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1

Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Pseudobagrus brevicaudatus (Siluriformes: Bagridae).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudobagrus brevicaudatus (Siluriformes: Bagridae) was sequenced in this study. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,533?bp, with the base composition of 31.6% A, 26.8% T, 15.0%G, 26.6% C. The gene order and genes were the same as that found in other previously reported catfishes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 non-coding control region. Except for ND6 gene and 8 tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. This complete mitogenome data provides the basis for taxonomic and conservation research of this and closely related species. PMID:23656291

Liang, Hong-Wei; Meng, Yan; Li, Zhong; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Gui-Wei

2014-06-01

2

Dactylogyridean monogeneans of the siluriform fishes of the Old World.  

PubMed

This is a catalogue and discussion of the known dactylogyridean monogenean genera of siluriform fishes of the Old World. Of a total of 38 nominal genera, only 19 are considered valid. Seventeen of these 19 genera are currently in the Ancyrocephalidae (containing the Ancyrocephalinae and Ancylodiscoidinae), whilst the other two (Neocalceostoma and Neocalceostomoides) are in the Neocalceostomatidae. The 17 genera are Anchylodiscus, Ancylodiscoides, Bagrobdella, Bifurcohaptor, Bychowskyella, Chauhanellus, Cornudiscoides, Hamatopeduncularia, Mizelleus, Paraquadriacanthus, Pseudancylodiscoides, Protoancylodiscoides, Quadriacanthus, Schilbetrema, Schilbetrematoides, Synodontella and Thaparocleidus. Clariotrema Long, 1981 and Neobychowskyella Ma, Wang & Li, 1983 are considered synonyms of Bychowskyella Akhmerov, 1952, Anacornuatus Dubey, Gupta & Agarwal, 1992 is considered a synonym of Quadriacanthus Paperna, 1961, Mizellebychowskia Gupta & Sachdeva, 1990 is considered a synonym of Neocalceostoma Tripathi, 1959 and Hargitrema Tripathi, 1959 is treated as a synonym of Hamatopeduncularia Yamaguti, 1953. It is proposed that the Ancylodiscoidinae be raised to family status within the order Dactylogyridea to accommodate these 17 'ancyrocephalid' genera from siluriforms, together with Malayanodiscoides and Notopterodiscoides from notopterids. A key and the diagnostic characteristics of the 19 recognised dactylogyridean genera from catfishes plus two from notopterids, together with a list of species and synonyms, are included. New combinations made in this work are Thaparocleidus avicularia (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. calyciflorus (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. choanovagina (Luo & Lang, 1981) n. comb., T. dissimilis (Chen, 1988) n. comb., T. leiocassis (Reichenbach-Klinke, 1959) n. comb., T. meticulosa (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. parasoti (Zhao & Ma, 1999) n. comb., T. persculpus (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. valga (Chen, 1987) n. comb. and T. wulingensis (Yao & Wang, 1997) n. comb. [all from Silurodiscoides] and Bychowskyella glyptothoraci (Ma, Wang & Li, 1983) n. comb. [from Neobychowskyella]. PMID:11590306

Lim, L H; Timofeeva, T A; Gibson, D I

2001-11-01

3

Distribution and habitat suitability index model for the Andean catfish Astroblepus ubidiai (Pisces: Siluriformes) in Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conservation biology there is a basic need to determine habitat suitability and availability. Astr oblepus ubidiai (Siluriforms), the only native fish in the highlands of Imbabura province in the Ecuadorian Andes, was abundant in the past in the Imbakucha watershed and adjacent drainages, but currently it is restricted to a few isolated refuges. Conservation actions are needed if this

Luis A. Vélez-Espino

2006-01-01

4

Nova espécie de Pimelodus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) dos rios Tapajós e Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Pimelodus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from Tapajós and Tocantins rivers, Brazil. Pimelodus tetramerus sp. nov. differs from the other species of Pimelodus Lacepède by its typical coloration, with four dark stripes on the sides of the body, the most dorsal beginning just behind the pre-dorsal plate and finishing at the end of the adipose-fin base; the second, wider

Frank Raynner V. Ribeiro; Carlos Alberto S. de Lucena

2006-01-01

5

Nuclear DNA content in 20 species of Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi) from the Neotropical region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 20 species of Siluriformes fish were analyzed in order to determine their nuclear DNA content and compare these data with their diploid number. In addition, the extension and importance of the changes that oc- curred during the process of diversification in the group of Neotropical freshwater catfish were investigated. The only species studied of the family

Paulo César Fenerich; Fausto Foresti; Claudio Oliveira

2004-01-01

6

Ontogeny of the chondrocranium in Corydoras aeneus (Gill, 1858) (Callichthyidae, Siluriformes).  

PubMed

Callichthyids take a basal position in the loricarioid evolutionary lineage leading up to an algae scraping feeding mechanism in the loricariid family. Therefore, the study of the morphology and development of a callichthyid representative would contribute to a better knowledge on the differences in cranial morphology and their impact on feeding ecology within this superfamily. Therefore, development in the chondrocranium of Corydoras aeneus was studied based on 22 cleared and stained specimens and 6 series of serial sections. The latter sections were also digitized and used for 3D reconstructions. Development overall follows the typical siluriform trends in chondrocranial development. Even the low complexity of the chondrocranium at hatching fits the trend observed in other siluriforms, although other studies showed loricarioid hatchlings to generally show more complex chondrocrania. In contrast to other catfish, in C. aeneus, the notochord was never found to protrude into the hypophyseal fenestra. In addition, also differing from other siluriforms, a commissura lateralis is present, a state also reported for Ancistrus cf. triradiatus (Geerinckx et al., [2005] J Morphol 266:331-355). The splanchnocranium again has the typical siluriform shape during its ontogeny, with the presence of a compound hyosymplectic-pterygoquadrate plate, although not fused to the neurocranium or interhyal at any time during ontogeny, a state described earlier for Callichthys callichthys (Hoedeman, [1960a] Bull Aquat Biol 1:73-84; Howes and Teugels, [1989] J Zool Lond 219:441-456). The most striking difference found in comparison to other catfishes, however, involves thebranchial basket, which arises as a single element with a further differentiation from the middle arches on in both a rostral and caudal direction. PMID:18157867

Huysentruyt, Frank; Brunain, Marleen; Adriaens, Dominique

2008-05-01

7

Catalog of Type Specimens of Recent Fishes in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 4: Gonorynchiformes, Gymnotiformes, and Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The known type specimens of gonorynchiform, gymnotiform, and siluriform fishes in the collections of the Division of Fishes, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution published through 1991 are listed. These include 9086 specimens in 628...

C. J. Ferraris R. P. Vari

1992-01-01

8

First description of B chromosomes in the family Auchenipteridae, Parauchenipterus galeatus (Siluriformes) of the São Francisco River basin (MG, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

B chromosomes are considered additional and non-essential; they likely originate from A chromosomes and follow a distinct evolution. In fish, approximately half of the Neotropical species with B chromosomes are Characiformes and 35% are Siluriformes. There has been no report of B chromosomes in Auchenipteridae until this moment. B chromosomes found in a population of Parauchenipterus galeatus from the São

Roberto Laridondo Lui; Daniel Rodrigues Blanco; Vladimir Pavan Margarido; Orlando Moreira Filho

2009-01-01

9

New dactylogyrids (Monogenea) parasitizing the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Amazon River basin in Peru.  

PubMed

Three dactylogyrid (Monogenea) species are described from the gills of siluriform fishes from the rivers around Iquitos, tributaries of the Amazon River in Peru: Demidospermus centromochli n. sp. from Centromochlus heckelii (de Filippi) (Auchenipteridae) and Demidospermus macropteri n. sp. and Ameloblastella unapi n. sp. from Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein) (Pimelodidae). The new species of Demidospermus differ from their congeners in having 2 different hook shapes. Ameloblastella unapi n. sp. differs from the other 3 species of the genus in having anchors with an elongate, straight shaft and a short point that forms a 90 degrees angle, a coiled (counterclockwise) male copulatory organ with 13-14 rings, and a coiled vaginal tube. Based on the present study, Pseudovancleaveus Franca, Issac, Pavanelli, and Takemoto, 2003, is regarded as a junior subjective synonym of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco, and Scholz, 2000. The finding of Demidospermus and Ameloblastella spp. on these siluriforms extends our host and geographic knowledge of species of these monogenean genera to Peru. PMID:19215149

Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Scholz, T

2009-08-01

10

Assumptions and Grand Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strategy and, as this article has argued, grand strategy, are always made in highly complex, multifaceted and extremely dynamic environments. The control of events is often illusory. And, recognizing that any success achieved is in good measure dependent ...

B. Lombardi

2011-01-01

11

Development of the osteocranium in Corydoras aeneus (Gill, 1858) Callichthyidae, Siluriformes.  

PubMed

Development in the osteocranium of Corydoras aeneus was studied based on 48 cleared and stained specimens and 10 series of serial sections. Development overall follows the general trends observed in siluriform development, with ossifications appearing as a response to functional demands. Early development of the skull occurs in two distinct phases. In a first phase, several new bony elements, all of dermal origin and related to feeding, appear shortly after yolk depletion (4.4 mm SL). Between 5 and 8 mm SL, developmental priorities seem to shift to size increase of the cartilaginous skull and no new bony elements appear. Finally, a second phase of osteogenesis occurs from 8 to 18 mm SL, in which all remaining dermal and perichondral bones appear. PMID:21344478

Huysentruyt, Frank; Geerinckx, Tom; Brunain, Marleen; Adriaens, Dominique

2011-05-01

12

Albuquerque: Rio Grande Aerial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This image is showing an aerial view of the Rio Grande River. It is considered the fourth or fifth longest river system in North America. The river passes through the states of Colorado, New Mexico and Texas, thereby forming a natural border between the United States and Mexico. Since historic time, the river’s flow has decreased significantly due to the

Chet Smolski

1993-01-01

13

Democracy and "Grand" Corruption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)

Rose-Ackerman, Susan

1996-01-01

14

The Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site from PBS.org, called Lost in the Canyon (1), offers an excellent online learning experience. Visitors learn about John Wesley Powell's expedition down the Colorado River, covered in transcripts from the companion television show and a timeline of Powell's life. Other features include an interactive lesson on running rapids and a look at the unique geologic history of the area. Next, from StudyWorks! Online comes the lesson entitled Sleuthing at the Grand Canyon: Using Rocks to Tell Us About the Past (2). Through basic descriptions, photographs, and illustrations, students learn how rocks form, how scientists use them to find out about past environments, and much more. The third site is provided by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center called The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center Fiscal Year 2000-2004 Monitoring and Research Strategic Plan (3). Readers will discover the mission of the center, history of monitoring in the area, management strategies, research activities, and much more. Next is a site offered by Richard S. Naylor of Northeastern University's Department of Geology called Unconformities in the Grand Canyon (4). Visitors will find descriptions and photographs of several sites in the Grand Canyon that exhibit geologic unconformities or surfaces that represent a break in the geologic record. The fifth site is maintained by kaibob.org called the Geology of Grand Canyon (5). This site contains basic information on how the canyon was formed, where all the rock came from, why it looks like it does, and when it all happened. From NASA's Visible Earth Web site comes the 3-D View of Grand Canyon (6) page. The canyon can be viewed in a low or high resolution JPEG format, which shows the surrounding area, part of the Colorado river, and the canyon itself in dynamic colors. Part of Northern Arizona University, the seventh site is entitled Canyons, Culture, and Environmental Change: An Introduction to the Land Use History of the Colorado Plateau (7). The site provides an introduction to the environmental history of the Colorado Plateau and summarizes a vast body of research from multiple disciplines in an easily accessible format. The last site from NOAA's Colorado River Basin Forecast Center is the River Forecasts and Data page (8). Provided are data from various sites along the river that offer a wide range of relevant information such as simulated hydrographs.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

15

A new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia: the Hardy-Weinberg-Castle law and linked short tandem repeats  

PubMed Central

Background: We reported a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia. Aims: Our study performed Complex Segregation Analysis (CSA) and short tandem repeats to discriminate between environmental and/or genetic factors in this disorder. Materials and Methods: The CSA analysis was carried out according to the unified model, implemented using the transmission probabilities implemented in the computer program POINTER, and evaluated by using a software package for population genetic data analysis (GDA), Arlequin. We performed pedigree analyses by using Cyrillic 2.1 software, with a total of 30 families with 50 probands (47 males and 3 females) tested. In parallel to the CSA, we tested for the presence of short tandem repeats from HLA class II, DQ alpha 1, involving the gene locus D6S291 by using the Hardy-Weinberg- Castle law. Results Our results indicate that the best model of inheritance in this disease is a mixed model, with multifactorial effects within a recessive genotype. Two types of possible segregation patterns were found; one with strong recessive penetrance in families whose phenotype is more Amerindian-like, and another of possible somatic mutations. Conclusion: The penetrance of 10% or less in female patients 60 years of age or older indicates that hormones could protect younger females. The greatest risk factor for men being affected by the disorder was the NN genotype. These findings are only possible due to somatic mutations, and/or strong environmental effects. We also found a protective role for two genetic loci (D6S1019 AND D6S439) in the control group.

Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Robles, Edinson Villa; Howard, Michael S.

2009-01-01

16

Dilemmas of Brazilian Grand Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph analyzes Brazilian grand strategy under President Luiz In cio Lula da Silva. During Lula's nearly 8 years in office, he has pursued a multipronged grand strategy aimed at hastening the transition from unipolarity and Western economic hegemo...

H. Brands

2010-01-01

17

Proposed Motel Resort Complex, Grand Portage Band of Chippewa, Grand Portage Reservation, Grand Portage, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the proposal for construction of the motel and camping facilities proposed by the Grand Portage Band of the Chippewa on the Grand Portage Reservation, Cook County, Minnesota. Facilities proposed include the following items and approxi...

1972-01-01

18

Grand Unified Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attempts to place compact radio sources within a general interpretive framework for galactic nuclear activity, or Grand Unified Models, are reviewed. The study of superluminal motion is discussed, stressing the need for more objective methods to compare VLBI maps of compact radio sources at different epochs. Observations and arguments for and against the importance of relativistic beaming in compact radio sources are presented. The simple source model, in which the observed components move with uniform velocity along the source symmetry axis away from a stationary self-absorbed core is examined and suggestions for modifying the model are given. The parabolic spectra of blazars are discussed. The black hole model for explaining general activity in the nuclei of galaxies and radio emission and the incorporation of the apparent evolutionary properties of active galactic nuclei into grand models are also examined.

Blandford, Roger D.

1987-01-01

19

The Grand Time Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Grand Time Game is a collection of activities that teach students about geologic time. The game elements consist of a tabletop model that demonstrates the geologic history of the Grand Canyon, a script in which students report selected events along the geologic time scale as the instructor operates the model, and a set of overhead transparencies that the instructor shows to illustrate the story. The materials also include an activity sheet for students to record important events as they progress, and a card game about fossils and geologic time, played in groups of three or four students after the script reading (the cards can also be pasted onto a calendar or timeline). Instructions for building the model are provided.

20

The Grand Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces the MRI Safety Grand Challenge question. Students are asked to write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they will need to answer the question. The ideas are shared with the class and recorded. Students then watch a video interview with a real life researcher to gain a professional perspective on MRI safety and brainstorm any additional ideas. The associated activity provides students the opportunity to visualize magnetic fields.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

21

A new dispersed element in the genome of the catfish Hisonotus leucofrenatus (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Hypoptopomatinae).  

PubMed

Eight restriction enzymes were used in the prospection and isolation of repetitive sequences in the genome of the catfish Hisonotus leucofrenatus, a siluriform fish species that presents a large heterochromatic block in the W chromosome. In the tested enzymes, only the BamHI enzyme revealed a distinct band of 224 bp G+C value of 37%. In comparative analyses with sequences already available in the GenBank, the BamHI fragment sequence showed similarity with part of a Lepidoptera transposon. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that this sequence presents a dispersed pattern in the genome of H. leucofrenatus, forming clusters in some chromosome pairs in the pericentromeric region, which frequently are rich in constitutive heterochromatin. Based on the analysis performed, it can be inferred that the HLBam fragment constitutes a genomically dispersed transposon type element. It can be considered that the findings in this study can contribute to a better understanding of the organization and distribution of transposable elements in the genome of teleost fish. PMID:22016856

Ferreira, Daniela Cristina; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

2011-07-01

22

The complete mitochondrial genome of the helmet catfish Cranoglanis bouderius (Siluriformes: Cranoglanididae) and the phylogeny of otophysan fishes.  

PubMed

The complete sequence of the 16,539 nucleotide mitochondrial genome from the single species of the catfish family Cranoglanididae, the helmet catfish Cranoglanis bouderius, was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA PCR) method. The nucleotide sequences of C. bouderius mitochondrial DNA have been compared with those of three other catfish species in the same order. The contents of the C. bouderius mitochondrial genome are 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region, the gene order of which is identical to that observed in most other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses for 13 otophysan fishes were performed using Bayesian method based on the concatenated mtDNA protein-coding gene sequence and the individual protein-coding gene sequence data set. The competing otophysan topologies were then tested by using the approximately unbiased test, the Kishino-Hasegawa test, and the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. The results show that the grouping ((((Characiformes, Gymnotiformes), Siluriformes), Cypriniformes), outgroup) is the most likely but there is no significant difference between this one and the other alternative hypotheses. In addition, the phylogenetic placement of the family Cranoglanididae among siluriform families was also discussed. PMID:16737786

Peng, Zuogang; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping

2006-07-19

23

The Rio Grande conservatory  

SciTech Connect

Today, as public concern mounts about the environmental damage caused by conventional energy technologies, architects are exploring new methods of providing energy to buildings so that they have a more cooperative relationship with the environment. The technology choices now available in glazing make it possible to maximize the use of the sun's energy while minimizing the heat loss and gain associated with large expanses of glazing. Mazria Riskin Odems Inc., the architects of the Rio Grande Conservatory, an all-glass botanical conservatory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, created a striking example of what is possible through the judicious use of modern glazing technologies.

Kriescher, P.; Mazria, E.

2000-04-01

24

The Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the ecology of the Grand Canyon area. Students act as scientists investigating the damming of the Colorado River by the Glen Canyon dam and experimental flooding that took place in 1996. They then write a proposal as to whether or not more experimental flooding should be done on the area considering the ecological effects. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

25

New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.  

PubMed

Three new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) are described from siluriform catfish from Iquitos, Peru: Demidospermus mortenthaleri n. sp. from Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger), Demidospermus brevicirrus n. sp. from Pimelodus sp., and Aphanoblastella aurorae n. sp. from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel). Demidospermus mortenthaleri is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) with a small loop at its middle portion; 2 types of hooks, of which pairs 5 and 6 are longer than the remaining hooks; a proximal subunit round and highly depressed thumb; and a sclerotized vagina with a round pad at the vaginal aperture. Demidospermus brevicirrus is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of a short, straight, and robust MCO and boot-shaped accessory piece with a hooked projection directed posteriorly. Aphanoblastella aurorae is the only species of the genus that possesses an arrow-shaped sclerotized vagina and a medial process on the dorsal bar. Another 6 dactylogyrids described previously are recorded for the first time from the Peruvian Amazonia: Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Vancleaveus fungulus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. janauacaensis Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. platyrhynchi Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Unilatus unilatus Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 ; and U. brittani Mizelle, Kritsky and Crane, 1968 . Based on observations of specimens collected in the Peruvian Amazonia, new morphological data for these species are provided. Comparison of new specimens of U. unilatus and U. brittani with those of Unilatus brevispinus Suriano, 1985 and Unilatus longispinus Suriano, 1985 , both originally described from Brazil, has shown that they are conspecific. Therefore, the latter species were synonymized with U. unilatus and U. brittani , respectively. In addition, 56 undescribed monogeneans found in catfish from the Peruvian Amazonia, some of them probably belonging to new genera, are listed. PMID:22191552

Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Kuchta, Roman

2012-06-01

26

First results of a study of the feeding habits of Synodontis comoensis (Siluriformes: Mochokidae) in a West African river (Comoé River, Comoé National Park, Côte d’Ivoire)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of Synodontis\\u000a comoensis (Siluriformes, Mochokidae) have been studied for the first time. Specimens caught in the Comoé River (Comoé National Park,\\u000a Côte d’Ivoire) had fed on different types of food including insects (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Hymenoptera, and Isoptera), molluscs\\u000a (gastropods and bivalves), oligochaetes, and macrophytes. The food items most frequently found in the stomach contents were\\u000a chironomid larvae,

Tidiani Koné; Essétchi P. Kouamélan; Stanislas S. Yao; Valentin N’Douba; Frans Ollevier

2008-01-01

27

Rio Grande Corridor Final Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the final version of the Rio Grande Corridor Plan, which provides management guidance for public lands along the Rio Grande in New Mexico (Taos Field Office) and in Colorado (La Jara Field Office) and amends the Taos Resource Management P...

2000-01-01

28

New Mexico: Dam Rio Grande  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowing from southwestern Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico is the Rio Grande. Pictured is a dam along the the major river. With a total length of 1,896 miles, there are a large number of dams along the Rio Grande. These include: Cochiti Dam, Elephant Butte Dam, Caballo Dam, Amistad Dam, Falcon Dam, Anzalduas Dam, and Retamal Dam.

Chet Smolski

1993-01-01

29

Le grand épiploon Anatomie chirurgicale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Si l'étude anatomique et vasculaire du grand épiploon a été réalisée dans sa plus grande partie avant la fin du XVIIIe siècle, les recherches les plus récentes ont permis d'en préciser certains caractères permettant son emploi en chirurgie réparatrice: constitution, rapports avec le côlon transverse et son méso, valeur fonctionnelle des anastomoses vasculaires, drainage lymphatique. La connaissance parfaite de

J. P. Bodin; P. Gabelle; Y. Bouchet; M. Caix; B. Descottes

1981-01-01

30

77 FR 11575 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inventory Completion: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Grand Rapids Public Museum has completed an inventory of human remains...objects may contact the Grand Rapids Public Museum. Repatriation of the human remains...

2012-02-27

31

Metazoan parasites of Mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus and of Jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) of Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro.  

PubMed

Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length. PMID:20943019

Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos

2010-01-01

32

Harriscolex nathaliae N. Sp. (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Paraná River Basin, Argentina.  

PubMed

The proteocephalidean cestode Harriscolex nathaliae n. sp. (Proteocephalidae: Zygobothriinae) is described from the intestine of the spotted sorubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Paraná River basin in Argentina. This new species differs from the only species of the genus, Harriscolex kaparari (Woodland, 1935), which is a parasite of Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Linnaeus) from the Amazon River in Brazil, by its larger scolex (width of 450-750 ?m vs. 305-340 ?m), the position of the vagina in relation to the cirrus sac (anterior and posterior vs. only anterior), an asymmetrical vaginal sphincter, the arrangement of vitelline follicles (1 narrow longitudinal band on each side of the proglottid vs. 2 pairs of wide longitudinal bands on dorsal and ventral sides), and a higher number of uterine diverticula (22-45 vs. 16-20). Harriscolex nathaliae is covered with 2 types of microtriches, acicular filitriches and gladiate spinitriches. PMID:23146094

Al Gil de Pertierra, Alicia; de Chambrier, Alain

2013-06-01

33

Grand slam on cancer.  

PubMed

A winner of 59 Grand Slam championships including a record 9 Wimbledon singles titles, Martina Navratilova is the most successful woman tennis player of the modern era. Martina was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, named "Tour Player of the Year" seven times by the Women's Tennis Association, declared "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press, and ranked one of the "Top Forty Athletes of All-Time" by Sports Illustrated. Equally accomplished off the court, Martina is an author, philanthropist, TV commentator, and activist who has dedicated her life to educating people about prejudice and stereotypes. After coming out as a lesbian in 1981, Martina became a tireless advocate of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and she has contributed generously to the LGBT community. Martina is the author of seven books, including most recently Shape Your Self: My 6-Step Diet and Fitness Plan to Achieve the Best Shape of your Life, an inspiring guide to healthy living and personal fitness. Martina was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010. PMID:24400624

Navratilova, Martina

2014-01-01

34

DARPA Grand Challenge 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research and development organization for the Department of Defense (DoD), sponsors the annual DARPA Grand Challenge (first reported on in the August 1, 2003, NSDL Scout Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology), which is "a field test intended to accelerate research and development in autonomous ground vehicles that will help save American lives on the battlefield." Individuals and organizations from industry, the R&D community, government, the armed services, academia, students, backyard inventors, and automotive enthusiasts are invited to enter the challenge. The news release posted on this website on June 6, 2005, announces the 40 semifinalists selected to advance to the National Qualification Event, which will be held September 27 through October 6, 2005 in Fontana, Calif. The team that develops an autonomous ground vehicle that is the first to finish the designated route within 10 hours wins $2 million. When the race was first held in 2003, the most successful team managed to cover only 7.4 miles of the desert terrain featuring natural and man-made obstacles. A related website describing the Autonomous Vehicle Practice Facility of the US Department of Defense Joint Robotics Program (JRP) was still under construction at the time of this report.

35

Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

McCarthy, Kathy

2009-01-01

36

Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges  

ScienceCinema

Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

McCarthy, Kathy

2013-05-28

37

1996 Grand Canyon Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Manone, Northern Arizona University Summary Analyze the effect of a 1996 controlled flood on a sandbar in Grand Canyon. This exercise uses Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst Context Type and level of course ...

Manone, Mark

38

Gravity and grand unified theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is currently believed that quantum effects play a dominant role in the evolution of the very early universe. The large curvature of space-time at early times gives rise to unexpected phenomena, such as the creation of particles by the expanding universe, which have strong dynamical consequences. When realistic elementary particle interactions of the type occurring in grand unified theories

Leonard Parker; David J. Toms

1985-01-01

39

Two Grand Challenges for EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of evolutionary computation has developed and matured significantly over the past 40 years. As with other disciplines attempting to understand complex adaptive systems, this progress has raised as many new and interesting questions as it has answered. In this chapter I describe some of the key open questions by organizing them in the form of two grand challenges:

Kenneth De Jong

40

Grand Challenges in Organismal Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on pages 169 and 171-172 of the PDF file. A Summary of the thought and inniatives behind the NSF's Grand Challenges in Organismal Physiology. This program is designed to bring the opinions of those studying organismal biology together to identify the challenges facing the field and how best to address them.

PhD Hannah V. Carey (Univ Wisconsin-Madison Sch Vet Med Dept Comp Biosci)

2011-10-01

41

The return of grand strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1970s when the nation's colleges and universities were trying to assimilate the 1960s and cope with financial crises, magnanimous solutions were offered in the form of grand strategy. Accountability, alternative learning, planned change, and the policy sciences were advocated with an enthusiasm that now suggests both innocence and malice. If higher education lacked unifying themes or organizing principles

Cameron Fincher

1983-01-01

42

Designing a Virtual Grand Tour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Virtual Grand Tour (VGT) is a paradigm for integrating a presentation of an overview of a larger subject with the possibility of launching at any time an exploratory study of a given sub-topic. The name derives from the paradigm's emulation of those 18th-century travels intended to educate (especially) young, affluent British men; today, with…

Hansen, Per Skafte

2004-01-01

43

Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T

2013-01-01

44

Grand Unified Theories and Their Cosmological Consequences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These lectures contain a rather lengthy study of Grand Unified Theories as applied both in particle physics and in cosmology. Section I contains some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand ...

R. Barloutaud J. F. Cavaignac N. Nanopoulos

1980-01-01

45

A proposed Laramide proto-Grand Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of “rim gravels” north of Grand Canyon and of “Canaan Peak-type” gravels south of Grand Canyon suggests that a paleocanyon, which intersected the transport of these gravels north and south, may have begun forming in the Laramide in approximately the same position as today's central Grand Canyon. This Laramide-age canyon is envisioned as having flowed generally from the

C. A. Hill; W. D. Ranney

2008-01-01

46

Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter

Peter Folger

2004-01-01

47

External View of the DARPA Grand Challenge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge was a 'Huge Leap Forward for Robotics R&D' according to the DARPA Grand Challenge tracking website. Similar to the transatlantic flight competition that spurred commercial flights all over the world, the Grand Challenge was ...

J. Teems M. Del Rose P. A. Frederick R. Kania

2006-01-01

48

First description of B chromosomes in the family Auchenipteridae, Parauchenipterus galeatus (Siluriformes) of the São Francisco River basin (MG, Brazil).  

PubMed

B chromosomes are considered additional and non-essential; they likely originate from A chromosomes and follow a distinct evolution. In fish, approximately half of the Neotropical species with B chromosomes are Characiformes and 35% are Siluriformes. There has been no report of B chromosomes in Auchenipteridae until this moment. B chromosomes found in a population of Parauchenipterus galeatus from the São Francisco River basin in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were small, metacentric, totally heterochromatic and exhibited intra-individual and inter-individual variation. The diploid number was 58 chromosomes (22 metacentric, 16 submetacentric, 12 subtelocentric and 8 acrocentric). The nucleolar organizing regions were simple and the heterochromatin intercalated in the ribosomal sites, characterized by CMA(3) and DAPI fluorochromes, was of a GC-rich constitution. The 5S rDNA genes were located in an intercalary position in only one chromosome pair. An hypothesis about the origin of the B chromosomes in P. galeatus and a review on B chromosomes in catfish are also presented in this study. PMID:19394233

Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Blanco, Daniel Rodrigues; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan; Filho, Orlando Moreira

2009-01-01

49

Metazoan parasites of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) an endemic siluriform fish of the São Francisco basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

Specimens of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) were collected from the upper São Francisco River (18 degrees 12'32''S, 45 degrees 15'41''W) in the municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate their parasitofauna. Of the 24 pirá fish collected, 8 were male (33.3%) and 16 were female (66.7%). Of this total, 12 were parasitized (50%). Nine species of parasites were found: Helobdella sp., Creptotrema creptotrema Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; Palaeocryptogonimus claviformis Szidat, 1954; metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. and of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz 1928); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. (young specimen); larvae of Anisakidae and Rhabdochona sp.; and Neoechinorhynchus sp. (young specimen). Helobdella sp. had the highest prevalence, followed by C. creptotrema (most abundant) and P. claviformis. Creptotrema creptotrema was dominant species in the parasite community of C. conirostris. There was no influence of the host size and sex on the prevalence and abundance of parasites, with P. claviformis being found only in male hosts. With the exception of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., this was the first record of these parasites in C. conirostris. PMID:16445873

Brasil-Sato, Marilia de C; Dos Santos, Michelle D

2005-01-01

50

Three new species of Demidospermus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Araguaia River, Brazil.  

PubMed

Three new species of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) from the Araguaia River in Brazil are described herein. Specimens of Demidospermus ceccarellii n. sp., Demidospermus brachyplatystomae n. sp., and Demidospermus araguaiaensis n. sp. were collected from the gills of the siluriform fish, Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein, 1819). The 3 new species can be easily distinguished from their congeners by the shape of the male copulatory organ (MCO) and accessory piece. Demidospermus ceccarellii n. sp. presents a J-shaped and robust MCO, a base with a short sclerotized margin, and a slightly curved and robust accessory piece with the base slightly dilated. In contrast, D. brachyplatystomae n. sp. has a thin MCO forming an incomplete ring, a base with an irregular sclerotized margin, and a long and curved accessory piece with a wider distal portion. Demidospermus araguaiaensis n. sp. has a thin MCO with a base directly coupled to the accessory piece and an articulated accessory piece that is sinuous in shape in the distal portion. In addition, the 3 species present haptoral hooks similar in shape and size and, thus, were compared in detail with the other Demidospermus species with this particular characteristic. This is the first record of monogeneans that are parasitic on B. filamentosum. PMID:20486742

Cepeda, Patrícia B; Luque, José L

2010-10-01

51

A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae) in Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from spot pangasius, Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae), from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia and a new genus, Pangasiocestus , is proposed to accommodate it. The genus is placed in the Gangesiinae because its scolex possesses a large rostellum-like apical organ and its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla, with some vitelline follicles paramuscular. Pangasiocestus romani n. gen. and n. sp., the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by its rosette-like scolex composed of 4 lobes bearing a small sucker in their center, and the apical part with a large, discoidal, rostellum-like apical organ devoid of hooks, by weakly developed inner longitudinal musculature formed by very few isolated muscle fibers, uneven size of testes in immature and mature proglottids, with lateral testes smaller and more dense than median ones, by very narrow lateral bands of vitelline follicles, formed usually by single follicles, and by the vagina anterior to the cirrus sac. This is the first proteocephalidean cestode from a pangasiid catfish identified to the species level (proteocephalidean cestodes from 3 Pangasius spp. reported in an unpublished account from Vietnam, misidentified as Proteocephalus osculatus (Goeze, 1782) [?=? Glanitaenia osculata ], are not considered). PMID:22257242

Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain

2012-06-01

52

Comparative morphology of the gonadal structure related to reproductive strategies in six species of neotropical catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes).  

PubMed

We studied the relationship between the morphology of the reproductive system and the reproductive strategies of six neotropical catfishes using macroscopic and microscopic analyses. The reproductive system of the examined Siluriformes showed diversified characteristics, but permitted their being grouped according to three reproductive strategies: pelagic spawning, demersal spawning, and internally fertilizing. The pelagic spawners Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Conorhynchos conirostris have testes that are characterized by filiform lobes, absence of testicular secretion, full-grown oocytes of small diameter, thin zona radiata, and cuboidal follicular cells. Pimelodus maculatus is morphologically distinct from the other two pelagic spawners catfishes due to the presence of testicular secretion. The demersal spawners Lophiosilurus alexandri and Rhinelepis aspera possess homogeneous testicular secretion, large mature oocytes, and columnar follicular cells. The most specialized reproductive system was observed in the internally fertilizing Trachelyopterus galeatus, which possesses a seminal vesicle accessory to the testes, spermatozoa with elongated nuclei that form spermatozeugmata, and a secretory ovarian lamellar epithelium that is associated with sperm storage. The reproductive system observed in Neotropical catfishes showed a relationship associated with the type of fertilization and the reproductive strategies of the six species studied. PMID:21246599

Melo, Rafael Magno Costa; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; dos Santos, José Enemir; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

2011-05-01

53

Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, the player can drive, run and fly above and around an urban landscape. The way in which significant urban landmarks from\\u000a the real world have been recreated within the space of this video game is bound to impress architects and urban designers.\\u000a Here, the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco and Las Vegas have

Gregory More

54

Public Diplomacy in Grand Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing importance of public diplomacy in current inter- national politics, its practiceFand particularly its relationship with hard powerFremains largely unexplored by diplomatic or strategic theory. This paper applies a grand-strategic perspective to analyze the chal- lenges of ''winning hearts and minds'' in the new communications and normative environments. Israel's experience in the second Intifada serves to draw empirically

BEN D. MOR

2006-01-01

55

Molecular differentiation of species of the genus Zungaro (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Amazon and Paraná-Paraguay River basins in Brazil.  

PubMed

Fish species of the Zungaro genus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) are amongst the largest migratory fish in Latin America and have considerable economic importance for commercial fishing in Brazil. However, natural populations of this large catfish are experiencing a severe decline. There are significant taxonomical inconsistencies for this fish. Two geographically separated species of the fish were initially described, one endemic in the Amazon and another in the Paraná-Paraguay River basins. A taxonomic review had recently proposed that there is only one Zungaro species in Brazil, based on morphological data. We made a molecular study of Zungaro populations in an attempt to solve taxonomical inconsistencies and to analyze genetic diversity in natural populations of this genus. We analyzed two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (the control region and the ATPase 6 gene region) of individuals sampled from the Paraná-Paraguay River and Amazon River basins. Analyses based on p-distances and maximum likelihood phylogenetic models showed a genetic difference between populations corresponding to different species. Genetic differentiation between Zungaro populations was at the same level as that observed between other Siluriformes species, using the same DNA sequences. We conclude that Zungaro species of the Paraná-Paraguay River basin do not belong to the same species found in the Amazon basin. This finding has a significant implication for conservation of this fish, given that populations are disappearing at a high rate in the Paraná-Paraguay River basin, mainly due to impoundments. PMID:22095604

Boni, T A; Padial, A A; Prioli, S M A P; Lucio, L C; Maniglia, T C; Bignotto, T S; Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, R A; Prioli, A J

2011-01-01

56

GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH IS INDICATED BY HORIZONTAL LINE NEAR TOP OF CLOUD COVERED PEAKS - Grand Ditch, Baker Creek to LaPoudre Pass Creek, Grand Lake, Grand County, CO

57

Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model illustrates grand canonical ensemble (µVT) Monte Carlo simulations: the chemical potential, volume and temperature are the system constraints. This means that the system has porous and diabatic walls, exchanging molecules and heat with a reservoir at constant chemical potential and temperature. The molecules interact through the Lennard-Jones. potential and fluid states at densities 0.0025 ? ? ? 0.85 and temperatures T ? 0.70 can be simulated. Although the volume is kept constant, the number of molecules fluctuates and so does the density. The aim is to reach a chemical potential approaching the imposed one. The input fields can be edited to probe different regions of the phase diagram. Chemical potentials, activity coefficients, Helmholtz free energies, entropies and their excess contributions are worked out. The Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item.

Fernandes, Fernando S.

2014-05-21

58

Grand Challenges for Environmental Magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new, inexpensive, and rapid geochemical methods for determining the ages of geologic materials, their elemental composition, and their isotopic ratios over a broad array of elements puts into sharp focus the question: What information can environmental magnetic methods provide that can't be obtained using these other methods? Because iron is ubiquitous in the Earth's crust and because it exists in so many different forms, a discipline that looks in detail at iron-bearing minerals does have the potential to make significant contributions to the study of surficial processes. However, to reach that potential requires the development of new environmental magnetic methods. I would like to put forward three Grand Challenges for environmental magnetism that have the potential to move the field forward to a new level of scientific sophistication and that will allow environmental magnetists to compete successfully in a world increasingly dominated by geochemists. The first Grand Challenge is the development of new techniques that lead to the direct and unambiguous identification of the full suite of magnetic minerals. For many environmental magnetic applications, the key magnetic minerals are not just magnetite and hematite but also iron oxy-hydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite, akaganeite, ferrihydrite), carbonates (siderite) and sulfides (pyrrhotite and greigite) as well as compounds involving iron and other transition metals (cobalt and nickel). The second Grand Challenge is the development of new analytical methods that provide specific quantitative values for the amount of each magnetic mineral present in a sample. One promising approach to this problem is the application of two- or three-component multivariate analysis to arrays of downcore environmental magnetic parameters. The third Grand Challenge is the development of new ways of determining, not just the average values, but the actual distributions of grain sizes and coercivities of each mineral species. Some progress has been made in this area in recent years but considerably more can and should be done. Fortunately environmental magnetists have several new techniques at their disposal, and the capabilities of these techniques have not yet been fully explored, especially at high and low temperatures and using relatively small steps for the acquisition and demagnetization of laboratory magnetizations.

Verosub, K. L.

2009-05-01

59

Grand Challenges of Enterprise Integration  

SciTech Connect

Enterprise Integration connects and combines people, processes, systems, and technologies to ensure that the right people and the right processes have the right information and the right resources at the right time. A consensus roadmap for Technologies for Enterprise Integration was created as part of an industry/government/academia partnership in the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative (IMTI). Two of the grand challenges identified by the roadmapping effort will be addressed here--Customer Responsive Enterprises and Totally Connected Enterprises. Each of these challenges is briefly discussed as to the current state of industry and the future vision as developed in the roadmap.

Brosey, W.D; Neal, R.E.; Marks, D.

2001-04-01

60

Processing of ampullary input in the brain: comparison of sensitivity and evoked responses among elasmobranch and siluriform fishes.  

PubMed

1. Averaged evoked potentials (AEP) in response to pulses and sine waves of electric current, either as a homogeneous field or a large dipole field around the fish, have been recorded from the brain in 5 genera of elasmobranchs and 10 genera of siluriform fishes. 2. In the elasmobranchs, AEP's and spike-hash bursts are described from medulla, cerebellum, mesencephalon and telencephalon. A complex sequence of early and late waves is found in each level. Two sets of factors influence the latency and amplitude of the component waves. One is stimulus parameters including intensity, stimulus orientation, sign of the change of current, position of dipole, serial number in the first few cycles of a train as well as interval or frequency of a regular series. Separate component peaks of the complex AEP appear to have different dependencies upon these factors. To sinusoidal stimuli the best response by a certain criterion is at 20--30 Hz in a shark (Carcharhinus), 10--15 Hz in a ray (Potamotrygon); these are much higher than the values based on behavior from previous authors. The lowest threshold, with moderate averaging, was 0.015 muV/cm (= 0.8 nA/cm2) in marine species, less than 50 muV/cm (= 0.7 nA/cm2) in the freshwater ray. 3. The other set of factors determining AEP is brain parameters, including the recording locus, the type of electrode and electrode advance and the state of the brain (anesthesia, etc.). There is evidence of topographic segregation of some stimulus parameters, but mapping was not undertaken. Responsive regions are described in the several brain levels. 4. The best loci for electric AEP are distinct from those for acoustic and photic AEPs. No interaction between these was found. 5. All of the siluriforms tested show electroreception by the criterion of high sensitivity AEP. No obvious specialization was noted among the diverse species, but most were represented by a single experiment. Taken together with the previously known species, the sample of nine families of this large order suggests that this is a general characteristic of the order. 6. The best responses were found in the region of the torus semicircularis and in the lateral lobe. The lowest threshold by the criterion used was less than 0.15 mV/cm (= 2 nA/cm2), but some were nearly 2 mV/cm. Compared to much lower values in Ictalurus, this suggests species differences although part of the difference may be due to failure to record from the optimal locus. The AEP may be useful as a method of suveying for other electroreceptive groups. It is also potentially useful to reveal discriminable parameters of importance, such as dipole position, orientation, polarity and frequency. PMID:512972

Bullock, T H

1979-01-01

61

Rio Grande rift: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rio Grande rift of the southwestern United States is one of the world's principal continental rift systems. It extends as a series of asymmetrical grabens from central Colorado, through New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, and Chihuahua, Mexico—a distance of more than 1000 km. Although the Rio Grande rift is closely related in timing and structural style to the contiguous Basin and Range extensional province, the two can be distinguished by a variety of geological and geophysical signatures. Rifts (both oceanic and continental) can be defined as elongate depressions overlying places where the entire lithosphere has ruptured in extension. The lithosphere of the Rio Grande rift conforms to this definition, in that: (1) the crust is moderately thinned—Moho depths range from about 45 km under the flanks to about 33 km beneath the rift axis. (2) anomalously low P n velocities (7.6-7.8 km s -1) beneath the rift and a long wavelength gravity low suggest that the asthenosphere is in contact with the base of the crust. The P-velocity is abnormally low (6.4-6.5 km s -1) in the lower half of the crust beneath the rift, suggesting high crustal temperatures. However, associated seismic and volcanologic data indicate the sub-rift lower crust is not dominated by a massive composite mafic intrusion such as is sometimes inferred for the East African rifts. Seismic and magnetotelluric data suggest the presence of a thin (< 1 km) sill-like contemporary midcrustal magma body which may perhaps extend intermittently along much of the length of the rift. Seismic and structural studies indicate a dominant horizontal fabric in the upper and middle crust. The brittle-ductile transition is at depths -15 km except for the major volcanic fields, where it rises to 2-3 km. Structural development of the rift occurred mainly during two time intervals: the early phase beginning at -30 Ma. and lasting 10-12 m.y., and the late phase extending from -10 to 3 Ma. The early phase involved extensive low-angle normal faulting throughout the rift region which was subsequently offset by high-angle normal faulting during the later deformational event. Volcanism of the Rio Grande rift is minor compared to some other continental rifts. Most of the volcanism is basaltic and occurred less than about 5 m.y. ago. Compositions range from alkalic to tholeiitic, with no unique spatial or temporal pattern. Magmas were probably derived from a variety of depths, indicating an unintegrated heat source with only local melting. Basaltic andesites and related calc-alkaline rocks erupted in the southern rift between about 30 and 18 m.y. ago were not uniquely related to the rifting process. Rather, the thermal pulse which generated these magmas was part of the previous, subduction-related event. Our interpretation of existing data concerning the evolution of the Rio Grande rift does not fit either simple active or passive "end-member" models. In particular, there is no compelling evidence for a major thermal event in the mantle uniquely associated with rifting. Yet heat—inherited from the immediately-preceding deformational regime—was certainly a critical factor in, and was probably a necessary condition for, rifting.

Olsen, Kenneth H.; Scott Baldridge, W.; Callender, Jonathan F.

1987-11-01

62

33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.906 Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a)...

2013-07-01

63

Grand unification of neutron stars.  

PubMed

The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical "grand unification" of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field. PMID:20404205

Kaspi, Victoria M

2010-04-20

64

Grand challenges for biological engineering  

PubMed Central

Biological engineering will play a significant role in solving many of the world's problems in medicine, agriculture, and the environment. Recently the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) released a document "Grand Challenges in Engineering," covering broad realms of human concern from sustainability, health, vulnerability and the joy of living. Biological engineers, having tools and techniques at the interface between living and non-living entities, will play a prominent role in forging a better future. The 2010 Institute of Biological Engineering (IBE) conference in Cambridge, MA, USA will address, in part, the roles of biological engineering in solving the challenges presented by the NAE. This letter presents a brief outline of how biological engineers are working to solve these large scale and integrated problems of our society.

Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Riley, Mark R

2009-01-01

65

Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

2002-01-01

66

27 CFR 9.156 - Diablo Grande.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diablo Grande. 9.156 Section 9.156...American Viticultural Areas § 9.156 Diablo Grande. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is âDiablo Grandeâ. (b) Approved maps....

2010-04-01

67

27 CFR 9.156 - Diablo Grande.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Diablo Grande. 9.156 Section 9.156...American Viticultural Areas § 9.156 Diablo Grande. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is âDiablo Grandeâ. (b) Approved maps....

2009-04-01

68

Mini Grand Challenge Contest for Robot Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mini Grand Challenge outdoor robot design contest was developed at the Penn State Abington campus to promote advances in robot education and technology. Partly inspired by the DARPA Grand Challenge, ground robots must navigate unmarked pathways on a suburban college campus and reach waypoint goals. Robots must also interact and entertain spectators during travel along the designated route. The

Robert Avanzato

69

FOI and Fire at the MGM Grand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fire at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, brought to light a lack of compliance with the freedom of information philosophy and its supporting statutes. Freedom of information means circulation of important information. However, at the Grand Hotel, the hotel staff had not been properly trained in disaster procedures, the escape…

Thompson, William N.; Marie, Janice

70

Evaluating Brazilian Grand Strategy under Lula  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes Brazilian grand strategy under President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. During Lula's eight years in office, he pursued a multitiered grand strategy aimed at hastening the transition from U.S. and Western hegemony to a multipolar order more favorable to Brazilian interests. Lula did so by emphasizing three diplomatic strategies: soft balancing, coalition building, and seeking to position

Hal Brands

2011-01-01

71

Panoramic view from bluff south of Grand Coulee Dam; this ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Panoramic view from bluff south of Grand Coulee Dam; this segment of the panorama shows the westernmost extend of Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and part of Grand Coulee Dam, looking north. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

72

A new imminent grand minimum?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planetary hypothesis of solar cycle is an old idea by which the planetary gravity acting on the Sun might have a non-negligible effect on the solar magnetic cycle. The advance of this hypothesis is based on phenomenological correlations between dynamical parameters of the Sun's movement around the barycenter of the Solar System and sunspots time series. In addition, several authors have proposed, using different methodologies that the first Grand Minima (GM) event of the new millennium is coming or has already begun. We present new fully three dimensional N-body simulations of the solar inertial motion (SIM) around the barycentre of the solar system in order to perform a phenomenological comparison between relevant SIM dynamical parameters and the occurrences of the last GM events (i.e., Maunder and Dalton). Our fundamental result is that the Sun acceleration decomposed in a co-orbital reference system shows a very particular behaviour that is common to Maunder minimum, Dalton minimum and the maximum of cycle 22 (around 1990), before the present prolonged minimum. We discuss our results in terms of a dynamical characterization of GM with relation to Sun dynamics and possible implications for a new GM event.

Cionco, Rodolfo G.; Compagnucci, Rosa H.

2012-07-01

73

Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification  

SciTech Connect

A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) {times} U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.

Arnowitt, R. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Nath, P. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-12-31

74

William Shatner and the Grand Entrance  

NASA Video Gallery

As NASA prepares for Curiosity rover landing on Mars, William Shatner shares this thrilling story of NASA's hardest planetary science mission to date. The video titled, "Grand Entrance," guides vie...

75

33 CFR 117.633 - Grand River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.633 Grand River. (a) Public vessels of...Western railroad bridge, mile 0.2 across the mouth of Spring Lake, shall open on signal; except that, from December 15...

2013-07-01

76

33 CFR 117.633 - Grand River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.633 Grand River. (a) Public vessels of...Western railroad bridge, mile 0.2 across the mouth of Spring Lake, shall open on signal; except that, from December 15...

2012-07-01

77

33 CFR 117.633 - Grand River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.633 Grand River. (a) Public vessels of...Western railroad bridge, mile 0.2 across the mouth of Spring Lake, shall open on signal; except that, from December 15...

2010-07-01

78

33 CFR 117.633 - Grand River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.633 Grand River. (a) Public vessels of...Western railroad bridge, mile 0.2 across the mouth of Spring Lake, shall open on signal; except that, from December 15...

2011-07-01

79

Grand Canyon Railroad Depot: Historic Structure Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Historic Structure Report on the Grand Canyon Depot is intended to edit, augment, and revise existing documents as well as provide additional information. The report will provide a thorough description of the background, physical development, and sig...

D. Wittman H. Piza J. Petkovsek M. Zappanti W. Duecker

2008-01-01

80

Plio-pleistocene pumice floods in the ancestral Rio Grande, southern Rio Grande rift, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least four times during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene pyroclastic eruptions in the Jemez volcanic field, northern Rio Grande rift, flooded the ancestral Rio Grande with gravel-sized pumice. Following as much as 400 km of fluvial transport, the pumice was deposited in beds 0.2 to 2.0 m thick in the Camp Rice Formation of the southern Rio Grande

Greg H. Mack; William C. McIntosh; Michael R. Leeder; H. Curtis Monger

1996-01-01

81

A proposed Laramide proto-Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absence of "rim gravels" north of Grand Canyon and of "Canaan Peak-type" gravels south of Grand Canyon suggests that a paleocanyon, which intersected the transport of these gravels north and south, may have begun forming in the Laramide in approximately the same position as today's central Grand Canyon. This Laramide-age canyon is envisioned as having flowed generally from the SW to NE; from the Peach Springs Canyon area to Mile 197 where it was captured by karst; then along a N. 60°E joint system to the Kanab Point area where it converged with drainage coming off the west side of the Kaibab arch. From there it flowed north along the west flank of the Kaibab arch to Paleogene Lake Claron. The critical idea suggested by this proposed model is that the modern Colorado River utilized Laramide paleotopography in establishing its course through the central Grand Canyon, with younger sections of the canyon integrating with it later, in the middle to late Miocene. This paleocanyon route, in association with headward erosion from the Grand Wash Cliffs toward the Kaibab arch after 16-17 Ma, helps account for the total volume of rock eroded from Grand Canyon, which cannot be explained by present-day incision rates.

Hill, C. A.; Ranney, W. D.

2008-12-01

82

View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking southwest. Note the trash racks at the entrance to the penstocks. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

83

External view of the DARPA Grand Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge (DCG) was a 'Huge Leap Forward for Robotics R&D' according to the DARPA Grand Challenge tracking website. Similar to the transatlantic flight competition that spurred commercial flights all over the world, the Grand Challenge was a step forward in the area of navigation for unmanned ground vehicles. However, questions like 'What are the important technologies brought forth by the Grand Challenge?' and 'How can these technologies assist our soldiers in the field?' need to be addressed. This paper will look at the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge from the perspective of individuals involved in some of the Army's unmanned ground vehicle programs. Information will be presented contrasting this year's competition to the one held in 2004. Details of the enabling technologies from many of the competitors will be discussed along with problems they encountered at the National Qualification Event (NQE) and on Race Day. Finally, thoughts will be presented on how these technologies may be harvested in commercial and DOD research and development for current and future systems.

Frederick, Philip A.; Kania, Robert; Teems, Justin; Del Rose, Mike

2006-06-01

84

2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges  

PubMed Central

In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities.

Reichert, William "Monty"; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

2014-01-01

85

Research Furthers Conservation of Grand Canyon Sandbars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grand Canyon National Park lies approximately 25 km (15 mi) down-river from Glen Canyon Dam, which was built on the Colorado River just south of the Arizona-Utah border in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Before the dam began to regulate the Colorado River in 1963, the river carried such large quantities of red sediment, for which the Southwest is famous, that the Spanish named the river the Rio Colorado, or 'red river'. Today, the Colorado River usually runs clear below Glen Canyon Dam because the dam nearly eliminates the main-channel sand supply. The daily and seasonal flows of the river were also altered by the dam. These changes have disrupted the sedimentary processes that create and maintain Grand Canyon sandbars. Throughout Grand Canyon, sandbars create habitat for native plants and animals, supply camping beaches for river runners and hikers, and provide sediment needed to protect archaeological resources from weathering and erosion. Maintenance of sandbars in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor that stretches from the dam to the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, is a goal of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. The program is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the mandates of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 are met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center has responsibility for scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program. Extensive research and monitoring during the past decade have resulted in the identification of possible alternatives for operating Glen Canyon Dam that hold new potential for the conservation of sand resources.

Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.

2007-01-01

86

Los grandes telescopios ópticos e infrarrojos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recientemente se han puesto en funcionamiento telescopios de 8 y 10 metros de diámetro de su espejo primario que están significando un gran avance en las capacidades observacionales de la Astronomía moderna. Igualmente en nuestro país se está construyendo el Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) que situará a la Astronomía española en la vanguardia de esta disciplina. En mi charla hablaré de las oportunidades observacionales que suponen estos grandes telescopios para la Astronomía moderna. Hablaré del GTC y del esfuerzo español por ser actores principales del desarrollo de la Astronomía moderna. Por último, mostraré brevemente los proyectos futuros de grandes telescopios que se están proponiendo a ambos lados del Atlántico.

Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.

87

Population Dynamics and Diet of the Madamango Sea Catfish Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829) (Siluriformes: Ariidae) in a Tropical Bight in Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The madamango sea catfish, Cathorops spixii (Siluriformes: Ariidae), is often among the most abundant fishes on the South American Atlantic coast. In the present study, conducted in shallow, non-estuarine coastal areas of Caraguatatuba Bight in southeastern Brazil, collections of this species, the most abundant member of the ichthyofauna, included primarily medium-sized individuals, indicating that the area may play a specific role in their development. Although studies of the local ichthyofauna have been much neglected, the area is economically important and its ecological significance is undervalued. This study primarily treats habitat use by C. spixii, assessing certain population parameters and the dietary composition. Monthly samples were taken from August 2003 through October 2004, with three trawls in two areas, corresponding to depths of about 1 to 4 m. The catfish showed two main peaks of abundance in the area, in April/May and July 2004. A mode around 9 cm SL persisted through time, and the entrance of younger recruits peaked from January to April. The low estimate for body-growth parameters (K?=?0.16) corroborates some K-strategist characteristics of the species. The asymptotic length was 27.3 cm SL and total mortality (Z) was 1.01 yr?1. Cathorops spixii showed an omnivorous feeding habit, preying mainly upon polychaetes, copepods and bivalves, with considerable seasonality in its diet.

Denadai, Marcia; Pombo, Maira; Santos, Flavia Borges; Bessa, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adriana; Turra, Alexander

2013-01-01

88

Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.  

PubMed

Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae). PMID:23951931

Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

2013-07-01

89

Monoclonal antibody anti-type I and anti-zebrin II labelling in siluriform fishes: the role of shared lineage versus shared function in polypeptide co-distributions.  

PubMed

Two monoclonal antibodies (mabs), the newly generated mab anti-type I and the previously described mab anti-zebrin II, were reacted with brainstem sections of two ostariophysan siluriforms, the gymnotoid Rhamphichthys rostratus and the siluroid Ictalurus punctatus. Mab anti-type I recognizes a 47 kDa polypeptide present in the dendrites and soma of projection neurons. Mab anti-zebrin II recognizes a 36 kDa polypeptide present throughout the neuronal cytoplasm, including the axon. Strongly type I immunopositive cells include: all cerebellar Purkinje cells; pyramidal cells of the nucleus medialis, electrosensory lateral line lobe and tectum; pacemaker relay cells; Mauthner neurons; lateral line ganglion cells; cells of the inferior olive; and large neurons of the reticular formation and lateral reticular nucleus. Weakly reactive type I cells include: neurons in the torus semicircularis, medial and efferent octavolateralis nuclei, the magnocellular and lateral tegmental nuclei; and the motor neurons of the Vth, VIIth and Xth cranial nerves. Most type I positive cells are brainstem projection neurons. Zebrin II expression is restricted to subsets of two cell types which also express the type I antigen - Purkinje cells and acousticolateralis pyramidal cells. Both of these neuronal types develop from the region of the rhombic lip. While the mutual expression of the type I antigen can be explained by the shared function of projection neurons, the common expression of the zebrin II antigen is most likely due to a shared embryological and/or phylogenetic lineage. PMID:7895053

Hoggatt, A M; Lannoo, M J

1994-12-01

90

Spécificités des grandes villes de province  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Especificidades de las grandes ciudades de provincias . El cruce entre la actividad econômica y la cualificaciôn individual (funciôn) permite describir el empleo ofrecido por las areas urbanas con toda la precision deseable : se toman en cuenta, entre otras, las interferencias entre sectores secundario y terciario (empleos terciarios de la industria). Doce de dichas funciones, llamadas funciones estratégicas,

Philippe Julien

1996-01-01

91

Salinity Management in the Rio Grande Bosque  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses management options for salinity control in the Rio Grande Bosque. First, salt sources are identified and quantified. Capillary rise of ground water is the most important cause for soil salinization in the bosque. Next, a riparian salt balance is presented to explain the different mechanisms for soil salinization. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of three salinity control

Jan M. H. Hendrickx; Bruce J. Harrison; Jelle Beekma; Graciela Rodriguez-Marin

1999-01-01

92

HYDROLOGIC MODELING OF THE RIO GRANDE BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigate the use of the NOAH model along with NLDAS2 forcing in building a hydrological model of the Rio Grande basin to study the effect of climate variability and change on water availability in the basin. The model was run retrospectively for the period 2002 to June 2009. This paper describes the steps taken in building

C. PRAKASH KHEDUN

93

New Grand Strategy for the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is now more than a decade and a half since the end of the Cold War -- a time when we had a clear understanding of US grand strategy; nearly seven years since the tragic events of 9/11 fundamentally altered our perception of threats posed to our nation;...

R. E. Hunter

2008-01-01

94

Domestic Sources of China's Emerging Grand Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's emerging grand strategy has deep domestic roots, which can be examined in terms of cultural tradition, socioeconomic development, and strategic choices. China's cultural tradition emphasizes he wei gui (priority to peace) and he er bu tong (unity in diversity). China's modernization demands a peaceful environment. In fact, the majority of Chinese elites and common people have realized that China

Guoli Liu

2008-01-01

95

Grand Unification with and without Supersymmetry  

SciTech Connect

Grand Unified Theories based on the group SO(10) generically provide interesting and testable relations between the charged fermions and neutrino sector masses and mixings. In the light of the recent neutrino data, we reexamine these relations both in supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models, and give a brief review of their present status.

Melfo, Alejandra [CFF, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Institute J. Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2007-06-19

96

BAHIA GRANDE RESTORATION PROJECT DW14945947  

EPA Science Inventory

The Bahia Grande Restoration Project is located on a 6,000+ acre shallow basin that at one time was inundated with biological resources. The basin supported large flocks of wintering and migratory waterfowl. Also, it contributed to a productive recreational and commercial fishe...

97

Different Views of the Grand Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year the spectacular scenery of the Grand Canyon of Arizona awes its more than 4,000,000 visitors. Just as its enormous scale dwarfs our human sense of space, its geology also dwarfs our human sense of time. Perhaps here, more than anywhere else on the planet, we can experience a sense of ``Deep Time.'' The colorful rocks exposed in the

Wilfred A. Elders

2003-01-01

98

Cochiti Lake, Rio Grande, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes completion of Cochiti Dam and the creation of a 1,240 acre permanent pool to serve as an integral unit of the Middle Rio Grande Valley Project. The dam and resulting lake will be multiple-purpose developments and will function in arre...

1973-01-01

99

Economic Analysis of Casa Grande, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed economic analysis of the Casa Grande area economy to provide information on both the direct and indirect effect of activity in each sector of the economy on each other sector. The analysis is designed to provide exhaustive information needed fo...

J. Storms

1972-01-01

100

Investigative Case - "Rio Grande Wildlife Refuge"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As professional ecologists working for the fish and wildlife service, students must develop a plan to manage a new wildlife refuge along the Rio Grande River. The fish and wildlife service plans to connect forest islands along the river, which will become not only a new refuge but also a "wildlife corridor."

Developed for Lifelines Online by Wayne McMillan of Garden City Community College and Mark A. Storey of Texarkana College. (www.bioquest.org/lifelines (more info) )

101

Monopoles of SU(15) grand unification  

SciTech Connect

In a recently analyzed grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(15), monopoles are automatically consistent with the cosmological mass density bound. The Parker bound of monopole flux puts some constaints on the model which can be easily satisfied.

Pal, P.B.

1991-03-01

102

Map Your Way to the Grand Canyon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the introductory assignment, each randomly assigned group spends about 10 to 15 minutes at each station. The author incorporates as much sensory stimulation in the activity as possible. At the first station, students view a PowerPoint show from a geology class the author participated in at the Grand Canyon. At station two, students look at a…

Yoder, Holly

2005-01-01

103

Dynamic modeling of the grand piano action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grand piano action is modeled as a set of four rigid bodies using Kane's method. Computerized symbol manipulation is utilized to streamline the formulation of the equations of motion so that several models can be considered, each of increasing detail. Various methods for checking the dynamical model thus derived are explored. A computer animation driven by simulation of the

Brent Gillespie

1992-01-01

104

Toxic Waste in Grand Banks. Lesson Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Toxic Waste in Grand Banks" is an assessment task in which students from a high school economics class investigate the issues of economic prosperity, environmental concerns, government intervention in the market economy, and responsible civic participation in solving community problems. Students will demonstrate an ability--both individually and…

Litchka, Peter

105

Youth Voice and the Llano Grande Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Llano Grande Center is a non-profit education and community development organization founded in the mid-1990s by youth and teachers out of a public high school classroom in a rural South Texas (USA) community. The Center was created, in large part, to cultivate youth voices as important elements of curriculum development and teacher training…

Guajardo, Francisco; Perez, Delia; Guajardo, Miguel A.; Davila, Eric; Ozuna, Juan; Saenz, Maribel; Casaperalta, Nadia

2006-01-01

106

Promise and Pitfalls of Grand Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph offers a critical examination of the idea and utility of 'grand strategy.' The concept is very much in vogue these days, with commentators of all stripes invoking it in one way or another. But what the term actually means often remains uncl...

H. Brands

2012-01-01

107

Papier-Mache on a Grand Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a lesson in which students create grand-scale sculptures of three-dimensional objects through drawing, clay modeling, armature construction, papier-mache application, and painting. Describes in detail the process of creating the sculptures from brainstorming and drawing different ideas to painting the sculptures. (CMK)

Moody, Cheryl Semarge

1999-01-01

108

Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial number of…

Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

2002-01-01

109

Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand Canyon: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand Canyon. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.

Folger, Peter

2004-01-01

110

Dilemmas of Brazilian Grand Strategy: Strategic Studies Institute Monograph.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph analyzes Brazilian grand strategy under President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. During Lulas nearly 8 years in office, he has pursued a multipronged grand strategy aimed at hastening the transition from unipolarity and Western economic hegemon...

H. Brands

2010-01-01

111

43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, 1934, and September 17, 1934 (original located at Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado, #113/3084-set of 2) SEWAGE PLANT ADDITION. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

112

Historical Foundations of U.S. Grand Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to effectively write grand strategy for the twenty first century it is important to understand how 'American exceptionalism' among other influences affects U.S. grand strategy. The ideological constant of 'American exceptionalism' has historicall...

C. M. Morinelli

2009-01-01

113

Panoramic view from bluff south of Grand Coulee Dam; this ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Panoramic view from bluff south of Grand Coulee Dam; this segment of the panorama shows the western end of Crescent Bay Lake (in the foreground), the western limits of the town of Grand Coulee, part of Grand Coulee's transformer yard (center in the distance), and the concrete-lined feeder canal that extends to Banks Lake, looking northwest. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

114

2. Lower end of the Old Crosscut at the Grand ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Lower end of the Old Crosscut at the Grand Canal, aerial view to Southeast. The Old Crosscut, obscured by trees, runs from lower left to where it meets the much larger Grand. The large mound is the Pueblo Grande archaeological site. Photographer: A.D. Newcomer, 1928 Source: Pueblo Grande Museum Cultural Park, Phoenix, Arizona. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

115

Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of facility. Note Buildings #35. #33 and #31A in lower left of photograph. VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

116

27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grand River Valley. 9.87 Section 9.87 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.87 Grand River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Grand River Valley.” (b) Approved map....

2012-04-01

117

27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grand River Valley. 9.87 Section 9.87 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.87 Grand River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Grand River Valley.” (b) Approved map....

2010-04-01

118

27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grand River Valley. 9.87 Section 9.87 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.87 Grand River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Grand River Valley.” (b) Approved map....

2014-04-01

119

27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grand River Valley. 9.87 Section 9.87 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.87 Grand River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Grand River Valley.” (b) Approved map....

2011-04-01

120

27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grand River Valley. 9.87 Section 9.87 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.87 Grand River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is âGrand River Valley.â (b) Approved map....

2013-04-01

121

The Grand Challenge: Fix the Hip Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces the Bone Module Grand Challenge question. Students are asked to write their initial responses to the question alone. They will then brainstorm ideas with one other student. Finally, the ideas are shared with the class and recorded. Students then watch two videos about osteoporosis. Grand Challenge Question: When you get home from school, your mother grabs you, and you rush to the hospital. Your grandmother fell and was rushed to the emergency room. The doctor tells your family your grandmother has a fractured hip, and he is referring her to an orthopedic specialist. The orthopedic doctor decides to perform a DEXA scan. The result showed her BMD was -3.3. What would be a probable diagnosis to her condition? What are some possible causes of her condition? Should her daughter and granddaughter be worried about this condition, and if so, what are possible prevented measures they could take to prevent this from happening to them?

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

122

Grand Rapids CCOP - National Cancer Institute  

Cancer.gov

The Grand Rapids Clinical Oncology Program (GRCOP) is a community cancer research and education program offering national cancer prevention and treatment clinical trials for people who are at risk for developing cancer or who have been diagnosed with cancer. GRCOP is comprised of over 300 Northern Lower and West Michigan member physicians in over 38 counties. GRCOP initially formed to develop community cancer patient management guidelines.

123

Biological grand universality and its physical challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented quantitative laws of metabolism, mortality and evolution are valid for animals from bacteria to mammals and demonstrate grand universality in biology. Its microscopic origin may be a physical and mathematical challenge. Natural evolution is accurately reduced to the continuous one, “weak” and “strong” Gould-Eldredge spurts. The discovery of writing, i.e. non-genetic, long range, collective information transfer from generation to

1999-01-01

124

The Family Group in Grand Unified Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the known ways of incorporating and breaking symmetries in a renormalizable way. We summarize the various grand unified theories based on $SU_5, SO_{10}$, and $E_6$ as family enlargement groups. An $SU_5$ model with an $SU_2$ gauged family group is presented as an illustration. In it, the e-family (i.e., e,u and d) is classically massless and acquires calculable mass

P. Ramond

1998-01-01

125

Grand-Unified-Theory Baryogenesis after Preheating  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of inflation the Universe is frozen in a near zero-entropy state with energy density in a coherent scalar field and must be ``defrosted'' to produce the observed entropy and baryon number. We propose that the baryon asymmetry is generated by the decay of supermassive grand-unified-theory (GUT) bosons produced nonthermally in a preheating phase after inflation. We show

Edward W. Kolb; Andrei Linde; Antonio Riotto

1996-01-01

126

Thriving Earth Exchange: AGU's new grand challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imagine a world where scientists are acknowledged and celebrated for their good works. Imagine being able to make a powerful impact, applying your expertise and experience to create real solutions to ensure a sustainable future. Now imagine those two ideas linked: AGU scientists engaged in creating solutions that are recognized and celebrated for their positive impact on our world. The AGU Grand Challenge: Thriving Earth Exchange, a new idea from our member leaders, is about making this dream real.

McEntee, Chris; Williams, Billy

2012-11-01

127

SeaWiFS: Grand Banks Brightening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a hole in the cloud cover today over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland through which SeaWiFS was able to catch this view of a very large patch of bright aquamarine water. Either a large storm has passed over the Banks stirring up the bottom sediments, or some large bloom of phytoplankton is under way. Part of the Island of Newfoundland, including the snow-covered Avalon Peninsula, can also be seen in the northwest corner of the image.

2002-01-01

128

Second Rio Grande catalogue (RG2).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RG2 catalogue was observed at Rio Grande station (-54°; -4h31m) with the Danjon Astrolabe OPL 01. It contains corrections to 122 FK4 and FK4 Sup. stars with declinations ranging from -27° to -80°, mean epoch 1986.0 and reference system J2000. It was used the classical reduction method given by Guinot (1955). Group corrections were obtained by the chain method.

Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.

1990-11-01

129

La masa de los grandes impactores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los planetas han sido formados fundamentalmente acretando masa a través de colisiones con planetesimales sólidos. La masa más grande de la distribución de planetesimales y las masas máxima y mínima de los impactores, han sido calculadas usando los valores actuales del período y de la inclinación de los planetas (Lissauer & Safronov 1991; Parisi & Brunini 1996). Recientes investigaciones han mostrado, que las órbitas de los planetas gigantes no han sufrido variaciones con el tiempo, siendo su movimiento regular durante su evolución a partir de la finalización de la etapa de acreción (Laskar 1990, 1994). Por lo tanto, la eccentricidad actual de los planetas gigantes se puede utilizar para imponer una cota máxima a las masas y velocidades orbitales de los grandes impactores. Mediante un simple modelo dinámico, y considerando lo arriba mencionado, obtenemos la cota superior para la masa del planetesimal más grande que impactó a cada planeta gigante al final de su etapa de acreción. El resultado más importante de este trabajo es la estimación de la masa máxima permitida para impactar a Júpiter, la cúal es ~ 1.136 × 10 -1, siendo en el caso de Neptuno ~ 3.99 × 10 -2 (expresada en unidades de la masa final de cada planeta). Además, fue posible obtener la velocidad orbital máxima permitida para los impactores como una función de su masa, para cada planeta. Las cotas obtenidas para la masa y velocidad de los impactores de Saturno y Urano (en unidades de la masa y velocidad final de cada planeta respectivamente) son casi las mismas que las obtenidas para Júpiter debido a que estos tres planetas poseen similar eccentricidad actual. Nuestros resultados están en buen acuerdo con los obtenidos por Lissauer & Safronov (1991). Estas cotas podrían ser utilizadas para obtener la distribución de planetesimales en el Sistema Solar primitivo.

Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

130

Grand unification and enhanced quantum gravitational effects.  

PubMed

In grand unified theories with large numbers of fields, renormalization effects significantly modify the scale at which quantum gravity becomes strong. This in turn can modify the boundary conditions for coupling constant unification, if higher dimensional operators induced by gravity are taken into consideration. We show that the generic size of, and the uncertainty in, these effects from gravity can be larger than the two-loop corrections typically considered in renormalization group analyses of unification. In some cases, gravitational effects of modest size can render unification impossible. PMID:18999739

Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D H; Reeb, David

2008-10-24

131

Local Grand Unification and String Theory  

SciTech Connect

The low energy effective action of string theory depends strongly on the process of compactification and the localization of fields in extra dimensions. Explicit string constructions towards the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) reveal interesting results leading to the concept of local grand unification. Properties of the MSSM indicate that we might live at a special location close to an orbifold fixed point rather than a generic point in Calabi-Yau moduli space. We observe an enhancement of (discrete) symmetries that have various implications for the properties of the MSSM such as proton stability as well as solutions to the flavor problem, the mu-problem and the strong CP-problem.

Nilles, Hans Peter [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Ramos-Sanchez, Saul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

2010-02-10

132

The Grand Canyon: How It Formed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, in the deepest part of the Grand Canyon, the Colorado River flows past rocks that are 1.7 billion years old. This video describes how the river cut vertically through layers of pre-existing rock as the plateau beneath it was uplifted by tectonic forces. It also explains that other forces worked to widen the canyon, particluarly the activity of tributary streams and debris flows caused by flash flooding from intense rainfall or rapid snowmelt moving loose rock and boulders down canyon walls and side channels. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

133

Resurrection of grand unified theory baryogenesis.  

PubMed

A "new" scenario is proposed for baryogenesis. We show that the delayed decay of colored Higgs particles in grand unified theories may generate an excess baryon number of the empirically desired amount, if the mass of the heaviest neutrino is in the range 0.02 eV

Fukugita, M; Yanagida, T

2002-09-23

134

SeaWiFS: Grand Banks Brightening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a hole in the cloud cover today over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland through which SeaWiFS was able to catch this view of a very large patch of bright aquamarine water. Either a large storm has passed over the Banks stirring up the bottom sediments, or some large bloom of phytoplankton is under way. Part of the Island of Newfoundland, including the snow-covered Avalon Peninsula, can also be seen in the northwest corner of the image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

135

The Grand Challenge: Simulating Human Vision  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the Robotics Peripheral Vision Grand Challenge question. They are asked to write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they require to answer the question. Their ideas are shared with the class and recorded. Then, students share their ideas with each other and brainstorm any additional ideas. Next, students draw a basis for the average peripheral vision of humans and then compare that range to the range of two different focal lengths in a camera. Through the associated activity provides, students see the differences between human and computer vision.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

136

The last grand tour opportunity to Pluto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated mission design program permits a thorough examination of gravity-assist trajectories such as the Voyager II flight to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The program is applied to the automated design of multiple encounter trajectories to the far outer planets. The most significant result is that the last four-planet grand tour opportunity occurs in 1996 and includes encounters with Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Other mission designs include Jupiter and one or two other planets and have characteristically short flight times.

Longuski, J. M.; Williams, S. N.

1991-01-01

137

77 FR 12108 - Denver & Rio Grande Railway Historical Foundation d/b/a Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, L.L.C...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Denver & Rio Grande Railway Historical Foundation d/b/a Denver & Rio Grande Railroad...Denver & Rio Grande Railway Historical Foundation, Inc. (DRGHF) on July 12, 2011...Railway Historical [[Page 12109

2012-02-28

138

The Grand Duchy on the Grand Tour: A Historical Study of Student Migration in Luxembourg  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Luxembourg became independent in 1839, practically the entire political, economic and intellectual elite of the country has been socialised abroad. It was only in 2003 that the Grand Duchy set up its own university; before then, young Luxembourgers had to study in foreign countries. Over the past 150 years, Luxembourg has thus experienced…

Rohstock, Anne; Schreiber, Catherina

2013-01-01

139

GRANDES FELINOS E O FOGO NO PARQUE NACIONAL DE ILHA GRANDE, BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flood plain of Paraná river problably mantain, one of the last considerable populations of neotropical big cats, represented by jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). Large felids depend on the landscape to obtain food and habitat. Fire is a huge natural agent that can change the landscape, modifying flora and fauna species. In the Ilha Grande National Park,

Kauê Cachuba de Abreu; Letícia de Paulo Koproski; Ângela Márcia Kuczach; Pedro Chaves de Camargo; Tiago Giarola Boscarato

140

Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Grand Calumet River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Grand Calumet River is potential habitat for a rich community of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Historical surveys of these organisms have been limited to post-industrialization of the Calumet Region; but because river habitats and conditions prior to industrialization have been described, past macroinvertebrate composition can be inferred. In the past 20 years, several surveys have been conducted in the Grand Calumet that have focused on a limited area, but when these studies are amassed the information available covers much of the river. In this paper, the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in the river are described, and options for restoration are discussed. Many of the macroinvertebrates present are indicators of high levels of pollution, but a few pollution-sensitive species have been found. There is evidence, however, that the sediment quality has improved since the 1960's, likely due to pollution controls that have been put into place. Restoration opportunities should consider the macroinvertebrate community and the potential to improve sediment habitat without damaging the community structure.

Last, Laurel L.; Whitman, Richard L.

2000-01-01

141

Extension in the Rio Grande rift.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A positive gravity anomaly along the axis of the Rio Grande rift reflects a volume of anomalous mass added at the base of the crust and intruded into the crust. Part of this volume can be associated with vertical uplift of the crust. The remainder of this anomalous volume, plus the volume of surficial graben fill, can be associated with horizontal crustal extension. The volume of crustal uplift in the Rio Grande rift is unknown, but this term can be eliminated by means of an independent equation provided by assumption of generalized isostatic equilibrium. The volume and mass equations combined provide a solution for extension of the crust in terms of the following parameters: total anomalous mass deficiency in the mantle lithosphere, total anomalous mass excess in the crust and its density contrast, total anomalous mass deficiency of surficial graben fill and its density contrast, and the volume of material eroded from the uplift. Using standard density estimates and masses determined by equivalent-source modeling of gravity profiles, I obtained 1-km extension at 37oN (Colorado-New Mexico border), 13- km extension at 35oN (Albuquerque, New Mexico), and 24-km extension at 33oN in S New Mexico.-Author

Cordell, L.

1982-01-01

142

Aspects of grand unified and string phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explored in this report is the essential interconnectedness of Grand Unified and String Theoretic Phenomenology. In order to extract a modeled connection to low-energy physics from the context of superstring theory, it is presently necessary to input some preferred region of parameter space in which to search. This need may be well filled by a parallel study of Grand Unification, which is by contrast in immediate proximity to a wealth of experimental data. The favored GUT so isolated may then reasonably transfer this phenomenological correlation to a string embedding, receiving back by way of trade a greater sense of primary motivation, and potentially enhanced predictability for parameters taken as input in a particle physics context. The Flipped SU(5) GUT will be our preferred framework in which to operate and first receives an extended study in a non-string derived setting. Of particularly timely interest are predictions for super-particle mass ranges and the interrelated question of proton decay lifetime. Corrections to such a picture under the lift to a string embedding are also considered. Two principal approaches to string model building are next treated in turn: the Heterotic Free Fermionic construction and Intersecting D-branes in Orientifold compactifications. In both contexts, a summary of existing constructions, extensions to known procedures, and original phenomenological contributions are described.

Walker, Joel W.

143

Flood Geology and the Grand Canyon: A Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four claims of Flood Geology—as they are related to the Grand Canyon and specifically to the book Grand Canyon: A Different View—are evaluated by directly addressing Young Earth Creationist arguments, by showing rock features that belie these claims, and by presenting the most up-to-date scientific theories on the origin of the Grand Canyon. We conclude that Young Earth Creationism promotes

Carol A. Hill; Stephen O. Moshier

2009-01-01

144

Lava Flows in the Grand Canyon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over vast expanses of time, natural processes like floods and volcanoes deposit layers of rock on the Earth's surface. To delve down through layers of rock is to explore our planet's history. Sometimes rock layers are exposed through human activity, such as drilling or excavation. Other times, rivers carve through the rock. One of the best, and most well-known, examples of a river exposing ancient rocks is Colorado River in Arizona's Grand Canyon. What fewer people know is that the Grand Canyon also has a history of relatively recent (on geologic time scales) volcanism. The evidence--hardened lava--spills down the canyon walls all the way to the river. On June 22, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the Grand Canyon, near 36.2 degrees north latitude and 113.2 degrees west longitude. ASTER detects light visible to human eyes as well as 'invisible' infrared light. Because different minerals reflect different portions of the light spectrum, ASTER can see varying mineral compositions of the rocks it observes, as well as detecting vegetation. In this three-dimensional visualization, lava fields appear brownish gray, darker than the layers of limestone, sandstone and other rock in the canyon. Vegetation appears green, and sparsely vegetated areas appear mustard. Water in the Colorado River is blue-purple. Geologists estimate that between 1.8 million and 400,000 years ago, lava flows actually dammed the Colorado River more than a dozen times. Some of the lava dams were as high as 600 meters (about 1,969 feet), forming immense reservoirs. Over time, enough water and sediment built up to push the river flow over the tops of these dams and eventually erode them away. Today, remnants of these lava dams remain throughout the area, along with the much older rock layers they cover. Among the most well known examples of these 'frozen' lava cascades is Lava Falls, which spills down to the river next to a cinder cone known as Volcan's Throne. Numerous flows spread down into Whitmore Canyon, a Colorado River tributary, as well.

2003-01-01

145

Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1995, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) was created in order to measure the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on natural and physical resources along the Colorado River. As such, the GCMRC's projects also monitor and examine the biological, cultural, and physical resources of the entire Colorado River ecosystem. The materials on their site are divided into five primary sections, including "News & Info", "Research", and "Products". In the "News & Info" area visitors can learn about the endangered species that reside in the area covered by the GCMRC and also take a look at their outreach materials, which include fact sheets, posters, and transcripts from recent symposia. The "Research" area is a bit more technical in nature, containing papers on water flow simulations and elevation data. The site is rounded out by the "Products" area, where visitors can look over new publications and evaluate simulation models.

146

Neutrino dark energy in grand unified theories  

SciTech Connect

We studied a left-right symmetric model that can accommodate the neutrino dark energy ({nu}DE) proposal. The type-III seesaw mechanism is implemented to give masses to the neutrinos. After explaining the model, we study the consistency of the model by minimizing the scalar potential and obtaining the conditions for the required vacuum expectation values of the different scalar fields. This model is then embedded in an SO(10) grand unified theory and the allowed symmetry breaking scales are determined by the condition of the gauge coupling unification. Although SU(2){sub R} breaking is required to be high, its Abelian subgroup U(1){sub R} is broken in the TeV range, which can then give the required neutrino masses and predicts new gauge bosons that could be detected at LHC. The neutrino masses are studied in detail in this model, which shows that at least 3 singlet fermions are required.

Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, Santosh K. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Gu, P.-H. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)

2009-10-01

147

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golem Group\\/UCLA team was a finalist in the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge, and traveled 22 miles on race day. The Golem Group was also one of the most successful teams in the 2004 Grand Challenge, traveling 5.2 miles on a shoestring budget. We present the strategies, challenges, outcomes, and lessons learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment.

Eagle Jones; Brian Fulkerson; Emilio Frazzoli; D. Kumar; R. Walters; J. Radford; R. Mason

2006-01-01

148

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golem Group\\/UCLA team was a finalist in the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge, and traveled 22 miles on race day. The Golem Group was also one of the most successful teams in the 2004 Grand Challenge, traveling 5.2 miles on a shoestring budget. We present the strategies, challenges, outcomes, and lessons learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment.

Eagle Jones; Brian Fulkerson; Emilio Frazzoli; Deepak Kumar; Robert Walters; Jim Radford; Richard Mason

2008-01-01

149

Phase transitions at finite chemical potential in grand unified theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the circumstances in which non-zero chemical potentials might prevent symmetry restoration in phase transitions in the early universe at grand unification or partial unification scales. The general arguments are illustrated by consideration of SO(10) and SU(5) grand unified theories.

David Bailin; Alex Love

1984-01-01

150

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY IN GRAND VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

A summary of the results of applied research on salinity control of irrigation return flows in the Grand Valley of Colorado is presented for the period of 1969 to 1976. Salinity and economic impacts are described for the Grand Valley Salinity Control Demonstration Project which c...

151

THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND LOOP ROAD. ACIDIC HOT SPRINGS HAVE REDUCED THE UNDERLYING LAVA TO A FINE CLAY, PRODUCING AN AREA OF BOILING MUD. THE ODOR OF ROTTEN EGGS IS FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS. - Grand Loop Road, Forming circuit between Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Junction, Madison Junction, Old Faithful, Mammoth, Park County, WY

152

4. Photocopy of architectural blueprint (on file at La Grande ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopy of architectural blueprint (on file at La Grande District Office, La Grande, Oregon) USDA Forest Service, 1939 OIL AND GAS BUILDING - Union Ranger District Compound, Oil & Gas House, Fronting State Highway 203, at West edge of Union, Union, Union County, OR

153

18. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT BEFORE 1989 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT BEFORE 1989 REALIGNMENT, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD RAILROAD CROSSING AND CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT LARGE WHITE BUILDING. THE CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT IS HIDDEN BY TREES TO RIGHT OF STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

154

Simulated quenching in the grand-canonical ensemble  

SciTech Connect

A formalism for obtaining the zero-temperature structure of mono- component solids in the grand-canonical ensemble is developed. The new methodology, grand-canonical simulated quenching, is validated by simulating systems initially containing a vacancy and an interstitial. As a first application, the reconstruction of a high-angle twist grain boundary in fcc Cu is investigated.

Phillpot, S.R.; Rickman, J.M.

1991-12-01

155

77 FR 14418 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1526-0002-630] Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Draft Environmental Impact Statement...Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park...Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park,...

2012-03-09

156

78 FR 32441 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PAN00AN53.NM0000] Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Final Environmental Impact Statement...Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park...Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park,...

2013-05-30

157

75 FR 13138 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park, CO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Park Service Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky...Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado...Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park,...

2010-03-18

158

76 FR 29642 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Miami Beach, Florida during the Miami Super Boat Grand Prix. The Miami Super Boat Grand Prix will consist of a series of...

2011-05-23

159

77 FR 31344 - Grand Valley Irrigation Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 14377-000] Grand Valley Irrigation Company; Notice of Application Accepted...2012. d. Applicant: Grand Valley Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Dividers...would be located on the Grand Valley Irrigation Canal where the Mainline canal...

2012-05-25

160

76 FR 9341 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2011. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA). e. Name...f. Location: Grand (Neosho) River in Craig, Delaware, Mayes, and Ottawa Counties...Assistant General Counsel, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box...

2011-02-17

161

77 FR 5691 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Springfield, MO; Lincoln, NE; Grand Rapids, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-AWA-5 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Springfield, MO; Lincoln, NE; Grand Rapids...SUMMARY: This action modifies the Springfield, MO; Lincoln, NE; and Grand Rapids...amendment corrects the airport names for Springfield, MO; Lincoln, NE; and Grand...

2012-02-06

162

76 FR 56966 - Amendment of Class D and Modification of Class E Airspace; Grand Junction, CO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Modification of Class E Airspace; Grand Junction, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...modifies Class E airspace at Grand Junction, CO. Additional controlled airspace is necessary...controlled airspace at Grand Junction, CO (76 FR 40293). Interested parties...

2011-09-15

163

77 FR 55860 - Notice of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Advisory Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Land Management (BLM), Grand Staircase-Escalante National...Crutchfield, Public Affairs Officer, Grand Staircase-Escalante National...Hole-In-The-Rock Corridor Strategy subcommittee reports, GSENM...statements can be sent to: Grand Staircase-Escalante...

2012-09-11

164

Grand challenge scientific questions in coupled modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most convective field experiments in the past (e.g., SESAME, CCOPE, CINDE) have attempted to resolve only the immediate scales of moist convection using network arrays that spanned two or three atmospheric scales at most. Furthermore, these scales have been defined more on practical considerations (cost, manpower, etc.) than on a clear understanding of their theoretical significance. Unfortunately, this has precluded a description of the entire life cycle of MCS's and their interaction with larger scale systems, the land surface, and trace species. Fortunately, the following factors now make it possible to attempt to simulate scale contraction processes from the synoptic scale down to the cloud scale, as well as interactions between complex meteorological, land surface, precipitation, chemical, and hydrologic processes with coupled, multiscale models: the availability of new technology to sample meteorological fields at high temporal and spatial resolution over a broad region made possible by the weather observing modernization program; increased computer power and improved numerical approaches to run limited area models with nonhydrostatic precipitation physics so as to explicitly resolve MCS (Mesoscale Convective System) processes; and four dimensional assimilation of non-conventional data to provide dynamically consistent datasets for diagnostic analysis of nonlinear scale-interactive dynamics. Several examples of scale-interactive processes which present grand challenges for coupled, multiscale modeling were presented.

Koch, Steven

1993-01-01

165

Modeling and simulation of a grand piano.  

PubMed

A time-domain global modeling of a grand piano is presented. The string model includes internal losses, stiffness, and geometrical nonlinearity. The hammer-string interaction is governed by a nonlinear dissipative compression force. The soundboard is modeled as a dissipative bidimensional orthotropic Reissner-Mindlin plate where the presence of ribs and bridges is treated as local heterogeneities. The coupling between strings and soundboard at the bridge allows the transmission of both transverse and longitudinal waves to the soundboard. The soundboard is coupled to the acoustic field, whereas all other parts of the structure are supposed to be perfectly rigid. The acoustic field is bounded artificially using perfectly matched layers. The discrete form of the equations is based on original energy preserving schemes. Artificial decoupling is achieved, through the use of Schur complements and Lagrange multipliers, so that each variable of the problem can be updated separately at each time step. The capability of the model is highlighted by series of simulations in the low, medium, and high register, and through comparisons with waveforms recorded on a Steinway D piano. Its ability to account for phantom partials and precursors, consecutive to string nonlinearity and inharmonicity, is particularly emphasized. PMID:23862839

Chabassier, Juliette; Chaigne, Antoine; Joly, Patrick

2013-07-01

166

Coordinating the Atlantis Grand Opening Event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While working as the marketing intern for Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Center Planning and Development Directorate (CPD), I was given the opportunity not only to learn new skills and expand my work experience under the powerful influence of NASA, but I also was given the opportunity to prove that I am an individual capable of contributing to the KSC team. My main responsibility while working in CPD was to organize and run a booth that represented the entire directorate at the Grand Opening of the Shuttle Atlantis exhibit during the weekend of June 28-30. This event was important for CPD because as a Directorate that markets KSC's facilities, technical capabilities and technologies to potential partners, it is important to attend all events and use them to gain an understanding of our audience. Although we catered mostly to the general public during this event, it was still important to reach out to the larger space enthusiast community and let them know about KSC's future plans to become a multi-user spaceport and that teclmology is still being developed.

Smith, Abigail Allaine

2013-01-01

167

Grand unification and intermediate scale supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With minimal field content and for an interesting range of the supersymmetric Higgs mixing parameter, 0.5 ? tan2 ? ? 2, the superpartner mass scale, , is found to be at the intermediate scale, ~ 1010±1 GeV, near where the Standard Model Higgs quartic coupling passes through zero. For any 4d supersymmetric grand unified symmetry spontaneously broken by a vacuum expectation value , if superpotential interactions for ? are forbidden e.g. by R symmetries, the uneaten color octet, ?8, and weak triplet, ?3, have masses of order m. The combination of superpartner and ?8,3 states leads to successful gauge coupling unification, removing the disastrously high proton decay rate of minimal Standard Model unification. Proton decay could be seen in future experiments if ~ 1011 GeV,but not if it is lower. If there heating temperature after inflation, T R , is less than dark matter may be axions. If T R > , thermal LSP dark matter may lead to the environmental selection of a TeV-scale LSP, either wino or Higgsino, which could comprise all or just one component of dark matter. In the Higgsino case, the dark matter is found to behave inelastically in direct detection experiments, and gauge coupling unification occurs accurately without the need of any threshold corrections.

Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

2014-02-01

168

a Minimal SO(10) Grand Unified Theory.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a viable SO(10) model which is minimal in the Higgs content, needing only three representations to perform the necessary symmetry breaking and to give the fermions their masses. We show that exactly one 10 and one 126 will produce a phenomenologically acceptable fermion mass spectrum from a general analysis of their Yukawa couplings, and that the initial symmetry breaking at the grand unified mass scale of (TURN) 10('15) GeV may be achieved with one 45 representation. In doing this, we find that the main contribution to the weak SU(2)(,L) symmetry breaking arises from the vacuum expectation value (VEV) given to the 10, rather than the one attributed to the 126, so that the 126 essentially breaks the residual symmetry from the initially broken SO(10) into an approximate QCD-Weinberg-Salam group SU(3)(,C) x SU(2)(,L) x U(1)(,Y). From there, the 10 reduces the remaining symmetry into the observed low-energy group, SU(3)(,C) x U(1)(,Q). We further examine an interesting variant of the standard model: by choosing the 45 and 126 VEVs appropriately, we have the possibility of an intermediate mass scale between 10('2) and 10('15) GeV. Included in the fermion mass matrix are massive neutrinos. We calculate the physical neutrino eigenmasses, and find that of (nu)(,(tau)) perhaps as high as (TURN) .1 eV, just below current experimental thresholds. The resulting neutrino oscillations, which should currently be visible only in solar lengths, are allowed to be quite significant. The fact the (e(--->)e) diagonal flavor-change probability can be lower than 60% offers a solution to the solar neutrino problem: why neutrinos are apparently lost in coming from the sun, yet reactors and accelerators show no hard evidence for neutrino oscillations at this time. Extensive computer modeling is used in support of all predictions for the fermion masses and neutrino oscillations.

Terry, David Coleman

1982-03-01

169

Thermomechanical models of the Rio Grande rift  

SciTech Connect

Fully two-dimensional, coupled thermochemical solutions of a continental rift and platform are used to model the crust and mantle structure of a hot, buoyant mantle diapir beneath the Rio Grande rift. The thermomechanical model includes both linear and nonlinear laws of the Weertman type relating shear stress and creep strain rate, viscosity which depends on temperature and pressure, and activation energy, temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, temperature-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion, the Boussinesq approximation for thermal bouyancy, material convection using a stress rate that is invariant to rigid rotations, an elastically deformable crust, and a free surface. The model determines the free surface velocities, solid state flow field in the mantle, and viscosity structure of lithosphere and asthenosphere. Regional topography and crustal heat flow are simulated. A suite of symmetric models, assumes continental geotherms on the right and the successively increasing rift geotherms on the left. These models predict an asthenospheric flow field which transfers cold material laterally toward the rift at > 300 km, hot, buoyant material approx. 200 km wide which ascends vertically at rates of 1 km/my between 175 to 325 km, and spreads laterally away from the rift at the base of the lithosphere. Crustal spreading rates are similar to uplift rates. The lithosphere acts as stiff, elastic cap, damping upward motion through decreased velocities of 1 km/10 my and spreading uplift laterally. A parameter study varying material coefficients for the Weertman flow law suggests asthenospheric viscosities of approx. 10/sup 22/ to 10/sup 23/ poise. Similar studies predict crustal viscosities of approx. 10/sup 25/ poise. The buoyant process of mantle flow narrows and concentrates heat transport beneath the rift, increases upward velocity, and broadly arches the lithosphere. 10 figures, 1 table.

Bridwell, R.J.; Anderson, C.A.

1980-01-01

170

Initiation and Frequency of Debris Flows in Grand Canyon, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Debris flows occur in 600 tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona when intense precipitation causes slope failures in bedrock or colluvium. These slurries transport poorly sorted sediment, including very large boulders that form rapids ...

P. G. Griffiths R. H. Webb T. S. Melis

1996-01-01

171

Ecology, Diversity, and Sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book synthesizes existing information on the ecology, diversity, human uses, and research needs of the Middle Rio Grande Basin of New Mexico. Divided into nine chapters, the volume begins with reviews of the environmental history and human cultures i...

D. M. Finch J. A. Tainter

1995-01-01

172

Integrase diversity and transcription of the maize retrotransposon Grande.  

PubMed

Grande is an abundant gypsy-like retrotransposon present in the genera Zea and Tripsacum. Related retro transposon families can be found in sorghum, rice, and barley, but not in wheat or rye. We have amplified and sequenced several copies of part of the integrase domain derived from the Zea mays, Zea diploperennis, and Tripsacum dactyloides genomes. There are no significant differences in divergence or clustering between the integrase sequences of these species. The substitution rate for synonimous sites was found to be higher than those of non-synomymous sites; this indicates that Grande integrase has been under purifying selection for function. Grande is transcribed in leaves. The transcripts show sequence diversity similar to that of genomic sequences, but belong to restricted clades; this indicates that only some evolutionary branches of Grande have retained transcriptional competence. PMID:16767181

Gómez, Eva; Schulman, Alan H; Martínez-Izquierdo, José Antonio; Vicient, Carlos M

2006-05-01

173

Participatory Design in Grand Rapids: Second Generation Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Central Park Project, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, illustrates the importance of participation in the design process and the impact of school sites on children as well as on the surrounding neighborhood. (Author/MLF)

Eriksen, Aase

1979-01-01

174

Water Quality Evaluation of the Grand Mesa Project Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of the Bureau of Reclamation's proposed Grand Mesa Project indicates that with adequate treatment municipal, industrial and other domestic waste loadings should not significantly affect water quality for present and projected water uses in t...

1971-01-01

175

Bayou Grand Caillou Navigation Improvements Terrebonne Parish, Lousianna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of studies to examine the feasibility of, and provide a solution for improving the conditions for navigation on Bayou Grand Caillou from its intersection with the Houma Navigational Canal north to its intersection with Bay...

1984-01-01

176

United States National Security Strategy: Grand Strategy or Propaganda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within academic and military strategy circles, it is widely accepted that the United States National Security Strategy (NSS) is America's grand strategy. However, the extent to which there is widespread misuse, misunderstanding and disagreement on the mea...

P. A. McClelland

2007-01-01

177

American Grand Strategy in a World at Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

If there is no single long-standing American grand strategy, one nonetheless sees through the course of U.S. history the tracks of a grand strategy. It started with the idea of a U.S. monopoly in the Western Hemisphere, along with balances of power in the chief theaters of the world; with belief in the primacy of sea and air power and

Walter Russell Mead

2005-01-01

178

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

179

Grand multiparity: is it still a risk in pregnancy?  

PubMed Central

Background The association of grand multiparity and poor pregnancy outcome has not been consistent for decades. Classifying grand multiparous women as a high-risk group without clear evidence of a consistent association with adverse outcomes can lead to socioeconomic burdens to the mother, family and health systems. We compared the maternal and perinatal complications among grand multiparous and other multiparous women in Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). A standard questionnaire enquired the following variables: demographic characteristics, antenatal profile and detected obstetric risk factors as well as maternal and neonatal risk factors. Predictors of adverse outcomes in relation to grand multiparous women were assessed at p?=?0.05. Results Grand multiparas had twice the likelihood of malpresentation and a threefold higher prevalence of meconium-stained liquor and placenta previa compared with lower-parity women even when adjusted for age. Neonates delivered by grand multiparous women (12.1%) were at three-time greater risk of a low Apgar score compared with lower-parity women (5.4%) (odds ratio (OR), 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5–5.0). Grand multiparity and low birth weight were independently associated with a low Apgar score (OR, 2.4; 95%, CI 1.4–4.2 for GM; OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.3–7.8) for low birth weight. Conclusion Grand multiparity remains a risk in pregnancy and is associated with an increased prevalence of maternal and neonatal complications (malpresentation, meconium-stained liquor, placenta previa and a low Apgar score) compared with other multiparous women who delivered at Muhimbili National Hospital.

2013-01-01

180

Novel Distribution of Influenza Vaccine in Grand Forks, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISSUE: In 2001, only 56.2% of Grand Forks (GF) County residents >65 years of age received influenza vaccination (Medicare data).PROJECT: Vaccine availability, parking, appointments, waiting, and weather are barriers to influenza vaccination. For 2 years, the Greater Grand Forks Immunization Coalition has collaborated with its partners, including GF Public Health and Altru Health System, to sponsor Drive-Through Flu Shot Clinics.

K. Dunn

2004-01-01

181

Alternative grand strategy options for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold war grand strategy of the United States—containment—became outmoded with the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. This article is a description and review of three U.S. post?cold war grand strategy options, as articulated by different prominent members of the U.S. defense and foreign policy community. The three options—noninterventionism, unipolarism, and multilateralism—capture virtually

John J. Kohout III; Steven J. Lambakis; Keith B. Payne; Robert S. Rudney; Willis A. Stanley; Bernard C. Victory; Linda H. Vlahos

1995-01-01

182

Pliocene and Quaternary history of the Rio Grande, the axial river of the southern Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the Rio Grande, the axial river of the southern Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, may be divided into an aggradational phase (? 5 to ? 0.8 Ma), during which time about 100 m of fluvial sediment was deposited in eight basins, and a degradational phase (? 0.8 Ma to present), when the river alternately incised and partially backfilled its basins. Reversal magnetostratigraphy, dated

Greg H. Mack; William R. Seager; Mike R. Leeder; Marta Perez-Arlucea; Stephen L. Salyards

2006-01-01

183

Old Fire/Grand Prix Fire, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On November 18, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Old Fire/Grand Prix fire east of Los Angeles. The image is being processed by NASA's Wildfire Response Team and will be sent to the United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) which provides interpretation services to Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams to assist in mapping the severity of the burned areas. The image combines data from the visible and infrared wavelength regions to highlight the burned areas.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Michael Abrams at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrated system and applying Earth System Science to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards using the unique vantage point of space.

Size: 60 by 45 kilometers ( 37.5 by 28.1 miles) Location: 34.5 degrees North latitude, 117.1 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1, 3, and 4 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Date Acquired: November 18, 2003

2003-01-01

184

3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).

The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

185

77 FR 22569 - Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, NE  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, NE AGENCY: Western...proposed interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm (Project) in Holt County, near...of O'Neill, Nebraska. Grande Prairie Wind, LLC (Grande Prairie Wind), a...

2012-04-16

186

Coral associations of the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation, Grand Cayman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 125-ka sea level, which was approximately 6 m above present-day sea level, led to the partial flooding of many Caribbean islands. On Grand. Cayman, this event led to the formation of the large Ironshore Lagoon that covered most of the western half of the island and numerous, small embayments along the south, east, and north coasts. At that time, at least 33 coral species grew in waters around Grand Cayman. This fauna, like the modern coral fauna of Grand Cayman, was dominated by Montastrea annularis, Porites porites, Acropora polmata, and A. cervicornis. Scolymia cubensis and Mycetophyllia ferox, not previously identified from the Late Pleistocene, are found in the Pleistocene patch reefs. Madracis mirabilis, Colpophyllia breviserialis, Agaricia tenuifolia, A. lamarcki, A. undata, Millepora spp., Mycetophyllia reesi, M. aliciae, and M. danaana, found on modern reefs, have not been identified from the Late Pleistocene reefs. Conversely, Pocillopora sp. cf. P. palmata, which is found in Late Pleistocene reefs, is absent on the modern reefs around Grand Cayman. The corals in the Ironshore Formation of Grand Cayman have been divided into 10 associations according to their dominant species, overall composition, and faunal diversity. Many of these associations are similar to the modern associations around Grand Cayman. Each of the Pleistocene coral associations, which can be accurately located on the known Late Pleistocene paleogeography of Grand Cayman, developed in distinct environmental settings. Overall trends identified in the modern settings are also apparent in the Late Pleistocene faunas. Thus, the diversity of the coral faunas increased from the interior of the Ironshore Lagoon to the reef crest. Similarly, the coral diversity in the Pleistocene patch reefs was related to the size of the reefs and their position relative to breaks in the barrier reef. The barrier reef included corals that are incapable of sediment rejection; whereas the patch reefs lacked such corals.

Hunter, I. G.; Jones, B.

1996-11-01

187

The Grand Tour via Geodesic Interpolation of 2-frames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grand tours are a class of methods for visualizing multivariate data, or any finite set of points in n-space. The idea is to create an animation of data projections by moving a 2-dimensional projection plane through n-space. The path of planes used in the animation is chosen so that it becomes dense, that is, it comes arbitrarily close to any plane. One of the original inspirations for the grand tour was the experience of trying to comprehend an abstract sculpture in a museum. One tends to walk around the sculpture, viewing it from many different angles. A useful class of grand tours is based on the idea of continuously interpolating an infinite sequence of randomly chosen planes. Visiting randomly (more precisely: uniformly) distributed planes guarantees denseness of the interpolating path. In computer implementations, 2-dimensional orthogonal projections are specified by two 1-dimensional projections which map to the horizontal and vertical screen dimensions, respectively. Hence, a grand tour is specified by a path of pairs of orthonormal projection vectors. This paper describes an interpolation scheme for smoothly connecting two pairs of orthonormal vectors, and thus for constructing interpolating grand tours. The scheme is optimal in the sense that connecting paths are geodesics in a natural Riemannian geometry.

Asimov, Daniel; Buja, Andreas

1994-01-01

188

Mutagenic potential of sediments from the Grand Calumet River  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal is one of the International Joint Commission's Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC). Like many other AOCs, the Grand Calumet River is in a heavily industrialized area and has a history of chemical contamination. Many of the chemicals found in the industrial and municipal wastes that enter the waterway end up in sediment where they are concentrated to high levels. In order to assess the potential genotoxicity of sediments from the Grand Calumet River, the authors determined the mutagenic potential of organic extracts of sediments. The sediment extracts were assayed in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test. In the Ames test, all ten sediment samples assayed were found to be mutagenic. In general, chemicals found in the sediments required metabolic activation before a positive mutagenic response was observed.

Maccubbin, A.E.; Ersing, N. (Roswell Park Cancer Inst., Buffalo, NY (United States))

1991-08-01

189

History and environmental setting of the Grand Calumet River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Grand Calumet River lies in an area of great ecological diversity, a result of the convergence of three biomes during glaciation. Over thousands of years the region and the river have changed ecologically due to ice retreat, lake level declines, settlement and industrialization. Settlement and industrialization have greatly accelerated the rate of change, and the Grand Calumet River and its basin are now subject to the added effects of years of direct pollution. For years, industries directly discharged into the waterway; and those contaminants remain locked in the sediment a century later. In order to preserve the remaining surrounding natural areas and to improve the Grand Calumet River, buried contaminants would have to be dredged from the river. Restoration needs to be implemented as part of the clean-up process, and recontamination should be prevented.

Nevers, Meredith Becker; Whitman, Richard L.; Gerovac, Paul J.

2002-01-01

190

Nursing grand rounds: the North Queensland, Australia, experience.  

PubMed

There are multiple opportunities and options to improve nurses' engagement with research and evidence-based practice. Nursing grand rounds, in their various guises, are one such initiative. A large regional health service in North Queensland, Australia, introduced nursing grand rounds in late 2010 as a professional development activity. This article discusses the success of the initiative, as evaluated by the attendees and as assessed by members of the organizing group. One notable aspect of the initiative is that it allows both nurses working in small rural and remote facilities and nurses working in the regional city to participate in the presentations. Aspects of the initiative that require continued consideration to ensure the sustainability of nursing grand rounds are identified. PMID:23268576

Smyth, Wendy; Abernethy, Gail

2013-05-01

191

Environmental Audit of the Grand Junction Projects Office  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) is located in Mesa County, Colorado, immediately south and west of the Grand Junction city limits. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Colorado Raw Materials Office at the present-day Grand Junction Projects Office in 1947, to aid in the development of a viable domestic uranium industry. Activities at the site included sampling uranium concentrate; pilot-plant milling research, including testing and processing of uranium ores; and operation of a uranium mill pilot plant from 1954 to 1958. The last shipment of uranium concentrate was sent from GJPO in January, 1975. Since that time the site has been utilized to support various DOE programs, such as the former National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), and the Technical Measurements Center (TMC). All known contamination at GJPO is believed to be the result of the past uranium milling, analyses, and storage activities. Hazards associated with the wastes impounded at GJPO include surface and ground-water contamination and potential radon and gamma-radiation exposure. This report documents the results of the Baseline Environmental Audit conducted at Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) located in Grand Junction, Colorado. The Grand Junction Baseline Environmental Audit was conducted from May 28 to June 12, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at GJPO, as well as GJPO activities at the State-Owned Temporary Repository. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1991-08-01

192

Grand symmetry, spectral action and the Higgs mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the spectral action and the noncommutative geometry approach to the standard model, we build a model based on a larger symmetry. With this grand symmetry it is natural to have the scalar field necessary to obtain the Higgs mass in the vicinity of 126 GeV. This larger symmetry mixes gauge and spin degrees of freedom without introducing extra fermions. Requiring the noncommutative space to be an almost commutative geometry (i.e. the product of manifold by a finite dimensional internal space) gives conditions for the breaking of this grand symmetry to the standard model.

Devastato, Agostino; Lizzi, Fedele; Martinetti, Pierre

2014-01-01

193

The Verifying Compiler, a Grand Challenge for Computing Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a I propose a set of criteria which distinguish a grand challenge in science or engineering from the many other kinds of short-term\\u000a or long-term research problems that engage the interest of scientists and engineers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The primary purpose of the formulation and promulgation of a grand challenge is to contribute to the advancement of some branch\\u000a of science or engineering. A

C. A. R. Hoare

2005-01-01

194

Ecological potential of the Grand Calumet River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Grand Calumet River and watershed have been severely degraded by industrialization and urbanization, and yet several high-quality natural areas remain intact. The degraded condition presents numerous opportunities for pollution mitigation and ecosystem restoration. In many areas of the river and watershed, biological communities are characterized by low diversity and pollution-tolerant organisms. By establishing programs of nonnative species control, prescribed burning, sediment removal, wetland establishment and extirpated species re-introduction, the Grand Calumet can be improved to reflect some of its natural history. The dredging plan for the river presents an opportunity to coordinate simultaneous improvement and restoration plans. Possibilities for each section of the river are discussed.

Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker; Hammann, Shira; Moy, Philip B.

2002-01-01

195

The Grand Geochemistry of 4 Vesta: First Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 12-Dec-2011, the Dawn spacecraft commenced low altitude mapping of the giant asteroid, 4 Vesta (264-km mean radius). Dawn's roughly circular, polar, low altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) has a mean radius of 470 km, placing the spacecraft within about 210 km of Vesta's surface. At these altitudes, Dawn s Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) is sensitive to Vesta's elemental com-position (Fig. 1). GRaND will acquire data in LAMO for up to 16 weeks, which is sufficient to map the elemental composition of the entire surface of Vesta. The timing of LAMO enables us to report the first results of our geochemistry investigation at this conference. In this abstract, we present an overview of our initial observations, based on data acquired at high altitude and during the first weeks of LAMO. GRaND overview. A detailed description of the GRaND instrument, science objectives and prospective results is given in [1]. At low altitudes, GRaND is sensitive to gamma rays and neutrons produced by cosmogenic nuclear reactions and radioactive decay occurring within the top few decimeters of the surface and on a spatial scale of a few hundred kilometers. From these nuclear emissions, the abundance of several major- and minor-elements, such as Fe, Mg, Si, K, and Th can be determined. Assuming the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites are representative of Vesta s crustal composition [2], then GRaND will be able to map the mixing ratios of whole-rock HED end-members, enabling the determination of the relative proportions of basaltic eucrite, cumulate eucrite, and diogenite as well as the proportions of mafic and plagioclase minerals [1,3]. GRaND will also search for compositions not well-represented in the meteorite collection, such as evolved, K-rich lithologies [4], and outcrops of olivine from Vesta s mantle or igneous intrusions in major impact basins [5]. The search for a possible mesosiderite source region is described in [6]. GRaND will globally map the abundance of H, providing constraints on the delivery of H by solar wind and the infall of carbonaceous chondrite materials.

Prettyman, T. H.; Beck, A.; Feldman, W. C.; Forni, O.; Joy, S. P.; Lawrence, D. J.; McCoy T. J.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Polanskey, C. A.; Rayman, M. D.; Raymond, C. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Russell, C. T.; Titus, T. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Yamashita, N.

2012-01-01

196

43. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, WEST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: THE ARTS MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

197

IRRIGATION PRACTICES AND RETURN FLOW SALINITY IN GRAND VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationships between leachate volume and chemical quality. A numerical model of soil moisture and salt transport was used. Field data were collected on 63 research plots located in the Grand Valley, Colorado. From the calibration of the ...

198

Challenges and Opportunities for Water of the Rio Grande  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rio Grande has headwaters in Colorado, flows through New Mexico, and serves as the United States.–Mexico border in Texas, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. Snow melt in Colorado and northern New Mexico constitutes the water river supply for New Mexico and the El Paso region, whereas summer monsoonal flow from the Rio Conchos in Mexico and tributaries, including

M. Edward Rister; Allen W. Sturdivant; Ronald D. Lacewell; Ari M. Michelsen

2011-01-01

199

Statistical analysis of lateral migration of the Rio Grande  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral migration rates of alluvial rivers are affected by changes in water and sediment regimes. The Rio Grande downstream from Cochiti Dam exhibits spatial and temporal variability in lateral movement rates documented since 1918. A tremendous database exists that documents planform, bed material size, channel geometry, and water and sediment regimes. A statistical analysis reveals that migration rates primarily

200

BARRIERS TO WATER CONSERVATION IN THE RIO GRANDE BASIN1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rio Grande basin shares problems faced by many arid regions of the world: growing and com- peting demands for water and river flows and uses that are vulnerable to drought and climate change. In recent years legislation, administrative action, and other measures have emerged to encourage private investment in efficient agricultural water use. Nevertheless, several institutional barriers discourage irrigators

Frank A. Ward; Ari M. Michelsen; Leeann DeMouche

2007-01-01

201

Meteorological measurements during the Lower Rio Grande Valley environmental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the meteorological conditions observed in Brownsville, Texas, during the Lower Rio Grande Valley Environmental Study. This study was conducted in two parts during the spring and summer of 1993. Air pollution and meteorological data were acquired from the top of a building located at the University of Texas at Brownsville campus approximately 1 km north of the

Gennaro H. Crescenti

1997-01-01

202

Roosevelt, Truman and the Development of Postwar Grand Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After its victory in World War II, it was clear that United States should move beyond the disastrous policies of the 1930s, but it was less clear how. Ultimately, a lasting postwar strategy was forged under President Truman. Appreciating how Truman moved well beyond Roosevelt's guiding assumptions is essential to understanding the evolution of American grand strategy. One sees that

Wilson D. Miscamble

2009-01-01

203

A Multidisciplinary Investigation of Rio Grande Rift Deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rio Grande rift is the easternmost actively deforming province of the western margin of North America. Geologic observations suggest the character of rifting changes from north to south, with a narrow rift marked by linear topographic depressions in Colorado and northern New Mexico grading to a broad ``basin and range'' expression in south-central New Mexico. Reasons behind the variable

A. R. Lowry; A. F. Sheehan; M. Roy; E. Jones; S. Nerem

2005-01-01

204

Grand challenges and technological developments in textile manufacturing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an industrial assessment model for textile industry and provides the result of the assessment of current technological developments. It highlights the importance of technical and intelligent textiles as well as automation systems. The paper presents the grand challenges to be faced by the industry and lists out the driving forces of the sector. It also recommends a

A. Temiroglu

205

Structures of Urban Poverty in Greg Sarris's "Grand Avenue"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Greg Sarris's 1994 "Grand Avenue" offers tough urban stories about a long-fought, still-continuing struggle for survival and self-determination. Sarris's stories present the day-to-day lives of a contemporary, fictional Pomo community living in a multiracial neighborhood not far from their traditional homeland. The stories depict poverty, high…

Dyck, Reginald

2010-01-01

206

44. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, EAST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: RELIGION MURAL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

207

Natural Vegetation of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a survey of the abiotic environment and natural vegetation of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument. The monument is located on a desert plain in the Gila River basin in south-central Arizona that has been irrigated by bot...

K. Reichhardt

1992-01-01

208

Recent Results from KASCADE-Grande and LOPES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KASCADE-Grande is an extensive air-shower experiment located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. Main parts of the experiment are the Grande array spread over an area of 700×700 m, the original KASCADE array covering 200×200 m with unshielded and shielded detectors, and additional muon tracking devices. This multi-detector system allows to investigate the energy spectrum, composition, and anisotropies of cosmic rays in the energy range up to 1 EeV. LOPES is co-located at the same site to measure radio pulses from extensive air showers in coincidence with KASCADE-Grande. It consists of 30 digital antennas operated in different geometrical configurations. Read out is performed at high bandwidths and rate data processing with the aim to calibrate the emitted signal in the primary energy range of 10-10 eV by making use of reconstructed air-shower observables of KASCADE-Grande. An overview on the performance of both experiments will be given and recent analysis results be reported.

Kascade-Grande; Lopes Collaboration; Kampert, K.-H.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga, J. C.; Asch, T.; Badea, F.; Bähren, L.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Brüggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Buitink, S.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Ender, M.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Falcke, H.; Finger, M.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kang, D.; Kickelbick, D.; Klages, H. O.; Kolotaev, Y.; Krömer, O.; Kuijpers, J.; Lafebre, S.; Link, K.; ?uczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Melissas, M.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Nigl, A.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Over, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rautenberg, J.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Saftoiu, A.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, F.; Sima, O.; Singh, K.; Stümpert, M.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G.; Ulrich, H.; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.; Zensus, J. A.; KASCADE-Grande and LOPES Collaboration

2009-05-01

209

Grand Unification and the Weinberg-Salam Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the note is to show the possibility of replicating the Weinberg-Salam model with the fixed symmetric value of sinsup(2)THETAsub(w) = 0.3 within the framework of E sub 8 -theory of grand unification. One of the possibilities comes from the i...

R. Lednicky V. Tseitlin

1979-01-01

210

Latest results from the KASCADE-Grande experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KASCADE-Grande experiment operated at KIT from January 2004 to November 2012, measuring EAS generated by primary cosmic rays in the 1016-1018 eV energy range. The experiment detected, for each single event, with a high resolution, the total number of charged particles (Nch) and of muons (N?). In this contribution we present the latest results about:

Chiavassa, A.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Cossavella, F.; Curcio, C.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Fuchs, B.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; ?uczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

2014-04-01

211

The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone by Lucien Powell  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This large (74" X 114.5") oil painting was done by Lucien W. Powell and is on loan to the Geological Survey from the Smithsonian National Museum of American Art. The title of the painting is The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. Object ID: USGS-575066...

2009-07-22

212

User-Centered Security: Stepping Up to the Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered security has been identified as a grand challenge in information security and assurance. It is on the brink of becoming an established subdomain of both security and human\\/computer interface (HCI) research, and an influence on the product development lifecycle. Both security and HCI rely on the reality of interactions with users to prove the utility and validity of their

Mary Ellen Zurko

2005-01-01

213

'BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES' FOR SALINITY CONTROL IN GRAND VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

A nontechnical summary of several research activities in the Grand Valley is given. Analyses of alternative measures of reducing the salt load originating from the Valley as a result of irrigation return flows are presented. These alternatives include conveyance channel linings, ...

214

Grand Canyon Trekkers: School-Based Lunchtime Walking Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incidence of childhood overweight is especially troubling among low income Latino youth. Grand Canyon Trekkers (GCT) was implemented as a quasi-experimental study in 10 Title 1 elementary schools with a large Latino population to examine the effects of a 16-week structured walking program on components of health-related physical fitness: Body…

Hawthorne, Alisa; Shaibi, Gabriel; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; McFall, Sarah

2011-01-01

215

Art of the Possible - U.S. Grand Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

America is at a crossroad in its history. Termination of the Cold War, globalization, the global war on terror and the recent deterioration of U.S. financial markets have created a need and a unique opportunity for launching a new grand strategy. The even...

A. Stewart

2008-01-01

216

Grand Canyon Investigations: 131 years in the field  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Staff at the USGS Central Region Library created two displays for an open-house in celebration of National Library Week, April, 2010. This display on USGS scientific investigtations of the Grand Canyon displays field records, historical photography,historical surveying equipment, and publications fr...

2010-05-17

217

Grand Canyon Investigations: 131 Years in the Field  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Staff at the USGS Central Region Library created two displays for an open-house in celebration of National Library Week, April, 2010. This display on USGS scientific investigtations of the Grand Canyon displays field records, historical photography,historical surveying equipment, and publications fr...

2010-05-17

218

Can grand unification monopoles be detected with plastic scintillators?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By drawing upon results from work dealing with the interactions of slow protons with matter, we estimate the light yield of grand unification monopoles from organic scintillators. It is shown that monopoles having velocities >~6×10-4c can be observed.

S. P. Ahlen; G. Tarlé

1983-01-01

219

Biology of the Rio Grande Border Region: A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography includes 1,913 references to the literature of the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte). The specific geographic area covered extends 100 km on either side of the river from Elephant Butte Dam in New Mexico to the Gulf of Mexico. The bibliog...

L. E. Johnson L. J. Jacobs D. Papoulias

1997-01-01

220

Grand Strand Geology and its impact on Beach Nourishment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brief analysis of the geologic setting of the Grand Strand (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, and vicinity) coast and the limited occurrence of sand suitable for beach re-nourishment. Students use a USGS Fact Sheet to examine the beach, near offshore, and edge of Coastal Plain geology.

Farley, Martin

221

Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the first part of the talk, the author explains what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory incl...

J. C. Pati

2006-01-01

222

Microorganisms from the late precambrian of the grand canyon, Arizona.  

PubMed

An assemblage of cellularly well-preserved, filamentous and spheroidal plant microfossils has been detected in a cherty pisolite bed of the late Precambrian Chuar Group from the eastern Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. This newly discovered microflora, probably among the youngest Precambrian biological communities now known, appears to be of both evolutionary and biostratigraphic significance. PMID:17835936

Schopf, J W; Ford, T D; Breed, W J

1973-03-30

223

An autonomous system used in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous system was designed and constructed to traverse the hostile desert terrain in the DARPA Grand Challenge robotics competition. Our autonomous system used GPS measurements in conjunction with a laser range finder to determine the passable terrain and to negotiate around natural and man-made obstacles on the route. The primary navigation portion of this system uses a scalable, heuristic

Joseph C. Bebel; Nathan Howard; Tej Patel

2004-01-01

224

The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone Online Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website offers an online tour of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. Prominent viewpoints of the canyon are highlighted with photos and information concerning their history. Other stops include information on giant glacial boulders and waterfalls. Similar tours of the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Fountain Paint Pots, and the Mammoth Hot Springs are also available online.

Park, Yellowstone N.

225

Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon  

SciTech Connect

The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon.

Hallock, K.A.; Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science)

1992-05-01

226

Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Grand Junction, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the result of a geochemical investigation of the former uranium mill and tailings site at Grand Junction, Colorado. The objectives of the investigation are to characterize the geochemistry, to determine the contaminant distribution resulting from the former milling activities and tailings, and to infer chemical pathways and transport mechanisms from the contaminant distribution. The results should be

G. Markos; K. J. Bush

1983-01-01

227

EVALUATION OF IRRIGATION METHODS FOR SALINITY CONTROL IN GRAND VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Irrigation return flows in the Upper Colorado River Basin carry large salt loads as a result of contact with the saline soils and the marine derived geologic substratum. The Grand Valley of western Colorado is a major contributor to the salinity problems of the basin and is, ther...

228

45. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, EAST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: EDUCATION MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

229

ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was a U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program project to assess transboundary air pollution in and near Brownsville, Texas. The study used a three-site air monitoring network very close to the border to capture the d...

230

Nature and Science at Grand Teton National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the natural resources of Grand Teton National Park. Resources discussed include animals (birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles), plants (wildflowers), environmental factors (geologic activity) and natural features (glaciers and mountains). A selection of links to additional documents and websites with related information is provided.

231

The verifying compiler: A grand challenge for computing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution proposes a set of criteria that distinguish a grand challenge in science or engineering from the many other kinds of short-term or long-term research problems that engage the interest of scientists and engineers. As an example drawn from Computer Science, it revives an old challenge: the construction and application of a verifying compiler that guarantees correctness of a

Tony Hoare

2003-01-01

232

27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...east southeasterly, approximately 0.9 mile in a straight line, to the point at which Upper Arroyo Grande Road crosses the spillway of Lopez Dam in section 32, T. 31 S., R. 14 E. (see “Tar Spring Ridge” map); (12) Then, in a...

2010-04-01

233

Effects of range management on the lower Rio Grande watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SPUR-91 model was used to simulate the effect of alternate stock densities on properties of the lower Rio Grande watershed. The output data was then used as input data into an income maximizing model to measure economic effects of alternate management on two representative ranches in Texas and Mexico. Each ranch had a management choice defined over four stocking

Gary McBryde

1998-01-01

234

A grand-canonical approach to the disordered Bose gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the problem of disordered interacting bosons within grand-canonical thermodynamics and Bogoliubov theory. We compute the fractions of condensed and non-condensed particles and corrections to the compressibility and the speed of sound due to interaction and disorder. There are two small parameters, the disorder strength compared to the chemical potential and the dilute-gas parameter.

Gaul, Christopher; Müller, Cord A.

2014-04-01

235

Environmental Assessment: Demolish 934 of Grand Forks Air Force Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Air Force (USAF) proposes to demolish building 934 belonging to Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB), North Dakota. The purpose of the proposed action is to demolish 608 square feet of excess facility space in building 934, known as the boos...

W. A. Koop

2006-01-01

236

Grand Manner Aesthetics in Landscape: From Canvas to Celluloid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methods by which environmental issues are aestheticized in late-twentieth-century film is directly and historically related to those established for grand manner painters by Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665) and taught at the French academy from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. That these fundamentals were part of the training of…

Auger, Emily E.

2009-01-01

237

The Grand Canyon: The Top Two Rock Layers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Watch this short video clip to learn more about the rock layers of the Grand Canyon. This video discusses the two sandstone formations that comprise the uppermost part of the canyon. The video also discusses how the two sandstone layers were formed.

2006-01-01

238

36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Colorado River within Grand Canyon National Park, upstream from Diamond Creek at approximately river mile 226: (1) No person shall...the Superintendent to terminate the permit at any time. (v) A permit may be revoked at any time for the convenience...

2013-07-01

239

Shear-wave splitting in the Rio Grande Rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lag times and fast directions associated with SKS shear-wave splitting are determined for six digital stations in the Rio Grande Rift (RGR). The mean fast direction for three stations in the central RGR is about 45 deg oblique to the axis of the RGR. The pattern of the fast directions along the RGR gives evidence for a rising asthenosphere beneath

Eric Sandvol; James Ni; Serdar Ozalaybey; John Schlue

1992-01-01

240

Grand Prize and Citation Winners: Ten School with Soaring Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design features of the grand prize winners of the 2002 "Learning by Design" contest--an addition to West Linn High School in West Linn, Oregon, and the renovation of Beaver Brook Academic Center/The Ethel Walker School in Simsbury, Connecticut. Also describes the designs of the eight citation winners. (EV)

Learning By Design, 2002

2002-01-01

241

61. PAGE THREE OF PLANS FOR GRAND CANAL AT WASHINGTON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. PAGE THREE OF PLANS FOR GRAND CANAL AT WASHINGTON STREET TIDEGATE SYSTEM REHABILITATION Plan Sheet D-28451, Sheet No. 3 of 3 (delineated by H. V. Nguyen, November 1985) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

242

44. CROSS SECTION OF GRAND CANAL (not to scale, but ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. CROSS SECTION OF GRAND CANAL (not to scale, but representative of all six canals) Plan Sheet D-29976, Venice Canals Rehabilitation, Sheet No. 7 of 26 (delineated by T. Wu and E. Lee, March 1991) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

243

60. PAGE TWO OF PLANS FOR GRAND CANAL AT WASHINGTON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. PAGE TWO OF PLANS FOR GRAND CANAL AT WASHINGTON STREET TIDEGATE SYSTEM REHABILITATION Plan Sheet D-28451, Sheet No. 2 of 3 (delineated by H. V. Nguyen, November 1985) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

244

Society and Health in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shedding light on problems of mental health and illness that have baffled public health workers attempting to improve the health and welfare of Mexican Americans living in the lower Rio Grande Valley, this document reports the folk customs, social organization, medical practices, and beliefs of the Mexican American of this area. Chapters describe…

Madsen, William

245

Cosmology for grand unified theories with radiatively induced symmetry breaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of first-order phase transitions for standard grand unified theories is shown to break down for models with radiatively induced spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is argued that proper analysis of these transitions which would take place in the early history of the universe can lead to an explanation of the cosmological homogeneity, flatness, and monopole puzzles.

Andreas Albrecht; P. J. Steinhardt

1982-01-01

246

When did the Grand Canyon Begin to Form?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This post, originally published in the Connecting News with National Science Education Standards blog, deals with the findings suggesting the Grand Canyon is two to three times older than commonly believed. Ideas for engaging students in a thoughtful discussion about these research findings are provided.

Lefever, Mary; Hamilton, Carolyn

2008-03-14

247

American Grand Strategy after War (Colloquium Brief, May 22, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Triangle Institute for Security Studies (TISS), the Duke University Program in American Grand Strategy, and the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College (USAWC) conducted a colloquium and recognition of TISS's 50th anniversary at the D...

D. D. Owens I. C. Popescu

2009-01-01

248

Rise of China and America's Grand Strategic Riposte.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In making the case for an American grand strategy, this paper attempts to offer firstly a look at China's exceptional 'Peaceful Rise' most ably demonstrated by its phenomenal economic growth since the country's 'opening up' in 1978. Secondly, this paper w...

B. T. Byrne

2006-01-01

249

75 FR 34001 - Safety Zone; Grand Marais Splash-In, West Bay, Lake Superior, Grand Marais, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...during the Grand Marais Splash-In Sea Plane Competition. DATES: This rule is effective...potential hazards associated with the sea plane competition. Under 5 U.S.C. 553...spectators from hazards associated with sea planes taking- off, flying and landing in...

2010-06-16

250

75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice...

2010-09-03

251

75 FR 10308 - Fire Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Record of Decision, Grand Canyon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Fire Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact...Environmental Impact Statement for the Fire Management Plan, Grand Canyon National...availability of the Record of Decision for the Fire Management Plan, Grand Canyon...

2010-03-05

252

40 CFR 51.309 - Requirements related to the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission. 51.309...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS...Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission. ...non-fossil low or no air emission technologies...Plan Schedule. Each Transport Region State...

2011-07-01

253

40 CFR 51.309 - Requirements related to the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission. 51.309...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS...Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission. ...non-fossil low or no air emission technologies...Plan Schedule. Each Transport Region State...

2012-07-01

254

75 FR 61173 - Jackson Hole Airport Agreement Extension, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR National Park Service Jackson Hole Airport Agreement Extension, Final Environmental...Impact Statement for the Jackson Hole Airport Agreement Extension, Grand Teton National...Impact Statement for the Jackson Hole Airport Agreement Extension, Grand Teton...

2010-10-04

255

77 FR 23243 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...14372-000] Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit...March 13, 2012, Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority filed an application for...feasibility of the Rocky Coulee Wasteway Hydroelectric Project (project) to be located...

2012-04-18

256

33 CFR 100.720 - Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL. 100.720 Section 100.720...100.720 Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area...

2013-07-01

257

78 FR 74007 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grand Rapids, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and geographic coordinates for Gerald R. Ford International Airport, formerly known...Class E airspace areas, of Gerald R. Ford International Airport, Grand Rapids...amends controlled airspace at Gerald R. Ford International Airport, Grand...

2013-12-10

258

77 FR 32993 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rio Grande...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rio Grande National...SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rio Grande National...Program Manager, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rio Grande...

2012-06-04

259

Applied Grand Strategy: Making Tough Choices in an Era of Limits and Constraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article hopes to contribute to the strategic content of U.S. foreign policy by offering a definition of grand strategy and case for reorienting U.S. policy around it. Rather than advocate a specific grand strategy—a matter still open for debate—the analysis concludes with a set of attributes to assess whether a proposed grand strategy constitutes a “good” grand strategy. It

Clark Murdock; Kevin Kallmyer

2011-01-01

260

Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000 years were obtained. As a key national cultural relic, candidate of the world cultural heritage, and route of the South-to-North Water Diversion, the China Great Canal is a worthy subject of a study. Results presented in this paper therefore have high realistic significance.

Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

2014-03-01

261

Economic impacts of federal policy responses to drought in the Rio Grande Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant growth in the Rio Grande Basin's demand for water has stressed the region's scarce water supply. This paper presents an analysis of the impacts of severe and sustained drought and of minimum in-stream flow requirements to support endangered species in the Rio Grande watershed. These impacts are investigated by modeling the physical and institutional constraints within the Rio Grande

Frank A. Ward; Brian H. Hurd; Tarik Rahmani; Noel Gollehon

2006-01-01

262

Realism, Culture and Grand Strategy: Explaining America's Peculiar Path to World Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

When and why do states adopt new grand strategies? According to a “neoclassical realist” model, changes in international conditions are the chief cause of long-term adjustments in grand strategy, while domestic political-military cultures help specify the precise grand strategies chosen by state officials. What results are outcomes that appear surprising or skewed from a realist perspective. I test the neoclassical

Colin Dueck

2005-01-01

263

77 FR 14567 - Notice of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Advisory Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Land Management (BLM), Grand Staircase-Escalante National...Crutchfield, Public Affairs Officer, Grand Staircase-Escalante National...Hole-In-The-Rock corridor management strategy, future meeting dates and other...statements can be sent to: Grand Staircase-Escalante...

2012-03-12

264

Grand Canyon, Arizona as seen from STS-66  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Snow covers the Kaibab Plateau on the northern side of the Colorado River in this November, 1994 view of the Grand Canyon. North is to the bottom of this view. The Colorado River has created a canyon which cuts through billions of years of geologic time. The Grand Canyon is 446 kilometers (277 miles) long, averages 16 kilometers (10 miles) wide, and is approximately 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) deep. The Coconino Plateau is located on the upper left side of the view, or to the south of the Colorado River. The direction of the flow of the Colorado River is from the east to the west. Eventually the river turns south and empties into the Gulf of California. The southern portion of Lake Powell in Utah can be seen at the bottom center of the view.

1994-01-01

265

Volume terms for charged colloids: A grand-canonical treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of thermodynamic properties of suspensions of charged colloids on the basis of linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We calculate the effective Hamiltonian of the colloids by integrating out the ionic degrees of freedom grand canonically. This procedure not only yields the well-known pairwise screened-Coulomb interaction between the colloids, but also additional volume terms that affect the phase behavior and the thermodynamic properties, such as the osmotic pressure. These calculations are greatly facilitated by the grand-canonical character of our treatment of the ions and allow for relatively fast computations compared to earlier studies in the canonical ensemble. Moreover, the present derivation of the volume terms are relatively simple, make a direct connection with Donnan equilibrium, yield an explicit expression for the effective screening constant, and allow for extensions to include, for instance, nonlinear effects.

Zoetekouw, Bas; van Roij, René

2006-02-01

266

Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes aegypti from Grand Cayman  

PubMed Central

The Grand Cayman population of Aedes aegypti is highly resistant to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. Glutathione transferase, cytochrome P450, and esterase levels were increased in the Grand Cayman population relative to a susceptible laboratory strain, but synergist studies did not implicate elevated insecticide detoxification as a major cause of resistance. The role of target site resistance was therefore investigated. Two substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel were identified, V1016I in domain II, segment 6 (IIS6) (allele frequency = 0.79) and F1534C in IIIS6 (allele frequency = 0.68). The role of the F1534C mutation in conferring resistance to insecticides has not been previously established and so a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction assay was designed and used to genotype mosquitoes that had been exposed to insecticides. The F1534C mutation was strongly correlated with resistance to DDT and permethrin.

Harris, Angela F.; Rajatileka, Shavanthi; Ranson, Hilary

2010-01-01

267

City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

2012-08-31

268

Differential compaction mechanism for earth fissures near Casa Grande, Arizona.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Precise gravity measurements indicate that earth fissures or tension cracks caused by ground-water withdrawal within a 10km2 area SE of Casa Grande are associated with relief on the buried interface between the alluvial aquifer and underlying bedrock. These relations suggest that the fissures are forming in response to localized differential compaction caused by localized variations of aquifer-system thickness. -from Authors

Jachens, R. C.; Holzer, T. L.

1982-01-01

269

Mene Grande uses floating steam-generating unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A floating steam-generation unit is helping Mene Grande Oil Co. conduct thermal recovery tests in Lake Maracaibo. The main equipment aboard the barge includes 2 anchoring drawworks, steam scrubber, complete water-treating plant, instrument-air compressor, chemicals and tool storage room, fire-fighting gear, office and laboratory buildings, remote control alarm system, and steam-generating plant. This plant consists of a steam generator, a

1968-01-01

270

Supersymmetric grand unification under siege: Proton lifetime upper bound  

Microsoft Academic Search

SO(10) supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unified theories provide a beautiful framework for physics beyond the standard model. Experimental measurements of the three gauge couplings are consistent with unification at a scale MG~3×1016 GeV. In addition, predictive models for fermion masses and mixing angles have been found which fit the low energy data, including the recent data for neutrino oscillations. SO(10) boundary

Radovan Dermísek; Arash Mafi; Stuart Raby

2001-01-01

271

Rio Grande Chub (Gila pandora): A Technical Conservation Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Wewould like to thank those people who promoted, assisted, and supported this species assessment for the Region 2 USDA Forest Service. Jon Ptacek reviewed and made,comments,on this report. Laura Hillger provided assistance with report preparation and dissemination. Other individuals from various agencies provided information on the species’ distribution. Thanks go to Sue Swift-Miller (Rio Grande National Forest), who was

David E. Rees; Ryan J. Carr; William J. Miller

272

Biology of the Rio Grande border region : a bibliography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This bibliography includes 1,913 references to the literature of the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte). The specific geographic area covered extends 100 km on either side of the river from Elephant Butte Dam in New Mexico to the Gulf of Mexico. The bibliography focuses on the biological literature, divided into major subject areas, and also includes supporting literature from the physical and environmental sciences.

Johnson, Lynne E.; Jacobs, Linda J.; Papoulias, Diana

1997-01-01

273

Leopold's Workbench: The Hapsburg-Lorraine Grand Duke and Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined and identified the 38 samples contained in the glass bottles and glass jars preserved in the Grand Duke Leopold's workbench, located at the Museum of History of Science in Florence, Italy. Many of the samples were coloring materials, some were of medicinal interest, others were connected with the industrial development of Tuscany of that time (1765-1790), such as materials for pencils, boric acid, soil improvement, colored glass manufacture, and metal extractions.

Scorrano, Gianfranco; Nicolini, Nicoletta; Masoner, Ida M.

2002-01-01

274

Seismic Evidence for an Active Southern Rio Grande Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competing models exist to explain what caused the Earth’s crust to spread apart 29 million years ago to create a region known today as the Rio Grande Rift (RGR). The RGR extends from central Colorado through New Mexico to northern Mexico, near El Paso. A growing body of evidence shows that geologic activity still occurs in the RGR, with a continuation of faulting, seismicity and a small widening rate. We map of the seismic velocity structure and crustal thickness using data from the Rio Grande Rift Seismic TRAnsect (RISTRA) experiment and the EarthScope Transportable Array (USArray) dataset. In addition to the data we collected from the RISTRA experiment and USArray dataset, we also acquired receiver functions from the EarthScope Automatic Receiver Survey (EARS) website (http://www.earthscope.org/data) and waveform data from the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). In particular, we requested seismograms from the IRIS DMC database where we acquired teleseismic events from Jan 2000 to Dec 2009. This includes 7,259 seismic events with a minimum magnitude of 5.5 and 106,389 continuous waveforms. This data was preprocessed (merged, rotated) using a program called Standing Order of Data (SOD). We computed receiver functions and receiver function stacks for all data in the Southern Rio Grande Rift (SRGR). We map the crustal thickness, seismic velocity, and mantle structure to better determine the nature of tectonic activity that is presently taking place and further investigate the regional extension of the Southern Rio Grande Rift (SRGR). Here we present results of the crustal and velocity structure using the kriging interpolation scheme and interpret our results in relation to southern RGR deformation and extension.

Thompson, L. E.; Velasco, A. A.

2010-12-01

275

Predicting floodplain boundary changes following the Cerro Grande wildfire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined ArcView GIS-HEC modelling application for floodplain analysis of pre- and post-burned watersheds is described. The burned study area is located on Pajarito Plateau near Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory), where the Cerro Grande Wildfire burned 42 878 acres (17 352 ha) in May 2000. This area is dominated by rugged mountains that are dissected by numerous steep

Stephen G. McLin; Everett P. Springer

2001-01-01

276

Grand Canyon Exercise: Geological Time, History, and Sedimentary Environments.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a take-home web-based project for introductory geology students. The exercise has the students interpreting the sedimentary geology (lithology and fossils) of the Grand Canyon to create a geological history for the region. It is an open-ended exercise with no absolutely correct answer; it involves students acting as scientists - that is, the way real scientists think and combine information to come up with explanations.

Perkins, Dexter

1998-01-01

277

Gauge Coupling Unification in F-Theory Grand Unified Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate gauge coupling unification for F-theory type IIB orientifold constructions of SU(5) grand unified theories (GUT) with gauge symmetry breaking via nontrivial hypercharge flux. This flux has the nontrivial effect that it splits the values of the three minimal supersymmetric standard model gauge couplings at the string scale, thus potentially spoiling the celebrated one-loop gauge coupling unification. It is

Ralph Blumenhagen

2009-01-01

278

Gauge Coupling Unification in F-Theory Grand Unified Theories  

SciTech Connect

We investigate gauge coupling unification for F-theory type IIB orientifold constructions of SU(5) grand unified theories (GUT) with gauge symmetry breaking via nontrivial hypercharge flux. This flux has the nontrivial effect that it splits the values of the three minimal supersymmetric standard model gauge couplings at the string scale, thus potentially spoiling the celebrated one-loop gauge coupling unification. It is shown how F-theory can evade this problem in a natural way.

Blumenhagen, Ralph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

2009-02-20

279

Gauge coupling unification in F-theory grand unified theories.  

PubMed

We investigate gauge coupling unification for F-theory type IIB orientifold constructions of SU(5) grand unified theories (GUT) with gauge symmetry breaking via nontrivial hypercharge flux. This flux has the nontrivial effect that it splits the values of the three minimal supersymmetric standard model gauge couplings at the string scale, thus potentially spoiling the celebrated one-loop gauge coupling unification. It is shown how F-theory can evade this problem in a natural way. PMID:19257658

Blumenhagen, Ralph

2009-02-20

280

Migrant Worker: A Boy from the Rio Grande Valley.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ricky is an 11-year-old migrant worker. During the summer, he travels with his family from their home in Rio Grande City, Texas, to farms farther north. There they spend 10-12 hours a day in the hot sun picking fruit and vegetables and packing the harvest for market. Ricky is not protected by the federal laws that govern the hours, wages, and…

Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

281

Stable grand-unified monopoles with multiple Dirac charge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic monopoles with multiple Dirac charge are found to be stable in grand unified theories with symmetry breaking by an adjoint Higgs field under certain conditions. In the SU(5) model, the double, triple, quadruple, and sextuple monopoles are stable for a range of parameters in the Higgs potential. The effects of electroweak symmetry breaking on multiply charged monopoles are discussed. Evidence is also presented for the existence of a stable nonspherically symmetric quadruple monopole.

Gardner, C. L.; Harvey, J. A.

1984-03-01

282

Grand unification of quark and lepton flavor changing neutral currents.  

PubMed

In the context of supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft breaking terms arising at the Planck scale, it is generally possible to link flavor changing neutral current and CP violating processes occurring in the leptonic and hadronic sectors. We study the correlation between flavor changing squark and slepton mass insertions in models à la SU(5). We show that the constraints coming from lepton flavor violation exhibit a strong impact on CP-violating B decays. PMID:14995839

Ciuchini, M; Masiero, A; Silvestrini, L; Vempati, S K; Vives, O

2004-02-20

283

Science Sampler: Map your way to the Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do urban eighth graders from the flatlands of Indiana capture the poetry and grandeur of the Grand Canyon without ever leaving the classroom? By talking and touching and seeing and smelling and listening and...writing. Enhance your eighth-grade geology unit by implementing this inquiry-based activity that stimulates the senses and uses writing as a means of assessment and as a creative outlet into your science curriculum.

Yoder, Holly

2005-10-01

284

Stability and Change in U.S. Grand Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Global War on Terror (more recently termed the Long War) emerged as the centerpiece of U.S. grand strategy in 2001, the post–Cold War U.S. debate has narrowed significantly. Essentially three alternative strategies now compete for pride of place. Two are variants of a “primacy” strategy; one is a variant of “restraint,” sometimes termed “offshore balancing.” All three strategies

Barry R. Posen

2007-01-01

285

Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

Adams, E. A.; Monroe, S. A.; Springer, A. E.; Blasch, K. W.; Bills, D. J.

2006-01-01

286

Structure of the southern Rio Grande rift from gravity interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional Bouguer gravity anomalies in southern New Mexico have been analyzed by two-dimensional wave number filtering and poly-nomial trend surface analysis of the observed gravity field. A prominent, regional oval-shaped positive gravity anomaly was found to be associated with the southern Rio Grande rift. Computer modeling of three regional gravity profiles suggests that this anomaly is due to crustal thinning beneath the southern Rio Grande rift. These models indicate a 25 to 26-km minimum crustal thickness within the rift and suggest that the rift is underlain by a broad zone of anomalously low-density upper mantle. The southern terminus of the anomalous zone is approximately 50 km southwest of El Paso, Texas. A thinning of the rifted crust of 2-3 km relative to the adjacent Basin and Range province indicates an extension of about 9 percent during the formation of the modern southern Rio Grande rift. This extension estimate is consistent with estimates from other data sources. The crustal thinning and anomalous mantle is thought to result from magmatic activity related to surface volcanism and high heat flow in this area.

Daggett, P. H.; Keller, G. R.; Wen, C.-L.; Morgan, P.

1986-01-01

287

Observations of environmental change in Grand Canyon, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few scientific data have been collected on pre-dam conditions of the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon National Park. Using historical diaries, interviews with pre-dam river runners (referred to as the ?Old Timers?), and historical scientific data and observations, we compiled anecdotal information on environmental change in Grand Canyon. The most significant changes are the: lowering of water temperature in the river, near-elimination of heavily sediment-laden flows, erosion of sand bars, invasion of non-native tamarisk trees, reduction in driftwood, development of marshes, increase in non-native fish at the expense of native fishes, and increase in water bird populations. In addition, few debris flows were observed before closure of Glen Canyon Dam, which might suggests that the frequency of debris flows in Grand Canyon has increased. Other possible changes include decreases in bat populations and increases in swallow and bighorn sheep populations, although the evidence is anecdotal and inconclusive. These results provide a perspective on managing the Colorado River that may allow differentiation of the effects of Glen Canyon Dam from other processes of change.

Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.; Valdez, Richard A.

2002-01-01

288

Grand Canyon, Colorado as seen from STS-62  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this view, the Colorado River can be seen flowing southwest from top left to bottom center-right. The dark wider sections of the river are the water surface of Lake Powell (center, and top left), 110 miles long in a straight line. Grand Canyon National Monument lies lower right, centered on the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, a 10 mile-wide gash carved more than 5,000 feet deep by the Colorado. The Canyon has cut into the Kaibab Plateau, an uplifted area visible here as a forested area with snow on the highest northern parts. The surrounding parts of the Colorado Plateau are sparsely occupied by brush vegetation and appear yellow-brown. The dark area top right is the wooded country of Black Mesa in Navajoland, divided from Lake Powell by the San Juan River. Four Corners is just outside the pictures (top) where the states of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico meet. The Henry Mountains appear top left. Apart from Grand Canyon National Monument, several other famous national mo

1994-01-01

289

Masses and mixings in a grand unified toy model  

SciTech Connect

The generation of the fermion mass hierarchy in the standard model of particle physics is a long-standing puzzle. The recent discoveries from neutrino physics suggest that the mixing in the lepton sector is large compared to the quark mixings. To understand this asymmetry between the quark and lepton mixings is an important aim for particle physics. In this regard, two promising approaches from the theoretical side are grand unified theories and family symmetries. In this paper we try to understand certain general features of grand unified theories with Abelian family symmetries by taking the simplest SU(5) grand unified theory as a prototype. We construct an SU(5) toy model with U(1){sub F} x Z{sub 2}{sup '} x Z{sub 2}{sup ''} x Z{sub 2}{sup '''} family symmetry that, in a natural way, duplicates the observed mass hierarchy and mixing matrices to lowest approximation. The system for generating the mass hierarchy is through a Froggatt-Nielsen type mechanism. One idea that we use in the model is that the quark and charged lepton sectors are hierarchical with small mixing angles while the light neutrino sector is democratic with larger mixing angles. We also discuss some of the difficulties in incorporating finer details into the model without making further assumptions or adding a large scalar sector.

McKeen, David; Rosner, Jonathan L.; Thalapillil, Arun M. [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2007-10-01

290

Grand-canonical Monte Carlo method for Donnan equilibria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method that enables the direct simulation of Donnan equilibria. The method is based on a grand-canonical Monte Carlo scheme that properly accounts for the unequal partitioning of small ions on the two sides of a semipermeable membrane, and can be used to determine the Donnan electrochemical potential, osmotic pressure, and other system properties. Positive and negative ions are considered separately in the grand-canonical moves. This violates instantaneous charge neutrality, which is usually considered a prerequisite for simulations using the Ewald sum to compute the long-range charge-charge interactions. In this work, we show that if the system is neutral only in an average sense, it is still possible to get reliable results in grand-canonical simulations of electrolytes performed with Ewald summation of electrostatic interactions. We compare our Donnan method with a theory that accounts for differential partitioning of the salt, and find excellent agreement for the electrochemical potential, the osmotic pressure, and the salt concentrations on the two sides. We also compare our method with experimental results for a system of charged colloids confined by a semipermeable membrane and to a constant-NVT simulation method, which does not account for salt partitioning. Our results for the Donnan potential are much closer to the experimental results than the constant-NVT method, highlighting the important effect of salt partitioning on the Donnan potential.

Barr, S. A.; Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.

2012-07-01

291

Natural regeneration in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Natural regeneration of five conifer species was surveyed in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. The habitat types range from warm, dry (grand fir/white spirea) to mesic (Grand fir/Mountain Maple). Four harvest-regeneration methods and four site preparation techniques were sampled. Recommendations for obtaining natural regeneration vary primarily by habitat type. Conifer seedlings in the warm, dry grand fir white spirea habitat type require site protection for establishment. In the mesic grand fir/mountain maple habitat type, tall shrub potential can reduce the opportunity to establish early seral conifer species.

Geier-Hayes, K.

1994-03-01

292

Environmental assessment of facility operations at the U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, Grand Junction, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a sitewide environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed action to continue and expand present-day activities on the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Because DOE-GJPO regularly proposes and conducts many different on-site activities, DOE decided to evaluate these activities in one sitewide EA rather than in multiple, activity-specific documents. On the basis of the information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required for facility operations, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1996-06-01

293

Collective Bargaining Agreement between the Board of Education of the City of Grand Rapids and the Faculty Council of the Grand Rapids Junior College, 1973-1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Education of the City of Grand Rapids and the Faculty Council of the Grand Rapids Junior College covers the academic year 1973-74. Articles of the agreement cover the preamble, recognition, faculty members' rights, board of education rights, council-administration communication, general…

Grand Rapids Junior Coll., MI.

294

Spatially adaptive grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations.  

PubMed

A spatially adaptive Monte Carlo method is introduced directly from the underlying microscopic mechanisms, which satisfies detailed balance, gives the correct noise, and describes accurately dynamic and equilibrium states for adsorption-desorption (grand canonical ensemble) processes. It enables simulations of large scales while capturing sharp gradients with molecular resolution at significantly reduced computational cost. A posteriori estimates, in the sense used in finite-elements methods, are developed for assessing errors (information loss) in coarse-graining and guiding mesh generation. PMID:15783451

Chatterjee, A; Katsoulakis, M A; Vlachos, D G

2005-02-01

295

Early Agriculture in the Eastern Grand Canyon of Arizona, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abandoned fields in Colorado River alluvium in the eastern Grand Canyon show signs of primitive agriculture. Presence of maize pollen in association with buried soils near Comanche Creek suggests that farming began prior to 3130 yr B.P. Cotton pollen, identified in buried soils near Nankoweap Creek, dates to 1310 yr B.P., approximately 500 years earlier than previously reported anywhere on the Colorado Plateau. Farming spanned three millennia in this reach of the canyon. Entrenchment, starting approximately 700 yr B.P., making water diversion to fields infeasible, was likely responsible for field abandonment. ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Davis, S. W.; Davis, M. E.; Lucchitta, I.; Finkel, R.; Caffee, M.

2000-01-01

296

The Sun's Magnetic Field During a Grand Minimum of Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a grand minimum of solar activity, no sunspots are observed on the photosphere, but what might the Sun's magnetic field look like? One possibility is that there would be no active regions or larger scale magnetic activity. We have extended our photospheric model for small-scale magnetic flux evolution to cover the full Sun. As an initial study, we consider how the surface magnetic field of the Sun would look if only smaller-scale magnetic features were allowed to emerge. We also consider the resultant coronal and inner heliospheric magnetic fields, and discuss potential consequences of such fields for Earth.

Meyer, Karen; Mackay, Duncan

2014-06-01

297

Seismic investigation of the southern Rio Grande Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competing models exist to explain what caused the Earth's crust to spread apart 29 million years ago to create a region known today as the Rio Grande Rift (RGR). The RGR extends from central Colorado through New Mexico to northern Mexico, near El Paso. The RGR has different geologic features that distinguish it from most other valleys (e.g., the RGR was not cut by a river nor does a river branch upstream). A growing body of evidence shows that geologic activity still occurs in the RGR, with a continuation of faulting, seismicity and widening at a small rate of about 0.3 mm/yr (Woodward , 1977). We map of the seismic velocity structure and crustal thickness using data from the Rio Grande Rift Seismic TRAnsect (RISTRA) experiment and the EarthScope Transportable Array (USArray) dataset. In addition to the data we collected from the RISTRA experiment and USArray dataset, we also acquired receiver functions from the EarthScope Automatic Receiver Survey (EARS) website (http://www.earthscope.org/data) and waveform data from the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). We requested seismograms from the IRIS DMC database where we acquired teleseismic events from Jan 2000 to Dec 2009. This includes 7,259 seismic events with a minimum magnitude of 5.5 and 106,389 continuous waveforms. This data was preprocessed (merged, rotated) using a program called Standing Order of Data (SOD). The RISTRA experiment and the USArray were designed to image crust and mantle structures by computing receiver functions for all data in the Southern Rio Grande Rift (SRGR). We map the crustal thickness, seismic velocity, and mantle structure for the sole purpose to better determine the nature of tectonic activity that is presently taking place and further investigate the regional extension of the Southern Rio Grande Rift (SRGR). Here we present preliminary results of the crustal and velocity structure using the kriging interpolation scheme seem stable and we are now able to clearly observe certain patterns we can use to interpret the southern RGR deformation and extension.

Thompson, Lennox E.

298

Reviewing the success of intentional flooding of the Grand Canyon  

SciTech Connect

A description and evaluation of the results of an intentional flooding experiment at the Grand Canyon are described. The purpose of the 7-day release of flood waters from the Glen Canyon Dam was to determine if managed floods have the ability to predictably restore the riverine environment. A summary of environmental conditions leading to the experiment is provided and flood results are listed. Initial results showed significant improvement in the size and number of the river`s beaches, creation of backwater habitat for endangered species, and no adverse impact to the trout fishery, Indian cultural sites, and other resources.

Wirth, B.D. [Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1997-04-01

299

Ordering Geologic Events and Interpreting Geologic History: The Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to help students recognize the connections among things like rock identification and map reading with the "story" that these things can tell us in terms of geologic history. Students have already learned about using observation to identify rocks and the principles of interpreting geologic cross-sections. The activity gives students practice in rock ID, topo map reading, geologic map reading and the aspects of geologic time. Students work with rock samples and a geologic map of the Grand Canyon to interpret a history for the area.

Wenner, Jennifer

300

Review of GI Science Trends and Grand Challenges (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic Information Science was defined by Goodchild's keynote presentation at the 1990 Symposium on Spatial Data Handling in Zurich and subsequent paper in the International Journal of Geographic Information Systems. Over the past 20 years it has maintained part of its original base but also has grown to accommodate possibilities afforded by new technologies and new societal concerns. Recent review articles and a special session on GI Science grand challenges held at the 2010 meeting of the Association of American Geographers, have provided perspectives on key trends in GI Science, that this AGU presentation now summarizes. The GIS software industry has responded to some and are pending advances on others of these trends.

Gould, M.; Esri Education Team

2010-12-01

301

Statistical thermodynamics in relativistic particle and ion physics: Canonical or grand canonical?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider relativistic statistical thermodynamics of an ideal Boltzmann gas consisting of the particles K, N, ?, ? and their antiparticles. Baryon number ( B) and strangeness ( S) are conserved. While any relativistic gas is necessarily grand canonical with respect to particle numbers, conservation laws can be treated canonically or grand canonically. We construct the partition function for canonical B×S conservation and compare it with the grand canonical one. It is found that the grand canonical partition function is equivalent to a large B approximation of the canonical one. The relative difference between canonical and grand canonical quantities seems to decrease like const/ B (two numerical examples) and from this a simple thumb rule for computing canonical quantities from grand canonical ones is guessed. For precise calculations, an integral representation is given.

Hagedorn, R.; Redlich, K.

1985-12-01

302

Wintertime Boundary Layer Structure in the Grand Canyon.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wintertime temperature profiles in the Grand Canyon exhibit a neutral to isothermal stratification during both daytime and nighttime, with only rare instances of actual temperature inversions. The canyon warms during daytime and cools during nighttime more or less uniformly through the canyon's entire depth. This weak stability and temperature structure evolution differ from other Rocky Mountain valleys, which develop strong nocturnal inversions and exhibit convective and stable boundary layers that grow upward from the valley floor. Mechanisms that may be responsible for the different behavior of the Grand Canyon are discussed, including the possibility that the canyon atmosphere is frequently mixed to near-neutral stratification when cold air drains into the top of the canyon from the nearby snow-covered Kaibab Plateau. Another feature of canyon temperature profiles is the sharp inversions that often form near the canyon rims. These are generally produced when warm air is advected over the canyon in advance of passing synoptic-scale ridges.Wintertime winds in the main canyon are not classical diurnal along-valley wind systems. Rather, they are driven along the canyon axis by the horizontal synoptic-scale pressure gradient that is superimposed along the canyon's axis by passing synoptic-scale weather disturbances. They may thus bring winds into the canyon from either end at any time of day.The implications of the observed canyon boundary layer structure for air pollution dispersion are discussed.

Whiteman, C. David; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi

1999-08-01

303

Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of this paper, we explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity — be it string/M-theory or a reincarnation — this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2)L × SU(2)R × SU(4)c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (i) observed neutrino oscillations, (ii) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (iii) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in ? ? e?, ? ? ??, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M-theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.

Pati, Jogesh C.

304

Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande  

SciTech Connect

Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

Graf, W.L. [Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography] Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography

1993-03-01

305

The Oro Grande, New Mexico, chondrite and its lithic inclusion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oro Grande, New Mexico, U.S.A., chondrite was found in 1971. Electron microprobe analyses and microscopic examination show the following mineralogy: olivine (Fa 19.3 mole %), orthopyroxene (Fs 16.2 mole %), diopside, feldspar (An 13.6 mole %), chlorapatite, whitlockite, kamacite, taenite, troilite, chromite, and an iron-bearing terrestrial weathering product. A bulk chemical analysis of the meteorite shows the following results (weight %): Fe 0.84, Ni 1.46, Co 0.07, FeS 3.62, SiO2 34.18, TiO2 0.14, Al2O3 1.83, Cr2O3 0.55, Fe2O3 21.25, FeO 9.13, MnO 0.31, MgO 21.52, CaO 1.72, Na2O 0.70, K2O 0.08, P2O5 0.25, H2O(+) 2.14, H2O(-) 0.40, C 0.22, sum 100.41. On the basis of composition and texture the Oro Grande meteorite is classified as an H5 chondrite.

Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.; Jarosewich, E.

1972-01-01

306

Grand challenges in mass storage: A systems integrators perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within today's much ballyhooed supercomputing environment, with its CFLOPS of CPU power, and Gigabit networks, there exists a major roadblock to computing success; that of Mass Storage. The solution to this mass storage problem is considered to be one of the 'Grand Challenges' facing the computer industry today, as well as long into the future. It has become obvious to us, as well as many others in the industry, that there is no clear single solution in sight. The Systems Integrator today is faced with a myriad of quandaries in approaching this challenge. He must first be innovative in approach, second choose hardware solutions that are volumetric efficient; high in signal bandwidth; available from multiple sources; competitively priced, and have forward growth extendibility. In addition he must also comply with a variety of mandated, and often conflicting software standards (GOSIP, POSIX, IEEE, MSRM 4.0, and others), and finally he must deliver a systems solution with the 'most bang for the buck' in terms of cost vs. performance factors. These quandaries challenge the Systems Integrator to 'push the envelope' in terms of his or her ingenuity and innovation on an almost daily basis. This dynamic is explored further, and an attempt to acquaint the audience with rational approaches to this 'Grand Challenge' is made.

Lee, Richard R.; Mintz, Daniel G.

1993-01-01

307

Measurement and reproduction accuracy of computer-controlled grand pianos.  

PubMed

The recording and reproducing capabilities of a Yamaha Disklavier grand piano and a Bösendorfer SE290 computer-controlled grand piano were tested, with the goal of examining their reliability for performance research. An experimental setup consisting of accelerometers and a calibrated microphone was used to capture key and hammer movements, as well as the acoustic signal. Five selected keys were played by pianists with two types of touch ("staccato" and "legato"). Timing and dynamic differences between the original performance, the corresponding MIDI file recorded by the computer-controlled pianos, and its reproduction were analyzed. The two devices performed quite differently with respect to timing and dynamic accuracy. The Disklavier's onset capturing was slightly more precise (+/- 10 ms) than its reproduction (-20 to +30 ms); the Bösendorfer performed generally better, but its timing accuracy was slightly less precise for recording (-10 to 3 ms) than for reproduction (+/- 2 ms). Both devices exhibited a systematic (linear) error in recording over time. In the dynamic dimension, the Bösendorfer showed higher consistency over the whole dynamic range, while the Disklavier performed well only in a wide middle range. Neither device was able to capture or reproduce different types of touch. PMID:14587624

Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto

2003-10-01

308

Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; translated by Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

1998-01-01

309

Bringing Seismology's Grand Challenges to the Undergraduate Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems," a community-written long-range science plan for the next decade, poses 10 questions to guide fundamental seismological research. Written in an approachable fashion suitable for policymakers, the broad questions and supporting discussion contained in this document offer an ideal framework for the development of undergraduate curricular materials. Leveraging this document, we have created a collection of inquiry-based classroom modules that utilize authentic data to modernize seismological instruction in 100 and 200 level undergraduate courses. The modules not only introduce undergraduates to the broad questions that the seismological community seeks to answer in the future but also showcase the numerous areas where modern seismological research is actively contributing to our understanding of fundamental Earth processes. To date 6 in-depth explorations that correspond to the Grand Challenges document have been developed. The specific topics for each exploration were selected to showcase modern seismological research while also covering topics commonly included in the curriculum of these introductory classes. Examples of activities that have been created and their corresponding Grand Challenge include: -A guided inquiry that introduces students to episodic tremor and slip and compares the GPS and seismic signatures of ETS with those produced from standard tectonic earthquakes (Grand Challenge "How do faults slip?"). - A laboratory exercise where students engage in b-value mapping of volcanic earthquakes to assess potential eruption hazards (How do magmas ascend and erupt?). - A module that introduce students to glacial earthquakes in Greenland and compares their frequency and spatial distribution to tectonic earthquakes (How do processes in the ocean and atmosphere interact with the solid Earth?). What is the relationship between stress and strain in the lithosphere? - An activity that examines the phenomena of earthquake triggering by distant events. (What is the relationship between stress and strain in the lithosphere?) To enhance the usefulness of these resources, all have been developed in a modular fashion which allows instructors to pick and choose some (or all) of these resources for integration in to the scope and sequence of their course. In addition to the in-depth labs, we also have created a number of mini-activities and visual material for the classroom, including think-pair-shares and lecture tutorials based on the following Grand Challenges: -What is the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary? -How do plate boundary systems evolve? -How do temperature and composition variations control mantle and core convection? -How are Earth's internal boundaries affected by dynamics? Over the next year we will be pilot testing and refining these activities at a number of institutions, including 2- and 4-year colleges, and the materials will eventually be disseminated online and through small training workshops. Current drafts of some of the activities are available at www.tcnj.edu/~benoit/grandchallenges.

Benoit, M. H.; Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

2011-12-01

310

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA 99-0321-2873, U.S. Department of the Interior, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a health hazard evaluation (HHE) request from the management of the Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona. The request indicated that many employees, especially park rangers assign...

2002-01-01

311

Climate Change Impacts in the Upper Rio Grande Catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the US Southwest, evidence of increased future drought severity and duration in the context of climate change has been detected. Considering the already difficult water distribution and allocation strategies within the region, we are investigating the Costilla Creek, a tributary to the Rio Grande. The catchment is located in Costilla county in Colorado from where on runoff is crossing boundaries between Colorado and New Mexico three times before its confluence with the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Water allocation is governed by an interstate compact between Colorado and New Mexico. While the states have been relatively successful in complying with the compact’s allocation rules, the Costilla Creek catchment has experienced interstate upstream/downstream conflict, mainly during irrigation seasons. Whether or not the states will be able to avert conflict in the future and maintain compliance with the compact, is a critical question. The situation in the relatively small catchment is not unique. Various interstate watersheds, including the entire Rio Grande basin, the La Plata, Arkansas, and Colorado, are expected to face similar impacts from climate change, yet the water compacts that govern them may not be structured to adapt to these conditions. Looking at the Costilla Creek offers a valuable starting point for understanding how to model these effects across various basins. We have developed a lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model including snow storage of the Costilla Creek watershed. Temperature and precipitation data from NCRS - SNOTEL stations together with USGS gauging station data were utilized for model calibration and validation. ISCCP solar radiation data and temperature data were used to estimate irrigation water demand in irrigated agriculture. The model is driven by the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. GCM ensemble averaged temperature / precipitation trends were extracted for the upper Rio Grande region. 50 year precipitation simulations were created using a Non-Homogeneous Hidden Markov model (NHMM). For each of the subcatchments, the NHMM was trained on 14 years of daily NCRS - SNOTEL stations precipitation data from 1994 till 2008. To account for the seasonality in precipitation, a seasonal predictor was utilized for model training. As for the low--frequency variations at decadal to multi-decadal scales, the idea was to develop stochastic scenarios via long--term proxies for regional climate from tree ring chronologies. Precipitation matching temperature series were generated by statistical modeling. A Monte Carlo approach for creating 100 climate scenarios was utilized to account forcing uncertainty. Results indicate that the region will experience a general warming/drying and that the seasonality of the runoff will be significantly impacted due to early melting of the snowpack in the higher elevations. These combined effects will significantly impact the ability of the states to comply with the compact’s allocation rules and call for urgent attention of decision makers and stakeholders alike. The findings will further demonstrate the value of the model for applications to other interstate basins in region.

Heikkila, T.; Siegfried, T. U.; Sellars, S. L.; Schlager, E.

2010-12-01

312

Bringing Seismology's Grand Challenges to the Undergraduate Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems," a community-written long-range science plan for the next decade, poses 10 questions to guide fundamental seismological research. Written in an approachable fashion suitable for policymakers, the broad questions and supporting discussion contained in this document offer an ideal framework for the development of undergraduate curricular materials. Leveraging this document, we have created a collection of inquiry-based classroom modules that utilize authentic data to modernize seismological instruction in 100 and 200 level undergraduate courses. The modules not only introduce undergraduates to the broad questions that the seismological community seeks to answer in the future but also showcase the numerous areas where modern seismological research is actively contributing to our understanding of fundamental Earth processes. To date 6 in-depth explorations that correspond to the Grand Challenges document have been developed. The specific topics for each exploration were selected to showcase modern seismological research while also covering topics commonly included in the curriculum of these introductory classes. The activities that have been created and their corresponding Grand Challenge are: -A guided inquiry that introduces students to episodic tremor and slip and compares the GPS and seismic signatures of ETS with those produced from standard tectonic earthquakes (Grand Challenge "How do faults slip?"). - A laboratory exercise where students engage in b-value mapping of volcanic earthquakes to assess potential eruption hazards (How do magmas ascend and erupt?). - A module that introduces students to glacial earthquakes in Greenland and compares their frequency and spatial distribution to tectonic earthquakes (How do processes in the ocean and atmosphere interact with the solid Earth?). -A suite of activities that introduce students to oil and gas exploration, including an activity that introduces the concept of shale gas exploration (Where are water and hydrocarbons hidden beneath the surface?) -A guided inquiry module that leads students to understand the differences between lithosphere and asthenosphere (What is the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary?) - A module where students explore earthquake hazards and probability of ground shaking in southern California, New Madrid, and their own location. (How does the near-surface environment affect natural hazards and resources?). To enhance the usefulness of these resources, all have been developed in a modular fashion that allows instructors to pick and choose some (or all) of these resources for integration in to the scope and sequence of their course. Each module will include an instructor's guide containing instructions for implementing the activity, assessment strategies, and other resources. Formative pilot testing at 2- and 4- year colleges will take place fall 2012. Ultimately, the modules will be disseminated online through IRIS's InClass web portal and through small training workshops. Current drafts of some of the activities can be obtained by emailing M. Benoit (benoit@tcnj.edu).

Benoit, M. H.; Hubenthal, M.; Taber, J.

2012-12-01

313

Proton Stability in Grand Unified Theories and Discrete Gauge Symmetries  

SciTech Connect

Most supersymmetric grand unified theories face the problem of rapid proton decay coming either from R-parity violating interactions and/or from Planck scale induced R-parity conserving operators, possibly induced by non-perturbative Planck scale effects such as black holes or wormholes. In this talk, I argue in favor of the possibility that a natural way to resolve this problem is to assume that there are new discrete or continuous gauge symmetries accompanying these theories that resolve these problems while at the same time allowing enough flexibility to have a viable model. I discuss this for left-right and SO(10) theories and discuss the profound impact such considerations have on the construction of realistic GUT models. I then discuss a recently proposed SO(10) model which has only apparently string inspired multiplets and has enough structure to be a realistic model.

Mohapatra, R. N. [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics and Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD-20742 (United States)

2008-05-13

314

Heating facilities for the MGM Grand Hotel, Reno, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The MGM Grand Hotel-Reno is located adjacent to an area with a well-documented geothermal resource. Currently, there is a number of entities seeking to determine the exact nature of the resource at the MGM site. This report concerns itself with identifying current natural gas loads within the MGM complex which could be met by geothermal should a source become available. The two principle assumptions upon which the following material is based are (1) that a source of 190/sup 0/F or higher temperature water is available and (2) all systems discussed would be installed in parallel with existing systems. That is, existing systems would remain in place providing 100 percent backup for the geothermal systems.

Not Available

1981-09-01

315

Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

2013-12-01

316

Grand Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an intergovernmental contract to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the contract, and in 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing the opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project originally provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented under revisions of the Fish and Wild Program as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and partners is on private lands and therefore requires considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. Both passive and active restoration treatment techniques are used. Passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing and alternate water sources, is the primary method to restore degraded streams when restoration can be achieved primarily through changes in management. Active restoration techniques using plantings, bioengineering, site-specific instream structures, or whole stream channel alterations are utilized when streams are more severely degraded and not likely to recover in a reasonable timeframe. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and coordinated by the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program (Project. No. 199202601). Work undertaken during 2008 included: (1) completing 1 new fencing project in the North Fork John Day subbasin that protects 1.82 miles of stream and 216.2 acres of habitat, and 1 fencing project in the Wallowa subbasin that protects an additional 0.59 miles of stream and 42.5 acres of habitat; (2) constructing 0.47 miles of new channel on the Wallowa river to enhance habitat, restore natural channel dimensions, pattern and profile and reconnect approximately 18 acres of floodplain and wetland habitat; (3) planting 10,084 plants along 0.5 miles of the Wallowa Riverproject; (4) establishing 34 new photopoints on 5 projects and retaking 295 existing photopoint pictures; (5) monitoring stream temperatures at 10 locations on 5 streams and conducting other monitoring activities; (6) completing riparian fence, water gap and other maintenance on 116.8 miles of project fences; and (7) completed a comprehensive project summary report to the Independent Scientific Review panel (ISRP) that provided our conclusions regarding benefits to focal species, along with management recommendations for the future. Since initiation of this program 57 individual projects have been implemented, monitoring and maintained along 84.9 miles of anadromous fish bearing streams, that protect and enhance 3,564 acres of riparian and instream habitat.

McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife] [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

2009-07-01

317

Salto Grande. [1890-MW project on Vruguay River  

SciTech Connect

A joint hydroelectric project, the Salto Grande Dam on the Uruguay River, serves six million people in Argentina and Uruguay. The construction day was continuous from April 1974 until the first turbine began on schedule in July 1979. Although planning began in 1890 by individual visionaries who saw the river's potential, serious efforts did not get underway for another 50 years. The project became a technical training school and has built up a recognized management team in the process. Financing became available only after the 1973 oil embargo. The benefits of regional cooperation to develop a common resource enables the two countries to provide water resources, electric power, navigable streams for commerce and recreation, a common highway, and an interconnecting railroad. The cooperative infrastructure established to meet the needs of project personnel has improved living conditions for the area. (DCK)

de Hoyos, R.J.

1980-09-01

318

The grand partition function of dilute biregular solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated that the grand partition function (GPF) of biregular solutions contains in one single equation such thermodynamic principles as Henry's law, Raoult's law, the Gibbs-Duhem relation, Raoultian activity coefficients and their finite power series, Wagner's rec-iprocity, Schenck-Frohberg-Steinmetz's interchange, Lupis-Elliott's additivity, Mori-Morooka's disparity, and Darken's quadratic formalism. The logarithm of the Raoultian activity coefficient of species i, In ?i should not be expressed by the Taylor series expansion, lest its truncation infringe the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The GPF methodology establishes that In ?i, is not a vector but a scalar point function, free from any path dependence. While Darken's quadratic formalism employs three parameters to describe a ternary solution, the present biregularity approximation offers an alternative using seven empirical parameters, in case better accuracy is needed.

Nagamori, Meguru; Ito, Kimihisa; Tokuda, Motonori

1994-10-01

319

Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2007 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an intergovernmental contract to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the contract, and in 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and partners is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. Both passive and active restoration treatment techniques are used. Passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing and alternate water sources are the primary method to restore degraded streams when restoration can be achieved primarily through changes in management. Active restoration techniques using plantings, bioengineering, site-specific instream structures, or whole stream channel alterations are utilized when streams are more severely degraded and not likely to recover in a reasonable timeframe. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and coordinated by the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program (Project. No.199202601). Work undertaken during 2007 included: (1) Starting 1 new fencing project in the NFJD subbasin that will protect an additional 1.82 miles of stream and 216.2 acres of habitat; (2) Constructing 0.47 miles of new channel on the Wallowa River to enhance habitat, restore natural channel dimensions, pattern and profile and reconnect approximately 18 acres of floodplain and wetland habitat; (3) Planting 22,100 plants along 3 streams totaling 3.6 stream miles; (4) Establishing 34 new photopoints on 5 projects and retaking 295 existing photopoint pictures; (5) Monitoring stream temperatures at 10 locations on 5 streams and conducting other monitoring activities; (6) Completing riparian fence, water gap and other maintenance on 116.8 miles of project fences; (7) Initiated writing of a comprehensive project summary report that will present a summary of conclusions of the benefits to focal species and management recommendations for the future. Since initiation of this program 56 individual projects have been implemented, monitored and maintained along 84.8 miles of anadromous fish bearing streams that protect and enhance 3,501 acres of riparian and instream habitat.

McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H.

2008-12-30

320

The Grand Banks ERS-1 SAR wave spectra validation experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the ERS-1 validation program, the ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) wave spectra validation experiment was carried out over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada) in Nov. 1991. The principal objective of the experiment was to obtain complete sets of wind and wave data from a variety of calibrated instruments to validate SAR measurements of ocean wave spectra. The field program activities are described and the rather complex wind and wave conditions which were observed are summarized. Spectral comparisons with ERS-1 SAR image spectra are provided. The ERS-1 SAR is shown to have measured swell and range traveling wind seas, but did not measure azimuth traveling wind seas at any time during the experiment. Results of velocity bunching forward mapping and new measurements of the relationship between wind stress and sea state are also shown.

Vachon, P. W.; Dobson, F. W.; Smith, S. D.; Anderson, R. J.; Buckley, J. R.; Allingham, M.; Vandemark, D.; Walsh, E. J.; Khandekar, M.; Lalbeharry, R.

1993-01-01

321

Web-based Interactive Landform Simulation Model - Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth science educators need interactive tools to engage and enable students to better understand how Earth systems work over geologic time scales. The evolution of landforms is ripe for interactive, inquiry-based learning exercises because landforms exist all around us. The Web-based Interactive Landform Simulation Model - Grand Canyon (WILSIM-GC, http://serc.carleton.edu/landform/) is a continuation and upgrade of the simple cellular automata (CA) rule-based model (WILSIM-CA, http://www.niu.edu/landform/) that can be accessed from anywhere with an Internet connection. Major improvements in WILSIM-GC include adopting a physically based model and the latest Java technology. The physically based model is incorporated to illustrate the fluvial processes involved in land-sculpting pertaining to the development and evolution of one of the most famous landforms on Earth: the Grand Canyon. It is hoped that this focus on a famous and specific landscape will attract greater student interest and provide opportunities for students to learn not only how different processes interact to form the landform we observe today, but also how models and data are used together to enhance our understanding of the processes involved. The latest development in Java technology (such as Java OpenGL for access to ubiquitous fast graphics hardware, Trusted Applet for file input and output, and multithreaded ability to take advantage of modern multi-core CPUs) are incorporated into building WILSIM-GC and active, standards-aligned curricula materials guided by educational psychology theory on science learning will be developed to accompany the model. This project is funded NSF-TUES program.

Luo, W.; Pelletier, J. D.; Duffin, K.; Ormand, C. J.; Hung, W.; Iverson, E. A.; Shernoff, D.; Zhai, X.; Chowdary, A.

2013-12-01

322

STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION IN TARGET FLOW MODELING ON THE MIDDLE RIO GRANDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Rio Grande Water Operations Model (URGWOM), a modeling tool to assist water managers in unified operations of the Upper Rio Grande, is a joint effort by six federal agencies and several cities, water districts, research institutes and interested NGOs. The primary developers of the model are the Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque District, the Bureau of Reclamation, Albuquerque Area

Marc Sidlow; Mike Roark; April Sanders; Edie Zagona

323

Economic impacts of federal policy responses to drought in the Rio Grande Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

region's scarce water supply. This paper presents an analysis of the impacts of severe and sustained drought and of minimum in-stream flow requirements to support endangered species in the Rio Grande watershed. These impacts are investigated by modeling the physical and institutional constraints within the Rio Grande Basin and by identifying the hydrologic and economic responses of all major water

Frank A. Ward; Brian H. Hurd; Tarik Rahmani; Noel Gollehon

2006-01-01

324

C : N : P stoichiometry of dominant riparian trees and arthropods along the Middle Rio Grande  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. We examined the role of flooding on the leaf nutrient content of riparian trees by comparing the carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus (C : N : P) ratio of leaves and litter of Rio Grande cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. wislizenii) in flood and non-flood sites along the Middle Rio Grande, NM, U.S.A. The leaf C : N :

TERESA M. TIBBETS; MANUEL C. MOLLES JR

2005-01-01

325

Establishment of Rio Grande Cottonwood Seedlings Using Micro-irrigation of Xeric Flood Plain Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood control, irrigation structures, and flow control practices on the Middle Rio Grande have prevented the deposition of sediments and hydrologic conditions conducive to the germina- tion and establishment of Rio Grande cottonwood (Populus fremontii S. Wats.). The Los Lunas Plant Materials Center has been investi- gating the use of micro-irrigation systems on xeric flood plain sites to promote regeneration

David R. Dreesen; Gregory A. Fenchel; Joseph G. Fraser

326

Paleohydraulic interpretation and morphologic reconstruction of the northern Rio Grande River, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flight of unpaired late Quaternary terraces comprised of fluvio-glacial deposits flanks the northern Rio Grande River for nearly ten miles along the upper Rio Grande valley. These terraces, which occur at decreasing heights due to progressive valley incision, are comprised of sediments that represent aggradation by braided streams flowing from the terminus of valley glaciers that flowed down the

Muriceak

1993-01-01

327

Influence of upwelling saline groundwater on iron and manganese cycling in the Rio Grande floodplain aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity contributions from upwelling groundwater significantly degrade water quality in the Rio Grande, a major source of water for the southwestern USA. This study considers the influence of this upwelling water on the geochemistry and microbiology of the Rio Grande floodplain alluvial aquifer. The composition of surface water, groundwater, and floodplain sediment samples collected from three transects in the Socorro

Matthew F. Kirk; Laura J. Crossey; Cristina Takacs-Vesbach; Dennis L. Newell; Robert S. Bowman

2009-01-01

328

Implementation of a Remote Sensing-Snowmelt Runoff Forecasting System in the Rio Grande Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on snow water resources is a major concern in river basins where the snowmelt runoff can be a significant contributor to total discharge, even in basins such as the Rio Grande where desert makes up much of the downstream area. Snow resource information is especially useful in the Rio Grande for irrigation, hydropower, and water supply management. The system,

A. Rango; E. Gomez-Landesa; K. Havstad; M. Bleiweiss; K. Tanksley; D. Dewalle; G. Kite

2002-01-01

329

The US Grand Strategy and the Eurasian Heartland in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an offensive realist theoretical approach, this paper assumes that great powers are always looking for opportunities to attain more power in order to feel more secure. This outlook has led me to assert that the main objective of the US grand strategy in the twenty-first century is primacy or global hegemony. I have considered the US grand strategy as

Emre ??eri

2009-01-01

330

Age and diet of fossil California condors in Grand Canyon, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dozen new radiocarbon dates, together with a thorough review of its fossil distribution, shed new light on the time and probable cause of extinction of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus, in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The radiocarbon data indicate that this species became extinct in Grand Canyon, and other parts of the inland West, more than 10,000 years ago in

S. D. EMSLIE

1987-01-01

331

Age and Diet of Fossil California Condors in Grand Canyon, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dozen new radiocarbon dates, together with a thorough review of its fossil distribution, shed new light on the time and probable cause of extinction of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus, in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The radiocarbon data indicate that this species became extinct in Grand Canyon, and other parts of the inland West, more than 10,000 years ago in

Steven D. Emslie

1987-01-01

332

33 CFR 100.912 - Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI. 100.912 Section 100.912 Navigation...SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.912 Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI....

2010-07-01

333

33 CFR 100.912 - Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI. 100.912 Section 100.912 Navigation...SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.912 Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI....

2009-07-01

334

Plants of the Grand River and Cedar River National Grasslands: 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this book is to summarize the current list of known plant species found on the Grand River Ranger District. This checklist is based primarily on the work of Chris Kopp (2004) who did a floristic study of the Grand River National Grassland i...

K. Hansen

2008-01-01

335

"No. 182. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. June, 1917. R.B.D." Structures ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"No. 182. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. June, 1917. R.B.D." Structures on the west side of the river below the dam are three bunkhouses, a mess hall, hospital, doctor's residence, engineer's residence, and outbuildings." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

336

"U.S.R.S., Grand Valley Project, Colo. Sprocket, shaft and chain for ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"U.S.R.S., Grand Valley Project, Colo. Sprocket, shaft and chain for 70 ft. roller hoist. May 14, 1915." Note that on this and other working drawings of the roller gates, the German manufacturer/patent holder is not acknowledged - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

337

Flood Obelisk, Red River of the North, Grand Forks, North Dakota  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flood obelisk marking the greatest floods from 1882-1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota. This has become a famous landmark to compare current conditions to past events. This picture was taken on March 15, 2010, just before the Red River began to flood at Grand Forks....

2010-03-19

338

Data for the geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Grand Junction, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the methods of collection and the data used in the geochemical investigation of the former tailings and raffinate pond sites at Grand Junction, Colorado. The methods of data interpretation and results of the investigation are described in the report, ''Geochemical Investigation of UMTRAP Designated Site at Grand Junction, Colorado.'' Data are from a duplicate sampling of surface

G. Markos; K. J. Bush

1983-01-01

339

Resort Motel Complex. Water Service Lines, Sewage Collection Service, Sewage Treatment Plant, Grand Portage Reservation, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is for the development of a 100 unit resort motel for the Grand Portage Band of the Chippewa on the Grand Portage Reservation, Cook County, Minnesota. As a result of the project, new sources of revenue and employment will be provided by the de...

1973-01-01

340

Public Health for the Internet (') Towards A New Grand Challenge for Information Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business incentives have brought us within a small factor of achieving the database community's Grand Challenge set out in the Asilomar Report of 1998. This paper makes the case for a new, focused Grand Challenge: Public Health for the Internet. The goal of PHI (or ') is to enable collectives of hosts on the Internet to jointly monitor and promote

Joseph M. Hellerstein; Tyson Condie; Minos Garofalakisy; Boon Thau Loo; Petros Maniatis; Timothy Roscoe; Nina A. Taft; ETH Zurich

341

30. VIEW SHOWING AUTOMATIC DEMOSSING RACK, GRAND CANAL AT 99TH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. VIEW SHOWING AUTOMATIC DEMOSSING RACK, GRAND CANAL AT 99TH AVENUE, LOOKING WEST. THIS MACHINE SCOOPS UP FLOATING WEEDS AND OTHER DEBRIS AND CONVEYS IT TO A TRASH DUMPSTER. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

342

Open door: U.S. Grand Strategy from 1787 to 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The grand strategy of the United States is that of the Open Door. Since 1787, the end state of U.S. grand strategy has remained constant: to achieve the purpose laid down in the Preamble to the Constitution. For the last 220 years the ways and means avail...

P. S. Daulton

2008-01-01

343

What Should Be America's Next Post 9-11 Grand Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some people believe that America has had no real grand strategy since the end of the Cold War. Critics argue that the Bush Doctrine and America's 'War on Terrorism' is not a true grand strategy because it lacks a coherent unifying framework, is highly res...

J. E. Cepeda

2008-01-01

344

Security Studies and the Use of History: Neville Chamberlain's Grand Strategy Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

In The Gathering Storm, Winston S. Churchill claimed that during the 1930s British leaders were willfully blind to the German threat and failed to meet it by rearming. Accepting the Churchillian narrative, leading IR scholars regard British grand strategy during the 1930s as glaring example of strategic adjustment failure. This article reappraises British grand strategy during the 1930s and rejects

Christopher Layne

2008-01-01

345

A new grand canonical ensemble method to calculate first-order phase transitions.  

PubMed

A theory about first-order phase transition of pure fluids is proposed. The theory is developed by combining grand canonical ensemble with density functional for homogeneous fluids. It is based on the fact that the grand partition function of one macroscopic volume is the product of the grand partition functions of its subvolumes. Density fluctuations of molecules determine the relation between the grand partition function and the free energy density. By combining pairs of subvolumes successively, the free energy density is transformed and rapidly becomes stationary. The stationary curve versus molecule density is convex and its linear segments represent phase transitions. The transform leads to the new grand canonical method to calculate phase equilibrium, which is more robust than classic ones. The transform suggests that classical van der Waals loop is physical and essential to phase transition. PMID:21682526

Tang, Yiping

2011-06-14

346

77 FR 12818 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Rio Grande...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Apache, Socorro County, NM, Project AGENCY: Department of the...the Rio Grande. The local cost-sharing sponsors of the proposed project are the Middle Rio Grande Conservancy...been published regarding this project. A final environmental...

2012-03-02

347

Fatal grand mal seizure in a Dutch trekker.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old healthy Dutch woman went on a trek (Lang Tang) in Nepal up to an approximate altitude of about 3800 meters. She had no prior history of any medical problems except attacks of generalized epilepsy when she was 19 years old, which had been controlled with antiepileptic medications. She had had no attacks after the age of 20. A CT scan done around that time had apparently been normal. On this trek she had developed diarrhea which had been cured with norfloxacin 400 mg two times per day for 3 days. Two days later, while descending, she developed a grand mal seizure at an altitude of 3300 meters, after which she developed a classic postictal phase but gradually recovered. She developed grand mal seizures again the next day, but when she went to a travel clinic in Kathmandu, she had been seizure free for 72 hours. She also revealed that she had not suffered from acute mountain sickness on the trek. She also had a prior history of gastroenteritis at high altitude which improved significantly with norfloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic. This was corroborated by her party. Upon examination she was fully conscious and oriented to person, place and time. Her pulse was 70 beats per minute and her BP was 110/80 mm of Hg. Her fundi and cranial nerves exam were completely normal. Her abstract thinking, gait, power, tone, reflexes and other facets of her neurologic exam revealed absolutely no abnormalities. Her cardiovascular exam revealed a normal rhythm with no murmurs or bruits. The rest of her exam was also normal. She revealed that she played tennis on a regular basis and was an outdoor person. She had not trekked before in the Himalayas and it was uncertain if she had been to high altitude before. She was on no medications at the time. There was no history of drug abuse. She did not smoke and consumed few alcoholic beverages. She had not consumed any alcohol on the trek. She was advised to get a CT scan (she declined as she was going home to Holland in 2 days) and she was prescribed a loading dose of phenytoin 1 g orally spread over several hours and it was recommended she take 300 mg of phenytoin per day. She was going to see her neurologist in Holland on arrival there. She went to her hotel in Kathmandu while her friends went to fill the prescription of phenytoin. When her friends returned to the hotel she was having another grand mal seizure. Medical help was sought, but she died before the doctor arrived to control her seizures. When the doctor did arrive and carried out CPR for half an hour it was to no avail as she continued to have no pulse or blood pressure. PMID:9876200

Basnyat, B

1998-12-01

348

76 FR 4649 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 2524-018] Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Intent To File License...2010. d. Submitted By: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Salina...Superintendent of Hydro Operations, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 70, Langley,...

2011-01-26

349

Populating a Control Point Database: A cooperative effort between the USGS, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center and the Grand Canyon Youth Organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center measures the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the resources along the Colorado River from Glen Canyon Dam to Lake Mead in support of the Grand Canyon Adaptive Management Program. Control points are integral for geo-referencing the myriad of data collected in the Grand Canyon including aerial photography, topographic and bathymetric data used for classification and change-detection analysis of physical, biologic and cultural resources. The survey department has compiled a list of 870 control points installed by various organizations needing to establish a consistent reference for data collected at field sites along the 240 mile stretch of Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. This list is the foundation for the Control Point Database established primarily for researchers, to locate control points and independently geo-reference collected field data. The database has the potential to be a valuable mapping tool for assisting researchers to easily locate a control point and reduce the occurrance of unknowingly installing new control points within close proximity of an existing control point. The database is missing photographs and accurate site description information. Current site descriptions do not accurately define the location of the point but refer to the project that used the point, or some other interesting fact associated with the point. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) resolved this problem by turning the data collection effort into an educational exercise for the participants of the Grand Canyon Youth organization. Grand Canyon Youth is a non-profit organization providing experiential education for middle and high school aged youth. GCMRC and the Grand Canyon Youth formed a partnership where GCMRC provided the logistical support, equipment, and training to conduct the field work, and the Grand Canyon Youth provided the time and personnel to complete the field work. Two data collection efforts were conducted during the 2004 summer allowing 40 youth the opportunity to contribute valuable information to the Control Point Database. This information included: verification of point existence, photographs, accurate site descriptions concisely describing the location of the point, how to reach the point, the specific point location and detailed bearings to visible and obvious land marks. The youth learned to locate themselves and find the points using 1:1000 airphotos, write detailed site descriptions, take bearings with a compass, measure vertical and horizontal distances, and use a digital camera. The youth found information for 252 control points (29% of the total points).

Brown, K. M.; Fritzinger, C.; Wharton, E.

2004-12-01

350

Grand Challenges in Clinical Decision Support v10  

PubMed Central

There is a pressing need for high-quality, effective means of designing, developing, presenting, implementing, evaluating, and maintaining all types of clinical decision support capabilities for clinicians, patients and consumers. Using an iterative, consensus-building process we identified a rank-ordered list of the top 10 grand challenges in clinical decision support. This list was created to educate and inspire researchers, developers, funders, and policy-makers. The list of challenges in order of importance that they be solved if patients and organizations are to begin realizing the fullest benefits possible of these systems consists of: Improve the human-computer interface; Disseminate best practices in CDS design, development, and implementation; Summarize patient-level information; Prioritize and filter recommendations to the user; Create an architecture for sharing executable CDS modules and services; Combine recommendations for patients with co-morbidities; Prioritize CDS content development and implementation; Create internet-accessible clinical decision support repositories; Use freetext information to drive clinical decision support; Mine large clinical databases to create new CDS. Identification of solutions to these challenges is critical if clinical decision support is to achieve its potential and improve the quality, safety and efficiency of healthcare.

Sittig, Dean F.; Wright, Adam; Osheroff, Jerome A.; Middleton, Blackford; Teich, Jonathan M.; Ash, Joan S.; Campbell, Emily; Bates, David W.

2008-01-01

351

Reconciling grand unification with strings by anisotropic compactifications  

SciTech Connect

We analyze gauge coupling unification in the context of heterotic strings on anisotropic orbifolds. This construction is very much analogous to effective five-dimensional orbifold grand unified theory field theories. Our analysis assumes three fundamental scales: the string scale M{sub S}, a compactification scale M{sub C}, and a mass scale for some of the vectorlike exotics M{sub EX}; the other exotics are assumed to get mass at M{sub S}. In the particular models analyzed, we show that gauge coupling unification is not possible with M{sub EX}=M{sub C}, and in fact we require M{sub EX}<

Dundee, Ben; Raby, Stuart; Wingerter, Akin [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2008-09-15

352

Young Clusters in Nearby, Grand-Design Spirals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distributions of stellar clusters in 10 nearby, grand-design spiral galaxies were studied using deep JHK-maps from HAWK-I/VLT. The properties of the cluster complexes were analyzed using (H-K)-(J-H) diagrams. Two groups of clusters can be identified where the main one is associated to old clusters with low extinction while the other, less populated, consists of very young clusters (i.e. < 10 Myr) with an average reddening around A V ˜ text{A}_{text{V}} ˜ 7m. The (J-K)-MK diagrams show two branches of clusters populated by old and young clusters, respectively. The gap between them suggests a rapid reduction of extinction in the clusters at an early evolutionary phase. Statistical tests, taking the sample sizes into account, show that the cluster distribution functions (CDF) are different in arm and inter-arm regions, for strong spiral perturbations, with the former being shifted to brighter magnitudes by at least 0.4m. Also the star formation rates in the strong arms were found to be 2-5 times higher than those in the inter-arm regions.

Grosbøl, Preben; Dottori, Horacio

353

Local flows in the Quequén Grande River Estuary, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quequén Grande River is one of the most important water courses of Buenos Aires Province due to the economic and strategic significance of its estuary, where the populous Quequén-Necochea area and Quequén Port are located. The minor Las Cascadas falls, at 15 km from the place where the river meets the sea is the point where the maximum tidal propagation is detected marking the head of the estuary. Artificial dredging is needed to insure the adequate navigability conditions in the Quequén harbour, which has induced a highly stratified water column in the last 2 km of the estuary. Thus, an abrupt step is established at the head of the harbour, implying a much reduced water circulation and in some cases nonexistent, producing strong reductive and even anoxic conditions. The foot of the step is a sediment and organic matter trap and becomes an interesting place of study. The goal of this article is to present the information obtained with Doppler sonar at the neighborhood of the step, which allows distinguishing local turbidity currents that may influence the deposition patterns of the sediments.

Pereyra, M. G.; Thomas, L. P.; Marino, B. M.

2009-05-01

354

Grand canonical Gutzwiller approximation for magnetic inhomogeneous systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gutzwiller approximation (GA) for Gutzwiller-projected grand canonical wave functions with fugacity factors is investigated in detail. Our systems in general contain inhomogeneity and local magnetic moments. In deriving renormalization formulas, we also derive or estimate terms of higher powers of intersite contractions neglected in the conventional GA. We examine several different constraints, i.e., local/global spin-dependent/independent particle-number conservation. Out of the four, the local spin-dependent constraint seems the most promising at present. An improved GA derived from it agrees with the variational Monte Carlo method better than the conventional GA does. The corrections to the conventional GA can be interpreted as two-site correlation including the phase difference of configurations. Furthermore, projected quasiparticle excited states are orthogonal to each other within the GA. Using these states, spectral weights are calculated. We show that asymmetry between electron addition and removal spectra can appear by taking into account the higher powers of the intersite contractions in the case of the d -wave superconductors and the Fermi sea; the addition is smaller than the removal. However, the asymmetry is quite weak especially near the Fermi level. In contrast, projected s -wave superconductors can have the opposite asymmetry (addition larger than removal) especially near the Fermi level. In addition, formulas from the other three constraints are also derived, which may be useful depending on purposes.

Fukushima, Noboru

2008-09-01

355

Modeling Fecal Coliform Contamination in the Rio Grande  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines sources of fecal coliform in Segment 2302 of the Rio Grande, located south of the International Falcon Reservoir in southern Texas. The watershed is unique because the contributing drainage areas lie in Texas and Mexico. Additionally, the watershed is mostly rural, with populated communities known as "colonias." The colonias lack sewered systems and discharge sanitary water directly to the ground surface, thus posing an increased health hazard from coliform bacteria. Monitoring data confirm that Segment 2302 is not safe for contact recreation due to elevated fecal coliform levels. The goal of the study was to simulate the observed exceedences in Segment 2302 and evaluate potential strategies for their elimination. Fecal coliform contributions from ranching and colonia discharges were modeled using the Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF). Model results indicated that the regulatory 30-day geometric mean fecal coliform concentration of 200 colony forming units (cfu) per 100 milliliters is exceeded approximately three times per year for a total of 30 days. Ongoing initiatives to improve wastewater facilities will reduce this to approximately once per year for 14 days. Best management practices will be necessary to reduce cattle access to streams and eliminate all exceedences. The developed model was limited by the relatively sparse flow and fecal coliform data.

Laware, Paul; Rifai, Hanadi S.

2006-04-01

356

The Grand Canyon midair collision. A stimulus for change.  

PubMed

Commercial aviation in the United States developed rapidly from a nucleus of pilots who returned from World War I, barnstormed and flew primitive airmail routes, and were hired by the new commerical airlines of the 1930s. The death of U.S. Senator Bronson Cutting in a 1935 crash was an important stimulus to improved governmental regulation of civil aviation. The air traffic control system, primitive until and throughout World War II, was soon proven to be inadequate for postwar demands. The midair collision of two large airliners over the Grand Canyon in June 1956 that killed the 128 persons on board was itself a strong stimulus for serious efforts, particularly in improving air traffic control systems. This and many other difficult problems in aviation safety have been addressed in the subsequent 33 years, some with success, although it has not always been immediate, and with major accidents still occurring. Commercial air travel is safe and widely accepted, however, and there is promise for additional important advances here. PMID:2343835

Murphy, G K

1990-06-01

357

Grand Army of the Republic Civil War Portraits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War, Union veterans formed the Grand Army of the Republic, or the G.A.R. Through the Reconstruction era and the Gilded Age, the G.A.R. was a powerful organization that lobbied the federal government for federal and state Soldiers Homes for invalids, advocated for the creation of Memorial Day, and also provided support for soldier reunions. This digital collection created by the University of Washington Libraries peers into the faces of some of these veterans by offering up this photograph album originally created by the Stevens Post #1 of the G.A.R., based in Seattle. The album contains over 100 portraits, and visitors can browse through them at their leisure. Visitors can zoom in and out on each photograph and they can also use a number of other tools to get the best view of each photograph for their own purposes. Also, while many of the photographs have complete provenance information, some do not, and visitors are welcome to write in with any insights they might have.

358

Grand minima of solar activity and sociodynamics of culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indices of creative productivity introduced by C. Murrey were used to verify S. Ertel's conclusion about a global increase in creative productivity during the prolonged minimum of solar activity in 1640-1710. It was found that these indices for mathematicians, philosophers, and scientists increase in the Maunder era by factor of 1.6 in comparison with intervals of the same length before and after the minimum. A similar effect was obtained for mathematicians and philosophers for five earlier equitype minima in total (an increase by a factor of 1.9). The regularity that is revealed is confirmed by the fact that the most important achievements of high-ranking mathematicians and philosophers during the whole time period (2300 years) considered in this study fall on epochs of reduced levels of solar activity. The rise in the probability of the generation of rational ideas during grand minima is reflected also in the fact that they precede the appearance of written language and farming. Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic fields appear to serve as a physical agent stimulating the activity of the brain's left hemisphere during the epochs of minima.

Vladimirsky, B. M.

2012-12-01

359

A supersymmetric grand unified model with noncompact horizontal symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified model with a horizontal symmetry SU(1,1), we discuss spontaneous generation of generations to produce three chiral generations of quarks and leptons and one generation of Higgses by using one structure field with a half-integer spin of SU(1,1) and two structure fields with integer spins. In particular, the colored Higgses can disappear without fine-tuning. The difference of the Yukawa coupling matrices between the down-type quarks and charged leptons is discussed. We show that some special SU(1,1) weight assignments include R-parity as a discrete subgroup, and R-parity remains even after we take into account the SU(1,1) breaking effects from all the vacuum expectation values of the structure and matter fields. The assignments forbid the baryon and/or lepton number violating terms except a superpotential quartic term including a coupling of two lepton doublets and two up-type Higgses. We discuss how to generate sizable neutrino masses. We show that the proton decay derived from the colored Higgses is highly suppressed.

Yamatsu, Naoki

2013-12-01

360

Le schwannome malin du nerf grand sciatique chez l'enfant  

PubMed Central

Le schwannome malin est une tumeur très rare chez l'enfant (1 à 2% des tumeurs des tissus mous), elle se développe au dépend des cellules de schwanne. Dans ce travail, les auteurs rapportent un cas de schwannome malin développé au dépend du nerf grand sciatique. La radiographie de la cuisse de face et de profil était normale. L'imagerie par résonance magnétique a identifié une lésion le long du trajet du nerf grand sciatique. La tumeur a été réséquée en totalité emportant le nerf grand sciatique. L'examen anatomo-pathologique a confirmé le diagnostic.

Lechqar, Maryem; Elbiache, Imad; Atarraf, Karima; Bouabdellah, Youssef; Afifi, My Abderahman

2012-01-01

361

Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: Groundwater contaminant transport. Final project report 1998  

SciTech Connect

The over-reaching goal of the Groundwater Grand Challenge component of the Partnership in Computational Science (PICS) was to develop and establish the massively parallel approach for the description of groundwater flow and transport and to address the problem of uncertainties in the data and its interpretation. This necessitated the development of innovative algorithms and the implementation of massively parallel computational tools to provide a suite of simulators for groundwater flow and transport in heterogeneous media. This report summarizes the activities and deliverables of the Groundwater Grand Challenge project funded through the High Performance Computing grand challenge program of the Department of Energy from 1995 through 1997.

NONE

1998-04-01

362

Grand-canonical quantized liquid density-functional theory in a Car-Parrinello implementation.  

PubMed

Quantized Liquid Density-Functional Theory (QLDFT) [S. Patchkovskii and T. Heine, Phys. Rev. E 80, 031603 (2009)], a method developed to assess the adsorption of gas molecules in porous nanomaterials, is reformulated within the grand canonical ensemble. With the grand potential it is possible to compare directly external and internal thermodynamic quantities. In our new implementation, the grand potential is minimized utilizing the Car-Parrinello approach and gives, in particular for low temperature simulations, a significant computational advantage over the original canonical approaches. The method is validated against original QLDFT, and applied to model potentials and graphite slit pores. PMID:23883013

Walther, Christian F J; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Heine, Thomas

2013-07-21

363

Geologic map of the Grand Junction Quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Grand Junction 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the junction of the Colorado River and the Gunnison River. Bedrock strata include the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale through the Lower Jurassic Wingate Sandstone units. Below the Mancos Shale, which floors the Grand Valley, the Upper and Lower(?)Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation hold up much of the resistant northeast- dipping monocline along the northeast side of the Uncompahgre uplift. The impressive sequence of Jurassic strata below include the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, the Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation and informal 'board beds' unit and Slick Rock Member of the Entrada Formation, and the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation and Wingate Sandstone. The Upper Triassic Chinle Formation and Early Proterozoic meta-igneous gneiss and migmatitic meta- sedimentary rocks, which are exposed in the Colorado National Monument quadrangle to the west, do not crop out here. The monoclinal dip slope of the northeastern margin of the Uncompahgre uplift is apparently a Laramide structural feature. Unlike the southwest-dipping, high-angle reverse faults in the Proterozoic basement and s-shaped fault- propagation folds in the overlying strata found in the Colorado National Monument 7.5' quadrangle along the front of the uplift to the west, the monocline in the map area is unbroken except at two localities. One locality displays a small asymmetrical graben that drops strata to the southwest. This faulted character of the structure dies out to the northwest into an asymmetric fault-propagation fold that also drops strata to the southwest. Probably both parts of this structure are underlain by a northeast-dipping high-angle reverse fault. The other locality displays a second similar asymmetric fold. No evidence of post-Laramide tilting or uplift exists here, but the antecedent Unaweep Canyon, only 30 km to the south-southwest of the map area, provides clear evidence of Late Cenozoic, if not Pleistocene, uplift. The major geologic hazards in the area include large landslides associated with the dip-slope-underlain, smectite-rich Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation and overlying Dakota and Burro Canyon Formations. Active landslides affect the southern bank of the Colorado River where undercutting by the river and smectitic clays in the Mancos trigger landslides. The Wanakah, Morrison, and Dakota Formations and the Mancos Shale create a significant hazard to houses and other structures by containing expansive smectitic clay. In addition to seasonal spring floods associated with the Colorado and Gunnison Rivers, a serious flash flood hazard associated with sudden summer thunderstorms threatens the intermittent washes that drain the dip slope of the monocline.

Scott, Robert B.; Carrara, Paul E.; Hood, William C.; Murray, Kyle E.

2002-01-01

364

Rockmagnetism and inorganic geochemistry of Grand Lake sediment, NE Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grand Lake, located in Magadan region (51 53'E, 60 44'N), belongs to the group of Elikchan Lakes. Maximum depth of the lake is 23.2 m. 12 cores from deep and shallow parts of the lake were taken using a Livingston corer. Sediment records from Grand Lake provide a continuous archive of climate change during marine isotopic stages (MIS) 4-1. Magnetic susceptibility (MS), saturation magnetization, saturation remanence, coercive force, remanence coercivity, temperature dependence of the induced magnetization and susceptibility of sediment and magnetic extracts were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to diagnose Fe-bearing minerals. MS from cores was used for correlation between the core sections. Analysis of the complex data indicate that there are four main lithologic units of sediment. Unit 1 (MIS 1), depth 0-320 cm. Upper subunit (0-150 cm) shows negative or very low MS. Sediment has high content of organic matter and SiO2 (up to 92%) because of biogenic component. The Lower subunit (depth 150-320 cm) consists of laminated organic silt. The MS of this subunit ranges from 0 to 295 (95), 10-6 SI. The sediment shows high content of Fe2O3, P2O5, MnO indicating a redox boundary. Unit 2 (MIS 2), depth 320-627 cm. Sediment is composed of laminated silt and formed during anoxic conditions. Dark thin layers are enriched with P2O5 and MnO. The unit is characterized by low MS = 57-500 (170), 10-6, SI. Vivianite and Fe-sulfides including pyrite and greigite are found in this unit. Greigite occurs in diatom valves and as fine grained aggregates and has specific thermomagnetic curves. Unit 3 (MIS 3), depth 627-965 cm. Sediment consist of homogenous silt and that accumulated during oxic conditions. Unit has highest MS in the core section: 87-1300 (480), 10-6 SI and is enriched with CaO, Na2O, K2O, SiO2. Unite 4 (MIS 4), depth-965-1015 cm includes sand, dense silt and shows high variations of MS values. According to SEM, EDX, TMA results the detrital magnetic minerals are pseudo-single-domain magnetite, titanomagnetite and titanomaghemite. Most titanomagnetites contain impurities of Al, Si and Mn. Chromium-magnetites and Ilmenite are found also. Down-core variations in magnetic and geochemical properties closely follow climatic and environmental changes established by other proxy methods including pollen and diatom data. Sediments of the warm stages (MIS 3, partly MIS 1) display a higher concentration of magnetic minerals, low values of chemical alteration index, weathering index and plagioclase index of alteration in contrast to sediments of MIS 2.

Minyuk, P. S.; Borkhodoev, V. Y.; Subbotnikova, T. V.

2013-12-01

365

Grand unified theories and supersymmetry in particle physics and cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is given on the consistency checks of Grand Unified Theories (GUT), which unify the electroweak and strong nuclear forces into a single theory. Such theories predict a new kind of force, which could provide answers to several open questions in cosmology. The possible role of such a ``primeval'' force will be discussed in the framework of the Big Bang Theory. Although such a force cannot be observed directly, there are several predictions of GUT's, which can be verified at low energies. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) distinguishes itself from other GUT's by a successful prediction of many unrelated phenomena with a minimum number of parameters. Among them: a) Unification of the couplings constants; b) Unification of the masses; c) Existence of dark matter; d) Proton decay; e) Electroweak symmetry breaking at a scale far below the unification scale. A fit of the free parameters in the MSSM to these low energy constraints predicts the masses of the as yet unobserved superpartners of the SM particles, constrains the unknown top mass to a range between 140 and 200 GeV, and requires the second order QCD coupling constant to be between 0.108 and 0.132. ``The possibility that the universe was generated from nothing is very interesting and should be further studied. A most perplexing question relating to the singularity is this: what preceded the genesis of the universe? This question appears to be absolutely methaphysical, but our experience with metaphysics tells us that metaphysical questions are sometimes given answers by physics.'' A. Linde (1982)

de Boer, W.

366

Grand Challenge Competition to Predict In Vivo Knee Loads  

PubMed Central

Impairment of the human neuromusculoskeletal system can lead to significant mobility limitations and decreased quality of life. Computational models that accurately represent the musculoskeletal systems of individual patients could be used to explore different treatment options and ultimately to optimize clinical outcome. The most significant barrier to model-based treatment design is validation of model-based estimates of in vivo contact and muscle forces. This paper introduces an annual “Grand Challenge Competition to Predict In Vivo Knee Loads” based on a series of comprehensive publicly available in vivo data sets for evaluating musculoskeletal model predictions of contact and muscle forces in the knee. The data sets come from patients implanted with force-measuring tibial prostheses. Following a historical review of musculoskeletal modeling methods used for estimating knee muscle and contact forces, we describe the first two data sets used for the first two competitions and summarize four subsequent data sets to be used for future competitions. These data sets include tibial contact force, video motion, ground reaction, muscle EMG, muscle strength, static and dynamic imaging, and implant geometry data. Competition participants create musculoskeletal models to predict tibial contact forces without having access to the corresponding in vivo measurements, which are not released until after each year’s competition submissions. These blinded predictions provide an unbiased evaluation of the capabilities and limitations of musculoskeletal modeling methods. The paper concludes with a discussion of how these unique data sets can be used by the musculoskeletal modeling research community to improve the estimation of in vivo muscle and contact forces and ultimately to help make musculoskeletal models clinically useful.

Fregly, Benjamin J.; Besier, Thor F.; Lloyd, David G.; Delp, Scott L.; Banks, Scott A.; Pandy, Marcus G.; D'Lima, Darryl D.

2013-01-01

367

Stride characteristics of horses competing in Grand Prix jumping.  

PubMed

An investigation was made of the stride characteristics of horses jumping 2 obstacles during a Grand Prix competition. One obstacle was a picket fence and rail 1.3 m high (fence 2), and the other was a coop and rail 1.52 m high (fence 11). Thirteen distance and 22 timing measurements of 17 horses were extracted from high-speed films, using computer-aided analysis. These data were used to compare takeoff and landing of the lead and nonlead legs, the thoracic limbs and pelvic limbs, and fence 2 and fence 11. Paired t-tests were used to compare means and a stepwise regression analysis was done for each fence, using the total horizontal distance jumped as the dependent variable. Stride timing and distance measurements did not differ (P less than 0.05) between the 2 fences . Each horse approached the fences in a moderately fast canter and, at takeoff , placed the nonlead thoracic limb earlier and farther from the fence than the lead thoracic limb (P less than 0.05). The nonlead leg stance phase lasted longer than the lead leg stance phase (P less than 0.05). The lead and nonlead pelvic limbs acted more in unison than the thoracic limbs and did not differ in their time of placement, stance phase duration, or position from the fence (P less than 0.05). The overlap of the stance phases of the pelvic limbs was greater than that of the thoracic limbs (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6732020

Leach, D H; Ormrod, K; Clayton, H M

1984-05-01

368

Grand challenge competition to predict in vivo knee loads.  

PubMed

Impairment of the human neuromusculoskeletal system can lead to significant mobility limitations and decreased quality of life. Computational models that accurately represent the musculoskeletal systems of individual patients could be used to explore different treatment options and optimize clinical outcome. The most significant barrier to model-based treatment design is validation of model-based estimates of in vivo contact and muscle forces. This paper introduces an annual "Grand Challenge Competition to Predict In Vivo Knee Loads" based on a series of comprehensive publicly available in vivo data sets for evaluating musculoskeletal model predictions of contact and muscle forces in the knee. The data sets come from patients implanted with force-measuring tibial prostheses. Following a historical review of musculoskeletal modeling methods used for estimating knee muscle and contact forces, we describe the first two data sets used for the first two competitions and summarize four subsequent data sets to be used for future competitions. These data sets include tibial contact force, video motion, ground reaction, muscle EMG, muscle strength, static and dynamic imaging, and implant geometry data. Competition participants create musculoskeletal models to predict tibial contact forces without having access to the corresponding in vivo measurements. These blinded predictions provide an unbiased evaluation of the capabilities and limitations of musculoskeletal modeling methods. The paper concludes with a discussion of how these unique data sets can be used by the musculoskeletal modeling research community to improve the estimation of in vivo muscle and contact forces and ultimately to help make musculoskeletal models clinically useful. PMID:22161745

Fregly, Benjamin J; Besier, Thor F; Lloyd, David G; Delp, Scott L; Banks, Scott A; Pandy, Marcus G; D'Lima, Darryl D

2012-04-01

369

33 CFR 100.912 - Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...100.912 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.912 Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI. (a) Regulated Area...

2013-07-01

370

Archaeological Excavations at the Northwest Company's Fur Trade Post, Grand Portage, Minnesota, in 1936-1937.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to describe the archeological remains found during the excavation of the Northwest Company's Post at Grand Portage, Minnesota by the Minnesota Historical Society in 1936-1937.

A. R. Woolworth

2006-01-01

371

Water resources reference base for the 13(a) assessment of the Rio Grande Region. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

The report is an assessment required by law to determine present and future water supplies for emerging energy technology. The area described is the Rio Grande region. Water quality and water law are also discussed in the report.

Brandes, R.J.; Kier, R.S.; Stecher, L.S.

1981-09-01

372

Biology and Ecology of Feral Burros 'Equus asinus' at Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Biology and Ecology of Feral Burros (Equus Asinus) at Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, Final Research Report includes 7 chapters as follows: The Setting and the Problem; Distribution and Population Densities of Feral Burros; Description of Study S...

S. W. Carothers

1977-01-01

373

76 FR 42654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Petition To List Grand Canyon Cave Pseudoscorpion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pseudoscorpionida is a high level of single-cave endemism compared to other cave taxa (Christman et al. 2005, pp. 1444, 1447). However, cave biological research in Grand Canyon National Park is quite limited (Wynne 2010, pers. comm.; Drost...

2011-07-19

374

75 FR 18055 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mermentau River, Grand Chenier, LA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the SR 82 swing span bridge across the Mermentau River, mile 7.1, at Grand Chenier, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. This...

2010-04-09

375

Surveying for Southwestern Willow Flycatchers in Grand Canyon National Park, 2010-2012. Final Project Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 2010-2012, we conducted presence/absence surveys and breeding habitat assessments for the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. We broadcasted songs and calls of willow fl...

G. Holm J. Shroud-Settles R. Palarino

2013-01-01

376

US SPACE CAMP CALIFORNIA - DAY CAMP GRAND OPENING WITH KEVIN JONES (WHISMAN SCHOOL) AND LUCRETIA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

US SPACE CAMP CALIFORNIA - DAY CAMP GRAND OPENING WITH KEVIN JONES (WHISMAN SCHOOL) AND LUCRETIA SUTHERLIN (MCNAIR SCHOOL). AMES SPONSORED STUDENTS AND RACHAEL QUIRING (STAFF) - AUTOGRAPH SIGNING BY Astronaut Wally Schirra

1996-01-01

377

Cleaning National Parks: Using Environmentally Preferable Janitorial Products at Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the process that the National Park Services and two consultants used at Yellowstone National Park to introduce environmentally preferable cleaning products. Grand Teton National Park implemented a similar program started in April 199...

S. Wakefiled A. Ferre

2000-01-01

378

Effects of Recent Flooding on Riparian Plant Establishment in Grand Canyon,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Censusing populations of four riparian perennial woody plant species (tamarisk, desert broom, coyote willow, and arrowweed) following the flood of 1983 in Grand Canyon has revealed that replacement of individuals lost in that flood is occurring at relativ...

G. L. Waring L. E. Stevens

1986-01-01

379

Magnetometer Instrument Team Studies for the Definition Phase of the Outer Planets Grand Tour.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of magnetic field investigations on missions to the outer planets were defined as well as an instrumentation system, a program of studies and instrument development tasks was propn definition phase of the Outer Planets Grand Tour project. A...

P. J. Coleman

1972-01-01

380

Monocyclic Supracrustals at Far West of Rio Grande Do Norte, in Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A geochronological study of supracrustals and intrusive rocks from Rio Grande do Norte, in Brazil, is presented. Leucogranites and felsic metavolcanics were dated by Rb-Sr method. A summary of geologic relationship is given to supply the geochronological ...

E. F. J. Sa M. H. F. Macedo J. M. Sa K. Kawashita

1986-01-01

381

Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Folk John Day and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years.

Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

2000-01-01

382

77 FR 14269 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Springfield, MO; Lincoln, NE; Grand Rapids, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...71 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1406; Airspace Docket No. 11-AWA-5] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Springfield, MO; Lincoln, NE; Grand Rapids, MI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule;...

2012-03-09

383

75 FR 6094 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Grand Junction, CO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule...accommodate the vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) traffic from Grand Junction...name. This will improve the safety of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the...

2010-02-08

384

78 FR 22814 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast...special local regulation on the Atlantic Ocean east of Miami Beach, Florida...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Miami Beach,...

2013-04-17

385

Zooarchaeological analysis of prehistoric vertebrate exploitation at the Grand Bay Site, Carriacou, West Indies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses zooarchaeological analysis of vertebrate faunal specimens from Grand Bay, a Ceramic Age (ca. ad 400-1300) site on the island of Carriacou in the Grenadines, West Indies. Using faunal data to assess subsistence patterns of vertebrate exploitation during late site occupation, we can begin to better understand Grand Bay procurement strategies and coral reef exploitation. Preliminary zooarchaeological results imply that Grand Bay vertebrate exploitation emphasized marine resources over terrestrial resources, with particular emphasis on coral reef habitats and fish. The faunal data are discussed in relation to common patterns of prehistoric vertebrate exploitation in the Caribbean and fishing strategies. The Grand Bay faunal sample also provides a foundation from which to formulate future research foci and question zooarchaeological approaches to understanding prehistoric coral reef exploitation in the Caribbean.

Lefebvre, M. J.

2007-12-01

386

75 FR 7625 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Rio Grande Silvery Minnow (Hybognathus amarus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the decline of the Rio Grande silvery minnow is attributed primarily to destruction and modification of its habitat due to dewatering and diversion of water, water impoundment, and modification of the river (channelization). Competition and...

2010-02-22

387

Classification of grand fir mosaic habitats. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Five habitat types, an elevation range, and plant indicator species were used to develop a key to Grand Fir Mosaic habitats. These habitats have a slow rate of secondary succession to woody vegetation. Successful management begins with proper identification, which will then allow land managers to prescribe appropriate practices. This paper discusses the process of developing the key and provides supporting information to confirm sites that are part of the Grand Fir Mosaic.

Ferguson, D.E.; Johnson, F.D.

1996-05-01

388

Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health  

PubMed Central

Background The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an ‘Integrated Innovation™’ approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the ‘Rising Stars in Global Health’ award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future. Discussion Our dialogue followed a semi-structured interview format that addressed three topics: 1) reflections on applying an Integrated Innovation™ approach for global health; 2) thoughts on participation in the Grand Challenges 2012 meeting; and 3) authors’ visions of Grand Challenges Canada and the Grand Challenge movement towards 2020. The dialogue was transcribed verbatim and we used thematic analysis techniques to identify, analyze and report themes in the data. Benefits of working using the Grand Challenges approach centered on two themes: a) the potential for scientific breakthrough and b) building interdisciplinary collaborations and a community of scholars. Challenges and opportunities for Grand Challenges in moving forward included: a) capacity building, particularly regarding Integrated Innovation™ and scale-up planning; b) interdisciplinary and international mentorship for new investigators; and c) potential for future commercialization. Conclusions Our discussion highlighted that Integrated Innovation™ offers the opportunity to develop new theories, methods and approaches to global health while simultaneously fostering a collaborative spirit grounded in international, interdisciplinary collaborations. However, the arguable over-emphasis on corporatization poses a major challenge for new investigators. We propose a more balanced way forward that can harness technology to foster mentorship across time and space to support the development of such skills and ideas among new investigators.

2014-01-01

389

The State of the Colorado River Ecosystem in Grand Canyon: A Report of the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center 1991-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is an important milestone in the effort by the Secretary of the Interior to implement the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 (GCPA; title XVIII, secs. 1801-1809, of Public Law 102-575), the most recent authorizing legislation for Federal efforts to protect resources downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. The chapters that follow are intended to provide decision makers and the American public with relevant scientific information about the status and recent trends of the natural, cultural, and recreational resources of those portions of Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area affected by Glen Canyon Dam operations. Glen Canyon Dam is one of the last major dams that was built on the Colorado River and is located just south of the Arizona-Utah border in the lower reaches of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, approximately 15 mi (24 km) upriver from Grand Canyon National Park (fig. 1). The information presented here is a product of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP), a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the primary mandate of the GCPA is met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey`s (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) has responsibility for the scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program, including the preparation of reports such as this one.

Edited by Gloss, Steven P.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Melis, Theodore S.

2005-01-01

390

The occurrence and characteristics of grand solar minima and maxima during the Holocene epoch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the Sun since 1610 AD show that the activity level of the Sun varies from the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715), when sunspots almost completely vanished from the solar surface, to the enhanced activity level since the middle of the 20th century. Maunder Minimum-like periods are believed to represent a special state of the solar dynamo and they pose a challenge for solar dynamo theory and models, in part because the current models do not agree on the frequency and nature of this phenomenon. Similarly, the models do not robustly address whether grand minima represent regular or random characteristics of the solar dynamo. Information on solar variations prior to 1610 relies on past production rates of cosmogenic nuclides, such as 10Be and 14C. Cosmogenic nuclides are produced in the atmosphere by interactions of galactic cosmic ray particles from space with atmospheric elements, such as N and O. Their production rates are inversely correlated with solar magnetic activity and the geomagnetic field intensity due to the non-linear shielding effect of the solar magnetic field and the geomagnetic dipole field. In this study, we use the IntCal13 14C and the GRIP 10Be records to calculate the solar modulation potential for the overlapping time period that approximately span the last 8000 years. Based on the solar modulation potential, we study the occurrence and characteristics of grand minima and grand maxima. In our approach, a period is only defined as a grand minimum or maximum if it can be identified as such in both reconstructions (14C and 10Be) based on Gaussian statistics. Based on this approach, we identify 19 grand minima and 15 grand maxima for the period spanning the last 8000 years. We also investigate whether the occurrence of these grand minima and grand maxima is best understood as a stochastic or non-stochastic process using waiting time distribution analysis. Furthermore, wavelet analyses of the solar modulation potential reconstructions reveal that the 22-year Hale cycle weakens during grand minimum episodes, whereas it's more pronounced during grand maximum periods. Such observations may serve as an important guide for solar dynamo models, and, in turn, improve our understanding of the processes underlying solar variability.

Inceoglu, Fadil; Simoniello, Rosaria; Faurschou Knudsen, Mads; Karoff, Christoffer; Olsen, Jesper

2014-05-01

391

Evaluation of canoe surveys for anurans along the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surveys for amphibians along large rivers pose monitoring and sampling problems. We used canoes at night to spotlight and listen for anurans along four stretches of the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas, in 1998 and 1999. We explored temporal and spatial variation in amphibian counts and species richness and assessed relationships between amphibian counts and environmental variables, as well as amphibian-habitat associations along the banks of the Rio Grande. We documented seven anuran species, but Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) accounted for 96% of the visual counts. Chorus surveys along the river detected similar or fewer numbers of species, but orders of magnitude fewer individuals compared to visual surveys. The number of species varied on average by 37% across monthly and nightly surveys. We found similar average coefficients of variation in counts of Rio Grande leopard frogs on monthly and nightly bases (CVs = 42-44%), suggesting that canoe surveys are a fairly precise technique for counts of this species. Numbers of Rio Grande leopard frogs observed were influenced by river gage levels and air and water temperatures, suggesting that surveys should be conducted under certain environmental conditions to maximize counts and maintain consistency. We found significant differences in species richness and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) counts among the four river stretches. Four rare anuran species were found along certain stretches but not others, which could represent either sampling error or unmeasured environmental or habitat differences among the river stretches. We found a greater association of Rio Grande leopard frogs with mud banks compared to rock or cliff (canyon) areas and with seepwillow and open areas compared to giant reed and other vegetation types. Canoe surveys appear to be a useful survey technique for anurans along the Rio Grande and may work for other large river systems as well.

Jung, R.E.; Bonine, K.E.; Rosenshield, M.L.; de la Reza, A.; Raimondo, S.; Droege, S.

2002-01-01

392

Promoting Undergraduate Research at Grand Valley State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grand Valley State University (GVSU) is a relatively young, rapidly growing, predominately undergraduate institution of about 20,000 students located in western Michigan in which undergraduate research plays a vital role in the education of our students. Student research is supported and actively promoted by 1) creating university funding opportunities and taking advantage of small outside funding sources 2) building a tradition of undergraduate research 3) incorporating small research activities into classes and 4) educating students explicitly in how to prepare a professional poster, give a professional talk and write a journal article. As the saying goes, if you have money, the students will come. At GVSU most students recognize the value of a research experience but need income to pay for college expenses. The internally funded Student Summer Scholars program at GVSU provides student salary and faculty stipend for a summer research project (\\6000 per grant). The geology department has also been successful at obtaining grants from the NASA Michigan Space Grant Consortium (\\5,000 plus a 100% GVSU match). We have been successful in using these easier to obtain smaller grants to fund undergraduate projects. In some cases small grants actually allow us to pursue "risky" or otherwise difficult to fund projects. Undergraduate research "counts" at GVSU and once a tradition and critical mass of undergraduate research has been established, it can become self-sustaining. To recognize the achievements of undergraduate research at GVSU, there is an annual Student Scholarship Day in which the students (580 university wide) present the results of their research. Also, by persuading students in our introductory classes (for extra credit) to attend Student Scholarship Day, the students, early in their college career, can see what fellow students can accomplish and student presenters can revel in their role of researcher and educator. Such an event helps to build a tradition of undergraduate research. Students are more likely to tackle larger research projects if they have gained confidence and experience by successfully completing smaller research projects. Many upper level geology courses require that students complete a research project. Research projects can range from investigating the grain size variability of river sediment in sedimentology to analyzing a Superfund site in hydrogeology. The geology department is also committed to instructing all our majors in how to organize and communicate the results of their research. Students are required to complete a course in geology Information Literacy and a geology seminar course. The information literacy course instructs the students in how to search for articles, introduces common graphing and computing software and demonstrates how to design and produce a research poster. In seminar, the entire geology faculty participate and instruct and mentor the students as they prepare a research paper and professional talk. In conclusion, we have created a supportive undergraduate research atmosphere at GVSU by acquiring funding for their research, by training our students in how to conduct and present their research, and, perhaps most importantly, by celebrating their accomplishments.

Riemersma, P.; Mekik, F. A.

2003-12-01

393

Sudden transitions and grand variations in the solar dynamo, past and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar dynamo is the exotic dance of the sun's two major magnetic field components, the poloidal and the toroidal, interacting in anti-phase. On the basis of new data on the geomagnetic aa index, we improve our previous forecast of the properties of the current Schwabe cycle #24. Its maximum will occur in 2013.5 and the maximum sunspot number Rmax will then be 62 ± 12, which is within the bounds of our earlier forecasts. The subsequent analysis, based on a phase diagram, which is a diagram showing the relation between maximum sunspot numbers and minimum geomagnetic aa index values leads to the conclusion that a new Grand Episode in solar activity has started in 2008. From the study of the natural oscillations in the sunspot number time series, as found by an analysis based on suitable wavelet base functions, we predict that this Grand Episode will be of the Regular Oscillations type, which is the kind of oscillations that also occurred between 1724 and 1924. Previous expectations of a Grand (Maunder-type) Minimum of solar activity cannot be supported. We stress the significance of the Hallstatt periodicity for determining the character of the forthcoming Grand Episodes. No Grand Minimum is expected to occur during the millennium that has just started. The full text of all quoted papers by the two authors of this paper can be consulted at www.cdejager.com/sun-earth-publications/.

De Jager, Cornelis; Duhau, Silvia

2012-06-01

394

Comment on “Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He Evidence for an Ancient Grand Canyon”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flowers and Farley (Reports, 21 December 2012, p. 1616; published online 29 November 2012) propose that the Grand Canyon is 70 million years old. Starkly contrasting models for the age of the Grand Canyon—70 versus 6 million years—can be reconciled by a shallow paleocanyon that was carved in the eastern Grand Canyon 25 to 15 million years ago (Ma), negating the proposed 70 Ma and 55 Ma paleocanyons. Cooling models and geologic data are most consistent with a 5 to 6 Ma age for western Grand Canyon and Marble Canyon.

Karlstrom, Karl E.; Lee, John; Kelley, Shari; Crow, Ryan; Young, Richard A.; Lucchitta, Ivo; Beard, L. Sue; Dorsey, Rebecca; Ricketts, Jason W.; Dickinson, William R.; Crossey, Laura

2013-04-01

395

Age and diet of fossil California condors in Grand Canyon, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

A dozen new radiocarbon dates, together with a thorough review of its fossil distribution, shed new light on the time and probable cause of extinction of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus, in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The radiocarbon data indicate that this species became extinct in Grand Canyon, and other parts of the inland West, more than 10,000 years ago in coincidence with the extinction of megafauna (proboscidians, edentates, perissodactyls). That condors relied on the megafauna for food is suggested by the recovery of food bones from a late Pleistocene nest cave in Grand Canyon. These fossil data have relevance to proposed release and recovery programs of the present endangered population of California condors. 19 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Emslie, S.D.

1987-08-14

396

Age and diet of fossil california condors in grand canyon, Arizona.  

PubMed

A dozen new radiocarbon dates, together with a thorough review of its fossil distribution, shed new light on the time and probable cause of extinction of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus, in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The radiocarbon data indicate that this species became extinct in Grand Canyon, and other parts of the inland West, more than 10,000 years ago in coincidence with the extinction of megafauna (proboscidians, edentates, perissodactyls). That condors relied on the megafauna for food is suggested by the recovery of food bones from a late Pleistocene nest cave in Grand Canyon. These fossil data have relevance to proposed release and recovery programs of the present endangered population of California condors. PMID:17751565

Emslie, S D

1987-08-14

397

Investigation of rifting processes in the Rio Grande Rift using data from unusually large earthquake swarms  

SciTech Connect

San Acacia Swarm in the Rio Grande Rift. Because the Rio Grande rift is one of the best seismically instrumented rift zones in the world, studying its seismicity provides an exceptional opportunity to explore the active tectonic processes within continental rifts. We have been studying earthquake swarms recorded near Socorro in an effort to link seismicity directly to the rifting process. For FY94, our research has focused on the San Acacia swarm, which occurred 25 km north of Socorro, New Mexico, along the accommodation zone between the Albuquerque-Belen and Socorro basins of the central Rio Grande rift. The swarm commenced on 25 February 1983, had a magnitude 4.2 main shock on 2 March and ended on 17 March, 1983.

Sanford, A.; Balch, R. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); House, L.; Hartse, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-12-01

398

A Miocene river in northern Arizona and its implications for the Colorado River and Grand Canyon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The southwesterly course of the pre–late Miocene Crooked Ridge River can be traced continuously for 48 km and discontinuously for 91 km in northern Arizona. It is visible today in inverted relief. Pebbles in the river gravel came from at least as far northeast as the San Juan Mountains. The river valley was carved out of easily eroded Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks, whose debris overloaded the river with abundant detritus, possibly steepening the gradient. After the river became inactive, the regional drainage network was rearranged twice, and the Four Corners region was lowered by erosion 1–2 km. The river provides constraints on the history of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon; its continuation into lakes in Arizona or Utah is unlikely, as is integration of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon by lake spillover. The downstream course of the river was probably across the Kaibab Arch in a valley roughly coincident with the present eastern Grand Canyon.

Lucchitta, I.; Holm, R. F.; Lucchitta, B. K.

2011-01-01

399

Test of hadronic interaction models with the KASCADE-Grande muon data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KASCADE-Grande is an air-shower observatory devoted for the detection of cosmic rays with energies in the interval of 1014 - 1018 eV, where the Grande array is responsible for the higher energy range. The experiment comprises different detection systems which allow precise measurements of the charged, electron and muon numbers of extensive air-showers (EAS). These data is employed not only to reconstruct the properties of the primary cosmic-ray particle but also to test hadronic interaction models at high energies. In this contribution, predictions of the muon content of EAS from QGSJET II-2, SIBYLL 2.1 and EPOS 1.99 are confronted with the experimental measurements performed with the KASCADE-Grande experiment in order to test the validity of these hadronic models commonly used in EAS simulations.

Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Apel, W. D.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuchs, B.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; ?uczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.

2013-06-01

400

Extensional tectonics and stratigraphy of Hibernia oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland  

SciTech Connect

The tectonic evolution of the Grand Banks involved several episodes of rifting and sequential development of the continental margin. The dominant period of rifting and basin formation in the central Grand Banks was late Callovian to Aptian. Extensional failure of the central Grand Banks crust probably occurred along a shear zone that dipped gently to the west. Listric normal basin-forming faults merge at depth with this detachment system. The listric Murre fault soles at 26 km (16 mi), creating the very deep Jeanne d'Arc basin. Cross-basin transfer faults accommodated different amounts and rates of extension and resulted in the conspicuous offset pattern and funnel-shaped geometry of the Jeanne d'Arc basin. The Hibernia oil field is associated with one of these structural salients. 23 figures, 3 tables.

Tankard, A.J.; Welsink, H.J.

1987-10-01

401

Could a future "Grand Solar Minimum" like the Maunder Minimum stop global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A future Maunder Minimum type grand solar minimum, with total solar irradiance reduced by 0.25% over a 50 year period from 2020 to 2070, is imposed in a future climate change scenario experiment (RCP4.5) using, for the first time, a global coupled climate model that includes ozone chemistry and resolved stratospheric dynamics (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). This model has been shown to simulate two amplifying mechanisms that produce regional signals of decadal climate variability comparable to observations, and thus is considered a credible tool to simulate the Sun's effects on Earth's climate. After the initial decrease of solar radiation in 2020, globally averaged surface air temperature cools relative to the reference simulation by up to several tenths of a degree Centigrade. By the end of the grand solar minimum in 2070, the warming nearly catches up to the reference simulation. Thus, a future grand solar minimum could slow down but not stop global warming.

Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Marsh, Daniel R.

2013-05-01

402

Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling  

PubMed Central

On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges?

2011-01-01

403

US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project, final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 36 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. Building 36 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1996. The soil beneath the building was remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

Widdop, M.R.

1996-08-01

404

Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

2003-03-01

405

Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

2003-03-01

406

Nearshore temperature findings for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: possible implications for native fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963, downstream water temperatures in the main channel of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons are much colder in summer. This has negatively affected humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fish adapted to seasonally warm water, reducing main-channel spawning activity and impeding the growth and development of larval and juvenile fish. Recently published studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists found that under certain conditions some isolated nearshore environments in Grand Canyon allow water to become separated from the main-channel current and to warm, providing refuge areas for the development of larval and juvenile fish.

Ross, Robert P.; Vernieu, William S.

2013-01-01

407

Geology of the Grand Canyon: Interpreting its rock layers and formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this culminating activity, students will be assessed on what they have learned during the Geology unit of their Earth Science class. After conducting classroom and field studies on geology students will utilize this knowledge to interpret the rock layers and formation of the Grand Canyon. Outside of class students will read/review a website and complete a study guide to be reviewed by the teacher to assess students' learning. Following teacher review of study guides, the next class period(s) will be a discussion and questioning session(s) on the formation of the Grand Canyon.

408

Search for grand-unified-theory magnetic monopoles at a flux level below the Parker limit  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of the first direct search for grand-unified-theory magnetic monopoles with adequate sensitivity to detect a flux as small as the Parker flux limit. If stable monopole-nucleus bound states exist then the observed absence of monopole tracks in our 4.6 x 10/sup 8/-yr-old mica detector places an upper limit of 10/sup -17/ to 10/sup -16/ cm/sup -2/ sr/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ on the flux of grand-unified-theory monopoles having velocity 3 x 10/sup -4/c to 1.5 x 10/sup -3/c.

Price, P.B.; Guo, S.; Ahlen, S.P.; Fleischer, R.L.

1984-04-09

409

Wildlife Mitigation and Restoration for Grand Coulee Dam: Blue Creek Project, Phase 1.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a recommendation from the Spokane Tribe to the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) for partial mitigation for the extensive wildlife and wildlife habitat losses on the Spokane Indian Reservation caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. NPPC`s interim wildlife goal over the next 7 years for the Columbia hydropower system, is to protect, mitigate and enhance approximately 35% basin wide of the lost habitat units. Grand Coulee Dam had the greatest habitat losses of any Dams of the Wildlife Rule.

Merker, Christopher

1993-04-01

410

Dawn GRaND Raw (EDR) Mars Flyby Counts V1.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GRaND EDR are a time-ordered collection of gamma ray and neutron counting data and histograms acquired by GRaND during all phases of the Dawn mission. The dataset includes state-of-health data, such as temperature and voltage readings, needed for the analysis of the counting data. The EDR is an intermediate data product derived from the raw data records using reversible operations. All higher order data products are derived from the EDR. An automated pipeline is used to process the EDR from the raw data records.

Prettyman, T. H.

2009-12-01

411

Aircraft Accident Report - Grand Canyon Airlines Flight Canyon 5 De Havilland Twin Otter, DHC-6-300, N75GC Grand Canyon National Park Airport, Tusayan, Arizona, September 27, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report explains the crash of a Grand Canyon Airlines de Havilland DHC-6-300 Twin Otter sightseeing flight at the Grand Canyon National Park Airport on September 27, 1989. The safety issues discussed in the report are airline procedures for go-around m...

1991-01-01

412

Differences in Nutrient Sources Caused by Variations in Monsoon Strength and Land Use\\/Land Cover, Middle Rio Grande, NM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synoptic sampling of the Middle Rio Grande (MRG) in central New Mexico was conducted each year during August from 2001 through 2006. Land use in the basin includes a large urban area around Albuquerque, agricultural areas, and rangeland. Because the Rio Grande is a highly managed river, the affects of land use and land cover on water quality are associated

G. P. Oelsner; P. D. Brooks; J. F. Hogan

2006-01-01

413

Mass movements in the Rio Grande Valley (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Northwestern Argentina): a methodological approach to reduce the risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slope processes such as slides and debris flows, are among the main events that induce effects on the Rio Grande sediment transport capacity. The slides mainly affect the slope of the Rio Grande river basin while debris and mud flows phenomena take place in the tributary valleys. In the past decades several mass movements occurred causing victims and great damages

G. Marcato; A. Pasuto; F. R. Rivelli

2009-01-01

414

Competing Interests and Concerns in the Rio Grande Basin: Mountain Hydrology, Desert Ecology, Climate Change, and Population Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mountainous American Southwest, the Rio Grande basin is a prime example of how conflicts, misconceptions, and competition regarding water can arise in arid and semi-arid catchments. Much of the Rio Grande runoff originates from snow fields in the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado and the Sangre De Cristo Mountains of northern New Mexico, far from population centers.

A. Rango

2004-01-01

415

The role of feedback mechanisms in historic channel changes of the lower Rio Grande in the Big Bend region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last century, large-scale water development of the upper Rio Grande in the U.S. and Mexico, and of the Rio Conchos in Mexico, has resulted in progressive channel narrowing of the lower Rio Grande in the Big Bend region. We used methods operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales to analyze the rate, magnitude, and processes responsible for channel

David J. Dean; John C. Schmidt

2011-01-01

416

Calvinist Pilgrimages and Popish Encounters: Religious Identity and Sacred Space on the Dutch Grand Tour (1598“1685)  

Microsoft Academic Search

How did Calvinist travellers behave when they ventured into the lion’s den of Catholicism? Were Protestants on Grand Tour bound to ignore Popish sanctuaries, and – so it seemed – false relics, excessive processions, obscure rituals, and foolish idolatry or superstition? Did they mock or slander French or Italian Catholicism? According to textbook wisdom, these cross-confessional encounters on Grand Tour

Gerrit Verhoeven

2010-01-01

417

Renormalization-group analysis of grand unified theories in curved spacetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a class of grand unified theories (GUT's) based on the Georgi-Glashow model in curved spacetime. We are particularly concerned with the coupling constants involving the curvature. These include the cosmological and gravitational constants, as well as coupling constants appearing in terms quadratic in the curvature and in terms which link the Higgs bosons to the scalar curvature. For

Leonard Parker; David J. Toms

1984-01-01

418

Renormalization-group analysis of grand unified theories in curved space-time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a class of grand unified theories (GUT's) based on the Georgi-Glashow model in curved space-time. We are particularly concerned with the coupling constants involving the curvature. These include the cosmological and gravitational constants, as well as coupling constants appearing in terms quadratic in the curvature and in terms which link the Higgs bosons to the scalar curvature. For

L. Parker; D. J. Toms

1984-01-01

419

Identificação dos vegetais destinados a ornamentação de praças, parques e creches em Campina Grande, PB  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O Horto Florestal Lauro Pires Xavier, situado às margens do açude de Bodocongó, em Campina Grande-PB é uma importante unidade mantida pela prefeitura no sentido de preservação e conservação de espécies. Através do viveiro, o município tem condição de aumentar as áreas verdes, proporcionando lazer e bem estar à população. Esse trabalho tem como tema à identificação dos vegetais

Mário Luiz Farias Cavalcanti; Ivan Coelho Dantas; Giselle Medeiros da Costa Silva; Luciana de Luna Costa; Maria José Benício Barros; Ronny Soffiantini Lira

420

Recirculating flow and sedimentation in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debris fans debouching into the bottom of Grand Canyon create rapids and flow separation in the Colorado River. The patterns of flow and the behavior of recirculation zones formed by flow separation are consistent throughout the Canyon's length. Zones of recirculating flow occur along the margin of channel expansions. Recirculation zones are comprised of one primary eddy; secondary eddies and

John C. Schmidt

1990-01-01

421

Grand Portage as a Trading Post: Patterns of Trade at the 'Great Carrying Place.'  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study began as an attempt to say something new about Grand Portage, a place studied by many scholars over the years. The purpose was to show a different and little known aspect of a famous place. It was a daunting task to write about a place and a hi...

B. M. White

2005-01-01

422

Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next years work.

Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

2003-03-01

423

Effects of Tributary Debris on the Longitudinal Profile of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Colorado River in Grand Canyon has long been known as a rapids-and-pools river, with the rapids owing their existence primarily to tributary debris flows. The debris flows deposit subaerial debris fans that constrict the channel laterally and, when th...

R. H. Webb T. C. Hanks

2006-01-01

424

The Grand Junction Report: Issues of Equality in the Mesa Valley.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Grand Junction Metropolitan Statistical Area is the fifth largest metropolitan area in Colorado and the 12th fastest-growing in the Southwest. Latinos make up approximately 8 percent of total population and 15 percent of school enrollment; these numbers are increased by migrant farmworkers and their families. In May 2001, a public forum was…

Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

425

Geology of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents an overview of the general geology, the structure, and the glaciation of the Teton Range in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming U.S.A. Examples of cirques, glacial horns, terraces and glacial outwash plains are presented. A link to a personal account of an Avalanche Canyon loop hike is also available.

426

Statistical analysis of lateral migration of the Rio Grande, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral migration rates of alluvial rivers are affected by changes in water and sediment regimes. The Rio Grande downstream from Cochiti Dam exhibits spatial and temporal variability in lateral movement rates documented since 1918. A tremendous database exists that documents planform, bed material size, channel geometry, and water and sediment regimes. A statistical analysis reveals that migration rates primarily

Gigi A. Richard; Pierre Y. Julien; Drew C. Baird

2005-01-01

427

Restoration and Monitoring in the Middle Rio Grande Bosque: Current Status of Flood Pulse Related Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive regulation of the Middle Rio Grande's natu- ral flow regime, together with the effects of introduced tree species, landscape fragmentation, and increasing wildfires, are obstacles for any level of restoration of its native riparian forest (bosque). How- ever, carefully monitored partial restoration is possible and greatly needed to prevent the bosque's serious decline. Monitoring can reveal temporal and spatial

Clifford S. Crawford; Lisa M. Ellis; Daniel Shaw; Nancy E. Umbreit

428

Surface water seepage effects on shallow groundwater and Rio Grande flow in northern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timing, amount, and quality of upper Rio Grande flow may be importantly affected by irrigation water that seeps from canals and fields, percolates to shallow groundwater, and returns to the river along subsurface flow paths. In northern New Mexico, changing land use patterns point to potential future reductions in river water deliveries through traditional acequia irrigation canals. We assembled a

A. Fernald; A. Helmus; C. Ochoa; M. Ortiz; C. Brown

2006-01-01

429

Solute Sources and Budget for the Rio Grande above El Paso, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues of water quality, especially salinity, limit the use of water resources from the Rio Grande. Identification and quantification of salinity sources is critical for improved river management. In the headwater region salts are typically derived from atmospheric deposition and chemical weathering reactions. Salinity increases during transit may result from both natural (saline groundwater, hydrothermal springs and dissolution of evaporite

J. F. Hogan; F. M. Phillips; J. M. Hendrickx

2001-01-01

430

Water Management in the Binational Texas\\/Mexico Río Grande\\/Río Bravo Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 180,000 square mile binational Río Grande basin presents a full range of complex water management challenges: • An arid region, with limited surface and groundwater supplies; • Rapidly growing population centers and an economic shift from agriculture to trade, manufacturing and tourism; •A river system that has been dammed, diverted and largely managed for agriculture; •A lack of incentives

Mary E. Kelly

431

Economic impact of alternative policy responses to prolonged and severe drought in the Rio Grande Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Rio Grande Basin, water is overallocated, demands are growing, and river flows and uses are vulnerable to drought and climate change. Currently, the basin is in the third year of severe drought; irrigation and municipal water diversions have been severely curtailed; extensive diversions threaten endangered species, and reservoir volumes are nearly depleted. A central challenge is development of

James F. Booker; Ari M. Michelsen; Frank A. Ward

2005-01-01

432

Modeling The Water Table In The Middle Rio Grande River Riparian Corridor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Rio Grande River (MRGR) is the main source of fresh water for the state of New Mexico. An arid area with low water resources created a situation where water is extensively diverted or stored to supply the high demand for municipalities and agricultural activities. The extensive water diversions over the last few decades has affected the composition of

O. Z. Akasheh; C. M. Neale

2007-01-01

433

Analyzing changes in river channel morphology using GIS for Rio Grande silvery minnow habitat assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) is an endangered fish species currently restricted to 5-10% of its previous range. Successful recovery of this fish depends on identifying suitable habitat features for river management and restoration. In 1973, Cochiti Dam began operations, which re-distributed the natural flow regime, but more significantly, reduced the supply of sediment. The morphology of the

Michael D. Porter; Tamara M. Massong

434

Evaluating Riparian and Agricultural Systems as Sinks for Surface Water Nutrients in the Upper Rio Grande  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed five years of biannual synoptic sampling along a 1200km reach of the Rio Grande to develop relationships between discharge, land use, and major water quality parameters. Both total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations gradually increase with distance downstream, however for TDN and phosphate this trend is punctuated by large, localized inputs primarily from

G. P. Oelsner; P. D. Brooks; J. F. Hogan; F. M. Phillips; J. E. Villinski

2005-01-01

435

Impacts of Climate Change on the Surface and Subsurface Hydrology of the Grand River Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of global climate change on the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water resources over the next century is gaining widespread attention, especially within hydrologically and ecologically sensitive basins. One such locale is the Grand River Basin (GRB), a 6800 km2 area in South-Central Ontario, Canada encompassing several major urban centers and providing about 10% of the

D. Colautti; E. A. Sudicky; J. F. Sykes

2005-01-01

436

Effects of Arroyo Sediment Influxes on the Rio Grande River Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arroyos that flow into the Rio Grande River Channel along the US-Mexico Border provide periodic influxes of sediment that can obstruct the channel and may cause overflow as well as sedimentation problems farther downstream. This phenomenon was studied using an in-situ method for measuring erosion properties of sediments with depth and at high shear stresses. Results confirm the ability of

Richard Jepsen; Richard Langford; Jesse Roberts; Joseph Gailani

437

LEGAL AND PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE CONJUNCTIVE USE WATER SUPPLY OF THE MIDDLE RIO GRANDE REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater is being pursued in many regions to maximize water availability throughout dry and wet periods. Successful regional water management will recognize the physical and legal constraints on these integrated supplies. Entities developing regional water plans in the Middle Rio Grande basin face a challenging set of constraints. Legal constraints on water use in

Deborah L. Hathaway; Kevin G. Flanigan; Karen J. Lewis

438

DAM IMPACTS ON AND RESTORATION OF AN ALLUVIAL RIVER - RIO GRANDE, NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of construction of dams and reservoirs on alluvial rivers extends both upstream and downstream of the dam. Downstream of dams, both the water and sediment supplies can be altered leading to adjustments in the river channel geometry and ensuing changes in riparian and aquatic habitats. The wealth of pre and post-regulation data on the Middle Rio Grande, New

Gigi RICHARD; Pierre JULIEN

2004-01-01

439

Case Study: Equivalent Widths of the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successive reaches of the Rio Grande have maintained equivalent channel widths of 50 and 250 m, respectively, over long periods of time. It is hypothesized that alluvial channels adjust bed slope to match the long-term changes in channel width. Analytical relationships show that wider river reaches develop steeper slopes. A modeling approach using daily water and sediment discharges simulates the

Claudia Leon; Pierre Y. Julien; Drew C. Baird

2009-01-01

440

Habitat fragmentation and modifications affecting distribution of the Rio Grande silvery minnow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life history of the Rio Grande silvery minnow begins as semi-buoyant pelagic eggs that drift in the current for several days. The combination of diversion and flood control dams have modified channel morphology and divided the river into distinct reaches. These factors have contributed to the decline of the silvery minnow in the last 5-10% of its former range.

Michael D. Porter; Tamara M. Massong

441

Case Study: Modeling the Lateral Mobility of the Rio Grande below Cochiti Dam, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cochiti reach of the Rio Grande served as a case study to test the hypothesis that the lateral mobility of an alluvial river decreases as the river approaches equilibrium. The lateral mobility of the river was measured using a geographic information system from digitized aerial photographs of the nonvegetated active channel between 1918 and 2001. Reach-averaged lateral mobility was

Gigi A. Richard; Pierre Y. Julien

2005-01-01

442

SIMULATION OF FLOODING AND DEBRIS FLOWS IN THE CERRO GRANDE RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The December 1999 3-day storm along the north-central coast of Venezuela initiated widespread landslides that evolved into mud and debris flows in watersheds throughout the coastal State of Vargas. One of the many urbanized alluvial fans impacted by flooding and debris flows was the community of Tanaguarena at the mouth of the Cerro Grande River canyon. The Institute of Fluid

Maria E. Bello; J. S. OBrien; J. L. López; R. Garcia-Martínez

443

Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport  

SciTech Connect

This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

1998-08-31

444

Pumping-Generating Units for the Grand Coulee Pumping-Generating Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grand Coulee Pumping-Generating Plant is the primary source of water for the vast Columbia Basin Irrigation Project. Two new units will be installed to serve dual purposes of irrigation pumping and pumped storage generation. This paper covers the plans of the United States Bureau of Reclamation for integrating the two new pumping-generating units into the ultimate 45 hydroelectric unit

C. B. Brown; E. M. Tomsic

1973-01-01

445

Canada Goose Population and Harvest Characteristics at the Grand River Marsh Wildlife Area, 1977-1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grand River Marsh Wildlife Area (GRMWA) is one of the major state-owned goose management areas (6,958 acres) for the Mississippi Valley Population of Canada geese in Wisconsin. In the mid-1970s, high popularity of the area for goose hunting resulted in hu...

W. E. Wheeler R. A. Hunt

1994-01-01

446

Native Montane Fishes of the Middle Rio Grande Ecosystem: Status, Threats, and Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1994 and 1997, research was conducted on three native, montane species of the Middle Rio Grande Ecosystem, in the Carson and Santa Fe national forests. The focus of study was on abiotic and biotic factors that affected status, distribution, biology and habitat of these species. Results of study suggest negative interactions with non-native species and, secondarily, habitat loss as

Bob Calamusso; John N. Rinne

447

Limnological Characterization of Gravataí River, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limnological Characterization of Gravataí River, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A limnological study of Gravataí River, RS, Brazil (29° 45' - 30° 12'S and 50° 27'- 51° 12'W) was carried out in order to characterize the spatial and temporal changes of physical, chemical, climatic and microbiological variables along its course attempting to explain its functioning as a lotic system,

São Carlos

448

Latest results and perspectives of the KASCADE-Grande EAS Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KASCADE-Grande is a multi-detector experiment at KIT (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) in Germany for measuring extensive air showers in the primary energy range of 100 TeV to 1 EeV. This paper does not provide a synopsis of all results of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. Rather it is focused on three aspects of current interests illustrating the advantages of a multi-detector facility. Results on the analysis of individual energy spectra of primary mass groups around the knee obtained by unfolding the shower size measurements of KASCADE with the help of the new hadronic interaction model EPOS and the all-particle energy spectrum at higher energies obtained by Grande measurements will be discussed. As KASCADE-Grande serves also as host of the LOPES radio detection experiment where both experiments measure the same showers, special emphasis will be given in comparing the characteristics and feasibility of both techniques in estimating the main parameters of high-energy primary cosmic rays: energy, composition, and arrival direction.

Haungs, A.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuhrmann, D.; Ghia, P. L.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Kickelbick, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; ?uczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Over, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.

2012-01-01

449

Through the Eyes of the Dragon: Vietnamese Communist Grand Strategy during the Second Indochina War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research paper examines the elements of national power of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and their insurgents in South Vietnam, and the evolution of the DRV's grand strategy during the Second Indochina War (1954-1975). Its thesis is that th...

G. B. Jackman

1992-01-01

450

Organizational systems and dominance in feral horses in the Grand Canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Several aspects of the behavioral ecology of feral horses (Equus caballus) were studied in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. Most bands contained three to five horses that included one stallion and his harem. Males that did not obtain a harem remained solitary. Throughout the study bands remained stable in composition.2.Home ranges for all bands decreased in size in successive warm months,

Joel Berger

1977-01-01

451

Miocene sharks in the Kendeace and Grand Bay formations of Carriacou, The Grenadines, Lesser Antilles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Miocene chondrichthyan fauna from the Kendeace and Grand Bay formations consists of five species which have been identified from the remains of teeth. These are Carcharias taurus (sand-tiger shark), Isurus oxyrinchus (shortfin mako shark), Carcharocles megalodon (mega-tooth shark), Carcharhinus obscurus (requiem shark) and Hemipristis serra (extinct snaggletooth shark). No further skeletal fish remains, Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii, were discovered. Teeth

ROGER W. PORTELL; G ORDON HUBBELL; S TEPHEN K. DONOVAN; J EREMY L. GREEN; DAVID A. T. HARPER; RON PICKERILL

452

75 FR 34932 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City...portion of Lake Michigan due to a high speed boat racing event. This temporary safety zone...the hazards associated with a high speed boat racing event. DATES: This...

2010-06-21

453

Effect of Prescribed Burning on Mortality of Presettlement Ponderosa Pines in Grand Canyon National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees established before Euro-American settlement are becoming rare on the land- scape. Prescribed fire is the prime tool used to restore ponderosa pine ecosystems, but can cause high mortality in presettlement ponderosa pines. This study uses retrospective techniques to esti- mate mortality from prescribed burns within Grand Canyon Na- tional Park (GCNP). Live and recently dead

G. Alan Kaufmann; W. Wallace Covington

454

Aquatic Invertebrates Of the Grand Staircase–Escalante National Monument, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use multiple years of collections in rivers, perennial wetlands, and ephemeral tinajas to report on overall biodiversity of aquatic invertebrates in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah. A total of 570 samples of aquatic invertebrates was collected at 166 locations. Over the study period, invertebrates were identified from 31 orders, 104 families, and 192 genera. Major habitat types (rivers,

Mark R. Vinson; Eric C. Dinger

2008-01-01

455

75 FR 20920 - Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Grand Prix, Lake Havasu, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Grand Prix, Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...temporary safety zone upon the navigable waters of Lake Havasu on the Colorado River in Lake Havasu City, Arizona for the Lake Havasu...

2010-04-22

456

Winning the DARPA Grand Challenge: A Robot Race through the Mojave Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The DARPA Grand Challenge was the most significant event in the field of robotics in more than a decade. A mobile ground robot had to traverse 132 miles of punishing desert terrain in less than ten hours. In 2004, the best robot only made 7.3 miles. A year later, Stanford won this historical challenge and cashed

Sebastian Thrun

2006-01-01

457

Habitat light, colour variation, and ultraviolet reflectance in the Grand Cayman anole, Anolis conspersus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a diversity of sources are consistent with the hypothesis that the Grand Cayman anole,Anolis conspersus , is descended directly from Anolis grahami of Jamaica. Although the two species have remained morphologically similar, coloration in A. conspersus has changed considerably from that of its ancestor. The most dramatic difference is seen in dewlap colour, where A. conspersus has evolved

2001-01-01

458

Proposed Grand Strategy for Defeating Bin Laden and His Al Qaeda Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines Osama bin Laden, his al Qaeda network and the corresponding strategic context; examines the United States' goals and interests; and applies the concept of center of gravity to develop a grand strategy for their defeat. Osama bin Laden ...

M. A. Johnstone

2002-01-01

459

Grand Unification and Possible Matter-Antimatter Domain Structure in the Universe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory and basic concepts for the development of a matter-antimatter domain cosmology are outlined within the framework of the grand unified gauge theory paradigm. It is shown how spontaneous CP symmetry breaking leads to such a domain structure in th...

F. W. Stecker

1981-01-01

460

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SUCCESS OF C AVERAGE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES IN GRAND RAPIDS JUNIOR COLLEGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN THE FALL SEMESTER 1961 AT GRAND RAPIDS JUNIOR COLLEGE, MICHIGAN, ALL FRESHMEN WHOSE HIGH SCHOOL GRADE AVERAGES WERE BETWEEN 1.5 AND 2.5 WERE ENROLLED IN A GENERAL STUDIES CURRICULUM. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RECORDS OF 398 SUCH STUDENTS SHOWED LOW CORRELATIONS BETWEEN FIRST SEMESTER COLLEGE GRADES AND SCORES ON MEASURES OF SCHOLASTIC…

WILLIAMS, ROBERT A.

461

S ecurit e des r eseaux domestiques : optimaux les grands rem edes ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

R esum e Au carrefour de l'informatique traditionnelle et du consumer electronics, les r eseaux domestiques promettent de nouveaux usages et de nouveaux horizons pour le grand public. Ils ne pourront tenir ces promesses si leur s ecurit e n'est pas assur ee. Cet article montre en quoi les solutions initialement elabor ees pour un environnement professionnel oren t peu

Nicolas Prigent; Christophe Bidan; Olivier Heen; Alain Durand

462

1980 Environmental monitoring report: US Department of Energy Facilities, Grand Junction, Colorado, and Monticello, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The effect the Grand Junction, Colorado and Monticello, Utah facilities have on the environment is reflected by the analyses of air, water, and sediment samples. The off-site water and sediment samples were taken to determine what effect the tailings and contaminated equipment buried on the sites may have on the air, water, and adjacent properties.

Not Available

1981-04-01

463

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 92-152-2214, Mesa County Courthouse, Grand Junction, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a request from the Facilities Manager of Mesa County Support Services Department concerning the Mesa County Courthouse and Annex (SIC-9222), Grand Junction, Colorado, an evaluation was undertaken of indoor air quality as employees had been suffering with itchy watery eyes, chronic sinus problems, headaches, and other symptoms. Over the past 5 years each of the four courtrooms

McCammon

1992-01-01

464

Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Effective Population Size in the Endangered Rio Grande Silvery Minnow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity to evaluate effects of river fragmentation on remnant populations of the federally endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus). Analysis of microsatellite and mitochondrial (mt)DNA detected little spatial genetic structure over the current geographic range, consistent with high gene flowdespite fragmentation by dams. However, maximum-likelihood analysis of temporal genetic data

DOMINIQUE ALÒ; THOMAS F. TURNER

2005-01-01

465

78 FR 26807 - Vista Grande Drainage Basin Improvement Project, Fort Funston, Golden Gate National Recreation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...facilities, such as alternative tunnel alignments and capacities...hydraulic capacity of the canal and tunnel and extend its operating life...segment of the Vista Grande Tunnel, and the force main segment...existing submarine outfall pipeline and diffuser would be...

2013-05-08

466

Radiative Production of Lightest Neutralinos in e+e- Collisions in Supersymmetric Grand Unified Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the production of the lightest neutralinos in the radiative process e+e^- -> ˜ ?i01 ˜ ?i01? in supersymmetric models with grand unification. We consider models wherein the standard model (SM) gauge group SU(3)c ×SU(2)L ×U(1)Y is unified into the grand unified gauge groups SU(5) or SO(10). We study this process at energies that may be accessible at a future International Linear Collider (ILC). We compare and contrast the dependence of the signal cross-section on the grand unified gauge group, and different representations of the grand unified gauge group, into which the SM gauge group is unified. We carry out a comprehensive study of the radiative production process which includes higher-order QED corrections in our calculations. In addition we carry out a detailed study of the background to the signal process coming from the SM radiative neutrino production e+e^- ->? \\bar ? ? , as well as from the radiative production of the scalar partners of the neutrinos (sneutrinos) e+e^- -> ˜ ? ˜ ? * ? . The latter can be a major supersymmetric background to the radiative production of neutralinos when the sneutrinos decay invisibly. It is likely that the radiative production of the lightest neutralinos may be a viable channel to study supersymmetric partners of the SM particles at the first stage of an ILC, where heavier sparticles may be too heavy to be produced in pairs.

Pandita, P. N.; Patra, Monalisa

2012-11-01

467

Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Grand Junction, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this initial site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Grand Junction, Colorado. This SOWP is one of the first UMTRA Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards (40 CFR Part 192, as amended by 60 FR 2854) for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The DOE goal is to use the observational method to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation based on the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards.

NONE

1996-03-01

468

Strategic Forum. Number 277. April 2012. Grand Strategy and International Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grand strategy is, or should be, the calculated relationship of means to large ends: (1) Interrelated strategic and legal dimensions provide a leitmotif to the modern history of relations among powerful states. States employ an array of means to achieve t...

N. Rostow

2012-01-01

469

Using Grand Challenges For Innovative Teaching in Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative approach to teaching involves using the "Big Ideas" or "Grand Challenges" of a field, as determined by the research community in that area, as the basis for classroom activities. There have been several recent efforts in the areas of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics to determine these Grand Challenges, including the areas of seismology ("Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems"), mineral physics ("Unlocking the Building Blocks of the Planet"), EarthScope-related science ("Unlocking the Secrets of the North American Continent: An EarthScope Science Plan for 2010-2020"), and structural geology and tectonics (at the Structural Geology and Tectonics Forum held at Williams College in June, 2012). These research community efforts produced frameworks of the essential information for their fields with the aim of guiding future research. An integral part of this, however, is training the next generation of scientists, and using these Big Ideas as the basis for course structures and activities is a powerful way to make this happen. When activities, labs, and homeworks are drawn from relevant and cutting-edge research topics, students can find the material more fascinating and engaging, and can develop a better sense of the dynamic process of scientific discovery. Many creative ideas for incorporating the Grand Challenges of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics in the classroom were developed at a Cutting Edge workshop on "Teaching Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics in the 21st Century" held at the University of Tennessee in July, 2012.

McDaris, J. R.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wysession, M. E.

2012-12-01

470

Tectonic history of the northern Rio Grande rift derived from apatite fission-track geochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with the uplift history of the mountain ranges that bound the eastern margin of the Rio Grande rift in northern New Mexico. The principal objectives of this paper are to present the results of fission-track dating of granitic rocks from three ranges on the eastern margin of the rift, and to use these dates to infer

S. A. Kelley; I. J. Duncan

1984-01-01

471

Master Plan for Improving Water Quality in the Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal (GCR/IHC) drains a narrow, heavily industrialized watershed area of northwest Indiana, at the southern tip of Lake Michigan. Water quality and aquatic habitat problems in the GCR/IHC have been a matter of publi...

1985-01-01

472

The Grand Canyon and Other Holes in the Ground. Natural Wonder Notebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Grand Canyon, the natural wonder visited most often in the United States, is explored on foot, on burro, and by boat in this article. Learn about the canyon's different rock layers as well as its erosion, plant life, animal life, and water flow. (JM)

Markle, Sandra

1983-01-01

473

Ponderosa Pine-Grand Fir Spacing Study in Central Oregon: Results After 10 Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 10-year growth response from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and grand fir (Abies grandis) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure pine, pure fir,...

K. W. Seidel

1985-01-01

474

Tectonic controls on the hydrogeology of the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical modeling is used in this study to assess how tectonic movement of fault blocks and fault permeability influence the present-day and paleohydrogeology of the Rio Grande Rift near Socorro, New Mexico. Our analysis focuses on active and ancient groundwater flow patterns and hot spring development within the southern La Jencia and Socorro subbasins. The best agreement between model results

Brian J. Mailloux; Mark Person; Shari Kelley; Nelia Dunbar; Steve Cather; Luther Strayer; Peter Hudleston

1999-01-01

475

Determination of the pattern speed in the grand design spiral galaxy NGC 4321  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of pattern speeds has been an observational imperative in the last years since a clear determination of the corotation resonance radius will give some insight in the nature of density waves and in the mechanism of their maintenance. In this paper we analyse in detail the practical application to the grand design spiral NGC 4321 of two different methods,

M. J. Sempere; S. Garcia-Burillo; F. Combes; J. H. Knapen

1995-01-01

476

Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next year's work.

Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish And Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

2003-03-01

477

A Confluence of Community: Gathering the Waters of the Rio Grande.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Gathering of Waters is a community-based art and activism project to raise awareness that the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo is a desperately endangered river, connect communities dependent on the river, and galvanize those communities into action. Activities provided actual and symbolic experiences of river water for American Indian, Hispanic, Anglo, and…

Smith, Craig

2001-01-01

478

Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

2003-07-01

479

Environmental Assessment: Construct Fire Station at Grand Forks Air Force Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 319 Air Refueling Wing proposes to construct a fire station at Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB), North Dakota. A Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for constructing a fire station, a radar approach control facility, and an air traffic control tower w...

D. Rodebaugh A. Erickson

2006-01-01

480

Effect of Flows in the Colorado River on Reported and Observed Boating Accidents in Grand Canyon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the relationship between Colorado River flow levels and the incidence of white-water boating accidents in the Grand Canyon. The study covers the Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek (225 miles). To address the public conc...

C. A. Brown, M. G. Hahn-O'Neill

1987-01-01

481

The Magnetic Resonator Piano: Electronic Augmentation of an Acoustic Grand Piano  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the magnetic resonator piano, a hybrid acoustic-electronic instrument extending the traditional grand piano. Sound is produced without loudspeakers using electromagnetic actuators to directly manipulate the piano strings, expanding its vocabulary to include infinite sustain, notes that crescendo from silence, harmonics, and a variety of timbres. A feedback-based approach senses string vibrations from a single pickup on the

Andrew McPherson

2010-01-01

482

Grand Coulee Dam Wildlife Mitigation Program : Pygmy Rabbit Programmatic Management Plan, Douglas County, Washington.  

SciTech Connect

The Northwest Power Planning Council and the Bonneville Power Administration approved the pygmy rabbit project as partial mitigation for impacts caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The focus of this project is the protection and enhancement of shrub-steppe/pygmy rabbit habitat in northeastern Washington.

Ashley, Paul

1992-06-01

483

75 FR 22333 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN AGENCY...to establish a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Michigan City, Indiana...intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Michigan due to high speed power boat...

2010-04-28

484

Bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulder following a grand-mal convulsion.  

PubMed

Bilateral dislocation of the shoulders is an uncommon event. The majority are posterior and occur during a seizure, electrical shock or electroconvulsive therapy, and in patients with neuromuscular disorders and psychiatric disturbances. The literature contains only eight cases of traumatic bilateral anterior dislocations. This report describes only the second case sustained during a grand-mal convulsion. PMID:2511914

Ribbans, W J

1989-05-01

485

Dynamical model of the grand-design spiral galaxy NGC 157  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations of the interstellar medium under the action of a density wave provide an accurate method for determining the positions of the main resonances in grand-design spiral galaxies. Barred spiral galaxies are among the best candidates for a single and well defined wave mode, because bars are standing waves which may share the same pattern speed as the spiral

M. J. Sempere; M. Rozas

1997-01-01

486

Ammonia Investigations in the Colorado River Grand Junction and Fruita, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near the western border of Colorado, the Colorado River is the habitat of four threatened and endangered fish species as well as the receiving water course for sewage effluent from the cities of Grand Junction and Fruita. An extensive monitoring program w...

J. S. Hsiao B. Sheikh-ol-Eslami L. H. Botham

1979-01-01

487

Uppermost mantle anisotropy beneath the Rio Grande rift: Evidence from Kilbourne Hole peridotite xenoliths, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peridotite xenoliths derived from Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico consist of spinel lherzolite, harzburgite and dunite. Kilbourne Hole is a maar that erupted approximately 10 ka ago, and thus the xenoliths represent essentially current conditions beneath the Rio Grande rift. Based on phase relations and temperature of equilibration, these xenoliths come from the uppermost mantle, from depths of 40-70 km, and

T. Satsukawa; K. Michibayashi; E. Y. Anthony; R. J. Stern

2010-01-01

488

The Cerro Grande Fire - From Wildlife Modeling Through the Fire Aftermath  

SciTech Connect

The Cerro Grande Fire developed from a prescribed burn by the National Park Service at Bandelier National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico. When the burn went out of control and became a wildfire, it attracted worldwide attention because it threatened the birthplace of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Was LANL prepared for a fire? What lessons have been learned?

Rudell, T. M. (Theresa M.); Gille, R. W. (Roland W.)

2001-01-01

489

The Cerro Grande Fire - From Wildfire Modeling Through the Fire Aftermath  

SciTech Connect

The Cerro Grande Fire developed from a prescribed burn by the National Park Service at Bandelier National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico. When the burn went out of control and became a wildfire, it attracted worldwide attention because it threatened the birthplace of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Was LANL prepared for a fire? What lessons have been learned?

Rudell, T. M. (Theresa M.); Gille, R. W. (Roland W.)

2001-01-01

490

The naval theaters in Soviet grand strategy during the interwar period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of naval theaters in Soviet grand strategy during the interwar period, as described in various strategic assessments from that period. In contrast to the situation during the Cold War, Soviet naval efforts were then mainly concentrated on the Baltic, where the protection of Leningrad and the Red Army's need for support seemed to require a

Gunnar Åselius

2000-01-01

491

Grand Strategy of the United States: A Study of the Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis of this paper is that the U.S. government must adopt a clearly defined process for developing and articulating grand strategy. This process must include written guidance and definitions to improve the efficacy of the legislative and executive b...

P. B. Eberhart

2009-01-01

492

A Grand Entrance to Higher Education: Personalization is Key to Encouraging Students to Go to College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article talks about Mission High School located in San Francisco, where majority of its students come from two of the poorest neighborhoods in the city. The entrance of the historic Mission High School is reminiscent of the grand entryways in elite colleges and universities. The irony of Mission's architecturally pleasing edifice is that for…

Principal Leadership, 2007

2007-01-01

493

What Happened in the Rainier Grand's Lobby? A Question of Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an exercise in which three accounts of an episode that supposedly occurred between John Muir and Gifford Pinchot in the lobby of Seattle's Rainier Grand Hotel are read aloud during class. Provides the three accounts, excerpts from primary documentation including diary entries and newspaper articles, and discussion questions. (CMK)

Miller, Char

2000-01-01

494

Grand Strategy, Strategic Culture, PracticeThe Social Roots of Nordic Defence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article produces a model for empirical study of the security and defence policies of states, with a starting point in the literature on strategic culture (e.g. Gray, Klein, Johnston) and grand strategy (e.g. Kennedy, Posen, Kier). We identify two key problems with the literature. First, it only superficially touches base with the social sciences grouped around the concept of

Iver B. Neumann; Henrikki Heikka

2005-01-01

495

Grand strategies and strategic actions in the pharmaceutical industry 2001–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the strategic actions realised by firms in the pharmaceutical industry during 2001 and 2002. The purpose was to develop an empirically derived categorisation of strategic actions and grand strategies from the behaviour of firms that could be used as the basis of a methodological framework for developing understanding of strategic change. Qualitative analysis was used to identify

Amanda Langley; Nada K. Kakadadse; Stephen Swailes

2005-01-01

496

China in the Indian Ocean Region: Lessons in PRC Grand Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines China's grand strategy by analyzing evidence of the PRC's activity in the Indian Ocean region. This includes a review of applicable theoretical concepts from the realist school of thought, a discussion of Chinese activities in the region, and a consideration of alternative perspectives. The overarching theme throughout this study is an attempt to determine what effect China's

David Walgreen

2006-01-01

497

Using Grand Challenges to Teach Science: A Biology-Geology Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three science courses at the University of Wyoming explore the inextricable connections between science and society by centering on grand challenges. Two of these courses are introductory integrated science courses for non-majors while the third is an upper level course for majors and non-majors. Through collaboration, the authors have developed these courses to explore the grand challenges of energy, water and climate. Each course focuses on the fundamental STEM principles required for a citizen to understand each grand challenge. However, the courses also emphasize the non-STEM perspectives (e.g., economics, politics, human well-being, externalities) that underlie each grand challenge and argue that creating equitable, sustainable and just solutions to the grand challenges hinges on an understanding of STEM and non-STEM perspectives. Moreover, the authors also consider the multitude of personal perspectives individuals bring to the classroom (e.g., values, beliefs, empathy misconceptions) that influence any stakeholder's ability to engage in fruitful discussions about grand challenge solutions. Discovering Science (LIFE 1002) focuses on the grand challenges of energy and climate. Students attend three one-hour lectures, one two-hour lab and a one-hour discussion each week. Lectures emphasize the STEM and non-STEM principles underlying each grand challenge. Laboratory activities are designed to be interdisciplinary and engage students in inquiry-driven activities to reinforce concepts from lecture and to model how science is conducted. Labs also expose students to the difficulties often associated with scientific studies, the limits of science, and the inherent uncertainties associated with scientific findings. Discussion sessions provide an opportunity for students to explore the complexity of the grand challenges from STEM and non-STEM perspectives, and expose the multitude of personal perspectives an individual might harbor related to each grand challenge. Global Sustainability: Managing Earth's Resources (GEOL 1600) focuses on the energy-water climate nexus with a similar emphasis on STEM and non-STEM perspectives as LIFE 1002. Each week, there are three one hour lectures and a two hour lab. To set the stage for global and systems thinking, the concept of the Anthropocene and planetary boundaries are introduced early in the semester. Lectures focus on a variety of energy-water-climate topics and provide the content background for the labs. Labs are mini-case studies that address a variety of issues set in different global contexts, e.g. groundwater in Bangladesh, coal in China and petroleum in Saudi Arabia. Often the labs cover two weeks with one part covering science and the other economics. Unlike the other two courses, Energy: A Geological Perspective (GEOL 3650), is enrolled with half geology majors and half non-majors, representing almost every college on campus. Its organizational structure is similar to 1600. Labs focus on case studies, each lasting from 3 to 5 weeks, with each week addressing a different aspect of the same issue and social context, e.g. geology, economics, engineering, regulatory and political/social. Students, working in groups, present oral and written reports. Topics range from nuclear power and weapons in Iran to atmospheric emissions and global climate treaties.

Lyford, M.; Myers, J. D.

2012-12-01

498

Magnetic Investigation of Ancestral Puebloan Rio Grande (New Mexico) Glaze Wares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In geologically heterogeneous regions, such as the Rio Grande, archaeologists typically rely on petrographic analyses to determine ceramic provenance and reconstruct prehistoric trade patterns. Even in these regions, other methods are useful for elucidating trade patterns and/or resolving ambiguities from the petrographic data. Magnetic properties of Ancestral central Rio Grande Puebloan ceramics are being acquired to assess their use in identifying provenance, trade patterns, composition, manufacturing techniques, and firing conditions of ceramics, before and during the early European contact period (ca. A.D. 1325-1700) in New Mexico. Similar to the study of Moskowitz et al. (1987), we use a combination of bulk susceptibility, NRM, ARM, and SIRM intensity, AF response by NRM, ARM, and SIRM, thermal demagnetization of NRM and SIRM, and coercivity of remanence, to study temporal change in Rio Grande glaze wares from four archaeological sites in the northern Rio Grande (approximately 90 sherds per site). Rio Grande glaze wares were widely traded among Ancestral Puebloan groups before and during the European contact period. The ceramics are from the two earliest Spanish administrative centers in New Mexico, San Gabriel del Yungue and Palace of the Governors, and two mission pueblos, Pecos Pueblo and San Marcos Pueblo. Magnetic property data are being compared with petrographic observations to test the effectiveness of several magnetic measurements to identify, among other things, ceramic provenance. A tentative observation in our study is that bulk susceptibility values correlate with different ceramic provenances. The mean bulk susceptibility values for Galisteo Basin ceramics, tempered with augite monzonite and hornblende latite, are significantly higher (5.56E-04 and 4.91E-04 SI mass, respectively) than those for Pajarito Plateau ceramics, tempered with glassy tuff, tuff rocks, and andesite, (1.79E-04, 2.53E-04, and 2.58E-04 SI mass, respectively). This study is the first of its kind on Native American ceramics.

Dyer, J. B.; Geissman, J. W.; Ramenofsky, A. F.

2007-12-01

499

Water Quality (2000-08) and Historical Phosphorus Concentrations from Palelimnological Studies of Swamp and Speckled Trout Lakes, Grand Portage Reservation, Northeastern Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A paleolimnological approach was taken to aid the Grand Portage Reservation, in northeastern Minnesota, in determining reference conditions for lakes on the reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa In...

J. M. Ramstack M. B. Edlund P. M. Jones V. G. Christensen

2006-01-01

500

Chemical characteristics of ground-water discharge along the south rim of Grand Canyon in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2000-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Springs flowing from the south rim of Grand Canyon are an important resource of Grand Canyon National Park, offering refuge to endemic and exotic terrestrial wildlife species and maintaining riparian areas. Population growth on the Coconino Plateau has increased the demand for additional development of ground-water resources, and such development could reduce spring discharge and affect the sustainability of riparian areas within the park. In addition, springs are an important source of drinking water for hikers and are culturally and economically important to Native Americans living in the region. Water samples were collected from May 2000 to September 2001 from 20 spring and creek sites that discharge water from the Redwall-Muav Limestone aquifer along the south rim of Grand Canyon. Sample collection sites were described and samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radioactivity, and selected isotopes, and potential sources of ground-water flow to the springs. Rock samples representing the major stratigraphic units of Grand Canyon were collected near the Bright Angel Fault and analyzed for mineralogy, strontium-87/strontium-86, and carbon-13/carbon-12. The chemical composition of water samples collected from a given spring did not vary appreciably over the course of the study. Although water at each spring had a temporally constant composition, the composition was chemically distinct from that of every other spring sampled, indicating spatial variability in the ground-water composition. Most samples had a calcium magnesium bicarbonate composition; a few had a substantial sulfate component. Concentrations of arsenic, nitrate, selenium, uranium, and gross alpha approached or exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels in water discharging from some springs. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions varied little among samples, and for most sites the isotopic data plot close to the global meteoric water line or below the local meteoric water line. Isotopic enrichment indicates fractionation due to evaporation occurs at some sites. The evaporative process may occur prior to recharge or post-discharge. Flow paths are differentiated between the eastern part of the study area where strontium-87/strontium-86 values for water from springs and creeks are more radiogenic than strontium-87/strontium-86 values for water that discharges from sites farther west. Tritium and carbon isotope analyses indicate that residence time of ground-water discharge from springs and creeks ranges from less than 50 years to about 3,400 years. Water with a residence time of less than 50 years is absent at several sites. Discharge of most springs and creeks is a mixture of younger and older waters.

Monroe, Stephen A.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Hart, Robert J.; Taylor, Howard E.; Truini, Margot; Rihs, John R.; Felger, Tracey J.

2005-01-01