation, in northeastern Minnesota, in determining reference conditions for lakes on the reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa In...

J. M. Ramstack M. B. Edlund P. M. Jones V. G. Christensen

2006-01-01

13

Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des rivières Kettle et Granby, qui coulent dans la vallée. Toutes les simulations ont montré des différences relativement faibles dans la configuration d'ensemble de la nappe et dans la direction générale des écoulements. Des simulations de conditions de recharge forte et de recharge faible produisent respectivement une remontée de 0,05 m et un abaissement de 0,025 m, approximativement, des cotes de la nappe pour l'ensemble de l'aquifère. Des changements simulés de la cote du niveau de la rivière, pour refléter des niveaux plus hauts que ceux des pics de crues (de 20 et de 50%), produisent respectivement des remontées de la nappe de 2,72 et 3,45 m en moyenne. Des changements simulés de l'altitude du niveau de la rivière, pour refléter des niveaux plus bas que ceux de basses eaux (de 20 et de 50%), produisent respectivement des abaissements de la nappe de 0,48 et 2,10 m en moyenne. Les altitudes courantes observées de la nappe dans la vallée sont cohérentes avec une cote moyenne du niveau de la rivière (entre les niveaux courants de basses eaux et de crues). El acuífero de los Grand Forks, situado al sur de la Columbia Británica central (Canadá) ha sido utilizado como lugar de estudio para modelar la sensibilidad de un acuífero a los cambios en la recarga y el caudal de los ríos de acuerdo con escenarios previstos de cambio climático en la región. Los resultados sugieren que las variaciones en la recarga al acuífero bajo los diversos escenarios, que han sido modelados en régimen estacionario, tienen un impacto mucho menor en las aguas subterráneas que los cambios en el caudal de los ríos Kettle y Granby, que discurren por el valle. Todas las simulaciones muestran diferencias relativamente pequeñas en la configuración regional de los niveles freáticos y en la dirección general del flujo subterráneo. Las simulaciones de recarga elevada y baja causan un incremento de 0,05 m y un decremento de 0,025 m, respectivamente, en los niveles del acuífero. Los cambios de la elevación del río, simulados para reflejar niveles de flujo mayores q

Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

14

Physical Characteristics of Stream Subbasins in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, Southern Minnesota and Northern Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, located in southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

Sanocki, Christopher A.

2000-01-01

15

Construction of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Finding of No Significant Impact (FOSNI). Finding of No Practical Alternative(FONPA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grand Forks AFB is proposing to construct a new fire station, demolish buildings 530 and 606 and relocate the Hazardous Cargo Area (HCA). The purposes of the project are to consolidate fire protection activities to provide effective base fire protection, ...

D. Strom

2009-01-01

16

Analysis of the results of hydraulic-fracture stimulation of two crystalline bedrock boreholes, Grand Portage, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic fracture-stimulation procedures typical of those provided by contractors in the water-well industry were applied to two boreholes in basaltic and gabbroic rocks near Grand Portage, Minnesota.These boreholes were considered incapable of supplying adequate ground water for even a single household although geophysical logs showed both boreholes were intersected by many apparently permeable fractures. Tests made before and after stimulation indicated that the two boreholes would produce about 0.05 and 0.25 gallon per minute before stimulation, and about 1.5 and 1.2 gallons per minute after stimulation. These increases would be enough to obtain adequate domestic water supplies from the two boreholes but would not furnish enough water for more than a single household from either borehole. Profiles of high-resolution flow made during pumping after stimulation indicated that the stimulation enhanced previously small inflows or stimulated new inflow from seven fractures or fracture zones in one borehole and from six fractures or fracture zones in the other.Geophysical logs obtained after stimulation showed no specific changes in these 13 fractures that could be related to stimulation other than the increases in flow indicated by the flowmeter logs. The results indicate that the stimulation has increased inflow to the two boreholes by improving the connectivity of favorably orientated fractures with larger scale flow zones in the surrounding rocks. Three of four possible diagnostics related to measured pressure and flow during the stimulation treatments were weakly correlated with the increases in production associated with each treatment interval. These correlations are not statistically significant on the basis of the limited sample of 16 treatment intervals in two boreholes, but the results indicate that significant correlations might be established from a much larger data set.

Paillet, Fredrick L.; Olson, James D.

1994-01-01

17

A flood-related outbreak of carbon monoxide poisoning—Grand Forks, North Dakota 1 1 Selected Topics—Disaster Medicine is coordinated by Irving “Jake” Jacoby, MD, of the University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-disaster carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a growing problem in the United States. This study describes a documented outbreak of CO poisoning associated with flooding. Health department staff investigated cases of CO poisoning following the severe flood of 1997 in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Thirty-three laboratory-confirmed cases were identified, involving 18 separate incidents. Patients ranged in age from 7 to

W. Randolph Daley; Larry Shireley; Rod Gilmore

2001-01-01

18

U-Pb geochronological constraints on the timing of episodic regional metamorphism and rapid high-T exhumation of the Grand Forks complex, British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grand Forks complex (GFC) is a fault-bounded metamorphic core complex in the southern Omineca Belt of British Columbia, Canada. It experienced prograde metamorphism ranging from upper-amphibolite to granulite facies conditions during the Mesozoic to early Tertiary compressional stage of the Cordilleran orogeny. Peak metamorphism was followed by multi-stage exhumation in the Early Eocene. This study provides U-Pb monazite and zircon constraints on the timing of metamorphic episodes in the GFC and subsequent high-T, amphibolite facies decompression in the Early Eocene. Monazite LA-ICP-MS ages from metapelitic gneisses record episodic metamorphism from the Late Jurassic to Paleocene, with peak metamorphism occurring between ~ 59 and 50 Ma. Peak metamorphism was followed by rapid, near-isothermal decompression of the GFC between ~ 52 and 50 Ma, and leucosome crystallization at ~ 50 Ma. Thermodynamic modeling of metapelites in the system MnNCKFMASHPYCe predicts that monazite was not stable at peak metamorphic conditions, consistent with the dominant population of ~ 59 Ma ages representing growth along the prograde path, most likely at subsolidus conditions. Growth of widespread high-Y monazite rims (~ 50 Ma) is predicted along suprasolidus decompression and cooling paths. Zircon SHRIMP ages from igneous bodies in the GFC and hanging wall of the bounding Kettle River fault (KRF) suggest ductile deformation related to high-T decompression of the GFC was ongoing at 51 Ma but had ceased by 50 Ma, truncated by post-kinematic granitoids. This high-T deformation predates subsequent greenschist facies extension on the overlying KRF. A pre-KRF, hanging wall ductile shear zone is constrained to ~ 59-51 Ma. It deforms 59 Ma Ladybird suite leucogranites and may be related to high-T exhumation of the core complex. Rapid, > 100 °C/Ma cooling rates are required to accommodate high-T (amphibolite facies) exhumation of the GFC at 52-50 Ma followed by low-T (greenschist facies) exhumation at ~ 49 Ma.

Cubley, J. F.; Pattison, D. R. M.; Tinkham, D. K.; Fanning, C. M.

2013-01-01

19

Water quality (2000-08) and historical phosphorus concentrations from paleolimnological studies of Swamp and Speckled Trout Lakes, Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A paleolimnological approach was taken to aid the Grand Portage Reservation, in northeastern Minnesota, in determining reference conditions for lakes on the reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Indians and the Science Museum of Minnesota, conducted a study to describe water quality (2000-08) and historical total phosphorus concentrations (approximately 1781-2006) for Swamp and Speckled Trout Lakes. Results from this study may be used as a guide in establishing nutrient criteria in these and other lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation. Historical phosphorus concentrations were inferred through paleolimnological reconstruction methods involving diatom analysis and lead-210 dating of lake-sediment cores. Historical diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations in Swamp Lake ranged from 0.017 to 0.025 milligrams per liter (mg/L) based on diatom assemblages in sediment samples dated 1781-2005. Historical diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations in Speckled Trout Lake ranged from 0.008 to 0.014 mg/L based on diatom assemblages in sediment samples dated 1825-2006. In both lakes, historical changes in diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations did not exceed model error estimates, indicating that there has been minimal change in total phosphorus concentrations in the two lakes over about two centuries. Nutrient concentrations in monthly water samples collected May through October during 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008 were compared to the diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations. Total phosphorus concentrations from water samples collected from Swamp Lake during 2000-08 ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.160 mg/L (median= 0.023 mg/L) compared to diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations of 0.018 to 0.020 mg/L for 2002 to 2005. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected from Speckled Trout Lake during 2000-08 were similar to those of Swamp Lake, ranging from less than 0.002 to 0.147 mg/L (median=0.012 mg/L), whereas the diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations were smaller, ranging from 0.009 to 0.010 mg/L for 2003 to 2006. Differences in total phosphorus concentrations between the two lakes may be because of differences in watershed characteristics, particularly the number of wetlands in the two watersheds. Similarities between recent total phosphorus concentrations in water-quality samples and diatom-inferred total phosphorus indicate that diatom-inferred phosphorus reconstructions might be used to help establish reference conditions. Nutrient criteria for Grand Portage Reservation lakes may be established when a sampling program is designed to ensure representative phosphorus concentrations in water samples are comparable to diatom-inferred concentrations.

Christensen, Victoria G.; Jones, Perry M.; Edlund, Mark B.; Ramstack, Joy M.

2010-01-01

20

Two Forks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You, the reader, are a medical investigator on vacation in Two Forks, Idaho. You are called in to investigate an outbreak of salmonellosis, an infectious disease, caused by the Salmonella paratyphi, a bacterium, typically spread from human to human by contaminated water or food. You interview people known to have had contact with the victims, and determine the identity of the disease carrier by deductive reasoning. The story has two layers of built-in interactive hint structures. First, after you do your research, you have an option to solve the mystery or continue for a further hint. If you choose the hint, the story progresses a bit further, you receive a helpful hint, and you again have the option to "solve" or "continue for second hint." If you choose to continue, the story progresses yet further and you receive another hint. Once again you choose to solve or to continue. If you continue, the story progresses and gives you a third (and very useful) hint.

Ken Eklund (WriterGuy REV)

2002-02-18

21

Minnesota Reflections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For visitors whose only introduction to Minnesota is from the movie "Fargo" or Garrison Keillor's fictional town of Lake Wobegon, the website Minnesota Reflections comprehensively shows the many other facets of life in the land of 10,000 lakes. The Minnesota Digital Library Coalition has created this digital project as part of a collaborative effort involving the contributions of 95 cultural heritage institutions across Minnesota. The contributions include a total of 31,000 documents, images, and maps, and can be searched, or browsed "by collection", "by topic", or "by region". The 22 topics to be browsed range from "Agriculture" to "Indians of North America" to "Famous Minnesotans" to "Weather". Browsing "by region" will give the visitor the choice of eight regions to explore. The "Preferences" link up in the top right side of the page allows visitors to choose how their results are displayed.

22

Grand Forks Area Medical Services. Survey Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document summarizes medical information in five northeastern North Dakota counties, and includes such information as where people go for medical services, why they go there, and attitudes of patients towards the medical services provided them. This in...

E. M. Solberg E. C. Vangness

1972-01-01

23

Drosophila forked locus.  

PubMed Central

A 40-kilobase-pair region of the Drosophila X chromosome from band 15F was cloned, and DNA insertions were indentified for the forked alleles f1, f3, f3n, f5, f36a, fs, and fx. The positions of these insertions are consistent with the organization of the two pseudoallelic series present at the forked locus. Three RNAs of 0.8, 2.6, and 3.3 kilobases are transcribed from this chromosomal region. The 0.8-kilobase transcript(s), present at the larval and adult stages, and the 3.3-kilobase transcript, present at each developmental stage, are unaffected by the forked mutations examined. Only the 2.6-kilobase RNA, present exclusively at the pupal stage, was observed to be less abundant in each of the forked mutants analyzed, consistent with this transcript being the product of the forked gene. Images

McLachlan, A

1986-01-01

24

3. SOUTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SOUTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH FLUME AT THE NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK CROSSING SHOWING ORIGINAL DIMENSIONAL STONE PIER ON WEST BANK AT PHOTO CENTER, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL EAST BANK DIMENSIONAL STONE PIER AT PHOTO LEFT BELOW NEW (ca. 1931) EAST BANK PIER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

25

1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH FLUME AND CONCRETE DIVERSION DAM SPILLING WATER. CONCRETE ABUTMENTS OF THE ORIGINAL HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE OVER THE NORTH FORK ARE VISIBLE ON EITHER SIDE OF THE DAM. NEW HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE IS VISIBLE ACROSS TOP OF PHOTO. VIEW TO NORTH. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

26

Minnesota Watersheds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit is to be taught as an extension to the FOSS WATER INVESTIGATION 1, Part 3, WATER ON A SLOPE. After learning that water flows down a slope, students will understand that this concept determines how our watersheds flow. It will also explain why some rivers (such as the Red River) appear to be flowing "up" on a map. They will then create a landform map of Minnesota accurately representing the higher elevations (our RIDGELINES) and the location of our major rivers and bodies of water. This unit can also be extended by many of the activities in the Project Wild and the MinnAqua Lesson Books.

27

EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND RETIREMENT IN THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of agricultural land retirement on nutrient concentrations and biological conditions of three streams in the Minnesota River Basin were assessed using data collected during 2005-2007. The Chetomba Creek, West Fork Beaver Creek, and South Branch Rush River subbasins, which range in size from 52,500 to 96,031 acres, have similar geologic and hydrologic settings, but differ with respect to

Victoria G. Christensen; Kathy E. Lee

28

Martins Fork Lake, Cumberland River Basin, Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dam for Martins Fork Project would be located at mile 15.6 on Martins Fork, a tributary to Clover Fork which, with Poor Fork, forms the beginning of the Cumberland River just below the town of Harlan, Kentucky. The project includes the construction of...

1971-01-01

29

Tuning Forks and Monitor Screens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the vibrations of a tuning fork against a computer monitor screen as a pattern that can illustrate or explain physical concepts like wave vibrations, wave forms, and phase differences. Presents background information and demonstrates the experiment. (Author/YDS)

Harrison, M. A. T.

2000-01-01

30

Minerals Yearbook, 1988: Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minnesota's nonfuel mineral production in 1988 was valued at nearly $1.3 billion, about $125 million more than in 1987. Iron ore shipments, which accounted for most of this increase, were at their highest level since 1981. Minnesota ranked eighth national...

J. J. Hill

1988-01-01

31

Minnesota Extension Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Extension Service site is provided as a service to the public and offers news releases, brochures, publications, and other material produced by MES. In addition there are pointers to other state Extension Services and other resources at the University of Minnesota.

32

Digging into Minnesota Minerals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

33

Minnesota and Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight energy education activities are provided. Each activity includes an overview, a brief summary, lists of objectives and materials needed, teacher's notes, and student materials. The activities focus on: (1) using social studies skills to understand Minnesota energy data and to clarify and understand some Minnesota energy issues; (2) giving…

Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Environmental Education Board.

34

11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost span. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

35

12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach from the north road. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

36

Minnesota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Geological Survey (MGS) was established in 1872 as part of the University of Minnesota. The function of the MGS is to serve "the people of Minnesota by providing systematic geoscience information to support stewardship of water, land, and mineral resources." This website from the Digital Conservancy at the University of Minnesota provides access to all of items published by the MGS. The items are contained within the Collections area, and visitors will find headings here such as "Geology of Minnesota Parks," "County Atlas Series," and the "Bulletin of the Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey." First-time visitors can check out the Recent Submissions area on the right-hand side of the page to look over some new findings, including hydrogeological maps of different counties around the state. One item that should not be missed is the "Geology of Minnesota: A Centennial Volume" from 1972. It's a tremendous volume and one that cannot be ignored by students of the physical landscape and geological history of the state.

2012-09-21

37

Dna2 offers support for stalled forks.  

PubMed

The ATR and ATM checkpoint kinases preserve the integrity of replicating chromosomes by preventing the reversal of stalled and terminal replication forks. Hu et al. now show that the ATR pathway targets the Dna2 nuclease to process stalled forks and counteract fork reversal. PMID:22682239

Lai, Mong Sing; Foiani, Marco

2012-06-01

38

The importance of repairing stalled replication forks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial SOS response to unusual levels of DNA damage has been recognized and studied for several decades. Pathways for re-establishing inactivated replication forks under normal growth conditions have received far less attention. In bacteria growing aerobically in the absence of SOS-inducing conditions, many replication forks encounter DNA damage, leading to inactivation. The pathways for fork reactivation involve the homologous

Michael M. Cox; Kenneth N. Kreuzer; David J. Sherratt; Steven J. Sandler; Kenneth J. Marians; Myron F. Goodman

2000-01-01

39

Minnesota's Historic Shipwrecks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many a sailing vessel has found its way to the bottom of the Great Lakes, and there are hundreds of submerged shipwrecks scattered across the state of Minnesota in Lake Superior and other bodies of water. This website, designed by the Minnesota Historical Society, allows users to learn about these shipwrecks through historic photographs, preservation documents, and maps. Visitors can get started by looking over ships in the "Minnesota Lake Superior Shipwreck Exhibit". Here they will find information about ships like the Thomas Wilson, the Hesper, and the U.S.S. Essex, which now lies underneath the water outside of the Duluth harbor. Each profile contains information about the ship's history, its tonnage, and its current disposition. Moving along, the "Minnesota Lake Superior History" area contains an overview of human activity on the lake, along with information about the vessels that have plied their trade in the area. The site is rounded out by a copy of the state's shipwreck preservation plan.

40

Minnesota Zoological Garden Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minnesota Zoological Garden is a relatively new zoo and maintains a professional library to support its goals of conservation and education. Computer-based activities are part of the management of current information services.

Angela Norell

1988-01-01

41

Minnesota Zoological Garden Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history and functions of the Minnesota Zoological Garden library. Topics covered include the library collections; library services, including online search capabilities; and the various groups of users served by the library. (three references) (CLB)

Norell, Angela

1988-01-01

42

Environmental Assessment - Demolish 934 of Grand Forks Air Force Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the proposed action is to demolish 608 square feet of excess facility space in building 934, known as the booster station, by CES contract in FY 06. Work includes removal of all plumbing, pumps and equipment, removal of the water lines from...

D. Strom

2006-01-01

43

Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with oral histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 oral history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.

44

Avoiding chromosome pathology when replication forks collide  

PubMed Central

Chromosome duplication normally initiates via the assembly of replication fork complexes at defined origins1,2. DNA synthesis by any one fork is thought to cease when it meets another travelling in the opposite direction, at which stage the replication machinery may simply dissociate before the nascent strands are finally ligated. But what actually happens is not clear. Here we present evidence consistent with the idea that every fork collision has the potential to threaten genomic integrity. In Escherichia coli this threat is kept at bay by RecG DNA translocase3 and by single-strand DNA exonucleases. Without RecG, replication initiates where forks meet via a replisome assembly mechanism normally associated with fork repair, replication restart and recombination4,5, establishing new forks with the potential to sustain cell growth and division without an active origin. This potential is realised when roadblocks to fork progression are reduced or eliminated. It relies on the chromosome being circular, reinforcing the idea that replication initiation is triggered repeatedly by fork collision. The results reported raise the question of whether replication fork collisions have pathogenic potential for organisms that exploit multiple origins to replicate each chromosome.

Rudolph, Christian J.; Upton, Amy L.; Stockum, Anna; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Lloyd, Robert G.

2013-01-01

45

Minnesota Indian Resources Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Training Center for Community Programs was established at the University of Minnesota to increase understanding of, and to provide opportunity for, the economically disadvantaged. The Center published this directory of services and organizations to provide American Indians with sources of assistance in adjusting to community life in the urban…

Stickney, Avis L., Comp.

46

Minnesota's Open Enrollment Option.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the implementation and early effects of Minnesota's open-enrollment option, which allows families to apply to enroll their children in a public school in any nonresident school district in the state. During 1989-90, surveys were mailed to 2,663 participating families, 1,966 secondary school students, and all 432 district…

Rubenstein, Michael C.; And Others

47

Estimated Ground-Water Use in Becker, Clay, Douglas, Grant, Otter Tail, and Wilkin Counties, Minnesota, for 2030 and 2050  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, is studying six alternatives for delivering water to the Red River of the North Valley in North Dakota and to the cities of Breckenridge, Moorhead, and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. In order to evaluate these alternatives the Bureau of Reclamation needs estimates of ground-water use for 2030 and 2050 for six counties in Minnesota: Becker, Clay, Douglas, Grant, Otter Tail, and Wilkin Counties. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, conducted a study to estimate ground-water use in these counties for 2030 and 2050. This report (1) describes the methods used to estimate ground-water use for the years 2030 and 2050 for six Minnesota counties: Becker, Clay, Douglas, Grant, Otter Tail, and Wilkin Counties, (2) presents the estimated domestic, commercial, industrial, and irrigation ground-water use for the years 2030 and 2050 for these six counties, and (3) compares the estimated ground-water use with published estimates of recharge to three surficial aquifers: Buffalo, Otter Tail surficial, and Pelican River sand plain. Between 74 and 82 percent of the reported ground-water use in the 6 years from 2000 to 2005 was used for irrigation of major crops. The next major use of ground-water was public water supply for domestic use, between 13 and 19 percent of the reported ground-water use. Together they account for 90 to 95 percent of the appropriated ground water in the 6-year period. The total estimated 2030 ground-water use for the six counties ranges from 27,826-36,177 million gallons per year (Mgal/yr), and the total estimated 2050 ground-water use ranges from 31,313-41,746 Mgal/yr. The estimated recharge to the Buffalo aquifer, Otter Tail surficial aquifer, and Pelican River sand-plain aquifer is 3,707, 51,000, and 4,900-8,900 Mgal/yr, respectively. The range of the estimated 2050 ground-water withdrawals from the Buffalo, Otter Tail surficial, and Pelican River sand-plain aquifers is 1,234-1,776 Mgal/yr from the Buffalo aquifer, 11,728-14,820 Mgal/yr from the Otter Tail surficial aquifer, and 3,385-4,298 Mgal/yr from the Pelican River sand-plain aquifer.

Winterstein, Thomas A.

2007-01-01

48

78 FR 28012 - Tier One Environmental Impact Statement for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota Passenger Rail Corridor AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...EIS) to evaluate potential passenger rail alternatives for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota Passenger Rail Corridor (the Corridor) in...

2013-05-13

49

Tuning Fork AFM with Conductive Cantilever  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a self-actuating and self-sensing probe, with an electrically connected, monolithic tip for dynamic AFM. It is based on a quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever. The tuning fork - cantilever assembly opens a new avenue for electrically contacting the tip in a reproducible way. Such a probe can be used for scanned gate microscopy and for atomic

Kaspar Suter; Terunobu Akiyama; Nicolaas F. de Rooij; Andreas Baumgartner; Thomas Ihn; Klaus Ensslin; Urs Staufer

2003-01-01

50

Fifth-wheel fork truck adapter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standard fifth wheel mounted on a rectangular steel structure adapted for use with a fork lift truck provides a fast, safe, and economical way of maneuvering semitrailers in close quarters at plants and warehouses. One operator can move and locate a semitrailer without dismounting from a fork lift truck.

Smith, P. L.

1969-01-01

51

Geometry of forking in simple theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the geometry of forking for U- rank 2 elements in supersimple !-categorical theories and prove stable forking and some structural properties for such elements. We extend this analysis to the case of U-rank 3 elements. Simple theories were defined and initially investigated in 1980 by Shelah ((S2)). In the 90s Kim (and Pillay), inspired by the work of

Assaf Peretz

2006-01-01

52

Minnesota system corneal preservation.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and laboratory results with a modified Minnesota system of organ culture corneal preservation are presented. A refinement of our preservation technique using a closed system, as well as the addition of chondroitin sulphate to the medium is presented. Laboratory results show preservation of corneal endothelial integrity for at least 21 days with maintenance of normal corneal thickness. In addition, a 10-day quarantine system reduces the risk of donor contamination and secondary endophthalmitis. Preliminary results of the 34 degrees C and 4 degrees C closed Minnesota corneal preservation system using chondroitin sulphate show that it is safe and efficacious and allows intermediate to long-term maintenance of sterile thin tissue prior to corneal transplantation. Images

Lindstrom, R. L.; Doughman, D. J.; Skelnik, D. L.; Mindrup, E. A.

1986-01-01

53

Minnesota Discovery Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Discovery Center has many different programs, and their Iron Range Research Center website is a fine way to learn about this rather unique cultural and geographical region. Located in the far northern reaches of Minnesota, the area was center of a vast natural resource extraction economy for well over a century. On the right-hand side of this page, visitors can look over the "Genealogy", "Archives", and "Events & Programs" area. The "Archives" area contains over 960 items (including photographs, postcards, and maps) that the folks at the Center have digitized thus far. The archive contains images of drilling stations, iron ore production, and conveyor belts. Also, visitors can search their online genealogy database, which contains Census information, passenger arrival records, and mining company newsletters. Finally, visitors can use the "Events & Programs" section to learn about upcoming programs of note.

54

Minnesota Historical Society: Places  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Historical Society has been documenting and collecting the collective past of the state for many decades, and this site brings together some of its fine resources on the state's many diverse historic locales and structures. Visitors may want to begin by looking at the list of sites that are run under the auspices of the Society and then continue on to peruse some of the other thematic collections offered here. Some of these collections include bridges, shipwrecks, and a nice section of roadside architecture. A real treat for visitors is the inclusion of the online version of the Minnesota Place Names encyclopedia. The project was originally compiled by Warren Upham, a somewhat idiosyncratic antiquarian who had quite a penchant for geographic names. Visitors can elect to browse the encyclopedia by county or through the use of their search engine. Finally, visitors can also search an online database of the state's National Register properties.

55

South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring  

SciTech Connect

There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

1990-06-01

56

13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where strioed traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

57

14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach from the south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

58

Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA  

PubMed Central

Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis.

Sonnesyn, Steven

2012-01-01

59

Phenotypic Forking GA with Moving Windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotypic forking GA (p-fGA) which divides the whole search space into sub-spaces using the information of the convergence status of the population and the solutions obtained so far had already been developed. In that work, a neighborhood hypercube was defined around the best individual at the time of forking in the phenotypic feature space with the best solution as

Shigeyoshi Tsutsui; Ashish Ghosh; Masato Takiguchi

1996-01-01

60

Replication forks and replication checkpoints in repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells replicate their DNA and coordinate their response to DNA damage and replication\\u000a blocks by activating appropriate repair processes, regulating recombination, chromatin assembly and\\u000a chromosome partitioning. Replication forks stall at specific problematic genomic regions, and forks\\u000a collapse unless protected by replication checkpoint proteins. These events have been associated with\\u000a recombination and chromosomal rearrangements that lead to genomic instability and

Dana Branzei; Marco Foiani

61

Minnesota Maps Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Historians, cartographers, and those who are just generally curious about maps often flock to archives and museums to get a closer look. Fortunately, many institutions have digitized some (or all) of their map collections and placed them online. The Minnesota Historical Society has created this tremendous collection of land survey maps, plat books and atlases, dating from 1848 to 2001. The search interface for the collection is quite easy to use, as visitors can search the land survey maps by county or township. Those persons who encounter trouble using the search engine can click on a small âÂÂHelpâ icon to get more information about performing a detailed search. The plat books and atlases are great fun as well, particularly the illustrated historical atlas of Minnesota from 1874. Through its 394-pages, the atlas contains interesting views of the stateâÂÂs counties, along with sections dedicated to persons of note at the time, including prominent physicians, attorneys, âÂÂpublic menâÂÂ, and lumber dealers. As the preface to this august volume notes, âÂÂâ¦we can conscientiously say that we have strived to make it as near perfect as the circumstances under which we have labored would permit.â Truer words have never been spoken.

62

Kingman-Ash Fork Highway, Ash Fork Interstate Freeway in Yavapai County, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is located one-half mile south of the Town of Ash Fork, Arizona. It begins at approximate Milepost 144+ on present U.S. Interstate and Defense Highway 40 and 66 one mile west of Ash Fork and extends easterly 3.41 miles. Construction consists o...

1974-01-01

63

Replication fork inhibition in seqA mutants of Escherichia coli triggers replication fork breakage.  

PubMed

SeqA protein negatively regulates replication initiation in Escherichia coli and is also proposed to organize maturation and segregation of the newly replicated DNA. The seqA mutants suffer from chromosomal fragmentation; since this fragmentation is attributed to defective segregation or nucleoid compaction, two-ended breaks are expected. Instead, we show that, in SeqA's absence, chromosomes mostly suffer one-ended DNA breaks, indicating disintegration of replication forks. We further show that replication forks are unexpectedly slow in seqA mutants. Quantitative kinetics of origin and terminus replication from aligned chromosomes not only confirm origin overinitiation in seqA mutants, but also reveal terminus under-replication, indicating inhibition of replication forks. Pre-/post-labelling studies of the chromosomal fragmentation in seqA mutants suggest events involving single forks, rather than pairs of forks from consecutive rounds rear-ending into each other. We suggest that, in the absence of SeqA, the sister-chromatid cohesion 'safety spacer' is destabilized and completely disappears if the replication fork is inhibited, leading to the segregation fork running into the inhibited replication fork and snapping the latter at single-stranded DNA regions. PMID:24806348

Rotman, Ella; Khan, Sharik R; Kouzminova, Elena; Kuzminov, Andrei

2014-07-01

64

Research on Minnesota Water Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes the Water Resources Act of 1964 and the origin of the University of Minnesota Water Resources Research Center, and reviews the Center's program. Results and conclusions of a number of research projects undertaken through the Cen...

1977-01-01

65

76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is recognized that Eagle Creek stream gage includes flow contributions from the South Fork tributary. For consistency...water use within the North or South Fork drainages. The South Fork and North Fork stream gages would also continue...

2011-02-03

66

Human impacts to Minnesota wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Minnesota's 3.6 million ha of wetlands have been impacted by a variety of human activities, including agricultural drainage, urbanization, water control, and nonpoint source pollution. More than half of Minnesota's wetlands have been destroyed since the first European settlers arrived, an average loss of about 35,600 ha/yr. Drainage for agriculture is the major cause of wetland loss in Minnesota, particularly in southern Minnesota and the Red River Valley. In addition to impacting wetlands directly, wetland drainage affects downstream areas by increasing flood flows, and releasing sediment and nutrients. Urban development and highway construction affect a smaller proportion of Minnesota's wetlands, but substantially alter their physical, chemical, and biological properties. Hydrology has a major influence on the structure and function of wetlands, so changes in the frequency, duration, depth, and timing of wetland flooding can severely impact wetlands. While wetlands can assimilate low levels of sediment and nutrient enrichment, excessive inputs can be detrimental. Peat harvesting is not currently extensive in Minnesota, but could cause substantial impacts. Cumulative impact, the incremental impact of an action when added to other past, present, and reasonably forseeable future actions, is becoming an area of increasing concern.

Johnston, C.A.

1989-01-01

67

15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING RIGHT FORK WITH GATE IN PLACE AND A FEW NEEDLES IN PLACE - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

68

13. ORIGINAL NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. ORIGINAL NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

69

11. OLD BRIDGE AND ROADBED NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. OLD BRIDGE AND ROADBED NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING NORTH - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

70

12. PLANK BRIDGE ON OLD ROAD NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. PLANK BRIDGE ON OLD ROAD NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING EAST - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

71

UHV-Compatible Electrostatically-Driven Tuning Fork Chopper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed an electrostatically driven tuning fork chopper which is compatible with an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. Constructed with a commercially available tuning fork using stainless steel and alumina parts, the chopper is capable of oper...

P. L. Kebabian S. Kallelis D. D. Nelson A. Freedman

1992-01-01

72

Tuning Fork AFM with Conductive Cantilever  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a self-actuating and self-sensing probe, with an electrically connected, monolithic tip for dynamic AFM. It is based on a quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever. The tuning fork - cantilever assembly opens a new avenue for electrically contacting the tip in a reproducible way. Such a probe can be used for scanned gate microscopy and for atomic force probers. Since the probe is self-sensing, the probe can be used in environments where optical readout is not possible. Our probes allows for batch fabrication and assembly.

Suter, Kaspar; Akiyama, Terunobu; de Rooij, Nicolaas F.; Baumgartner, Andreas; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus; Staufer, Urs

2003-12-01

73

CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING INCLINED STAY CABLES EXTENDING FROM TOP OF TOWER TO DECK. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

74

Using commercially available cantilevers with tuning forks SPM studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and operation of a home-made Atomic Force Microscope(AFM) that uses a tuning fork oscillator as a force detector in noncontact scanning force microscopy mode. In this talk we describe simple method of tip fabrication for the tuning fork that allows us to use a large variation of commercially available tips and apply the tuning fork in

Sergey Rozhok; Venkat Chandrasekhar

2001-01-01

75

Maintaining genome stability at the replication fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant DNA replication is a major source of the mutations and chromosome rearrangements that are associated with pathological disorders. When replication is compromised, DNA becomes more prone to breakage. Secondary structures, highly transcribed DNA sequences and damaged DNA stall replication forks, which then require checkpoint factors and specialized enzymatic activities for their stabilization and subsequent advance. These mechanisms ensure that

Dana Branzei; Marco Foiani

2010-01-01

76

Homologous Recombination as a Replication Fork Escort: Fork-Protection and Recovery  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows DNA repair and ensures the efficiency of DNA replication. The substrate initiating the process of homologous recombination is a single-stranded DNA that promotes a strand exchange reaction resulting in a genetic exchange that promotes genetic diversity and DNA repair. The molecular mechanisms by which homologous recombination repairs a double-strand break have been extensively studied and are now well characterized. However, the mechanisms by which homologous recombination contribute to DNA replication in eukaryotes remains poorly understood. Studies in bacteria have identified multiple roles for the machinery of homologous recombination at replication forks. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular pathways involving the homologous recombination machinery to support the robustness of DNA replication. In addition to its role in fork-recovery and in rebuilding a functional replication fork apparatus, homologous recombination may also act as a fork-protection mechanism. We discuss that some of the fork-escort functions of homologous recombination might be achieved by loading of the recombination machinery at inactivated forks without a need for a strand exchange step; as well as the consequence of such a model for the stability of eukaryotic genomes.

Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A. E.

2012-01-01

77

A Philosophy For Minnesota Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Commission has formulated a statement as the guiding philosophy for its deliberations on Minnesota's long-range, comprehensive higher education plans. The Commission's basic position for viewing higher education in Minnesota during the next 10 years involves (1) the development of human resources through…

Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Commission, St. Paul.

78

Chemical Dependency Regional Needs Assessment: Northeastern Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Model of Chemical Dependency Treatment, which evolved from a combination of the grassroots Alcoholics Anonymous movement and the State Mental Health Services in the 1960s has made Minnesota an international leader in chemical dependency treatment efforts. Northeastern Minnesota has shared this reputation with the state. In spite of…

Stone, Marylee

79

Minnesota DNR GIS Data Deli  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources provides an internet-based spatial data acquisition site that allows users to download raw computer-readable data for use in their Geographic Information System (GIS), image processing system, or traditional database environment. The site includes links to extensive and summary level data descriptions (metadata) to support users.

Resources, Minnesota D.

80

Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

2012-01-01

81

Professional Liability Insurance in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Minnesota, a local mental health center is typically administered by a nine-man board, selected to represent various areas of interest in the community. It is the board then that is responsible for formulating overall policies and plans, hiring (or firing) staff, securing financial support, etc. Professional liability or malpractice insurance ordinarily available to psychiatrists and psychologists offered no protection

Herbert Dörken

1960-01-01

82

Minnesota's Land Use Planning Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals for Minnesota's land use planning process are described in the State Planning Agency's Overall Program Design and the biennual budget of other state agencies. They represent broad statements of what is to be achieved in major functional and coor...

1978-01-01

83

Transforming Education: The Minnesota Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors such as the need for flexible, responsive schools prompted the 1980s national dialogue about possible societal and economic changes in the role of the educational system. Those same factors set the national and Minnesota agenda for youth in the 1990s and on into the 21st Century. Changes that occur in the educational systems should achieve…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Office of Educational Leadership.

84

Methane flux from Minnesota peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern (> 40 deg N) wetlands have been suggested as the largest natural source of methane (CHâ) to the troposphere. To refine the authors estimates of source strengths from this region and to investigate climatic controls on the process, fluxes were measured from a variety of Minnesota peatlands during May, June, and August 1986. Late spring and summer fluxes ranged

P. M. Crill; K. B. Bartlett; R. C. Harriss; E. Gorham; E. S. Verry; D. I. Sebacher; L. Madzar; W. Sanner

1988-01-01

85

A 400CPS Tuning Fork Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tuning fork filter as a new circuit component offers certain advantages in terms of frequency stability and large values of Q. An eleven-element comb filter is described in which each filter element has a bandwidth of 0.5 cps or a Q of 800, a 26-db insertion loss, and a 40-db rejection ratio. The frequency is constant to within 0.01

John O'Connor

1960-01-01

86

Nonlinear dynamics of MEMS turning fork gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy improvement of MEMS gyros requires not only microelectronic development but also the investigations of the mathematical\\u000a model of sensitive element dynamics. In the present paper, we study the errors of the vibrating microgyroscope which arise\\u000a because of nonlinear dynamics of a sensitive element. A MEMS tuning fork gyroscope with elastic rods is considered. Nonlinear\\u000a differential equations of bending vibrations

Yu. G. Martynenko; I. V. Merkuryev; V. V. Podalkov

2011-01-01

87

The forked flap repair for hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The “Forked-Flap” repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip–flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit's prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

Chadha, Anil; Singh, Amitabh

2012-01-01

88

BALD ROCK AND MIDDLE FORK FEATHER RIVER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bald Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Areas in California indicate several areas within the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area that have probable mineral-resource potential. A probable potential for placer gold exists at various localities, both in areas covered by Tertiary volcanic rocks and in small streams that drain into the Middle Fork of the Feather River. A probable potential for small deposits of chromite exists in tracts underlain by ultramafic rocks in the Melones fault zone. A probable potential for lead-silver deposits is recognized at the east end of the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area.

Sorensen, Martin, L.; Buehler, Alan, R.

1984-01-01

89

University of Minnesota Statistics: Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, overseen by the School of Statistics at the University of Minnesota (Twin Cities Campus), features a variety of links to free statistical software pages. Brief descriptions of the software capabilities and download information are given. FIRM (Formal Inference-based Recursive Modeling), a program that fits dendrographic models, and MacANOVA, a statistical analysis and matrix algebra tool, are two examples of the seven software links provided.

2000-01-01

90

Methane production in Minnesota peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of methane production in Minnesota peats were studied. Surface (10- to 25-cm) peats produced an average of 228 nmol of CHâ per g (dry weight) per h at 25°C and ambient pH. Methanogenesis rates generally decreased with depth in ombrotrophic peats, but on occasion were observed to rise within deeper layers of certain fen peats. Methane production was temperature

R. T. Williams; R. L. Crawford

1984-01-01

91

Senataxin Associates with Replication Forks to Protect Fork Integrity across RNA-Polymerase-II-Transcribed Genes  

PubMed Central

Summary Transcription hinders replication fork progression and stability. The ATR checkpoint and specialized DNA helicases assist DNA synthesis across transcription units to protect genome integrity. Combining genomic and genetic approaches together with the analysis of replication intermediates, we searched for factors coordinating replication with transcription. We show that the Sen1/Senataxin DNA/RNA helicase associates with forks, promoting their progression across RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-transcribed genes. sen1 mutants accumulate aberrant DNA structures and DNA-RNA hybrids while forks clash head-on with RNAPII transcription units. These replication defects correlate with hyperrecombination and checkpoint activation in sen1 mutants. The Sen1 function at the forks is separable from its role in RNA processing. Our data, besides unmasking a key role for Senataxin in coordinating replication with transcription, provide a framework for understanding the pathological mechanisms caused by Senataxin deficiencies and leading to the severe neurodegenerative diseases ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4.

Alzu, Amaya; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Begnis, Martina; Lucca, Chiara; Piccini, Daniele; Carotenuto, Walter; Saponaro, Marco; Brambati, Alessandra; Cocito, Andrea; Foiani, Marco; Liberi, Giordano

2012-01-01

92

Development of a freeride mountain bike suspension fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the benefit of engineers working outside the bicycle industry, this paper describes some engineering considerations related to the development of a new model full suspension bicycle fork. The impact of market forces on the development process is considered, and a description of various design tools currently in use is provided. A detailed model of a new fork travel adjustment

Jeff Baltes; Cory Sutela; Rob Redfield

2008-01-01

93

33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

2010-07-01

94

33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

2013-07-01

95

33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

2009-07-01

96

9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF LAKE FORK CANAL, UINTAH PROJECT. TWO SLUICEWAYS TWENTY FEET WIDE HAVE BEEN LEFT IN THE DAM TO PASS BOULDERS DURING HIGH WATER. THESE SLUICEWAYS ARE CLOSED BY LOGS AND HAY DURING LOW WATER.' Date unknown - Irrigation Canals in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne, Duchesne County, UT

97

14. NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE DECK UNDER RECONSTRUCTION. REINFORCING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE DECK UNDER RECONSTRUCTION. REINFORCING ROD IN PLACE. PHOTO BY CARL E. JEPSON, 29 JANUARY 1960. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

98

UHV-compatible electrostatically driven tuning fork chopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an electrostatically driven tuning fork chopper which is compatible with an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. Constructed with a commercially available tuning fork using stainless steel and alumina parts, the chopper is capable of operating while exposed to high temperature samples and corrosive gases. Operation in an UHV environment while modulating both optical and molecular beams is demonstrated.

Paul L. Kebabian; Spiros Kallelis; David D. Nelson Jr.; Andrew Freedman

1993-01-01

99

UHV-compatible electrostatically-driven tuning fork chopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an electrostatically driven tuning fork chopper which is compatible with an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. Constructed with a commercially available tuning fork using stainless steel and alumina parts, the chopper is capable of operating while exposed to high temperature samples and corrosive gases. Operation in a UHV environment while modulating both optical and molecular beams is demonstrated.

Paul L. Kebabian; Spiros Kallelis; David D. Nelson Jr.; Andrew Freedman

1992-01-01

100

UHV-compatible electrostatically-driven tuning fork chopper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an electrostatically driven tuning fork chopper which is compatible with an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. Constructed with a commercially available tuning fork using stainless steel and alumina parts, the chopper is capable of operating while exposed to high temperature samples and corrosive gases. Operation in a UHV environment while modulating both optical and molecular beams is demonstrated.

Kebabian, Paul L.; Kallelis, Spiros; Nelson, David D., Jr.; Freedman, Andrew

1992-09-01

101

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood floor; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

102

Fracture analysis of forks of a heavy duty lift truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture of the two forks of a heavy duty lift truck in operation at a harbour is described and discussed. The failure analysis included: mechanical tests for characterisation of the material, including tensile and Charpy tests; the study of a previous repair by welding carried out in one of the forks and the identification of consequential weld defects; the

M. V Figueiredo; F. M. F Oliveira; J. P. M Gonçalves; P. M. S. T de Castro; A. A Fernandes

2001-01-01

103

Replisome assembly and the direct restart of stalled replication forks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure to reactivate either stalled or collapsed replication forks is a source of genomic instability in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, dedicated fork repair systems that involve both recombination and replication proteins have been identified genetically and characterized biochemically. Replication conflicts are solved through several pathways, some of which require recombination and some of which operate directly at the

Ryan C. Heller; Kenneth J. Marians

2006-01-01

104

Using commercially available cantilevers with tuning forks SPM studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and operation of a home-made Atomic Force Microscope(AFM) that uses a tuning fork oscillator as a force detector in noncontact scanning force microscopy mode. In this talk we describe simple method of tip fabrication for the tuning fork that allows us to use a large variation of commercially available tips and apply the tuning fork in different SPM applications like AFM, MFM, and STM. Due to the high performance of commercial tips and identical characteristics (at least within one package) we achieve high reproducibility of microscopy results. The quality factor Q of the tuning fork with mounted tip remains as high as the initial Q of bare tuning fork. Here, the resonant frequency is reduced only at 20 Hz.

Rozhok, Sergey; Chandrasekhar, Venkat

2001-03-01

105

Fanconi anemia proteins stabilize replication forks  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to crosslinking agents that has been attributed to defects in DNA repair and/or replication. FANCD2 and the FA core complex bind to chromatin during DNA replication; however, the role of FA proteins during replication is unknown. Using Xenopus cell-free extracts, we show that FANCL depletion results in defective DNA replication restart following treatment with camptothecin, a drug that results in DSBs during DNA replication. This defect is more pronounced following treatment with mitomycin C, presumably because of an additional role of the FA pathway in DNA crosslink repair. Moreover, we show that binding of FA core complex proteins during DNA replication follows origin assembly and origin firing and is dependent on the binding of RPA to ssDNA while FANCD2 additionally requires ATR, consistent with FA proteins acting at replication forks. Together, our data suggest that FA proteins play a role in replication restart at collapsed replication forks.

Chien Wang, Lily; Stone, Stacie; Hoatlin, Maureen Elizabeth; Gautier, Jean

2008-01-01

106

Low-flow frequency of Minnesota streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow-frequency data for Minnesota streams are presented in atlas form for 161 gaging stations and about 300 partial-record stations for 7-day low flows with 2- and 10-year recurrence intervals. The report also discusses the factors that influence low flow and shows that the magnitude of low flows generally increases from west to east in Minnesota. (Woodard-USGS)

Warne, S. A.

1978-01-01

107

Background and Importance of ‘Minnesota 13’ Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background knowledge of germplasm helps corn (Zea mays L.) breeders develop inbreds and predict hybrids. The background of 'Min- nesota 13' is still not generally understood. We provide an explanation for the mystery and pro- vide conclusive evidence for Minnesota 13's origin from plant breeding records at the Univer- sity of Minnesota, whose archives contain corn breeding nursery books. We

A. Forrest Troyer; Lois G. Hendrickson

2007-01-01

108

Counseling Psychology in the Minnesota Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews history of counseling psychology at University of Minnesota, noting contributions of Donald Paterson and his associates in 1920s and 1930s and of E. G. Williamson, John Darley, and Gilbert Wrenn in establishment of American Psychological Association (APA) Division of Counseling Psychology. Notes that Minnesota offers APA-accredited…

Borow, Henry

1990-01-01

109

Nuclear power in Minnesota: the illusory bargain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently three operating nuclear reactors in Minnesota--one located at Monticello, two others at Prairie Island, near Red Wing. A fourth reactor, planned for construction about thirty miles into Wisconsin near Durand, will also supply electricity to Minnesota. Northern States Power Company has long claimed that their reactors provide Minnesotans with a safe, reliable, cheap, and abundant source of

J. Chinowsky; T. Niles

1976-01-01

110

Evaluating Ground Covers for Minnesota Roadsides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research effort is a sequel to the ground cover study (Investigation 615) that was initiated on Minnesota roadsides in 1962. Thirty-one taxa were evaluated to determine their suitability for planting on Minnesota roadsides. The plants were tested at ...

L. M. Murphy P. G. A. Walvatne

1982-01-01

111

University of Minnesota Chemistry Outreach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the University of Minnesota supplies numerous chemistry experiments. The activities are divided into two categories: demos and recipe cards. The demonstrations, which usually require a chemistry lab setting and chemistry supplies, are helpful for chemistry teachers in a classroom environment. The recipe cards, however, can usually be easily performed in the home. For example, students can learn about osmosis with a simple demonstration using an egg, vinegar, and water. The website features a short checklist to help visitors become better scientists. With a quick visit to this site, users can find fun activities to enhance the chemistry learning experience.

112

Minnesota's rural health workforce shortages.  

PubMed

With the Affordable Care Act's promise of health insurance coverage for 34 million more Americans comes the question of whether the medical establishment has the capacity to provide care to all who need it. Concern over whether the United States has enough primary care physicians, especially in rural areas, isn't new. Since the end of World War II, the country has been contending with shortages. This article provides an historical perspective on the shortage and efforts to alleviate it in the United States and Minnesota. PMID:24597196

Gunn, Jennifer

2013-12-01

113

University of Minnesota: Sedimentology Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sedimentology group at the University of Minnesota presents its research in earthscape processes at this website. Visitors can find out about the goals, results, and publications of three main research areas: experimental stratigraphy and landscape evolution, theoretical sedimentology and stratigraphy, and river dynamics. The site offers downloads for many of the group's publications. Visitors discover the latest sedimentology-related news. While the links Useful Things and Links do not contain information at this time, users can still learn about the work of sedimentologists at this website.

114

ATR phosphorylates SMARCAL1 to prevent replication fork collapse  

PubMed Central

The DNA damage response kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) coordinates much of the cellular response to replication stress. The exact mechanisms by which ATR regulates DNA synthesis in conditions of replication stress are largely unknown, but this activity is critical for the viability and proliferation of cancer cells, making ATR a potential therapeutic target. Here we use selective ATR inhibitors to demonstrate that acute inhibition of ATR kinase activity yields rapid cell lethality, disrupts the timing of replication initiation, slows replication elongation, and induces fork collapse. We define the mechanism of this fork collapse, which includes SLX4-dependent cleavage yielding double-strand breaks and CtIP-dependent resection generating excess single-stranded template and nascent DNA strands. Our data suggest that the DNA substrates of these nucleases are generated at least in part by the SMARCAL1 DNA translocase. Properly regulated SMARCAL1 promotes stalled fork repair and restart; however, unregulated SMARCAL1 contributes to fork collapse when ATR is inactivated in both mammalian and Xenopus systems. ATR phosphorylates SMARCAL1 on S652, thereby limiting its fork regression activities and preventing aberrant fork processing. Thus, phosphorylation of SMARCAL1 is one mechanism by which ATR prevents fork collapse, promotes the completion of DNA replication, and maintains genome integrity.

Couch, Frank B.; Bansbach, Carol E.; Driscoll, Robert; Luzwick, Jessica W.; Glick, Gloria G.; Betous, Remy; Carroll, Clinton M.; Jung, Sung Yun; Qin, Jun; Cimprich, Karlene A.; Cortez, David

2013-01-01

115

Wireless tuning fork gyroscope for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a Bluetooth enabled wireless tuning fork gyroscope for the biomedical applications, including gait phase detection system, human motion analysis and physical therapy. This gyroscope is capable of measuring rotation rates between -90 and 90 and it can read the rotation information using a computer. Currently, the information from a gyroscope can trigger automobile airbag deployment during rollover, improve the accuracy and reliability of GPS navigation systems and stabilize moving platforms such as automobiles, airplanes, robots, antennas, and industrial equipment. Adding wireless capability to the existing gyroscope could help to expand its applications in many areas particularly in biomedical applications, where a continuous patient monitoring is quite difficult. This wireless system provides information on several aspects of activities of patients for real-time monitoring in hospitals.

Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

2003-07-01

116

XRCC3 and Rad51 Modulate Replication Fork Progression on Damaged Vertebrate Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which the progression of eukaryotic replication forks is controlled after DNA damage are unclear. We have found that fork progression is slowed by cisplatin or UV treatment in intact vertebrate cells and in replication assays in vitro. Fork slowing is reduced or absent in irs1SF CHO cells and XRCC3?\\/? chicken DT40 cells, indicating that fork slowing is

Judith Henry-Mowatt; Dean Jackson; Jean-Yves Masson; Penny A Johnson; Paula M Clements; Fiona E Benson; Larry H Thompson; Shunichi Takeda; Stephen C West; Keith W Caldecott

2003-01-01

117

Land use management in Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of bulk imagery suggests that the forty-acre data cell used in the Minnesota Land Management Information Systems (MLMIS) can be utilized in interpretation of ERTS-1 data. High quality bulk images of the Twin Cities metropolitan area suggest that detail in urban land use patterns is much greater than originally anticipated. This implies a greater work effort in this area than was planned. Furthermore, the forest classes of land use can also be usefully divided into subcategories. Preliminary analysis of one rather low quality image also indicates that subclasses of wetlands can be identified. Prospects are bright for improving the potential detail that ERTS-1 can contribute to MLMIS.

Sizer, J. E. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

118

Buffalo Memorial Hospital. Buffalo, Minnesota.  

PubMed

First owned and managed by a group of local physicians, then operated as a municipal hospital, and now a division of a private, multi-hospital group, Buffalo Memorial Hospital's growth has mirrored that of the rural Minnesota community it serves. From 1918 to 1951, the hospital was located in 12 rooms above the local drugstore . Then, as a city-operated hospital, it occupied a free standing building in the center of town. During the next 25 years, two additions were required to meet the growing demand for health care services in Wright count. In 1977, shortly after the hospital became a division of Health Central, plans were initiated to replace the over-crowded facility with a completely new hospital. In October 1980, Buffalo Memorial Hospital moved into its new home--a sprawling single story, energy efficient building. Now renovated, the old hospital provides housing for senior citizens. PMID:10266603

1984-01-01

119

Floods on the Minnesota River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the USGS water website to identify the location of stream gauges on the Minnesota River and the types of data that can be retrieved from the website. They determine which data to download based on the area of interest in the exercise (St. Peter, MN) and import historical flood data into MS Excel. The students use a spreadsheet to rank each flood and calculate a recurrence interval for a given flood, then estimate the discharge and stage of the 100-year flood in St. Peter, MN. The final task is to establish a flood hazard zone on a topographic map of the city of St. Peter. Note: this exercise can be applied to almost any non-dammed river with two or more USGS gaging stations on it. Go to http://water.usgs.gov and select your state from the pull-down menu to view an interactive map of your state's rivers and gaging station locations.

Laabs, Ben

120

New histone supply regulates replication fork speed and PCNA unloading  

PubMed Central

Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show that replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and efficient nucleosome assembly. Inhibition of canonical histone biosynthesis impaired replication fork progression and reduced nucleosome occupancy on newly synthesized DNA. Replication forks initially remained stable without activation of conventional checkpoints, although prolonged histone deficiency generated DNA damage. PCNA accumulated on newly synthesized DNA in cells lacking new histones, possibly to maintain opportunity for CAF-1 recruitment and nucleosome assembly. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that PCNA unloading is delayed in the absence of nucleosome assembly. We propose that coupling of fork speed and PCNA unloading to nucleosome assembly provides a simple mechanism to adjust DNA replication and maintain chromatin integrity during transient histone shortage.

Mejlvang, Jakob; Feng, Yunpeng; Alabert, Constance; Neelsen, Kai J.; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Zhao, Xiaobei; Lees, Michael; Sandelin, Albin; Pasero, Philippe; Lopes, Massimo

2014-01-01

121

33 CFR 117.315 - New River, South Fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.315 New River, South Fork. (a) The draw of the Davie Boulevard (SW. Twelfth Street) bridge,...

2013-07-01

122

33 CFR 117.307 - Miami River, North Fork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.307 Miami River, North Fork. The draw of the FDOT Railroad Bridge, mile 5.3 at Miami, shall open...

2013-07-01

123

Mechanisms of replication fork restart in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Replication of the genome is crucial for the accurate transmission of genetic information. It has become clear over the last decade that the orderly progression of replication forks in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is disrupted with high frequency by encounters with various obstacles either on or in the template strands. Survival of the organism then becomes dependent on both removal of the obstruction and resumption of replication. This latter point is particularly important in bacteria, where the number of replication forks per genome is nominally only two. Replication restart in Escherichia coli is accomplished by the action of the restart primosomal proteins, which use both recombination intermediates and stalled replication forks as substrates for loading new replication forks. These reactions have been reconstituted with purified recombination and replication proteins.

Marians, Kenneth J

2004-01-01

124

MUS81-EME2 Promotes Replication Fork Restart.  

PubMed

Replication forks frequently stall at regions of the genome that are difficult to replicate or contain lesions that cause replication blockage. An important mechanism for the restart of a stalled fork involves endonucleolytic cleavage that can lead to fork restoration and replication progression. Here, we show that the structure-selective endonuclease MUS81-EME2 is responsible for fork cleavage and restart in human cells. The MUS81-EME2 protein, whose actions are restricted to S phase, is also responsible for telomere maintenance in telomerase-negative ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres) cells. In contrast, the G2/M functions of MUS81, such as the cleavage of recombination intermediates and fragile site expression, are promoted by MUS81-EME1. These results define distinct and temporal roles for MUS81-EME1 and MUS81-EME2 in the maintenance of genome stability. PMID:24813886

Pepe, Alessandra; West, Stephen C

2014-05-22

125

DNA Polymerases at the Eukaryotic Fork - 20 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Function of the eukaryotic genome depends on efficient and accurate replication of anti-parallel DNA strands. Eukaryotic DNA polymerases have different properties adapted to perform a wide spectrum of DNA transactions. Here we focus on major players in the bulk replication, DNA polymerases of the B-family. We review the organization of the replication fork in eukaryotes in a historical perspective, analyze contemporary models and propose a new integrative model of the fork.

Pavlov, Youri I.; Shcherbakova, Polina V.

2009-01-01

126

A micromachined comb-drive tuning fork rate gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of single-crystal and polysilicon tuning fork gyroscopes of very small size and low cost using microfabrication technology is reported. These tuning fork gyroscopes are extremely rugged, inherently balanced, and easy to fabricate. For a 1-mm gyroscope, projected performance is 10 to 100°\\/hr for bias stability and for resolution in a 60-Hz bandwidth. To date, 5000°\\/hr in a 60

J. Bernstein; S. Cho; A. T. King; A. Kourepenis; P. Maciel; M. Weinberg

1993-01-01

127

Dynamic behavior of the tuning fork AFM probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently introduced a new self-actuating and self-sensing atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-fabricated cantilever. This system has two degrees of freedom, associated with its two components. We developed a model for describing how the sample-tip interaction is transduced to the tuning fork. It is based on two coupled spring-mass systems. In

Dara Bayat; Terunobu Akiyama; Nicolaas F. de Rooij; Urs Staufer

2008-01-01

128

Scanning Probe Microscopy of DNA with a Quartz Tuning Fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quartz tuning-forks have recently been put to use as highly sensitive force detectors in atomic force microscopy (AFM).(F.J.Giessibl et al.), Science 289, 422 (2000). In this study we have applied a home-built, tuning-fork based AFM to the investigation of single and double stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA). We operate the microscope in the non-contact mode (typical tip amplitude ~1 nm)

G. M. King; G. Nunes Jr.

2001-01-01

129

Minnesota's Tech Prep Outcome Evaluation Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Minnesota Tech Prep Consortia Evaluation System, which collects outcomes data on enrollment, retention, related job placement, higher education, dropouts, and diplomas/degrees awarded. Explains outcome measures, database development, data collection and analysis methods, and remaining challenges. (SK)

Brown, James M.; Pucel, David; Twohig, Cathy; Semler, Steve; Kuchinke, K. Peter

1998-01-01

130

Emergency Water Planning (EWP) Minnesota Inventory Assumptions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The St. Paul District has completed an inventory of information concerning Minnesota's water supply systems. This system is intended to provide a basis of information for meaningful management of scarce resources during national emergencies, such as mobil...

1987-01-01

131

Minnesota State University E-Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive Website from Minnesota State University offers online exhibits in the fields of history, biology, cultures, prehistory, and archaeology. To give one an idea of the breadth of the exhibits, there are fourteen listed in History alone, including exhibits on China, Greece, Egypt, Anglo-Saxon England, cultures of Minnesota, Medieval Europe, and Vikings in America. The exhibits are varied in layout and content, but they generally contain substantial content in both hypertext and images. The exhibits can be browsed by the subjects listed above or via their position in the E-museum's floor plan. Of course, there is a marked emphasis on Minnesota and topics relevant to Minnesota here, which makes it an excellent Website for teachers in the land of 10,000 lakes to use for resources and ideas.

132

Manual for the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) measures 20 vocational needs of the individual. The reliability of the MIQ, consisting of a self-administering, 210-item pair comparison questionnaire, was demonstrated in tests involving 5,358 individuals. MIQ...

E. G. Gay D. J. Weiss D. D. Hendel

1971-01-01

133

40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager...

2013-07-01

134

75 FR 39994 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00026  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the State of Minnesota (FEMA- 1921-DR), dated 07/02/2010. INCIDENT: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding. INCIDENT PERIOD: 06/17/2010 through 06/26/2010. EFFECTIVE DATE: 07/02/2010. PHYSICAL...

2010-07-13

135

76 FR 41552 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00031  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Minnesota dated 07/07/2011. Incident: Severe Storms and Tornadoes. Incident Period: 05/21/2011 through 05/22/2011. Effective Date: 07/07/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-07-14

136

Weather Modification Information for the Minnesota Legislature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 1977 session of the Minnesota Legislature, a bill regulating weather modification was passed. In the course of deliberation over weather modification legislation, several legislators requested information and analysis from the Science and Techn...

1977-01-01

137

78 FR 33016 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB, ND  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 71 [Docket No. FAA-2013-XXXX; Airspace Docket No. 13-AGL-14...identify the docket number FAA-2013-XXXX/Airspace Docket No. 13- AGL-14...Comments to Docket No. FAA-2013-XXXX/ Airspace Docket No....

2013-06-03

138

Employment Contract: State of Minnesota-Minnesota State Colleges and Universities, Board of Trustees and the Minnesota Community College Faculty Association, 1998-1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains an agreement made in December 1997 between the State of Minnesota/Minnesota State Colleges and Universities and the Minnesota Community College Faculty Association. The contract's purpose was to promote effective relations between the two entities, as well as to (1) further quality education by maintaining a high standard of…

Minnesota Community Coll. Faculty Association, St. Paul.

139

Professional Staff Contract Between Minnesota State Junior College Board and Minnesota Junior College Faculty Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this document is the professional staff contract between the Minnesota State Junior College Board and the Minnesota Junior College Faculty Association for the period of April 17, 1973 through July 1, 1974. The articles of the agreement cover strikes and lock-outs, management rights, employee protection and assistance, work year,…

Minnesota State Community Coll. Board, St. Paul.

140

Minnesota Careers Study Guide, 2002: A Facilitator's Guide for "Minnesota Careers, 2002."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide has been produced in response to requests from teachers and counselors who use Minnesota Careers with students. This study guide was designed for facilitators of Minnesota Careers 2002 who take an active role in their students or clients career exploration. The guide is organized into two sections. The Facilitators Resource section…

Minnesota State Dept. of Economic Security, St. Paul.

141

Minnesota Education Yearbook, 1999: The Status of Pre-K-12 Education in Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes education in Minnesota. After a brief introduction in chapter 1, chapter 2 reviews educational accountability at the national and state levels and the development of Minnesota's own assessment and accountability system. This review not only leads to recommended next steps in that assessment and accountability system, it also…

Erickson, Ron N.

142

76 FR 35009 - Draft Oil and Gas Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Big South Fork National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Big South Fork National River and Recreation...Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Big South Fork National River and Recreation...statement (OGMP/DEIS) for the proposed Big South Fork National River and...

2011-06-15

143

Red Fork sandstone of Oklahoma: depositional history and reservoir distribution  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian Red Fork sandstone formed as a result of progradation across eastern Kansas and most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork is one of several transgressive-regressive sequences (cyclothems) developed within the Desmoinesian Cherokee Group. Sea level changes, together with varying subsidence, were dominant factors controlling the general stratigraphic (correlative) characteristics of the Red Fork interval. Progradation was episodic, with sand deposition in the more active part of the basin during lower sea level stands and valley-fill deposition in the more stable areas during sea level rises. A map of Red Fork sand trends reveals an alluvial-deltaic complex covering most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork consists primarily of alluvial-valley and plain (fluvial) bodies in the northernmost part of northeastern Oklahoma, alluvial-deltaic bodies in most of the remaining parts of the shelf area, and off-shelf submarine-fan and slope basinal-floor complexes within the deeper part of the Anadarko basin. Determination of reservoir trend and genesis requires integration of rock and log data. Logs need to be calibrated to cores in order to estimate depositional environments accurately and to make a reasonable assessment of diagenetic overprints. Much of the oil and gas has been trapped in stratigraphic traps, and a significant amount of oil is in channel sandstones with trends at high angles to the structural grain. In some areas, secondary clay, in particular chloritic clay, has resulted in microporosity, high water saturation, and correspondingly low resistivities in oil reserves.

Shelton, J.W.; Fritz, R.D.; Johnson, C.

1989-03-01

144

Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

145

75 FR 23792 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2010-0002] Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1900-DR...2010, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of...

2010-05-04

146

Projecting Treatment Opportunities for Current Minnesota Forest Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews opportunities for treatment of timber stands in Minnesota for the decade 1977-1986. Under the assumptions and management guides specified, 27 percent of Minnesota's commercial forest land would require timber harvest or some other form ...

W. B. Smith P. J. Jakes

1981-01-01

147

Teledentistry: increase access to dental specialists in rural Minnesota.  

PubMed

This current pilot project presents the experience of University of Minnesota School of Dentistry (UMNSOD) to use real-time videoconferencing technology to increase access to dental specialty care in rural Minnesota. PMID:18694003

Chen, Hong; Fricton, James R

2007-01-01

148

40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...December 31, 2001. Copies of Minnesota's program application may be obtained from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, UST/LUST Program, 520 Lafayette Road North, St. Paul, MN 55155-3898. (1) State statutes and regulations . (i) The...

2010-07-01

149

40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...December 31, 2001. Copies of Minnesota's program application may be obtained from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, UST/LUST Program, 520 Lafayette Road North, St. Paul, MN 55155-3898. (1) State statutes and regulations . (i) The...

2009-07-01

150

Investigating the Minnesota River's Glacial History Near Henderson, MN.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students make observations in the Minnesota River valley, discuss their findings amongst other student groups, and describe how those observations fit with the general geology of Minnesota.

Brian Allison Delano Middle School Delano, Mn B.

151

Methane flux from Minnesota Peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern (>40°N) wetlands have been suggested as the largest natural source of methane (CH4) to the troposphere. To refine our estimates of source strengths from this region and to investigate climatic controls on the process, fluxes were measured from a variety of Minnesota peatlands during May, June, and August 1986. Sites included forested and unforested ombrotrophic bogs and minerotrophic fens in and near the U.S. Department of Agriculture Marcell Experimental Forest and the Red Lake peatlands. Late spring and summer fluxes ranged from 11 to 866 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, averaging 207 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 overall. At Marcell Forest, forested bogs and fen sites had lower fluxes (averages of 77 ± 21 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and 142 ± 19 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) than open bogs (average of 294 ± 30 mg CH4 m-2 d-1). In the Red Lake peatland, circumneutral fens, with standing water above the peat surface, produced more methane than acid bog sites in which the water table was beneath the moss surface (325 ± 31 and 102 ± 13 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, respectively). Peat temperature was an important control. Methane flux increased in response to increasing soil temperature. For example, the open bog in the Marcell Forest with the highest CH4 flux exhibited a 74-fold increase in flux over a three-fold increase in temperature. We estimate that the methane flux from all peatlands north of 40° may be on the order of 70 to 90 Tg/yr though estimates of this sort are plagued by uncertainties in the areal extent of peatlands, length of the CH4 producing season, and the spatial and temporal variability of the flux.

Crill, P. M.; Bartlett, K. B.; Harriss, R. C.; Gorham, E.; Verry, E. S.; Sebacher, D. I.; Madzar, L.; Sanner, W.

1988-12-01

152

Metabolism of DNA secondary structures at the eukaryotic replication fork.  

PubMed

DNA secondary structures are largely advantageous for numerous cellular processes but can pose specific threats to the progression of the replication machinery and therefore genome duplication and cell division. A number of specialized enzymes dismantle these structures to allow replication fork progression to proceed faithfully. In this review, we discuss the in vitro and in vivo data that has lead to the identification of these enzymes in eukaryotes, and the evidence that suggests that they act specifically at replication forks to resolve secondary structures. We focus on the role of helicases, which catalyze the dissociation of nucleotide complexes, and on the role of nucleases, which cleave secondary structures to allow replication fork progression at the expense of local rearrangements. Finally, we discuss outstanding questions in terms of dismantling DNA secondary structures, as well as the interplay between diverse enzymes that act upon specific types of structures. PMID:24815912

León-Ortiz, Ana María; Svendsen, Jennifer; Boulton, Simon J

2014-07-01

153

A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope  

PubMed Central

A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s.

Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

2013-01-01

154

A multi-fork z-axis quartz micromachined gyroscope.  

PubMed

A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s. PMID:24048339

Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

2013-01-01

155

77 FR 55796 - Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest, KY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forest Service Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest...SUMMARY: The Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project involves activities to improve...wells, removing abandoned flow lines, restoration of stream channels and associated...

2012-09-11

156

76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project Environmental Impact Statement...integrated hazardous fuels and forest restoration project in the Upper North Fork drainage...environmental analysis under the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. A...

2011-08-03

157

Dental Therapy: Evolving in Minnesota's Safety Net.  

PubMed

Objectives. We identified Minnesota's initial dental therapy employers and surveyed dental safety net providers' perceptions of dental therapy. Methods. In July 2011, we surveyed 32 Minnesota dental safety net providers to assess their prospective views on dental therapy employment options. In October 2013, we used an employment scan to reveal characteristics of the early adopters of dental therapy. Results. Before the availability of licensed dental therapists, safety net dental clinic directors overwhelmingly (77%) supported dental therapy. As dental therapists have become licensed over the past 2 years, the early employers of dental therapists are safety net clinics. Conclusions. Although the concept of dental therapy remains controversial in Minnesota, it now has a firm foundation in the state's safety net clinics. Dental therapists are being used in innovative and diverse ways, so, as dental therapy continues to evolve, further research to identify best practices for incorporating dental therapists into the oral health care team is needed. PMID:24825234

Self, Karl; Born, David; Nagy, Amanda

2014-06-01

158

Minnesota Measures: 2007 Report on Higher Education Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, Governor Tim Pawlenty and the Minnesota Legislature charged the Minnesota Office of Higher Education with developing an accountability system to measure the higher education sector's effectiveness in meeting state goals. Minnesota's leaders recognized that the knowledge, creativity and intellectual capacity of the state's people are the…

Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

159

Assumptions and Grand Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strategy and, as this article has argued, grand strategy, are always made in highly complex, multifaceted and extremely dynamic environments. The control of events is often illusory. And, recognizing that any success achieved is in good measure dependent ...

B. Lombardi

2011-01-01

160

Soil Development and Glacial History, West Fork of Beaver Creek, Uinta Mountains, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant mechanisms of soil formation on a sequence of Smiths Fork, Blacks Fork, and Pre-Blacks Fork moraines in West Fork of Beaver Creek, Uinta Mountains, Utah, (equivalent to Pinedale, Bull Lake, and Pre-Bull Lake moraines of the Wind River Range, respectively) are clay translocation (argilluviation), increasing soil redness (rubification), and the accumulation of organic matter (melanization) and silt-sized particles.

Daniel C. Douglass; David M. Mickelson

2007-01-01

161

Signal electronics for an atomic force microscope equipped with a double quartz tuning fork sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal electronics equipped with a bandpass filter phase detector for noncontact atomic force microscopy (ncAFM) has been developed. A double quartz tuning fork assembly is used as a force sensor, where one fork serves as a dither tuning fork, while the other is used as a measuring tuning fork. An electrically conductive Pt90Ir10 tip enables the sensor to work in

H.-P. Rust; M. Heyde; H.-J. Freund

2006-01-01

162

A model of contact mechanism for a quartz-crystal tuning-fork tactile sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the contact mechanism for a quartz-crystal tuning-fork tactile sensor theoretically. On the assumption that the right half of a quartz-crystal tuning fork as an L-shaped bar, in which the bars acting as the base and the arm undergo bending vibration, we analyzed the frequency of a tuning-fork tactile sensor by considering the base of the tuning fork on

Hideaki Itoh; Kiyoshi Ishikawa; Yasunobu Fujiwara; Takamitsu Mizushima

2003-01-01

163

Bank stability and channel width adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. Bank stability, and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width, in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill. -from Author

Andrews, E. D.

1982-01-01

164

Pollen sequence at Kirchner Marsh, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A pollen diagram from Kirchner Marsh, southeastern Minnesota, records a continuous vegetation sequence from the time of Late Wisconsin ice retreat from the region. The late-glacial and early postglacial portions of the diagram are correlated with a radiocarbon-dated diagram from Madelia, Minnesota. Both diagrams show a series of maxima of pollen types in the early postglacial that suggest a significant climatic change at that time. The Kirchner diagram, in addition, shows high percentages of nonarboreal pollen later in the postglacial that indicate an advance of prairie elements into the area between 7200 and 5000 years ago.

Winter, T. C.

1962-01-01

165

Functional Analysis of DNA Replication Fork Reversal Catalyzed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis RuvAB Proteins*  

PubMed Central

Initially discovered in Escherichia coli, RuvAB proteins are ubiquitous in bacteria and play a dual role as molecular motor proteins responsible for branch migration of the Holliday junction(s) and reversal of stalled replication forks. Despite mounting genetic evidence for a crucial role of RuvA and RuvB proteins in reversal of stalled replication forks, the mechanistic aspects of this process are still not fully understood. Here, we elucidate the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RuvAB (MtRuvAB) complex to catalyze the reversal of replication forks using a range of DNA replication fork substrates. Our studies show that MtRuvAB, unlike E. coli RuvAB, is able to drive replication fork reversal via the formation of Holliday junction intermediates, suggesting that RuvAB-catalyzed fork reversal involves concerted unwinding and annealing of nascent leading and lagging strands. We also demonstrate the reversal of replication forks carrying hemi-replicated DNA, indicating that MtRuvAB complex-catalyzed fork reversal is independent of symmetry at the fork junction. The fork reversal reaction catalyzed by MtRuvAB is coupled to ATP hydrolysis, is processive, and culminates in the formation of an extended reverse DNA arm. Notably, we found that sequence heterology failed to impede the fork reversal activity of MtRuvAB. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of recognition and processing of varied types of replication fork structures by RuvAB proteins.

Khanduja, Jasbeer Singh; Muniyappa, K.

2012-01-01

166

Recovery of Arrested Replication Forks by Homologous Recombination Is Error-Prone  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology) indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination.

Pietrobon, Violena; Freon, Karine; Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A. E.

2012-01-01

167

Hydraulic geometry and sediment data for the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho, 1985-86  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic geometry, suspended-sediment, and bedload samples were collected at three sites in the upper reach of the South Fork Salmon River drainage basin from April 1985 to June 1986. Sites selected were South Fork Salmon River near Krassel Ranger Station, Buckhorn Creek, and North Fork Lick Creek. Results of the data collection are presented in this report.

Williams, Rhea P.; O'Dell, Ivalou; Megahan, Walter F.

1989-01-01

168

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2011-07-01

169

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2012-07-01

170

33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33...and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation...the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of the reservoir and on...

2010-07-01

171

Educational Politics and Declining Enrollment: Minnesota, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the factors involved in the consideration of two bills by the Minnesota legislature in 1977. The first bill, designed to increase the level of state foundation aid to education, was affected by public concern over inflation and property tax rates and by the impact of enrollment decline. Lobbying efforts by organizations of…

Nasstrom, Roy R.

172

Modeling streamflow response from Minnesota peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To aid in the development of Minnesota's 7 million acres of peatlands, and to evaluate the hydrologic impacts and reclamation options associated with such development, a Peatland Hydrologic Impact Model (PHIM) was devised. PHIM is a deterministic, continuous simulation model designed to simulate streamflow resulting from rainfall and snowmelt under both natural and altered (mined) conditions. It is largely physically

Guertin

1984-01-01

173

A solar-energy system in Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses system for Minnesota residence. Final design was arrived at that will meet 45 percent of total average heating load and will supply 40 gallons of potable ater at 140 deg F. Document contains detailed drawings, specifications, and cost tradeoff studies. Also included are outline of proposed installation, operation and maintenance manual, and analysis of hazards.

1980-01-01

174

District heating for the state of Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minnesota Energy Agency is actively involved in implementing new hot water cogeneration district heating systems in Moorhead (POP 34,000), Red Wing (POP 13000), and St. Paul (POP 310,000). These projects have been funded by the Department of Energy, the State and the cities. The district heating systems designed will use coal and cogenerated thermal energy from existing electric generation

Sundberg

1981-01-01

175

Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, Volume 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a collection of six papers presented at a 1974 University of Minnesota symposium on child development. The six chapters deal with language acquisition, visual perception, effects of television viewing, the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), problem-solving strategies, and Piagetian concepts related to social development. The first…

Pick, Anne D., Ed.

176

Troubled Waters for the University of Minnesota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than a year and a half after the University of Minnesota made headlines when an administrator halted the premiere of an environmental documentary, controversy and questions persist at the Twin Cities university. "Troubled Waters: A Mississippi River Story" took nearly four years to make. It explores how agricultural runoff and pollution…

Priesmeyer, Molly

2012-01-01

177

Shoreline Erosion Processes: Orwell Lake, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Orwell Lake, in west-central Minnesota, is a flood-control, water-management reservoir first impounded in 1953. Subsequent erosion of the shoreline and a lack of knowledge of slope erosion processes in this region prompted this study to identify and quant...

J. R. Reid

1984-01-01

178

Metro-Minnesota CCOP - National Cancer Institute  

Cancer.gov

The Metro-Minnesota Community Clinical Oncology (MMCCOP) was established in 1979 through an NCI-funded Community Hospital Cancer Program (CHCP) Award. This same consortium of seven community hospitals in Minneapolis received one of the initial Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) grant awards from the NCI in 1983, and has received subsequent CCOP grants since that time.

179

Minnesota Charter Schools: A Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, Minnesota enacted ground-breaking legislation that authorized school districts to sponsor a limited number of charter schools. Implementation of the program was politically contentious, and the issue remains highly charged. This document presents findings of a study that examined the charter schools that were proposed and operating in…

Urahn, Sue; Stewart, Dan

180

76 FR 47286 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00033  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assistance Only for the State of Minnesota (FEMA- 4009-DR), dated 07/28/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes. Incident Period: 07/01/2011 through 07/11/2011. Effective Date: 07/28/2011. Physical Loan Application...

2011-08-04

181

27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the North Fork of Roanoke viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. Virginia, 7.5 minute series maps. They are: (1) McDonalds Mill Quadrangle, 1965; (2) Glenvar Quadrangle, 1965; (3) Elliston Quadrangle, 1965; (4) Ironto...

2009-04-01

182

27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the North Fork of Roanoke viticultural area are six U.S.G.S. Virginia, 7.5 minute series maps. They are: (1) McDonalds Mill Quadrangle, 1965; (2) Glenvar Quadrangle, 1965; (3) Elliston Quadrangle, 1965; (4) Ironto...

2010-04-01

183

Noncontact friction force microscopy based on quartz tuning fork sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noncontact friction force microscopy (NC-FFM) measures the damping of the resonant oscillation of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip that vibrates parallel to the sample surface at a controlled distance. By exploiting the two fundamental orthogonal vibration modes of a quartz tuning fork, such technique can be realized by all-piezoelectric sensing by simultaneously employing an AFM noncontact mode for distance

M. Labardi; M. Allegrini

2006-01-01

184

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

185

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

186

Note: A transimpedance amplifier for remotely located quartz tuning forks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cable capacitance in cryogenic and high vacuum applications of quartz tuning forks imposes severe constraints on the bandwidth and noise performance of the measurement. We present a single stage low noise transimpedance amplifier with a bandwidth exceeding 1 MHz and provide an in-depth analysis of the dependence of the amplifier parameters on the cable capacitance.

Kleinbaum, Ethan; Csáthy, Gábor A.

2012-12-01

187

Note: a transimpedance amplifier for remotely located quartz tuning forks.  

PubMed

The cable capacitance in cryogenic and high vacuum applications of quartz tuning forks imposes severe constraints on the bandwidth and noise performance of the measurement. We present a single stage low noise transimpedance amplifier with a bandwidth exceeding 1 MHz and provide an in-depth analysis of the dependence of the amplifier parameters on the cable capacitance. PMID:23278030

Kleinbaum, Ethan; Csáthy, Gábor A

2012-12-01

188

DNA Polymerases that Propagate the Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three DNA polymerases are thought to function at the eukaryotic DNA replication fork. Currently, a coherent model has been derived for the composition and activities of the lagging strand machinery. RNA-DNA primers are initiated by DNA polymerase ?-primase. Loading of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA, dissociates DNA polymerase ? and recruits DNA poly- merase ? and the flap endonuclease

Parie Garg; Peter M. J. Burgers

2005-01-01

189

Mechanisms of dissipation of an oscillating quartz tuning fork immersed in He II at high pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissipative processes that occur with immersing a vibrating tuning fork in superfluid helium are investigated. The tuning forks resonance width ?f of frequencies from 32 to 97 kHz was measured in the temperature range from 0.2 to 2.5 K and He II pressure from SVP to 24.9 atm. Some of the tuning forks were in the original can (closed tuning fork), and for some tuning forks the can was either completely or partially removed (opened fork). We found that for the open tuning forks two dissipation mechanisms are clearly revealed in the temperature dependence of ?f, namely, acoustic radiation and scattering of ballistic thermal excitations at low temperatures, and viscous friction at high temperatures. At low temperatures (below ~ 0.8 K) acoustic dissipation dominates, and the model of quadrupole oscillator for a tuning fork can be applied. We found that acoustic radiation for closed tuning forks is less effective and appears at lower temperatures. The first experimental data on dissipative processes in the quartz tuning fork-He II system at increased liquid pressures are obtained. It is shown that, for high frequency tuning forks the resonance bandwidth decreases with increasing pressure, i.e., with increasing wavelength of sound ?, according to the law ?-5. At low frequencies and low temperatures, with increasing mean free path of thermal excitations the resonance bandwidth is well described by the model of ballistic scattering.

Gritsenko, I. A.; Zadorozhko, A. A.; Sheshin, G. A.

2012-12-01

190

Depositional environments, reservoir trends, and diagenesis of Red Fork sandstones in parts of Blaine, Caddo, and Custer counties, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Fork sandstone was divided into the upper and lower Red Fork which are separated by a consistent marker bed. The Red Fork interval thickens markedly across the study area from 250 ft (75 m) in the northeast to over 1300 ft (400 m) in the southwest. Most of the thickening is within the lower Red Fork. The lower

Christopher L. Johnson

1984-01-01

191

HOWARD FORK ACID ROCK DRAINAGE SOURCE INTERCEPTION STUDY; HOWARD FORK OF THE SAN MIGUEL RIVER NEAR OPHIR, COLORADO  

EPA Science Inventory

This project proposes to analyze regional hydrogeology as it relates to mine workings which discharge significant heavy metals into the Howard Fork of the San Miguel River and recommend strategies to intercept and divert water away from mineralized zones. The study also includes...

192

Albuquerque: Rio Grande Aerial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This image is showing an aerial view of the Rio Grande River. It is considered the fourth or fifth longest river system in North America. The river passes through the states of Colorado, New Mexico and Texas, thereby forming a natural border between the United States and Mexico. Since historic time, the river’s flow has decreased significantly due to the

Chet Smolski

1993-01-01

193

Democracy and "Grand" Corruption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)

Rose-Ackerman, Susan

1996-01-01

194

The Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site from PBS.org, called Lost in the Canyon (1), offers an excellent online learning experience. Visitors learn about John Wesley Powell's expedition down the Colorado River, covered in transcripts from the companion television show and a timeline of Powell's life. Other features include an interactive lesson on running rapids and a look at the unique geologic history of the area. Next, from StudyWorks! Online comes the lesson entitled Sleuthing at the Grand Canyon: Using Rocks to Tell Us About the Past (2). Through basic descriptions, photographs, and illustrations, students learn how rocks form, how scientists use them to find out about past environments, and much more. The third site is provided by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center called The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center Fiscal Year 2000-2004 Monitoring and Research Strategic Plan (3). Readers will discover the mission of the center, history of monitoring in the area, management strategies, research activities, and much more. Next is a site offered by Richard S. Naylor of Northeastern University's Department of Geology called Unconformities in the Grand Canyon (4). Visitors will find descriptions and photographs of several sites in the Grand Canyon that exhibit geologic unconformities or surfaces that represent a break in the geologic record. The fifth site is maintained by kaibob.org called the Geology of Grand Canyon (5). This site contains basic information on how the canyon was formed, where all the rock came from, why it looks like it does, and when it all happened. From NASA's Visible Earth Web site comes the 3-D View of Grand Canyon (6) page. The canyon can be viewed in a low or high resolution JPEG format, which shows the surrounding area, part of the Colorado river, and the canyon itself in dynamic colors. Part of Northern Arizona University, the seventh site is entitled Canyons, Culture, and Environmental Change: An Introduction to the Land Use History of the Colorado Plateau (7). The site provides an introduction to the environmental history of the Colorado Plateau and summarizes a vast body of research from multiple disciplines in an easily accessible format. The last site from NOAA's Colorado River Basin Forecast Center is the River Forecasts and Data page (8). Provided are data from various sites along the river that offer a wide range of relevant information such as simulated hydrographs.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

195

Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in Minnesota wolves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Serum samples (n = 457) from wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Minnesota were collected from 1972 through 1986 and were tested for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans using a microtiter agglutination test. Twelve serovars included in the study were: australis, autumnalis, ballum, bataviae, bratislava, canicola, copenhageni, grippotyphosa, hardjo, pomona, pyrogenes, and tarassovi. Fifty-two (11%) sera had antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:50 against one or more serovars of L. interrogans. The seroprevalence of different serovars in decreasing order was: grippotyphosa, bratislava, autumnalis, canicola, pomona, ballum, pyrogenes, hardjo, and copenhageni. No antibodies were found against australis, bataviae, and tarassovi. These results indicate that L. interrogans infection may occur in wolves of Minnesota.

Khan, M.A.; Goyal, S.M.; Diesch, S.L.; Mech, L.D.; Fritts, S.H.

1991-01-01

196

Dilemmas of Brazilian Grand Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph analyzes Brazilian grand strategy under President Luiz In cio Lula da Silva. During Lula's nearly 8 years in office, he has pursued a multipronged grand strategy aimed at hastening the transition from unipolarity and Western economic hegemo...

H. Brands

2010-01-01

197

Hydrologic modeling of flood conveyance and impacts of historic overbank sedimentation on West Fork Black's Fork, Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses historic overbank alluvial sedimentation along a low-gradient reach of West Fork Black's Fork in the northern Uinta Mountains, Utah. In this previously glaciated setting, an alluvial floodplain that is approximately 400 m wide by 1500 m long has been modified by the combined effects of valley morphometry and the recent history of clear-cut logging during the late

Eric C. Carson

2006-01-01

198

Minnesota horticultural industry survey on invasive plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Horticultural commerce of ornamental plants has been the source of many of our most troublesome plant invaders worldwide.\\u000a The purpose of this research was to document the knowledge gap of industry perspectives and knowledge of invasive ornamental\\u000a crops by surveying industry professionals in the Midwest region of the U.S. (primarily in the state of Minnesota). An invasive\\u000a plant survey was

William L. Peters; Mary Hockenberry Meyer; Neil O. Anderson

2006-01-01

199

Scanning Probe Microscopy of DNA with a Quartz Tuning Fork  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz tuning-forks have recently been put to use as highly sensitive force detectors in atomic force microscopy (AFM).(F.J.Giessibl et al.), Science 289, 422 (2000). In this study we have applied a home-built, tuning-fork based AFM to the investigation of single and double stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA). We operate the microscope in the non-contact mode (typical tip amplitude ~1 nm) with a variety of tips (e.g. Si, Si_3N_4, W). Here we report on recent results showing that the apparent height of plasmid dsDNA on mica substrates depends on both the tip material and imaging frequency shift. This talk will also review our efforts to probe ssDNA with a chemically functionalized tip. Current and future prospects for this dynamic-mode, chemically-sensitive force microscopy technique will be discussed.

King, G. M.; Nunes, G., Jr.

2001-03-01

200

Low temperature apertureless NSOM using quartz crystal tuning forks.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-temperature apertureless near field scanning optical microscope (LT-ANSOM) utilizing a modulated self-sensing piezoelectric quartz tuning fork has been built. This instrument can be used in ANSOM, AFM or STM mode. ANSOM will be used for spectroscopy of individual Ge/Si quantum dots. Ge/Si quantum dots are illuminated from a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator. Photoluminescence from individual Ge quantum dots, scattered from the modulated AFM/STM tip, is analyzed using an imaging spectrometer and InGaAs array. A cryogenic preamplifier is used to amplify the piezoelectric signal from the quartz tuning fork, resulting in thermal noise-limited performance at T=4K. We gratefully acknowledge NSF (DMR-9701725, IMR-9802784) and DARPA (DAAD-16-99-C1036) for financial support of this work.

Patil, N. G.; Zhu, Henry; Levy, Jeremy

2001-03-01

201

Developmentally regulated Drosophila gene family encoding the fork head domain.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated seven Drosophila genes by means of low-stringency hybridization to a DNA probe containing the coding sequence for the protein domain shared by the rodent hepatocyte-enriched nuclear transcription factor HNF3A (alpha) and the product of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene fork head (fkh). The previously unreported genes encode a 110-amino acid conserved sequence, which we call the fork head (fkh) domain. Two of these fkh-domain-encoding genes ("FD genes") map to the sloppy paired locus (slp), which exerts segmentation gene function. The expression patterns of the other FD genes suggest that their protein products are likely to be involved in gut formation, mesoderm specification, and some specific aspects of neural development. The FD gene products presumably represent a family of transcription factors that, like the previously identified DNA-binding proteins, contribute to early developmental decisions in cell fates during embryogenesis. Images

Hacker, U; Grossniklaus, U; Gehring, W J; Jackle, H

1992-01-01

202

Forking Genetic Algorithms: GAs with Search Space Division Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we propose a new type of genetic algorithm (GA), the forking GA (fGA), which divides the whole search space into subspaces, depending on the convergence status of the population and the solutions obtained so far. The fGA is intended to deal with multimodal problems that are difficult to solve using conventional GAs. We use a multi-population scheme

Shigeyoshi Tsutsui; Yoshiji Fujimoto; Ashish Ghosh

1997-01-01

203

A tuning fork gyroscope with compensated imbalance signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is presenting a robust gyroscope sensor with an electrical and mechanical self-test option and the ability to suppress the quadrature error. The presented sensor is based on a tuning-fork working principle. The mechanical part is assembled in bulk-technology produced with a wet etching process. The two detection elements are manufactured with a standard CMOS-process and the material of

E. Arnold; F. Nuscheler

2007-01-01

204

Compensation methods for a silicon tuning fork gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents compensation methods for a robust gyroscope sensor with an electrical and mechanical self-test option and\\u000a the ability to suppress the quadrature error. The presented sensor is based on a tuning-fork working principle. The mechanical\\u000a part is assembled in bulk-technology produced with a wet etching process. The two detection elements are manufactured with\\u000a a standard CMOS-process and the

Eik Arnold; Franz Nuscheler

2008-01-01

205

Low temperature apertureless NSOM using quartz crystal tuning forks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-temperature apertureless near field scanning optical microscope (LT-ANSOM) utilizing a modulated self-sensing piezoelectric quartz tuning fork has been built. This instrument can be used in ANSOM, AFM or STM mode. ANSOM will be used for spectroscopy of individual Ge\\/Si quantum dots. Ge\\/Si quantum dots are illuminated from a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator. Photoluminescence from individual Ge quantum dots, scattered

N. G. Patil; Henry Zhu; Jeremy Levy

2001-01-01

206

Synthetic Lethality of Cohesins with PARPs and Replication Fork Mediators  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethality has been proposed as a way to leverage the genetic differences found in tumor cells to affect their selective killing. Cohesins, which tether sister chromatids together until anaphase onset, are mutated in a variety of tumor types. The elucidation of synthetic lethal interactions with cohesin mutants therefore identifies potential therapeutic targets. We used a cross-species approach to identify robust negative genetic interactions with cohesin mutants. Utilizing essential and non-essential mutant synthetic genetic arrays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we screened genome-wide for genetic interactions with hypomorphic mutations in cohesin genes. A somatic cell proliferation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that the majority of interactions were conserved. Analysis of the interactions found that cohesin mutants require the function of genes that mediate replication fork progression. Conservation of these interactions between replication fork mediators and cohesin in both yeast and C. elegans prompted us to test whether other replication fork mediators not found in the yeast were required for viability in cohesin mutants. PARP1 has roles in the DNA damage response but also in the restart of stalled replication forks. We found that a hypomorphic allele of the C. elegans SMC1 orthologue, him-1(e879), genetically interacted with mutations in the orthologues of PAR metabolism genes resulting in a reduced brood size and somatic cell defects. We then demonstrated that this interaction is conserved in human cells by showing that PARP inhibitors reduce the viability of cultured human cells depleted for cohesin components. This work demonstrates that large-scale genetic interaction screening in yeast can identify clinically relevant genetic interactions and suggests that PARP inhibitors, which are currently undergoing clinical trials as a treatment of homologous recombination-deficient cancers, may be effective in treating cancers that harbor cohesin mutations.

Barrett, Irene; Ferree, Elizabeth; van Pel, Derek M.; Ushey, Kevin; Sipahimalani, Payal; Bryan, Jennifer; Rose, Ann M.; Hieter, Philip

2012-01-01

207

Stable sinusoidal driver circuit for tuning fork choppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circuit is presented which can drive tuning fork choppers, such as the Bulova L40 and L2 series. The advantages of this circuit over the factory-supplied 5A-type driver are better drive-amplitude stability, freedom from drift due to line-voltage variations, and a cleaner, transient-free sinusoidal reference signal. Test results indicate an improvement in long-term stability by as much as a factor

James Podolske

1979-01-01

208

NORTH FORK OF THE AMERICAN RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mineral-resource surveys of the North Fork of the American River Wilderness study area, California have identified a zone of substantiated resource potential for gold and silver. Zones of probable gold and silver potential occur in the eastern part of the area between the Wubbena and La Trinidad mines and locally around the Marrs mine. A zone with probable chromium potential occurs in the serpentinite belt along the western border of the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

Harwood, David, S.; Federspiel, Francis, E.

1984-01-01

209

Replication Fork Reversal after Replication-Transcription Collision  

PubMed Central

Replication fork arrest is a recognized source of genetic instability, and transcription is one of the most prominent causes of replication impediment. We analyze here the requirement for recombination proteins in Escherichia coli when replication–transcription head-on collisions are induced at a specific site by the inversion of a highly expressed ribosomal operon (rrn). RecBC is the only recombination protein required for cell viability under these conditions of increased replication-transcription collisions. In its absence, fork breakage occurs at the site of collision, and the resulting linear DNA is not repaired and is slowly degraded by the RecJ exonuclease. Lethal fork breakage is also observed in cells that lack RecA and RecD, i.e. when both homologous recombination and the potent exonuclease V activity of the RecBCD complex are inactivated, with a slow degradation of the resulting linear DNA by the combined action of the RecBC helicase and the RecJ exonuclease. The sizes of the major linear fragments indicate that DNA degradation is slowed down by the encounter with another rrn operon. The amount of linear DNA decreases nearly two-fold when the Holliday junction resolvase RuvABC is inactivated in recB, as well as in recA recD mutants, indicating that part of the linear DNA is formed by resolution of a Holliday junction. Our results suggest that replication fork reversal occurs after replication–transcription head-on collision, and we propose that it promotes the action of the accessory replicative helicases that dislodge the obstacle.

De Septenville, Anne L.; Michel, Benedicte

2012-01-01

210

Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

2001-01-01

211

Timing, Coordination, and Rhythm: Acrobatics at the DNA Replication Fork*  

PubMed Central

In DNA replication, the antiparallel nature of the parental duplex imposes certain constraints on the activity of the DNA polymerases that synthesize new DNA. The leading-strand polymerase advances in a continuous fashion, but the lagging-strand polymerase is forced to restart at short intervals. In several prokaryotic systems studied so far, this problem is solved by the formation of a loop in the lagging strand of the replication fork to reorient the lagging-strand DNA polymerase so that it advances in parallel with the leading-strand polymerase. The replication loop grows and shrinks during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The timing of Okazaki fragment synthesis and loop formation is determined by a subtle interplay of enzymatic activities at the fork. Recent developments in single-molecule techniques have enabled the direct observation of these processes and have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the replication fork. Here, we will review recent experimental advances, present the current models, and discuss some of the exciting developments in the field.

Hamdan, Samir M.; van Oijen, Antoine M.

2010-01-01

212

Do replication forks control late origin firing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of eukaryotic DNA replication timing profiles suggest that the time-dependent rate of origin firing, I(t), has a universal shape, which ensures a reproducible replication completion time. However, measurements of I(t) are based on population averages, which may bias the shape of the I(t) because of imperfect cell synchrony and cell-to-cell variability. Here, we measure the population-averaged I(t) profile from synchronized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using DNA combing and we extract the single-cell I(t) profile using numerical deconvolution. The single cell I(t) and the population-averaged I(t) extracted from DNA combing and replication timing profiles are similar, indicating a genome scale invariance of the replication process, and excluding cell-to-cell variability in replication time as an explanation for the shape of I(t). The single cell I(t) correlates with fork density in wild-type cells, which is specifically loosened in late S phase in the clb5? mutant. A previously proposed numerical model that reproduces the wild-type I(t) profile, could also describe the clb5? mutant I(t) once modified to incorporate the decline in CDK activity and the looser dependency of initiation on fork density in the absence of Clb5p. Overall, these results suggest that the replication forks emanating from early fired origins facilitate origin firing in later-replicating regions.

Ma, Emilie; Hyrien, Olivier; Goldar, Arach

2012-01-01

213

40 CFR 272.1201 - Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Minnesota State-administered program; Final...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS...Minnesota § 272.1201 Minnesota State-administered program;...

2013-07-01

214

A Handbook for Collecting Releve Data in Minnesota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The releve method is a semi-quantitative plot method that records both physiognomic (structural) and species composition data. The workshop will demonstrate releve field methods and discuss the multivariate analysis of releve data. The application of releve data to problems of habitat evaluation, forest inventory, and research projects in Minnesota will be presented by experts from the Minnesota Natural Heritage Program, the Minnesota County Biological Survey, and the Univ. of Minnesota. All participants will receive a releve handbook that covers the history of the method, field instructions, data-entry forms, and an overview of a menu-driven computer system (SAS Version 5) used to manage a releve database.

John C. Almendinger (Minnesota Natural Heritage Program;)

2008-04-11

215

Sediment Mobilization in Ravines Draining Minnesota Cropland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, studies have found that Lake Pepin, a naturally-dammed lake on the Mississippi River on the border of Minnesota and Wisconsin, is filling in with sediment at an alarming rate. Most of this sediment comes from the Minnesota River, which contributes about 80% of all the sediment being deposited in Lake Pepin, even though it contains only 35% of the upstream area. This study focuses on understanding sediment derived from ravine erosion in a tributary of the Minnesota River basin through event monitoring of two ravines in the Le Sueur River watershed. Ravines represent one of the key sediment sources in the Le Sueur watershed, with sediment mobilized through ravine widening and headcutting. In addition, sediment may be mobilized through riverbank and bluff erosion and erosion of the topsoil. A major effort is underway to reduce the amount of sediment in the Minnesota River and Lake Pepin, so we must discover what is causing the sediment to be mobilized and when. Dominant land use in the area is agricultural with over 90% of the crops consisting of row crops. Field drainage in these agricultural areas is heavily influenced by the installation of drainage ditches and drain tile. While this has increased crop yield, it has altered the natural drainage of the area. Southern Minnesota is covered by a thick layer of glacial till allowing the landscape to rapidly respond to hydrologic conditions within a relatively short amount of time, and those changes could include ravine widening or elongation. To better understand how ravines respond to different hydrologic events, we monitored ravines over the course of one monitoring season. From April-October 2013, three Sigma 930 automated samplers measured discharge and collected water samples for total suspended sediment analysis at three sites in two ravines. We tested whether the volume, intensity or seasonality of precipitation events is most important in mobilizing sediment in the ravines. Data are being analyzed to calculate sediment budgets and identify key hydrologic factors that control sediment movement out of these ravines and into the river.

Choquette, A. W.; Triplett, L.; Gran, K. B.

2013-12-01

216

Grand Unified Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attempts to place compact radio sources within a general interpretive framework for galactic nuclear activity, or Grand Unified Models, are reviewed. The study of superluminal motion is discussed, stressing the need for more objective methods to compare VLBI maps of compact radio sources at different epochs. Observations and arguments for and against the importance of relativistic beaming in compact radio sources are presented. The simple source model, in which the observed components move with uniform velocity along the source symmetry axis away from a stationary self-absorbed core is examined and suggestions for modifying the model are given. The parabolic spectra of blazars are discussed. The black hole model for explaining general activity in the nuclei of galaxies and radio emission and the incorporation of the apparent evolutionary properties of active galactic nuclei into grand models are also examined.

Blandford, Roger D.

1987-01-01

217

The Grand Time Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Grand Time Game is a collection of activities that teach students about geologic time. The game elements consist of a tabletop model that demonstrates the geologic history of the Grand Canyon, a script in which students report selected events along the geologic time scale as the instructor operates the model, and a set of overhead transparencies that the instructor shows to illustrate the story. The materials also include an activity sheet for students to record important events as they progress, and a card game about fossils and geologic time, played in groups of three or four students after the script reading (the cards can also be pasted onto a calendar or timeline). Instructions for building the model are provided.

218

The Grand Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces the MRI Safety Grand Challenge question. Students are asked to write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they will need to answer the question. The ideas are shared with the class and recorded. Students then watch a video interview with a real life researcher to gain a professional perspective on MRI safety and brainstorm any additional ideas. The associated activity provides students the opportunity to visualize magnetic fields.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

219

PARP is activated at stalled forks to mediate Mre11-dependent replication restart and recombination  

PubMed Central

If replication forks are perturbed, a multifaceted response including several DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways is activated to ensure faithful DNA replication. Here, we show that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) binds to and is activated by stalled replication forks that contain small gaps. PARP1 collaborates with Mre11 to promote replication fork restart after release from replication blocks, most likely by recruiting Mre11 to the replication fork to promote resection of DNA. Both PARP1 and PARP2 are required for hydroxyurea-induced homologous recombination to promote cell survival after replication blocks. Together, our data suggest that PARP1 and PARP2 detect disrupted replication forks and attract Mre11 for end processing that is required for subsequent recombination repair and restart of replication forks.

Bryant, Helen E; Petermann, Eva; Schultz, Niklas; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Issaeva, Natalia; Johansson, Fredrik; Fernandez, Serena; McGlynn, Peter; Helleday, Thomas

2009-01-01

220

Coordinated protein and DNA remodeling by human HLTF on stalled replication fork.  

PubMed

Human helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) exhibits ubiquitin ligase activity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) polyubiquitylation as well as double-stranded DNA translocase activity for remodeling stalled replication fork by fork reversal, which can support damage bypass by template switching. However, a stalled replication fork is surrounded by various DNA-binding proteins which can inhibit the access of damage bypass players, and it is unknown how these proteins become displaced. Here we reveal that HLTF has an ATP hydrolysis-dependent protein remodeling activity, by which it can remove proteins bound to the replication fork. Moreover, we demonstrate that HLTF can displace a broad spectrum of proteins such as replication protein A (RPA), PCNA, and replication factor C (RFC), thereby providing the first example for a protein clearing activity at the stalled replication fork. Our findings clarify how remodeling of a stalled replication fork can occur if it is engaged in interactions with masses of proteins. PMID:21795603

Achar, Yathish Jagadheesh; Balogh, David; Haracska, Lajos

2011-08-23

221

Replication fork barriers: pausing for a break or stalling for time?  

PubMed Central

Defects in chromosome replication can lead to translocations that are thought to result from recombination events at stalled DNA replication forks. The progression of forks is controlled by an essential DNA helicase, which unwinds the parental duplex and can stall on encountering tight protein–DNA complexes. Such pause sites are hotspots for recombination and it has been proposed that stalled replisomes disassemble, leading to fork collapse. However, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes it now seems that paused forks are surprisingly stable, so that DNA synthesis can resume without recombination if the barrier protein is removed. Recombination at stalled forks might require other events that occur after pausing, or might be dependent on features of the surrounding DNA sequence. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the regulation of genome stability in eukaryotic cells, in which pausing of forks is mediated by specific proteins that are associated with the replicative helicase.

Labib, Karim; Hodgson, Ben

2007-01-01

222

The level of origin firing inversely affects the rate of replication fork progression  

PubMed Central

DNA damage slows DNA synthesis at replication forks; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Cdc7 kinase is required for replication origin activation, is a target of the intra-S checkpoint, and is implicated in the response to replication fork stress. Remarkably, we found that replication forks proceed more rapidly in cells lacking Cdc7 function than in wild-type cells. We traced this effect to reduced origin firing, which results in fewer replication forks and a consequent decrease in Rad53 checkpoint signaling. Depletion of Orc1, which acts in origin firing differently than Cdc7, had similar effects as Cdc7 depletion, consistent with decreased origin firing being the source of these defects. In contrast, mec1-100 cells, which initiate excess origins and also are deficient in checkpoint activation, showed slower fork progression, suggesting the number of active forks influences their rate, perhaps as a result of competition for limiting factors.

Zhong, Yuan; Nellimoottil, Tittu; Peace, Jared M.; Knott, Simon R.V.; Villwock, Sandra K.; Yee, Janis M.; Jancuska, Jeffrey M.; Rege, Sanket; Tecklenburg, Marianne; Sclafani, Robert A.; Tavare, Simon

2013-01-01

223

Development of Self-Vibration and Detection AFM Probe by using Quartz Tuning Fork  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a novel type of quartz tuning-fork probe that vibrates and detects its own probe deformation, for application to atomic force microscopy (AFM). This tuning-fork probe improves the AFM image resolution because of its high Q (quality) factor value. The tuning-fork probe has a sharp tip that was fabricated using anisotropic wet etching and a focused ion beam system.

H. Hida; M. Shikida; K. Fukuzawa; A. Ono; K. Sato; K. Asaumi; Y. Iriye; T. Muramatsu; Y. Horikawa

2007-01-01

224

Fabrication of a quartz tuning-fork probe with a sharp tip for AFM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quartz tuning-fork probe can oscillate and can be used to detect an atomic force between the tip and the sample surface due to the piezoelectric property of quartz. We have designed a tuning-fork structure with a large spring constant of 50N\\/m to prevent probe adsorption to the sample surface. We developed a fabrication process to integrate the tuning-fork probe

H. Hida; M. Shikida; K. Fukuzawa; S. Murakami; Ke. Sato; K. Asaumi; Y. Iriye; Ka. Sato

2008-01-01

225

Model of Contact Mechanism for Quartz-Crystal Tuning-Fork Tactile Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contact mechanism for a quartz-crystal tuning-fork tactile sensor has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. We assume that the L-shaped right half of a quartz-crystal tuning fork is described by Sezawa's model and the torsion spring model. The frequency of the tuning-fork tactile sensor is analyzed by considering the lateral clamping force of an acrylic resin case and Winkler's

Hideaki Itoh; Masataka Yamatani; Shinobu Yoshida; Yasunobu Fujiwara; Kiyoshi Ishikawa

2004-01-01

226

Recovery of arrested replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology) indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination. PMID:23093942

Iraqui, Ismail; Chekkal, Yasmina; Jmari, Nada; Pietrobon, Violena; Fréon, Karine; Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A E

2012-01-01

227

Calibrating a tuning fork for use as a scanning probe microscope force sensor  

SciTech Connect

Quartz tuning forks mounted with sharp tips provide an alternate method to silicon microcantilevers for probing the tip-substrate interaction in scanning probe microscopy. The high quality factor and stable resonant frequency of the tuning fork allow accurate measurements of small shifts in the resonant frequency as the tip approaches the substrate. To permit an accurate measure of surface interaction forces, the electrical and piezoelectromechanical properties of a tuning fork have been characterized using a fiber optical interferometer.

Qin Yexian; Reifenberger, R. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana 47907 (United States)

2007-06-15

228

A Report to the Minnesota Legislature concerning Interscholastic Athletic Equity in Minnesota High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes interscholastic athletic programs offered by Minnesota high schools to identify errors in data reporting and suggest corrective action, identify areas of gender inequality in athletic offerings, and identify needed improvements in rule, law, or reporting requirements. The report outlines issues in sports equity, compares…

Dildine, Robert A.

229

MINNESOTA COORDINATION UNIT FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE MINNESOTA COORDINATION UNIT FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION WAS ESTABLISHED IN JUNE 1965 AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA FOR THE PURPOSES OF COORDINATING AND STIMULATING OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH, COLLECTING AND DISSEMINATING THE RESULTS OF THAT RESEARCH, PROVIDING TECHNICAL CONSULTATION AND RESEARCH TRAINING, AND…

MOSS, JEROME, JR.; NELSON, HOWARD F.

230

Tobacco Industry Documents: Comparing the Minnesota Depository and Internet Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the comparability of searches conducted on two publicly available tobacco industry document collections: hard copies housed and maintained by a neutral party in the Minnesota Depository and electronic copies available through tobacco industry maintained websites. Methods: We conducted a set of searches in Minnesota and then conducted the same searches using the industry websites. We matched documents

E. D. Balbach; R. J. Gasior; E. M. Barbeau

2002-01-01

231

Minnesota agripower project. Quarterly report, April--June 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota Industrial Park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively pri...

J. Baloun

1997-01-01

232

The Minnesota Family, Friend and Neighbor Grant Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, Minnesota became the first state in the nation to pass legislation establishing an education and support program for family, friend, and neighbor (FFN) care providers. This article describes the Minnesota Family, Friend and Neighbor Grant Program and findings from an evaluation of the programs and a curriculum scan of materials used in…

Susman-Stillman, Amy; Stout, Karen; Cleveland, Jennifer; Hawley, Vicki

2011-01-01

233

Minnesota Academic Standards in History and Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education in Minnesota must help students gain the knowledge and skills that are necessary to, in Thomas Jefferson's view, protect and maintain freedom. The Social Studies Standards in this document attempt to do just this by specifying the particular knowledge and skills that Minnesota students will be required to learn in the disciplines…

Minnesota Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

234

Housing Seasonal Workers for the Minnesota Processed Vegetable Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place where we live and work is a reflection of a complex set of economic conditions and social relationships. Very little information is available regarding housing for Minnesota's migrant workers. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people migrate to Minnesota each summer to work in the production and processing of green peas and sweet…

Ziebarth, Ann

2006-01-01

235

Minnesota Undergraduate Demographics: Characteristics of Post-Secondary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Minnesota's state population changes, the undergraduate student population is also changing. This report is designed to present information about the characteristics of undergraduates who attend post-secondary institutions in Minnesota, based on data from a 2004 national survey conducted by the U.S. Department of Education. The report provides…

Grimes, Tricia; Mehta, Shefali V.

2006-01-01

236

69. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

69. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1984. #32375.) VIEW TO WEST, SHOWING DAMAGED BRIDGE AFTER CYCLONE. 1904. - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

237

The Teaching of Evolution and Creationism in Minnesota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution-related attitudes and actions of Minnesota high school biology teachers were studied to estimate the prevalence of creationism among biology teachers. Minnesota's high school biology teachers were questioned about the evolution education in public schools regarding the percentage of biology teachers who teach evolution, class-time…

Moore, Randy; Kraemer, Karen

2005-01-01

238

Supercomputer chemistry at the University of Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus of cluster chemistry studies at the University of Minnesota is on the adsorption of small hydrocarbon molecules on metal and graphite surfaces, and on the substitution defects in diamond and silicon. Of particular interest is the study of very large systems such as the C60 molecule and the C150H30 molecule. Many of the properties of such clusters converge extremely slowly toward bulk values. Ultrathin films and microporous media are discussed as well as the Brownian dynamics of polymers.

Almlof, Jan; Truhlar, Donald G.; Davis, H. T.; Jensen, Klavs F.; Tirrell, Matthew

1988-01-01

239

Minnesota Agripower Project, Task IV research report  

SciTech Connect

Economic analysis is being conducted by the Department of Applied Economics in support of Minnesota Alfalfa Producer`s development of alfalfa as a dedicated biomass feedstock for energy production. University Researchers have assisted in the development and implementation of inventory control systems and procedures. This report lists the tasks for which researchers are currently finalizing economic analysis. The tasks encompass three main areas: (1) optimization of feedstock transportation system, (2) analysis of market potential for new alfalfa products, and (3) total systems analysis.

Fruin, J.; Tiffany, D.

1997-10-30

240

The Science Museum of Minnesota: Thinking Fountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Museum of Minnesota offers the extensive Welcome to the Thinking Fountain educational Web site. The many science activities provided on the site include: Bubbles, chromatography, density, friction, inventions, optics, light, recycling, and more. Visitors to the site can browse the activities alphabetically or by theme cluster, or can click on the interactive graphic on the main page. This site does a good job of providing quality lessons for science students in various grade levels; lessons that, besides being fun to complete, also help explain some of the more confusing science topics students confront.

241

The Rio Grande conservatory  

SciTech Connect

Today, as public concern mounts about the environmental damage caused by conventional energy technologies, architects are exploring new methods of providing energy to buildings so that they have a more cooperative relationship with the environment. The technology choices now available in glazing make it possible to maximize the use of the sun's energy while minimizing the heat loss and gain associated with large expanses of glazing. Mazria Riskin Odems Inc., the architects of the Rio Grande Conservatory, an all-glass botanical conservatory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, created a striking example of what is possible through the judicious use of modern glazing technologies.

Kriescher, P.; Mazria, E.

2000-04-01

242

Karst database development in Minnesota: Design and data assembly  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Karst Feature Database (KFD) of Minnesota is a relational GIS-based Database Management System (DBMS). Previous karst feature datasets used inconsistent attributes to describe karst features in different areas of Minnesota. Existing metadata were modified and standardized to represent a comprehensive metadata for all the karst features in Minnesota. Microsoft Access 2000 and ArcView 3.2 were used to develop this working database. Existing county and sub-county karst feature datasets have been assembled into the KFD, which is capable of visualizing and analyzing the entire data set. By November 17 2002, 11,682 karst features were stored in the KFD of Minnesota. Data tables are stored in a Microsoft Access 2000 DBMS and linked to corresponding ArcView applications. The current KFD of Minnesota has been moved from a Windows NT server to a Windows 2000 Citrix server accessible to researchers and planners through networked interfaces. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

Gao, Y.; Alexander, Jr. , E. C.; Tipping, R. G.

2005-01-01

243

BRCA1 controls homologous recombination at Tus/Ter-stalled mammalian replication forks.  

PubMed

Replication fork stalling can promote genomic instability, predisposing to cancer and other diseases. Stalled replication forks may be processed by sister chromatid recombination (SCR), generating error-free or error-prone homologous recombination (HR) outcomes. In mammalian cells, a long-standing hypothesis proposes that the major hereditary breast/ovarian cancer predisposition gene products, BRCA1 and BRCA2, control HR/SCR at stalled replication forks. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 affect replication fork processing, direct evidence that BRCA gene products regulate homologous recombination at stalled chromosomal replication forks is lacking, due to a dearth of tools for studying this process. Here we report that the Escherichia coli Tus/Ter complex can be engineered to induce site-specific replication fork stalling and chromosomal HR/SCR in mouse cells. Tus/Ter-induced homologous recombination entails processing of bidirectionally arrested forks. We find that the Brca1 carboxy (C)-terminal tandem BRCT repeat and regions of Brca1 encoded by exon 11-two Brca1 elements implicated in tumour suppression-control Tus/Ter-induced homologous recombination. Inactivation of either Brca1 or Brca2 increases the absolute frequency of 'long-tract' gene conversions at Tus/Ter-stalled forks, an outcome not observed in response to a site-specific endonuclease-mediated chromosomal double-strand break. Therefore, homologous recombination at stalled forks is regulated differently from homologous recombination at double-strand breaks arising independently of a replication fork. We propose that aberrant long-tract homologous recombination at stalled replication forks contributes to genomic instability and breast/ovarian cancer predisposition in BRCA mutant cells. PMID:24776801

Willis, Nicholas A; Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Huang, Bin; Kwok, Amy; Follonier, Cindy; Deng, Chuxia; Scully, Ralph

2014-06-26

244

A novel device for endoscopic submucosal dissection, the Fork knife  

PubMed Central

AIM: To introduce and evaluate the efficacy and technical aspects of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using a novel device, the Fork knife. METHODS: From March 2004 to April 2008, ESD was performed on 265 gastric lesions using a Fork knife (Endo FS®) (group A) and on 72 gastric lesions using a Flexknife (group B) at a single tertiary referral center. We retrospectively compared the endoscopic characteristics of the tumors, pathological findings, and sizes of the resected specimens. We also compared the en bloc resection rate, complete resection rate, complications, and procedure time between the two groups. RESULTS: The mean size of the resected specimens was 4.27 ± 1.26 cm in group A and 4.29 ± 1.48 cm in group B. The en bloc resection rate was 95.8% (254/265 lesions) in group A and 93.1% (67/72) in group B. Complete ESD without tumor cell invasion of the resected margin was obtained in 81.1% (215/265) of group A and in 73.6% (53/72) of group B. The perforation rate was 0.8% (2/265) in group A and 1.4% (1/72) in group B. The mean procedure time was 59.63 ± 56.12 min in group A and 76.65 ± 70.75 min in group B (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The Fork knife (Endo FS®) is useful for clinical practice and has the advantage of reducing the procedure time.

Kim, Hyun Gun; Cho, Joo Young; Bok, Gene Hyun; Cho, Won Young; Kim, Wan Jung; Hong, Su Jin; Ko, Bong Min; Kim, Jin Oh; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Moon Sung; Shim, Chan Sup

2008-01-01

245

Preferences in Minnesota Higher Education: Racial and Ethnic Preferences in Undergraduate Admissions at Four Minnesota Public University Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which racial and ethnic preferences are used in the admissions policies of a cross-section of Minnesota's public universities. It submits admissions data supplied by these universities to a rigorous statistical analysis. Findings show that there is substantial evidence that the University of Minnesota at Twin…

Lerner, Robert; Nagai, Althea K.

246

Noncontact friction force microscopy based on quartz tuning fork sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noncontact friction force microscopy (NC-FFM) measures the damping of the resonant oscillation of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip that vibrates parallel to the sample surface at a controlled distance. By exploiting the two fundamental orthogonal vibration modes of a quartz tuning fork, such technique can be realized by all-piezoelectric sensing by simultaneously employing an AFM noncontact mode for distance control. The low noncontact-mode vibration amplitude used increases the effective interaction time for shear measurement. Application to polymeric samples shows that the dissipation contrast of NC-FFM is higher than that of the corresponding noncontact-mode phase imaging.

Labardi, M.; Allegrini, M.

2006-10-01

247

BLACK FORK MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, ARAKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black Fork Mountain Roadless Area covers about 21 sq mi in the Ouachita National Forest in Polk County, Arkansas and LeFlore County, Oklahoma. On the basis of a mineral survey the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Stone and sand and gravel suitable for construction purposes occur in the Jackfork Sandstone and the Stanley Shale which also occur outside the roadless area. Although the potential for gas and oil is unknown and no resource potential was identified, some investigators believe that there is a possibility for the occurrence of gas and oil in the roadless area.

Miller, Mary, H.

1984-01-01

248

Acoustic Resonances in Helium Fluids Excited by Quartz Tuning Forks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinary quartz tuning fork resonators, operated at about 30 or 200 kHz frequency, couple to acoustic first and second sound resonances in helium fluids under certain conditions. We have studied acoustic resonances in supercritical 4He, normal and superfluid 4He, and in isotopic mixtures of helium. Suggestive temperature, pressure, and concentration dependences are given. Furthermore, we propose a thermometric reference point device based on second sound resonances in helium mixtures, and indicate possible differences in the nature of second sound resonances in superfluid 4He and helium mixtures.

Salmela, A.; Tuoriniemi, J.; Rysti, J.

2011-03-01

249

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation...Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a...

2013-07-01

250

Time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River, November 1975; and Elm Fork Trinity River, December 1975; Trinity River Basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In Texas, the time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River and the Elm Fork Trinity River was determined in 1975 by injecting a fluorescent dye (Rhodamine WT, 20-percent solution) that could be detected by fluorometric analysis of water samples collected at selected downstream sites. Plots of dye concentration versus time were made for each injection and sampling site. The graphs were then used to determine arrival times of the leading edge, the peak, and the trailing edge of the dye cloud. The study in November 1975 was conducted on the East Fork Trinity River from just below the Rockwall-Forney Dam at Lake Ray Hubbard to the confluence with the Trinity River, a distance of 27.0 miles. The study in December 1975 was conducted on the Elm Fork Trinity River from just below the dam at Lewisville Lake to the Spur 482 crossing, a distance of 25.7 miles. (Woodard-USGS)

Myers, Dennis R.; Slade, R. M., Jr.

1976-01-01

251

Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. Junior Web Ranger Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet (or "Junior Ranger Handbook") was designed to help children 4 to 12 years of age learn about the National Park Service and the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (Tennessee). The booklet offers activities and questions about the park; answers may be found by using the Big South Fork Web site (http://www.nps.gov/biso/).…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

252

Substrate-selective repair and restart of replication forks by DNA translocases  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Stalled replication forks are sources of genetic instability. Multiple fork remodeling enzymes are recruited to stalled forks, but how they work to promote fork restart is poorly understood. By combining ensemble biochemical assays and single molecule studies with magnetic tweezers, we show that SMARCAL1 branch migration and DNA annealing activities are directed by the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA to selectively regress stalled replication forks caused by blockage to the leading-strand polymerase and to restore normal replication forks with a lagging-strand gap. We unveil the molecular mechanisms by which RPA enforces SMARCAL1 substrate preference. E. coli RecG acts similarly to SMARCAL1 in the presence of E. coli SSB, whereas the highly related human protein ZRANB3 has different substrate preferences. Our findings identify the important substrates of SMARCAL1 in fork repair, suggest that RecG and SMARCAL1 are functional orthologues, and provide a comprehensive model of fork repair by these DNA translocases.

Betous, Remy; Couch, Frank. B.; Mason, Aaron C.; Eichman, Brandt F.

2013-01-01

253

Mutual interactions of oscillating quartz tuning forks in superfluid 4He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quartz tuning fork has recently become a popular experimental tool for investigations of both classical and quantum turbulence in cryogenic helium. Its increased use in low-temperature experiments and a number of puzzling results obtained in the past have led to many questions concerning the interaction of multiple tuning forks or the interaction of tuning forks with other oscillators. We report measurements performed in He II at low temperatures around 360 mK, on the mutual interaction of tuning forks placed in the same volume of fluid, and examine the responsible mechanisms in an effort to discriminate between acoustic coupling and interaction via quantized vortices. To this end, the interaction of two tuning forks is investigated by analyzing their recorded resonance curves, looking for any nonelectrical crosstalk. Further, the force-velocity characteristics of a detector tuning fork are measured for different operating velocities of a generator tuning fork. As a complementary measurement, the intensity of sound waves is recorded using a set of miniature receivers. We confirm the current knowledge on acoustic emission by tuning forks in He II and verify properties of their radiation patterns. We conclude that in our experiment the interaction is almost entirely mediated by sound waves.

Sheshin, G.; Gritsenko, I.; Schmoranzer, D.; Skrbek, L.

2013-10-01

254

Fabrication and characterization of AFM probe with crystal-quartz tuning fork structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new type of crystal quartz probe structure for application to the atomic force microscopy (AFM) system. Using quartz micromachining technology and a focused-ion-beam system, we fabricated a device in which we integrate tuning fork structure and a probe tip. We evaluated the vibration characteristic of the fabricated tuning fork by measuring its frequency response. From these

Hirotaka Hida; Mitsuhiro Shikida; Kenji Fukuzawa; Atsushi Ono; Kenji Sato; Kazuo Asaumi; Yasuroh Iriye; Di Cheng

2005-01-01

255

Noncontact scanning force microscopy based on a modified tuning fork sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distance control using a tuning fork setup for the detection of shear forces is a standard configuration in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Based on this concept, a modified sensor was developed, where a standard silicon tip for atomic force microscopy (AFM) is attached to the front end of one prong of a 100 kHz quartz tuning fork oscillator. Comparison

Hagen Göttlich; Robert W. Stark; Johannes D. Pedarnig; Wolfgang M. Heckl

2000-01-01

256

Angled long tip to tuning fork probes for atomic force microscopy in various environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We expand the range of applications of a tuning fork probe (TFP) in frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) by attaching a long metal tip at a certain angle. By the combined flexure of the metal tip and the tuning fork prong, this TFP can change the direction of the detectable force by switching the resonance frequency, which has not been

Seiji Higuchi; Hiromi Kuramochi; Osamu Kubo; Shintaro Masuda; Yoshitaka Shingaya; Masakazu Aono; Tomonobu Nakayama

2011-01-01

257

Proposal of new type of micro-machined quartz tuning fork AFM probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quartz probe structure with a monolithically integrated tuning fork with a sharp tip at the end has been developed for application to noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) systems. The structure is fabricated using quartz micromachining technologies. Evaluation of the properties of a fabricated quartz tuning fork showed that it had a Q-factor of 2348, a resonant frequency of 39.92

H. Hida; K. Fukuzawa; Di Cheng; K. Sato; M. Shikida; A. Ono; K. Asaumi; Y. Iriye

2005-01-01

258

Symmetrically arranged quartz tuning fork with soft cantilever for intermittent contact mode atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-sensing and -actuating probe for dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) based on a commercial quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever is presented. The U-shaped cantilever, exhibiting a sharp tip, is combined with the tuning fork in a symmetrical arrangement, such that each of the two legs of the cantilever is fixed to one of the prongs of

T. Akiyama; U. Staufer; N. F. de Rooij; P. Frederix; A. Engel

2003-01-01

259

A Wideband DVB Forked Shape Monopole Antenna With Coupling Effect for USB Dongle Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel wide-band printed antenna, named forked shape monopole antenna (FSMA), is proposed. The forked shape line structure is introduced to create a capacitive coupling effect to reduce the antenna size and enhance the impedance bandwidth. The proposed antenna is to be applied in a compact USB dongle. And it is designed for the reception of the digital video broadcasting

Cho-Kang Hsu; Shyh-Jong Chung

2010-01-01

260

Noncontact tuning fork position sensing for hollow-pyramid near-field cantilevered probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that tuning fork sensing provides a stable, noncontact mode of operation when applied to near-field optical microscopy employing cantilevered probes. Detrimental damping effects that have so far limited the practical use of these otherwise very advantageous probes are totally overcome. We validate our tuning fork setup featuring hollow-pyramid probes by an optical nanolithography application.

A. Ambrosio; E. Cefalì; S. Spadaro; S. Patanè; M. Allegrini; D. Albert; E. Oesterschulze

2006-01-01

261

Substrate-selective repair and restart of replication forks by DNA translocases.  

PubMed

Stalled replication forks are sources of genetic instability. Multiple fork-remodeling enzymes are recruited to stalled forks, but how they work to promote fork restart is poorly understood. By combining ensemble biochemical assays and single-molecule studies with magnetic tweezers, we show that SMARCAL1 branch migration and DNA-annealing activities are directed by the single-stranded DNA-binding protein RPA to selectively regress stalled replication forks caused by blockage to the leading-strand polymerase and to restore normal replication forks with a lagging-strand gap. We unveil the molecular mechanisms by which RPA enforces SMARCAL1 substrate preference. E. coli RecG acts similarly to SMARCAL1 in the presence of E. coli SSB, whereas the highly related human protein ZRANB3 has different substrate preferences. Our findings identify the important substrates of SMARCAL1 in fork repair, suggest that RecG and SMARCAL1 are functional orthologs, and provide a comprehensive model of fork repair by these DNA translocases. PMID:23746452

Bétous, Rémy; Couch, Frank B; Mason, Aaron C; Eichman, Brandt F; Manosas, Maria; Cortez, David

2013-06-27

262

Antigen forks: bispecific reagents that inhibit cell growth by binding selected pairs of tumor antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bispecific antibodies of a new category, termed “antigen forks”, were constructed by crosslinking antibodies that recognized pairs of distinct tumor cell surface antigens. At concentrations of 1–100 nM, several such forks inhibited the growth of human tumor cell lines bearing both relevant antigens. The same cells were not inhibited by unconjugated component antibodies, and the active conjugates did not inhibit

David B. Ring; Sylvia T. Hsieh-Ma; Tim Shi; John Reeder

1994-01-01

263

Characterization of ecological risks at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive field and laboratory approach to the ecological risk assessment for the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Site, a Superfund site in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been described in the preceding reports of this series. The risk assessment addresses concerns over the ecological impacts of upstream releases of mining wastes to fisheries of the upper Clark Fork

Gary A. Pascoe; Richard J. Blanchet; Greg Linder; Don Palawski; William G. Brumbaugh; Tim J. Canfield; Nile E. Kemble; Chris G. Ingersoll; Aïda Farag; Julie A. DalSoglio

1994-01-01

264

The intra-S phase checkpoint targets Dna2 to prevent stalled replication forks from reversing.  

PubMed

When replication forks stall at damaged bases or upon nucleotide depletion, the intra-S phase checkpoint ensures they are stabilized and can restart. In intra-S checkpoint-deficient budding yeast, stalling forks collapse, and ?10% form pathogenic chicken foot structures, contributing to incomplete replication and cell death (Lopes et al., 2001; Sogo et al., 2002; Tercero and Diffley, 2001). Using fission yeast, we report that the Cds1(Chk2) effector kinase targets Dna2 on S220 to regulate, both in vivo and in vitro, Dna2 association with stalled replication forks in chromatin. We demonstrate that Dna2-S220 phosphorylation and the nuclease activity of Dna2 are required to prevent fork reversal. Consistent with this, Dna2 can efficiently cleave obligate precursors of fork regression-regressed leading or lagging strands-on model replication forks. We propose that Dna2 cleavage of regressed nascent strands prevents fork reversal and thus stabilizes stalled forks to maintain genome stability during replication stress. PMID:22682245

Hu, Jiazhi; Sun, Lei; Shen, Fenfen; Chen, Yufei; Hua, Yu; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Mian; Hu, Yiren; Wang, Qingsong; Xu, Wei; Sun, Fei; Ji, Jianguo; Murray, Johanne M; Carr, Antony M; Kong, Daochun

2012-06-01

265

Trident-type tuning fork silicon gyroscope by the phase difference detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trident-type tuning fork silicon gyroscope was designed and fabricated. The trident-type tuning fork structure and vacuum packaging has a Q value higher than 15000. A new detection principle which is based on the phase difference detection is proposed and is confirmed using the fabricated gyroscope. By this detecting method, it is possible to detect the angular rate without control

Munemitsu Abe; Eiji Shinohara; Kazuo Hasegawa; Shinji Murata; Masayoshi Esashi

2000-01-01

266

STREAM CHANNEL SEDIMENT CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTH FORK SALMON RIVER, IDAHO, PROGRESS REPORT IV, JUNE 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the South Fork Salmon River (17060208) studies is to determine the condition of the aquatic environment and provide measures needed to maintain or enhance this environment. Prior to 1965, the South Fork Salmon River steadily degraded in quality, due to acceleratio...

267

33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and...REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its...

2013-07-01

268

Children's Report Card, 1999: Measuring Minnesota's Progress for Children and Youth. Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minnesota Planning developed the Children's Report Card in 1994 to help the state and its 87 counties gauge the well-being of Minnesota's children and youth. The report was created as an extension of Minnesota Milestones, a long-range plan for the state and a tool to measure results which was developed by Minnesota Planning in 1992. For the first…

Walter, Amy

269

Mus81-mediated DNA cleavage resolves replication forks stalled by topoisomerase I-DNA complexes.  

PubMed

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) topoisomerases are essential for removing the supercoiling that normally builds up ahead of replication forks. The camptothecin (CPT) Top1 (topoisomerase I) inhibitors exert their anticancer activity by reversibly trapping Top1-DNA cleavage complexes (Top1cc's) and inducing replication-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this paper, we propose a new mechanism by which cells avoid Top1-induced replication-dependent DNA damage. We show that the structure-specific endonuclease Mus81-Eme1 is responsible for generating DSBs in response to Top1 inhibition and for allowing cell survival. We provide evidence that Mus81 cleaves replication forks rather than excises Top1cc's. DNA combing demonstrated that Mus81 also allows efficient replication fork progression after CPT treatment. We propose that Mus81 cleaves stalled replication forks, which allows dissipation of the excessive supercoiling resulting from Top1 inhibition, spontaneous reversal of Top1cc, and replication fork progression. PMID:22123861

Regairaz, Marie; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Fu, Haiqing; Agama, Keli K; Tata, Nalini; Agrawal, Surbhi; Aladjem, Mirit I; Pommier, Yves

2011-11-28

270

RAD51- and MRE11-dependent reassembly of uncoupled CMG helicase complex at collapsed replication forks.  

PubMed

In higher eukaryotes, the dynamics of replisome components during fork collapse and restart are poorly understood. Here we have reconstituted replication fork collapse and restart by inducing single-strand DNA lesions that create a double-strand break in one of the replicated sister chromatids after fork passage. We found that, upon fork collapse, the active CDC45-MCM-GINS (CMG) helicase complex loses its GINS subunit. A functional replisome is restored by the reloading of GINS and polymerase ? onto DNA in a fashion that is dependent on RAD51 and MRE11 but independent of replication origin assembly and firing. PCNA mutant alleles defective in break-induced replication (BIR) are unable to support restoration of replisome integrity. These results show that, in higher eukaryotes, replisomes are partially dismantled after fork collapse and fully re-established by a recombination-mediated process. PMID:22139015

Hashimoto, Yoshitami; Puddu, Fabio; Costanzo, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

271

Bank Stability and Channel Width Adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. The accumulation and depletion of sand-sized bed material in a cross section was concentrated in the near-bank parts of the stream channel and thus significantly influenced bank stability and retreat. In those cross sections that scour at discharges greater than bankfull, the basal bank material is eroded and the banks become undercut and unstable. Conversely, in those cross sections that fill at discharges greater than bankfull, the basal bank material is covered by the accumulated sand-size material and is not eroded. Streambanks in these cross sections are moderately inclined and stable. A resurvey in the summer of 1980 of the cross sections located in straight reaches showed that those cross sections which scoured at discharges greater than bankfull had become 2-4 feet wider, whereas those cross sections which filled at discharges greater than bankfull were unchanged. Thus bank stability and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill.

Andrews, E. D.

1982-08-01

272

The Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the ecology of the Grand Canyon area. Students act as scientists investigating the damming of the Colorado River by the Glen Canyon dam and experimental flooding that took place in 1996. They then write a proposal as to whether or not more experimental flooding should be done on the area considering the ecological effects. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

273

Improving cancer incidence estimates for American Indians in Minnesota.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate cancer incidence for American Indians in Minnesota. METHODS: Indian Health Service enrollment data were linked to the Minnesota tumor registry to identify cancers among American Indians in Minnesota. Incidence rates for the 5 most common cancers in this population, estimated after the linkage, were compared with rates estimated before the linkage and with rates for the total population of Minnesota. RESULTS: The linkage identified 302 cancer cases not previously identified as occurring among American Indians in Minnesota. Postlinkage estimates suggested that incidence rates for prostate and colorectal cancer are similar to those for the total population of Minnesota, but that rates of lung and cervical cancer are significantly higher. Breast cancer rates are slightly lower than those for the total population of Minnesota but more than twice as high as previous estimates for American Indians. CONCLUSIONS: The postlinkage estimates suggest different priorities for cancer education, prevention, and control than might be assumed from either prelinkage estimates or previously published data, and underscore the importance of using accurate and specific data for setting these priorities.

Partin, M R; Rith-Najarian, S J; Slater, J S; Korn, J E; Cobb, N; Soler, J T

1999-01-01

274

77 FR 66865 - Record of Decision for the Oil and Gas Management Plan, Big South Fork National River and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Decision for the Oil and Gas Management Plan, Big South Fork National River and Recreation...Oil and Gas Management Plan (Plan) for Big South Fork National River and Recreation...plan will guide oil and gas management in Big South Fork National River and...

2012-11-07

275

77 FR 64125 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Notification of a Public Meeting for the East Fork...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a Public Meeting for the East Fork Elk Winter Range; WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...mining laws, to protect the East Fork Elk Winter Range and elk natural feeding grounds...mining laws, to protect the East Fork Elk Winter Range and elk natural feeding...

2012-10-18

276

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River... § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River...Forked River in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Generation Station, bounded by a line beginning at...

2009-07-01

277

33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River... § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River...Forked River in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Generation Station, bounded by a line beginning at...

2010-07-01

278

69 FR 44613 - United States Army Danger Zone; Salt River, Rolling Fork River, and Otter Creek; U.S. Army...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...portions of the Salt River and the Rolling Fork River and the non-navigable...per year in this area. The Rolling Fork River passes through the...INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Alan Miller, Headquarters Regulatory Branch...portions of Salt River and Rolling Fork River, and non-...

2004-07-27

279

A single S phase double-strand break influences replicon dynamics and triggers a Mre11-Tel1/ATM-mediated mechanism controlling terminal fork integrity  

PubMed Central

Summary In response to replication stress, the Mec1/ATR and SUMO pathways control the stalled and damaged fork stability. We investigated the S phase response at forks encountering a broken template (termed terminal fork). We show that double strand break (DSB) formation can locally trigger dormant origin firing. Irreversible fork resolution at the break does not impede progression of the other fork in the same replicon (termed sister fork). The Mre11-Tel1/ATM response acts at terminal forks preventing accumulation of cruciform DNA intermediates that tether sister chromatids and can undergo nucleolytic processing. We conclude that sister forks can be uncoupled during replication and that, following DSB-induced fork termination, replication is rescued by dormant origin firing or adjacent replicons. We have uncovered a Tel1/ATM and Mre11-dependent response controlling terminal fork integrity. Our findings have implications for those genome instability syndromes that accumulate DNA breaks during S phase and for forks encountering eroding telomeres.

Doksani, Ylli; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Fiorani, Simona; Haber, James E.; Foiani, Marco

2009-01-01

280

CtIP mediates replication fork recovery in a FANCD2-regulated manner.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosome instability syndrome characterized by increased cancer predisposition. Within the FA pathway, an upstream FA core complex mediates monoubiquitination and recruitment of the central FANCD2 protein to sites of stalled replication forks. Once recruited, FANCD2 fulfills a dual role towards replication fork recovery: (i) it cooperates with BRCA2 and RAD51 to protect forks from nucleolytic degradation and (ii) it recruits the BLM helicase to promote replication fork restart while suppressing new origin firing. Intriguingly, FANCD2 and its interaction partners are also involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks, hinting that FANCD2 utilizes HR proteins to mediate replication fork recovery. One such candidate is CtIP (CtBP-interacting protein), a key HR repair factor that functions in complex with BRCA1 and MRE11, but has not been investigated as putative player in the replication stress response. Here, we identify CtIP as a novel interaction partner of FANCD2. CtIP binds and stabilizes FANCD2 in a DNA damage- and FA core complex-independent manner, suggesting that FANCD2 monoubiquitination is dispensable for its interaction with CtIP. Following cellular treatment with a replication inhibitor, aphidicolin, FANCD2 recruits CtIP to transiently stalled, as well as collapsed, replication forks on chromatin. At stalled forks, CtIP cooperates with FANCD2 to promote fork restart and the suppression of new origin firing. Both functions are dependent on BRCA1 that controls the step-wise recruitment of MRE11, FANCD2 and finally CtIP to stalled replication forks, followed by their concerted actions to promote fork recovery. PMID:24556218

Yeo, Jung Eun; Lee, Eu Han; Hendrickson, Eric A; Sobeck, Alexandra

2014-07-15

281

Rio Grande Corridor Final Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the final version of the Rio Grande Corridor Plan, which provides management guidance for public lands along the Rio Grande in New Mexico (Taos Field Office) and in Colorado (La Jara Field Office) and amends the Taos Resource Management P...

2000-01-01

282

New Mexico: Dam Rio Grande  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowing from southwestern Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico is the Rio Grande. Pictured is a dam along the the major river. With a total length of 1,896 miles, there are a large number of dams along the Rio Grande. These include: Cochiti Dam, Elephant Butte Dam, Caballo Dam, Amistad Dam, Falcon Dam, Anzalduas Dam, and Retamal Dam.

Chet Smolski

1993-01-01

283

Le grand épiploon Anatomie chirurgicale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Si l'étude anatomique et vasculaire du grand épiploon a été réalisée dans sa plus grande partie avant la fin du XVIIIe siècle, les recherches les plus récentes ont permis d'en préciser certains caractères permettant son emploi en chirurgie réparatrice: constitution, rapports avec le côlon transverse et son méso, valeur fonctionnelle des anastomoses vasculaires, drainage lymphatique. La connaissance parfaite de

J. P. Bodin; P. Gabelle; Y. Bouchet; M. Caix; B. Descottes

1981-01-01

284

77 FR 11575 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inventory Completion: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Grand Rapids Public Museum has completed an inventory of human remains...objects may contact the Grand Rapids Public Museum. Repatriation of the human remains...

2012-02-27

285

222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

Lively, R. S.; Krafthefer, B. C.

1995-01-01

286

Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

NONE

1995-11-01

287

Mid-Holocene climate in Northern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Study of Holocene ostracodes and diatoms from Elk Lake, in North-Central Minnesota, indicates that the local climate of the mid-Holocene can be subdivided into three intervals. Throughout interval 1 (ca. 7800 to 6700 yr B.P.), climate was colder and much drier than today. During intervals 2 and 3 (ca. 6700 to 4000 yr B.P.) average mean-annual air temperatures approached the modern mean (3.7??C), but warm summers persisted throughout interval 2, whereas during interval 3 warm summers fell into discrete episodes. Furthermore, average mean-annual precipitation was about 85 and 90% of modern during intervals 2 and 3, respectively. Transition times between the principal intervals were less than 50 yr. The expected effects of a retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet that initially maintained a winter-style circulation, followed by transitional climate states, and finally a near-modern circulation pattern may explain these local climatic events. ?? 1987.

Forester, R. M.; Delorme, L. D.; Bradbury, J. P.

1987-01-01

288

[The electrocardiogram in epidemiology: the Minnesota code].  

PubMed

A correct methodological approach to electrocardiogram interpretation is an important requirement above all as far as epidemiological studies on large case reports are concerned. The Minnesota code represents a pattern of objective classification of the electrocardiogram and it is fit for application to studies on people and consequent statistical analysis. It consists of a series of items which are assembled in nine principal classes, each of them describing with objectivity a figure of the electrocardiogram; moreover it includes several classes for the codification of the electrocardiogram after effort and in sequenced studies. Multiple applications in this sense confirm the validity of this code which gains, in times of automatisation, a new value. PMID:1291919

Ponte, E; Prelli, L; Natuzzi, M; Viel, E

1992-11-01

289

Minnesota Department of Health: Children's Environmental Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With sending your children off to school can come worries about bullies, crossing streets, competition, and stress -- not to mention health. As we learn more about the school environment, it appears that measles may not be the only malady facing school children. This site from the Minnesota Department of Health, offers a comprehensive look at the hazards children face in their environment. Included at the site are discussions of lead in school drinking water, pesticides in schools, air quality in schools, mold in schools, and much more. Each link to these subjects offers a non-technical, yet comprehensive description of the issue as well as an easily printable fact sheet in the pdf format. This site should be of interest to anyone wanting to understand the environmental health issues that children face.

290

Satellite inventory of Minnesota forest resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods and results of using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to classify and estimate the acreage of forest covertypes in northeastern Minnesota are described. Portions of six TM scenes covering five counties with a total area of 14,679 square miles were classified into six forest and five nonforest classes. The approach involved the integration of cluster sampling, image processing, and estimation. Using cluster sampling, 343 plots, each 88 acres in size, were photo interpreted and field mapped as a source of reference data for classifier training and calibration of the TM data classifications. Classification accuracies of up to 75 percent were achieved; most misclassification was between similar or related classes. An inverse method of calibration, based on the error rates obtained from the classifications of the cluster plots, was used to adjust the classification class proportions for classification errors. The resulting area estimates for total forest land in the five-county area were within 3 percent of the estimate made independently by the USDA Forest Service. Area estimates for conifer and hardwood forest types were within 0.8 and 6.0 percent respectively, of the Forest Service estimates. A trial of a second method of estimating the same classes as the Forest Service resulted in standard errors of 0.002 to 0.015. A study of the use of multidate TM data for change detection showed that forest canopy depletion, canopy increment, and no change could be identified with greater than 90 percent accuracy. The project results have been the basis for the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Forest Service to define and begin to implement an annual system of forest inventory which utilizes Landsat TM data to detect changes in forest cover.

Bauer, Marvin E.; Burk, Thomas E.; Ek, Alan R.; Coppin, Pol R.; Lime, Stephen D.; Walsh, Terese A.; Walters, David K.; Befort, William; Heinzen, David F.

1993-01-01

291

20. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. Paul Dispatch photograph, ca. 1934 Sculptor Carl Milles working on Indian God of Peace - St. Paul City Hall & Ramsey County Courthouse, 15 West Kellogg Boulevard, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

292

76 FR 33395 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00030  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1982-DR), dated 05/10/2011. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding. Incident Period: 03/16/2011 through 05/25/2011. Effective Date: 05/25/2011. Physical Loan Application...

2011-06-08

293

Tall Shrub Dynamics in Northern Minnesota Aspen and Conifer Forests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tall shrub dynamics were examined in upland stands in northern Minnesota. Mortality rates of shrub stems did not differ among the stands. Shrub stem regeneration did differ among the stands and was related to overstory characteristics, soil moisture, and ...

J. C. Balogh D. F. Grigal

1988-01-01

294

SCIENCE MATTERS in MINNESOTA Adult T-Shirt (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

White, short-sleeve, 100% cotton T-shirt imprinted with Science Matters in Minnesota on front, and NSTA logo on the back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, and XXX Large.

1900-01-01

295

SCIENCE MATTERS in MINNESOTA Adult T-Shirt (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

White, short-sleeve, 100% cotton T-shirt imprinted with Science Matters in Minnesota on front, and NSTA logo on the back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, and XXX Large.

1900-01-01

296

SCIENCE MATTERS in MINNESOTA Adult T-Shirt (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

White, short-sleeve, 100% cotton T-shirt imprinted with Science Matters in Minnesota on front, and NSTA logo on the back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, and XXX Large.

1900-01-01

297

Interior Invests $286,000 in Minnesota Valley NWR  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary Salazar inspects new geothermal plumbing construction in parking lot of Minnesota Valley. Left to Jeanne Holler, Tom Melius and Assistant Secretary for Fish, Wildlife and Parks Tom Strickland look....

2009-08-10

298

Minnesota Trout Lily ('Erythronium propullans' Gray) Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Minnesota trout lily can be considered for reclassification to threatened status when a minimum of 400 naturally occurring colonies (clones) in at least 10 geographically and ecologically distinct sites are adequately protected and managed to assure t...

1987-01-01

299

5. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1908, Duluth, Minnesota, workhouse scale ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1908, Duluth, Minnesota, workhouse scale floor-Fairbanks scale. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, Workhouse, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

300

How Energy Efficiency is Adding Jobs in St. Paul, Minnesota  

ScienceCinema

Saint Paul, Minnesota is using an energy efficiency grant to provide commercial retrofits that will allow a local produce distribution company to dramatically reduce its energy costs and add dozens of new workers.

Hannigan, Jim; Coleman, Chris; Oliver, LeAnn; Jambois, Louis

2013-05-29

301

A Regional Energy Information System for Minnesota: A Preliminary Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A state's (Minnesota's) energy system, with its socio-economic plans that take energy constraints into consideration, is reviewed for policy makers. Four types of data, (1) energy supply/distribution/consumption data, (2) demographic data, (3) economic da...

N. L. Chervany J. D. Naumann R. Krishnan D. Quillin J. Schmitt

1975-01-01

302

How Energy Efficiency is Adding Jobs in St. Paul, Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

Saint Paul, Minnesota is using an energy efficiency grant to provide commercial retrofits that will allow a local produce distribution company to dramatically reduce its energy costs and add dozens of new workers.

Hannigan, Jim; Coleman, Chris; Oliver, LeAnn; Jambois, Louis

2011-01-01

303

76 FR 32388 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00030  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1982-DR), dated 05/10/2011. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding. Incident Period: 03/16/2011 and continuing....

2011-06-06

304

Grand slam on cancer.  

PubMed

A winner of 59 Grand Slam championships including a record 9 Wimbledon singles titles, Martina Navratilova is the most successful woman tennis player of the modern era. Martina was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, named "Tour Player of the Year" seven times by the Women's Tennis Association, declared "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press, and ranked one of the "Top Forty Athletes of All-Time" by Sports Illustrated. Equally accomplished off the court, Martina is an author, philanthropist, TV commentator, and activist who has dedicated her life to educating people about prejudice and stereotypes. After coming out as a lesbian in 1981, Martina became a tireless advocate of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and she has contributed generously to the LGBT community. Martina is the author of seven books, including most recently Shape Your Self: My 6-Step Diet and Fitness Plan to Achieve the Best Shape of your Life, an inspiring guide to healthy living and personal fitness. Martina was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010. PMID:24400624

Navratilova, Martina

2014-01-01

305

DARPA Grand Challenge 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research and development organization for the Department of Defense (DoD), sponsors the annual DARPA Grand Challenge (first reported on in the August 1, 2003, NSDL Scout Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology), which is "a field test intended to accelerate research and development in autonomous ground vehicles that will help save American lives on the battlefield." Individuals and organizations from industry, the R&D community, government, the armed services, academia, students, backyard inventors, and automotive enthusiasts are invited to enter the challenge. The news release posted on this website on June 6, 2005, announces the 40 semifinalists selected to advance to the National Qualification Event, which will be held September 27 through October 6, 2005 in Fontana, Calif. The team that develops an autonomous ground vehicle that is the first to finish the designated route within 10 hours wins $2 million. When the race was first held in 2003, the most successful team managed to cover only 7.4 miles of the desert terrain featuring natural and man-made obstacles. A related website describing the Autonomous Vehicle Practice Facility of the US Department of Defense Joint Robotics Program (JRP) was still under construction at the time of this report.

306

Optimal Stocking Densities of Walleye Fingerlings in Minnesota Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized additive model was developed that described the effects of fingerling stocking density on the abundance of walleyes Sander vitreus in 551 lakes in Minnesota. Walleye abundance was measured as a catch per effort (CPE) from 1,511 standard Minnesota Department of Natural Resources gill-net assessments conducted during 1986–2004. In addition to fingerling stocking, the effects of lake morphometry, productivity,

Peter C. Jacobson; Charles S. Anderson

2007-01-01

307

Sinkhole hazard assessment in Minnesota using a decision tree model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of what influences sinkhole formation and the ability to accurately predict sinkhole hazards is critical\\u000a to environmental management efforts in the karst lands of southeastern Minnesota. Based on the distribution of distances to\\u000a the nearest sinkhole, sinkhole density, bedrock geology and depth to bedrock in southeastern Minnesota and northwestern Iowa,\\u000a a decision tree model has been developed to

Yongli Gao; E. Calvin Alexander

2008-01-01

308

Science Fair Participation by Public School Student In Minnesota.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is a major extract from a position paper addressed to the Executive Director, Governor's Task Force on Public Education Policy, State of Minnesota. The author shows a real and significant underrepresentation by public school students as compared with their private and parochial school counterparts, an impression previously voiced by the Twin Cities Chapter. Recommendations are made primarily with an eye to the Minnesota scene, but certain of them may be applicable to other areas of the country.

Cross, William F.

1980-12-01

309

Fundamental Limits to Force Detection using Quartz Tuning Forks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the fundamental limits of the use of quartz tuning forks as force detectors in scanned probe microscopy. It is demonstrated that at room temperature, pressure, and atmosphere these force sensors have a noise floor of 0.4pN/?Hz and exhibit a root mean square Brownian motion of only 0.2 pm. When operated as a shear force sensor both dissipative and reactive forces are detected on approach to the sample. These forces are sufficient to reduce the amplitude of motion of the probe nearly to zero without physically contacting the surface. It is also demonstrated that conventional proportional-integral feedback control yields closed loop responses at least 40 times faster than their open loop response. This result indicates that the mechanical Q of the resonator should always be maximized to obtain the highest force sensitivity and that this does not degrade the response of the measurement system.

Schuck, P. James; Grober, Robert; Karrai, Khaled

2000-03-01

310

Geomorphic Characterization of the Middle Fork Saline River: Garland, Perry, and Saline Counties, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report was prepared to help address concerns raised by local residents, State, and Federal agencies about the current geomorphic conditions of the Middle Fork Saline River. Over the past 30 years the Middle Fork Saline River Basin has experienced a marked increase in urbanization. The report summarizes the Middle Fork?s current (2003) channel characteristics at nine stream reaches in the upper 91 square miles of the basin. Assessments at each study reach included comparing measured stream geometry dimensions (cross-sectional area, top width, and mean depth) at bankfull stage to regional hydraulic geometry curves for the Ouachita Mountains Physiographic Province of Arkansas and Oklahoma, evaluations of streambed materials and sinuosity, and classification of individual stream reach types. When compared to the Ouachita Mountains? regional hydraulic geometry curves for natural, stable, stream reaches, five of the nine study reaches had slightly smaller crosssectional areas, longer top widths, and shallower depths. Streambed material analysis indicates that the Middle Fork is a bedrock influenced, gravel dominated stream with lesser amounts of sand and cobbles. Slight increases in sinuosity from 1992 to 2002 at seven of the nine study reaches indicate a slight decrease in stream channel slope. Analyses of the Middle Fork?s hydraulic geometry and sinuosity indicate that the Middle Fork is currently overly wide and shallow, but is slowly adjusting towards a deeper, narrower hydraulic geometry. Using the Rosgen system of channel classification, the two upstream study reaches classified as B4c/1 stream types; which were moderately entrenched, riffle dominated channels, with infrequently spaced pools. The downstream seven study reaches classified as C4/1 stream types; which were slightly entrenched, meandering, gravel-dominated, riffle/ pool channels with well developed flood plains. Analyses of stream reach types suggest that the downstream reaches of the Middle Fork are more vulnerable to streambank failure than the upstream reaches of the stream.

Pugh, Aaron L.; Garday, Thomas J.; Redman, Ronald

2008-01-01

311

Self-sensing and self-actuating probe based on quartz tuning fork combined with microfabricated cantilever for dynamic mode atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel probe based on a commercial quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever is presented. The U-shaped cantilever with a monolithic tip is combined with the tuning fork in a symmetrical arrangement, such that each of the two legs of the cantilever is fixed to one of the prongs of the tuning fork. The tuning fork is used as

T. Akiyama; U Staufer; N. F de Rooij

2003-01-01

312

Walk-Through Survey Report: Styrene Exposures During Fiber Reinforced Wind Blade Manufacturing at LM Glasfiber, Grand Forks, North Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). NIOSH was established in 1970 by the Occupational Safety and Heal...

D. Hammond L. M. Blade

2008-01-01

313

Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session, (Grand Forks, North Dakota 1985). Volume 29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preliminary versions of the papers from the 1985 Summer Institute of Linguistics presented at the University of North Dakota session include: "Referential Distance and Discourse Structure in Yagua" (Thomas E. Payne); "A Note on Ergativity, S', and S'' in Karitiana" (Daniel Everett); "Some Aspects of Zapotecan Clausal Syntax" (Stephen A. Marlett);…

Derbyshire, Desmond C., Ed.

314

A tuning fork gyroscope with compensated imbalance signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is presenting a robust gyroscope sensor with an electrical and mechanical self-test option and the ability to suppress the quadrature error. The presented sensor is based on a tuning-fork working principle. The mechanical part is assembled in bulk-technology produced with a wet etching process. The two detection elements are manufactured with a standard CMOS-process and the material of the two thin-film actuators is AlN (aluminium-nitrid). The two actuators can be controlled independently from each other. Two electronic PCB's were developed for actuating and measurement. One is including the analogue signal path; the second PCB is the digital electronics consisting of a FPGA and other peripherals. The tuning fork is actuated in a primary oscillation mode also called drive mode. For keeping the oscillation in resonance, a digital PLL is used in a forced feedback loop. To have a constant energy in the drive mode an Amplitude-Gain-Control (AGC) is implemented. An appearing angular rate causes the corriolis-force which is actuating secondary oscillation, also called detection mode. The amplitude of this oscillation is proportional to the angular rate. The signal has a component resulting from the mechanical imbalance. To separate these two signal parts from each other a synchronous demodulator followed by a digital filter chain has been developed. To achieve the maximum suppression of the imbalance signal a control-loop is used to shift the phases of the two actuation signals. This creates an additional force that compensates the movement as a result of the mechanical imbalance. With the implementation of this control loop the performance of the sensor was increased. An enhanced temperature stability over operation was achieved with the means of this compensation.

Arnold, E.; Nuscheler, F.

2007-06-01

315

Development of a water-use data system in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Minnesota State Legislature passed laws as early as 1937 to regulate use of Minnesota 's groundwater and surface water through a permit system. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to computerize water use data reported to the State. The U.S. Geological Survey, through the National Water-Use Information Program, assisted the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Minnesota State Planning Agency, Land Management Information Center, in developing MWUDS (Minnesota Water-Use Data System). The Minnesota Water-Use Data System stores data on the quantity of individual annual water withdrawals and discharges in relation to the water resources affected, provides descriptors for aggregation of data and trend analysis, and enables access to additional data contained in other data bases. MWUDS is stored on a computer at the Land Management Information center, an agency associated with the State Planning Agency. Interactive menu-driven programs simplify data entry, update, and retrieval and are easy to use. Estimates of unreported water use supplement reported water use to completely describe the stress on the hydrologic system. Links or common elements developed in the MWUDS enable access to data available in other State water related data bases, forming a water resource information system. Water use information can be improved by developing methods for increasing accuracy of reported water use and refining methods for estimating unreported water use. (Author 's abstract)

Horn, M. A.

1986-01-01

316

Wolf body mass cline across Minnesota related to taxonomy?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent genetic studies suggest that in northern Minnesota two species of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758 or western wolf and Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 (= Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851) or eastern wolf) meet and hybridize. However, little morphological information is available about these two types of wolves in Minnesota. We analyzed the mass of 950 female wolves and 1006 males older than 1 year from across northern Minnesota and found that it increased from 26.30 ?? 0.56 kg (mean ?? SE) for females and 30.60 ?? 0.72 kg for males in northeastern Minnesota to 30.01 ?? 0.43 kg for females and 35.94 ?? 0.45 kg for males in northwestern Minnesota (females: r2 = 0.79, P < 0.02; males: r2 = 0.63, P = 0.06). These mass differences add morphological information to the identities of eastern and western wolves and support the view that ranges of the two species meet in Minnesota. ?? 2008 NRC.

Mech, L. D.; Paul, W. J.

2008-01-01

317

Short fiber probe scheme for tapping-mode tuning fork near-field scanning optical microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction of a tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fiber probe as the force sensing element for near-field scanning optical microscopy is reported. This type of near-field scanning optical microscopy provides stable and high Q factor at the tapping frequency of the tuning fork, and thus gives high quality NSOM and AFM images of samples. We present results obtained by using the short tip tapping-mode tuning fork near-field scanning optical microscopy measurements performed on a single mode telecommunication optical fiber and a silica based buried channel waveguide.

Huang, Chien W.; Lu, Nien H.; Chen, Chih Y.; Yu, Cheng Feng; Kao, Tsung S.; Tsai, Din Ping; Wang, Pei

2002-09-01

318

Aerial gamma Ray and Magnetic Survey: Minnesota Project, Fargo Quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fargo 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There a...

1979-01-01

319

Integrating sentinel watershed-systems into the monitoring and assessment of Minnesota’s (USA) waters quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires States and Tribes to list waters not meeting water quality standards. A total\\u000a maximum daily load must be prepared for waters identified as impaired with respect to water quality standards. Historically,\\u000a the management of pollution in Minnesota has been focused on point-source regulation. Regulatory effort in Minnesota has improved\\u000a water quality over

J. A. Magner; K. N. Brooks

2008-01-01

320

Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

McCarthy, Kathy

2009-01-01

321

Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges  

ScienceCinema

Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

McCarthy, Kathy

2013-05-28

322

1996 Grand Canyon Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Manone, Northern Arizona University Summary Analyze the effect of a 1996 controlled flood on a sandbar in Grand Canyon. This exercise uses Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst Context Type and level of course ...

Manone, Mark

323

South Fork, Lake City, Forest Highway Route 7, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes reconstruction of 20.5 miles of Colorado State Highway 149 in Rio Grande National Forest from three miles southeast of Wright's lower ranch, approximately 13 miles southwest of Creede, Colorado, to Spring Creek Pass. There will be an ...

1973-01-01

324

The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability  

PubMed Central

Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA–protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA–protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability.

Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

325

Ecology and Management of the South Fork Snake River Cottonwood Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes an investigation of the cottonwood ecosystem along with the South Fork Snake River from Palisades Dam to Heise, Idaho. Vegetation dynamics in time and space, with an emphasis on the cottonwood component, was the primary focus. Becau...

M. F. Merigliano

1996-01-01

326

77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Public Meetings a. Date and Time...written comments on the draft environmental impact statement for the Middle Fork American...

2012-08-07

327

75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Hazard Reduction Project AGENCY: USDA Forest Service...environmental impact statement for the Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Reduction Project (Salt Project). A supplemental...

2010-05-07

328

Hysteresis, Switching and Anomalous Behaviour of a Quartz Tuning Fork in Superfluid 4He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying the behaviour of commercial quartz tuning forks immersed in superfluid 4He and driven at resonance. For one of the forks we have observed hysteresis and switching between linear and non-linear damping regimes at temperatures below 10 mK. We associate linear damping with pure potential flow around the prongs of the fork, and non-linear damping with the production of vortex lines in a turbulent regime. At appropriate prong velocities, we have observed metastability of both the linear and the turbulent flow states, and a region of intermittency where the flow switched back and forth between each state. For the same fork, we have also observed anomalous behaviour in the linear regime, with large excursions in both damping, resonant frequency, and the tip velocity as a function of driving force.

Bradley, D. I.; Fear, M. J.; Fisher, S. N.; Guénault, A. M.; Haley, R. P.; Lawson, C. R.; Pickett, G. R.; Schanen, R.; Tsepelin, V.; Wheatland, L. A.

2014-04-01

329

Signal electronics for an atomic force microscope equipped with a double quartz tuning fork sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signal electronics equipped with a bandpass filter phase detector for noncontact atomic force microscopy (ncAFM) has been developed. A double quartz tuning fork assembly is used as a force sensor, where one fork serves as a dither tuning fork, while the other is used as a measuring tuning fork. An electrically conductive Pt90Ir10 tip enables the sensor to work in both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and AFM modes. Electronic circuits for self-oscillation control and for frequency detection are given in detail. Atomically resolved STM and ncAFM images of a thin alumina film on NiAl(110) are shown with the microscope cooled down to 4.5 K by liquid helium.

Rust, H.-P.; Heyde, M.; Freund, H.-J.

2006-04-01

330

Characterization and Optimization of Quartz Tuning Fork-Based Force Sensors for Combined STM/AFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter will be divided in two main parts. In the first one, we will show a detailed analysis of the dynamics of quartz tuning fork resonators which are being increasingly used in scanning probe microscopy as force sensors. We will also show that a coupled harmonic oscillators model, which includes a finite coupling between the prongs, is in remarkable agreement with the observed motion of the tuning forks. Relevant parameters for the tuning fork performance such as the effective spring constant can be obtained from our analysis. In the second one, we will present an implementation of a quartz tuning fork supplemented with optimized tips based on carbon fibers. The remarkable electrical and mechanical properties of carbon fiber make these tips more suitable for combined and/or simultaneous STM and AFM than conventional metallic tips. The fabrication and the characterization of these carbon fiber tips as well as their performance in STM/AFM will be detailed.

Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Agraït, Nicolás; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino

331

75 FR 47621 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the North Fork Rancheria's Proposed 305-Acre Trust...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...with the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians (Tribe), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Madera Irrigation District, City of Madera, National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

2010-08-06

332

Local and global functions of Timeless and Tipin in replication fork protection  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic cell replicates its chromosomal DNA with almost absolute fidelity in the course of every cell cycle. This accomplishment is remarkable considering that the conditions for DNA replication are rarely ideal. The replication machinery encounters a variety of obstacles on the chromosome, including damaged template DNA. In addition, a number of chromosome regions are considered to be difficult to replicate owing to DNA secondary structures and DNA binding proteins required for various transactions on the chromosome. Under these conditions, replication forks stall or break, posing grave threats to genomic integrity. How does the cell combat such stressful conditions during DNA replication? The replication fork protection complex (FPC) may help answer this question. Recent studies have demonstrated that the FPC is required for the smooth passage of replication forks at difficult-to-replicate genomic regions and plays a critical role in coordinating multiple genome maintenance processes at the replication fork.

Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Eishi

2012-01-01

333

South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The v...

M. D. Reaney

2009-01-01

334

HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

335

Evaluation and Comparison of Red Fork Sand Waterflood Projects in Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on oil and water production, volume of water injected, core analyses, and well completion data was collected on 28 Red Fork sand waterflood projects for comparison and evaluation of results. An average water injection efficiency of 35 percent,...

K. H. Johnston

1970-01-01

336

Scanning optical homodyne detection of high-frequency picoscale resonances in cantilever and tuning fork sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid high-frequency sensors represent the next generation of scanned probe technology. In this work, higher harmonic modes in nanoscale silicon cantilevers and microscale quartz tuning forks are detected and characterized using a custom scanning optical homodyne interferometer. Capable of both mass and force sensing, these resonators exhibit high-frequency harmonic motion content with picometer-scale amplitudes detected in a 2.5 MHz bandwidth, driven by ambient thermal radiation. Quartz tuning forks additionally display both in-plane and out-of-plane harmonics. The first six electronically detected resonances are matched to optically detected and mapped fork eigenmodes. Mass sensing experiments utilizing higher tuning fork modes indicate greater than six times sensitivity enhancement over fundamental mode operation. (This work supported by NSF and ONR).

Randel, J. C.; Zeltzer, G.; Gupta, A. K.; Bashir, R.; Song, S.-H.; Manoharan, H. C.

2008-03-01

337

Annual report 1977. [Univ. of Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

This is the final Annual Report of the general operation of the Williams Laboratory of Nuclear Physics of the University of Minnesota. Because the report prepared in 1976 was not widely circulated, this report contains summaries of research conducted during the period from the fall of 1975 through the summer of 1977. This report begins with a brief history of the Williams Laboratory and a synopsis of the various lines of research carried on in the laboratory since the MP Tandem Van de Graaff machine was placed in operation in 1966. The major portion of the report describes the results of research programs completed or in progress during the past two years. Information is presented about modifications to the Van de Graaff machine and the on-line computer, which resulted in improved performance, and there are brief descriptions of a source for producing a triton beam and a heavy-ion counter for the magnetic spectrometer. An appendix contains a list of laboratory personnel during the time covered by this report, a list of advanced degrees granted to graduate students, and a list of recent reports and publications. (RWR)

Not Available

1977-12-01

338

Modeling streamflow response from Minnesota peatlands  

SciTech Connect

To aid in the development of Minnesota's 7 million acres of peatlands, and to evaluate the hydrologic impacts and reclamation options associated with such development, a Peatland Hydrologic Impact Model (PHIM) was devised. PHIM is a deterministic, continuous simulation model designed to simulate streamflow resulting from rainfall and snowmelt under both natural and altered (mined) conditions. It is largely physically based and requires watershed information and hydrometeorological data that are usually available in an operational setting. PHIM can provide both daily and hourly estimates of streamflow, PHIM consists of 5 submodels, 3 land type submodels for natural peatlands, mined peatlands and mineral soil uplands and 2 routing submodels for channel reaches and reservoirs. Streamflow from headwater peatland watersheds can be simulated by combining the submodels in the order that best describes the basin. The model was tested on the basis of stormflow events form a 3758 ha undisturbed peatland and a 155 ha peatland that had undergone ditching and peat mining for horticultural purposes. Simulated streamflow volumes averaged 86 and 91% of observed volumes for the undisturbed and mined area, respectively. Peat discharges were simulated within 84 and 65% of observed values, respectively.

Guertin, D.P.

1984-01-01

339

Personal networks and private forestry in Minnesota.  

PubMed

Personal networks affect the flow information and behavior through social groups. We investigated the role of personal relationships in the flow of information and adoption of sustainable forest management behavior by private forest landowners. Among the 1767 owners of 20 or more acres of Minnesota forest land surveyed, 90% have received forestry information from at least one source including 65% from a peer and 53% from a professional forester. Forestry information personal network size ranged from 0 to 14 with a mean of 2.92. Network diversity, expressed as the number of different types of information sources within the network, was relatively high relative to network size, suggesting that most landowners value diverse perspectives, despite reporting fairly small networks. Larger acreage owners, management plan holders, and frequent visitors to their forest land had significantly larger and more diverse networks. Network size and diversity were statistically unrelated to ownership tenure, landowner age, and resident/absentee status. Significantly more respondents named a peer or a professional as their most helpful source than other source categories. Satisfaction with forestry information networks was positively associated with network size and diversity, further suggesting that landowners prefer information from a variety of different sources. The results suggest that landowner education designed to foster peer learning and relationship building between landowners, foresters, loggers, and other groups may promote adoption of sustainable forest management practices. PMID:24295725

Sagor, Eli S; Becker, Dennis R

2014-01-01

340

STEM - Minnesota State Colleges and Universities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the STEM project at the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities website is designed for the faculty and staff at those institutions, it offers abundant resources for instructors at any higher education institution who might have an interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields. Visitors interested in state and national reports on a broad range of issues should click on the "Resources" link on the left side of the menu, and choose "STEM Reports", to view eight reports from various education and science institutions. For ease of use, it is nice to learn that report is organized into audience, purpose and recommendations, so visitors can quickly assess whether the report is of interest to them. Some of the report topics include "Teaching By Choice: Cultivating Exemplary Community College STEM Faculty", "The Opportunity Equation: Transforming Mathematics and Science Education for Citizenship and the Global Economy" and "Encouraging Girls in Math and Science". The "Project Showcase" will be of interest to visitors who like to see examples of how STEM efforts are being played out in the education community.

341

Adaptation of a commercial UHV SPM system for use with a quartz tuning fork sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic force microscopy using a quartz tuning fork sensor offers many advantages over cantilever AFM, particularly for use in a UHV environment. One key advantage is the stability against jump to contact allowed by the high stiffness (k˜1800 N\\/m) of the tuning fork. This allows complementary NC-AFM and STM, without a compromise in STM performance due to cantilever deflection. Here,

Jacob Tosado; William G. Cullen; Ellen D. Williams

2010-01-01

342

Spring constant of a tuning-fork sensor for dynamic force microscopy  

PubMed Central

Summary We present an overview of experimental and numerical methods to determine the spring constant of a quartz tuning fork in qPlus configuration. The simple calculation for a rectangular cantilever is compared to the values obtained by the analysis of the thermal excitation and by the direct mechanical measurement of the force versus displacement. To elucidate the difference, numerical simulations were performed taking account of the real geometry including the glue that is used to mount the tuning fork.

Lange, Manfred; Schmuck, Merlin; Schmidt, Nico; Moller, Rolf

2012-01-01

343

Atomic steps with tuning-fork-based noncontact atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuning forks as tip-sample distance detectors are a promising and versatile alternative to conventional cantilevers with optical beam deflection in noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both theory and experiments are presented to make a comparison between conventional and tuning-fork-based AFM. Measurements made on a Si(111) sample show that both techniques are capable of detecting monatomic steps. The measured step height

W. H. J. Rensen; N. F. van Hulst; A. G. T. Ruiter; P. E. West

1999-01-01

344

Fast, high-resolution atomic force microscopy using a quartz tuning fork as actuator and sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new method of achieving tip–sample distance regulation in an atomic force microscope (AFM). A piezoelectric quartz tuning fork serves as both actuator and sensor of tip–sample interactions, allowing tip–sample distance regulation without the use of a diode laser or dither piezo. Such a tuning fork has a high spring constant so a dither amplitude of only 0.1

Hal Edwards; Larry Taylor; Walter Duncan; Allan J. Melmed

1997-01-01

345

Short fiber probe scheme for tapping-mode tuning fork near-field scanning optical microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of a tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fiber probe as the force sensing element for near-field scanning optical microscopy is reported. This type of near-field scanning optical microscopy provides stable and high Q factor at the tapping frequency of the tuning fork, and thus gives high quality NSOM and AFM images of samples. We present results obtained by

Chien W. Huang; Nien H. Lu; Chih Y. Chen; Cheng Feng Yu; Tsung S. Kao; Din Ping Tsai; Pei Wang

2002-01-01

346

Atomic steps with tuning-fork-based noncontact atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuning forks as tip–sample distance detectors are a promising and versatile alternative to conventional cantilevers with optical beam deflection in noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both theory and experiments are presented to make a comparison between conventional and tuning-fork-based AFM. Measurements made on a Si(111) sample show that both techniques are capable of detecting monatomic steps. The measured step height

W. H. J. Rensen; N. F. van Hulst; A. G. T. Ruiter; P. E. West

1999-01-01

347

ANSYS simulation of the capacitance coupling of quartz tuning fork gyroscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling error is one of the main error sources of the quartz tuning fork gyroscope. The mechanism of capacitance coupling error is analyzed in this article. Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to simulate the structure of the quartz tuning fork by ANSYS software. The voltage output induced by the capacitance coupling is simulated with the harmonic analysis and characteristics of electrical and mechanical parameters influenced by the capacitance coupling between drive electrodes and sense electrodes are discussed with the transient analysis.

Zhang, Qing; Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Cui, Fang; Sun, Yu-nan

2013-12-01

348

SMARCAL1 catalyzes fork regression and Holliday junction migration to maintain genome stability during DNA replication  

PubMed Central

SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like1) maintains genome integrity during DNA replication. Here we investigated its mechanism of action. We found that SMARCAL1 travels with elongating replication forks, and its absence leads to MUS81-dependent double-strand break formation. Binding to specific nucleic acid substrates activates SMARCAL1 activity in a reaction that requires its HARP2 (Hep-A-related protein 2) domain. Homology modeling indicates that the HARP domain is similar in structure to the DNA-binding domain of the PUR proteins. Limited proteolysis, small-angle X-ray scattering, and functional assays indicate that the core enzymatic unit consists of the HARP2 and ATPase domains that fold into a stable structure. Surprisingly, SMARCAL1 is capable of binding three-way and four-way Holliday junctions and model replication forks that lack a designed ssDNA region. Furthermore, SMARCAL1 remodels these DNA substrates by promoting branch migration and fork regression. SMARCAL1 mutations that cause Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia or that inactivate the HARP2 domain abrogate these activities. These results suggest that SMARCAL1 continuously surveys replication forks for damage. If damage is present, it remodels the fork to promote repair and restart. Failures in the process lead to activation of an alternative repair mechanism that depends on MUS81-catalyzed cleavage of the damaged fork.

Betous, Remy; Mason, Aaron C.; Rambo, Robert P.; Bansbach, Carol E.; Badu-Nkansah, Akosua; Sirbu, Bianca M.; Eichman, Brandt F.; Cortez, David

2012-01-01

349

Symmetrically arranged quartz tuning fork with soft cantilever for intermittent contact mode atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-sensing and -actuating probe for dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) based on a commercial quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever is presented. The U-shaped cantilever, exhibiting a sharp tip, is combined with the tuning fork in a symmetrical arrangement, such that each of the two legs of the cantilever is fixed to one of the prongs of the tuning fork. The tuning fork is used as an oscillatory force sensor. Its frequency and amplitude govern that of the tip vibration, while the cantilever determines the spring constant of the whole probe. The frequency of the tip vibration for AFM operations can be much higher than the resonance frequency of the cantilever. A probe comprising a silicon nitride cantilever (0.1 N/m) is used to image monoatomic terraces of graphite in the intermittent contact mode. A much softer cantilever (0.01 N/m) is used to analyze the topography of a microelectronic chip in the same mode. Moreover, a bacterial surface layer hexagonally packed intermediate layer of Deinococcus radiodurans is imaged in a buffer solution. The tip vibration was again generated by the tuning fork while the sample interaction was measured using the standard optical detection scheme in this experiment. These probes are suited for batch fabrication and assembly and, therefore, enlarge the applications for the tuning fork based AFM.

Akiyama, T.; Staufer, U.; de Rooij, N. F.; Frederix, P.; Engel, A.

2003-01-01

350

Replication fork arrest and termination of chromosome replication in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis provided the first evidence for the presence of sequence-specific replication fork arrest (Ter) sites in the terminus region of the bacterial chromosome. These sites, when complexed with the replication terminator protein (RTP), block movement of a replication fork in a polar manner. The Ter sites are organized into two opposed groups which force the approaching forks to meet and fuse within a restricted terminus region. While the precise advantage provided to the cell through the presence of the so-called replication fork trap is not patently obvious, the same situation appears to have evolved independently in Escherichia coli. The molecular mechanism by which the RTP-Ter complex of B. subtilis (or the analogous but apparently unrelated complex in E. coli) functions is currently unresolved and subject to intense investigation. Replication fork arrest in B. subtilis, requiring RTP, also occurs under conditions of the stringent response at so-called STer sites that lie close to and on both sides of oriC. These sites are yet to be identified and characterized. How they are induced to function under stringent conditions is of considerable interest, and could provide vital clues about the mechanism of fork arrest by RTP-terminator complexes in general. PMID:9271849

Wake, R G

1997-08-15

351

Human Timeless and Tipin stabilize replication forks and facilitate sister-chromatid cohesion  

PubMed Central

The Timeless-Tipin protein complex has been reported to be important for replication checkpoint and normal DNA replication processes. However, the precise mechanisms by which Timeless-Tipin preserves genomic integrity are largely unclear. Here, we describe the roles of Timeless-Tipin in replication fork stabilization and sister chromatid cohesion. We show in human cells that Timeless is recruited to replication origin regions and dissociate from them as replication proceeds. Cdc45, which is known to be required for replication fork progression, shows similar patterns of origin association to those of Timeless. Depletion of Timeless-Tipin causes chromosome fragmentation and defects in damage repair in response to fork collapse, suggesting that it is required for replication fork maintenance under stress. We also demonstrate that depletion of Timeless-Tipin impairs sister chromatid cohesion and causes a defect in mitotic progression. Consistently, Timeless-Tipin co-purifies with cohesin subunits and is required for their stable association with chromatin during S phase. Timeless associates with the cohesion-promoting DNA helicase ChlR1, which, when overexpressed, partially alleviates the cohesion defect of cells depleted of Timeless-Tipin. These results suggest that Timeless-Tipin functions as a replication fork stabilizer that couples DNA replication with sister chromatid cohesion established at replication forks.

Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Chiaki; Lee, Candice Y.; Noguchi, Eishi

2010-01-01

352

SMARCAL1 catalyzes fork regression and Holliday junction migration to maintain genome stability during DNA replication.  

PubMed

SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like1) maintains genome integrity during DNA replication. Here we investigated its mechanism of action. We found that SMARCAL1 travels with elongating replication forks, and its absence leads to MUS81-dependent double-strand break formation. Binding to specific nucleic acid substrates activates SMARCAL1 activity in a reaction that requires its HARP2 (Hep-A-related protein 2) domain. Homology modeling indicates that the HARP domain is similar in structure to the DNA-binding domain of the PUR proteins. Limited proteolysis, small-angle X-ray scattering, and functional assays indicate that the core enzymatic unit consists of the HARP2 and ATPase domains that fold into a stable structure. Surprisingly, SMARCAL1 is capable of binding three-way and four-way Holliday junctions and model replication forks that lack a designed ssDNA region. Furthermore, SMARCAL1 remodels these DNA substrates by promoting branch migration and fork regression. SMARCAL1 mutations that cause Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia or that inactivate the HARP2 domain abrogate these activities. These results suggest that SMARCAL1 continuously surveys replication forks for damage. If damage is present, it remodels the fork to promote repair and restart. Failures in the process lead to activation of an alternative repair mechanism that depends on MUS81-catalyzed cleavage of the damaged fork. PMID:22279047

Bétous, Rémy; Mason, Aaron C; Rambo, Robert P; Bansbach, Carol E; Badu-Nkansah, Akosua; Sirbu, Bianca M; Eichman, Brandt F; Cortez, David

2012-01-15

353

RNF4 and PLK1 are required for replication fork collapse in ATR-deficient cells  

PubMed Central

The ATR–CHK1 axis stabilizes stalled replication forks and prevents their collapse into DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that fork collapse in Atr-deleted cells is mediated through the combined effects the sumo targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase RNF4 and activation of the AURKA–PLK1 pathway. As indicated previously, Atr-deleted cells exhibited a decreased ability to restart DNA replication following fork stalling in comparison with control cells. However, suppression of RNF4, AURKA, or PLK1 returned the reinitiation of replication in Atr-deleted cells to near wild-type levels. In RNF4-depleted cells, this rescue directly correlated with the persistence of sumoylation of chromatin-bound factors. Notably, RNF4 repression substantially suppressed the accumulation of DSBs in ATR-deficient cells, and this decrease in breaks was enhanced by concomitant inhibition of PLK1. DSBs resulting from ATR inhibition were also observed to be dependent on the endonuclease scaffold protein SLX4, suggesting that RNF4 and PLK1 either help activate the SLX4 complex or make DNA replication fork structures accessible for subsequent SLX4-dependent cleavage. Thus, replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition is a multistep process that disrupts replisome function and permits cleavage of the replication fork.

Ragland, Ryan L.; Patel, Sima; Rivard, Rebecca S.; Smith, Kevin; Peters, Ashley A.; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Brown, Eric J.

2013-01-01

354

Ribosomal DNA Replication Fork Barrier and HOT1 Recombination Hot Spot: Shared Sequences but Independent Activities  

PubMed Central

In the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sequences in the nontranscribed spacer 3? of the 35S ribosomal RNA gene are important to the polar arrest of replication forks at a site called the replication fork barrier (RFB) and also to the cis-acting, mitotic hyperrecombination site called HOT1. We have found that the RFB and HOT1 activity share some but not all of their essential sequences. Many of the mutations that reduce HOT1 recombination also decrease or eliminate fork arrest at one of two closely spaced RFB sites, RFB1 and RFB2. A simple model for the juxtaposition of RFB and HOT1 sequences is that the breakage of strands in replication forks arrested at RFB stimulates recombination. Contrary to this model, we show here that HOT1-stimulated recombination does not require the arrest of forks at the RFB. Therefore, while HOT1 activity is independent of replication fork arrest, HOT1 and RFB require some common sequences, suggesting the existence of a common trans-acting factor(s).

Ward, Teresa R.; Hoang, Margaret L.; Prusty, Reeta; Lau, Corine K.; Keil, Ralph L.; Fangman, Walton L.; Brewer, Bonita J.

2000-01-01

355

A Study of the Piggyback Option of the Minnesota State Assessment Program. A Report Prepared for the Minnesota State Assessment Program, Minnesota Department of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Local District Assessment Option (piggyback program) is an integral part of the Minnesota Statewide Educational Assessment Program, which provides the 162 participating local school districts with materials and procedures developed for the statewide program. Materials are available in reading, mathematics, social studies, and science for…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Office of Planning and Evaluation.

356

Water Quality Status and Trends in Minnesota - Indices for Water Supply and Ground Water Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of water quality in Minnesota was examined in relation to the chemical data available on public water supplies based upon sample analyses by the Minnesota Department of Health, reported in 1971 and upgraded in 1972. Information presented includ...

C. P. Straub V. M. Goppers A. DuChene

1976-01-01

357

75 FR 45568 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...request to EPA on May 7, 2010. The proposed approval revises the Minnesota SIP by updating information regarding the heat and steam distributor facility located in Fridley, Minnesota. The source, formerly operated as United Defense, LP, Inc. was...

2010-08-03

358

Minnesota's District/Area Transportation Partnership Process. Volume 1. Cross-Case Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a study conducted by the University of Minnesota's Center for Transportation Studies on Minnesota's district/area transportation process (ATP). Building upon existing planning processes, the ATPs involve a broad range o...

G. DeCramer J. MacGillis W. Klancher M. Krinke R. Johns

1997-01-01

359

76 FR 72196 - CRD Hydroelectric LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Application for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 12576-008] CRD Hydroelectric LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power...Intervene On October 14, 2011, CRD Hydroelectric LLC (transferor) and Western Minnesota...transfer of license for the Red Rock Hydroelectric Project, No. 12576, located on...

2011-11-22

360

Minnesota Agri-Power Project. Quarterly report, January--March, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota industrial park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced sour...

D. Wilbur

1998-01-01

361

Evaluation of Home Energy Audit and Retrofit Loan Programs in Minnesota: The Northern States Power Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Northern States Power NPS, the largest utility in Minnesota, operates several residential energy conservation programs. A detailed quantitative evaluation of two of these programs is described. The Minnesota Energy Conservation Service (MECS), provides ho...

E. Hirst R. Goeltz M. Thornsjo D. Sundin

1983-01-01

362

The Effectiveness of Flood Control Structures of the Lower Minnesota River Watershed District.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flood protective structures in the Lower Minnesota River Watershed District, properly planned and constructed, are economical in providing protection against potential floods from the Minnesota River only for existing installations. New construction in th...

1970-01-01

363

76 FR 32371 - Minnesota; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Management Agency [Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-1982-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Minnesota; Amendment No...major disaster declaration for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1982-DR), dated May 10, 2011, and related determinations....

2011-06-06

364

76 FR 32372 - Minnesota; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Management Agency [Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-1982-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Minnesota; Amendment No...major disaster declaration for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1982-DR), dated May 10, 2011, and related determinations....

2011-06-06

365

78 FR 18241 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Flint Hills Resources...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Flint Hills Resources Pine Bend AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...the the Minnesota sulfur dioxide SIP for Flint Hills Resources Pine Bend, LLC, in Dakota County. In the direct final rule,...

2013-03-26

366

76 FR 80395 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, Bemidji, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...affiliated with the human remains may contact the Minnesota Indian Affairs Council...affiliation with the human remains should contact the Minnesota Indian Affairs Council at...identify these human remains as pre-contact American [[Page 80396

2011-12-23

367

75 FR 81555 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum St. Paul Park AGENCY: Environmental Protection...sulfur dioxide State Implementation Plan revision request for Marathon Petroleum in St. Paul Park, Minnesota. This submittal...

2010-12-28

368

75 FR 77899 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, St. Paul and Bemidji, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inventory Completion: Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, St. Paul and Bemidji, MN AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...the possession of the Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, St. Paul and Bemidji, MN. The human remains and associated...

2010-12-14

369

Water-Quality and Biological Characteristics and Responses to Agricultural Land Retirement in Three Streams of the Minnesota River Basin, Water Years 2006-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality and biological characteristics in three streams in the Minnesota River Basin were assessed using data collected during water years 2006-08. The responses of nutrient concentrations, suspended-sediment concentrations, and biological characteristics to agricultural land retirement also were assessed. In general, total nitrogen, suspended-sediment, and chlorophyll-a concentrations, and fish resource quality improved with increasing land retirement. The Chetomba Creek, West Fork Beaver Creek, and South Branch Rush River subbasins, which range in size from about 200 to 400 square kilometers, have similar geologic and hydrologic settings but differ with respect to the amount, type, and location of retired agricultural land. Total nitrogen concentrations were largest, with a mean of 15.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L), in water samples from the South Branch Rush River, a subbasin with little to no agricultural land retirement; total nitrogen concentrations were smaller in samples from Chetomba Creek (mean of 10.6 mg/L) and West Fork Beaver Creek (mean of 7.9 mg/L), which are subbasins with more riparian or upland land retirement at the basin scale. Total phosphorus concentrations were not related directly to differing land-retirement percentages with mean concentrations at primary data-collection sites of 0.259 mg/L in the West Fork Beaver Creek subbasin, 0.164 mg/L in the Chetomba Creek subbasin, and 0.180 mg/L in the South Branch Rush River subbasin. Temporal variation in water quality was characterized using data from in-stream water-quality monitors and storm-sediment data. Fish data indicate better resource quality for the West Fork Beaver Creek subbasin than for other subbasins likely due to a combination of factors, including habitat quality, food resources, and dissolved oxygen characteristics. Index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores increased as local land-retirement percentages (within 50 and 100 meters of the streams) increased. Data and analysis from this study can be used to evaluate the success of agricultural management practices and land-retirement programs for improving stream quality.

Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Sanocki, Christopher A.; Mohring, Eric H.; Kiesling, Richard L.

2009-01-01

370

Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota.  

PubMed Central

Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans. Images Figure 1

Schreinemachers, D M; Creason, J P; Garry, V F

1999-01-01

371

BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

1997-10-24

372

BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

ADAMS, S.M.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.

1998-09-09

373

The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study: Design and Baseline Results  

PubMed Central

The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000–2001. Participants have been surveyed by telephone semi-annually about their tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. The goals of the study are to evaluate the effects of the Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative and its shutdown on youth smoking patterns, and to better define the patterns of development of tobacco use in adolescents. A multilevel sample was constructed representing individuals, local jurisdictions and the entire state, and data are collected to characterize each of these levels. This paper presents the details of the multilevel study design. We also provide baseline information about MACC participants including demographics and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. This paper describes smoking prevalence at the local level, and compares MACC participants to the state as a whole.

Forster, Jean; Chen, Vincent; Perry, Cheryl; Oswald, John; Willmorth, Michael

2014-01-01

374

A PRELIMINARY APPRAISAL OF THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF THE EAST FORK WHITE LICK CREEK IN THE WEST FORK WHITE RIVER WATERSHED USING FISH COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological community assessment conducted during July 1997 in response to requests by IDEM's Permits and Modeling Sections in the Office of Water Management to assess potential or existing impacts that may have occurred or may now be occurring in the East Fork White Lick Creek Basin due to run-off of deicing agents used at the Indianapolis International Airport (IIAP).

James R. Stahl; Thomas P. Simon; Eric O. Edberg

1997-01-01

375

Impact of Changes in Minnesota State Grants Implemented in Fiscal Year 2004.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the Minnesota Legislature outlines the estimated impact of recent changes made to the Minnesota State Grant Program on students. The Minnesota Higher Education Services Office is a cabinet-level state agency that provides prospective and current post-secondary students with financial aid programs, services and information. The…

Setter, Gerald

2004-01-01

376

Children's Services Report Card, 1996: Measuring Minnesota's Progress for Children. Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was developed by Minnesota Planning to help counties measure their progress toward meeting the Minnesota Milestones goals for social and educational services for children. The report card is composed of 21 indicators of children's well-being. Since the 1994 report card was released, Minnesota has made progress in eight areas (1) abused…

Fong, Richard

377

BLM SUMOylation regulates ssDNA accumulation at stalled replication forks  

PubMed Central

Polymerase stalling results in uncoupling of DNA polymerase and the replicative helicase, which generates single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). After stalling, RAD51 accumulates at stalled replication forks to stabilize the fork and to repair by homologous recombination (HR) double-strand breaks (DSBs) that accumulate there. We showed recently that SUMO modification of the BLM helicase is required in order for RAD51 to accumulate at stalled forks. In order to investigate how BLM SUMOylation controls RAD51 accumulation, we characterized the function of HR proteins and ssDNA-binding protein RPA in cells that stably expressed either normal BLM (BLM+) or SUMO-mutant BLM (SM-BLM). In HU-treated SM-BLM cells, mediators BRCA2 and RAD52, which normally substitute RAD51 for RPA on ssDNA, failed to accumulate normally at stalled forks; instead, excess RPA accumulated. SM-BLM cells also exhibited higher levels of HU-induced chromatin-bound RPA than BLM+ cells did. The excess RPA did not result from excessive intrinsic BLM helicase activity, because in vitro SUMOylated BLM unwound similar amounts of replication-fork substrate as unSUMOylated BLM. Nor did BLM SUMOylation inhibit binding of RPA to BLM in vitro; however, in immunoprecipitation experiments, more BLM-RPA complex formed in HU-treated SM-BLM cells, indicating that BLM SUMOylation controls the amount of BLM-RPA complex normally formed at stalled forks. Together, these results showed that BLM SUMOylation regulates the amount of ssDNA that accumulates during polymerase stalling. We conclude that BLM SUMOylation functions as a licensing mechanism that permits and regulates HR at damaged replication forks.

Ouyang, Karen J.; Yagle, Mary K.; Matunis, Michael J.; Ellis, Nathan A.

2013-01-01

378

Replication fork arrest at relocated replication terminators on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.  

PubMed

The replication terminus region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome, comprising TerI and TerII plus the rtp gene (referred to as the terC region) was relocated to serC (257 degrees) and cym (10 degrees) on the anticlockwise- and clockwise-replicating segments of the chromosome, respectively. In both cases, it was found that only the orientation of the terC region that placed TerI in opposition to the approaching replication fork was functional in fork arrest. When TerII was opposed to the approaching fork, it was nonfunctional. These findings confirm and extend earlier work which involved relocations to only the clockwise-replicating segment, at metD (100 degrees) and pyr (139 degrees). In the present work, it was further shown that in the strain in which TerII was opposed to an approaching fork at metD, overproduction of the replication terminator protein (RTP) enabled TerII to function as an arrest site. Thus, chromosomal TerII is nonfunctional in arrest in vivo because of a limiting level of RTP. Marker frequency analysis showed that TerI at both cym and metD caused only transient arrest of a replication fork. Arrest appeared to be more severe in the latter situation and caused the two forks to meet at approximately 145 degrees (just outside or on the edge of the replication fork trap). The minimum pause time erected by TerI at metD was calculated to be approximately 40% of the time taken to complete a round of replication. This significant pause at metD caused the cells to become elongated, indicating that cell division was delayed. Further work is needed to establish the immediate cause of the delay in division. PMID:8763955

Franks, A H; Wake, R G

1996-07-01

379

Replication fork arrest at relocated replication terminators on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.  

PubMed Central

The replication terminus region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome, comprising TerI and TerII plus the rtp gene (referred to as the terC region) was relocated to serC (257 degrees) and cym (10 degrees) on the anticlockwise- and clockwise-replicating segments of the chromosome, respectively. In both cases, it was found that only the orientation of the terC region that placed TerI in opposition to the approaching replication fork was functional in fork arrest. When TerII was opposed to the approaching fork, it was nonfunctional. These findings confirm and extend earlier work which involved relocations to only the clockwise-replicating segment, at metD (100 degrees) and pyr (139 degrees). In the present work, it was further shown that in the strain in which TerII was opposed to an approaching fork at metD, overproduction of the replication terminator protein (RTP) enabled TerII to function as an arrest site. Thus, chromosomal TerII is nonfunctional in arrest in vivo because of a limiting level of RTP. Marker frequency analysis showed that TerI at both cym and metD caused only transient arrest of a replication fork. Arrest appeared to be more severe in the latter situation and caused the two forks to meet at approximately 145 degrees (just outside or on the edge of the replication fork trap). The minimum pause time erected by TerI at metD was calculated to be approximately 40% of the time taken to complete a round of replication. This significant pause at metD caused the cells to become elongated, indicating that cell division was delayed. Further work is needed to establish the immediate cause of the delay in division.

Franks, A H; Wake, R G

1996-01-01

380

The Drosophila fork head factor directly controls larval salivary gland-specific expression of the glue protein gene Sgs3.  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila Fork head protein participates in salivary gland formation, since salivary glands are missing in fork head embryos. Here we show that the fork head encoded protein binds to an upstream regulatory region of the larval salivary gland glue protein gene Sgs3. Mobility shift assay in the presence of an anti-Fork head antibody demonstrated that the Fork head factor interacts with the TGTTTGC box shown to be involved in tissue-specific Sgs3 expression. Experiments employing a set of oligonucleotide competitors revealed that Fork head binding was prevented by the same single base substitutions that were previously shown to interfere with the TGTTTGC element function in vivo. Furthermore, the anti-Fork head antibody bound to >60 sites of polytene chromosomes, including the puffs of all Sgs genes and Fork head protein was detected in the nuclei of salivary glands of larvae of all examined stages. These data provide experimental evidence for the hypothesis that the protein encoded by the fork head gene is required initially for salivary gland formation and is utilized subsequently in the control of larval genes specifically expressed in this organ.

Mach, V; Ohno, K; Kokubo, H; Suzuki, Y

1996-01-01

381

A Tapping-Mode Tuning Fork with a Short Fibre Probe Sensor for a Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe sensor for a near-field scanning optical microscope. The method demonstrates how to fabricate the short fibre probe. This tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe can provide stable and high Q at the tapping frequency of the tuning fork, and can give high-quality near-field scanning optical microscope and atomic force microscope images of samples. We present the results of using the tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe sensor for a near-field scanning optical microscope performed on an eight-channel silica waveguide.

Wang, Pei; Lu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Jiang-Ying; Ming, Hai; Xie, Jian-Ping; Huang, Chien-Wen; Kao, Tsung-Sheng; Tsai, Din-Ping

2002-09-01

382

Technical Assistance Project for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared in response to a request for technical assistance from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in its response to this request through the Technical Assistance Project. Discussion with the MPCA identified the following as the highest-priority questions: What is the effect of (1) size of Renewable Energy Reserve (RER) and (2) duration of allocation award on (a) NOx emissions in Minnesota and (b) retail electricity prices? What data is available on the response of wind energy development to financial incentives? This report addresses those questions.

Vimmerstedt, L.

2006-12-01

383

Gravity and grand unified theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is currently believed that quantum effects play a dominant role in the evolution of the very early universe. The large curvature of space-time at early times gives rise to unexpected phenomena, such as the creation of particles by the expanding universe, which have strong dynamical consequences. When realistic elementary particle interactions of the type occurring in grand unified theories

Leonard Parker; David J. Toms

1985-01-01

384

Two Grand Challenges for EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of evolutionary computation has developed and matured significantly over the past 40 years. As with other disciplines attempting to understand complex adaptive systems, this progress has raised as many new and interesting questions as it has answered. In this chapter I describe some of the key open questions by organizing them in the form of two grand challenges:

Kenneth De Jong

385

Grand Challenges in Organismal Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on pages 169 and 171-172 of the PDF file. A Summary of the thought and inniatives behind the NSF's Grand Challenges in Organismal Physiology. This program is designed to bring the opinions of those studying organismal biology together to identify the challenges facing the field and how best to address them.

PhD Hannah V. Carey (Univ Wisconsin-Madison Sch Vet Med Dept Comp Biosci)

2011-10-01

386

The return of grand strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1970s when the nation's colleges and universities were trying to assimilate the 1960s and cope with financial crises, magnanimous solutions were offered in the form of grand strategy. Accountability, alternative learning, planned change, and the policy sciences were advocated with an enthusiasm that now suggests both innocence and malice. If higher education lacked unifying themes or organizing principles

Cameron Fincher

1983-01-01

387

Designing a Virtual Grand Tour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Virtual Grand Tour (VGT) is a paradigm for integrating a presentation of an overview of a larger subject with the possibility of launching at any time an exploratory study of a given sub-topic. The name derives from the paradigm's emulation of those 18th-century travels intended to educate (especially) young, affluent British men; today, with…

Hansen, Per Skafte

2004-01-01

388

Mus81-mediated DNA cleavage resolves replication forks stalled by topoisomerase I-DNA complexes  

PubMed Central

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) topoisomerases are essential for removing the supercoiling that normally builds up ahead of replication forks. The camptothecin (CPT) Top1 (topoisomerase I) inhibitors exert their anticancer activity by reversibly trapping Top1–DNA cleavage complexes (Top1cc’s) and inducing replication-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this paper, we propose a new mechanism by which cells avoid Top1-induced replication-dependent DNA damage. We show that the structure-specific endonuclease Mus81-Eme1 is responsible for generating DSBs in response to Top1 inhibition and for allowing cell survival. We provide evidence that Mus81 cleaves replication forks rather than excises Top1cc’s. DNA combing demonstrated that Mus81 also allows efficient replication fork progression after CPT treatment. We propose that Mus81 cleaves stalled replication forks, which allows dissipation of the excessive supercoiling resulting from Top1 inhibition, spontaneous reversal of Top1cc, and replication fork progression.

Regairaz, Marie; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Fu, Haiqing; Agama, Keli K.; Tata, Nalini; Agrawal, Surbhi; Aladjem, Mirit I.

2011-01-01

389

CENP-B preserves genome integrity at replication forks paused by Retrotransposon LTR  

PubMed Central

Centromere-binding protein B (CENP-B) is a widely conserved DNA binding factor associated with heterochromatin and centromeric satellite repeats1. In fission yeast, CENP-B homologs have been shown to silence Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons by recruiting histone deacetylases2. However, CENP-B factors also have unexplained roles in DNA replication3, 4. Here, we show that a molecular function of CENP-B is to promote replication fork progression through the LTR. Mutants have increased genomic instability caused by replication fork blockage that depends on the DNA binding factor Switch Activating Protein 1 (Sap1), which is directly recruited by the LTR. The loss of Sap1-dependent barrier activity allows the unhindered progression of the replication fork, but results in rearrangements deleterious to the retrotransposon. We conclude that retrotransposons influence replication polarity through recruitment of Sap1 and transposition near replication fork blocks, while CENP-B counteracts this activity and promotes fork stability. Our results may account for the role of LTR in fragile sites, and for the association of CENP-B with pericentromeric heterochromatin and tandem satellite repeats.

Zaratiegui, Mikel; Vaughn, Matthew W.; Irvine, Danielle V.; Goto, Derek; Watt, Stephen; Bahler, Jurg; Arcangioli, Benoit; Martienssen, Robert A.

2010-01-01

390

Depositional framework and reservoir distribution of Red Fork sandstone in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian Red Fork sandstone formed as a result of southward progradation across most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork is one of several cyclothemic (transgressive-regressive) sequences developed within the Desmoinesian Cherokee Group. Sea level changes and stability of the depositional area were dominant factors in determining the general stratigraphic characteristics of the Red Fork interval. Progradation was episodic, with sand deposition in the distal, more subsident part of the basin during lower sea level stands, and valley-fill deposition in the more stable areas during sea level rises. Red Fork sandstone trends depict an alluvial-deltaic complex covering most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork consists primarily of alluvial-valley and plain (fluvial) bodies in the northern part of northeastern Oklahoma, alluvial-deltaic bodies in most of the remaining parts of the shelf area, and off-shelf submarine-fan and slope/basin-floor complexes within the deeper part of the Anadarko basin. Determination of reservoir trend and genesis requires integration of rock data and log data, with logs calibrated to cores for estimating depositional environments and assessing diagenetic overprints. Much of the oil and gas has been trapped in stratigraphic traps, some of which represent channelized sandstones with trends at high angles to the structural grain. Secondary chlorite, in particular, is associated locally with development of productive reservoirs showing microporosity, high water saturation, and correspondingly low resistivities.

Shelton, J.W.; Fritz, R.D.; Johnson, C. (Masera Corp., Tulsa, OK (USA))

1989-08-01

391

Human CST promotes telomere duplex replication and general replication restart after fork stalling  

PubMed Central

Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) associates with telomeres and depletion of CTC1 or STN1 causes telomere defects. However, the function of mammalian CST remains poorly understood. We show here that depletion of CST subunits leads to both telomeric and non-telomeric phenotypes associated with DNA replication defects. Stable knockdown of CTC1 or STN1 increases the incidence of anaphase bridges and multi-telomeric signals, indicating genomic and telomeric instability. STN1 knockdown also delays replication through the telomere indicating a role in replication fork passage through this natural barrier. Furthermore, we find that STN1 plays a novel role in genome-wide replication restart after hydroxyurea (HU)-induced replication fork stalling. STN1 depletion leads to reduced EdU incorporation after HU release. However, most forks rapidly resume replication, indicating replisome integrity is largely intact and STN1 depletion has little effect on fork restart. Instead, STN1 depletion leads to a decrease in new origin firing. Our findings suggest that CST rescues stalled replication forks during conditions of replication stress, such as those found at natural replication barriers, likely by facilitating dormant origin firing.

Stewart, Jason A; Wang, Feng; Chaiken, Mary F; Kasbek, Christopher; Chastain, Paul D; Wright, Woodring E; Price, Carolyn M

2012-01-01

392

Grand Unified Theories and Their Cosmological Consequences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These lectures contain a rather lengthy study of Grand Unified Theories as applied both in particle physics and in cosmology. Section I contains some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand ...

R. Barloutaud J. F. Cavaignac N. Nanopoulos

1980-01-01

393

OBSERVATIONS OF CANCER INCIDENCE SURVEILLANCE IN DULUTH, MINNESOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1973, amphibole asbestos fibers were discovered in the municipal water supply of Duluth, Minnesota. The entire city population of approximately 100,000 was exposed during the late 1950s through 1976 at levels of 1-65 million fibers per liter of water. Because of previous epide...

394

Caring for Our Children: A Study of TEFRA in Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the characteristics of 959 families participating in the Minnesota TEFRA program, a federal Medicaid option for children with disabilities which allows caregivers to purchase support needed to keep the children in the community. Findings indicate that families of children with special…

Chan, Benjamin; Jahnke, Lola; Thorson, Sarah; Vanderburg, Nancy

395

Karst database implementation in Minnesota: analysis of sinkhole distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the overall sinkhole distributions and conducts hypothesis tests of sinkhole distributions and sinkhole formation using data stored in the Karst Feature Database (KFD) of Minnesota. Nearest neighbor analysis (NNA) was extended to include different orders of NNA, different scales of concentrated zones of sinkholes, and directions to the nearest sinkholes. The statistical results, along with the sinkhole

Y. Gao; E. C. Alexander Jr; R. J. Barnes

2005-01-01

396

Survey of Computer Facilities in Minnesota and North Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to attain a better understanding of the data processing manpower needs of business and industry, a survey instrument was designed and mailed to 570 known and possible computer installations in the Minnesota/North Dakota area. The survey was conducted during the spring of 1975, and concentrated on the kinds of equipment and computer…

MacGregor, Donald

397

U.S. in the World: Minnesota/Philippines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The economies of the Philippines and Minnesota are both geographically vulnerable to ecological fluctuations that cause natural disasters such as floods, typhoons, and earthquakes. Read about the links between natural resources and population in these examples of opposite geographical relationships between land and water.

Bureau, Population R.

398

Concurrent Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco in Minnesota  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smokers are being encouraged to use smokeless tobacco (SLT) in locations where smoking is banned. We examined state-wide data from Minnesota to measure changes over time in the use of SLT and concurrent use of cigarettes and SLT. The Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey was conducted four times between 1999 and 2010 and has provided state-wide estimates of cigarette smoking, SLT use and concurrent use of SLT by smokers. The prevalence of SLT was essentially unchanged through 2007, then increased significantly between 2007 and 2010 (3.1% versus 4.3%, P < 0.05). Similarly, the prevalence of cigarette smokers who reported using SLT was stable then increased between 2007 and 2010 (4.4% versus 9.6%, P < 0.05). The finding of higher SLT use by smokers could indicate that smokers in Minnesota are in an experimental phase of testing alternative products as they adjust to recent public policies restricting smoking in public places. The findings are suggestive that some Minnesota smokers are switching to concurrent use of cigarettes and SLT. Future surveillance reports will be necessary to confirm the results.

Boyle, Raymond G.; Claire, Ann W. St.; Kinney, Ann M.; D'Silva, Joanne; Carusi, Charles

2012-01-01

399

Trout Production Dynamics and Water Quality in Minnesota Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sampled fish assemblages and quantified production dynamics of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in 13 southeastern Minnesota streams during 1988–1990 to examine the influence of water quality on fish populations in fertile trout streams. Fish assemblages in 15 stream reaches were abundant, but low in diversity; 13 species were collected. Parameter

Thomas J. Kwak; Thomas F. Waters

1997-01-01

400

Prices Received: Minnesota-Wisconsin Manufacturing Grade Milk, 1996 Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minnesota and Wisconsin produce over one-third of the manufacturing grade milk marketed in the United States. The estimates relate only to manufacturing grade milk purchased from farmers and do not include Grade A milk diverted to manufacturing uses. Data...

1997-01-01

401

New Immigrants in Minnesota: The Somali Immigration and Assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines immigration and assimilation processes of Somalis in Minnesota. Does America have an assimilation problem? There are two competing answers to the preceding question: Barone (2001) says “no” because immigrants have always blended. By contrast, Fonte’s (2001) answer is “yes” because today’s assimilating forces are much different than those that prevailed in the early twentieth century. Drawing on

Kebba Darboe

2003-01-01

402

The Status of Equal Opportunity for Minorities in Moorhead, Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains information received at a public fact finding meeting held in Moorhead, Minnesota, in 1999. The meeting examined equal opportunity conditions for minority residents in Moorhead, noting possible disparities in four areas: income and employment, education, public safety, and housing and public accommodation. To buttress the data…

Minnesota State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, St. Paul.

403

The Naked Truth About School Reform in Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Minnesota, imperial forces would implement a controlling, if well-intentioned system designed to make teachers and students conform to standards not of their choosing. Based on outcome-based education precepts, the proposed reform ideas are retreads of tried and untrue conservative concepts with a history of failure. When minimum expectations…

Nelson, Wade W.

1998-01-01

404

Child Care Use in Minnesota: 2009 Statewide Survey Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 500,000 households in Minnesota include a parent or parents with at least one child age 12 and under. About three-quarters use some type of child care. The strength of the economy depends on families having high-quality, affordable child care, so parents can work and children have the early learning opportunities they need to perform better…

Chase, Richard; Valorose, Jennifer

2010-01-01

405

TRACALS evaluation report. Radar station evaluation report, duluth IAP, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Radar Traffic Control and Landing Systems (TRACALS) station evaluation report presents data collected to define the capabilities and limitations of the Mobile Radar Approach Control Facility (AN\\/MPN-14) at Duluth International Airport, Minnesota. Included in the report are descriptions of the upper, lower, outer and inner fringes of the useable radar coverage; radar coverage diagrams; ATCRBS coverage and tracking capabilities;

R. L. Cranston

1974-01-01

406

Training Internal Medicine Residents in the Community: The Minnesota Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Minnesota internal medicine residency program of ambulatory general medicine rotations in rural communities and urban managed care settings is described. Development and structure of rotations, objectives, teaching strategies, faculty development, evaluation system, and elements of successful implementation are discussed.…

Parenti, Connie M.; Moldow, Charles F.

1995-01-01

407

University of Minnesota researchers discover enzyme behind breast cancer mutations  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Minnesota and its Masonic Cancer Center have uncovered a human enzyme responsible for causing DNA mutations found in the majority of breast cancers. The discovery of this enzyme – called APOBEC3B – may change the way breast cancer is diagnosed and treated.

408

A Study of Special Education Directors in Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study undertook a systematic analysis of the position of special education director in Minnesota. Position analysis allows for a detailed cross-section analysis of a position in terms of authority and responsibility within an organization. The current study was conducted to determine the special education director's current operations tasks,…

Weatherman, Richard; Harpaz, Itzhak

409

Residential Behavioral Treatment Facilities. 1996 Minnesota Student Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report uses text, graphs, and tables to present findings of a 1996 survey of 575 adolescents voluntarily participating in residential behavioral treatment facilities in Minnesota. Compared with public school students, these adolescents were: 62 percent male, more likely to be of color, especially American Indian, and twice as likely as other…

Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Harrison, Patricia A.; Beebe, Timothy J.

410

Planning, Evaluating and Reporting--Minnesota's Response to Accountability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help make school districts more accountable without resorting to minimum competency testing, the Minnesota legislature in 1976 passed a law requiring the state's 434 districts to prepare annual planning and evaluation reports (PERs). The PER law obliges districts to develop educational policies and review them annually; create an instructional…

Kelsey, Kenneth W.

411

A Coalition Perspective: New Directions for Health Care in Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Minnesota Coalition on Health Care Costs favors a restructured, market-oriented health care system with regulatory controls used only as a short-term adjunct and/or long-term leverage as the means to effective cost control. Instead of focusing on the ...

1981-01-01

412

Minnesota Deaf-Blind Technical Assistance Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes activities and accomplishments of the 3-year federally supported Minnesota Deaf-Blind Technical Assistance Project. The project provided training and technical assistance, information sharing, and support services to families of children with deaf-blindness. Activities and accomplishments included: collaboration with…

Kloos, Eric

413

Cultural Resource Survey at Orwell Reservoir, Otter Tail County, Minnesota,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to present the methods and results of an archaeological survey at Orwell Lake, Otter Tail county, Minnesota. The survey was done to determine the presence or absence of any cultural material at specified areas of the reservoi...

R. A. Strachan K. A. Roetzel

1986-01-01

414

Alcoholics Anonymous and the Minnesota Model of Treatment in Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to provide an initial characterization of the current status of patients admitted to an alcoholism treatment program in Iceland. Consistent with the Minnesota Model, 12-step facilitation has been a central component of the program since its inception. Of the 94 patients assessed in this study, 67% were male and 40% had attended over 90 AA meetings

Daniel McMenamin; Matthew Warren; Þórarinn Tyrfingsson; Ingunn Hansdóttir; Helen Dermatis; Marc Galanter; Caitlin McMahon

2011-01-01

415

The Educational Needs of Dislocated Workers in Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine if dislocated workers in Minnesota felt they had sufficient reading and mathematics skills to obtain new employment or enter retraining programs. A representative group of 168 dislocated workers who had been employed in manufacturing, taconite mining, lumber, and farming were interviewed from June through…

Park, Rosemarie J.; And Others

416

Report on Children's Mental Health Reform in Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, which collected data through interviews and document review, was designed to identify strengths and weaknesses of Minnesota's Comprehensive Children's Mental Health Act (CCMHA) of 1989 and its implementation through December 1990. Three criteria for mental health reform were established for the study, including: care should be…

Petr, Christopher G.; Pierpont, John

417

EXCESS CANCER MORTALITY IN AGRICULTURAL REGIONS OF MINNESOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban...

418

General Christopher C. Andrews: Leading the Minnesota Forestry Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the nineteenth century, America's burgeoning population certainly did grab all the timber it could. Vast pine forests stretched from Maine to Dakota, and the lumber industry voraciously consumed them from east to west. In 1800, the Minnesota territory was sparsely sprinkled with fur traders and American Indians. By 1850, its bounteous forests…

Rice, Anna M.

2002-01-01

419

Minnesota Kids: A Closer Look. 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Minnesota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 11 indicators of child well-being: (1) child poverty rate; (2) children receiving free or reduced-price school lunch; (3) children in families receiving food stamps; (4) births to teenage mothers; (5) low birth weight rates;…

Coffin, Linda

420

Minnesota Kids: A Closer Look. 1999 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Minnesota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) child poverty rate; (2) children in families receiving food stamps; (3) children eligible for free or reduced-price school lunch; (4) births to teenage mothers; (5) low birth weight…

Kids Count Minnesota, Minneapolis.

421

Faculty Development Programs in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty development programs in Minnesota, South Dakota, and North Dakota, which were funded by the Bush Foundation, are described. Activities include advising, curriculum development and course review, department reviews, grants, humanistic studies, internships and interdisciplinary teaching, journals, leave supplements, master teachers,…

Davis, Jacqueline D., Ed.; Young, Robert E., Ed.

422

A PALEOLIMNOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF BURNTSIDE AND SHAGAWA LAKES, NORTHEASTERN MINNESOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paleolimnological records of Burntside and Shagawa Lakes in Northeastern Minnesota reveal that these two adjacent lakes have been limnologically distinct for many years prior to the late 19th century activities of white men that polluted Shagawa Lake. Although both lakes occu...

423

Open Doorway to Truth: Legacy of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial  

PubMed Central

More than a decade has passed since the conclusion of the Minnesota tobacco trial and the signing of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) by 46 US State Attorneys General and the US tobacco industry. The Minnesota settlement exposed the tobacco industry's long history of deceptive marketing, advertising, and research and ultimately forced the industry to change its business practices. The provisions for public document disclosure that were included in the Minnesota settlement and the MSA have resulted in the release of approximately 70 million pages of documents and nearly 20,000 other media materials. No comparable dynamic, voluminous, and contemporaneous document archive exists. Only a few single events in the history of public health have had as dramatic an effect on tobacco control as the public release of the tobacco industry's previously secret internal documents. This review highlights the genesis of the release of these documents, the history of the document depositories created by the Minnesota settlement, the scientific and policy output based on the documents, and the use of the documents in furthering global public health strategies.

Hurt, Richard D.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Muggli, Monique E.; Lockhart, Nikki J.; Robertson, Channing R.

2009-01-01

424

Higher Education in Times of Financial Distress: The Minnesota Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many states, Minnesota has incurred large budget deficits during the past two years. Those deficits have, in turn, led to changes in a number of areas of state government, particularly higher education. Faculty have incurred pay freezes and layoffs, programs have closed, and tuition increased. Campuses within the MnSCU system have been…

Severns, Roger

2012-01-01

425

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rrm3p DNA helicase promotes genome integrity by preventing replication fork stalling: viability of rrm3 cells requires the intra-S-phase checkpoint and fork restart activities.  

PubMed

Rrm3p is a 5'-to-3' DNA helicase that helps replication forks traverse protein-DNA complexes. Its absence leads to increased fork stalling and breakage at over 1,000 specific sites located throughout the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. To understand the mechanisms that respond to and repair rrm3-dependent lesions, we carried out a candidate gene deletion analysis to identify genes whose mutation conferred slow growth or lethality on rrm3 cells. Based on synthetic phenotypes, the intra-S-phase checkpoint, the SRS2 inhibitor of recombination, the SGS1/TOP3 replication fork restart pathway, and the MRE11/RAD50/XRS2 (MRX) complex were critical for viability of rrm3 cells. DNA damage checkpoint and homologous recombination genes were important for normal growth of rrm3 cells. However, the MUS81/MMS4 replication fork restart pathway did not affect growth of rrm3 cells. These data suggest a model in which the stalled and broken forks generated in rrm3 cells activate a checkpoint response that provides time for fork repair and restart. Stalled forks are converted by a Rad51p-mediated process to intermediates that are resolved by Sgs1p/Top3p. The rrm3 system provides a unique opportunity to learn the fate of forks whose progress is impaired by natural impediments rather than by exogenous DNA damage. PMID:15060144

Torres, Jorge Z; Schnakenberg, Sandra L; Zakian, Virginia A

2004-04-01

426

Salivary gland determination in Drosophila: a salivary-specific, fork head enhancer integrates spatial pattern and allows fork head autoregulation.  

PubMed

In the early Drosophila embryo, a system of coordinates is laid down by segmentation genes and dorsoventral patterning genes. Subsequently, these coordinates must be interpreted to define particular tissues and organs. To begin understanding this process for a single organ, we have studied how one of the first salivary gland genes, fork head (fkh), is turned on in the primordium of this organ, the salivary placode. A placode-specific fkh enhancer was identified 10 kb from the coding sequence. Dissection of this enhancer showed that the apparently homogeneous placode is actually composed of at least four overlapping domains. These domains appear to be developmentally important because they predict the order of salivary invagination, are evolutionarily conserved, and are regulated by patterning genes that are important for salivary development. Three dorsoventral domains are defined by EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling, while stripes located at the anterior and posterior edges of the placode depend on wingless signaling. Further analysis identified sites in the enhancer that respond either positively to the primary activator of salivary gland genes, SEX COMBS REDUCED (SCR), or negatively to EGFR signaling. These results show that fkh integrates spatial pattern directly, without reference to other early salivary gland genes. In addition, we identified a binding site for FKH protein that appears to act in fkh autoregulation, keeping the gene active after SCR has disappeared from the placode. This autoregulation may explain how the salivary gland maintains its identity after the organ is established. Although the fkh enhancer integrates information needed to define the salivary placode, and although fkh mutants have the most extreme effects on salivary gland development thus far described, we argue that fkh is not a selector gene for salivary gland development and that there is no master, salivary gland selector gene. Instead, several genes independently sense spatial information and cooperate to define the salivary placode. PMID:11518505

Zhou, B; Bagri, A; Beckendorf, S K

2001-09-01

427

A proposed Laramide proto-Grand Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of “rim gravels” north of Grand Canyon and of “Canaan Peak-type” gravels south of Grand Canyon suggests that a paleocanyon, which intersected the transport of these gravels north and south, may have begun forming in the Laramide in approximately the same position as today's central Grand Canyon. This Laramide-age canyon is envisioned as having flowed generally from the

C. A. Hill; W. D. Ranney

2008-01-01

428

Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter

Peter Folger

2004-01-01

429

External View of the DARPA Grand Challenge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge was a 'Huge Leap Forward for Robotics R&D' according to the DARPA Grand Challenge tracking website. Similar to the transatlantic flight competition that spurred commercial flights all over the world, the Grand Challenge was ...

J. Teems M. Del Rose P. A. Frederick R. Kania

2006-01-01

430

Herpes simplex virus DNA synthesis at a preformed replication fork in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Proteins from herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells were used to reconstitute DNA synthesis in vitro on a preformed replication fork. The preformed replication fork consisted of a nicked, double-stranded, circular DNA molecule with a 5' single-strand tail that was noncomplementary to the template. The products of DNA synthesis on this substrate were rolling-circle molecules, as demonstrated by electron microscopy and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. The tails contained double-stranded regions, indicating that both leading- and lagging-strand DNA syntheses occurred. Rolling-circle DNA replication was dependent upon HSV DNA polymerase and ATP and was stimulated by a crude fraction containing ICP8 (HSV DNA-binding protein). Similar protein fractions from mock-infected cells were unable to support rolling-circle DNA replication. This in vitro DNA replication system should prove useful in the identification and characterization of the enzymatic activities required at the HSV replication fork. Images

Rabkin, S D; Hanlon, B

1990-01-01

431

Dysregulation of DNA polymerase ? recruitment to replication forks results in genomic instability  

PubMed Central

Translesion synthesis polymerases (TLS Pols) are required to tolerate DNA lesions that would otherwise cause replication arrest and cell death. Aberrant expression of these specialized Pols may be responsible for increased mutagenesis and loss of genome integrity in human cancers. The molecular events that control the usage of TLS Pols in non-pathological conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we show that aberrant recruitment of TLS Pol? to replication forks results in genomic instability and can be mediated through the loss of the deubiquitinase USP1. Moreover, artificial tethering of Pol? to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) circumvents the need for its ubiquitin-binding domain in the promotion of genomic instability. Finally, we show that the loss of USP1 leads to a dramatic reduction of replication fork speed in a Pol?-dependent manner. We propose a mechanism whereby reversible ubiquitination of PCNA can prevent spurious TLS Pol recruitment and regulate replication fork speed to ensure the maintenance of genome integrity.

Jones, Mathew JK; Colnaghi, Luca; Huang, Tony T

2012-01-01

432

Phase modulation dynamic AFM measurement system based on tuning fork probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we design a phase modulation dynamic AFM measurement system based on the characteristics of the novel tuning fork probe. The AFM head based on the tuning fork probe can work cooperatively with the displacement positioning platform driven by the piezoelectric actuators to achieve the feedback in z direction. The large range nanometer positioning stage can be used to scan the sample in x and y directions. With nanoscale resolution, the whole system has a range of 25mm×25mm in horizontal. The measurement data can be traced back to the definition of meter through three embedded laser interferometers. We measure the internal working current of the tuning fork by experiment, and gain the electro-mechanical coupling factor of the probe, and achieve the calibration of AFM head. To guarantee the system's feasibility, the AFM measuring system accomplishes the measurement of typical grid structure's surface morphology in phase modulation mode.

Guo, Tong; Chen, Weijia; Wu, Zhichao; Chen, Jinping; Fu, Xing; Hu, Xiaotang

2013-10-01

433

Atomic steps with tuning-fork-based noncontact atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuning forks as tip-sample distance detectors are a promising and versatile alternative to conventional cantilevers with optical beam deflection in noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both theory and experiments are presented to make a comparison between conventional and tuning-fork-based AFM. Measurements made on a Si(111) sample show that both techniques are capable of detecting monatomic steps. The measured step height of 0.33 nm is in agreement with the accepted value of 0.314 nm. According to a simple model, interaction forces of 30 pN are obtained for the tuning-fork-based setup, indicating that, at the proper experimental conditions, the sensitivity of such an instrument is competitive to conventional lever-based AFM.

Rensen, W. H. J.; van Hulst, N. F.; Ruiter, A. G. T.; West, P. E.

1999-09-01

434

Adaptation of a commercial UHV SPM system for use with a quartz tuning fork sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic force microscopy using a quartz tuning fork sensor offers many advantages over cantilever AFM, particularly for use in a UHV environment. One key advantage is the stability against jump to contact allowed by the high stiffness (k˜1800 N/m) of the tuning fork. This allows complementary NC-AFM and STM, without a compromise in STM performance due to cantilever deflection. Here, we present the adaptation of a JEOL JSPM-4500A UHV STM/AFM system to accommodate a quartz tuning fork The modification is done without any alteration of the existing system capability for cantilever AFM using optical detection, and allows the same in-situ tip transfer capability of the original system.

Tosado, Jacob; Cullen, William G.; Williams, Ellen D.

2010-03-01

435

The DNA damage checkpoint response to replication stress: A Game of Forks  

PubMed Central

Conditions challenging replication fork progression, collectively referred to as replication stress, represent a major source of genomic instability and are associated to cancer onset. The replication checkpoint, a specialized branch of the DNA damage checkpoint, monitors fork problems, and triggers a cellular response aimed at preserving genome integrity. Here, we review the mechanisms by which the replication checkpoint monitors and responds to replication stress, focusing on the checkpoint-mediated pathways contributing to protect replication fork integrity. We discuss how cells achieve checkpoint signaling inactivation once replication stress is overcome and how a failure to timely revert checkpoint-mediated changes in cellular physiology might impact on replication dynamics and genome integrity. We also highlight the checkpoint function as an anti-cancer barrier preventing cells malignant transformation following oncogene-induced replication stress.

Jossen, Rachel; Bermejo, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

436

Geologic map of the Dillon quadrangle, Summit and Grand Counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Dillon quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, 1999), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts through the center of the quadrangle, although is mostly covered by surficial deposits. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Williams Fork Mountains and the ridge immediately east of South Fork Middle Fork River, and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, 1987). The oldest exposed sedimentary unit is the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, but Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale, underlies the southern part of the quadrangle. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. Surficial deposits include (1) an old, deeply dissected landslide deposit, possibly as old as Pliocene, on the west flank of the Williams Fork Mountains, (2) deeply weathered, very coarse gravel deposits underlying a mesa in the southwest part of the quadrangle (the Mesa Cortina subdivision. The gravels are gold bearing and were mined by hydraulic methods in the 1800s), (3) moderately to deeply weathered, widespread, bouldery material that is a combination of till of the Bull Lake glaciation, debris-flow deposits, landslide deposits, and possibly pre-Bull Lake till, (4) glacial deposits of both Bull Lake (middle Pleistocene) and Pinedale (late Pleistocene)glaciations, (5) recent landslide deposits, and (6)extensive colluvial and alluvial deposits.

Kellogg, Karl S.

2002-01-01

437

Geologic map of the Dillon quadrangle, Summit and Grand Counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Dillon quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, 1999), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts through the center of the quadrangle, although is mostly covered by surficial deposits. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Williams Fork Mountains and the ridge immediately east of South Fork Middle Fork River, and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, 1987). The oldest exposed sedimentary unit is the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, but Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale, underlies the southern part of the quadrangle. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. Surficial deposits include (1) an old, deeply dissected landslide deposit, possibly as old as Pliocene, on the west flank of the Williams Fork Mountains, (2) deeply weathered, very coarse gravel deposits underlying a mesa in the southwest part of the quadrangle (the Mesa Cortina subdivision. The gravels are gold bearing and were mined by hydraulic methods in the 1800s), (3) moderately to deeply weathered, widespread, bouldery material that is a combination of till of the Bull Lake glaciation, debris-flow deposits, landslide deposits, and possibly pre-Bull Lake till, (4) glacial deposits of both Bull Lake (middle Pleistocene) and Pinedale (late Pleistocene)glaciations, (5) recent landslide deposits, and (6)extensive colluvial and alluvial deposits.

Kellogg, Karl S.

1997-01-01

438

RecD2 helicase limits replication fork stress in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

DNA helicases have important roles in genome maintenance. The RecD helicase has been well studied as a component of the heterotrimeric RecBCD helicase-nuclease enzyme important for double-strand break repair in Escherichia coli. Interestingly, many bacteria lack RecBC and instead contain a RecD2 helicase, which is not known to function as part of a larger complex. Depending on the organism studied, RecD2 has been shown to provide resistance to a broad range of DNA-damaging agents while also contributing to mismatch repair (MMR). Here we investigated the importance of Bacillus subtilis RecD2 helicase to genome integrity. We show that deletion of recD2 confers a modest increase in the spontaneous mutation rate and that the mutational signature in ?recD2 cells is not consistent with an MMR defect, indicating a new function for RecD2 in B. subtilis. To further characterize the role of RecD2, we tested the deletion strain for sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. We found that loss of RecD2 in B. subtilis sensitized cells to several DNA-damaging agents that can block or impair replication fork movement. Measurement of replication fork progression in vivo showed that forks collapse more frequently in ?recD2 cells, supporting the hypothesis that RecD2 is important for normal replication fork progression. Biochemical characterization of B. subtilis RecD2 showed that it is a 5'-3' helicase and that it directly binds single-stranded DNA binding protein. Together, our results highlight novel roles for RecD2 in DNA replication which help to maintain replication fork integrity during normal growth and when forks encounter DNA damage. PMID:24443534

Walsh, Brian W; Bolz, Samantha A; Wessel, Sarah R; Schroeder, Jeremy W; Keck, James L; Simmons, Lyle A

2014-04-01

439

A Special Relationship: Germany and Minnesota, 1945-1985 = Brucken Ubes Grenzen: Minnesota and Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1945-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of conference papers describes the post-World War II relationship between Germany and Minnesota. The relationship with the Federal Republic of West Germany is emphasized but East Germany is not ignored. The papers include: "Current Issues in German-American Relations" (P. Hermes); "The Cult of Talent and Genius: A German Specialty"…

Glasrud, Clarence A., Ed.

440

Focus Group Input on Students with Limited English Proficiency and Minnesota's Basic Standards Tests. State Assessment Series: Minnesota, Report 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes findings of two half-day focus group meetings that discussed experiences and concerns about the participation of students with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in Minnesota's Basic Standards Exams. The focus groups included test coordinators, general classroom teachers, and English as a Second Language teachers. The report…

Liu, Kristin; Spicuzza, Richard; Erickson, Ron

441

The Vitality of Latino Communities in Rural Minnesota = La vitalidad de las comunidades latinas en Minnesota rural.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the growing Latino population, a project examined barriers and supports for community development for Latinos in seven rural Minnesota communities. In each community, bilingual facilitators conducted two Latino and one non-Latino focus groups. Findings revealed much strength in these communities. Residents appreciated the economic…

Bushway, Deborah, Comp.

442

Diel changes in stable carbon isotope ratios and trace element concentrations in the Clark Fork River, MT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diel (24-hr) water sampling was conducted on the Clark Fork River near Deer Lodge, Montana from 31-July to 1-August of 2003. The Clark Fork River is located in southwestern Montana and its upper reaches have been heavily affected by historic mining and smelting activities in the Butte and Anaconda areas. River floodplains and sediment beds contain significant quantities of

S. Parker; C. Gammons; M. Degrandpre

2004-01-01

443

Project I-40-2(38), Kingman-Ash Fork Highway, Ashfork Interstate Freeway in Yavapai County, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is located one-half mile south of the Town of Ash Fork, Arizona. It begins at approximate Milepost 144+ on present U.S. Interstate and Defense Highway 40 and 66 one mile west of Ash Fork and extends easterly 3.41 miles. Construction consists o...

1973-01-01

444

Cleavage of model replication forks by fission yeast Mus81-Eme1 and budding yeast Mus81-Mms4.  

PubMed

The blockage of replication forks can result in the disassembly of the replicative apparatus and reversal of the fork to form a DNA junction that must be processed in order for replication to restart and sister chromatids to segregate at mitosis. Fission yeast Mus81-Eme1 and budding yeast Mus81-Mms4 are endonucleases that have been implicated in the processing of aberrant DNA junctions formed at stalled replication forks. Here we have investigated the activity of purified Mus81-Eme1 and Mus81-Mms4 on substrates that resemble DNA junctions that are expected to form when a replication fork reverses. Both enzymes cleave Holliday junctions and substrates that resemble normal replication forks poorly or not at all. However, forks where the equivalents of either both the leading and lagging strands or just the lagging strand are juxtaposed at the junction point, or where either the leading or lagging strand has been unwound to produce a fork with a single-stranded tail, are cleaved well. Cleavage sites map predominantly between 3 and 6 bp 5' of the junction point. For most substrates the leading strand template is cleaved. The sole exception is a fork with a 5' single-stranded tail, which is cleaved in the lagging strand template. PMID:12473680

Whitby, Matthew C; Osman, Fekret; Dixon, Julie

2003-02-28

445

77 FR 42761 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Oil and Gas Management Plan at Big South Fork...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement for the Oil and Gas Management Plan at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area and Obed Wild and...CFR 1506.6. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Blount, Big South Fork National River [[Page 42762

2012-07-20

446

Ecological condition of the East Fork of the Gila River and selected tributaries: Gila National Forest, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological condition of riparian habitats along the East Fork of the Gila River, Main Diamond Creek, lower South Diamond Creek, and Black Canyon Creek are all in very heavily degraded condition. Channel cross- sections show extensive entrenchment, high width-to-depth ratios, and numer- ous reaches where banks are sloughing into the stream, especially on the East Fork of the Gila River.

Robert D. Ohmart

447

Stratigraphic sequence of transgressive barrier bar complex and model for hydrocarbon exploration, Red Fork sandstone, Wakita trend, Grant County, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Desmoinesian Red Fork sandstone (Boggy Formation, Krebs Group), on the northern shelf of the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma, represents a transgressive barrier bar system. The base of the Red Fork interval is marked by the Inola Limestone (Boggy Formation); the top is marked by the Tiawah (Pink) Limestone (Senora Formation, Cabaniss Group). Upper shoreface and foreshore deposits, in which porosity

K. L. OReilly; P. C. Franks

1986-01-01

448

Planning and implementation of a comprehensive ecological risk assessment at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Superfund Site, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated an innovative ecological risk assessment program at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site in 1989. The site is located in the Clark Fork River (CFR) basin of western Montana, and consists of 160 km (100 miles) of the CFR and an 820-acre wetland at Milltown Reservoir. The focus of the assessment

Gary A. Pascoe; Julie A. DalSoglio

1994-01-01

449

Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, the player can drive, run and fly above and around an urban landscape. The way in which significant urban landmarks from\\u000a the real world have been recreated within the space of this video game is bound to impress architects and urban designers.\\u000a Here, the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco and Las Vegas have

Gregory More

450

Public Diplomacy in Grand Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing importance of public diplomacy in current inter- national politics, its practiceFand particularly its relationship with hard powerFremains largely unexplored by diplomatic or strategic theory. This paper applies a grand-strategic perspective to analyze the chal- lenges of ''winning hearts and minds'' in the new communications and normative environments. Israel's experience in the second Intifada serves to draw empirically

BEN D. MOR

2006-01-01

451

Recruitment to Stalled Replication Forks of the PriA DNA Helicase and Replisome-loading Activities is Essential for Survival  

PubMed Central

PriA, a 3??5? superfamily 2 DNA helicase, acts to remodel stalled replication forks and as a specificity factor for origin-independent assembly of a new replisome at the stalled fork. The ability of PriA to initiate replication at stalled forked structures ensures complete genome replication and helps to protect the cell from illegitimate recombination events. This review focuses on the activities of PriA and its role in replication fork assembly and maintaining genomic integrity.

Gabbai, Carolina B.; Marians, Kenneth J.

2010-01-01

452

GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH IS INDICATED BY HORIZONTAL LINE NEAR TOP OF CLOUD COVERED PEAKS - Grand Ditch, Baker Creek to LaPoudre Pass Creek, Grand Lake, Grand County, CO

453

Delayed complete gastric outlet obstruction due to a dinner fork: report of a case.  

PubMed

Ingestion of foreign bodies can be a common problem especially among children, alcoholics, psychiatric patients, and senile patients, but ingestion of a metallic dinner fork is uncommon. Foreign bodies with smooth edges usually do not pose significant problems, but a sharp foreign object that is not retrieved at the earliest may penetrate the wall and cause complications. Ingested foreign bodies usually pass the intestinal tract without problems, and perforation occurs in less than 1%. In this paper, a case of rare gastric outlet obstruction due to a dinner fork, which was ingested 25 days before, is reported. PMID:20849060

Atila, Koray; Unek, Tarkan; Sevinç, Ali Ibrahim; Aydo?an, Baki; Serin, Ayfer; Bora, Seymen; Gülay, Hüseyin

2010-07-01

454

Applications of the quartz tuning fork in classical and superfluid hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a short review of the multitude of applications of the commercially produced quartz tuning fork in cryogenic ?uid dynamics, using cold gaseous, normal liquid and super?uid 4He as working ?uids with extraordinary, but well-known and tunable physical properties. While the central focus of this work is the use of the tuning fork as a detector of classical and quantum turbulence, we also report other studies and applications, mainly on cavitation, pressure-, thermo- and viscosimetry. Finally, we mention brie?y our recent studies of the acoustic emission due to these high-Q oscillators and its effect on the characteristics of their resonance.

Schmoranzer, David; La Mantia, Marco; Skrbek, Ladislav

2012-04-01

455

A low temperature scanning probe microscope using a quartz tuning fork  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A frequency modulation-atomic force microscope (FM-AFM) designed to measure atomic scale topography at low temperatures is developed. Piezoelectric quartz tuning forks are employed as a force sensor for low temperatures use. In order to perform high-resolution measurements, detection of attractive forces between a tip and a sample is important. Measurements of attractive van der Waals forces on a SrTiO3 substrate is successfully performed down to 4.2 K by minimizing an amplitude of the tuning fork. Topographic imaging of atomic steps of the SrTiO3 substrate is also achieved at room temperatures in vacuum (10-3 Pa).

Saitoh, K.; Hayashi, K.; Shibayama, Y.; Shirahama, K.

2009-02-01

456

Site-directed mutants of RTP of Bacillus subtilis and the mechanism of replication fork arrest.  

PubMed

DNA replication fork arrest during the termination phase of chromosome replication in Bacillus subtilis is brought about by the replication terminator protein (RTP) bound to specific DNA terminator sequences (Ter sites) distributed throughout the terminus region. An attractive suggestion by others was that crucial to the functioning of the RTP-Ter complex is a specific interaction between RTP positioned on the DNA and the helicase associated with the approaching replication fork. In support of this was the behaviour of two site-directed mutants of RTP. They appeared to bind Ter DNA normally but were ineffective in fork arrest as ascertained by in vitro Escherichia coli DnaB helicase and replication assays. We describe here a system for assessing the fork-arrest behaviour of RTP mutants in a bona fide in vivo assay in B. subtilis. One of the previously studied mutants, RTP.Y33N, was non-functional in fork arrest in vivo, as predicted. But through extensive analyses, this RTP mutant was shown to be severely defective in binding to Ter DNA, contrary to expectation. Taken in conjunction with recent findings on the other mutant (RTP.E30K), it is concluded that there is as yet no substantive evidence from the behaviour of RTP mutants to support the RTP-helicase interaction model for fork arrest. In an extension of the present work on RTP.Y33N, we determined the dissociation rates of complexes formed by wild-type (wt) RTP and another RTP mutant with various terminator sequences. The functional wtRTP-TerI complex was quite stable (half-life of 182 minutes), reminiscent of the great stability of the E. coli Tus-Ter complex. More significant were the exceptional stabilities of complexes comprising wtRTP and an RTP double-mutant (E39K.R42Q) bound to some particular terminator sequences. From the measurement of in vivo fork-arrest activities of the various complexes, it is concluded that the stability (half-life) of the whole RTP-Ter complex is not the overriding determinant of arrest, and that the RTP-Ter complex must be actively disrupted, or RTP removed, by the action of the approaching replication fork. PMID:10064700

Duggin, I G; Andersen, P A; Smith, M T; Wilce, J A; King, G F; Wake, R G

1999-03-12

457

Real-Time Ozone Detection Based on a Microfabricated Quartz Crystal Tuning Fork Sensor  

PubMed Central

A chemical sensor for ozone based on an array of microfabricated tuning forks is described. The tuning forks are highly sensitive and stable, with low power consumption and cost. The selective detection is based on the specific reaction of the polymer with ozone. With a mass detection limit of ?2 pg/mm2 and response time of 1 second, the sensor coated with a polymer sensing material can detect ppb-level ozone in air. The sensor is integrated into a miniaturized wearable device containing a detection circuit, filtration, battery and wireless communication chip, which is ideal for personal and microenvironmental chemical exposure monitoring.

Wang, Rui; Tsow, Francis; Zhang, Xuezhi; Peng, Jhih-Hong; Forzani, Erica S.; Chen, Yongsheng; Crittenden, John C.; Destaillats, Hugo; Tao, Nongjian

2009-01-01

458

Ub-family modifications at the replication fork: Regulating PCNA-interacting components.  

PubMed

A vast array of proteins is recruited to the replication fork in a dynamic and coordinated manner through physical interactions with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, PCNA. How this complex exchange of PCNA binding partners is choreographed to ensure proper replication origin licensing, DNA synthesis during normal replication or repair of DNA damage, chromatin assembly, DNA methylation, histone modification, and sister chromatid cohesion is only beginning to be appreciated. In this review, several roles of ubiquitin-related modifications in the recruitment and turnover of PCNA-interacting proteins at the replication fork are considered. PMID:21846465

Kirchmaier, Ann L

2011-09-16

459

Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model illustrates grand canonical ensemble (µVT) Monte Carlo simulations: the chemical potential, volume and temperature are the system constraints. This means that the system has porous and diabatic walls, exchanging molecules and heat with a reservoir at constant chemical potential and temperature. The molecules interact through the Lennard-Jones. potential and fluid states at densities 0.0025 ? ? ? 0.85 and temperatures T ? 0.70 can be simulated. Although the volume is kept constant, the number of molecules fluctuates and so does the density. The aim is to reach a chemical potential approaching the imposed one. The input fields can be edited to probe different regions of the phase diagram. Chemical potentials, activity coefficients, Helmholtz free energies, entropies and their excess contributions are worked out. The Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item.

Fernandes, Fernando S.

2014-05-21

460

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for California: A Laborer Died When Crushed Between the Forks and the Cab of a Trash Truck.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Hispanic laborer died when he was crushed between the forks and cab of a trash truck with front loader hydraulic forks. The victim was standing facing the cab when the truck operator lowered the forks. The truck operator standing outside the trash truck...

2003-01-01

461

Channelization and floodplain forests: Impacts of accelerated sedimentation and valley plug formation on floodplain forests of the Middle Fork Forked Deer River, Tennessee, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the severe degradation of floodplain habitats resulting from channelization and concomitant excessive coarse sedimentation on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River in west Tennessee from 2000 to 2003. Land use practices have resulted in excessive sediment in the tributaries and river system eventually resulting in sand deposition on the floodplain, increased overbank flooding, a rise in the groundwater table, and ponding of upstream timber. Our objectives were to: (1) determine the composition of floodplain vegetation communities along the degraded river reach, (2) to isolate relationships among these communities, geomorphic features, and environmental variables and (3) evaluate successional changes based on current stand conditions. Vegetation communities were not specifically associated with predefined geomorphic features; nevertheless, hydrologic and geomorphic processes as a result of channelization have clearly affected vegetation communities. The presence of valley plugs and continued degradation of upstream reaches and tributaries on the impacted study reach has arrested recovery of floodplain plant communities. Historically common species like Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Quercus spp. L. were not important, with importance values (IV) less than 1, and occurred in less than 20% of forested plots, while Acer rubrum L., a disturbance-tolerant species, was the most important species on the site (IV = 78.1) and occurred in 87% of forested plots. The results of this study also indicate that channelization impacts on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River are more temporally and spatially complex than previously described for other river systems. Rehabilitation of this system necessitates a long-term, landscape-scale solution that addresses watershed rehabilitation in a spatially and temporally hierarchical manner. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Oswalt, S. N.; King, S. L.

2005-01-01

462

Pesticide appliers, biocides, and birth defects in rural Minnesota.  

PubMed Central

Earlier studies by our group suggested the possibility that offspring of pesticide appliers might have increased risks of birth anomalies. To evaluate this hypothesis, 935 births to 34,772 state-licensed, private pesticide appliers in Minnesota occurring between 1989 and 1992 were linked to the Minnesota state birth registry containing 210,723 live births in this timeframe. The birth defect rate for all birth anomalies was significantly increased in children born to private appliers. Specific birth defect categories, circulatory/respiratory, urogenital, and musculoskeletal/integumental, showed significant increases. For the general population and for appliers, the birth anomaly rate differed by corp-growing region. Western Minnesota, a major wheat, sugar beet, and potato growing region, showed the highest rate of birth anomalies per/1000 live births: 30.0 for private appliers versus 26.9 for the general population of the same region. The lowest rates, 23.7/1000 for private appliers versus 18.3/1000 for the general population, occurred in noncorp regions. The highest frequency of use of chlorophenoxy herbicides and fungicides also occurred in western Minnesota. Births in the general population of western Minnesota showed a significant increase in birth anomalies in the same three birth anomaly categories as appliers and for central nervous system anomalies. This increase was most pronounced for infants conceived in the spring. The seasonal effect did not occur in other regions. The male/female sex ratio for the four birth anomaly categories of interest in areas of high phenoxy herbicide/fungicide use is 2.8 for appliers versus 1.5 for the general population of the same region (p = 0.05). In minimal use regions, this ratio is 2.1 for appliers versus 1.7 for the general population. The pattern of excess frequency of birth anomalies by pesticide use, season, and alteration of sex ratio suggests exposure-related effects in appliers and the general population of the crop-growing region of western Minnesota. Images p394-a Figure 1. Figure 2.

Garry, V F; Schreinemachers, D; Harkins, M E; Griffith, J

1996-01-01

463

77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are located in the town of North Fork, Madera County, California, described as: Real...City of UNINCORPORATED AREA, County of Madera, State of California, described as follows...THE UNINCORPORATED AREA OF THE COUNTY OF MADERA, STATE OF CALIFORNIA, AS PER MAP...

2012-12-03

464

RIPARIAN PLANT WATER RELATIONS ALONG THE NORTH FORK KINGS RIVER, CALIFORNIA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant water relations of five obligate ripar- ian species were studied along California's North Fork Kings River. Diurnal stomatal conductance, transpi- ration, and xylem pressure potentials were measured throughout the 1986 growing season and in mid-season in 1987. Patterns were similar for all species although absolute values varied considerably. Maximum stomatal conductance occurred early in the day and season during

Janet L. Nachlinger; Stanley D. Smith; Roland J. Risser

1989-01-01

465

EFFECTS OF HABITAT DEGRADATION ON BIOLOGICAL ENDPOINTS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER BASIN, GEORGIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Many of the streams of the lower Piedmont ecoregion in Georgia have been negatively impacted to some degree by habitat degradation due primarily to sedimentation. The South Fork of the Broad River watershed has been designated as sediment impacted under Section 303(d) of the Clea...

466

Diffraction of Nondiverging Bessel Beams by Fork-Shaped and Rectilinear Grating  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an investigation about Fresnel diffraction of Bessel beams, propagating as nondiverging within a distance Ln, with or without phase singularities, by rectilinear and fork-shaped gratings. The common general transmission function of these gratings is defined and specialized for three different cases: binary amplitude gratings, amplitude holograms and their phase versions. Solving the Fresnel diffraction integral in cylindrical coordinates,

Ljiljana Janicijevic; Suzana Topuzoski

2007-01-01

467

Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction of a laser Gaussian beam by fork-shaped gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions describing the vortex beams, which are generated in a process of Fresnel diffraction of a Gaussian beam, incident out of waist on a fork-shaped gratings of arbitrary integer charge p, and vortex spots in the case of Fraunhofer diffraction by these gratings are deduced. The common general transmission function of the gratings is defined and specialized for the cases

Ljiljana Janicijevic; Suzana Topuzoski

2008-01-01

468

LIFE HISTORY MONITORING OF SALMONIDS IN THE WEST FORK SMITH RIVER, UMPQUA BASIN, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

As a life-cycle monitoring basin for the Oregon Salmon Plan, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife has estimated adult returns, distribution and smolt outmigration of coho, chinook and winter steelhead in the West Fork Smith River since 1998. In 2001/2002, the Environmenta...

469

BENZO(A)PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDE I BINDS TO DNA AT REPLICATION FORKS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution in replication forks of DNA lesions caused by the treatment of S phase calls with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-1 (BPDE-1) was studied in synchronized C3H10T1/2 cells. Sites of carcinogen modification of DNA were identified by polyclonal rabbit antibodies that were...

470

Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A force sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment was developed by combining a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) probe with a quartz tuning fork. Solvation shells of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane on a graphite surface were detected both in the frequency shift and dissipation. Due to the high aspect ratio of the CNT probe, the long-range background force was barely detectable

Masami Kageshima; Henriette Jensenius; Martin Dienwiebel; Yoshikazu Nakayama; Hiroshi Tokumoto; Suzanne P. Jarvis; Tjerk H. Oosterkamp

2002-01-01

471

Quartz tuning-fork type AFM probe operated in Anti-phase Vibration Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents that quartz tuning fork shows excellent properties as atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. We used focused ion beam (FIB) system to monolithically form a sharp tip at the side end of one beam. The fabricated probe can vibrate and detect the deformation itself because of piezoelectric property of crystal quartz. We evaluated the vibration characteristic and the

H. Hida; M. Shikida; K. Fukuzawa; A. Ono; K. Sato; K. Asaumi; Y. Iriye

2006-01-01

472

A quartz tuning fork as a force sensor for atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are designing and building an atomic force microscope (AFM) to characterize the surface properties of perovskite oxides in low temperature (˜10K) and high magnetic field (9T) environments. We are using a quartz tuning fork as the force sensor. The z-axis displacement of a conducting AFM tip due to surface features will be detected by observing the shift in resonance frequency of the tuning fork which is attached to the tip. The conducting tip will also allow us to perform conductive atomic force microscopy. The resonance characteristics of the tuning fork element were determined in various degrees of vacuum, with and without the tip installed, and as a function of the tip's proximity to the sample surface. We show that the high resonance frequency (˜32kHz ) and quality factor (˜30,000) of the tuning fork makes it an extremely sensitive force detector. The apparatus has also been designed with the capability of performing magnetic force microscopy on perovskite oxides.

Ianuzzi, Arthur; Neff, Julia; Timmerwilke, John; Biswas, Amlan

2009-03-01

473

Casimir force experiments with quartz tuning forks and an atomic force microscope (AFM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the measurement series is to study the Casimir force, specifically the effects of different materials and geometries. The art of measuring sub-nano Newton forces has been engineered to a great extent in the material sciences, especially for the atomic force microscope. In today's scanning microscope technologies there are several common methods used to measure sub-nano Newton forces. While the commercial atomic force microscopes (AFM) mostly work with soft silicon cantilevers, there are a large number of reports from university groups on the use of quartz tuning forks to get high resolution AFM pictures, to measure shear forces or to create new force sensors. The quartz tuning fork based force sensor has a number of advantages over the silicon cantilever, but also has some disadvantages. In this report the method based on quartz tuning forks is described with respect to their usability for Casimir force measurements and compared with other successful techniques. Furthermore, a design for Casimir force measurements that was set up in Berlin will be described and practical experimental aspects will be discussed. A status report on the Casimir experiments in Berlin will be given, including the experimental setup. In order to study the details of the Casimir effect the apparatus and active surfaces have to be improved further. The surfaces have to be flatter and cleaner. For better resolution, cantilevers and tuning forks with a low spring constant have to be employed.

Ludwig, T.

2008-04-01

474

Nanolithography on silicon surface using a tuning fork STM\\/AFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM)\\/scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) system using a non-optical tuning fork force sensing method has been developed for the scanning probe lithography. In comparisons with the nanolithography done by AFM with the conductive cantilever tip, our method has the following advantages. (1) It has longer tapered length STM tip and smaller half cone angle to

S. Y. Lin; C. C. Fan; D. P. Tsai; F. S. Chien; S. Gwo; Wen-Feng Hsieh

2001-01-01

475

A quartz tuning fork as a force sensor for atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are designing and building an atomic force microscope (AFM) to characterize the surface properties of perovskite oxides in low temperature (˜10K) and high magnetic field (9T) environments. We are using a quartz tuning fork as the force sensor. The z-axis displacement of a conducting AFM tip due to surface features will be detected by observing the shift in resonance

Arthur Ianuzzi; Julia Neff; John Timmerwilke; Amlan Biswas

2009-01-01

476

Local Oxidation of Titanium Using Dynamic-Mode Tuning-Fork Probe with Microfabricated Silicon Cantilever  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a unique probe that is based on a quartz tuning fork and a microfabricated cantilever. The probe is self-actuating and self-sensing. The cantilever can be tailored to the needs of specific applications, in this case to feature an electrically connected tip, in order to apply a potential to it. We investigate the usability of our probe with a

Kaspar Suter; Terunobu Akiyama; Nicolaas F. de Rooij; Urs Staufer

2006-01-01

477

Investigation of Shallow Ground-Water Quality Near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alluvial soils and fill materials in and near the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with various trace metals (primarily mercury), organic compounds, and radionuclides that were lost to the stream as a result ...

J. K. Carmichael

1989-01-01

478

Rad51 replication fork recruitment is required for DNA damage tolerance  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for genome integrity. Recombination proteins participate in tolerating DNA lesions that interfere with DNA replication, but can also generate toxic recombination intermediates and genetic instability when they are not properly regulated. Here, we have studied the role of the recombination proteins Rad51 and Rad52 at replication forks and replicative DNA lesions. We show that Rad52 loads Rad51 onto unperturbed replication forks, where they facilitate replication of alkylated DNA by non-repair functions. The recruitment of Rad52 and Rad51 to chromatin during DNA replication is a prerequisite for the repair of the non-DSB DNA lesions, presumably single-stranded DNA gaps, which are generated during the replication of alkylated DNA. We also show that the repair of these lesions requires CDK1 and is not coupled to the fork but rather restricted to G2/M by the replicative checkpoint. We propose a new scenario for HR where Rad52 and Rad51 are recruited to the fork to promote DNA damage tolerance by distinct and cell cycle-regulated replicative and repair functions.

Gonzalez-Prieto, Roman; Munoz-Cabello, Ana M; Cabello-Lobato, Maria J; Prado, Felix

2013-01-01

479

Replication fork collisions cause pathological chromosomal amplification in cells lacking RecG DNA translocase  

PubMed Central

Duplication and transmission of chromosomes require precise control of chromosome replication and segregation. Here we present evidence that RecG is a major factor influencing these processes in bacteria. We show that the extensive DnaA-independent stable DNA replication observed without RecG can lead to replication of any area of the chromosome. This replication is further elevated following irradiation with UV light and appears to be perpetuated by secondary events that continue long after the elimination of UV lesions. The resulting pathological cascade is associated with an increased number of replication forks traversing the chromosome, sometimes with extensive regional amplification of the chromosome, and with the accumulation of highly branched DNA intermediates containing few Holliday junctions. We propose that the cascade is triggered by replication fork collisions that generate 3? single-strand DNA flaps, providing sites for PriA to initiate re-replication of the DNA and thus to generate linear duplexes that provoke recombination, allowing priming of even further replication. Our results shed light on why termination of replication in bacteria is normally limited to a single encounter of two forks and carefully orchestrated within a restricted area, and explain how a system of multiple forks and random termination can operate in eukaryotes.

Rudolph, Christian J; Upton, Amy L; Lloyd, Robert G

2009-01-01

480

Diet Selectivity in the Johnny Darter, Etheostoma Nigrum, in Stinking Fork, Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food habits of the johnny darter, Etheostoma nigrum. were studied in Stinking Fork, a tributary of the Little Blue River in southern Indiana. A total of 174 darters were collected and their stomach contents identified over the course of four seasons. Chironimid larvae and ostracod Crustacea were consistently the major components of the diet throughout the year. Ephemeropteran naiads,

Rex Meade Strange

1991-01-01

481

Effects of Recent Logging on the Main Channel of North Fork Caspar Creek1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: The response of the mainstem channel of North Fork Caspar Creek to recent logging is examined by time trends in bed load yield, scour and fill at resurveyed cross sections, and the volume and fine-sediment content of pools. Companion papers report that recent logging has increased streamflow during the summer and moderate winter rainfall events, and

Thomas E. Lisle; Michael B. Napolitano

482

Land use, floods, and channel changes: Upper Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon (1936–1980)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow trends and channel characteristics from 1936 to 1980 were evaluated for the Middle Fork Willamette River, which drains a 668-km2 forested watershed in the Cascade Mountains of western Oregon. An inventory of aerial photographs from 1959 to 1972 shows that landslides associated with roads and in clearcuts were 27 and 23 times more frequent, respectively, than in forested areas.

Joseph K. Lyons; Robert L. Beschta

1983-01-01

483

Protein-DNA complexes are the primary sources of replication fork pausing in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Replication fork pausing drives genome instability, because any loss of paused replisome activity creates a requirement for reloading of the replication machinery, a potentially mutagenic process. Despite this importance, the relative contributions to fork pausing of different replicative barriers remain unknown. We show here that Deinococcus radiodurans RecD2 helicase inactivates Escherichia coli replisomes that are paused but still functional in vitro, preventing continued fork movement upon barrier removal or bypass, but does not inactivate elongating forks. Using RecD2 to probe replisome pausing in vivo, we demonstrate that most pausing events do not lead to replisome inactivation, that transcription complexes are the primary sources of this pausing, and that an accessory replicative helicase is critical for minimizing the frequency and/or duration of replisome pauses. These findings reveal the hidden potential for replisome inactivation, and hence genome instability, inside cells. They also demonstrate that efficient chromosome duplication requires mechanisms that aid resumption of replication by paused replisomes, especially those halted by protein-DNA barriers such as transcription complexes. PMID:23589869

Gupta, Milind K; Guy, Colin P; Yeeles, Joseph T P; Atkinson, John; Bell, Hazel; Lloyd, Robert G; Marians, Kenneth J; McGlynn, Peter

2013-04-30

484

NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN FLOWING WATERS OF THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER, GEORGIA WATERSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

We monitored concentrations of nutrients, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and other parameters in 17 headwater streams, at three sites on the main stem, and in three major tributaries near their confluence with the South Fork Broad River on a monthly basis for over a year. Concent...

485

NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN FLOWING WATERS OF THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER, GEORGIA WATERSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

The South Fork Broad River (SFBR) drains about 635 km2 of the Georgia Piedmont. The SFBR watershed is primarily rural and undeveloped although the human population increased by about 25% between 1990 and 2000. Forestry and agriculture are the main land uses. Agriculture consis...

486

SOUTH FORK COEUR D'ALENE RIVER, NORTHERN IDAHO. DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METAL LOADINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study is to determine the current distribution of metals loadings to the South Fork Coeur dAlene River, Idaho (17010301, 17010303). Water quality and flow data obtained from EPA Region 10 for September 1986 and September 1987 are used to determine loadings du...

487

KOOTENAI, CLARK FORK, PEND OREILLE, AND SPOKANE RIVER BASINS, WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determining their effects upon the fishable-swimmable aspect of the Kootenai, Clark Fork-Pend Oreille,...

488

Burnup verification measurements at U.S. Nuclear Facilities using the Fork system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burnup verification measurements have been performed using the Fork system at the Oconee Nuclear Station of Duke Power Company, and at Arkansas Nuclear One (Units 1 and 2), operated by Energy Operations, Inc. Passive neutron and gamma-ray measurements on individual spent fuel assemblies were correlated with the reactor records for burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment. The correlation generates an

Ewing

1995-01-01

489

Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.  

PubMed

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim

2012-12-01

490

Initial refugee health assessments. New recommendations for Minnesota.  

PubMed

Historically, the purpose of medical screening of new refugees has been to identify acute conditions such as infections that can be effectively addressed with short-term therapy. More recently, screening of refugees who are new to Minnesota has included identifying conditions that require ongoing care. But regular screening for chronic conditions only makes sense when follow-up care can be provided. To address this issue, the Minnesota Department of Health's Refugee Health Program, in conjunction with outside experts, reviewed its guidelines for medical screening of new refugees and revised its recommendations. In addition to recommending screening for infections and other acute conditions, the new guidelines call for screening for chronic conditions and repeat testing for diseases or conditions of long latency. The guidelines take into account the ability of the screening clinic to provide ongoing care or assure the patient's transition to primary care. PMID:20481168

Dicker, Susan; Stauffer, William M; Mamo, Blain; Nelson, Cindy; O'Fallon, Ann

2010-04-01

491

Managing state energy conservation programs - The Minnesota experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and operation of energy conservation programs in the Minnesota Energy Agency (MEA) are discussed. The MEA has responsibility for voluntary conservation efforts, regulating energy efficient devices, and grant programs to audit and retrofit public buildings. The MEA has developed the plan under which the Minnesota utilities will provide conservation services to residential customers, including an on-site home energy audit. The relation between the Department of Energy (DOE) and state energy offices in implementing programs is considered. The DOE has provided technical assistance to the states through the development of a model audit. Steps are discussed to reduce the burdens imposed on the states by program planning, funding, and management responsibilities, including the consolidation of several existing state conservation programs. Improved policy analysis is suggested to correct inefficiencies in government programs.

Hirst, E.; Armstrong, J. R.

1980-11-01

492

Scour measurements at contracted highway crossings in Minnesota, 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During record flooding in the Minnesota River basin in April 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, collected real-time scour measurements at contracted bridge openings and provided data collection assistance to the Minnesota Department of Transportation bridge inspectors. Weather and flood plain vegetation restricted data collection to what could be collected from the bridge deck at many sites. The data collected from the bridge deck provided only a marginal description of the reference surface for contraction scour and of the flow distribution in the stream and flood plains upstream from the bridge. However, the measurements reflect the contributions of both local and contraction scour, thus providing the streambed geometry resulting from the total scour.

Mueller, David, S.; Hitchcock, Harry, A.

1998-01-01

493

Structure of the replication fork in ultraviolet light-irradiated human cells.  

PubMed Central

The DNA extracted from xeroderma pigmentosum human fibroblasts previously irradiated with 12.5 J/m2 of UV light and pulse-labeled for 45 min with radioactive and (or) heavy precursors, was used to determine the structural characteristics of the replication fork. Density equilibrium centrifugation experiments showed that a fork moved 6 micrometer in 45 min and bypassed 3 pyrimidine dimers in both strands. The same length was covered in 15-20 min in control cells. The delay in irradiated cells was apparently due to pyrimidine dimers acting as temporary blocks to the fork movement. Evidence for this interpretation comes from kinetics of incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, which show that the time necessary to attain a new stable level of DNA synthesis in irradiated cells is equivalent to that required for the replication fork to cover the interdimer distance in one strand. On the other hand, the action of S1 nuclease on DNA synthesized soon after irradiation gives rise to a bimodal distribution in neutral sucrose gradients, one peak corresponding to 43 X 10(6) daltons and the other to 3 X 10(6) daltons. These two DNA species are generated by the attack of the S1 nuclease on single-stranded regions associated with the replication fork. A possible explanation for these results is given by a model according to which there is a delayed bypass of the dimer in the leading strand and the appearance of gaps opposite pyrimidine dimers in the lagging strand, as a direct consequence of the discontinuous mode of DNA replication. In terms of the model, the DNA of 43 X 10(6) daltons corresponds to the leading strand, linked to the unreplicated branch of the forks, whereas the piece of 3 X 10(6) daltons is the intergap DNA coming from the lagging strand. Pulse and chase experiments reveal that the low molecular weight DNA grows in a pattern that suggests that more than one gap may be formed per replication fork.

Cordeiro-Stone, M; Schumacher, R I; Meneghini, R

1979-01-01

494

Grand Challenges for Environmental Magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new, inexpensive, and rapid geochemical methods for determining the ages of geologic materials, their elemental composition, and their isotopic ratios over a broad array of elements puts into sharp focus the question: What information can environmental magnetic methods provide that can't be obtained using these other methods? Because iron is ubiquitous in the Earth's crust and because it exists in so many different forms, a discipline that looks in detail at iron-bearing minerals does have the potential to make significant contributions to the study of surficial processes. However, to reach that potential requires the development of new environmental magnetic methods. I would like to put forward three Grand Challenges for environmental magnetism that have the potential to move the field forward to a new level of scientific sophistication and that will allow environmental magnetists to compete successfully in a world increasingly dominated by geochemists. The first Grand Challenge is the development of new techniques that lead to the direct and unambiguous identification of the full suite of magnetic minerals. For many environmental magnetic applications, the key magnetic minerals are not just magnetite and hematite but also iron oxy-hydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite, akaganeite, ferrihydrite), carbonates (siderite) and sulfides (pyrrhotite and greigite) as well as compounds involving iron and other transition metals (cobalt and nickel). The second Grand Challenge is the development of new analytical methods that provide specific quantitative values for the amount of each magnetic mineral present in a sample. One promising approach to this problem is the application of two- or three-component multivariate analysis to arrays of downcore environmental magnetic parameters. The third Grand Challenge is the development of new ways of determining, not just the average values, but the actual distributions of grain sizes and coercivities of each mineral species. Some progress has been made in this area in recent years but considerably more can and should be done. Fortunately environmental magnetists have several new techniques at their disposal, and the capabilities of these techniques have not yet been fully explored, especially at high and low temperatures and using relatively small steps for the acquisition and demagnetization of laboratory magnetizations.

Verosub, K. L.

2009-05-01

495

Grand Challenges of Enterprise Integration  

SciTech Connect

Enterprise Integration connects and combines people, processes, systems, and technologies to ensure that the right people and the right processes have the right information and the right resources at the right time. A consensus roadmap for Technologies for Enterprise Integration was created as part of an industry/government/academia partnership in the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative (IMTI). Two of the grand challenges identified by the roadmapping effort will be addressed here--Customer Responsive Enterprises and Totally Connected Enterprises. Each of these challenges is briefly discussed as to the current state of industry and the future vision as developed in the roadmap.

Brosey, W.D; Neal, R.E.; Marks, D.

2001-04-01

496

Observations of cancer incidence surveillance in Duluth, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibole asbestos fibers were discovered in the municipal water supply for Duluth, Minnesota in 1973. From the late 1950s through 1976 the entire city population of about 100,000 persons was exposed to asbestos at levels of 1-65 million fibers per liter of water. Surveillance of cancer incidence in the area was initiated to determine the health effect from asbestos ingestion.

Sigurdson

1983-01-01

497

American Indian Breastfeeding Attitudes and Practices in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives We examined the breastfeeding attitudes and practices in an American Indian population in Minnesota. Methods We interviewed women prenatally (n = 380), at 2-weeks (n = 342) and at 6-months postpartum (n = 256). We conducted multivariable analyses to examine the demographic, behavioral, and attitudinal correlates of breastfeeding\\u000a initiation and duration. Results Factors positively associated with breastfeeding initiation included positive breastfeeding attitudes and social support

Kristine L. Rhodes; Wendy L. Hellerstedt; Cynthia S. Davey; Phyllis L. Pirie; Kathleen A. Daly

2008-01-01

498

Pesticides in the atmosphere in Minnesota: Partitioning, deposition, and significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere is recognized as an important pathway by which pesticides are transported and deposited in the areas far from their sources. The observations of pesticides in rain, air, and surface runoff in Minnesota (1993-1996) contribute to understand the significance of the atmospheric deposition. The vapor/particle partitioning of pesticides in the urban area of Minnesota elucidated a strong dependency on the subcooled liquid vapor pressure, but not the same as predicted by Junge's model. The air concentrations before and after a single 24-hour rain event indicated that rain scavenging is efficient for removing water-soluble herbicides. Concentrations of many herbicides in 43 sequential rain samples followed the same pattern: much higher concentration at the beginning of the rain than that in the rest of rain event. The most frequently detected pesticides were alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and acetochlor. Concentration and fluxes of most pesticides in rain depicted a distinct seasonal pattern. The presence of agriculture pesticides in urban rain demonstrates that pesticides are being transported regionally through the atmosphere. The relatively consistent year-to-year flux of pesticides in Minneapolis indicates the regional background of pesticides in rain. The intensive row-crop agricultural area showed a significantly greater annual flux than the other four sampling sites that were in areas of either urbanization or less intensive agriculture. A multi-year paired study of pesticides in rain and storm runoff in three watersheds in Minnesota was conducted to compare the mass loadings from two pathways to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Seven other larger watersheds were selected from previous research to perform the same assessment. The mass contributed from the rain was 40 to 200 times greater than the riverine load in the urban watershed and equal to five times greater in the two agricultural watersheds in Minnesota. The magnitude of mass in rain is similar, if is not greater than, to that in runoff, over many orders of magnitude differences in the sizes of watersheds.

Ma, Lin

2000-11-01

499

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, April-August 1982, University of Minnesota Bookstore, Minneapolis, Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

The solar system at the University of Minnesota Bookstore provided a total of 5% of the combined space heating and cooling load of 825 million Btu. The solar savings ratio, which accounts for operating energy used to collect solar energy, was 0.02. The fossil energy savings were 154.6 million Btu, equivalent to nine tons of coal, but there was an electrical energy expense of 19.2 million Btu (5620 kwh). The system had a net energy savings of $49.09 based on energy costs of $41.36 per ton of coal and 5.75 cents per kwh. Major energy flows to the heating and cooling subsystems are presented in the Energy Flow Diagram. In terms of solar energy utilization, the space cooling subsystem used 82 million Btu compared to 10.7 million Btu used in the space heating subsystem. The active solar energy system was retrofitted in 1979 on a relatively new earth-sheltered building which houses a bookstore, admissions and records facility. The building is 95% below ground for energy conservation and to preserve open space on the campus. Other energy conservation features are triple glazing on the windows, clerestories for daylighting and passive solar energy collection in winter, and a warm-air heat recovery system on the ventilation air. Due to the energy conservation features, the solar collection subsystem could be downsized and still provide large solar fractions. The solar collector array is comprised of six stationary units of 10 movable reflectors, each about 110 feet long and one foot wide. These glass mirrors concentrate sunlight onto a copper absorber tube receiver. Solar heated water from the storage tank or the collector array and water heated with auxiliary steam via a heat exchanger are delivered to a 147-ton absorption chiller for space cooling or to the heating coils for space heating.

Logee, T.L.

1982-01-01

500

Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

2005-01-01